Science.gov

Sample records for drive

  1. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

    2012-09-17

    iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving stylesmore » in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.« less

  2. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infographics » Drugged Driving Drugged Driving Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Top Right Figure : In 2009, ... crash than those who don't smoke. Bottom Text: Develop Social Strategies Offer to be a designated ...

  3. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Factors BAC Effects Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? In 2014, 9,967 people ... Driving: A Threat to Everyone (October 2011) Additional Data Drunk Driving State Data and Maps Motor Vehicle ...

  4. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  5. Distracted Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... combines all three types of distraction. 3 How big is the problem? Deaths In 2013, 3,154 ... European countries. More A CDC study analyzed 2011 data on distracted driving, including talking on a cell ...

  6. Safe driving for teens

    MedlinePlus

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... Make a Commitment to Safety Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...

  7. Extended Driving Impairs Nocturnal Driving Performances

    PubMed Central

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Bayon, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3–5am, 1–5am and 9pm–5am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [±SD] = 23.4 [±1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3–5am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1–5am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9pm–5am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9–10pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited. PMID:18941525

  8. Coaxial Redundant Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissette, R.

    1983-01-01

    Harmonic drives allow redundancy and high out put torque in small package. If main drive fails, standby drive takes over and produces torque along same axis as main drive. Uses include power units in robot for internal pipeline inspection, manipulators in deep submersible probes or other applications in which redundancy protects against costly failures.

  9. Solar array drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Sturman, J. C.; Stanhouse, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A solar array drive system consisting of a solar array drive mechanism and the corresponding solar array drive electronics is being developed. The principal feature of the solar array drive mechanism is its bidirectional capability which enables its use in mechanical redundancy. The solar array drive system is of a widely applicable design. This configuration will be tested to determine its acceptability for generic mission sets. Foremost of the testing to be performed is the testing for extended duration.

  10. Driving and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Uc, Ergun Y; Rizzo, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the general population is rising, resulting in greater numbers of drivers with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These neurodegenerative disorders impair cognition, visual perception, and motor function, leading to reduced driver fitness and greater crash risk. Yet neither medical diagnosis nor age alone is reliable enough to predict driver safety or crashes or to revoke the driving privileges of these individuals. Driving research utilizes tools such as questionnaires about driving habits and history, driving simulators, standardized road tests utilizing instrumented vehicles, and state driving records. Research challenges include outlining the evolution of driving safety, understanding the mechanisms of driving impairment, and developing a reliable and efficient standardized test battery for prediction of driver safety in neurodegenerative disorders. This information will enable healthcare providers to advise their patients with neurodegenerative disorders with more certainty, affect policy, and help develop rehabilitative measures for driving. PMID:18713573

  11. Dementia and driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may be difficult. They may react in different ... that the person may not be able to drive safely, such as: Forgetting recent events Mood swings ...

  12. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  13. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  14. Electric versus hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of a conference organised by the Engineering Manufacturing Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include high performance position control - a review of the current state of developments; hydrostatic drives - present and future; electric drives - present and future trends; electrical and hydraulic drives for heavy industrial robots; the development of an electro-mechanical tilt system for the advanced passenger train; industrial hydraulic ring mains - effective or efficient. the comparison of performance of servo feed-drive systems; overhead crane drives; the future of d.c. servodrives; the choice of actuator for military systems; linear electro-hydraulic actuators; and actuation for industrial robots.

  15. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  16. Lectures on magnetohydrodynamical drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loigom, Villem

    The paper deals with nonconventional types of electrical machines and drives - magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) machines and drives. In cardinal it is based on the research conducted with participation of the author in Tallinn Technical University at the Institute of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics, where the use of magnetohydrodynamical motors and drives in the metallurgical and casting industries have been studied for a long time. Major research interests include the qualities and applications of the induction MHD-drives for set in the motion (pumping, turning, dosing, mixing, etc.) non-ferrous molten metals like Al, Mg, Sn, Pb, Na, K, and their alloys. The first part of the paper describes induction MHD motors and their electrohydraulical qualities. In the second part energy conversion problems are described. Also, on the basis of the analogy between electromechanical and electrohydraulical phenomenas, static and dynamic qualities of MHD drives with induction MHD machines are discussed.

  17. Superluminal warp drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2007-09-01

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  18. Diabetes and driving.

    PubMed

    Inkster, B; Frier, B M

    2013-09-01

    The principal safety concern for driving for people treated with insulin or insulin secretagogues is hypoglycaemia, which impairs driving performance. Other complications, such as those causing visual impairment and peripheral neuropathy, are also relevant to medical fitness to drive. Case control studies have suggested that drivers with diabetes pose a modestly increased but acceptable and measurable risk of motor vehicle accidents compared to non-diabetic drivers, but many studies are limited and of poor quality. Factors which have been shown to increase driving risk include previous episodes of severe hypoglycaemia, previous hypoglycaemia while driving, strict glycaemic control (lower HbA1c) and absence of blood glucose monitoring before driving. Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia may be counteracted by frequent blood glucose testing. The European Union Third directive on driving (2006) has necessitated changes in statutory regulations for driving licences for people with diabetes in all European States, including the UK. Stricter criteria have been introduced for Group 1 vehicle licences while those for Group 2 licences have been relaxed. Insulin-treated drivers can now apply to drive Group 2 vehicles, but in the UK must meet very strict criteria and be assessed by an independent specialist to be issued with a 1-year licence. PMID:23350766

  19. Reading Text While Driving

    PubMed Central

    Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone) followed by an area with low demands. A message was made available shortly before the vehicle entered the demand zone. We manipulated the type of driving demands (baseline, narrow lane, pace clock, combined), message format (no message, paragraph, parsed), and the distance from the demand zone when the message was available (near, far). Results In all conditions, drivers started reading messages (drivers’ first glance to the display) before entering or before leaving the demand zone but tended to wait longer when faced with increased driving demands. While reading messages, drivers looked more or less off road, depending on types of driving demands. Conclusions For task initiation, drivers avoid transitions from low to high demands; however, they are not discouraged when driving demands are already elevated. Drivers adjust time-sharing behavior according to driving demands while performing secondary tasks. Nonetheless, such adjustment may be less effective when total demands are high. Application This study helps us to understand a driver’s role as an active controller in the context of distracted driving and provides insights for developing distraction interventions. PMID:25850162

  20. Ocular disease and driving.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A

    2016-09-01

    As the driving population ages, the number of drivers with visual impairment resulting from ocular disease will increase given the age-related prevalence of ocular disease. The increase in visual impairment in the driving population has a number of implications for driving outcomes. This review summarises current research regarding the impact of common ocular diseases on driving ability and safety, with particular focus on cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, hemianopia and diabetic retinopathy. The evidence considered includes self-reported driving outcomes, driving performance (on-road and simulator-based) and various motor vehicle crash indices. Collectively, this review demonstrates that driving ability and safety are negatively affected by ocular disease; however, further research is needed in this area. Older drivers with ocular disease need to be aware of the negative consequences of their ocular condition and in the case where treatment options are available, encouraged to seek these earlier for optimum driving safety and quality of life benefits. PMID:27156178

  1. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  2. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  3. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  4. Design of traction drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Traction drives are among the simplest of all speed-changing mechanisms. Because of their simplicity and their ability to smoothly and continuously adjust speed, they are excellent choices for many drive system applications. They have been used in industrial service for more than 100 years. Today's traction drives have power capacities which rival the best gear and belt drives due to modern traction fluids and highly fatigue-resistant bearing steels. This report summarizes methods to analyze and size traction drives. Lubrication principles, contact kinematics, stress, fatigue life, and performance prediction methods are presented. The effects of the lubricant's traction characteristics on life and power loss are discussed. An example problem is given which illustrates the effects of spin on power loss. Loading mechanism design and the design of nonlubricated friction wheels and rings are also treated.

  5. The Test Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory shows engineers rehearsing the sol 133 (June 8, 2004) drive into 'Endurance' crater by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Engineers and scientists have recreated the martian surface and slope the rover will encounter using a combination of bare and thinly sand-coated rocks, simulated martian 'blueberries' and a platform tilted at a 25-degree angle. The results of this test convinced engineers that the rover was capable of driving up and down a straight slope before it attempted the actual drive on Mars.

  6. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  7. Drive System Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Drive Systems Research will be presented. The primary purpose of this research is to improve performance, reliability, and integrity of aerospace drive systems and space mechanisms. The research is conducted through a combination of in-house, academia, and through contractors. Research is conducted through computer code development and validated through component and system testing. The drive system activity currently has four major thrust areas including: thermal behavior of high speed gearing, health and usage monitoring, advanced components, and space mechanisms.

  8. Polar Direct Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skupsky, S.

    2003-10-01

    Direct drive offers the potential of higher target gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) than x-ray drive: The initial direct-drive target design had a 1-D gain of 45 and consisted primarily of a pure cryogenic DT shell. Using the expected levels of target and laser nonuniformities for the NIF, two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations predicted target gains around 30.(P.W. McKenty et al.), Phys. Plasmas 8, 2315 (2001). More-recent designs have shown that higher target gains could be obtained by replacing a portion of the DT shell with ``wetted'' CH foam and by using adiabat shaping: (1) Higher-Z material (C) in the foam increases laser absorption by about 40% (from 60% absorption to 85%).(S. Skupsky et al.), in Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001, edited by K. Tanaka et al. (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), p. 240. (2) Adiabat shaping allows the main portion of the fuel to be placed on a lower adiabat without compromising target stability.(V.N. Goncharov et al.), Phys. Plasmas 10, 1906 (2003). These direct-drive concepts can be tested on the NIF, long before that facility is converted to a direct-drive (spherically symmetric) irradiation configuration. Using the NIF x-ray-drive beam configuration, some of the near-polar beams could be pointed to better illuminate the target's equator. These more-oblique, equatorial beams will have lower absorption and reduced drive efficiency than the polar beams. One strategy to compensate for the difference in polar and equatorial drive is to reduce the irradiation at the poles and employ different pulse shapes to accommodate the time-dependent variations in drive and absorption. This concept of polar direct drive (PDD) has been studied using the 2-D hydrocode DRACO to determine the requirements for achieving ignition and moderate target gain for the NIF. Experiments on the OMEGA laser will examine the effects of oblique irradiation on target drive. Results of simulations for different direct-drive target designs

  9. Drive program documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, S.

    1979-01-01

    The program description and user's guide for the Downlist Requirement Integrated Verification and Evaluation (DRIVE) program is provided. The program is used to compare existing telemetry downlist files with updated downlist requirements.

  10. Control rod drive

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  11. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  12. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  13. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  14. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  15. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  16. Self-driving carsickness.

    PubMed

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels.

  17. Dementia and driving.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  18. Self-driving carsickness.

    PubMed

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. PMID:26446454

  19. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  20. Mental workload and driving

    PubMed Central

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  1. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…

  2. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING NORTH FROM SOUTH END OF DEDRICK DRIVE NEAR BUILDING 80 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Driving anger in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sullman, Mark J M; Stephens, Amanda N; Yong, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures.

  4. U.S. DRIVE

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    U.S. DRIVE, which stands for United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability, is an expanded government-industry partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies – BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities – Southern California Edison and Michigan-based DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The U.S. DRIVE mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of affordable and clean advanced light-duty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure.

  5. Ceramic vane drive joint

    DOEpatents

    Smale, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  6. Current drive, anticurrent drive, and balanced injection

    SciTech Connect

    von Goeler, S.; Stevens, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Cavallo, A.; Chu, T.K.; Fishman, H.; Hill, K.

    1987-08-01

    In lower hybrid (LH) discharges, the number of suprathermal electrons is limited by the upper bound on the current density from the q = 1 condition, which is caused by the onset of the m = 1 MHD instability. The stored energy of suprathermal electrons, measured in terms of a poloidal beta, scales with plasma current as I/sub p//sup -1/. Potentially, these bounds represent very restrictive conditions for heating in larger machines. Consequently, it seems necessary to perform experiments where the electrons are driven in both directions, parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field, i.e., bidirectional scenarios like anticurrent drive or balanced injection. Data from PLT relevant to these ideas are discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. LCLS Injector Drive Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; Castro, J.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, A.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2007-11-02

    Requirements for the LCLS injector drive laser present significant challenges to the design of the system. While progress has been demonstrated in spatial shape, temporal shape, UV generation and rep-rate, a laser that meets all of the LCLS specifications simultaneously has yet to be demonstrated. These challenges are compounded by the stability and reliability requirements. The drive laser and transport system has been installed and tested. We will report on the current operational state of the laser and plans for future improvements.

  8. Pulsation driving and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoci, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Convection in stellar envelopes affects not only the stellar structure, but has a strong impact on different astrophysical processes, such as dynamo-generated magnetic fields, stellar activity and transport of angular momentum. Solar and stellar observations from ground and space have shown that the turbulent convective motion can also drive global oscillations in many type of stars, allowing to study stellar interiors at different evolutionary stages. In this talk I will concentrate on the influence of convection on the driving of stochastic and coherent pulsations across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and give an overview of recent studies.

  9. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  10. No Pass, No Drive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses basis for Kentucky appellate court decision that state's no-pass, no-drive statute did not violate due-process and equal-protection clauses of the Kentucky and federal constitutions, but did violate the federal Family Education Rights and Privacy Act, but nevertheless did not invalidate the statute. Explains why the decision is…

  11. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  12. COMMENT: No warp drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coule, D. H.

    1998-08-01

    The warp drive spacetime of Alcubierre is impossible to set up without first being able to distribute matter at tachyonic speed, put roughly, you need one to make one! However, over small distances, where the energy conditions possibly can be violated, one can envision opening the light-cones to increase the apparent speed of light.

  13. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  14. DrivePy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ryan; Guo, Yi

    2014-08-30

    DrivePy is physics-based drivetrain model that sizes drivetrain components based on aerodynamic and operational loads for use in a systems engineering model. It also calculates costs based on empirical data collected by NREL's National Wind Technology Center.

  15. CSI: Hard Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  16. Teachers with Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Celine; Diffenbaugh, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    For students in U.S. classrooms today, the odds of being assigned to an inexperienced teacher are higher than they have ever been because so many teachers, some in the top 20 percent of effectiveness are leaving the classroom in their first five years. Coggins and Diffenbaugh turn to Daniel Pink's work on drive to determine how to motivate…

  17. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  18. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. PMID:24906536

  19. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  20. Forces Driving Chaperone Action.

    PubMed

    Koldewey, Philipp; Stull, Frederick; Horowitz, Scott; Martin, Raoul; Bardwell, James C A

    2016-07-14

    It is still unclear what molecular forces drive chaperone-mediated protein folding. Here, we obtain a detailed mechanistic understanding of the forces that dictate the four key steps of chaperone-client interaction: initial binding, complex stabilization, folding, and release. Contrary to the common belief that chaperones recognize unfolding intermediates by their hydrophobic nature, we discover that the model chaperone Spy uses long-range electrostatic interactions to rapidly bind to its unfolded client protein Im7. Short-range hydrophobic interactions follow, which serve to stabilize the complex. Hydrophobic collapse of the client protein then drives its folding. By burying hydrophobic residues in its core, the client's affinity to Spy decreases, which causes client release. By allowing the client to fold itself, Spy circumvents the need for client-specific folding instructions. This mechanism might help explain how chaperones can facilitate the folding of various unrelated proteins. PMID:27293188

  1. Drive-by-Downloads

    SciTech Connect

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  2. Gear Drive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Philadelphia Gear Corporation used two COSMIC computer programs; one dealing with shrink fit analysis and the other with rotor dynamics problems in computerized design and test work. The programs were used to verify existing in-house programs to insure design accuracy by checking its company-developed computer methods against procedures developed by other organizations. Its specialty is in custom units for unique applications, such as Coast Guard ice breaking ships, steel mill drives, coal crusher, sewage treatment equipment and electricity.

  3. Environmental Crack Driving Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of environment on the crack driving force is considered, first by assuming quasistatic extension of a stationary crack and second, by use of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack growth rate models developed previously by this author and developed further here. A quasistatic thermodynamic energy balance approach, of the Griffith-Irwin type, is used to develop stationary crack threshold expressions, tilde{J}_c , which represent the conjoint mechanical and electrochemical conditions, below which stationary cracks are stable. Expressions for the electrochemical crack driving force (CDF) were derived using an analysis that is analogous to that used by Irwin to derive his "strain energy release rate," G, which Rice showed as being equivalent to his mechanical CDF, J. The derivations show that electrochemical CDFs both for active path dissolution (APD) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) mechanisms of SCC are simply proportional to Tafel's electrochemical anodic and cathodic overpotentials, η a and η c, respectively. Phenomenological SCC models based on the kinetics of APD and HE crack growth are used to derive expressions for the kinetic threshold, J scc, below which crack growth cannot be sustained. These models show how independent mechanical and environmental CDFs may act together to drive SCC crack advance. Development of a user-friendly computational tool for calculating Tafel's overpotentials is advocated.

  4. Who's Driving Home?: Assessing Adolescent Drinking and Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, John D.; Bibeau, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Data from 13,998 students revealed that high percentages of students drank often and that many of these students reported being drunk often. While most students indicated they would prefer not to drive home after drinking, approximately one-third of driving age students indicated they would drive under the influence of alcohol or would ride with…

  5. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  6. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  7. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  8. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  9. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  10. Modular droplet actuator drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  11. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T.A.

    1984-02-21

    An oil well pump driving unit with a horizontally disposed hydraulic cylinder having a cylinder rod coupled to a drive rope extending into a pumping tee-stuffing box arrangement for driving the sucker rod string leading to a conventional oil well reciprocating pump. The drive rope extends over a first rotating sheave mounted near the wellhead and passes over a second rotating sheave mounted on a carriage which traverses a carriage channel in a draw works on which the hydraulic cylinder is mounted. A hydraulic drive/control system utilizing limit switches on the draw works provides control over the stroke position, the stroke length, and the stroke rate.

  12. Advances in traction drive technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction drives are traced from early uses as main transmissions in automobiles at the turn of the century to modern, high-powered traction drives capable of transmitting hundreds of horsepower. Recent advances in technology are described which enable today's traction drive to be a serious candidate for off-highway vehicles and helicopter applications. Improvements in materials, traction fluids, design techniques, power loss and life prediction methods will be highlighted. Performance characteristics of the Nasvytis fixed-ratio drive are given. Promising future drive applications, such as helicopter main transmissions and servo-control positioning mechanisms are also addressed.

  13. Turbulent current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

  14. Polar drive on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, P. B.; Marshall, F. J.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Edgell, D.; Epstein, R.; Frenje, J.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marozas, J. A.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.

    2013-11-01

    High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997)] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser-plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  15. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  16. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles.

  17. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

  18. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  19. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required.

  20. Head tilt during driving.

    PubMed

    Zikovitz, D C; Harris, L R

    1999-05-01

    In order to distinguish between the use of visual and gravito-inertial force reference frames, the head tilt of drivers and passengers were measured as they went around corners at various speeds. The visual curvature of the corners were thus dissociated from the magnitude of the centripetal forces (0.30-0.77 g). Drivers' head tilts were highly correlated with the visually-available estimate of the curvature of the road (r2=0.86) but not with the centripetal force (r2<0.1). Passengers' head tilts were inversely correlated with the lateral forces (r2=0.3-0.7) and seem to reflect a passive sway. The strong correlation of the tilt of drivers' heads with a visual aspect of the road ahead, supports the use of a predominantly visual reference frame for the driving task. PMID:10722313

  1. [Epilepsy and driving].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Masato

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in June 2013, including new penalty to false statement in a disease condition declaration form, and new voluntary notification system for a doctor who is aware that a person is at high risk for traffic accident and in possession of a driver license. Moreover, New Criminal Law Act was established in November 2013, including a prison sentence of up to 15 years for persons, who under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, causing death or injury to other persons by driving a motor vehicle. Both laws are supposed to be enforced during 2014, after additional resolutions including the review of the laws after five years, considerations so as not to create discrimination due to diseases, etc are examined.

  2. [Epilepsy and driving].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Masato

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in June 2013, including new penalty to false statement in a disease condition declaration form, and new voluntary notification system for a doctor who is aware that a person is at high risk for traffic accident and in possession of a driver license. Moreover, New Criminal Law Act was established in November 2013, including a prison sentence of up to 15 years for persons, who under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, causing death or injury to other persons by driving a motor vehicle. Both laws are supposed to be enforced during 2014, after additional resolutions including the review of the laws after five years, considerations so as not to create discrimination due to diseases, etc are examined. PMID:24912298

  3. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  4. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  5. [Driving license and mellitus diabetes].

    PubMed

    Cimino, Luc; Deneufgermain, Alain; Lalau, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    For the "light group" as for the "heavy group" driving license cannot be issued or renewed to the applicant or drivers suffering from a condition that may constitute or lead to functional disability jeopardize road safety when driving a motor vehicle. The decision to issue or renew the license by the prefectural authority is taken on the advice of the departmental medical commission or a licensed physician. The decree of August 31, 2010 establishes the list of medical conditions incompatible with obtaining or maintaining the driving license or which may give rise to the issue of driving license limited validity. "Diabetes mellitus treated with medications that can cause hypoglycemia" belongs to this list. If the medical control of driving ability comes at the initiative of the user, the treating physician should firstly ensure the understanding of prescribed treatments that can cause hypoglycaemic episodes and other by informing diabetic person she must pass a medical examination of fitness to drive in a licensed physician.

  6. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  7. Driving anger in Ukraine: Appraisals, not trait driving anger, predict anger intensity while driving.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Hill, T; Sullman, M J M

    2016-03-01

    Trait driving anger is often, but not always, found to predict both the intensity of anger while driving and subsequent crash-related behaviours. However, a number of studies have not found support for a direct relationship between one's tendency to become angry and anger reported while driving, suggesting that other factors may mediate this relationship. The present self-report study investigated whether, in anger provoking driving situations, the appraisals made by drivers influence the relationship between trait and state anger. A sample of 339 drivers from Ukraine completed the 33-item version of the Driver Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher et al., 1994) and eight questions about their most recent experience of driving anger. A structural equation model found that the intensity of anger experienced was predicted by the negative evaluations of the situation, which was in turn predicted by trait driving anger. However, trait driving anger itself did not predict anger intensity; supporting the hypothesis that evaluations of the driving situation mediate the relationship between trait and state anger. Further, the unique structure of the DAS required to fit the data from the Ukrainian sample, may indicate that the anger inducing situations in Ukraine are different to those of a more developed country. Future research is needed to investigate driving anger in Ukraine in a broader sample and also to confirm the role of the appraisal process in the development of driving anger in both developed and undeveloped countries. PMID:26710267

  8. Driving anger in Ukraine: Appraisals, not trait driving anger, predict anger intensity while driving.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Hill, T; Sullman, M J M

    2016-03-01

    Trait driving anger is often, but not always, found to predict both the intensity of anger while driving and subsequent crash-related behaviours. However, a number of studies have not found support for a direct relationship between one's tendency to become angry and anger reported while driving, suggesting that other factors may mediate this relationship. The present self-report study investigated whether, in anger provoking driving situations, the appraisals made by drivers influence the relationship between trait and state anger. A sample of 339 drivers from Ukraine completed the 33-item version of the Driver Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher et al., 1994) and eight questions about their most recent experience of driving anger. A structural equation model found that the intensity of anger experienced was predicted by the negative evaluations of the situation, which was in turn predicted by trait driving anger. However, trait driving anger itself did not predict anger intensity; supporting the hypothesis that evaluations of the driving situation mediate the relationship between trait and state anger. Further, the unique structure of the DAS required to fit the data from the Ukrainian sample, may indicate that the anger inducing situations in Ukraine are different to those of a more developed country. Future research is needed to investigate driving anger in Ukraine in a broader sample and also to confirm the role of the appraisal process in the development of driving anger in both developed and undeveloped countries.

  9. 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, second floor above canning area. The belt has been removed from the conveyor, but sections of can conveyor tracks are visible on the floor. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. VIEW OF BEND IN CEDAR DRIVE WITH 603 CEDAR DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BEND IN CEDAR DRIVE WITH 603 CEDAR DRIVE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Natural death while driving.

    PubMed

    Oström, M; Eriksson, A

    1987-07-01

    Of sudden natural deaths while driving, 126 occurred during 1980 through 1985 in the northern half of Sweden. The mean age of the 69 car driver victims was 59 years, considerably higher than that of traumatic car deaths, and all but 2 were males. The mean age of 57 operators of other vehicles was 66 years, and of these, 6 were women. Seven car drivers were stricken during commercial employment. Most accidents occurred during daytime and the distribution of the weekdays was fairly even. Ischemic heart disease accounted for 112 deaths, and other cardiovascular diseases for an additional 9 deaths. Only 1/5 of the victims experienced previous symptoms of disease. Out of at least 31 other persons at risk in the car deaths, only 2 passengers suffered minor injuries. The trauma in the deceased was in most cases minor in both car and other vehicle deaths. Property damage was also minimal. At least 1/3 of the drivers were able to stop the car before becoming unconscious. In none of the car cases was alcohol detected in the blood, while alcohol was identified in at least 2 of the other vehicle victims. The findings here agree with previous studies that natural deaths at the wheel are fairly uncommon, and that the risk for other persons is not significant. The value of adequate postmortem examinations of drivers dying in traffic is stressed--natural deaths can otherwise be overlooked. PMID:3612079

  12. Drive-By Pharming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Sid; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Jakobsson, Markus

    This paper describes an attack concept termed Drive-by Pharming where an attacker sets up a web page that, when simply viewed by the victim (on a JavaScript-enabled browser), attempts to change the DNS server settings on the victim's home broadband router. As a result, future DNS queries are resolved by a DNS server of the attacker's choice. The attacker can direct the victim's Internet traffic and point the victim to the attacker's own web sites regardless of what domain the victim thinks he is actually going to, potentially leading to the compromise of the victim's credentials. The same attack methodology can be used to make other changes to the router, like replacing its firmware. Routers could then host malicious web pages or engage in click fraud. Since the attack is mounted through viewing a web page, it does not require the attacker to have any physical proximity to the victim nor does it require the explicit download of traditional malicious software. The attack works under the reasonable assumption that the victim has not changed the default management password on their broadband router.

  13. Handbook for Driving Knowledge Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, William T.; McDole, Thomas L.

    Materials intended for driving knowledge test development for use by operational licensing and education agencies are presented. A pool of 1,313 multiple choice test items is included, consisting of sets of specially developed and tested items covering principles of safe driving, legal regulations, and traffic control device knowledge pertinent to…

  14. Bidirectional drive and brake mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A space transport vehicle is disclosed as including a body which is arranged to be movably mounted on an elongated guide member disposed in outer space and driven therealong. A drive wheel is mounted on a drive shaft and arranged to be positioned in rolling engagement with the elongated guide carrying the vehicle. A brake member is arranged on the drive shaft for movement into and out of engagement with an adjacent surface of the drive wheel. An actuator is mounted on the body to be manually moved back and forth between spaced positions in an arc of movement. A ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is arranged to operate upon movements of the actuator in one direction between first and second positions for coupling the actuator to the drive wheel to incrementally rotate the wheel in one rotational direction and to operate upon movements of the actuator in the opposite direction for uncoupling the actuator from the wheel. The brake member is threadedly coupled to the drive shaft in order that the brake member will be operated only when the actuator is moved on beyond its first and second positions for shifting the brake member along the drive shaft and into frictional engagement with the adjacent surface on the drive wheel.

  15. Students: You... Alcohol and Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this manual is to provide accurate information about alcohol and about drinking and driving, so that the student may make responsible decisions about both. It covers youth drinking, drinking and driving, and the individual's responsibility to others in drinking situations. The booklet consists of eight readings, as well as…

  16. Driving difficulties in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Matthew; Uc, Ergun Y; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rodnitzky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Safe driving requires the coordination of attention, perception, memory, motor and executive functions (including decision-making) and self-awareness. PD and other disorders may impair these abilities. Because age or medical diagnosis alone is often an unreliable criterion for licensure, decisions on fitness to drive should be based on empirical observations of performance. Linkages between cognitive abilities measured by neuropsychological tasks, and driving behavior assessed using driving simulators, and natural and naturalistic observations in instrumented vehicles, can help standardize the assessment of fitness-to-drive. By understanding the patterns of driver safety errors that cause crashes, it may be possible to design interventions to reduce these errors and injuries and increase mobility. This includes driver performance monitoring devices, collision alerting and warning systems, road design, and graded licensure strategies. PMID:20187237

  17. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  18. [Driving and health at work].

    PubMed

    Giorgio, Marie-Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    The role of the occupational physician is to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. Therefore, he is the one to decide if a worker is fit to drive in the context of his professional activity, including in cases where no specific driving license is required (e.g. forklift truck, mobile crane). This decision is an important one, as two thirds of fatal occupational accidents occur on the road. The decision is made on the basis of both a medical examination and the regulation, which indicates all contraindications to driving. The physician's responsibility is involved, as is the employer's, as he must ensure that his employee is fit to drive and possesses a valid driving license at all times.

  19. Holokinetic drive: centromere drive in chromosomes without centromeres.

    PubMed

    Bureš, Petr; Zedek, František

    2014-08-01

    Similar to how the model of centromere drive explains the size and complexity of centromeres in monocentrics (organisms with localized centromeres), our model of holokinetic drive is consistent with the divergent evolution of chromosomal size and number in holocentrics (organisms with nonlocalized centromeres) exhibiting holokinetic meiosis (holokinetics). Holokinetic drive is proposed to facilitate chromosomal fission and/or repetitive DNA removal (or any segmental deletion) when smaller homologous chromosomes are preferentially inherited or chromosomal fusion and/or repetitive DNA proliferation (or any segmental duplication) when larger homologs are preferred. The hypothesis of holokinetic drive is supported primarily by the negative correlation between chromosome number and genome size that is documented in holokinetic lineages. The supporting value of two older cross-experiments on holokinetic structural heterozygotes (the rush Luzula elegans and butterflies of the genus Antheraea) that indicate the presence of size-preferential homolog transmission via female meiosis for holokinetic drive is discussed, along with the further potential consequences of holokinetic drive in comparison with centromere drive.

  20. Electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  1. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  2. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T. A.

    1984-11-06

    An oil well pumping apparatus which includes a submerged reciprocating pump mounted in a tubing arrangement communicating with the wellhead, a sucker rod string extending through the tubing arrangement and connected in driving relation with the pump, and a pumping tee and stuffing box arrangement mounted on the casing of the well at the wellhead and including a sealed drive rod arrangement in the stuffing box connected in driving relation to said sucker rod string, and a pump driving unit. The pump driving unit includes a hydraulic cylinder and support means including a gimbal arrangement for supporting the hydraulic cylinder over the stuffing box with the axis of the cylinder rod aligned with the axis of said stuffing box. A coupling means is provided for coupling the cylinder rod to the sealed drive rod arrangement. A hydraulic drive/control unit is coupled to said in/out fluid line for operating cycle consisting of a hydraulic power upstroke and a gravity power downstroke. An assist cylinder and accumulator combination are provided to counteract part of the weight of the rod string and thus reduce the workload on t

  3. Oil well pump driving unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, T.A.

    1982-03-23

    An oil well pumping apparatus which includes a submerged reciprocating pump mounted in a tubing arrangement communicating with the well head, a sucker rod string extending through the tubing arrangement and connected in driving relation with the pump, and a pumping tee and stuffing box arrangement mounted on the casing of the well at the well head and including a sealed drive rod arrangement in the stuffing box connected in driving relation to said sucker rod string, and a pump driving unit. The pump driving unit includes a hydraulic cylinder and support means for supporting the hydraulic cylinder over the stuffing box with the axis of the cylinder rod aligned with the axis of said stuffing box. A coupling means is provided for coupling the cylinder rod to the seal drive rod arrangement. A hydraulic drive -control unit is coupled to said in-out fluid line for operating the hydraulic cylinder to produce an operating cycle consisting of a hydraulic power upstroke and a gravity power downstroke.

  4. Electron Locking in Current Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollam, K. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Orvis, D. J.; Raman, R.; Redd, A. J.; Smith, R. J.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    2000-10-01

    The traveling n=1, m~= q_edge magnetic distortion observed in the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT-II) during coaxial helicity injection (CHI) is responsible for some current profile relaxation. A model for electromotive current drive, called the electron locking model, can account for the results of current drive experiments in both the HIT-II and the original HIT devices. The most relevant of these results involve the the frequencies and directions of the mode itself, the E× B drift, and the electric current drift. In spherical tokamaks with CHI, electrode and coil polarities can be changed to control the relative directions of these drifts. Results from HIT-II experiments with different polarities are shown. These point out the character n=1, m~= q_edge mode, and suggest its role in CHI current drive. The electron locking model is presented, and is also discussed in the context of mean field electrodynamics. This model might also be applied to other types of current drive, such as rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive, oscillating field current drive (OFCD), steady inductive helicity injection (SIHI), or Ohmic current drive in a reversed field pinch (RFP). These examples are discussed.

  5. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P < 0.05 for the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  6. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Dan; Cook, Edward G.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 Kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 Kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  7. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

    1993-01-05

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  8. Dopaminergic Circuitry Underlying Mating Drive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Stephen X; Rogulja, Dragana; Crickmore, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    We develop a new system for studying how innate drives are tuned to reflect current physiological needs and capacities, and how they affect sensory-motor processing. We demonstrate the existence of male mating drive in Drosophila, which is transiently and cumulatively reduced as reproductive capacity is depleted by copulations. Dopaminergic activity in the anterior of the superior medial protocerebrum (SMPa) is also transiently and cumulatively reduced in response to matings and serves as a functional neuronal correlate of mating drive. The dopamine signal is transmitted through the D1-like DopR2 receptor to P1 neurons, which also integrate sensory information relevant to the perception of females, and which project to courtship motor centers that initiate and maintain courtship behavior. Mating drive therefore converges with sensory information from the female at the point of transition to motor output, controlling the propensity of a sensory percept to trigger goal-directed behavior. PMID:27292538

  9. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, especially among new drivers, ... whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, sudden braking or swerving, and other ...

  10. Driving Speed vs Fuel Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Floyd

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical treatment of the relationship between driving speed and fuel efficiency is presented. The material involves applications of exponentials, logarithms, and elementary calculus, and is intended to be enrichment material for secondary and lower college mathematics classes. (MP)

  11. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... laws Currently there is no national ban on texting or using a wireless phone while driving, but a number of states have passed laws banning texting or wireless phones or requiring hands-free use ...

  12. Warp drive with zero expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natário, José

    2002-03-01

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  13. Mechanical drive for blood pump

    DOEpatents

    Bifano, N.J.; Pouchot, W.D.

    1975-07-29

    This patent relates to a highly efficient blood pump to be used as a replacement for a ventricle of the human heart to restore people disabled by heart disease. The mechanical drive of the present invention is designed to operate in conjunction with a thermoelectric converter power source. The mechanical drive system essentially converts the output of a rotary power into pulsatile motion so that the power demand from the thermoelectric converter remains essentially constant while the blood pump output is pulsed. (auth)

  14. Distracted driving: a neglected epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dildy, Dale W

    2012-10-01

    In 2009, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimated nearly 6,000 distracted driver fatalities and 515,000 injuries in the United States alone. Distracted driving is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed. Software is available to disable cell phone usage while driving, but using the advanced technology may require legislation along with a renewed sense of driver responsibility. PMID:23061239

  15. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  16. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  17. A drive for all users

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, W.; Satya, T.

    1995-12-31

    The forces of industrial automation and efficiency, both in terms of process capability and energy, continue to fuel the rapid growth in the market for electrical variable speed drives. This demand coupled with the need for improved performance and the inevitable consequence of growth, results in a fiercely competitive market place. Within such an environment the claim of ``A drive for all users`` is not new, and those with some knowledge of the drives industry will consider any such claim with great skepticism. The literature on drives is littered with industrialists, and more than a few academics, claiming to have the ultimate drive, the optimum for each and every application. This situation is particularly true in the case of AC drive technology. The documented battles between proponents of current source verses PWM voltage source, not to mention the quest for the ultimate PWM strategy, have resulted in substantial deforestation of the planet. This paper makes no such unqualified claim rather it describes a very substantial and significant step towards such a eutopia.

  18. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1994-10-25

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw. 10 figs.

  19. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1994-01-01

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

  20. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field. PMID:26418550

  1. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    PubMed

    Pichardo, Samuel; Silva, Rafael R C; Rubel, Oleg; Curiel, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13):135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode). The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d.) resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5) kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power) of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  2. i3Drive, a 3D interactive driving simulator.

    PubMed

    Ambroz, Miha; Prebil, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    i3Drive, a wheeled-vehicle simulator, can accurately simulate vehicles of various configurations with up to eight wheels in real time on a desktop PC. It presents the vehicle dynamics as an interactive animation in a virtual 3D environment. The application is fully GUI-controlled, giving users an easy overview of the simulation parameters and letting them adjust those parameters interactively. It models all relevant vehicle systems, including the mechanical models of the suspension, power train, and braking and steering systems. The simulation results generally correspond well with actual measurements, making the system useful for studying vehicle performance in various driving scenarios. i3Drive is thus a worthy complement to other, more complex tools for vehicle-dynamics simulation and analysis.

  3. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  4. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures’ convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  5. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  6. MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL ROTARY MECHANICAL DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Smits, R.G.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a mechanism suitable for such applications as driving two spaced-apart spools which carry a roll film strip under conditions where the film movement must be rapidly started, stopped, and reversed while maintaining a constant tension on the film. The basic drive is provided by a variable speed, reversible rnotor coupled to both spools through a first differential mechanism and driving both spools in the same direction. A second motor, providing a constant torque, is connected to the two spools through a second differential mechanism and is coupled to impart torque to one spool in a first direction anid to the other spool in the reverse direction thus applying a constant tension to the film passing over the two spools irrespective of the speed or direction of rotation thereof. (AEC)

  7. Rover Takes a Sunday Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation, made with images from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard-identification camera, shows the rover's perspective of its first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday. Engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack. The drive took approximately 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. Spirit first made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet).

  8. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  9. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  10. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  11. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  12. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  13. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  14. Unsafe driving behaviour and four wheel drive vehicles: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lesley; Williams, Jonathan; Jamrozik, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of compliance with the new law in the United Kingdom mandating penalties for using a hand held mobile phone while driving, to compare compliance with this law with the one on the use of seat belts, and to compare compliance with these laws between drivers of four wheel drive vehicles and drivers of normal cars. Design Observational study with two phases—one within the “grace” period, the other starting one week after penalties were imposed on drivers using such telephones. Setting Three busy sites in London. Participants Drivers of 38 182 normal cars and 2944 four wheel drive vehicles. Main outcome measures Proportions of drivers seen to be using hand held mobile phones and not using seat belts. Results Drivers of four wheel drive vehicles were more likely than drivers of other cars to be seen using hand held mobile phones (8.2% v 2.0%) and not complying with the law on seat belts (19.5% v 15.0%). Levels of non-compliance with both laws were slightly higher in the penalty phase of observation, and breaking one law was associated with increased likelihood of breaking the other. Conclusions The level of non-compliance with the law on the use of hand held mobile phones by drivers in London is high, as is non-compliance with the law on seat belts. Drivers of four wheel drive vehicles were four times more likely than drivers of other cars to be seen using hand held mobile phones and slightly more likely not to comply with the law on seat belts. PMID:16798755

  15. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant.

  16. Drive reconfiguration mechanism for tracked robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    Drive reconfiguration apparatus for changing the configuration of a drive unit with respect to a vehicle body may comprise a guide system associated with the vehicle body and the drive unit which allows the drive unit to rotate about a center of rotation that is located at about a point where the drive unit contacts the surface being traversed. An actuator mounted to the vehicle body and connected to the drive unit rotates the drive unit about the center of rotation between a first position and a second position.

  17. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, J.

    1991-01-01

    Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

  18. Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.

  19. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  20. Driving Competencies for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    Designed for use by directors of senior citizen groups, continuing education directors, and driver education instructors, this manual suggests a course outline, subject content, and instructional materials for effectively teaching a refresher driving course. The first seven topics represent the basic content and none should be omitted: orientation…

  1. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  2. Older people drive political agenda.

    PubMed

    2001-07-01

    So, as the Labour party storms home on the back of another massive majority, hold on to your seats for more thrills, spills and radical reforms as the government gets on with the business of building an inclusive society, eradicating poverty and driving on the revolution to the beat of the private sector drum. PMID:27321254

  3. Test-Driving Their Passions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noah

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how the Watson fellowships give recipients an opportunity to test-drive their passions and see if they could lead to a career path. Over the last 40 years, the Thomas J. Watson Foundation has awarded $29 million in fellowships to seniors graduating from 50 mostly top-tier colleges with fewer than 3,000 students. In 2007, 50…

  4. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  5. Drive axle for electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, J.M.

    1981-06-02

    An electric powered vehicle drive axle is disclosed. The axle of the present invention comprises a ring gear; a first pinion gear for rotating the ring gear; a differential carried by the ring gear; a pair of axle shafts driven by the differential for rotatably driving a pair of drive wheels; the device supported and enclosed by a housing. A second pinion gear is employed which rotatably engages the ring gear. A first electric motor rotatably connected to the first pinion gear is connected to a power source for rotatably driving the vehicle. A second electric motor/generator is connected to the second pinion gear and electrically connected to the power source. The second electric motor/generator selectively powers the differential or derives power from the differential to recharge the power source as dictated by the power needs of the electric vehicle. A plurality of bevel gears are deployed along the length of the axles. Each bevel gear is rotatably connected to a pair of opposed bevel gears, each opposed bevel gear is rotatably connected to an electric motor/generator. By selectively and electrically causing the plurality of motors/generators to either power the axle or be powered by the axle optimum efficiency and recharging of the battery over a range of vehicle operating conditions is obtained.

  6. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  7. Neural substrates of driving behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2007-01-01

    Driving a vehicle is an indispensable daily behaviour for many people, yet we know little about how it is supported by the brain. Given that driving in the real world involves the engagement of many cognitive systems that rapidly change to meet varying environmental demands, identifying its neural basis presents substantial problems. By employing a unique combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), an accurate interactive virtual simulation of a bustling central London (UK) and a retrospective verbal report protocol, we surmounted these difficulties. We identified different events that characterise the driving process on a second by second basis and the brain regions that underlie them. Prepared actions such as starting, turning, reversing and stopping were associated with a common network comprised of premotor, parietal and cerebellar regions. Each prepared action also recruited additional brain areas. We also observed unexpected hazardous events such as swerving and avoiding collisions that were associated with activation of lateral occipital and parietal regions, insula, as well as a more posterior region in the medial premotor cortex than prepared actions. By contrast, planning future actions and monitoring fellow road users were associated with activity in superior parietal, lateral occipital cortices and the cerebellum. The anterior pre-SMA was also recruited during action planning. The right lateral prefrontal cortex was specifically engaged during the processing of road traffic rules. By systematically characterising the brain dynamics underlying naturalistic driving behaviour in a real city, our findings may have implications for how driving competence is considered in the context of neurological damage. PMID:17412611

  8. Meiotic drive and evolution of female choice.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, K; Engqvist, L; Misof, B; Kurtz, J

    1999-07-01

    As a special version of the good-genes hypothesis, it was recently proposed that females could benefit from choosing drive-resistant males in a meiotic drive system. Here, we examine with a three-locus, six-allele population genetic model whether female choice for drive resistance can evolve. An allele leading to female preference for drive-resistant males was introduced at low frequency into a population polymorphic for meiotic drive and drive resistance. Our simulations show that female choice of drive-resistant males is disadvantageous when resistance is Y-linked. This disadvantage occurs because, at equilibrium, drive-resistant males have lower reproductive success than drive-susceptible males. Thus, female choice of drive-susceptible males can evolve when resistance is Y-linked. When resistance is autosomal, selection on female choice for drive resistance is less strong and depends on the frequency of choice: female preference of resistant males is favoured when choice is rare and disadvantageous when choice is frequent, leading to a stable equilibrium at a low frequency of the choice allele. Independent of the location of drive resistance alleles, males with the non-driving allele always have above average reproductive success. Female choice is therefore beneficial when choosy females prefer males with the non-driving allele.

  9. Meiotic drive and evolution of female choice.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, K; Engqvist, L; Misof, B; Kurtz, J

    1999-01-01

    As a special version of the good-genes hypothesis, it was recently proposed that females could benefit from choosing drive-resistant males in a meiotic drive system. Here, we examine with a three-locus, six-allele population genetic model whether female choice for drive resistance can evolve. An allele leading to female preference for drive-resistant males was introduced at low frequency into a population polymorphic for meiotic drive and drive resistance. Our simulations show that female choice of drive-resistant males is disadvantageous when resistance is Y-linked. This disadvantage occurs because, at equilibrium, drive-resistant males have lower reproductive success than drive-susceptible males. Thus, female choice of drive-susceptible males can evolve when resistance is Y-linked. When resistance is autosomal, selection on female choice for drive resistance is less strong and depends on the frequency of choice: female preference of resistant males is favoured when choice is rare and disadvantageous when choice is frequent, leading to a stable equilibrium at a low frequency of the choice allele. Independent of the location of drive resistance alleles, males with the non-driving allele always have above average reproductive success. Female choice is therefore beneficial when choosy females prefer males with the non-driving allele. PMID:10445289

  10. Stability and skill in driving.

    PubMed

    Treffner, Paul; Barrett, Rod; Petersen, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    Two experiments addressed the relation between postural stability, perceptual sensitivity, and stability of driving performance. A vehicle was fitted with differential GPS for measuring position and speed, position sensors for measuring brake and accelerator depression, force transducers for measuring door, console and footrest bracing forces, and an accelerometer for measuring the 3D accelerations of the vehicle. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether the initiation of deceleration and the control of braking might be due to sensitivity to the perceptual variable tau, which specifies time-to-contact (TTC), and in particular, whether its first derivative, tau-dot, is used to maintain a constant deceleration profile. Using both untrained experienced drivers (EDs) and trained driving instructors from the Holden Performance Driving Centre (HPDC), results confirmed that, regardless of skill level, tau-dot was maintained at a value close to 0.5 and, as predicted by Lee [Perception 5 (1976) 437], braking was initiated when TTC approximately 5 s. In Experiment 2, we wished to quantify the purported differences in driving behaviour between EDs and HPDC instructors during a variety of everyday manoeuvres. Results indicated that instructors utilised a different cornering trajectory, a different emergency braking strategy, and were able to perform a high-speed swerve and recovery task more effectively than the EDs. In general, the instructors applied greater bracing forces using the door and console compared with EDs. The instructors also applied greater footrest forces during emergency braking than did the EDs. The greater use of bracing by instructor drivers to resist g-forces represents a strategy of active stabilisation that enhances both postural stability, as well as overall stability and consistency of driving performance. Results are discussed with regard to the dynamics of perceptual-motor coordination, and how increased stability might improve sensitivity to

  11. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-08-18

    Adjustable speed drive (ASD) technologies have the ability to precisely control motor sytems output and produce a numbr of benefits including energy and demand savings. This report examines the performance and cost effectiveness of a specific class of ASDs called magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drives (MC-ASD) which use the strength of a magnetic field to control the amount of torque transferred between motor and drive shaft. The MagnaDrive Adjustable Speed Coupling System uses fixed rare-earth magnets and varies the distance between rotating plates in the assembly. the PAYBACK Variable Speed Drive uses an electromagnet to control the speed of the drive

  12. Warp Drive - A New Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obousy, R. K.; Cleaver, G.

    Certain classes of higher dimensional models suggest that the Casimir Effect is a candidate for the cosmological constant. In this paper we demonstrate that a sufficiently advanced civilization could, in principal, manipulate the radius of the extra dimension to locally adjust the value of the cosmological constant. This adjustment could be tuned to generate an expansion/ contraction of spacetime around a spacecraft creating an exotic form of field-propulsion. Due to the fact that spacetime expansion itself is not restricted by relativity, a faster-than-light `warp drive' could be created. Calculations of the energy requirements of such a drive are performed and an `ultimate' speed limit, based on the Planckian limits on the size of the extra dimensions is found.

  13. Microsaccades generated during car driving.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shuntaro; Hirata, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Microsaccades together with drift and tremor are fixational eye movements that are generated when we try to fixate our gaze on a visual target. Besides their function in vision to prevent neural adaptation to unchanging retinal image, microsaccades have been studied in neuroscience as an indicator of attentional states for the last decade. Most of microsaccade researches have been conducted in unnatural laboratory environments, using controlled artificial visual stimuli. Thus, little is known about the characteristics of microsaccades in natural viewing conditions. Here we attempted to evaluate microsaccades during car driving condition in the aim of estimating driver's spatial attention. We demonstrate that microsaccades are generated during car driving, and the rate of microsaccade generation is modulated by road conditions such as appearance of pedestrians or/and other cars.

  14. Relationship Between Obesity and Driving.

    PubMed

    Kay, Gary G; McLaughlin, David

    2014-09-01

    Obesity, which has become epidemic throughout many parts of the world, is known to be a risk factor for a range of diseases including hypertension, diabetes, and vascular disease. Based on this review, it also appears that obesity is associated with increased crash risk and increased risk of serious or fatal injury in a crash. The problem is particularly an issue for commercial truck drivers. Data are presented showing the high prevalence of obesity in truck drivers. Inadequate sleep, poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and the sedentary nature of driving all contribute to the risk of obesity. The obesity related condition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to increase crash risk. Treatment of this condition has been demonstrated to improve driving performance and to reduce crash risk. Screening truck drivers for obesity related health conditions, such as OSA, would be expected to result in public safety benefits. PMID:26626764

  15. Granular gases under extreme driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2010-08-01

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  16. Electric vehicle drive train components

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, F.

    1994-12-31

    Power Control Systems has developed a family of electric vehicle drive systems that range from 65 horsepower through 300 horse power. These propulsion systems support vehicle applications ranging from light cars and pickups to buses and trucks weighing as much as 40,000 lbs (18,400 kg). These robust systems are designed specifically for automotive applications including safety, electromagnetic emissions, and environment ruggedness. Dolphin Drive Systems are very flexible. Their inverter controllers are programmable and can be provided as stand alone components matched to customer specified motors. A selection of pre-calibrated systems including motor and inverter/controller can be provided. Accessory tools are also available for customer self programming. Dolphin Drive Systems provide precision control of AC induction motors providing excellent torque-speed performance usually eliminating the need for multistage transmissions. In addition, they are very efficient over a wide speed/torque range. This provides for excellent power management over a variety of continuous speed and stop and go applications.

  17. Warp drive space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper the problem of the quantum stability of the two-dimensional warp drive spacetime moving with an apparent faster than light velocity is considered. We regard as a maximum extension beyond the event horizon of that spacetime its embedding in a three-dimensional Minkowskian space with the topology of the corresponding Misner space. It is obtained that the interior of the spaceship bubble becomes then a multiply connected nonchronal region with closed spacelike curves and that the most natural vacuum allows quantum fluctuations which do not induce any divergent behavior of the renormalized stress-energy tensor, even on the event (Cauchy) chronology horizon. In such a case, the horizon encloses closed timelike curves only at scales close to the Planck length, so that the warp drive satisfies Ford's negative energy-time inequality. Also found is a connection between the superluminal two-dimensional warp drive space and two-dimensional gravitational kinks. This connection allows us to generalize the considered Alcubierre metric to a standard, nonstatic metric which is only describable on two different coordinate patches.

  18. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  19. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: Department of... and enforcing distracted driving laws. The FY 2013 funds are subject to an annual obligation... FY 2013 may be less than the amount identified above. A State's distracted driving law must...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  2. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  3. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  4. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  6. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  8. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  9. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  11. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  12. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  13. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Driving violations. 11.445 Section 11.445 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in a manner dangerous to the public safety is guilty of reckless driving, a petty misdemeanor,...

  14. Fluid cooled vehicle drive module

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-11-15

    An electric vehicle drive includes a support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EM/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  15. Driving trajectories in chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Macau, Elbert E N; Caldas, Iberê L

    2002-02-01

    In this work we introduce a general approach for targeting in chaotic scattering that can be used to find a transfer trajectory between any two points located inside the scattering region. We show that this method can be used in association with a control of chaos strategy to drive around and keep a particle inside the scattering region. As an illustration of how powerful this approach is, we use it in a case of practical interest in celestial mechanics in which it is desired to control the evolution of two satellites that evolve around a large central body. PMID:11863640

  16. Driving trajectories in chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Macau, Elbert E N; Caldas, Iberê L

    2002-02-01

    In this work we introduce a general approach for targeting in chaotic scattering that can be used to find a transfer trajectory between any two points located inside the scattering region. We show that this method can be used in association with a control of chaos strategy to drive around and keep a particle inside the scattering region. As an illustration of how powerful this approach is, we use it in a case of practical interest in celestial mechanics in which it is desired to control the evolution of two satellites that evolve around a large central body.

  17. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Computer-Aided Remote Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    1994-01-01

    System for remote control of robotic land vehicle requires only small radio-communication bandwidth. Twin video cameras on vehicle create stereoscopic images. Operator views cross-polarized images on two cathode-ray tubes through correspondingly polarized spectacles. By use of cursor on frozen image, remote operator designates path. Vehicle proceeds to follow path, by use of limited degree of autonomous control to cope with unexpected conditions. System concept, called "computer-aided remote driving" (CARD), potentially useful in exploration of other planets, military surveillance, firefighting, and clean-up of hazardous materials.

  19. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  20. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  1. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  2. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  3. 32 CFR 634.14 - Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of intoxicated driving. 634.14 Section 634.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.14 Restoration of driving privileges upon acquittal of...

  4. Dual excitation multiphase electrostatic drive

    SciTech Connect

    Niino, Toshiki; Higuchi, Toshiro |; Egawa, Saku

    1995-12-31

    A novel electrostatic drive technology named Dual Excitation Multiphase Electrostatic Drive (DEMED) was presented. A basic DEMED consisted of two plastic films in which 3-phase parallel electrodes were embedded and was driven by a 3-phase ac excitation to the electrodes. Static characteristics of DEMED were calculated and tested and the results agreed very well. Three prototype motors of DEMED were fabricated using commercially available technique. The first prototype consisted of a single slider and stator and generated a linear motion with a slider`s motion range of about 5mm. It weighed 7g and generated a power of 1.6W and a thrust force of 4.4N. The second prototype consisted of 50 layer stack of linear motors, summing their outputs. It weighed 3.6kg and generated a propulsive force of 310N being powered with boosted commercial 3-phase electricity. The third prototype consisted of a rotor and a stator in which electrodes were arranged radially and generated rotational motion. The maximum power of 36mW was generated by the prototype weighing only 260mg for its rotor and stator. From the results of the numerical calculation, a practical design methodology for the motor was determined. An optimal design for a motor employing currently available material and fabrication techniques is provided as an example. Analyses predict that force generation over the interfacial area between the slider and stator of this motor would be 3,900N/m{sup 2}.

  5. Four-wheel drive car

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.

    1986-03-25

    A drive train in a four-wheel drive vehicle is described having an engine mounted on one end with a crankshaft oriented transverse to the direction of vehicle travel which consists of: a transmission having an output gear driven by the crankshaft and rotatable around an axis parallel to the axis of the crankshaft; a reduction gear operatively engaged with the output gear; a first differential gear having a gear and being concentrically engaged with the reduction gear to transmit the output of the reduction gear in a divided manner; a second differential gear transmitting power from one output of the differential gear to left and right wheels of the one end of the vehicle; a transmission gear meshing with the gear of the first differential gear for transmitting power from another output of the first differential gear in a direction generally perpendicular to the crankshaft through a propeller shaft to the other end of the vehicle, opposite the one end; a third differential gear receiving power from the propeller shaft for transmitting power to left and right wheels on the other end; and wherein a mesh portion where the transmission gear meshes with the gear of the first differential gear is closer to the crankshaft axis of engine than is the axis of the reduction gear.

  6. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving

    PubMed Central

    Kostermans, Evelien; Stoolmiller, Mike; de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes. Methods Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey–controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking. Results Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive) driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving. Discussion In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents’ reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving

  8. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  9. Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.

    PubMed

    Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation.

  10. Drug addiction as drive satisfaction ("antidrive") dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kostowski, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex brain disorder, characterized by the loss of control over drug seeking and drug taking behavior, and by the risk of relapse, even after a prolonged period of abstinence. This disorder may have its source in a disturbed balance of drive-related behaviors, which control appetitive reactions aimed at seeking contact with an addictive substance. The act of consumption becomes more and more attractive, and the behavior takes on compulsive character. We suppose that drug addiction may involve a change in the mechanism of satisfaction of drives and states of satiation as well. To understand how the motivational processes are changed with the development of dependence, one must consider the mechanism of drive satisfaction and satiation states that occur in relation to the consumatory reflex. When a given drive is satisfied a state of fulfillment occurs. This state may be a result of a so-called "antidrive" mechanism (Konorski 1967). While a drive activity is characterized by general activation and tension, the drive satisfaction state ("antidrive") is characterized by relaxation and relief. When a particular drive is satisfied, the operation of other drives become possible. Therefore, we postulate that dysfunction of drive satisfaction leads to the sustained activation related to the current drug-related drive, which blocks the operation of other drives. In effect, uncontrolled compulsive appetitive behavior is released, and the operation of other drives is restrained, thus forcing the organism to focus on drug-related drive. The reason for an "antidrive" dysfunction may be related to adaptive changes which develop during a contact with an addictive substance.

  11. Labs drive the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1984-11-01

    The conviction of laboratory managers that high technology can provide safety and national security in a dangerous world and that technological solutions are paramount over political solutions has been a major driving force in perpetuating the nuclear arms race. The credo in the laboratories appears to be that there are never enough designs of nuclear weapons for deterrence so that there is always a need to develop such new ideas as the nuclear-pumped X-ray laser as a defense against energy missiles. The author outlines several alternative steps, including the ratification and reaffirmation of arms control treaties, negotiations, and a halt to the Star Wars program. A central point is to stop nuclear weapons testing. 7 references.

  12. Current Drive in Recombining Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit and N.J. Fisch

    2012-05-15

    The Langevin equations describing the average collisional dynamics of suprathermal particles in nonstationary plasma remarkably admit an exact analytical solution in the case of recombining plasma. The current density produced by arbitrary particle fluxes is derived including the effect of charge recombination. Since recombination has the effect of lowering the charge density of the plasma, thus reducing the charged particle collisional frequencies, the evolution of the current density can be modified substantially compared to plasma with fixed charge density. The current drive efficiency is derived and optimized for discrete and continuous pulses of current, leading to the discovery of a nonzero "residual" current density that persists indefinitely under certain conditions, a feature not present in stationary plasmas.

  13. Shame and honour drive cooperation.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Jennifer; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne; Milinski, Manfred

    2011-12-23

    Can the threat of being shamed or the prospect of being honoured lead to greater cooperation? We test this hypothesis with anonymous six-player public goods experiments, an experimental paradigm used to investigate problems related to overusing common resources. We instructed the players that the two individuals who were least generous after 10 rounds would be exposed to the group. As the natural antithesis, we also test the effects of honour by revealing the identities of the two players who were most generous. The non-monetary, reputational effects induced by shame and honour each led to approximately 50 per cent higher donations to the public good when compared with the control, demonstrating that both shame and honour can drive cooperation and can help alleviate the tragedy of the commons. PMID:21632623

  14. Reconfigurable driving platforms in CAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Luciano, Cristian; Banerjee, Pat; Knight, James J.

    2003-04-01

    This paper introduces the design of a reconfigurable driving simulator platform for a category of heavy ground vehicles while complying with the ISO 6682 specifications. Basically the steering wheel, pedal, and levers are designed using a linkage to be reconfigurable within a certain zone. Alternatively the platform can be thought of as having a range of configurations such that one is able to put a seat, steering wheel, gas pedal, or levers anywhere within a zone defined by ISO 6682. This platform is intended to be the first such design while fulfilling most of the requirements deemed important at this stage. The design is modular an flexible and can be enhanced in future as more data is collected through studies in actually usng the platform in a VR environment.

  15. Unsafe driving behaviors and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Van Tuinen, M

    1994-04-01

    The medical costs associated with motor vehicle crashes are difficult to measure. Most attempts have used crash data and cost data that are only indirectly related to each other or have followed patients in a few hospitals or trauma centers. These studies produce localized estimates or rough national estimates of limited use to policy makers. The result has been a dependence on more readily available mortality data, such as the Fatal Accident Reporting System, to guide automotive safety efforts. The limitations of mortality data and the increasing sophistication of medical care data bases have resulted in a strong interest in obtaining crash-linked morbidity data. Hence, in 1993, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded the Missouri Department of Health and six other applicants grants to link automotive crash records to statewide ambulance trip, outpatient care, hospitalization and mortality records. By identifying an individual across multiple data sets, states would be able to determine directly the relationship of driver behaviors and crash characteristics to hospitalization rates and other medical outcomes. Examination of hospital pay source information would expose the toll of automotive crashes on public tax dollars. Having recently completed the record linkage phase of this project, Missouri Department of Health staff are beginning to analyze the impact of automotive crashes on health care costs in Missouri. In this report, three unsafe driving behaviors, failure to use a safety device (seatbelts and motorcycle helmets), driving under the influence of alcohol, and speeding, are related to the risk of hospitalization or death, hospital costs, and expected pay source. PMID:8202067

  16. Driving Task: How Older Drivers' On-Road Driving Performance Relates to Abilities, Perceptions, and Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Langford, Jim; Di Stefano, Marilyn; MacDonald, Wendy; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Mazer, Barbara L; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Eliasz, Kinga; Myers, Anita; Tuokko, Holly A; Marshall, Shawn C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined a cohort of 227 older drivers and investigated the relationship between performance on the electronic Driver Observation Schedule (eDOS) driving task and: (1) driver characteristics; (2) functional abilities; (3) perceptions of driving comfort and abilities; and (4) self-reported driving restrictions. Participants (male: 70%; age: M = 81.53 years, SD = 3.37 years) completed a series of functional ability measures and scales on perceived driving comfort, abilities, and driving restrictions from the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocol, along with an eDOS driving task. Observations of participants' driving behaviours during the driving task were recorded for intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low-speed maneuvers, and maneuver-free driving. eDOS driving task scores were high (M = 94.74; SD = 5.70) and significantly related to participants' perceived driving abilities, reported frequency of driving in challenging situations, and number of driving restrictions. Future analyses will explore potential changes in driving task scores over time. PMID:27021591

  17. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  18. Application of traction drives as servo mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of traction drives for a wide class of aerospace control mechanisms is examined. Potential applications include antenna or solar array drive positioners, robotic joints, control moment gyro (CMG) actuators and propeller pitch change mechanisms. In these and similar applications the zero backlash, high torsional stiffness, low hysteresis and torque ripple characteristics of traction drives are of particular interest, as is the ability to run without liquid lubrication in certain cases. Wear and fatigue considerations for wet and dry operation are examined along with the tribological performance of several promising self lubricating polymers for traction contracts. The speed regulation capabilities of variable ratio traction drives are reviewed. A torsional stiffness analysis described suggests that traction contacts are relatively stiff compared to gears and are significantly stiffer than the other structural elements in the prototype CMG traction drive analyzed. Discussion is also given of an advanced turboprop propeller pitch change mechanism that incorporates a traction drive.

  19. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD. PMID:20082971

  20. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

    1994-11-29

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  1. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  2. Drive mechanism for track-type vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.; Hashimoto, M.

    1986-03-11

    A drive mechanism is described for a track-type vehicle having a bevel gear case which forms a mounting support, a steering clutch and brake unit including a steering clutch and brake assembly, and a final drive unit including a final drive assembly. The drive mechanism consists of: a first housing which houses the steering clutch and brake assembly and defines a first annular flange; a second housing which houses the final drive assembly and defines a second annular flange engaging with the first annular flange; a freely connectable and disconnectable connecting shaft mounted between the steering clutch and brake assembly and the final drive assembly for operatively connecting the assemblies; a connecting and disconnecting means for connecting shaft; and an annular sealing sleeve for connecting the first annular flange and the second annular flange movably disposed between the flanges.

  3. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  4. Metal band drives in spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, Daryl

    1993-05-01

    Transmitting and changing the characteristics of force and stroke is a requirement in nearly all mechanisms. Examples include changing linear to rotary motion, providing a 90 deg change in direction, and amplifying stroke or force. Requirements for size, weight, efficiency and reliability create unique problems in spacecraft mechanisms. Flexible metal band and cam drive systems provide powerful solutions to these problems. Band drives, rack and pinion gears, and bell cranks are compared for effectiveness. Band drive issues are discussed including materials, bend radius, fabrication, attachment and reliability. Numerous mechanisms are shown which illustrate practical applications of band drives.

  5. Metal band drives in spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maus, Daryl

    1993-01-01

    Transmitting and changing the characteristics of force and stroke is a requirement in nearly all mechanisms. Examples include changing linear to rotary motion, providing a 90 deg change in direction, and amplifying stroke or force. Requirements for size, weight, efficiency and reliability create unique problems in spacecraft mechanisms. Flexible metal band and cam drive systems provide powerful solutions to these problems. Band drives, rack and pinion gears, and bell cranks are compared for effectiveness. Band drive issues are discussed including materials, bend radius, fabrication, attachment and reliability. Numerous mechanisms are shown which illustrate practical applications of band drives.

  6. Warp Drive - From Imagination to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, J.

    The realisation of warp drive is far beyond current science and technology; nevertheless, setting out a timetable for the realisation of warp drive is instructive as this will set expectations for the progress of future research. It is proposed that a time scale for the realisation of warp drive can be estimated by historical analogy with the development of manned space travel to the Moon, using conventional project estimation techniques. A timeline for space travel to the Moon begins with Cyrano de Bergerac's Voyage dans la Lune in 1657 and culminates with the Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969, a little over 300 years later. A similar timeline for warp drive begins with John W. Campbell's novel Islands of Space in 1930. Fictional conjecture on the warp drive has given way to serious scientific speculation following publication of Alcubierre's seminal warp drive paper in 1994. It is concluded that the realisation of warp drive might be achieved around the year 2180. A projected timetable for the realisation of warp drive through phases of conjecture , speculation , science , technology and application suggests that the warp drive proposal should enter the science phase around the year 2030.

  7. Configuring NIF for direct drive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.; Rothenberg, J.; Key, M.

    1995-07-11

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed 1.8 MJ laser facility for carrying out experiments in inertial confinement fusion, currently designed for indirect drive experiments. The direct drive approach is being pursued at the 30 kJ Omega facility at the University of Rochester. In this paper we discuss the modifications to the NIF laser that would be required for both indirect and direct drive experiments. A primary concern is the additional cost of adding direct drive capability to the facility.

  8. Further validation of the driving vengeance questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, D A; Wiesenthal, D L

    2001-10-01

    The present study further validated the Driving Vengeance Questionnaire (DVQ), assessing the frequency of past acts of severe and dangerous violent driving behaviors, as well as milder driver aggression measured in actual driving conditions. DVQ scores were predicted by driver violence, where vengeful drivers reported greater acts of past violence. DVQ scores were also predicted by mild driver aggression measured in high traffic congestion, such that vengeful drivers were more likely to exhibit mild aggression in high congestion conditions. Finally, the DVQ demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha = 0.81), demonstrating the DVQ to be a reliable and valid measure of driving vengeance. PMID:11688930

  9. Analysis of cache for streaming tape drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnaswamy, V.

    A tape subsystem consists of a controller and a tape drive. Tapes are used for backup, data interchange, and software distribution. The backup operation is addressed. During a backup operation, data is read from disk, processed in CPU, and then sent to tape. The processing speeds of a disk subsystem, CPU, and a tape subsystem are likely to be different. A powerful CPU can read data from a fast disk, process it, and supply the data to the tape subsystem at a faster rate than the tape subsystem can handle. On the other hand, a slow disk drive and a slow CPU may not be able to supply data fast enough to keep a tape drive busy all the time. The backup process may supply data to tape drive in bursts. Each burst may be followed by an idle period. Depending on the nature of the file distribution in the disk, the input stream to the tape subsystem may vary significantly during backup. To compensate for these differences and optimize the utilization of a tape subsystem, a cache or buffer is introduced in the tape controller. Most of the tape drives today are streaming tape drives. A streaming tape drive goes into reposition when there is no data from the controller. Once the drive goes into reposition, the controller can receive data, but it cannot supply data to the tape drive until the drive completes its reposition. A controller can also receive data from the host and send data to the tape drive at the same time. The relationship of cache size, host transfer rate, drive transfer rate, reposition, and ramp up times for optimal performance of the tape subsystem are investigated. Formulas developed will also show the advantages of cache watermarks to increase the streaming time of the tape drive, maximum loss due to insufficient cache, tradeoffs between cache and reposition times and the effectiveness of cache on a streaming tape drive due to idle times or interruptions due in host transfers. Several mathematical formulas are developed to predict the performance of the tape

  10. Analysis of cache for streaming tape drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinnaswamy, V.

    1993-01-01

    A tape subsystem consists of a controller and a tape drive. Tapes are used for backup, data interchange, and software distribution. The backup operation is addressed. During a backup operation, data is read from disk, processed in CPU, and then sent to tape. The processing speeds of a disk subsystem, CPU, and a tape subsystem are likely to be different. A powerful CPU can read data from a fast disk, process it, and supply the data to the tape subsystem at a faster rate than the tape subsystem can handle. On the other hand, a slow disk drive and a slow CPU may not be able to supply data fast enough to keep a tape drive busy all the time. The backup process may supply data to tape drive in bursts. Each burst may be followed by an idle period. Depending on the nature of the file distribution in the disk, the input stream to the tape subsystem may vary significantly during backup. To compensate for these differences and optimize the utilization of a tape subsystem, a cache or buffer is introduced in the tape controller. Most of the tape drives today are streaming tape drives. A streaming tape drive goes into reposition when there is no data from the controller. Once the drive goes into reposition, the controller can receive data, but it cannot supply data to the tape drive until the drive completes its reposition. A controller can also receive data from the host and send data to the tape drive at the same time. The relationship of cache size, host transfer rate, drive transfer rate, reposition, and ramp up times for optimal performance of the tape subsystem are investigated. Formulas developed will also show the advantages of cache watermarks to increase the streaming time of the tape drive, maximum loss due to insufficient cache, tradeoffs between cache and reposition times and the effectiveness of cache on a streaming tape drive due to idle times or interruptions due in host transfers. Several mathematical formulas are developed to predict the performance of the tape

  11. Drive for muscularity and drive for thinness: the impact of pro-anorexia websites.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Lilia; Soto, Ernesto; Pritchard, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, websites that stress the message of thinness as the ideal and only choice have surfaced on the internet. The possibility that pro-anorexia websites may reinforce restrictive eating and exercise behaviors is an area of concern. In addition, friends may be influencing one another to view these websites, further contributing to drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men. Three hundred male and female undergraduate psychology students responded to questionnaires assessing: internalization of pro-anorexia website content, internalization of general media content, influence of friends to view pro-anorexia websites, peer influence, drive for muscularity, and drive for thinness. Results showed internalization of pro-anorexia website content was positively correlated with drive for thinness in women, and negatively correlated with drive for muscularity in men. Internalization of pro-anorexia website content was found to be related to both drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men.

  12. Variable frequency drive applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Traditionally, fans and pumps have been designed to be capable of handling the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. However, quite often the actual demand can vary and it can be much lower than the original design capacity. These situations have been corrected in the past through additions of outlet dampers to fans or throttling valves to pumps. While these can be effective and simple controls they severely affect the efficiency of the system. Variable frequency (speed) is the most efficient means of capacity control. The most cost effective method of achieving variable speed capacity control is using AC adjustable frequency drives. AC adjustable frequency controls convert any fixed speed AC motor into an adjustable speed device. Adjusting the speed of a motor, by controlling the frequency of the AC power to that motor, reduces its horsepower requirements. According to pump and fan laws, capacity is proportional to speed while horsepower is proportional to the cube of the speed. Therefore, by reducing the speed of an AC motor by 20 percent the horsepower requirement is reduced by nearly 50 percent. Reduced speed through variable frequency control allows for flexibility of meeting changing weather and comfort requirements without operating costly equipment at full capacity.

  13. The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    1997-05-01

    Chemical and instrumental tests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) measure the concentration of ethanol in the breath (BrAC), while state DUI laws are described in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Consequently, accurate and fair conversion from BrAC to BAC is crucial to the judicial process. Theoretical treatment of the water-air-ethanol equilibrium system and the related blood-breath-ethanol system, based on principles from general chemistry and biology, yields an equation relating the ratio of BAC to BrAC to the absolute temperature of the breath, the fraction of water in the blood, and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of ethanol from aqueous solution. The model equation predicts an average value for the ratio of 2350+100, not significantly different from reported experimental values. An exponential temperature dependence is predicted and has been confirmed experimentally as well. Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC. While the forensic science community uses, and debates, a fixed ratio of 2100, the theoretical model suggests that a value of 1880 should be used to reduce the fraction of false positives to <1%.

  14. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  15. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  16. Kinesin 1 Drives Autolysosome Tubulation.

    PubMed

    Du, Wanqing; Su, Qian Peter; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Yueyao; Jiang, Dong; Rong, Yueguang; Zhang, Senyan; Zhang, Yixiao; Ren, He; Zhang, Chuanmao; Wang, Xinquan; Gao, Ning; Wang, Yanfeng; Sun, Lingfei; Sun, Yujie; Yu, Li

    2016-05-23

    Autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR) plays an important role in maintaining lysosome homeostasis. During ALR, lysosomes are reformed by recycling lysosomal components from autolysosomes. The most noticeable step of ALR is autolysosome tubulation, but it is currently unknown how the process is regulated. Here, using an approach combining in vivo studies and in vitro reconstitution, we found that the kinesin motor protein KIF5B is required for autolysosome tubulation and that KIF5B drives autolysosome tubulation by pulling on the autolysosomal membrane. Furthermore, we show that KIF5B directly interacts with PtdIns(4,5)P2. Kinesin motors are recruited and clustered on autolysosomes via interaction with PtdIns(4,5)P2 in a clathrin-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate that clathrin promotes formation of PtdIns(4,5)P2-enriched microdomains, which are required for clustering of KIF5B. Our study reveals a mechanism by which autolysosome tubulation was generated.

  17. Cam drive internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vadnjal, I.

    1993-06-01

    A cam drive internal combustion engine is described, comprising, a cylindrical crank case housing, and an axle co-axially directed through the crank case housing, and a cam ring fixedly mounted to the axle medially of the axle in an orthogonal relationship relative thereto, and a predetermined number of first cylinder bores positioned in an equally spaced annular array on a first side of the cam ring, and second cylinder bores positioned on a second side of the cam ring within the crank case housing, with said second cylinder bores defining a number equal to the predetermined number, wherein each cylinder bore of said first set of cylinders bores is co axially aligned with one of said cylinder bores of said second set of cylinder bores, and the first set of cylinder bores each include a first piston reciprocatably mounted there within, and the second set of cylinder bores include a second piston reciprocatably mounted there within, and the first set of pistons each include a first piston rod, and the second set of pistons each include a second piston rod, wherein the first piston rods and second piston rod are arranged parallel relative to the axle, and the first piston rods include rollers mounted thereon, and the second piston rods include second rollers mounted thereon, the cam ring including a first cam surface rotatably mounting the first rollers, and the cam ring further including a second cam surface mounting the second cam rollers rotatably thereon.

  18. Gender invariance and correlates of the drive for leanness scale.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Hall, Gareth; Edwards, Christian

    2012-09-01

    We examined the drive for leanness scale's gender invariance and its relationships with health-related behavior and body image-related drives. Men (N=342) and women (N=309) attending British universities completed the drive for leanness scale, drive for thinness scale, drive for muscularity scale, and a demographic inventory. Support for configural and metric, but not scalar, invariance emerged. Drive for leanness was positively correlated with weight training frequency, supplement use, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity in both genders. Results provide guidance on comparing drive for leanness scale scores across gender and contribute to a coherent understanding of the drive for leanness and its correlates.

  19. Dynamics and control of instrumented harmonic drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Since torque in harmonic drives is transmitted by a pure couple, harmonic drives do not generate radial forces and therefore can be instrumented with torque sensors without interference from radial forces. The installation of torque sensors on the stationary component of harmonic drives (the Flexipline cup in this research work) produce backdrivability needed for robotic and telerobotic compliant maneuvers. Backdrivability of a harmonic drive, when used as torque increaser, means that the output shaft can be rotated via finite amount of torque. A high ratio harmonic drive is non-backdrivable because its output shaft cannot be turned by applying a torque on it. This article first develops the dynamic behavior of a harmonic drive, in particular the non-backdrivability, in terms of a sensitivity transfer function. The instrumentation of the harmonic drive with torque sensor is then described. This leads to a description of the control architecture which allows modulation of the sensitivity transfer function within the limits established by the closed-loop stability. A set of experiments on an active hand controller, powered by a DC motor coupled to an instrumented harmonic drive, is given to exhibit this method's limitations.

  20. Steady State Tokamak Equilibria without Current Drive

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Aydemir, A.Y.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    Steady state tokamak equilibria without current drive are found. This is made possible by including the potato bootstrap current close to the magnetic axis. Tokamaks with this class of equilibria do not need seed current or current drive, and are intrinsically steady state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Driving in Spanish for American Tourists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    This booklet is intended to help the American tourist driving in a Spanish-speaking country to communicate with service station attendants and to understand traffic signs. The booklet consists of an alphabetical, English-Spanish glossary of terms relating to automobiles and driving and an alphabetical, Spanish-English glossary of common road…

  2. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  3. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  4. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... grant program, 77 FR 51610 (Aug. 24, 2012), which established an application deadline of October 9, 2012... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway... Transportation (DOT) announced the availability of funding authorized for distracted driving grants on August...

  5. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  6. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  7. 49 CFR 236.778 - Piece, driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piece, driving. 236.778 Section 236.778 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Piece, driving. A crank secured to a locking shaft by means of which horizontal movement is imparted...

  8. Predictors of Return to Driving After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aufman, Elyse L.; Bland, Marghuretta D.; Barco, Peggy P.; Carr, David B.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While returning to driving is a major concern for many stroke survivors, predicting who will return to driving after a stroke is often difficult for rehabilitation professionals. The primary aim of this study was to identify patient factors present at admission to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital that can be used to identify which patients with acute stroke will and will not return to driving. Design After comparing returners and non-returners on demographic and clinical characteristics, a logistic regression model with return to driving as the outcome variable was built using the backward stepwise method. Results Thirty-one percent (48/156) of patients who had been driving before their stroke had returned to driving six months post-stroke. The final regression model, using FIM cognition and lower extremity Motricity Index scores, predicted the driving outcome with an accuracy of 75% (107/143). Conclusions Patients with lower FIM cognition and lower extremity Motricity Index scores at admission to inpatient rehabilitation are less likely to return to driving at six months. This model could be used by rehabilitation professionals to help counsel patients and their families and focus treatment goals. PMID:23370577

  9. DRIVE Analysis Tool Generates Custom Vehicle Drive Cycles Based on Real-World Data (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This fact sheet from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory describes the Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation (DRIVE) analysis tool, which uses GPS and controller area network data to characterize vehicle operation and produce custom vehicle drive cycles, analyzing thousands of hours of data in a matter of minutes.

  10. Driving segment simulation for determination of the most effective driving features for HEV intelligent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, Morteza; Fotouhi, Abbas; Naderpour, Akbar

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a methodological approach for determination of the most effective driving features for hybrid electric vehicle intelligent control, using the driving segment simulation. In this approach, driving data gathering is first performed in real traffic conditions using Advanced Vehicle Locator systems. The vehicle's speed time series are then divided into small segments. Subsequently, 19 driving features are defined for each driving segment, and the influence of the driving features on the vehicle's fuel consumption (FC) and exhaust emissions is investigated, using driving the driving segment simulation. The simulation approach is also verified by experimental test. Finally, the driving features are ranked by a new approach based on the definition of an effectiveness index and a correlation analysis. The results demonstrate that the velocity-dependent driving features such as 'energy', 'mean of velocity', 'displacement' and 'maximum velocity' are more effective on vehicle's FC and exhaust emissions. However, because of high dependency between these features, this study suggests independent driving features among the most effective driving features.

  11. Young, Drunk, Dangerous and Driving: Underage Drinking and Driving Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Robert; Clontz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes major, recent research findings concerning illegal alcohol use and intoxicated driving among American youth. Examines what research revealed about the nature of underage drinking and driving; what health, social, and legal ramifications are associated with drinking and driving; and what characteristics and behavioral patterns are found…

  12. DriveWise: An Interdisciplinary Hospital-Based Driving Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Margaret G.; Kapust, Lissa R.; Hollis, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    Health care professionals working with the elderly have opportunities through research and clinical practice to shape public policy affecting the older driver. This article describes DriveWise, an interdisciplinary hospital-based driving assessment program developed in response to clinical concerns about the driving safety of individuals with…

  13. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  14. Bootstrapped tokamak with oscillating field current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, R.H. )

    1993-07-01

    A magnetic helicity conserving mean-field Ohm's law is used to study bootstrapped tokamaks with oscillating field current drive. The Ohm's law leads to the conclusion that the tokamak bootstrap effect can convert the largely alternating current of oscillating field current drive into a direct toroidal plasma current. This plasma current rectification is due to the intrinsically nonlinear nature of the tokamak bootstrap effect, and suggests that it may be possible to maintain the toroidal current of a tokamak reactor by supplementing the bootstrap current with oscillating field current drive. Steady-state tokamak fusion reactors operating with oscillating field current drive could provide an alternative to tokamak reactors operating with external current drive.

  15. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit.

  16. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit. PMID:12403137

  17. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K.; Biedermann, Sarah V.; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner

    2015-01-01

    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach. PMID:26057198

  18. Constant four wheel drive vehicle transaxle

    SciTech Connect

    Weismann, P.H.; Cameron, D.

    1986-04-15

    A dual differential four-wheel drive assembly is described adapted for a two-wheel drive front transaxle vehicle having an internal combustion engine with a transverse oriented crankshaft for driving the vehicle with front and rear pairs of road wheels, a transmission gear unit for the transaxle including transverse input and output shafts, and right and left laterally extending front axle drive shafts, each drive shaft having front wheel mounting means on its outboard end. The dual differential assembly consists of: housing means having a laterally extending passage therethrough aligned on a transverse axis, the housing means having first and second differential casings for associated first and second bevel gear differentials, the casings supported in laterally spaced alignment for rotation about the transverse axis, each first and second differential casing enclosing inboard and outboard side gears in meshing relation with planetary pinion gears, each casing having opposed inboard and outboard axial extensions thereon.

  19. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  20. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kevin L.; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K.; Presting, Gernot G.

    2016-01-01

    Functional centromeres, the chromosomal sites of spindle attachment during cell division, are marked epigenetically by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3 and typically contain long stretches of centromere-specific tandem DNA repeats (∼1.8 Mb in maize). In 23 inbreds of domesticated maize chosen to represent the genetic diversity of maize germplasm, partial or nearly complete loss of the tandem DNA repeat CentC precedes 57 independent cenH3 relocation events that result in neocentromere formation. Chromosomal regions with newly acquired cenH3 are colonized by the centromere-specific retrotransposon CR2 at a rate that would result in centromere-sized CR2 clusters in 20,000–95,000 y. Three lines of evidence indicate that CentC loss is linked to inbreeding, including (i) CEN10 of temperate lineages, presumed to have experienced a genetic bottleneck, contain less CentC than their tropical relatives; (ii) strong selection for centromere-linked genes in domesticated maize reduced diversity at seven of the ten maize centromeres to only one or two postdomestication haplotypes; and (iii) the centromere with the largest number of haplotypes in domesticated maize (CEN7) has the highest CentC levels in nearly all domesticated lines. Rare recombinations introduced one (CEN2) or more (CEN5) alternate CEN haplotypes while retaining a single haplotype at domestication loci linked to these centromeres. Taken together, this evidence strongly suggests that inbreeding, favored by postdomestication selection for centromere-linked genes affecting key domestication or agricultural traits, drives replacement of the tandem centromere repeats in maize and other crop plants. Similar forces may act during speciation in natural systems. PMID:26858403

  1. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kevin L; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K; Presting, Gernot G

    2016-02-23

    Functional centromeres, the chromosomal sites of spindle attachment during cell division, are marked epigenetically by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3 and typically contain long stretches of centromere-specific tandem DNA repeats (∼1.8 Mb in maize). In 23 inbreds of domesticated maize chosen to represent the genetic diversity of maize germplasm, partial or nearly complete loss of the tandem DNA repeat CentC precedes 57 independent cenH3 relocation events that result in neocentromere formation. Chromosomal regions with newly acquired cenH3 are colonized by the centromere-specific retrotransposon CR2 at a rate that would result in centromere-sized CR2 clusters in 20,000-95,000 y. Three lines of evidence indicate that CentC loss is linked to inbreeding, including (i) CEN10 of temperate lineages, presumed to have experienced a genetic bottleneck, contain less CentC than their tropical relatives; (ii) strong selection for centromere-linked genes in domesticated maize reduced diversity at seven of the ten maize centromeres to only one or two postdomestication haplotypes; and (iii) the centromere with the largest number of haplotypes in domesticated maize (CEN7) has the highest CentC levels in nearly all domesticated lines. Rare recombinations introduced one (CEN2) or more (CEN5) alternate CEN haplotypes while retaining a single haplotype at domestication loci linked to these centromeres. Taken together, this evidence strongly suggests that inbreeding, favored by postdomestication selection for centromere-linked genes affecting key domestication or agricultural traits, drives replacement of the tandem centromere repeats in maize and other crop plants. Similar forces may act during speciation in natural systems. PMID:26858403

  2. Drive for thinness and drive for muscularity: opposite ends of the continuum or separate constructs?

    PubMed

    Kelley, Courtney C Galliger; Neufeld, Jennie M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether the drive for thinness and the drive for muscularity occur concurrently among late adolescents and to understand the body attitudes associated with desiring a thinner and/or a more muscular physique. Participants included 235 college freshmen who participated in a larger study of body image and eating attitudes. The majority of individuals reported having both a high drive for thinness and a high drive for muscularity (65.4%). Additionally, the presence of both drives significantly predicted body compulsivity and body anxiety among females, and body-esteem among males. Results of the current study provide considerable evidence that a drive for thinness and a drive for muscularity are not mutually exclusive. Furthermore, the degree to which an individual strives for thinness and/or muscularity has differential effects on their body attitudes.

  3. A high-fidelity harmonic drive model.

    SciTech Connect

    Preissner, C.; Royston, T. J.; Shu, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new model of the harmonic drive transmission is presented. The purpose of this work is to better understand the transmission hysteresis behavior while constructing a new type of comprehensive harmonic drive model. The four dominant aspects of harmonic drive behavior - nonlinear viscous friction, nonlinear stiffness, hysteresis, and kinematic error - are all included in the model. The harmonic drive is taken to be a black box, and a dynamometer is used to observe the input/output relations of the transmission. This phenomenological approach does not require any specific knowledge of the internal kinematics. In a novel application, the Maxwell resistive-capacitor hysteresis model is applied to the harmonic drive. In this model, sets of linear stiffness elements in series with Coulomb friction elements are arranged in parallel to capture the hysteresis behavior of the transmission. The causal hysteresis model is combined with nonlinear viscous friction and spectral kinematic error models to accurately represent the harmonic drive behavior. Empirical measurements are presented to quantify all four aspects of the transmission behavior. These measurements motivate the formulation of the complete model. Simulation results are then compared to additional measurements of the harmonic drive performance.

  4. High-powered vehicle drive train

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, C.E.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a vehicle comprising: an engine having an infinitely variable transmission operatively coupled for transmitting engine power to the transmission's input shaft with the transmission output shaft being operatively connected to the vehicle's drive wheels. The transmission comprising a planetary drive structure includes a drive ring gear carrying a first gear in engagement with a drive gear on the input shaft for rotation of the drive ring gear with the input shaft, a central sun gear and planetary gear members disposed in the annular space between, and in engagement with the drive ring gear and the sun gear and rotatably supported on a planetary carrier. The carrier is supported for rotation with the transmission output shaft and an infinitely variable toroidal traction roller transmission structure including two parallel toridal transmissions having a central input toric disc structure common to both toroidal transmissions and operatively connected to the input shaft. The output toric discs being mounted on a shaft associated with the sun gear of the planetary drive.

  5. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  6. [Car driving, cognitive aging and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Fabrigoule, Colette; Lafont, Sylviane

    2015-10-01

    Older drivers are more numerous on the roads. They are expert drivers, but with increasing age certain physiological changes can interfere with driving, which is a complex activity of daily living. Older drivers are involved in fewer accidents than younger drivers, but they have a higher accident rate per kilometer driven. The elderly are heavily represented in the balance sheet of road deaths, being motorists or pedestrians. This high mortality is largely explained by their physical frailty. In the presence of deficits, self-regulation of driving habits, changes/reductions or stopping in driving activity occur in the elderly. But cognitive deficits are associated with an increased risk of accidents. Among drivers with Alzheimer's disease, there is a heterogeneity of driving ability, making difficult the advisory role of a physician for driving. A protocol for physicians was developed to assess cognitive impairments that may affect driving in an elderly patient. The car plays an important role in the autonomy of the elderly and patient advice on stopping driving should take into account the risk/benefit ratio. PMID:26009241

  7. Driving gear interaxle differential assembly for all-wheel-drive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.; Friedrich, K.; Lanzer, H.

    1986-05-20

    A driving gear is described for all-wheel-drive vehicles, comprising a reduction gear meshed with an output gear in a transmission, a planetary gear type interaxle differential gear arranged concentrically with the reduction gear so as to output the driving force therefrom into front and rear interwheel differential gears in a divided manner, a driving shaft provided through and concentrically with the interaxle differential gear so as to transmit one output therefrom to one of the two interwheel differential gears, and a driving gear member mounted on the driving shaft so that the driving gear member can be rotated relatively thereto, so as to transmit the other output from the interaxle differential gear to the other interwheel differential gear. The interaxle differential gear consists of a planetary carrier mounted rotatably on the driving shaft on the side of the driving gear member so as to form a clearance between the planetary carrier and the driving shaft, a support member mounted rotatably on the driving shaft so as to be opposed to the planetary carrier, and a ring gear, pinions and a sun gear which are provided between the planetary carrier and the support member, a connecting member which joins the ring gear and the driving shaft together being provided between the pinions and the support member. The driving shaft is provided with a spline for joining the connecting member thereto, the driving gear member being provided with a hub formed integrally therewith, extending from the clearance into the interaxle differential gear and having a connecting portion joined to the sun gear. The reduction gear is formed unitarily with the planetary carrier and the support member.

  8. Assessment of driving-related performance in chronic whiplash using an advanced driving simulator.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-11-01

    Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; P<0.05) but the score was not below the cut-off point for safe driving. There were no

  9. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  10. Control rod drive for reactor shutdown

    DOEpatents

    McKeehan, Ernest R.; Shawver, Bruce M.; Schiro, Donald J.; Taft, William E.

    1976-01-20

    A means for rapidly shutting down or scramming a nuclear reactor, such as a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, and serves as a backup to the primary shutdown system. The control rod drive consists basically of an in-core assembly, a drive shaft and seal assembly, and a control drive mechanism. The control rod is driven into the core region of the reactor by gravity and hydraulic pressure forces supplied by the reactor coolant, thus assuring that common mode failures will not interfere with or prohibit scramming the reactor when necessary.

  11. Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Sinkins, Steven P; Gould, Fred

    2006-06-01

    The elegant mechanisms by which naturally occurring selfish genetic elements, such as transposable elements, meiotic drive genes, homing endonuclease genes and Wolbachia, spread at the expense of their hosts provide some of the most fascinating and remarkable subjects in evolutionary genetics. These elements also have enormous untapped potential to be used in the control of some of the world's most devastating diseases. Effective gene drive systems for spreading genes that can block the transmission of insect-borne pathogens are much needed. Here we explore the potential of natural gene drive systems and discuss the artificial constructs that could be envisaged for this purpose.

  12. Simulator sickness during driving simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Johnell O; Goodenough, Richard R; Crisler, Matthew C; Klein, Nathan D; Alley, Rebecca L; Koon, Beatrice L; Logan, William C; Ogle, Jennifer H; Tyrrell, Richard A; Wills, Rebekkah F

    2010-05-01

    While driving simulators are a valuable tool for assessing multiple dimensions of driving performance under relatively safe conditions, researchers and practitioners must be prepared for participants that suffer from simulator sickness. This paper describes multiple theories of motion sickness and presents a method for assessing and reacting to simulator sickness symptoms. Results showed that this method identified individuals who were unable to complete a driving simulator study due to simulator sickness with greater than 90% accuracy and that older participants had a greater likelihood of simulator sickness than younger participants. Possible explanations for increased symptoms experienced by older participants are discussed as well as implications for research ethics and simulator sickness prevention.

  13. Wind turbine ring/shroud drive system

    DOEpatents

    Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-10-04

    A wind turbine capable of driving multiple electric generators having a ring or shroud structure for reducing blade root bending moments, hub loads, blade fastener loads and pitch bearing loads. The shroud may further incorporate a ring gear for driving an electric generator. In one embodiment, the electric generator may be cantilevered from the nacelle such that the gear on the generator drive shaft is contacted by the ring gear of the shroud. The shroud also provides protection for the gearing and aids in preventing gear lubricant contamination.

  14. Bidirectional Drive-And-Brake Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle that crawls along monorail combines features of both bicycle and railroad handcar. Bidirectional drive-and-brake mechanism includes selectable-pawl-and-ratchet overrunning clutch (drive mechanism) and mating stationary and rotating conical surfaces pressing against each other (brake mechanism). Operates similarly to bicycle drive-and-brake mechanism except limits rotation of sprocket in both directions and brakes at both limits. Conceived for use by astronaut traveling along structure in outer space, concept also applied on Earth to make very small railraod handcars or crawling vehicles for use on large structures, in pipelines under construction, or underwater.

  15. Vision and driving: the United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris A; Wilkinson, Mark E

    2010-06-01

    Minimal visual standards for obtaining driving licensure in the United States principally use 2 measures: visual acuity and visual field. Although research studies have established a correlation between performance on these measures and safe driving, the correlations are weak and mostly retrospective. These measures remain in place in screening centers largely because they (especially visual acuity) are practical. A newer test of visual attention, called the useful field of view, may be more predictive of safe driving than the traditional measures, but it has not been widely applied in licensing bureaus. PMID:20523184

  16. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  17. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

    1988-06-07

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

  18. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-01

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction. PMID:12364804

  19. Nursing Knowledge Driving Person-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Pamela N; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2016-10-01

    The dialogue between two scholars explores the concept of person-centered care in healthcare. The importance of nursing knowledge and nursing leadership to drive the integration of the broader person-focused perspective is emphasized. PMID:27641277

  20. Multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, W. A.

    1985-12-03

    A multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit having two separate hydraulic systems each with a variable displacement hydraulic motor having its output connected to a torque summing gear train. A control provides for operation of one or the other of the motors at full displacement while the other motor is at zero displacement and free-wheels. There is a manual mechanical control operation with both motors simultaneously set at one-half of full displacement and driving the torque summing gear train. The change in motor displacements to one-half full displacement accomplishes velocity summing within the hydraulics. The multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit accomplishes the power efficiency of a multiple motor driven power drive unit utilizing a speed summing gear train with fixed displacement motors, but without the complexities associated with the use of a speed summing gear train and brakes.

  1. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers. PMID:24499372

  2. Driving violations observed: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Glendon, A Ian

    2007-08-01

    This study analyses 2,765 cases of driving behaviours in three Australian states - New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. Data were gathered from in-car coordinated video and audio recording sequences in free-flowing traffic along two-, three- and four-lane highways with varying speed limits on all days of the week in daylight and fine weather conditions. Explanatory variables included driver age group and gender, passenger characteristics and vehicle age and type. Response variables included driving violations and other driving behaviours, including lane use, speeding, close following (tailgating), driver's hands position and mobile phone use. Data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. By focusing upon vehicle and driver characteristics, and their impact on driving behaviours, including identified violations, this study explores some implications both for future research and for traffic policy makers.

  3. Driving and insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Frier, B M; Matthews, D M; Steel, J M; Duncan, L J

    1980-06-01

    A survey of 250 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) holding a full motor vehicle driving licence revealed that 107 (42.8%) had not declared IDD on their application for a driving licence. 70 of these (28% of entire group) claimed that they were unaware of the statutory requirements. There was no difference in the declaration-rate between men and women. 159 patients (66%) declared IDD for their motor insurance. 86 patients (34.4%) had had severe or frequent hypoglycaemia in the preceding six months, during which they had been driving regularly. 34 patients (13.6%) admitted involvement in a driving accident since commencing treatment with insulin, and 13 of these patients were aware that hypoglycaemia had been an important causal factor. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and cataracts was considerable, but few patients (2.4%) had severe impairment of vision in both eyes. PMID:6104046

  4. Drinking and driving among high school students.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Lund, A K; Preusser, D F

    1986-06-01

    A questionnaire survey of high school students conducted in 1983 provided information on their self-reported drinking and driving practices. By age 15 the majority reported drinking alcoholic beverages. By age 17 half or more of the males and one-third of the females reported driving after drinking at least once in the past month. About one-quarter of the students estimated that six or more cans of beer would be required to make someone an unsafe driver. Reported frequency of driving after drinking was associated with less time spent on homework and poorer academic performance, working part time, greater participation in social activities, less perceived parental influence regarding their travel, owning a car, driving high mileage, speeding, and having crashes and violations. PMID:3744616

  5. High-torque precision stepping drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspareck, W. E.

    1968-01-01

    Stepping drive has been designed for precise incremental angular positioning of scale models of spacecraft about a horizontal axis in order to accurately measure antenna receiving and transmitting characteristics. Positioning is insured by spring-loaded, self-locking plungers.

  6. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-01

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  7. Tighten Teens' Nighttime Driving Restrictions: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160130.html Tighten Teens' Nighttime Driving Restrictions: CDC Midnight cutoff is too ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Getting U.S. teens out of the driver's seat before midnight would ...

  8. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... OTC) drugs. back to top Most Widely Used Sleep Drug Zolpidem—which has been on the market ...

  9. The National Cancer Program: Driving Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    An overview of NCI’s role in driving cancer research discoveries: conducting and funding research in challenging areas and providing resources and leadership to national infrastructures for cancer research.

  10. Opioids by Injection May Drive HIV Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159978.html Opioids by Injection May Drive HIV Outbreaks Indiana case ... cooked down the extended-release form of the opioid pain pill oxymorphone (Opana ER). The result was ...

  11. Impediment to Spirit Drive on Sol 1806

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, (January 31, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars.

    The wheel at the bottom right of the image is Spirit's right-front wheel. Because that wheel no longer turns, Spirit drives backwards dragging that wheel. The drive on Sol 1806 covered about 30 centimeters (1 foot). The rover team had planned a longer drive, but Spirit stopped short, apparently from the right front wheel encountering the partially buried rock visible next to that wheel.

    The hazard avoidance cameras on the front and back of the rover provide wide-angle views. The hill on the horizon in the right half of this image is Husband Hill. Spirit reached the summit of Husband Hill in 2005.

  12. Gear drive automatically indexes rotary table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Combination indexer and drive unit drills equally spaced circular hole patterns on rotary tables. It automatically rotates the table a distance exactly equal to one hole spacing for each revolution of a special idler gear.

  13. Rotating Drive for Electrical-Arc Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fransen, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rotating drive improves quality of holes made by electrical-arc machining. Mechanism (Uni-tek, rotary head, or equivalent) attached to electrical-arc system. Drive rotates electrode as though it were mechanical drill, while an arc disintegrates metal in workpiece, thereby creating hole. Rotating electrode method often used in electric-discharge machining. NASA innovation is application of technique to electrical-arc machining.

  14. Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor

    DOEpatents

    Mittas, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

  15. Power threshold for neutral beam current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Politzer, P.A. ); Porter, G.D. )

    1989-10-02

    For fully noninductive current drive in tokamaks using neutral beams, there is a power and density threshold condition, setting a minimum value for P{sup 3/2}/n{sup 2}. If this condition is not met, stationary state cannot occur, and a tokamak discharge will collapse. This is a consequence of the coupling between current and electron temperature, or between current drive efficiency and energy confinement time. 4 figs.

  16. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  17. Camshaft driving system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshima, K.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes camshaft driving system for a double overhead camshaft engine cylinder rows extend parallel to the crankshaft of the engine. The second cylinder row is rearwardly displaced from the first cylinder row in the axial direction of the crankshaft so that vacant spaces are formed respectively behind the first cylinder row and in front of the second cylinder row. All the pistons in the cylinders of the first and second cylinder rows are connected to the crankshaft and a pair of camshafts for driving the intake and exhaust valves are provided in the cylinder head of each cylinder row to extend in the direction of the crankshaft. The camshaft driving system comprises a timing pulley provided on one of the intake and exhaust camshafts of each cylinder row to rotate together with the camshaft; A crank pulley is driven by the crankshaft; A first driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the crank pulley to the timing pulleys of the first and second cylinder rows; a second driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the timing pulley of the first cylinder row to the other of the camshafts of the first cylinder row; and a third driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the timing pulley of the second cylinder row to the other of the camshafts of the second cylinder row. The second driving force transmission means is disposed in the vacant space behind the first cylinder row and the third driving force transmission means is disposed in the vacant space in front of the second cylinder row.

  18. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1995-07-11

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor is disclosed including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 37 figs.

  19. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1995-01-01

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  20. New Lower Bounds for Warp Drive Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, C.; Gravel, P.; Melanson, J.

    The introduction of the warp drive metric by Alcubierre1 has aroused great interest over the past few years. Using an uncertainty-type principle, Ford and Pfenning2 proved that the warp drive transport of a spaceship in a regular bubble having a radius of 100 m is unrealistic. However, Van Den Broeck3 has shown that the situation largely improves when one uses a warp drive bubble with a small surface area and large spatial volume. Putting aside many physics problems related to the realization of the warp drive concept, we show in this paper4 how to modify Van Den Broeck's idea to improve his results. We find new lower bounds for the warp drive energy by working on parameters whose latitude has never been considered before. We also consider micro warp drive bubbles which can be treated as physical entities of their own and could possibly be used to transmit information faster than the speed of light. The conditions prevailing just after the Big Bang allow the spontaneous formation of such micro bubbles which could still be present in our period of time.

  1. Electromagnetic driving units for complex microrobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Frank; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Berg, Udo; Degen, Reinhard; Schmitz, Felix

    1998-10-01

    Electromagnetic actuators play an important role in macroscopic robotic systems. In combination with motion transformers, like reducing gear units, angular gears or spindle-screw drives, electromagnetic motors in large product lines ensure the rotational or linear motion of robot driving units and grippers while electromagnets drive valves or part conveyors. In this paper micro actuators and miniaturized motion transformers are introduced which allow a similar development in microrobotics. An electromagnetic motor and a planetary gear box, both with a diameter of 1.9 mm, are already commercially available from the cooperation partner of IMM, the company Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH in Schonaich, Germany. In addition, a motor with a diameter of 2.4 mm is in development. The motors successfully drive an angular gear and a belt drive. A linear stage with a motion range of 7 mm and an overall size as small as 5 X 3.5 X 24 mm3 has been realized involving the motor, a stationary spur gear with zero backlash and a spindle-screw drive. By the use of these commercially available elements complex microrobots can be built up cost-efficiently and rapidly. Furthermore, a batch process has been developed to produce the coils of micro actuator arrays using lithographic techniques with SU-8 resin. In applying these components, the modular construction of complex microrobotic systems becomes feasible.

  2. 24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CARRIAGE DRIVE, CARRIAGE, HEAD RIG LOOKING WEST FROM INTERIOR OF MAIN BUILDING. NOTE CABLE DRIVE DRUM AND FLY WHEELS OF CARRIAGE DRIVE STEAM ENGINE IN FOREGROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  3. Driving Cessation and Driving Limitation in Glaucoma: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz; Jampel, Henry D.; Friedman, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if glaucoma is associated with driving limitation or cessation. Design Cross-sectional analysis within a longitudinal, population-based cohort study. Participants and Controls One thousand one-hundred and thirty-five ever-drivers between the ages of 73 and 93 years including 70 subjects with unilateral glaucoma and 68 subjects with bilateral glaucoma. Methods All subjects reported their driving habits during each of 4 study rounds. During the fourth and final study round, subjects were systematically assessed for the presence of glaucoma. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported driving cessation or driving limitation, including cessation of night driving, driving less than 3,000 miles annually, or cessation of driving in unfamiliar areas. Results Fifteen percent of subjects without glaucoma were no longer driving at the end of the cohort study compared to 21% of unilateral glaucoma subjects (p=0.2) and 41% of bilateral glaucoma subjects (p<0.001). Multivariable regression analysis showed that bilateral (odds ratio [OR]=2.6, p=0.002), but not unilateral (OR=1.5, p=0.3), glaucoma subjects were more likely to no longer be driving when compared to subjects without glaucoma. The odds that bilateral glaucoma subjects were no longer driving doubled for every 5 dB of visual field (VF) worsening in the better-eye (p<0.001). Driving cessation within the previous 2 years was analyzed using separate multiple regression models, and both bilateral (OR=3.6, p=0.004) and unilateral (OR=2.4, p=0.06) glaucoma subjects were more likely to stop driving over this period when compared to subjects without glaucoma. Driving cessation associated with bilateral glaucoma was present in 0.82% of the population, or 1 in every 122 individuals. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression models demonstrated driving limitations were not more frequently found amongst subjects with glaucoma than subjects without glaucoma. However, bilateral glaucoma subjects did attribute more

  4. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    PubMed

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. PMID:26809775

  5. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    PubMed

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers.

  6. Acceptance of drinking and driving and alcohol-involved driving crashes in California

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Ragland, David R.; Satariano, William A.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol-impaired driving accounts for substantial proportion of traffic-related fatalities in the U.S. Risk perceptions for drinking and driving have been associated with various measures of drinking and driving behavior. In an effort to understand how to intervene and to better understand how risk perceptions may be shaped, this study explored whether an objective environmental-level measure (proportion of alcohol-involved driving crashes in one's residential city) were related to individual-level perceptions and behavior. Methods Using data from a 2012 cross-sectional roadside survey of 1,147 weekend nighttime drivers in California, individual-level self-reported acceptance of drinking and driving and past-year drinking and driving were merged with traffic crash data using respondent ZIP codes. Population average logistic regression modeling was conducted for the odds of acceptance of drinking and driving and self-reported, past-year drinking and driving. Results A non-linear relationship between city-level alcohol-involved traffic crashes and individual-level acceptance of drinking and driving was found. Acceptance of drinking and driving did not mediate the relationship between the proportion of alcohol-involved traffic crashes and self-reported drinking and driving behavior. However, it was directly related to behavior among those most likely to drink outside the home. Discussion The present study surveys a particularly relevant population and is one of few drinking and driving studies to evaluate the relationship between an objective environmental-level crash risk measure and individual-level risk perceptions. In communities with both low and high proportions of alcohol-involved traffic crashes there was low acceptance of drinking and driving. This may mean that in communities with low proportions of crashes, citizens have less permissive norms around drinking and driving, whereas in communities with a high proportion of crashes, the incidence of

  7. Driving Competence in Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies: In Search of Cognitive Predictors Using Driving Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Stephanie; Stinchcombe, Arne; Gagnon, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Driving is a multifactorial behaviour drawing on multiple cognitive, sensory, and physical systems. Dementia is a progressive and degenerative neurological condition that impacts the cognitive processes necessary for safe driving. While a number of studies have examined driving among individuals with Alzheimer's disease, less is known about the impact of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) on driving safety. The present study compared simulated driving performance of 15 older drivers with mild DLB with that of 21 neurologically healthy control drivers. DLB drivers showed poorer performance on all indicators of simulated driving including an increased number of collisions in the simulator and poorer composite indicators of overall driving performance. A measure of global cognitive function (i.e., the Mini Mental State Exam) was found to be related to the overall driving performance. In addition, measures of attention (i.e., Useful Field of View, UFOV) and space processing (Visual Object and Space Perception, VOSP, Test) correlated significantly with a rater's assessment of driving performance. PMID:26713169

  8. Fundamental limitations on 'warp drive' spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Visser, Matt

    2004-12-01

    'Warp drive' spacetimes are useful as 'gedanken-experiments' that force us to confront the foundations of general relativity, and among other things, to precisely formulate the notion of 'superluminal' communication. After carefully formulating the Alcubierre and Natário warp drive spacetimes, and verifying their non-perturbative violation of the classical energy conditions, we consider a more modest question and apply linearized gravity to the weak-field warp drive, testing the energy conditions to first and second orders of the warp-bubble velocity, v. Since we take the warp-bubble velocity to be non-relativistic, v Lt c, we are not primarily interested in the 'superluminal' features of the warp drive. Instead we focus on a secondary feature of the warp drive that has not previously been remarked upon—the warp drive (if it could be built) would be an example of a 'reaction-less drive'. For both the Alcubierre and Natário warp drives we find that the occurrence of significant energy condition violations is not just a high-speed effect, but that the violations persist even at arbitrarily low speeds. A particularly interesting feature of this construction is that it is now meaningful to think of placing a finite mass spaceship at the centre of the warp bubble, and then see how the energy in the warp field compares with the mass energy of the spaceship. There is no hope of doing this in Alcubierre's original version of the warp field, since by definition the point at the centre of the warp bubble moves on a geodesic and is 'massless'. That is, in Alcubierre's original formalism and in the Natário formalism the spaceship is always treated as a test particle, while in the linearized theory we can treat the spaceship as a finite mass object. For both the Alcubierre and Natário warp drives we find that even at low speeds the net (negative) energy stored in the warp fields must be a significant fraction of the mass of the spaceship.

  9. Cylindrical Implosion Experiments using Laser Direct Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbs, David

    1998-11-01

    Development of high-gain targets for the National Ignition Facility relies considerably on computational modeling, and it is important that our codes are validated against relevant experimental data in convergent geometry.(W. J. Krauser et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2084 (1996); D. C. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1953 (1998)) In collaboration with the University of Rochester, we have begun a campaign of hydrodynamic instability experiments in cylindrical geometry using direct drive,(D. L. Tubbs et al., submitted to Laser and Particle Beams (1998); C. W. Barnes et al., submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrm. (1998)) building on our success in indirect drive.( W. W. Hsing et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1832 (1997); W. W. Hsing and N. M. Hoffman, Phys. Rev. Lett., 3876 (1997)) Cylindrical targets facilitate direct diagnostic access to the convergent, hydrodynamic flow. The energy advantage of direct drive and its excellent target-illumination symmetry (achieved at OMEGA through use of Distributed Phase Plates and SSD) permit more energetic implosions, larger target scale (hence greater diagnostic resolution), longer acceleration timescales, and higher convergence than were possible using indirect drive. We estimate that specific laser energy delivered to the target for direct drive at OMEGA is roughly 4 times that achieved for indirect drive at Nova. Our first experiments (January 1998) yield excellent data for the first highly symmetrical direct-drive implosions, with which we benchmark zeroth-order hydrodynamic simulations. Two-dimensional (2-D) LASNEX calculations, using as-shot laser power histories and no further physics adjustments, match measured target-implosion data within theoretical and experimental errors. In addition, 2-D LASNEX simulations of single-mode (m=28, azimuthally symmetric) perturbation growth agree well with data obtained during our first week of experiments. For 1.5-micron initial perturbation amplitude, we observe Rayleigh-Taylor growth factors of order 10

  10. Energy Considerations of Hypothetical Space Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2007-01-01

    The energy requirements of hypothetical, propellant-less space drives are compared to rockets. This serves to provide introductory estimates for potential benefits and to suggest analytical approaches for further study. A "space drive" is defined as an idealized form of propulsion that converts stored potential energy directly into kinetic energy using only the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space. For Earth-to-orbit, the space drive uses 3.7 times less energy. For deep space travel, energy is proportional to the square of delta-v, whereas rocket energy scales exponentially. This has the effect of rendering a space drive 150-orders-of-magnitude better than a 17,000-s Specific Impulse rocket for sending a modest 5000 kg probe to traverse 5 ly in 50 years. Indefinite levitation, which is impossible for a rocket, could conceivably require 62 MJ/kg for a space drive. Assumption sensitivities and further analysis options are offered to guide further inquires.

  11. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  12. The drive revisited: Mastery and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Denis, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Starting from the theory of the libido and the notions of the experience of satisfaction and the drive for mastery introduced by Freud, the author revisits the notion of the drive by proposing the following model: the drive takes shape in the combination of two currents of libidinal cathexis, one which takes the paths of the 'apparatus for obtaining mastery' (the sense-organs, motricity, etc.) and strives to appropriate the object, and the other which cathects the erotogenic zones and the experience of satisfaction that is experienced through stimulation in contact with the object. The result of this combination of cathexes constitutes a 'representation', the subsequent evocation of which makes it possible to tolerate for a certain period of time the absence of a satisfying object. On the basis of this conception, the author distinguishes the representations proper, vehicles of satisfaction, from imagos and traumatic images which give rise to excitation that does not link up with the paths taken by the drives. This model makes it possible to conciliate the points of view of the advocates of 'object-seeking' and of those who give precedence to the search for pleasure, and, further, to renew our understanding of object-relations, which can then be approached from the angle of their relations to infantile sexuality. Destructiveness is considered in terms of "mastery madness" and not in terms of the late Freudian hypothesis of the death drive.

  13. Continued Driving and Time to Transition to Nondriver Status through Error-Specific Driving Restrictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Barbara; Petrakos, Davithoula

    2008-01-01

    We developed driving restrictions that are linked to specific driving errors, allowing cognitively impaired individuals to continue to independently meet mobility needs while minimizing risk to themselves and others. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the efficacy and duration expectancy of these restrictions in promoting safe continued…

  14. Association Between Alcohol-Impaired Driving Enforcement-Related Strategies and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    PubMed Central

    Sanem, Julia R.; Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  15. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity.

  16. Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the dangers of texting while driving.

    PubMed

    Saqer, Haneen; de Visser, Ewart; Strohl, Jonathan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of portable communication and entertainment devices has introduced new dangers to the driving environment, particularly for young and inexperienced drivers. Graduate students from George Mason University illustrate a powerful, practical, and cost-effective program that has been successful in educating these drivers on the dangers of texting while driving, which can easily be adapted and implemented in other communities. PMID:22317716

  17. A friction regulation hybrid driving method for backward motion restraint of the smooth impact drive mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Dong; Cheng, Tinghai; He, Pu; Lu, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-08-01

    The smooth impact drive mechanism (SIDM) is a type of piezoelectric actuator that has been developed for several decades. As a kind of driving method for the SIDM, the traditional sawtooth (TS) wave is always employed. The kinetic friction force during the rapid contraction stage usually results in the generation of a backward motion. A friction regulation hybrid (FRH) driving method realized by a composite waveform for the backward motion restraint of the SIDM is proposed in this paper. The composite waveform is composed of a sawtooth driving (SD) wave and a sinusoidal friction regulation (SFR) wave which is applied to the rapid deformation stage of the SD wave. A prototype of the SIDM was fabricated and its output performance under the excitation of the FRH driving method and the TS wave driving method was tested. The results indicate that the backward motion can be restrained obviously using the FRH driving method. Compared with the driving effect of the TS wave, the backward rates of the prototype in forward and reverse motions are decreased by 83% and 85%, respectively.

  18. TESLA cavity driving with FPGA controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarski, Tomasz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Simrock, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The digital control of the TESLA (TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator) resonator is presented. The laboratory setup of the CHECHIA cavity in DESY-Hamburg has been driven by the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) technology system. This experiment focused attention to the general recognition of the cavity features and projected control methods. The electrical model of the resonator is taken as a consideration origin. The calibration of the signal channel is considered as a key preparation for an efficient cavity driving. The identification of the resonator parameters is confirmed as a proper approach for the required performance: driving on resonance during filling and field stabilization during flattop time with reasonable power consumption. The feed-forward and feedback modes were applied successfully for the CHECHIA cavity driving. Representative results of experiments are presented for different levels of the cavity field gradient.

  19. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  20. Wheelchair batteries: driving cycles and testing.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarich, J J; Ulrich, V; Bresler, M; Bruning, T

    1983-07-01

    The battery performance of electric wheelchairs was measured under indoor and outdoor conditions, and simulated driving cycles for these two environments were derived from these tests. Driving cycles were used to bench-test deep discharge wet cell and gel cell lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and experimental nickel-zinc batteries. Results of this study support the conclusion that deep discharge wet cell lead-acid batteries satisfy wheelchair requirements and are the most economical choice. The effect of simulated wheelchair controller pulse width modulation on battery discharge compared to d.c. discharge was found to be negligible. A simple model analogous to Miner's Rule (3) plus results plotted on a Ragone chart of average power versus discharge time were found to correlate the effect of the highly variable actual power requirements of an electric wheelchair. Miner's Rule can predict battery performance for a given driving cycle.

  1. The Status of the Warp Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. F.

    The prospects for a realistic engineered warp drive are currently within the realms of scientific speculation. The pioneering paper by Alcubierre has started a new field of research and in a period of a little over a decade has seen some encouraging developments. This has led to a better definition of the problem using the mathematical tools of general relativity and quantum field theory. Many publications now exist which have identified many technical problems and explored realisable solutions. Some of these ideas may one day make warp drive a genuine contender for breaking the interstellar distance barrier - the biggest obstacle towards the potential interaction of interstellar civilizations. This paper will review the current status of the warp drive since the seminal paper and discuss the tremendous theoretical advances that have been made. The problem definition will be considered in the context of the NASA Horizon mission methodology.

  2. Ion drive - A step toward 'Star Trek'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.; Terwilliger, C.

    1976-01-01

    The design of a solar-powered electric propulsion system is seen as the first step in the ultimate development of an ion drive system which might incorporate many features of a spacecraft propulsion system described in a science fiction novel written by Anderson (1970). The considered ion propulsion systems would make it possible to augment significantly the operational capabilities of space transportation systems utilizing the Shuttle orbiter in combination with a solid-propellant interim upper stage. The use of the ion drive in a number of applications is discussed, giving attention to the resulting enhancement of national space capabilities, the role of the ion drive in the space transportation system, the development and the operation of a manned space station, satellite positioning and service, the elimination of space debris objects, the study of Halley's comet, interplanetary or lunar shuttle services, and space missions involving the outer planets.

  3. Driving with diabetes: the automatism defence.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-02-01

    The tragic case of a district nurse killed when a car driven by a man in a hypoglycaemic state struck her while she took her regular evening walk highlights the dangers that can occur when a person with diabetes drives without regard to their condition. The man was later jailed for four and a half years for causing death by dangerous driving having been found criminally responsible for his actions because he failed to control his blood sugar levels during the journey. In this article the authors set out the likely consequences for people with diabetes who fail in their duty to ensure that they are able to drive safely and are unlikely to be affected by the adverse effects of their illness or the medication taken to control it.

  4. Effects of advertising billboards during simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Edquist, Jessica; Horberry, Tim; Hosking, Simon; Johnston, Ian

    2011-05-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the problem of driver distraction. Most research focuses on distractions from inside the vehicle, but drivers can also be distracted by objects outside the vehicle. Major roads are increasingly becoming sites for advertising billboards, and there is little research on the potential effects of this advertising on driving performance. The driving simulator experiment presented here examines the effects of billboards on drivers, including older and inexperienced drivers who may be more vulnerable to distractions. The presence of billboards changed drivers' patterns of visual attention, increased the amount of time needed for drivers to respond to road signs, and increased the number of errors in this driving task.

  5. Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

  6. Transitionless driving on adiabatic search algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangchul; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-14

    We study quantum dynamics of the adiabatic search algorithm with the equivalent two-level system. Its adiabatic and non-adiabatic evolution is studied and visualized as trajectories of Bloch vectors on a Bloch sphere. We find the change in the non-adiabatic transition probability from exponential decay for the short running time to inverse-square decay in asymptotic running time. The scaling of the critical running time is expressed in terms of the Lambert W function. We derive the transitionless driving Hamiltonian for the adiabatic search algorithm, which makes a quantum state follow the adiabatic path. We demonstrate that a uniform transitionless driving Hamiltonian, approximate to the exact time-dependent driving Hamiltonian, can alter the non-adiabatic transition probability from the inverse square decay to the inverse fourth power decay with the running time. This may open up a new but simple way of speeding up adiabatic quantum dynamics.

  7. Preventing Impaired Driving Opportunities and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

  8. New drive system for large antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, G.; Boehmer, B.; Lange, W.; Maeder, H. F.; Rosenau, L.; Timmes, R.

    1982-07-01

    A new drive system for large antennas developed by Krupp is discussed, using the ECS test and observation station in Redu, Belgium as an example. The control concept is set forth, including a mechanical model of the antenna, the main structure of the control system, the system's electric current control, rotational speed control, and positional control. The hardware is discussed, including drive motors for elevation, azimuth, and polarization, tachoalternators, transistor amplifiers, servo control unit, polarization control unit, analog control unit, computer control unit, and computer interface. The electrical supply unit is described. The software is addressed, including communications and service functions via videoterminal, computerized time synchronization and remote control, antenna drive modes, satellite detection, and special features.

  9. After Opportunity's First Drive in Six Weeks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its front hazard-identification camera to obtain this image at the end of a drive on the rover's 1,271st sol, or Martian day (Aug. 21, 2007).

    Due to sun-obscuring dust storms limiting the rover's supply of solar energy, Opportunity had not driven since sol 1,232 (July 12, 2007). On sol 1,271, after the sky above Opportunity had been gradually clearing for more than two weeks, the rover rolled 13.38 meters (44 feet). Wheel tracks are visible in front of the rover because the drive ended with a short test of driving backwards.

    Opportunity's turret of four tools at the end of the robotic arm fills the center of the image. Victoria Crater, site of the rover's next science targets, lies ahead.

  10. Polar-direct-drive simulations and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marozas, J.A.; Marshall, F.J.; Craxton, R.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Skupsky, S.; Bonino, M.J.; Collins, T.J.B.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Noyes, S.G.; Radha, P.B.; Sangster, T.C.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.

    2006-05-15

    Polar direct drive (PDD) [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] will allow direct-drive ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] as it is configured for x-ray drive. Optimal drive uniformity is obtained via a combination of beam repointing, pulse shapes, spot shapes, and/or target design. This article describes progress in the development of standard and 'Saturn' [R. S. Craxton and D. W. Jacobs-Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0952002 (2005)] PDD target designs. Initial evaluation of experiments on the OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 508 (1995)] and simulations were carried out with the two-dimensional hydrodynamics code SAGE [R. S. Craxton et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 056304 (2005)]. This article adds to this body of work by including fusion particle production and transport as well as radiation transport within the two-dimensional DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] hydrodynamics simulations used to model experiments. Forty OMEGA beams arranged in six rings to emulate the NIF x-ray-drive configuration are used to perform direct-drive implosions of CH shells filled with D{sub 2} gas. Target performance was diagnosed with framed x-ray backlighting and by the measured fusion yield. Saturn target experiments have resulted in {approx}75% of the yield from energy-equivalent, symmetrically irradiated implosions. The results of the two-dimensional PDD simulations performed with DRACO are in good agreement with experimental x-ray radiographs. DRACO is being used to further optimize standard PDD designs. In addition, DRACO simulations of NIF-scale PDD designs show ignition with a gain of 20 and the development of a 40 {mu}m radius, 10 keV region with a neutron-averaged {rho}r of 1270 mg/cm{sup 2} near stagnation.

  11. The fast exercise drive to breathe.

    PubMed

    Duffin, James

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled 'Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise'. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise. PMID:23940383

  12. The fast exercise drive to breathe.

    PubMed

    Duffin, James

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled 'Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise'. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise.

  13. The fast exercise drive to breathe

    PubMed Central

    Duffin, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a personal view of research into the exercise drive to breathe that can be observed to act immediately to increase breathing at the start of rhythmic exercise. It is based on a talk given at the Experimental Biology 2013 meeting in a session entitled ‘Recent advances in understanding mechanisms regulating breathing during exercise’. This drive to breathe has its origin in a combination of central command, whereby voluntary motor commands to the exercising muscles produce a concurrent respiratory drive, and afferent feedback, whereby afferent information from the exercising muscles affects breathing. The drive at the start and end of rhythmic exercise is proportional to limb movement frequency, and its magnitude decays as exercise continues so that the immediate decrease of ventilation at the end of exercise is about 60% of the immediate increase at the start. With such evidence for the effect of this fast drive to breathe at the start and end of rhythmic exercise, its existence during exercise is hypothesised. Experiments to test this hypothesis have, however, provided debatable evidence. A fast drive to breathe during both ramp and sine wave changes in treadmill exercise speed and grade appears to be present in some individuals, but is not as evident in the general population. Recent sine-wave cycling experiments show that when cadence is varied sinusoidally the ventilation response lags by about 10 s, whereas when pedal loading is varied ventilation lags by about 30 s. It therefore appears that limb movement frequency is effective in influencing ventilation during exercise as well as at the start and end of exercise. PMID:23940383

  14. Warning system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peng

    2014-09-01

    Causes of locomotive relaxation are discussed. Alarm system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity is designed by means of techniques of infrared temperature measurement and Hall sensor measurement. The design scheme of the system, the principle of detecting locomotive driving wheel flaccidity with temperature and Hall sensor is introduced, threshold temperature of infrared alarm is determined. The circuit system is designed by microcontroller technology and the software is designed with the assembly language. The experiment of measuring the flaccid displacement with Hall sensor measurement is simulated. The results show that the system runs well with high reliability and low cost, which has a wide prospect of application and popularization.

  15. Counseling Epilepsy Patients on Driving and Employment.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Allan; Hopp, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Ana M

    2016-05-01

    People with epilepsy identify driving and employment among their major concerns. People with controlled seizures may be permitted to drive in every state in the United States, but people with uncontrolled seizures are restricted from licensure. Unemployment and underemployment for people with epilepsy are serious problems that depend on the frequency and type of seizure disorder and associated medical and psychological problems. Most jobs, with reasonable accommodation by employers, are suitable for people with epilepsy. Federal protections through the Americans with Disabilities Act confer civil rights protection by law on people with disabilities such as epilepsy. PMID:27086988

  16. PRIMUS: autonomous driving robot for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ingo

    2000-07-01

    This article describes the government experimental program PRIMUS (PRogram of Intelligent Mobile Unmanned Systems) and the achieved results of phase C demonstrated in summer 1999 on a military prooving ground. In this program there shall be shown the autonomous driving on an unmanned robot in open terrain. The most possible degree of autonomy shall be reached with today's technology to get a platform for different missions. The goal is to release the soldier from high dangerous tasks, to increase the performance and to come to a reduction of personnel and costs with unmanned systems. In phase C of the program two small tracked vehicles (Digitized Wiesel 2, airtransportable by CH53) are used. One as a robot vehicle the other as a command & control system. The Wiesel 2 is configured as a drive by wire-system and therefore well suited for the adaption of control computers. The autonomous detection and avoidance of obstacles in unknown, not cooperative environment is the main task. For navigation and orientation a sensor package is integrated. To detect obstacles the scene in the driving corridor of the robot is scanned 4 times per second by a 3D- Range image camera (LADAR). The measured 3D-range image is converted into a 2D-obstacle map and used as input for calculation of an obstacle free path. The combination of local navigation (obstacle avoidance) and global navigation leads to a collission free driving in open terrain to a predefined goal point with a velocity of up to 25km/h. A contour tracker with a TV-camera as sensor is also implemented which allows to follow contours (e.g. edge of a meadow) or to drive on paved or unpaved roads with a velocity up to 50km/h. In addition to these autonomous driving modes the operator in the command & control station can drive the robot by remote control. All the functions were successfully demonstrated in the summer 1999 on a military prooving ground. During a mission example the robot vehicle covered a distance of several

  17. The unphysical nature of `warp drive'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfenning, M. J.; Ford, L. H.

    1997-07-01

    We will apply the quantum-inequality-type restrictions to Alcubierre's warp drive metric on a scale in which a local region of spacetime can be considered `flat'. These are inequalities that restrict the magnitude and extent of the negative energy which is needed to form the warp drive metric. From this we are able to place limits on the parameters of the `warp bubble'. It will be shown that the bubble wall thickness is on the order of only a few hundred Planck lengths. Then we will show that the total integrated energy density needed to maintain the warp metric with such thin walls is physically unattainable.

  18. Reptation in a Weak Driving Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalberts, Daniel; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    1997-03-01

    A simplified model of reptation is presented. The Master Equation of the model is systematically solved by expansion in powers of the strength of the driving field. From the explicit form of the probability distribution, exact conclusions can be drawn about the average shape of the polymer, its drift velocity, and the zero field diffusion constant. Correlations between segments of the chain are calculated and turn out to be large, even in the weak driving field limit. The results are compared with simulations of the model.

  19. Polar-Direct-Drive Experiments on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F.J.; Craxton, R.S.; Bonino, M.J.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Knauer, J.P.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Noyes, S.G.; Radha, P.B.; Seka, W.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk

    2006-06-28

    Polar direct drive (PDD), a promising ignition path for the NIF while the beams are in the indirect-drive configuration, is currently being investigated on the OMEGA laser system by using 40 beams in six rings repointed to more uniformly illuminate the target. The OMEGA experiments are being performed with standard, “warm” targets with and without the use of an equatorial “Saturn-like” toroidally shaped CH ring. Target implosion symmetry is diagnosed with framed x-ray backlighting using additional OMEGA beams and by time-integrated x-ray imaging of the stagnating core.

  20. Effects of opioids on driving ability.

    PubMed

    Galski, T; Williams, J B; Ehle, H T

    2000-03-01

    Driving has been regarded as an activity of daily living that is important in maintaining a person's independence in the community, access to employment, and social activities. Many patients, however, using opioid medications on a regular basis (Chronic Opioid Analgesic Therapy: COAT) to ameliorate their intractable pain have been restricted from driving out of concern that skills would be impaired and driving safety compromised by these medications. Yet there are no driving studies which have explored the effects of using opioid analgesics for an extended period of time. This pilot study was designed to determine the effects of medically prescribed, stable opioid use on the driving abilities of patients with persistent, nonmalignant pain. Sixteen patients with chronic nonmalignant pain on COAT, who met criteria for participation in the study, underwent a comprehensive off-road driving evaluation using measures which have been shown to be sensitive in predicting on-road driving performance. The evaluation consisted of a pre-driver evaluation (PDE), a simulator evaluation (SDE), and behavioral observation during simulator performance. Patients in the COAT group were compared to a historical control group of 327 cerebrally compromised patients (CComp) who had undergone the same evaluation and then passed an on-road, behind-the-wheel evaluation (BTW Pass; n = 162) or failed (BTW Fail; n = 165). Results revealed that COAT patients generally outperformed the CComp patients as a group by equaling or exceeding PDE and SDE scores of the BTW Fail patients as well as the BTW Pass patients on all measures that differentiated the groups. Notably, COAT patients had a relatively poorer performance than CComp patients on specific neuropsychometric tests in the PDE; however, the differences were not statistically significant and did not imply a systematic pattern of scores that reflected domain-specific deficits. Behaviorally, COAT patients were generally superior to CComp

  1. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    PubMed

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  2. [Plantar fasciitis due to driving lessons?].

    PubMed

    Best, N; Smolenski, U C

    2012-06-01

    A first league female soccer player presented with the symptoms of a fasciitis plantaris of the left foot. After treatment and a training pause she complained about the same symptoms in the other foot. In our opinion the reason for this dysfunction could be driving lessons. After interrupting the driving lessons in combination with pelvic myofascial treatment, the foot complaints were resolved. We must therefore assume that unusual actions by an athlete may lead to an overuse syndrome. The conclusion for the physicians is that it is obligatory to determine all aspects of the athletes activitis, especially those of recreation and leisure time also. PMID:22638991

  3. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions. PMID:20159080

  4. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions.

  5. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  6. The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving

    PubMed Central

    PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND

    2007-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them. PMID:17114089

  7. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in this paragraph....

  8. 49 CFR 538.6 - Measurement of driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type using electricity... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement of driving range. 538.6 Section 538.6... Measurement of driving range. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type not using electricity...

  9. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  10. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  11. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  12. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  13. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  14. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  15. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  16. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitute for driving skills tests. 383.77... Substitute for driving skills tests. At the discretion of a State, the driving skill test as specified in... for a CDL, and substituted with either an applicant's driving record and previous passage of...

  17. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  18. 49 CFR 538.6 - Measurement of driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type using electricity... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement of driving range. 538.6 Section 538.6... Measurement of driving range. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type not using electricity...

  19. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  20. 49 CFR 538.6 - Measurement of driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type using electricity... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement of driving range. 538.6 Section 538.6... Measurement of driving range. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type not using electricity...

  1. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  2. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  3. 49 CFR 538.6 - Measurement of driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type using electricity... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement of driving range. 538.6 Section 538.6... Measurement of driving range. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type not using electricity...

  4. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  5. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  6. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  7. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  8. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  9. 40 CFR 86.115-78 - EPA dynamometer driving schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA dynamometer driving schedules. 86... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.115-78 EPA dynamometer driving schedules. (a) The driving schedules for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, US06, SC03, and the New York City Cycles...

  10. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  11. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  12. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in...

  13. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  14. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  15. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  16. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  17. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  18. 49 CFR 538.6 - Measurement of driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type using electricity... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement of driving range. 538.6 Section 538.6... Measurement of driving range. The driving range of a passenger automobile model type not using electricity...

  19. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  20. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  1. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  2. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  3. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  4. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  5. 40 CFR 600.109-78 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-78 Section... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-78 EPA driving cycles. (a) The driving cycle to be... driving cycle to be utilized for generation of the highway fuel economy data is specified in...

  6. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  7. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  8. 49 CFR 538.5 - Minimum driving range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum driving range. 538.5 Section 538.5... Minimum driving range. (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have in order to be... electricity. (b) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile using electricity as an...

  9. 16 CFR 1512.8 - Requirements for drive chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for drive chain. 1512.8 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain. The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be...

  10. DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEDRICK DRIVE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF INTERSECTION OF SECOND STREET AND DEDRICK DRIVE - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  11. Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer via an isolating stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  12. Forgiveness and consideration of future consequences in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael; Dahlen, Eric R

    2008-09-01

    Most research on aggressive driving has focused on identifying aspects of driver personality which will exacerbate it (e.g., sensation seeking, impulsiveness, driving anger, etc.). The present study was designed to examine two theoretically relevant but previously unexplored personality factors predicted to reduce the risk of aggressive driving: trait forgiveness and consideration of future consequences. The utility of these variables in predicting aggressive driving and driving anger expression was evaluated among 316 college student volunteers. Hierarchical multiple regressions permitted an analysis of the incremental validity of these constructs beyond respondent gender, age, miles driven per week, and driving anger. Both forgiveness and consideration of future consequences contributed to the prediction of aggressive driving and driving anger expression, independent of driving anger. Research on aggressive driving may be enhanced by greater attention to adaptive, potentially risk-reducing traits. Moreover, forgiveness and consideration of future consequences may have implications for accident prevention.

  13. Direct drive options for electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.

    1995-01-01

    Power processing units (PPU's) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficiencies in the power processor produce heat, which must be radiated to the environment in order to ensure reliable operation. Although PPU efficiencies are generally greater than 0.9, heat loads are often substantial. This heat must be rejected by thermal control systems which generally have specific masses of 15-30 kg/kW. PPU's also represent a large fraction of the electric propulsion system dry mass. Simplification or elimination of power processing in a propulsion system would reduce the electric propulsion system specific mass and improve the overall reliability and performance. A direct drive system would eliminate all or some of the power supplies required to operate a thruster by directly connecting the various thruster loads to the solar array. The development of concentrator solar arrays has enabled power bus voltages in excess of 300 V which is high enough for direct drive applications for Hall thrusters such as the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT). The option of solar array direct drive for SPT's is explored to provide a comparison between conventional and direct drive system mass.

  14. Imposed-Dynamo Current Drive (IDCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas; Victor, Brian; Nelson, Brian; Hansen, Chris; Akcay, Cihan; Ennis, David; Hossack, Aaron; Marklin, George; Smith, Roger

    2012-10-01

    A mechanism for Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) current drive has been discovered where the current driving fluctuations are not generated by the plasma but rather are imposed by the injectors.[T.R. Jarboe et al., accepted for publication in Nuclear Fusion] Sheared flow of the electron fluid distorts the imposed fluctuations to drive current. The model accurately predicts the time dependent toroidal current, the injector impedance scaling, and the profile produced in the HIT-SI experiment. These results show that a stable equilibrium can be efficiently sustained with imposed fluctuations and the current profile can, in principle, be controlled. Both are large steps for controlled fusion. Some of the effects of the fluctuations on the confinement of tokamak and spheromak reactors are assessed and the degradation may be tolerable since the required fluctuations, in a reactor, are low (deltaB/B about 0.0001). A larger experiment (HIT-PoP) designed to test the confinement properties of a plasma sustained by IDCD is discussed. Since these very low fluctuation levels can provide current drive for the entire plasma the effect of random fluctuations on the plasma current profile is extremely important. The mechanism is also of interest to plasma self-organization, fast reconnection and plasma physics in general.

  15. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.; Sereshteh, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  16. The Illogic of Youth Driving Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate C.

    2004-01-01

    Most adolescent deaths are caused by injury sustained in traffic crashes, and driver education does not necessarily reduce the problem. This multi-method, ethnographic study describes the logic and regulation of youth driving culture in a northern Ontario community. This included 40 hours of participant observation and a survey of 88 novice…

  17. Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  18. Multilevel converters for large electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.; Peng, F.Z.

    1997-11-01

    Traditional two-level high frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters for motor drives have several problems associated with their high frequency switching which produces common-mode voltage and high voltage change (dV/dt) rates to the motor windings. Multilevel inverters solve these problems because their devices can switch at a much lower frequency. Two different multilevel topologies are identified for use as a converter for electric drives, a cascade inverter with separate dc sources and a back-to-back diode clamped converter. The cascade inverter is a natural fit for large automotive all electric drives because of the high VA ratings possible and because it uses several levels of dc voltage sources which would be available from batteries or fuel cells. The back to back diode damped converter is ideal where a source of ac voltage is available such as a hybrid electric vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of these two converters over PWM based drives.

  19. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively. PMID:24211562

  20. Marijuana Use, Driving, and Related Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Pedersen, Sarah; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive risk factors for driving after use of marijuana. We tested whether marijuana outcome expectancies and specific cognitions about driving after marijuana use were uniquely associated with the likelihood and frequency of driving while high (DWH) and riding with a high driver (RWHD). Method Participants were college students recruited from introductory psychology classes at a Midwestern university who reported ever using marijuana in their lifetime and reported having access to a car or driving at least once a month (n = 506). Results Greater perceived dangerousness of DWH was associated with decreased likelihood of DWH and RWHD. Negative marijuana expectancies were associated with decreased likelihood of DWH, and social norms were associated with decreased likelihood of RWHD. All cognitive predictors were associated with decreased frequency of DWH and RWHD for individuals with the propensity to engage in these behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest interventions to reduce risk of DWH and RWHD may benefit from targeting general expectancies about the negative effects of marijuana. Similarly, results suggest increasing students' knowledge of the potential danger of DWH may help to reduce the likelihood of and frequency of DWH and RWHD. PMID:23276319

  1. Driving in French for American Tourists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    This booklet is intended to assist the English-speaking tourist driving in a French-speaking country to communicate with service station attendants and to read road signs. The booklet is divided into three sections: (1) an English-French listing of parts of the car and useful expressions; (2) common European road signs; and (3) a French-English…

  2. Assessment Drives Learning: An Unavoidable Truth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormald, Benjamin W.; Schoeman, Scarpa; Somasunderam, Arnold; Penn, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The debate around which factors drive medical students' learning is ongoing and controversial. What is the influence of an assessment's weighting on the motivation of students to study the particular subject? One medical school in London is in a unique position to investigate this question. At our institution, the weighting of Anatomy within the…

  3. Efficiency of current drive by fast waves

    SciTech Connect

    Karney, C.F.F.; Fisch, N.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Rosenbluth form for the collision operator for a weakly relativistic plasma is derived. The formalism adopted by Antonsen and Chu can then be used to calculate the efficiency of current drive by fast waves in a relativistic plasma. Accurate numerical results and analytic asymptotic limits for the efficiencies are given.

  4. Predicting underage drinking and driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Grube, J W; Voas, R B

    1996-12-01

    A social-psychological model of underage drinking and driving (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) was tested with data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 706 16-20-year-old drivers from seven western states in the United States. Consistent with the model, a structural equations analysis indicated that DUI and RWDD were primarily predicted by (a) expectancies regarding the physical risks of DUI, (b) normative beliefs about the extent to which friends would disapprove of DUI, (c) control beliefs about the ease or difficulty of avoiding DUI and RWDD and (d) drinking. Expectancies concerning enforcement had a significant effect on RWDD, but not on DUI. Among the background and environmental variables included in the analysis, only night-time driving and age had significant direct effects on DUI and RWDD. Drinking and involvement in risky driving had indirect effects on DUI and RWDD that were mediated through expectancies and normative beliefs. Males, European Americans, Latinos, respondents who drove more frequently and respondents who were less educated held beliefs that were more favorable toward DUI and RWDD, drank more and engaged more frequently in risky driving. As a result, such individuals may be at greater risk for DUI and RWDD. PMID:8997765

  5. [Diabetes and driving: evidence and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Senra Moniz, Catarina; Alves Serra, Filipa; Costa Ferreira, Rute; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Machado Saraiva, António

    2013-01-01

    In the last years there was an increasing concern about driving and some medical conditions. Diabetes is one of the diseases associated with road traffic accidents. This increased risk is associated with hypoglycemia and diabetes complications such as: retinopathy, cataracts and neuropathy. In order to avoid car crashes patients must follow some rules like carrying some sugar source in their vehicle, always measure blood glycemia before start driving, never begin an extended drive with blood glucose less than 90 mg/dl without prophylactic carbohydrate consumption, stop the vehicle as soon any of the symptoms of low blood glucose are experienced and measure and treat the blood glucose level. In Portugal there are new rules for diabetic drivers since January 2013. Group 1 drivers are considerer unfit to drive if they have severe or recurrent hypoglycemia. Group 2 drivers need to present a medical report certificating they have good diabetes control, have not had any severe or recurrent hypoglycemia in the last twelve months and there aren't any other diabetes complications.

  6. Dynamic modeling of lower hybrid current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ignat, D.W.; Valeo, E.J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1993-10-01

    A computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field is described and some results are given. Details of geometry, plasma profiles and circuit equations are treated carefully. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment.

  7. Variable-Displacement Hydraulic Drive Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, D. J.; Linton, D. J.; Markunas, A.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic power controlled through multiple feedback loops. In hydraulic drive unit, power closely matched to demand, thereby saving energy. Hydraulic flow to and from motor adjusted by motor-control valve connected to wobbler. Wobbler angle determines motor-control-valve position, which in turn determines motor displacement. Concept applicable to machine tools, aircraft controls, and marine controls.

  8. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    PubMed

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University.

  9. English for Driving--Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, R. Bryan

    Intended for use in conjunction with an accompanying teacher's guide and set of visuals, this workbook is in large part a picture dictionary of driving vocabulary with practice exercises to help prepare non-native speakers of English for driver training class. Topics covered in the workbook are automobiles, directions in an automobile, signals,…

  10. [Psychotropic drugs and driving ability--fundamentals].

    PubMed

    Schaumann, Hans H

    2011-05-01

    Drug therapy plays a crucial role in the treatment of mental disorders. Analogously, driving a motor vehicle plays a key factor in full reintegration into occupational and social life. In a professional assessment of driving ability, the specific drug involved is less important than as comprehensive an evaluation as possible of all traffic-medicine-relevant factors. Among others, the individual's driving history, the impact of the underlying psychiatric condition, effects and side effects in different stages of therapy, possible effects of combination with other drugs, and possible substance use need to be taken into account. Experience shows, however, that a positive appraisal of driving ability is almost always possible thanks to use of an appropriate, safe medication. As only a few specific studies have been conducted, in the individual assessment, the extensive experience and opportunities of a recognized traffic medicine institute should be drawn upon, in order to obtain additional legal coverage and to safeguard the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:21506088

  11. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  12. Finding Our Drive: Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In his most recent book, "Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us," Daniel Pink argues that people are essentially motivated by three key drivers: (1) Autonomy: The desire to direct their own lives; (2) Mastery: The urge to get better at something that matters; and (3) Purpose: The yearning to do what they do in service of something…

  13. Brief Report: Driving Hazard Perception in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ropar, Danielle; Underwood, Geoffrey; van Loon, Editha

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether individuals with ASD (autistic spectrum disorders) are able to identify driving hazards, given their difficulties processing social information, Klin et al. ("Archives of General Psychiatry" 59: 809-816, 2002). Twenty-three adult males with ASD and 21 comparison participants viewed 10 video clips containing driving…

  14. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively.

  15. Driving Discovery | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Progress against cancer depends on many types of research—including basic, translational, and clinical—across different research areas, from the biology of cancer cells to studies of large populations. Regardless of the research type or area, supporting the best science and the best scientists is of paramount importance to NCI. Learn more about driving progress against cancer. |

  16. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  17. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  18. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  19. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  20. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  1. Opportunity's View After Drive on Sol 1806

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 60.86 meters (200 feet) on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 21, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends.

    Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    Engineers designed the Sol 1806 drive to be driven backwards as a strategy to redistribute lubricant in the rovers wheels. The right-front wheel had been showing signs of increased friction.

    The rover's position after the Sol 1806 drive was about 2 kilometer (1.2 miles) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 14.74 kilometers (9.16 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 2.96 kilometers (1.84 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  3. [Driving ability and fitness to drive in people with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Seeger, Rolf; Lehmann, Roger

    2011-05-01

    Chronic sequelae of diabetes that could potentially affect driving include the following: visual retinopathy with associated impaired visual acuity, loss of peripheral vision and poor dark adaptation; neuropathy that may affect lower limb functions needed for safe driving; and acute events, including transient cognitive dysfunction and loss of consciousness related to hypo- or hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia does not suddenly incapacitate drivers, however its occurrence often leads to tiredness, blurred vision, decreased visual acuity and adjustment of treatment which may precipitate hypoglycaemia. The side effects of acute hypoglycemia are of particular concern, as they include slowing of both cognitive and motor functions. Hypoglycemia while driving ist the most important complication in persons treated with insulin, sulfonylureas or glinides. They can be prevented, however, by frequent measuring blood glucose before and every 60 to 90 minutes during driving, by keeping sugary snacks (carbohydrates) in the vehicle, and by taking carbohydrates in case of glucose levels below 5 mmol/l. For patients, who are treated with insulin and sulfonylureas/glinides, it is of utmost importance fort the treating physician to frequently talk about successful strategies for preventing hypoglycemias, and thus accidents, while driving. People with diabetes treated with insulin, sulfonylureas or glinides are nor allowed to drive a bus, taxi, or truck (commercial driving). Under special circumstances (evalution and treatment by a diabetologist/endocrinolgist, avoidance of hypoglycemias for three months, and frequent glucose measurements) an exception to this rule can be granted for truck and cab drivers (after a thorough licensing examination). PMID:21506086

  4. ADOLESCENT EXPOSURE TO DRINK DRIVING AS A PREDICTOR OF YOUNG ADULTS’ DRINK DRIVING

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Olsson, Craig; Rowland, Bosco; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exposure to others’ drink driving during adolescence on self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in young adulthood. Data were drawn from 1,956 participants with a driving license enrolled in the International Youth Development Study from Victoria, Australia. During 2003 and 2004, adolescents in Grades 7, 9 and 10 (aged 12 – 17) completed questionnaires examining whether they had ridden in a vehicle with a driver who had been drinking, as well as other demographic, individual, peer and family risk factors for DUI. In 2010, the same participants (aged 18 to 24) then reported on their own DUI behaviour. 18% of young adults with a driving license reported DUI in the past 12 months. Exposure to others’ drink driving during adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of DUI as a young adult (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.68 – 2.69). This association remained after accounting for the effects of other potential confounding factors from the individual, peer and family domains (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.23 – 2.13). Observing the drink driving behaviours of others during adolescence may increase the likelihood of DUI as a young adult. Strategies to reduce youth exposure to drink driving are warranted. PMID:23246711

  5. Investigating driving behaviour of older drivers with mild cognitive impairment using a portable driving simulator.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Anna; McGillivray, Jane; Charlton, Judith; Lowndes, Georgia; Etienne, Virginie

    2012-11-01

    While there is a large body of research indicating that individuals with moderate to severe dementia are unfit to drive, relatively little is known about the driving performance of older drivers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of the current study was to examine the driving performance of older drivers with MCI on approach to intersections, and to investigate how their healthy counterparts perform on the same driving tasks using a portable driving simulator. Fourteen drivers with MCI and 14 age-matched healthy older drivers (aged 65-87 years) completed a 10-min simulator drive in an urban environment. The simulator drive consisted of stop-sign controlled and signal-controlled intersections. Drivers were required to stop at the stop-sign controlled intersections and to decide whether or not to proceed through a critical light change at the signal-controlled intersections. The specific performance measures included; approach speed, number of brake applications on approach to the intersection (either excessive or minimal), failure to comply with stop signs, and slower braking response times on approach to a critical light change. MCI patients in our sample performed more poorly than controls across a number of variables. However, because the trends failed to reach statistical significance it will be important to replicate the study using a larger sample to qualify whether the results can be generalised to the broader population. PMID:23036410

  6. Comparing Two Types of Magnetically-Coupled Adjustable Speed Drives with Variable Frequency Drives in Pump and Fan Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Kenneth J.; Chvala, William D.

    2003-05-30

    This paper presents the results from laboratory tests on MagnaDrive Corporation’s fixed magnet, magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drive and Coyote Electronics electromagnetic, magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drive, compared to a typical variable frequency drive (VFDs) for fan and pump loads. It also discusses advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drives versus variable frequency drives, and it provides field experience with VFDs in food storage as well as adjustable speed drives in wastewater and other field applications.

  7. Direct Drive Hall Thruster System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoskins, W. Andrew; Homiak, Daniel; Cassady, R. Joseph; Kerslake, Tom; Peterson, Todd; Ferguson, Dale; Snyder, Dave; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Schneider, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The sta:us of development of a Direct Drive Ha!! Thruster System is presented. 13 the first part. a s:udy of the impacts to spacecraft systems and mass benefits of a direct-drive architecture is reviewed. The study initially examines four cases of SPT-100 and BPT-4000 Hall thrusters used for north-south station keeping on an EXPRESS-like geosynchronous spacecraft and for primary propulsion for a Deep Space- 1 based science spacecraft. The study is also extended the impact of direct drive on orbit raising for higher power geosynchronous spacecraft and on other deep space missions as a function of power and delta velocity. The major system considerations for accommodating a direct drive Hall thruster are discussed, including array regulation, system grounding, distribution of power to the spacecraft bus, and interactions between current-voltage characteristics for the arrays and thrusters. The mass benefit analysis shows that, for the initial cases, up to 42 kg of dry mass savings is attributable directly to changes in the propulsion hardware. When projected mass impacts of operating the arrays and the electric power system at 300V are included, up to 63 kg is saved for the four initial cases. Adoption of high voltage lithium ion battery technology is projected to further improve these savings. Orbit raising of higher powered geosynchronous spacecraft, is the mission for which direct drive provides the most benefit, allowing higher efficiency electric orbit raising to be accomplished in a limited period of time, as well as nearly eliminating significant power processing heat rejection mass. The total increase in useful payload to orbit ranges up to 278 kg for a 25 kW spacecraft, launched from an Atlas IIA. For deep space missions, direct drive is found to be most applicable to higher power missions with delta velocities up to several km/s , typical of several Discovery-class missions. In the second part, the status of development of direct drive propulsion power

  8. Guidelines for research on drugged driving

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. Michael; Verstraete, Alain G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mørland, Jørg

    2009-01-01

    Aim A major problem in assessing the true public health impact of drug-use on driving and overall traffic safety is that the variables being measured across studies vary significantly. In studies reported in a growing global literature, basic parameters assessed, analytical techniques and drugs tested are simply not comparable due to lack of standardization in the field. These shortcomings severely limit the value of this research to add knowledge to the field. A set of standards to harmonize research findings is sorely needed. This project was initiated by several international organizations to develop guidelines for research on drugged driving. Methods A September 2006 meeting of international experts discussed the harmonization of protocols for future research on drugged driving. The principal objective of the meeting was to develop a consensus report setting guidelines, standards, core data variables and other controls that would form the basis for future international research. A modified Delphi method was utilized to develop draft guidelines. Subsequently, these draft guidelines were posted on the internet for global review, and comments received were integrated into the final document. Results The Guidelines Document is divided into three major sections, each focusing upon different aspects of drugged driving research (e.g. roadside surveys, prevalence studies, hospital studies, fatality and crash investigations, etc.) within the critical issue areas of ‘behavior’, ‘epidemiology’ and ‘toxicology’. The behavioral section contains 32 specific recommendations; (2) epidemiology 40 recommendations; and (3) toxicology 64 recommendations. Conclusions It is anticipated that these guidelines will improve significantly the overall quality of drugged driving research and facilitate future cross-study comparisons nationally and globally. PMID:18855814

  9. Sex drives intracellular conflict in yeast.

    PubMed

    Harrison, E; MacLean, R C; Koufopanou, V; Burt, A

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that sex can drive the evolution of conflict within the cell. During asexual reproduction, genetic material within the cell is inherited as a single unit, selecting for cooperation both within the genome as well as between the extra-genomic elements within the cell (e.g. plasmids and endosymbionts). Under sexual reproduction, this unity is broken down as parental genomes are distributed between meiotic progeny. Genetic elements able to transmit to more than 50% of meiotic progeny have a transmission advantage over the rest of the genome and are able to spread, even where they reduce the fitness of the individual as a whole. Sexual reproduction is therefore expected to drive the evolution of selfish genetic elements (SGEs). Here, we directly test this hypothesis by studying the evolution of two independent SGEs, the 2-μm plasmid and selfish mitochondria, in populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following 22 rounds of sexual reproduction, 2-μm copy number increased by approximately 13.2 (±5.6) copies per cell, whereas in asexual populations copy number decreased by approximately 5.1 (±1.5) copies per cell. Given that the burden imposed by this parasite increases with copy number, these results support the idea that sex drives the evolution of increased SGE virulence. Moreover, we found that mitochondria that are respiratory-deficient rapidly invaded sexual but not asexual populations, demonstrating that frequent outcrossed sex can drive the de novo evolution of genetic parasites. Our study highlights the genomic perils of sex and suggests that SGEs may play a key role in driving major evolutionary transitions, such as uniparental inheritance.

  10. Driving platform for OLED lighting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael

    2006-08-01

    OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.

  11. Identifying Periods of Drowsy Driving Using EEG

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation’s highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

  12. Identifying periods of drowsy driving using EEG.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation's highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods.

  13. Driving Responses of Older and Younger Drivers in a Driving Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Brian; Charlton, Judith; Muir, Carlyn; Koppel, Sjaanie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of younger and older driver behaviour to hazardous traffic manoeuvres in a driving simulator. Hazardous situations on a highway and residential drive were studied and drivers’ vision and vehicle performance responses were collected. While all drivers were able to avoid crashes, the finding that older drivers were consistently slower to fixate hazardous stimuli in the driving environment and were slower to respond presents a potentially serious road safety concern. Further research is warranted, especially under conditions of increasing traffic complexity. PMID:18184513

  14. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  15. [Hermann Samuel Reimarus' theory of "modes of life" and "drives"].

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    This essay focuses on Hermann Samuel Reimarus' (1694-1768) theory of "modes of life" and natural "drives" or "tendencies" (Triebe) in Allgemeine Betrachtungen über die Triebe der Thiere, hauptsdchlich über ihre Kunsttriebe (1760). Reimarus combines the notion of a systemic, organized inner order of organs, in which "functions" and corporeal dispositions correspond to each other, with a system of regulated "actions" of individual organic bodies. These "actions" rely on a "basic drive" (Grundtrieb) of "self-preservation", that Reimarus differentiates into "mechanic drives" (mechanische Triebe), "imagination drives" (Vorstellungstriebe) und "voluntary drives" (willkiirliche Triebe). Voluntary drives are again divided into "affection-drives" (Affectentriebe) and "art-drives" (Kunsttriebe). Mechanic drives automatically initiate and sustain physiological processes of the system of organs, imagination drives establish transitions between sense perception, imagination, memory, and recognition, and art-drives regulate, as schemes or "m odels" which imply some degree of skill, "action" (Handlung)-based relations between individual organic bodies and their environments. Further on, humans possess a specific art-drive, based on "reason" (Vernunft), that is not naturally determined as a goal-directed "action": While the "modes of life" of animals are perfect in themselves in combining systems of drives and organic dispositions, humans are perfectible living beings with the faculty of "reflection". Plants are for Reimarus not living beings, because their existence relies only on "mechanical drives" without a central acting entity of perceptions.

  16. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving.

  17. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA ( ... straight years, whereas driving under the influence of alcohol or riding with a driver who had been ...

  18. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Methods Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Results Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01) and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01). Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also

  19. Motivations for dieting: Drive for Thinness is different from Drive for Objective Thinness.

    PubMed

    Chernyak, Yelena; Lowe, Michael R

    2010-05-01

    Drive for thinness is a cardinal feature of bulimia nervosa. However, the widely used Drive for Thinness (DFT) subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory (Garner, 2004; Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983) appears to measure a desire to be thinner, not a desire to be objectively thin. We developed the Drive for Objective Thinness (DFOT) Scale and compared unrestrained and restrained eaters and those with bulimia nervosa on the DFT subscale, Goldfarb's Fear of Fat Scale (GFFS; Goldfarb, Dykens, & Gerrard, 1983), and the DFOT Scale. Restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters on the DFT subscale and the GFFS, but both groups had low scores on the DFOT Scale. Only the group with bulimia nervosa showed elevated scores on the DFOT Scale. We conclude that restrained eaters diet mostly to avoid weight gain, that individuals with bulimia nervosa diet to achieve thinness and avoid fatness, and that the drive for objective thinness is a unique feature of bulimia nervosa.

  20. Fatigue, sleep restriction and driving performance.

    PubMed

    Philip, Pierre; Sagaspe, Patricia; Moore, Nicholas; Taillard, Jacques; Charles, André; Guilleminault, Christian; Bioulac, Bernard

    2005-05-01

    We ran a randomized cross-over design study under sleep-deprived and non-sleep-deprived driving conditions to test the effects of sleep restriction on real driving performance. The study was performed in a sleep laboratory and on an open French highway. Twenty-two healthy male subjects (age = 21.5 +/- 2 years; distance driven per year = 12,225 +/- 4739 km (7641 +/- 2962 miles) [mean +/- S.D.]) drove 1000 km (625 miles) over 10 h during five 105 min sessions on an open highway. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness before each session, number of inappropriate line crossings from video recordings and simple reaction time (RT) were measured. Total crossings increased after sleep restriction (535 crossings in the sleep-restricted condition versus 66 after non-restricted sleep (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 8.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 3.2-20.5; p < 0.001)), from the first driving session. The interaction between the two factors (conditionxtime of day) was also significant (F(5, 105) = 3.229; p < 0.05). Increasing sleepiness score was associated with increasing crossings during the next driving session in the sleep-restricted (IRR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4) but not in the non-restricted condition (IRR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.8-1.3). Increasing self-perceived fatigue was not associated with increasing crossings in either condition (IRR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98 and IRR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.98-1.02). Rested subjects drove 1000 km with four shorts breaks with only a minor performance decrease. Sleep restriction induced important performance degradation even though time awake (8h) and session driving times (105 min) were relatively short. Major inter-individual differences were observed under sleep restriction. Performance degradation was associated with sleepiness and not fatigue. Sleepiness combined with fatigue significantly affected RT. Road safety campaigns should encourage drivers to avoid driving after sleep restriction, even on relatively short trips especially if they feel

  1. Relationship of Impaired Driving Enforcement Intensity to Drinking and Driving on the Roads

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Waehrer, Geetha; Voas, Robert B.; Auld-Owens, Amy; Carr, Katherine; Pell, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background It is principally the area of enforcement that offers the greatest opportunity for reducing alcohol-impaired driving in the near future. How much of a reduction in drinking and driving would be achieved by how much improvement in enforcement intensity? Methods We developed logistic regression models to explore how enforcement intensity (six different measures) related to the prevalence of weekend, nighttime drivers in the 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS) who had been drinking (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]>.00 g/dL), who had BACs>.05 g/dL, and who were driving with an illegal BAC>.08 g/dL. Results Drivers on the roads in our sample of 30 communities who were exposed to fewer than 228 traffic stops per 10,000 population aged 18 and older had 2.4 times the odds of being BAC positive, 3.6 times the odds of driving with a BAC>0.05, and 3.8 times the odds of driving with a BAC>0.08 compared to those drivers on the roads in communities with more than 1,275 traffic stops per 10,000 population. Drivers on the roads in communities with fewer than 3.7 driving-under-the-influence (DUI) arrests per 10,000 population had 2.7 times the odds of BAC-positive drivers on the roads compared to communities with the highest intensity of DUI arrest activity (>38 DUI arrests per 10,000 population). Conclusion The number of traffic stops and DUI arrests per capita were significantly associated with the odds of drinking and driving on the roads in these communities. This might reflect traffic enforcement visibility. The findings in this study may help law enforcement agencies around the country adjust their traffic enforcement intensity to reduce impaired driving in their community. PMID:25515820

  2. An Output Channel Nonuniformity Compensation Driving Method in Flat Panel Display Driving Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Ahn, Soon-Sung; Kwon, Christine H.; Kim, Seon-Yung; Lee, Jae-Sic; Choi, Byong-Deok

    2006-12-01

    Modern flat panel displays, including thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), pursue more and more natural color expression. This requires the data driving system should produce very fine and accurate signal voltages or currents. Especially, the uniformity among channels of a driving system is critically important because the color or luminance differences among columns are easily noticeable. We propose a simple and efficient driving method for solving the artifacts caused by the existing nonuniformity among channels of a driving system, and confirms its impact by simulations using C-programming. The nonuniformity among channels mostly stem from the random offset of the output circuits of a driving system, which in turn is caused by the process variations. The proposed driving method shares N-output circuits between N-output channels such that the existing offsets of the channels are averaged out. Thus, the output signal error due to the offsets spreads out among the channels, improving the uniformity between the channels.

  3. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  4. Optomechanics with two-phonon driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitan, B. A.; Metelmann, A.; Clerk, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the physics of an optomechanical cavity subject to coherent two-phonon driving, i.e. degenerate parametric amplification of the mechanical mode. We show that in such a system, the cavity mode can effectively ‘inherit’ parametric driving from the mechanics, yielding phase-sensitive amplification and squeezing of optical signals reflected from the cavity. We also demonstrate how such a system can be used to perform single-quadrature detection of a near-resonant narrow-band force applied to the mechanics with extremely low added noise from the optics. The system also exhibits strong differences from a conventional degenerate parametric amplifier: in particular, the cavity spectral function can become negative, indicating a negative effective photon temperature.

  5. Pyroelectric nanogenerators for driving wireless sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya; Wang, Sihong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-12-12

    We demonstrate a pyroelectric nanogenerator (PENG) based on a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film, which has a pyroelectric coefficient of about -80 nC/cm(2)K. For a temperature change of 45 K at a rate of 0.2 K/s, the output open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density of the PENG reached 22 V and 171 nA/cm(2), respectively, corresponding to a maximum power density of 0.215 mW/cm(3). A detailed theory was developed for understanding the high output voltage of PENG. A single electrical output pulse can directly drive a liquid crystal display (LCD) for longer than 60 s. A Li-ion battery was charged by the PENG at different working frequencies, which was used to drive a green light-emitting diode (LED). The demonstrated PENG shows potential applications in wireless sensors.

  6. Raytracing and Direct-Drive Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Andrew J.; Bates, Jason; Fyfe, David; Eimerl, David

    2013-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of laser imprinting and drive asymmetries in directly driven targets requires the ability to distinguish between raytrace noise and the intensity structure produced by the spatial and temporal incoherence of optical smoothing. We have developed and implemented a smoother raytrace algorithm for our mpi-parallel radiation hydrodynamics code, FAST3D. The underlying approach is to connect the rays into either sheets (in 2D) or volume-enclosing chunks (in 3D) so that the absorbed energy distribution continuously covers the propagation area illuminated by the laser. We will describe the status and show the different scalings encountered in 2D and 3D problems as the computational size, parallelization strategy, and number of rays is varied. Finally, we show results using the method in current NIKE experimental target simulations and in proposed symmetric and polar direct-drive target designs. Supported by US DoE/NNSA.

  7. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  8. [Epilepsy And Driving Ability: The New Guideline].

    PubMed

    Kurthen, Martin

    2015-10-28

    The Swiss Guideline concerning epilepsy and driving has recently been revised. Recommendations have changed significantly in several respects. Some modifications arise indirectly from a change in the overall concept of epilepsy. As a consequence of the application of the new ILAE definition and diagnostic criteria for epilepsy, there are now cases in which the diagnosis of epilepsy is established even after one single seizure. Furthermore, a concept of imminent epilepsy was introduced to identify patients without seizures, but with a high risk of a first seizure within twelve months. On the other hand, the concept of a "resolved epilepsy" was established to loosen driving regulations for longterm seizure-free patients. In addition, the new guideline provides differential recommendations for provoked vs. unprovoked seizures in several clinical constellations.

  9. Co-variability in Three Dimensions of Teenage Driving Risk Behavior: Impaired Driving, Risky and Unsafe Driving Behavior, and Secondary Task Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Li, Kaigang; Ehsani, Johnathon; Vaca, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research examined the extent to which teenagers who engaged in one form of risky driving also engaged in other forms and if risky driving measures were reciprocally associated over time. METHODS The data were from waves 1, 2 and 3 (W1, W2 and W3) of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample starting with 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Three measures of risky driving were assessed in autoregressive and cross-lagged analyses: driving while alcohol/drug impaired, Checkpoints Risky Driving Scale (risky and unsafe driving), and secondary task engagement while driving. RESULTS In adjusted auto-regression models the risk variables, demonstrated high levels of stability, with significant associations observed across the three waves. However, associations between variables were inconsistent. DWI at W2 was associated with risky and unsafe driving at W3 (β = 0.21, p < 0.01); risky and unsafe driving at W1 was associated with DWI at W2 (β = 0.20, p <.01); and risky and unsafe driving at W2 is associated with secondary task engagement at W3 (β = 0.19, p <.01). Overtime associations between DWI and secondary task engagement were not significant. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide modest evidence for the co-variability of risky driving, with prospective associations between the Risky Driving Scale and the other measures, and reciprocal associations between all three variables at some time points. Secondary task engagement, however, appears largely to be an independent measure of risky driving. The findings suggest the importance of implementing interventions that addresses each of these driving risks. PMID:26514232

  10. Stabilization system of a photoinjector drive laser.

    PubMed

    Le Flanchec, V; Blésès, J P; Striby, S; Laget, J P

    1997-11-20

    In the Etude d'un LaSer Accordable linear accelerator, electron bunches consist of trains of picosecond pulses extracted from a photocathode by a drive laser system. The fluctuations of the mean intensity of pulse trains at the output of the laser system are around 3% rms. A feed-forward stabilization system that reduces these fluctuations to better than 0.7% rms for periods of 5 min is presented. PMID:18264399

  11. Stabilization system of a photoinjector drive laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Flanchec, Vincent; Blésès, Jean-Paul; Striby, Serge; Laget, Jean-Paul

    1997-11-01

    In the Etude d un LaSer Accordable linear accelerator, electron bunches consist of trains of picosecond pulses extracted from a photocathode by a drive laser system. The fluctuations of the mean intensity of pulse trains at the output of the laser system are around 3% rms. A feed-forward stabilization system that reduces these fluctuations to better than 0.7% rms for periods of 5 min is presented.

  12. Heating and current drive systems for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.; Goranson, P.; Halle, A. von; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.

    1994-05-24

    The heating and current drive (H and CD) system proposed for the TPX tokamak will consist of ion cyclotron, neutral beam, and lower hybrid systems. It will have 17.5 MW of installed H and CD power initially, and can be upgraded to 45 MW. It will be used to explore advanced confinement and fully current-driven plasma regimes with pulse lengths of up to 1,000 s.

  13. How to drive CARS in reverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokr, Brett H.; Noojin, Gary D.; Petrov, Georgi I.; Beier, Hope T.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Remote chemically specific detection of trace impurities in the atmosphere from distances on the order of kilometers is an important problem from both an environmental and a national defense viewpoint. A new scheme is discussed consisting of the remote generation of a backward propagating stimulated Raman pulse. This pulse is then used to drive a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering scheme, resulting in a strong chemically specific signal propagating back to the detector.

  14. What's driving Gigabit/sec channels

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, P.R.

    1991-09-01

    This paper summarizes the rationale for the drive towards Gigabit/sec communications for individual users. A description is given of a resulting prototype LAN which will deliver this capability to each user. The prototype is being built for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It will be delivered this winter and should be available for users by the end of the first quarter of next year. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  15. The PASCO Half-Byte Hard Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Peter S.

    2005-03-01

    To provide an interesting application of Faraday's law, Brad Hinaus and Mick Veum created an experiment constructing a scaled-up model of a computer hard drive. They mounted permanent magnets on a wooden disk. When the disk was spun, an emf was induced in a "read" head (solenoid) and recorded by a computer. I have found a way to do a similar experiment using only PASCO equipment.2

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD DRIVE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Oakes, L.C.; Walker, C.S.

    1959-12-15

    ABS>A suspension mechanism between a vertically movable nuclear reactor control rod and a rod extension, which also provides information for the operator or an automatic control signal, is described. A spring connects the rod extension to a drive shift. The extension of the spring indicates whether (1) the rod is at rest on the reactor, (2) the rod and extension are suspended, or (3) the extension alone is suspended, the spring controlling a 3-position electrical switch.

  17. LMSS drive simulator for multipath propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishakantaiah, Praveen; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional drive simulator for the prediction of Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) multipath propagation was developed. It is based on simple physical and geometrical rules and can be used to evaluate effects of scatterer numbers and positions, receiving antenna pattern, and satellite frequency and position. It is shown that scatterers close to the receiver have the most effect and that directive antennas suppress multipath interference.

  18. [Medicine and driving: Alcohol and other toxins].

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Francis

    2015-10-01

    General practitioners and specialists, beyond their role of health care providers, have a societal responsibility regarding the use or misuse of alcohol, drugs including cannabis, and some medications. Alcohol remains the leading cause of road accidents, and more than 100,000 drivers were found to be driving while intoxicated in 2000. Other drugs are now systematically tested for in serious accidents. The various government and road safety websites as well as several significant studies on the subject show that drunk driving is still a major problem and that other drugs and medication are also a significant cause of accidents, either alone or in combination with alcohol. The role of psychiatric disorders sometimes complicates the risk. Doctors have an obligation to provide their patients with information and must have an accurate knowledge of relevant legislation. They may be liable for accidents caused by the driving of their patients. This liability requires them to be able to demonstrate that they gave the individual some information about insurance, the possible limitation of their driver's license, and the steps they should take should they misuse alcohol or other drugs, including some medications.

  19. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  20. Scapulothoracic kinematics during tennis forehand drive.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-06-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is recognized as an abnormality in the kinetic chain; yet, there has been little research quantifying scapular motion during sport tasks. Tennis forehand drives of eight highly skilled tennis players were studied to assess the scapulothoracic kinematics and evaluate repeatability using video-based motion analysis. Scapulothoracic downward/upward rotation, posterior/anterior tilt, and internal/external rotation were computed using an acromial marker cluster. On average, the upward rotation, anterior tilt, and internal rotation varied from 1 degrees to 26 degrees, from 7 degrees to 32 degrees, and from 42 degrees to 100 degrees, respectively, during the tennis forehand drive. During the backswing and forward swing phases of the forehand stroke, small changes were observed for the three scapular angle values, while all angles increased rapidly during the follow-through phase. This suggests that the tennis forehand drive may contribute to scapula dyskinesis, mainly due to the great amplitude in scapulothoracic anterior tilt and internal rotation observed during the follow-through phase. Knowledge of normal scapula motion during sport tasks performed at high velocity could improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and pathologies. PMID:25123001

  1. Unraveling Base Stacking Driving Forces in DNA.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chi H

    2016-07-01

    Base stacking is a key determinant of nucleic acid structures, but the precise origin of the thermodynamic driving force behind the stacking of nucleobases remains open. The rather mild stacking free energy measured experimentally, roughly a kcal/mol depending on the identity of the bases, is physiologically significant because while base stacking confers stability to the genome in its double helix form, the duplex also has to be unwound in order to be replicated or transcribed. A stacking free energy that is either too high or too low will over- or understabilize the genome, impacting the storage of genetic information and also its retrieval. While the molecular origin of stacking driving force has been attributed to many different sources including dispersion, electrostatics, and solvent hydrogen bonding, here we show via a systematic decomposition of the stacking free energy using large-scale computer simulations that the dominant driving force stabilizing base stacking is nonhydrophobic solvent entropy. Counteracting this is the conformational entropic penalty on the sugar-phosphate backbone against stacking, while solvent hydrogen-bonding, charge-charge interactions, and dispersive forces produce only secondary perturbations. Solvent entropic forces and DNA backbone conformational strains therefore work against each other, leading to a very mild composite stacking free energy in agreement with experiments. PMID:27045853

  2. Auditory feedback influences perceived driving speeds.

    PubMed

    Horswill, Mark S; Plooy, Annaliese M

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the level of internal noise is seen as a goal when designing modern cars. One danger of such a philosophy is that one is systematically attempting to alter one of the cues that can be used by drivers to estimate speed and this could bias speed judgments and driving behaviour. Seven participants were presented with pairs of video-based driving scenes and asked to judge whether the second scene appeared faster or slower than the first (2-alternative forced-choice task using the method of constant stimuli). They either heard in-car noise at the level it occurred in the real world or reduced in volume by 5 dB. The reduction in noise led to participants judging speeds to be significantly slower and this effect was evident for all participants. This finding indicates that, when in-car noise is attenuated, drivers are likely to underestimate their speed, potentially encouraging them to drive faster and placing them at greater risk of crashing.

  3. Quasi-spherical direct drive fusion.

    SciTech Connect

    VanDevender, J. Pace; Abbott, Lucas M.; Langston, William L.; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Nash, Thomas J.; Roderick, Norman Frederick; Silva, M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present designs of quasi-spherical direction drive z-pinch loads for machines such as ZR at 28 MA load current with a 150 ns implosion time (QSDDI). A double shell system for ZR has produced a 2D simulated yield of 12 MJ, but the drive for this system on ZR has essentially no margin. A double shell system for a 56 MA driver at 150 ns implosion has produced a simulated yield of 130 MJ with considerable margin in attaining the necessary temperature and density-radius product for ignition. They also represent designs for a magnetically insulated current amplifier, (MICA), that modify the attainable ZR load current to 36 MA with a 28 ns rise time. The faster pulse provided by a MICA makes it possible to drive quasi-spherical single shell implosions (QSDD2). They present results from 1D LASNEX and 2D MACH2 simulations of promising low-adiabat cryogenic QSDD2 capsules and 1D LASNEX results of high-adiabat cryogenic QSDD2 capsules.

  4. Life analysis of multiroller planetary traction drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Rohn, D. A.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    A contact fatigue life analysis was performed for a constant ratio, Nasvytis Multiroller Traction Drive. The analysis was based on the Lundberg-Palmgren method for rolling element bearing life prediction. Life adjustment factors for materials, processing, lubrication and traction were included. The 14.7 to 1 ratio drive consisted of a single stage planetary configuration with two rows of stepped planet rollers of five rollers per row, having a roller cluster diameter of approximately 0.21 m, a width of 0.06 m and a weight of 9 kg. Drive system 10 percent life ranged from 18,800 hours at 16.6 kW (22.2 hp) and 25,000 rpm sun roller speed, to 305 hours at maximum operating conditions of 149 kw (200 hp) and 75,000 rpm sun roller speed. The effect of roller diameter and roller center location on life were determined. It was found that an optimum life geometry exists.

  5. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009).

    On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image.

    In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  6. Scapulothoracic kinematics during tennis forehand drive.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-06-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is recognized as an abnormality in the kinetic chain; yet, there has been little research quantifying scapular motion during sport tasks. Tennis forehand drives of eight highly skilled tennis players were studied to assess the scapulothoracic kinematics and evaluate repeatability using video-based motion analysis. Scapulothoracic downward/upward rotation, posterior/anterior tilt, and internal/external rotation were computed using an acromial marker cluster. On average, the upward rotation, anterior tilt, and internal rotation varied from 1 degrees to 26 degrees, from 7 degrees to 32 degrees, and from 42 degrees to 100 degrees, respectively, during the tennis forehand drive. During the backswing and forward swing phases of the forehand stroke, small changes were observed for the three scapular angle values, while all angles increased rapidly during the follow-through phase. This suggests that the tennis forehand drive may contribute to scapula dyskinesis, mainly due to the great amplitude in scapulothoracic anterior tilt and internal rotation observed during the follow-through phase. Knowledge of normal scapula motion during sport tasks performed at high velocity could improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and pathologies.

  7. [Medicine and driving: Alcohol and other toxins].

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Francis

    2015-10-01

    General practitioners and specialists, beyond their role of health care providers, have a societal responsibility regarding the use or misuse of alcohol, drugs including cannabis, and some medications. Alcohol remains the leading cause of road accidents, and more than 100,000 drivers were found to be driving while intoxicated in 2000. Other drugs are now systematically tested for in serious accidents. The various government and road safety websites as well as several significant studies on the subject show that drunk driving is still a major problem and that other drugs and medication are also a significant cause of accidents, either alone or in combination with alcohol. The role of psychiatric disorders sometimes complicates the risk. Doctors have an obligation to provide their patients with information and must have an accurate knowledge of relevant legislation. They may be liable for accidents caused by the driving of their patients. This liability requires them to be able to demonstrate that they gave the individual some information about insurance, the possible limitation of their driver's license, and the steps they should take should they misuse alcohol or other drugs, including some medications. PMID:26453285

  8. Prediction of Fitness to Drive in Patients with Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Piersma, Dafne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; de Waard, Dick; Davidse, Ragnhild J.; de Groot, Jolieke; Doumen, Michelle J. A.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Claesen, René; Lemstra, Afina W.; Vermeeren, Annemiek; Ponds, Rudolf; Verhey, Frans; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is increasing and so is the number of patients driving a car. To enable patients to retain their mobility while at the same time not endangering public safety, each patient should be assessed for fitness to drive. The aim of this study is to develop a method to assess fitness to drive in a clinical setting, using three types of assessments, i.e. clinical interviews, neuropsychological assessment and driving simulator rides. The goals are (1) to determine for each type of assessment which combination of measures is most predictive for on-road driving performance, (2) to compare the predictive value of clinical interviews, neuropsychological assessment and driving simulator evaluation and (3) to determine which combination of these assessments provides the best prediction of fitness to drive. Eighty-one patients with AD and 45 healthy individuals participated. All participated in a clinical interview, and were administered a neuropsychological test battery and a driving simulator ride (predictors). The criterion fitness to drive was determined in an on-road driving assessment by experts of the CBR Dutch driving test organisation according to their official protocol. The validity of the predictors to determine fitness to drive was explored by means of logistic regression analyses, discriminant function analyses, as well as receiver operating curve analyses. We found that all three types of assessments are predictive of on-road driving performance. Neuropsychological assessment had the highest classification accuracy followed by driving simulator rides and clinical interviews. However, combining all three types of assessments yielded the best prediction for fitness to drive in patients with AD with an overall accuracy of 92.7%, which makes this method highly valid for assessing fitness to drive in AD. This method may be used to advise patients with AD and their family members about fitness to drive. PMID:26910535

  9. Prediction of Fitness to Drive in Patients with Alzheimer's Dementia.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Dafne; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; de Waard, Dick; Davidse, Ragnhild J; de Groot, Jolieke; Doumen, Michelle J A; Bredewoud, Ruud A; Claesen, René; Lemstra, Afina W; Vermeeren, Annemiek; Ponds, Rudolf; Verhey, Frans; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing and so is the number of patients driving a car. To enable patients to retain their mobility while at the same time not endangering public safety, each patient should be assessed for fitness to drive. The aim of this study is to develop a method to assess fitness to drive in a clinical setting, using three types of assessments, i.e. clinical interviews, neuropsychological assessment and driving simulator rides. The goals are (1) to determine for each type of assessment which combination of measures is most predictive for on-road driving performance, (2) to compare the predictive value of clinical interviews, neuropsychological assessment and driving simulator evaluation and (3) to determine which combination of these assessments provides the best prediction of fitness to drive. Eighty-one patients with AD and 45 healthy individuals participated. All participated in a clinical interview, and were administered a neuropsychological test battery and a driving simulator ride (predictors). The criterion fitness to drive was determined in an on-road driving assessment by experts of the CBR Dutch driving test organisation according to their official protocol. The validity of the predictors to determine fitness to drive was explored by means of logistic regression analyses, discriminant function analyses, as well as receiver operating curve analyses. We found that all three types of assessments are predictive of on-road driving performance. Neuropsychological assessment had the highest classification accuracy followed by driving simulator rides and clinical interviews. However, combining all three types of assessments yielded the best prediction for fitness to drive in patients with AD with an overall accuracy of 92.7%, which makes this method highly valid for assessing fitness to drive in AD. This method may be used to advise patients with AD and their family members about fitness to drive.

  10. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  11. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  12. Closed-loop control of respiratory drive using pressure-support ventilation: target drive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Spahija, Jadranka; Beck, Jennifer; de Marchie, Michel; Comtois, Alain; Sinderby, Christer

    2005-05-01

    By using diaphragm electrical activity (multiple-array esophageal electrode) as an index of respiratory drive, and allowing such activity above or below a preset target range to indicate an increased or reduced demand for ventilatory assistance (target drive ventilation), we evaluated whether the level of pressure-support ventilation can be automatically adjusted in response to exercise-induced changes in ventilatory demand. Eleven healthy individuals breathed through a circuit (18 cm H2O/L/second inspiratory resistance at 1 L/second flow; 0.5-1.0 L/second expiratory flow limitation) connected to a modified ventilator. Subjects breathed for 6-minute periods at rest and during 20 and 40 W of bicycle exercise, with and without target drive ventilation (the target was set to 60% of the increase in diaphragm electrical activity observed between rest and 20 W of unassisted exercise). With target drive ventilation during exercise, the level of pressure-support ventilation was automatically increased, reaching 13.3 +/- 4.0 and 20.3 +/- 2.8 cm H2O during 20- and 40-W exercise, respectively, whereas diaphragm electrical activity was reduced to a level within the target range. Both diaphragmatic pressure-time product and end-tidal CO2 were significantly reduced with target drive ventilation at the end of the 20- (p < 0.01) and 40-W (p < 0.001) exercise periods. Minute ventilation was not altered. These results demonstrate that target drive ventilation can automatically adjust pressure-support ventilation, maintaining a constant neural drive and compensating for changes in respiratory demand.

  13. Drowsy Driving Causes 1 in 5 Fatal Crashes: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Drowsy Driving Causes 1 in 5 Fatal Crashes: Report Teens and young adults, shift-workers and ... day. And, drowsy driving was a factor in crashes that claimed about 5,000 lives last year, ...

  14. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  15. 23 CFR 1200.24 - Distracted driving grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... violations within five years of the previous violation. (2) Prohibition on youth cell phone use while driving... or using a cell phone while driving, for traffic signs that notify drivers about the...

  16. 23 CFR 1200.24 - Distracted driving grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... violations within five years of the previous violation. (2) Prohibition on youth cell phone use while driving... or using a cell phone while driving, for traffic signs that notify drivers about the...

  17. 3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE BEDROOM) AND BUILDING 21 (TWO/THREE BEDROOM); ACTIVITY CENTER IN REAR, FACING NORTHEAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and White Ash Trees, Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, median between northbound and southbound lanes near the Waterside Drive exit and entrance ramps., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Optimization of Driving Styles for Fuel Economy Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Aguilar, Juan P.

    2012-01-01

    Modern vehicles have sophisticated electronic control units, particularly to control engine operation with respect to a balance between fuel economy, emissions, and power. These control units are designed for specific driving conditions and testing. However, each individual driving style is different and rarely meets those driving conditions. In the research reported here we investigate those driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is proposed with the aim of optimizing driving styles with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels are constructed to reflect the responses produced by changes of the driving factors. Then we compare the optimized driving styles to the original ones and evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the optimization formulation.

  20. View of steel warehouses on Ellsberg Drive, building 710 full ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses on Ellsberg Drive, building 710 full building at center; camera facing southeast. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  1. Mars Exploration Rover surface operations: driving opportunity at Meridiani Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey J.; Baumgartner, E.; Bonitz, R.; Cooper, B.; Hartman, F.; Leger, C.; Maimone, M.; Maxwell, S.; Trebi-Ollenu, A.; Wright, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will detail the experience of driving Opportunity through this alien landscape from the point of view of the Rover Planners, the people who tell the rover where to drive and how to use its robotic arm.

  2. 48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF STONY MAN MOUNTAIN (EL. 4,011). LOOKING NORTHEAST. STONY MAN OVERLOOK VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  3. Positional Dependent Driving Torque in the Damped, Driven Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpine, Todd; Huff, Alison

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a plane pendulum with positional dependent driving torque as would be produced by a horizontally directed force exerted on the pendulum bob. We compare this with the well known dynamics of a standard damped, driven plane pendulum. In particular we compare the bifurcation diagrams of the two systems to compare the effects of the driving amplitude on the dynamics. In the system with positional dependent driving torque, bifurcation begins at higher driving amplitudes and there is a repetitive structure in the bifurcation diagram at high driving amplitude. Additionally, with positional dependent driving torque we see continued chaotic behavior at high driving amplitude whereas the chaotic behavior of the standard pendulum dies out at large driving amplitudes.

  4. 9. CRATER RIM DRIVE NEAR THURSTON LAVA TUBE. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CRATER RIM DRIVE NEAR THURSTON LAVA TUBE. VIEW OF CRENELATED LAVA STONE GUARD WALL AND ROCK CUT OPPOSITE. NOTE CATTLE GUARD ACROSS ROAD PARTIALLY PAVED OVER. - Crater Rim Drive, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  5. 13. DETAIL OF BEVEL GEAR TRANSFERRING HORIZONTAL DRIVE FROM MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF BEVEL GEAR TRANSFERRING HORIZONTAL DRIVE FROM MAIN WATERWHEEL SHAFT TO VERTICAL SHAFT DRIVING COFFEE HUSKING MILL ON SECOND FLOOR - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

  6. Alcohol policies and impaired driving in the United States: Effects of driving- vs. drinking-oriented policies

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Nelson, Toben F.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Nguyen, Thien H.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To test the hypotheses that stronger policy environments are associated with less impaired driving and that driving-oriented and drinking-oriented policy subgroups are independently associated with impaired driving. Design State-level data on 29 policies in 50 states from 2001–2009 were used as lagged exposures in generalized linear regression models to predict self-reported impaired driving. Setting Fifty United States and Washington, D.C. Participants A total of 1,292,245 adults (≥ 18 years old) biennially from 2002–2010. Measures Alcohol Policy Scale scores representing the alcohol policy environment were created by summing policies weighted by their efficacy and degree of implementation by state-year. Past-30-day alcohol-impaired driving from 2002–2010 was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Findings Higher Alcohol Policy Scale scores are strongly associated with lower state-level prevalence and individual-level risk of impaired driving. After accounting for driving-oriented policies, drinking-oriented policies had a robust independent association with reduced likelihood of impaired driving. Reduced binge drinking mediates the relationship between drinking-oriented policies and impaired driving, and driving-oriented policies reduce the likelihood of impaired driving among binge drinkers. Conclusions Efforts to reduce alcohol-impaired driving should focus on reducing excessive drinking in addition to preventing driving among those who are impaired. PMID:26925185

  7. Lifetimes and Reliabilities of Bevel-Gear Drive Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D.; Cox, J.; Savage, M.; Brikmanis, C.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical methods used to predict system lifetimes from component lifetimes. Report shows how to use information to determine system life of drive train, using methods of probability and statistics. Presents life and reliability model for bevel-gear drive trains. Bevel-gear and support-bearing lives analyzed for each gear and bearing in drive train, with results statistically combined to produce system life for entire drive train. Numerical example included.

  8. The effects of texting on driving performance in a driving simulator: the influence of driver age.

    PubMed

    Rumschlag, Gordon; Palumbo, Theresa; Martin, Amber; Head, Doreen; George, Rajiv; Commissaris, Randall L

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant contributor to motor vehicle accidents and fatalities, and texting is a particularly significant form of driver distraction that continues to be on the rise. The present study examined the influence of driver age (18-59 years old) and other factors on the disruptive effects of texting on simulated driving behavior. While 'driving' the simulator, subjects were engaged in a series of brief text conversations with a member of the research team. The primary dependent variable was the occurrence of Lane Excursions (defined as any time the center of the vehicle moved outside the directed driving lane, e.g., into the lane for oncoming traffic or onto the shoulder of the road), measured as (1) the percent of subjects that exhibited Lane Excursions, (2) the number of Lane Excursions occurring and (3) the percent of the texting time in Lane Excursions. Multiple Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of several factors on driving performance while texting, including text task duration, texting skill level (subject-reported), texting history (#texts/week), driver gender and driver age. Lane Excursions were not observed in the absence of texting, but 66% of subjects overall exhibited Lane Excursions while texting. Multiple Regression analysis for all subjects (N=50) revealed that text task duration was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, and texting skill level and driver age were significantly correlated with the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions. Driver gender was not significantly correlated with Lane Excursions during texting. Multiple Regression analysis of only highly skilled texters (N=27) revealed that driver age was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions and the percent of texting time in Lane Excursions. In contrast, Multiple Regression analysis of those drivers who self-identified as not highly skilled

  9. A laboratory driving simulation for assessment of driving behavior in adults with ADHD: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael C; Reimer, Bryan; Coughlin, Joseph F; Surman, Craig B; Aleardi, Megan; Dougherty, Meghan; Schoenfeld, Steven; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2007-01-01

    Background It is now estimated that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) afflicts at least 4% of adults in the United States and is associated with high levels of morbidity and functional impairment. One key area of dysfunction associated with ADHD is impaired motor vehicle operation. Our goal was to examine the association between ADHD and specific driving outcomes in a sample of adults using a driving simulator. Methods Subjects were 20 adults with full DSM-IV ADHD and 21 controls without ADHD of equal gender distribution. However, the mean age of subjects with ADHD was somewhat older. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. All subjects participated in a driving simulation that lasted for one hour and consisted of a short training period, a high stimulus segment and a low stimulus segment with two distinct monotonous periods. Results In the second monotonous period within the low stimulus environment, ADHD subjects were significantly more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle suddenly appearing from the periphery, adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Adults with ADHD were more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle during a driving simulation suggesting that deficits in directed attention may underlie driving impairments in this population. PMID:17263888

  10. Effect of drive mechanisms on dynamic characteristics of spacecraft tracking-drive flexible systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shi-yao; Lei, Yong-jun; Wu, Xin-feng; Zhang, Da-peng

    2015-05-01

    Spacecraft tracking-drive flexible systems (STFS) consist of drive mechanisms and flexible structures, including solar array and a variety of large-scale antennas. The electromechanical interaction inside drive mechanisms makes it quite complicated to directly analyze the dynamic characteristics of an STFS. In this paper, an indirect dynamic characteristic analysis method for operating-state STFS is presented. The proposed method utilizes the structure dynamics approximation of drive mechanisms that converts the electromechanical model of an STFS into a structure dynamic model with elastic boundary conditions. The structure dynamics approximation and the dynamic characteristic analysis method are validated by experimental and analytical results, respectively. The analysis results indicate that the gear transmission ratio and viscous friction coefficient are the primary factors in approximating boundary stiffness and damping. Dynamic characteristics of an STFS with a large gear transmission ratio are close to that of a flexible structure with a cantilever boundary. Otherwise, torsion-mode natural frequencies of the STFS become smaller and corresponding modal damping ratios become larger, as a result of the local stiffness and damping features of drive mechanisms.

  11. Portrait of a Contemporary Drive-In Movie Theater Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Personal interviews were conducted with drive-in theatre patrons in an attempt to paint an empirical portrait of a contemporary drive-in movie theatre audience. A total of 607 patrons of one Rochester, New York, drive-in were interviewed by trained college undergraduates using a prepared 33-item questionnaire consisting of open- and close-ended…

  12. DC drive system for cine/pulse cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerlach, R. H.; Sharpsteen, J. T.; Solheim, C. D.; Stoap, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Camera-drive functions are separated mechanically into two groups which are driven by two separate dc brushless motors. First motor, a 90 deg stepper, drives rotating shutter; second electronically commutated motor drives claw and film transport. Shutter is made of one piece but has two openings for slow and fast exposures.

  13. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  14. 1. General view to northwest along Williamson Drive, showing, L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view to northwest along Williamson Drive, showing, L to R: medical Officer's Quarters B (HABS No. VA-1287-E) and Medical Officer's Quarters C - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Medical Officer's Quarters C, West side Williamson Drive, 400 feet South of Rixey Drive, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  15. Verbal Behavior and Drive: A Theory in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradac, James J.; Elliot, Norman D.

    There is increasing debate over the unidimensionality of the construct "drive" in theories of behavior. The earliest drive theory postulated a simple entity which increased or decreased as a function of external or internal stimulation and affected behavior monotonically. Duffy and Malmo have recently hypothesized that the effects of drive are not…

  16. Compact, Efficient Drive Circuit for a Piezoelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matice, Chris; Sager, Frank E.; Robertson, William

    2006-01-01

    A switching circuit that drives a piezoelectric pump at a high voltage with a polarity that alternates at the desired mechanical pump frequency is described and depicted. This circuit offers advantages of (1) high energy efficiency relative to conventional direct-drive circuits and (2) compactness relative to conventional resonant drive circuits.

  17. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in §...

  18. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in §...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19003 - Driving mechanism connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Driving mechanism connections. 57.19003 Section... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19003 Driving mechanism connections. Belt, rope, or chains shall not be used to connect driving mechanisms to man hoists....

  20. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of...

  2. 32 CFR 634.47 - Disposition of driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of driving records. 634.47 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.47 Disposition of driving records. Procedures will be established to ensure...

  3. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4... WORKERS § 398.4 Driving of motor vehicles. (a) Compliance required. Every motor carrier shall comply with... concerned with the management, maintenance, operation, or driving of motor vehicles, shall comply with...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  6. 32 CFR 634.47 - Disposition of driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of driving records. 634.47 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.47 Disposition of driving records. Procedures will be established to ensure...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  8. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4... WORKERS § 398.4 Driving of motor vehicles. (a) Compliance required. Every motor carrier shall comply with... concerned with the management, maintenance, operation, or driving of motor vehicles, shall comply with...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of...

  10. 32 CFR 634.47 - Disposition of driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposition of driving records. 634.47 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.47 Disposition of driving records. Procedures will be established to ensure...

  11. 32 CFR 634.15 - Restricted driving privileges or probation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Restricted driving privileges or probation. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.15 Restricted driving privileges or probation. (a) For the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and...

  12. 40 CFR 86.115-00 - EPA dynamometer driving schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA dynamometer driving schedules. 86... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.115-00 EPA dynamometer driving schedules. Section 86.115... corresponding paragraph and the statement “ . For guidance see § 86.115-78.” (a) The driving schedules for...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19003 - Driving mechanism connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Driving mechanism connections. 56.19003 Section... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19003 Driving mechanism connections. Belt, rope, or chains shall not be used to connect driving mechanisms to man hoists....

  15. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19003 - Driving mechanism connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Driving mechanism connections. 57.19003 Section... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19003 Driving mechanism connections. Belt, rope, or chains shall not be used to connect driving mechanisms to man hoists....

  17. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  18. 32 CFR 634.15 - Restricted driving privileges or probation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restricted driving privileges or probation. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.15 Restricted driving privileges or probation. (a) For the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  20. 49 CFR 230.104 - Driving box shoes and wedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driving box shoes and wedges. 230.104 Section 230.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.104 Driving box shoes and wedges. Driving box shoes and...