Science.gov

Sample records for driven superconducting phase

  1. Quantum dynamics of a microwave driven superconducting phase qubit coupled to a two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan

    2010-10-01

    We present an analytical and comprehensive description of the quantum dynamics of a microwave resonantly driven superconducting phase qubit coupled to a microscopic two-level system (TLS), covering a wide range of the external microwave field strength. Our model predicts several interesting phenomena in such an ac driven four-level bipartite system including anomalous Rabi oscillations, high-contrast beatings of Rabi oscillations, and extraordinary two-photon transitions. Our experimental results in a coupled qubit-TLS system agree quantitatively very well with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  2. Enhancement of superconductivity by pressure-driven phase competition in electronic order

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Yu, Yong; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Lin, Cheng-Tian; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2010-08-19

    Finding ways to achieve higher values of the transition temperature, Tc, in superconductors remains a great challenge. The superconducting phase is often one of several competing types of electronic order, including antiferromagnetism and charge density waves. An emerging trend documented in heavy-fermion and organic conductors is that the maximum Tc for superconductivity occurs under external conditions that cause the critical temperature for a competing order to go to zero. Recently, such competition has been found in multilayer copper oxide high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) that possess two crystallographically inequivalent CuO2 planes in the unit cell. However, whether the competing electronic state can be suppressed to enhance Tc in HTSCs remains an open question. Here we show that pressure-driven phase competition leads to an unusual two-step enhancement of c in optimally doped trilayer Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ (Bi2223). We find that Tc first increases with pressure and then decreases after passing through a maximum. Unexpectedly, Tc increases again when the pressure is further raised above a critical value of around 24 GPa, surpassing the first maximum. The presence of this critical pressure is a manifestation of the crossover from the competing order to superconductivity in the inner of the three CuO2 planes. We suggest that the increase at higher pressures occurs as a result of competition between pairing and phase ordering in different CuO2 planes.

  3. Driven superconducting quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2014-03-01

    Driven nonlinear quantum systems show rich phenomena in various fields of physics. Among them, superconducting quantum circuits have very attractive features such as well-controlled quantum states with design flexibility, strong nonlinearity of Josephson junctions, strong coupling to electromagnetic driving fields, little internal dissipation, and tailored coupling to the electromagnetic environment. We have investigated properties and functionalities of driven superconducting quantum circuits. A transmon qubit coupled to a transmission line shows nearly perfect spatial mode matching between the incident and scattered microwave field in the 1D mode. Dressed states under a driving field are studied there and also in a semi-infinite 1D mode terminated by a resonator containing a flux qubit. An effective Λ-type three-level system is realized under an appropriate driving condition. It allows ``impedance-matched'' perfect absorption of incident probe photons and down conversion into another frequency mode. Finally, the weak signal from the qubit is read out using a Josephson parametric amplifier/oscillator which is another nonlinear circuit driven by a strong pump field. This work was partly supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST), Project for Developing Innovation Systems of MEXT, MEXT KAKENHI ``Quantum Cybernetics,'' and the NICT Commissioned Research.

  4. Zeeman-driven phase transition within the superconducting state of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J. A.; Green, E.; kuhns, P.; Reyes, A.; Brooks, J.; Schlueter, J.; Kato, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Brown , S. E.

    2011-08-16

    {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were performed on {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}, with the external field placed parallel to the quasi-2D conducting layers. The absorption spectrum is used to determine the electronic spin polarization M{sub s} as a function of external field H at a temperature T = 0.35 K. A discontinuity in the derivative dM{sub s}/dH at an applied field of H{sub s} = 213 {+-} 3 kOe is taken as evidence for a Zeeman-driven transition within the superconducting state and stabilization of inhomogeneous superconductivity.

  5. Superconducting Coplanar Switch and Phase Shifter for CMB Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordier, G.; Cammilleri, V. D.; Belier, B.; Bleurvacq, N.; Gadot, F.; Ghribi, A.; Piat, M.; Tartari, A.; Zanonni, M.

    2016-08-01

    The next generations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) instruments will be dedicated to the detection and characterization of CMB B-modes. To measure this tiny signal, instruments need to control and minimize systematics. Signal modulation is one way to achieve such a control. A new generation of focal planes will include the entire detection chain. In this context, we present a superconducting coplanar switch driven by DC current. It consists of a superconducting microbridge which commutes between its on (superconducting) and off (normal metal) states, depending on the amplitude of the injected current compared to the critical current. If the current injected inside the bridge is lower than the critical current, the phase of the signal passing through the bridge is tunable. A first prototype of this component working as a switch and as a phase shifter at 10 GHz has been made. The principle, the setup, and the first measurements made at 4 K will be shown.

  6. Phase competition in trisected superconducting dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishik, Inna

    2012-02-01

    The momentum-resolved nature of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has made it a key probe of emergent phases in the cuprates, such as superconductivity and the pseudogap, which have anisotropic momentum-space structure. ARPES can be used to infer the origin of spectral gaps from their distinct phenomenology---temperature, doping, and momentum dependence, and this principle has been used to argue that the pseudogap is a distinct phase from superconductivity, rather than a precursor [1]. We have studied Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) using laser-ARPES, and our data give evidence for three distinct quantum phases comprising the superconducting ground state, accompanied by abrupt changes at p˜0.076 and p˜0.19 in the doping-and-temperature dependence of the gaps near the bond-diagonal (nodal) direction [2]. The latter doping likely marks the quantum critical point of the pseudogap, while the former represents a distinct competing phase at the edge of the superconducting dome. Additionally, we find that the pseudogap advances closer towards the node when superconductivity is weak, just below Tc or at low doping, and retreats towards the antinode well below Tc and at higher doping. This phase competition picture together with the two critical doping are synthesized into our proposed phase diagram, which also reconciles conflicting phase diagrams commonly used in the field. Our results underscore the importance of quantum critical phenomena to cuprate superconductivity, provide a microscopic picture of phase competition in momentum space, and predict the existence of phase boundaries inside the superconducting dome which are different from simple extrapolations from outside the dome. [4pt] [1] I. M. Vishik, W. S. Lee, R.-H. He, M. Hashimoto, Z. Hussain, T. P. Devereaux, and Z.-X. Shen. New J. Phys. 12, 105008 (2010). [0pt] [2] I. M. Vishik, M. Hashimoto, R.-H. He, W. S. Lee, F. Schmitt, D. H. Lu, R.G. Moore, C. Zhang, W. Meevasana, T. Sasagawa, S. Uchida, K

  7. Odd-frequency superconductivity in driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2016-09-01

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then consider a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential and, treating the drive as a perturbation, we investigate the corrections to the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that in the presence of an external drive the anomalous Green's function develops terms that are odd in frequency and that the same mechanism responsible for these odd-frequency terms generates additional features in the density of states and spectral function.

  8. Intermediate Phase in the Superconducting Cuprates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Takeshi

    2007-03-01

    It has long been speculated that upon doping the Mott-Hubbard insulator may go through an intermediate phase before becoming a Fermi-liquid metal. If there is such a phase its structure may be intimately connected to the mechanism of the pseudogap and superconductivity. The only well-defined and popular option has been the spin-charge stripe phase, but the strongly one-dimensional nature of the stripe phase is at odds with the highly two-dimensional CuO2 plane. We propose a superlattice of 2√2 x2√2 in the a-b plane as an alternative candidate for the intermediate phase. In this phase the Mott-Hubbard states and the Fermi-liquid phase coexist in different Brillouin sub-zones. The presence of such a phase is consistent with the recent results of the ARPES at a high energy scale (J. Graf, et al., cond-mat/0607319), dispersion of Cu-O bond-stretching phonon mode in YBCO, pulsed neutron PDF analysis of LSCO, and our recent observation of the supperlattice peaks in YBa2Cu4O8 single crystal by x-ray diffraction. The intensity of the superlattice peaks in YBa2Cu4O8 decreases below 250K. This is an unusual behavior for the ordering peak, suggesting the interplay with superconductivity.

  9. Phase transformations in superconducting and non-superconducting perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the high {Tc} superconductors and other perovskite-related cuprates exhibit some kind of structural instability. For example, tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transformations occur in the Y-Ba-Cu-O and La-Sr-Cu-O systems while crystal structures in the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O systems have incommensurate periodicities associated with displacements of the heavy cations. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}, the transformation is due to the ordering of oxygen vacancies while in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} the transformation is accompanied by tilting of the (CuO{sub 6}) octahedra. Such tilting and distortion of the co-ordination octahedra commonly occur in perovskite-related compounds and transformations between the structures are frequently martensitic. Phase transformations in the superconducting cuprates have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy but none of them appear to be martensitic. The phase transformations are accompanied by twinning and the resulting configurations are used to calculate twin boundary energies.

  10. Phase transformations in superconducting and non-superconducting perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.

    1992-07-01

    Most of the high {Tc} superconductors and other perovskite-related cuprates exhibit some kind of structural instability. For example, tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transformations occur in the Y-Ba-Cu-O and La-Sr-Cu-O systems while crystal structures in the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O systems have incommensurate periodicities associated with displacements of the heavy cations. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}, the transformation is due to the ordering of oxygen vacancies while in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} the transformation is accompanied by tilting of the [CuO{sub 6}] octahedra. Such tilting and distortion of the co-ordination octahedra commonly occur in perovskite-related compounds and transformations between the structures are frequently martensitic. Phase transformations in the superconducting cuprates have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy but none of them appear to be martensitic. The phase transformations are accompanied by twinning and the resulting configurations are used to calculate twin boundary energies.

  11. Reentrant Phase Coherence in Superconducting Nanowire Composites.

    PubMed

    Ansermet, Diane; Petrović, Alexander P; He, Shikun; Chernyshov, Dmitri; Hoesch, Moritz; Salloum, Diala; Gougeon, Patrick; Potel, Michel; Boeri, Lilia; Andersen, Ole Krogh; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-01-26

    The short coherence lengths characteristic of low-dimensional superconductors are associated with usefully high critical fields or temperatures. Unfortunately, such materials are often sensitive to disorder and suffer from phase fluctuations in the superconducting order parameter which diverge with temperature T, magnetic field H, or current I. We propose an approach to overcome synthesis and fluctuation problems: building superconductors from inhomogeneous composites of nanofilaments. Macroscopic crystals of quasi-one-dimensional Na2-δMo6Se6 featuring Na vacancy disorder (δ ≈ 0.2) are shown to behave as percolative networks of superconducting nanowires. Long-range order is established via transverse coupling between individual one-dimensional filaments, yet phase coherence remains unstable to fluctuations and localization in the zero (T,H,I) limit. However, a region of reentrant phase coherence develops upon raising (T,H,I). We attribute this phenomenon to an enhancement of the transverse coupling due to electron delocalization. Our observations of reentrant phase coherence coincide with a peak in the Josephson energy EJ at nonzero (T,H,I), which we estimate using a simple analytical model for a disordered anisotropic superconductor. Na2-δMo6Se6 is therefore a blueprint for a future generation of nanofilamentary superconductors with inbuilt resilience to phase fluctuations at elevated (T,H,I).

  12. Light-driven phase shifter

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    1990-01-01

    A light-driven phase shifter is provided for modulating a transmission light beam. A gaseous medium such as argon is provided with electron energy states excited to populate a metastable state. A tunable dye laser is selected with a wavelength effective to deplete the metastable electron state and may be intensity modulated. The dye laser is directed through the gaseous medium to define a first optical path having an index of refraction determined by the gaseous medium having a depleted metastable electron state. A transmission laser beam is also directed through the gaseous medium to define a second optical path at least partially coincident with the first optical path. The intensity of the dye laser beam may then be varied to phase modulate the transmission laser beam.

  13. Superconducting and Insulating Phases of Disordered FeSe Thin Films in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R.; Zaitsev, A. G.; Fuchs, D.; von Löhneysen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The temperature-dependent electronic transport on the superconducting and insulating sides of the superconductor-insulator transition in disordered quasi-two-dimensional textured FeSe thin films is reported. The transition is driven by a perpendicular magnetic field applied to a film with its thickness close to the critical thickness of the thickness-, i.e., disorder-induced transition. The resistance in the superconducting phase might be dominated by thermally assisted flux flow, and in the phase diagram a metallic phase might intervene between the superconducting and insulating state at very low temperatures. In the insulating phase, weak insulating behavior is observed that can be described by weak localization theory of bosons, thus supporting the bosonic description of the superconductor-insulator transition in FeSe thin films.

  14. Phase engineering techniques in superconducting quantum electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, O.; Ortlepp, Th; Dimov, B.; Uhlmann, F. H.

    2008-02-01

    Due to the pulse driven nature of the Rapid Single Flux Quantum electronics nearly every basic cell requires the capability of temporary data storing. Implementing phase shifting elements in this essential device leads to several advantages concerning the device characteristics. There are different concepts enabling phase shifting elements. We give a comparative overview about these approaches. The effect of this novel element on a basic cell is analyzed exampling a toggle-flip-flop. Based on the effective noise temperature determined from the experimental results of a standard flip-flop, the bit error rate for several toggle-flip-flop realizations containing different phase shifting elements was calculated. A significantly improved area of function could be shown by simulated error rates lower than 10-12 with a DC bias margin better than ±63.5%.

  15. Two distinct superconducting phases in LiFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, P. K.; Schlegel, R.; Baumann, D.; Grafe, H.-J.; Beck, R.; Wurmehl, S.; Büchner, B.; Hess, C.

    2016-06-01

    A non-trivial temperature evolution of superconductivity including a temperature-induced phase transition between two superconducting phases or even a time-reversal symmetry breaking order parameter is in principle expected in multiband superconductors such as iron-pnictides. Here we present scanning tunnelling spectroscopy data of LiFeAs which reveal two distinct superconducting phases: at = 18 K a partial superconducting gap opens, evidenced by subtle, yet clear features in the tunnelling spectra, i.e. particle-hole symmetric coherence peak and dip-hump structures. At Tc = 16 K, these features substantiate dramatically and become characteristic of full superconductivity. Remarkably, the distance between the dip-hump structures and the coherence peaks remains practically constant in the whole temperature regimeT ≤ . This rules out the connection of the dip-hump structures to an antiferromagnetic spin resonance.

  16. Two distinct superconducting phases in LiFeAs.

    PubMed

    Nag, P K; Schlegel, R; Baumann, D; Grafe, H-J; Beck, R; Wurmehl, S; Büchner, B; Hess, C

    2016-01-01

    A non-trivial temperature evolution of superconductivity including a temperature-induced phase transition between two superconducting phases or even a time-reversal symmetry breaking order parameter is in principle expected in multiband superconductors such as iron-pnictides. Here we present scanning tunnelling spectroscopy data of LiFeAs which reveal two distinct superconducting phases: at = 18 K a partial superconducting gap opens, evidenced by subtle, yet clear features in the tunnelling spectra, i.e. particle-hole symmetric coherence peak and dip-hump structures. At Tc = 16 K, these features substantiate dramatically and become characteristic of full superconductivity. Remarkably, the distance between the dip-hump structures and the coherence peaks remains practically constant in the whole temperature regimeT ≤ . This rules out the connection of the dip-hump structures to an antiferromagnetic spin resonance. PMID:27297474

  17. Two distinct superconducting phases in LiFeAs

    PubMed Central

    Nag, P. K.; Schlegel, R.; Baumann, D.; Grafe, H.-J.; Beck, R.; Wurmehl, S.; Büchner, B.; Hess, C.

    2016-01-01

    A non-trivial temperature evolution of superconductivity including a temperature-induced phase transition between two superconducting phases or even a time-reversal symmetry breaking order parameter is in principle expected in multiband superconductors such as iron-pnictides. Here we present scanning tunnelling spectroscopy data of LiFeAs which reveal two distinct superconducting phases: at = 18 K a partial superconducting gap opens, evidenced by subtle, yet clear features in the tunnelling spectra, i.e. particle-hole symmetric coherence peak and dip-hump structures. At Tc = 16 K, these features substantiate dramatically and become characteristic of full superconductivity. Remarkably, the distance between the dip-hump structures and the coherence peaks remains practically constant in the whole temperature regimeT ≤ . This rules out the connection of the dip-hump structures to an antiferromagnetic spin resonance. PMID:27297474

  18. Topological superconducting phase and Majorana bound states in Shiba chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pientka, Falko; Peng, Yang; Glazman, Leonid; von Oppen, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Chains of magnetic adatoms on a conventional superconducting substrate constitute a promising venue for realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana end states. Here, we give a brief overview over recent attempts to describe these systems theoretically, emphasizing how the topological phase emerges from the physics of individual magnetic impurities and their associated Shiba states.

  19. Crystal structure of the superconducting phase of sulfur hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einaga, Mari; Sakata, Masafumi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shimizu, Katsuya; Eremets, Mikhail I.; Drozdov, Alexander P.; Troyan, Ivan A.; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2016-09-01

    A superconducting critical temperature above 200 K has recently been discovered in H2S (or D2S) under high hydrostatic pressure. These measurements were interpreted in terms of a decomposition of these materials into elemental sulfur and a hydrogen-rich hydride that is responsible for the superconductivity, although direct experimental evidence for this mechanism has so far been lacking. Here we report the crystal structure of the superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide (and deuterium sulfide) in the normal and superconducting states obtained by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, combined with electrical resistance measurements at both room and low temperatures. We find that the superconducting phase is mostly in good agreement with the theoretically predicted body-centred cubic (bcc) structure for H3S. The presence of elemental sulfur is also manifest in the X-ray diffraction patterns, thus proving the decomposition mechanism of H2S to H3S + S under pressure.

  20. Reactive evaporation of Chevrel phase superconducting compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. J.; Goldman, A. M.; Kang, J. H.; Maps, J.; Schmidt, M. F.

    1985-03-01

    Thin films of Chevrel phase compounds CuMo6S8 and HoMo6S8 have been formed using a reactive evaporation technique in which the metallic constituents are derived from either electron-gun or resistively heated sources and S vapor is obtained from a molecular beam oven. The constituents are reacted on a sapphire substrate kept at elevated temperatures. Compositional uniformity is insured by controlling the S rate and locking the rates of the other sources to it in a prearranged fashion. The evaporation system used in this work is equipped with a vacuum lock which permits substrates to be changed without reprocessing the system. CuMo6S8 films produced using these techniques are relatively pure and well-ordered. HoMo6S8 films show a resistance minimum but do not become completely superconducting as prepared, but do so after reactive annealing. These methods have not been used successfully to form PbMo6S8 films because of the high volatility and short dwell time of Pb on the substrate surface.

  1. Superconducting phase diagram of itinerant antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rømer, A. T.; Eremin, I.; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Andersen, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    We study the phase diagram of the Hubbard model in the weak-coupling limit for coexisting spin-density-wave order and spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. Both longitudinal and transverse spin fluctuations contribute significantly to the effective interaction potential, which creates Cooper pairs of the quasiparticles of the antiferromagnetic metallic state. We find a dominant dx2-y2-wave solution in both electron- and hole-doped cases. In the quasi-spin-triplet channel, the longitudinal fluctuations give rise to an effective attraction supporting a p -wave gap, but are overcome by repulsive contributions from the transverse fluctuations which disfavor p -wave pairing compared to dx2-y2. The subleading pair instability is found to be in the g -wave channel, but complex admixtures of d and g are not energetically favored since their nodal structures coincide. Inclusion of interband pairing, in which each fermion in the Cooper pair belongs to a different spin-density-wave band, is considered for a range of electron dopings in the regime of well-developed magnetic order. We demonstrate that these interband pairing gaps, which are nonzero in the magnetic state, must have the same parity under inversion as the normal intraband gaps. The self-consistent solution to the full system of five coupled gap equations gives intraband and interband pairing gaps of dx2-y2 structure and similar gap magnitude. In conclusion, the dx2-y2 gap dominates for both hole and electron doping inside the spin-density-wave phase.

  2. Precision vector control of a superconducting RF cavity driven by an injection locked magnetron

    DOE PAGES

    Chase, Brian; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Cullerton, Ed; Varghese, Philip

    2015-03-01

    The technique presented in this paper enables the regulation of both radio frequency amplitude and phase in narrow band devices such as a Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity driven by constant power output devices i.e. magnetrons [1]. The ability to use low cost high efficiency magnetrons for accelerator RF power systems, with tight vector regulation, presents a substantial cost savings in both construction and operating costs - compared to current RF power system technology. An operating CW system at 2.45 GHz has been experimentally developed. Vector control of an injection locked magnetron has been extensively tested and characterized with a SRFmore » cavity as the load. Amplitude dynamic range of 30 dB, amplitude stability of 0.3% r.m.s, and phase stability of 0.26 degrees r.m.s. has been demonstrated.« less

  3. Precision vector control of a superconducting RF cavity driven by an injection locked magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, Brian; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Cullerton, Ed; Varghese, Philip

    2015-03-01

    The technique presented in this paper enables the regulation of both radio frequency amplitude and phase in narrow band devices such as a Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity driven by constant power output devices i.e. magnetrons [1]. The ability to use low cost high efficiency magnetrons for accelerator RF power systems, with tight vector regulation, presents a substantial cost savings in both construction and operating costs - compared to current RF power system technology. An operating CW system at 2.45 GHz has been experimentally developed. Vector control of an injection locked magnetron has been extensively tested and characterized with a SRF cavity as the load. Amplitude dynamic range of 30 dB, amplitude stability of 0.3% r.m.s, and phase stability of 0.26 degrees r.m.s. has been demonstrated.

  4. d-wave superconducting phase diagram of the two dimensional Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Andre Marie; Sordi, Giovanni; Semon, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Superconductivity and Mott insulating state intertwine in materials such as cuprates and organic conductors. We study the d-wave superconducting phase at finite temperature in the two-dimensional Hubbard model on the square lattice within cellular dynamical mean-field theory and continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo. The whole phase diagram as a function of temperature, doping and interaction strength shows that a transition directly to the superconducting state from a Mott insulator is possible at the cellular dynamical mean-field level, whether the transition is bandwidth or doping driven. The dynamical mean-field superconducting transition temperature Tcd does not scale with the superconducting order parameter when there is a normal-state pseudogap. Tcd corresponds to the local pair formation temperature observed in tunneling experiments and is distinct from the pseudogap temperature, suggesting that pseudogap and superconductivity are distinct phenomena. Refs: G. Sordi et al., PRB 041101 (2013), G. Sordi et al. PRL 108 2164101 (2012) This work was supported by NSERC (Canada), CFI (Canada), CIFAR, and the Tier I Canada Research chair Program (A.-M.S.T.). Computational facilities were provided by Compute Canada and Calcul Quebec.

  5. Optimization of the superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Masur, E. A.

    2015-12-15

    The electron and phonon spectra, as well as the densities of electron and phonon states of the SH{sub 3} phase and the stable orthorhombic structure of hydrogen sulfide SH{sub 2}, are calculated for the pressure interval 100–225 GPa. It is found that the I4/mmm phase can be responsible for the superconducting properties of metallic hydrogen sulfide along with the SH{sub 3} phase. Sequential stages for obtaining and conservation of the SH{sub 2} phase are proposed. The properties of two (SH{sub 2} and SH{sub 3}) superconducting phases of hydrogen sulfide are compared.

  6. Superconducting switch concept applied to superconducting undulator phase-error correction

    SciTech Connect

    Madur, A.; Trillaud, F.; Dietderich, D.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, S.; Schlueter, R.

    2010-06-23

    Superconducting undulator (SCU) technology has the potential to significantly enhance the performance of synchrotron radiation sources for storage ring and FEL applications. Since 2002, our team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been performing R and D on superconducting undulators, including the fabrication of three Nb{sub 3}Sn prototypes. We have demonstrated experimentally the possibility to provide the prototype with trim coils that could be used for phase error correction. The research effort that we report here demonstrates the possibility to add degrees of freedom to the field correction provided by these coils in a cryogenic environment. By means of bridge of superconducting switches, we can modify the current direction through a trim coil. Here we describe the design of the experimental bridge we fabricated, the results we obtained and finally the generalized concept one could plan to apply to correct the phase errors with trim coils connected to a network of superconducting bridges.

  7. Pressure-driven formation and stabilization of superconductive chromium hydrides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuyin; Jia, Xiaojing; Frapper, Gilles; Li, Duan; Oganov, Artem R.; Zeng, Qingfeng; Zhang, Litong

    2015-01-01

    Chromium hydride is a prototype stoichiometric transition metal hydride. The phase diagram of Cr-H system at high pressures remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in dealing with the high activation barriers and complications in handing hydrogen under pressure. We have performed an extensive structural study on Cr-H system at pressure range 0 ∼ 300 GPa using an unbiased structure prediction method based on evolutionary algorithm. Upon compression, a number of hydrides are predicted to become stable in the excess hydrogen environment and these have compositions of Cr2Hn (n = 2–4, 6, 8, 16). Cr2H3, CrH2 and Cr2H5 structures are versions of the perfect anti-NiAs-type CrH with ordered tetrahedral interstitial sites filled by H atoms. CrH3 and CrH4 exhibit host-guest structural characteristics. In CrH8, H2 units are also identified. Our study unravels that CrH is a superconductor at atmospheric pressure with an estimated transition temperature (T c) of 10.6 K, and superconductivity in CrH3 is enhanced by the metallic hydrogen sublattice with T c of 37.1 K at 81 GPa, very similar to the extensively studied MgB2. PMID:26626579

  8. An Electron Bunch Compression Scheme for a Superconducting Radio Frequency Linear Accelerator Driven Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    C. Tennant, S.V. Benson, D. Douglas, P. Evtushenko, R.A. Legg

    2011-09-01

    We describe an electron bunch compression scheme suitable for use in a light source driven by a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linac. The key feature is the use of a recirculating linac to perform the initial bunch compression. Phasing of the second pass beam through the linac is chosen to de-chirp the electron bunch prior to acceleration to the final energy in an SRF linac ('afterburner'). The final bunch compression is then done at maximum energy. This scheme has the potential to circumvent some of the most technically challenging aspects of current longitudinal matches; namely transporting a fully compressed, high peak current electron bunch through an extended SRF environment, the need for a RF harmonic linearizer and the need for a laser heater. Additional benefits include a substantial savings in capital and operational costs by efficiently using the available SRF gradient.

  9. Fluctuation driven electroweak phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  10. Phase segregation of superconductivity and ferromagnetism at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, N; Taraphder, A

    2014-01-15

    The highly conductive two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between insulating SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 shows low-temperature superconductivity coexisting with inhomogeneous ferromagnetism. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction with the in-plane Zeeman field of the system favors p(x) ± ip(y)-wave superconductivity at finite momentum. Owing to the intrinsic disorder at the interface, the role of spatial inhomogeneity in the superconducting and ferromagnetic states becomes important. We find that, for strong disorder, the system breaks up into mutually excluded regions of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. This inhomogeneity-driven electronic phase separation accounts for the unusual coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism observed at the interface.

  11. Correlation-driven d -wave superconductivity in Anderson lattice model: Two gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokiński, Marcin M.; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Spałek, Józef

    2016-07-01

    Superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has an unconventional nature and is considered to originate from the universal features of the electronic structure. Here, the Anderson lattice model is studied by means of the full variational Gutzwiller wave function incorporating nonlocal effects of the on-site interaction. We show that the d -wave superconducting ground state can be driven solely by interelectronic correlations. The proposed microscopic mechanism leads to a multigap superconductivity with the dominant contribution due to f electrons and in the dx2-y2-wave channel. Our results rationalize several important observations for CeCoIn5.

  12. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    SciTech Connect

    Bharacharya, R.; Parilla, P.A.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1995-12-19

    A process is disclosed for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material. 3 figs.

  13. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    SciTech Connect

    Bharacharya, Raghuthan; Parilla, Philip A.; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material.

  14. Pressure-driven superconductivity in the transition-metal pentatelluride HfT e5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yanpeng; Shi, Wujun; Naumov, Pavel G.; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Barkalov, Oleg; Shekhar, Chandra; Borrmann, Horst; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Medvedev, Sergey A.

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in hafnium pentatelluride HfT e5 under high pressure is reported. Two structural phase transitions and metallization with superconductivity developing at around 5 GPa are observed. A maximal critical temperature of 4.8 K is attained at a pressure of 20 GPa, and superconductivity persists up to the maximum pressure of the study (42 GPa). The combination of electrical transport and crystal structure measurements as well as theoretical electronic structure calculations enables the construction of a phase diagram of HfT e5 under high pressure.

  15. Electromagnetic interactions between fluctuations near the superconducting phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenfeld, N.; Pethick, C.J.

    1989-05-01

    We calculate the amplitude ratio C/sub +//C/sub -/ for specific-heat fluctuations near the superconducting-phase transition, taking into account the lowest-order fluctuations about mean-field theory. For a U(1) Ginzburg-Landau theory, minimally coupled to electromagnetism in d dimensions, C/sub +//C/sub -/ = 2/(2/sup d/2/+kappa/sup -d/), where kappa is the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We discuss how this result arises from the microscopic theory of superconductivity.

  16. Superconducting resonator used as a beam phase detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharamentov, S. I.; Pardo, R. C.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Clifft, B. E.; Zinkann, G. P.; Physics

    2003-05-01

    Beam-bunch arrival time has been measured for the first time by operating superconducting cavities, normally part of the linac accelerator array, in a bunch-detecting mode. The very high Q of the superconducting cavities provides high sensitivity and allows for phase-detecting low-current beams. In detecting mode, the resonator is operated at a very low field level comparable to the field induced by the bunched beam. Because of this, the rf field in the cavity is a superposition of a 'pure' (or reference) rf and the beam-induced signal. A new method of circular phase rotation (CPR), allowing extraction of the beam phase information from the composite rf field was developed. Arrival time phase determination with CPR is better than 1{sup o} (at 48 MHz) for a beam current of 100 nA. The electronics design is described and experimental data are presented.

  17. Pressure-driven dome-shaped superconductivity and electronic structural evolution in tungsten ditelluride.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xing-Chen; Chen, Xuliang; Liu, Huimei; Feng, Yanqing; Wei, Zhongxia; Zhou, Yonghui; Chi, Zhenhua; Pi, Li; Yen, Fei; Song, Fengqi; Wan, Xiangang; Yang, Zhaorong; Wang, Baigeng; Wang, Guanghou; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-07-23

    Tungsten ditelluride has attracted intense research interest due to the recent discovery of its large unsaturated magnetoresistance up to 60 T. Motivated by the presence of a small, sensitive Fermi surface of 5d electronic orbitals, we boost the electronic properties by applying a high pressure, and introduce superconductivity successfully. Superconductivity sharply appears at a pressure of 2.5 GPa, rapidly reaching a maximum critical temperature (Tc) of 7 K at around 16.8 GPa, followed by a monotonic decrease in Tc with increasing pressure, thereby exhibiting the typical dome-shaped superconducting phase. From theoretical calculations, we interpret the low-pressure region of the superconducting dome to an enrichment of the density of states at the Fermi level and attribute the high-pressure decrease in Tc to possible structural instability. Thus, tungsten ditelluride may provide a new platform for our understanding of superconductivity phenomena in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  18. Pressure-driven dome-shaped superconductivity and electronic structural evolution in tungsten ditelluride

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xing-Chen; Chen, Xuliang; Liu, Huimei; Feng, Yanqing; Wei, Zhongxia; Zhou, Yonghui; Chi, Zhenhua; Pi, Li; Yen, Fei; Song, Fengqi; Wan, Xiangang; Yang, Zhaorong; Wang, Baigeng; Wang, Guanghou; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten ditelluride has attracted intense research interest due to the recent discovery of its large unsaturated magnetoresistance up to 60 T. Motivated by the presence of a small, sensitive Fermi surface of 5d electronic orbitals, we boost the electronic properties by applying a high pressure, and introduce superconductivity successfully. Superconductivity sharply appears at a pressure of 2.5 GPa, rapidly reaching a maximum critical temperature (Tc) of 7 K at around 16.8 GPa, followed by a monotonic decrease in Tc with increasing pressure, thereby exhibiting the typical dome-shaped superconducting phase. From theoretical calculations, we interpret the low-pressure region of the superconducting dome to an enrichment of the density of states at the Fermi level and attribute the high-pressure decrease in Tc to possible structural instability. Thus, tungsten ditelluride may provide a new platform for our understanding of superconductivity phenomena in transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26203922

  19. Investigation of an electronically tuned 100 GHz superconducting phase shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Tvack, E.K.; Shen, Z.Y.; Dang, H.; Radparvar, M.; Faris, S.M. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation aimed at realizing a tunable superconducting mm-wave phase shifter. The tuning mechanism is based on inductance modulation of NbN microstrips by excess quasiparticle injection. When measured by a dc method, using the interference patterns and resonances of specially designed dc SQUIDs, the inductance of NbN microstrips can be varied by up to 300%. Based on these results, we have designed and fabricated superconducting microstrip interferometers to operate as low power 100 GHz phase shifters. The 100 GHZ signal is coupled into and out of the interferometers by finline antennas. Amplitude modulation of the output is used as the criterion for phase shift in one of the interferometer branches.

  20. Reentrant topological phase transitions in a disordered spinless superconducting wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Brouwer, Piet W.; Adagideli, İnanç

    2013-08-01

    In a one-dimensional spinless p-wave superconductor with coherence length ξ, disorder induces a phase transition between a topologically nontrivial phase and a trivial insulating phase at the critical mean-free path l=ξ/2. Here, we show that a multichannel spinless p-wave superconductor goes through an alternation of topologically trivial and nontrivial phases upon increasing the disorder strength, the number of phase transitions being equal to the channel number N. The last phase transition, from a nontrivial phase into the trivial phase, takes place at a mean-free path l=ξ/(N+1), parametrically smaller than the critical mean-free path in one dimension. Our result is valid in the limit that the wire width W is much smaller than the superconducting coherence length ξ.

  1. Cerenkov Radiator Driven by a Superconducting RF Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Harris, J R

    2011-03-07

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Niowave, Inc., and Boeing have recently demonstrated operation of the first superconducting RF electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator structure. In preliminary tests, this gun has produced 10 ps long bunches with charge in excess of 78 pC, and with beam energy up to 396 keV. Initial testing occurred at Niowave's Lansing, MI facility, but the gun and diagnostic beam line are planned for installation in California in the near future. The design of the diagnostic beam line is conducive to the addition of a Cerenkov radiator without interfering with other beam line operations. Design and simulations of a Cerenkov radiator, consisting of a dielectric lined waveguide will be presented. The dispersion relation for the structure is determined and the beam interaction is studied using numerical simulations. The characteristics of the microwave radiation produced in both the short and long bunch regimes will be presented.

  2. Chern-Simons-Higgs transitions out of topological superconducting phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David J.; Nayak, Chetan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examine effective field theories of superconducting phases with topological order, making a connection to proposed realizations of exotic topological phases (including those hosting Ising and Fibonacci anyons) in superconductor-quantum Hall heterostructures. Our effective field theories for the non-Abelian superconducting states are non-Abelian Chern-Simons theories in which the condensation of vortices carrying non-Abelian gauge flux leads to the associated Abelian quantum Hall states. This Chern-Simons-Higgs condensation process is dual to the emergence of superconducting non-Abelian topological phases in coupled chain constructions. In such transitions, the chiral central charge of the system generally changes, so they fall outside the description of bosonic condensation transitions put forth by Bais and Slingerland [F. A. Bais and J. K. Slingerland, Phys. Rev. B 79, 045316 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.045316] (though the two approaches agree when the described transitions coincide). Our condensation process may be generalized to Chern-Simons theories based on arbitrary Lie groups, always describing a transition from a Lie algebra to its Cartan subalgebra. We include several instructive examples of such transitions.

  3. On excess conductivity of wide superconducting films with phase slippage

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikovsky, A.; Erganokov, Kh.; Bielska-Lewandowska, H.

    1997-02-01

    Properties of wide superconducting tin films in the resistive current state with phase slippage have been studied experimentally. The authors have observed a region of excess conductivity on the current-voltage characteristics of the samples. Experimental results were discussed in view of the theory establishing the relationship between an interference term of the total current and excess current in weak superconductors. They derived the equation to evaluate the inelastic scattering time of superconductor {tau}{sub E} using the excess current of wide films with phase slippage. Their {tau}{sub E} values are in a good agreement with those obtained by other methods.

  4. Quantum phases in circuit QED with a superconducting qubit array

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Yu, Lixian; Liang, J. -Q; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Circuit QED on a chip has become a powerful platform for simulating complex many-body physics. In this report, we realize a Dicke-Ising model with an antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin-spin interaction in circuit QED with a superconducting qubit array. We show that this system exhibits a competition between the collective spin-photon interaction and the antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin-spin interaction, and then predict four quantum phases, including: a paramagnetic normal phase, an antiferromagnetic normal phase, a paramagnetic superradiant phase, and an antiferromagnetic superradiant phase. The antiferromagnetic normal phase and the antiferromagnetic superradiant phase are new phases in many-body quantum optics. In the antiferromagnetic superradiant phase, both the antiferromagnetic and superradiant orders can coexist, and thus the system possesses symmetry. Moreover, we find an unconventional photon signature in this phase. In future experiments, these predicted quantum phases could be distinguished by detecting both the mean-photon number and the magnetization. PMID:24522250

  5. Enhanced Cooper pairing versus suppressed phase coherence shaping the superconducting dome in coupled aluminum nanograins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracht, Uwe S.; Bachar, Nimrod; Benfatto, Lara; Deutscher, Guy; Farber, Eli; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The development of the fundamental superconducting (SC) energy scales—the SC energy gap Δ and the superfluid stiffness J —of granular aluminum, i.e., thin films composed of coupled nanograins, is studied by means of optical THz spectroscopy. Starting from well-coupled grains, Δ grows as the grains are progressively decoupled, causing the unconventional increase of Tc with sample resistivity. When the grain coupling is suppressed further, Δ saturates while the critical temperature Tc decreases, concomitantly with a sharp decline of J , delimiting a SC dome in the phase diagram. This crossover to a phase-driven SC transition is accompanied by an optical gap surviving into the normal state above Tc. We demonstrate that granular aluminum is an ideal testbed to understand the interplay between quantum confinement and global SC phase coherence due to nanoinhomogeneity.

  6. Investigation of alternating-phase focusing for superconducting linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Sagalovsky, L.; Delayen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    The paper describes a new model of alternating-phase focusing (APF) dynamics applicable to ion linacs with short independently controlled superconducting cavities. The equations of motion are derived for a cylindrically symmetric electric field represented by a traveling wave with continuous periodic phase modulation. solutions are obtained and analyzed for both the linear and nonlinear particle motion. Problems of linear stability and overall longitudinal acceptance are solved using standard mathematical techniques for periodic systems; analytical results are obtained. It is shown that the main beam dynamical aspects of APF are adequately described by four parameters: equilibrium synchronous phase, phase modulation amplitude, length of APF period, and incremental energy gain. The model can be applied to study the feasibility of realizing APF in a low-{beta} section of a proton linac.

  7. Investigation of alternating-phase focusing for superconducting linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Sagalovsky, L.; Delayen, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a new model of alternating-phase focusing (APF) dynamics applicable to ion linacs with short independently controlled superconducting cavities. The equations of motion are derived for a cylindrically symmetric electric field represented by a traveling wave with continuous periodic phase modulation. solutions are obtained and analyzed for both the linear and nonlinear particle motion. Problems of linear stability and overall longitudinal acceptance are solved using standard mathematical techniques for periodic systems; analytical results are obtained. It is shown that the main beam dynamical aspects of APF are adequately described by four parameters: equilibrium synchronous phase, phase modulation amplitude, length of APF period, and incremental energy gain. The model can be applied to study the feasibility of realizing APF in a low-{beta} section of a proton linac.

  8. Josephson phase diffusion in the superconducting quantum interference device ratchet

    SciTech Connect

    Spiechowicz, Jakub; Łuczka, Jerzy

    2015-05-15

    We study diffusion of the Josephson phase in the asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) subjected to a time-periodic current and pierced by an external magnetic flux. We analyze a relation between phase diffusion and quality of transport characterized by the dc voltage across the SQUID and efficiency of the device. In doing so, we concentrate on the previously reported regime [J. Spiechowicz and J. Łuczka, New J. Phys. 17, 023054 (2015)] for which efficiency of the SQUID attains a global maximum. For long times, the mean-square displacement of the phase is a linear function of time, meaning that diffusion is normal. Its coefficient is small indicating rather regular phase evolution. However, it can be magnified several times by tailoring experimentally accessible parameters like amplitudes of the ac current or external magnetic flux. Finally, we prove that in the deterministic limit this regime is essentially non-chaotic and possesses an unexpected simplicity of attractors.

  9. Phase structure of cold magnetized color superconducting quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, PG; Grunfeld, AG; Scoccola, NN

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intense magnetic fields on the behavior of color superconducting cold quark matter is investigated using an SU(2) f NJL-type model for which a novel regulation scheme is introduced. In such a scheme the contributions which are explicitly dependent on the magnetic field turn out to be finite and, thus, do not require to be regularized. As a result of this, non-physical oscillations that arise from regularizing magnetic field dependent terms are naturally removed, and oscillations that are actually physical can be better appreciated. The phase diagrams in the ẽB – μ plane are presented for different values of the diquark coupling.

  10. Superconducting NbN Coplanar Switch Driven by DC Current for CMB Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordier, G.; Cammilleri, V. D.; Bélier, B.; Bleurvacq, N.; Ghribi, A.; Piat, M.; Tartari, A.; Zannoni, M.

    2014-09-01

    The next generations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) instruments will be dedicated to the detection and characterisation of CMB B-modes. To measure this tiny signal, instruments need to control and minimise systematics. Signal modulation is one way to achieve such a control. New generation of focal planes will include the entire detection chain on chip. In this context, we present a superconducting coplanar switch driven by DC current. It consists of a superconducting micro-bridge which commutes between its on (superconducting) and off (normal metal) states, depending on the amplitude of the current injection. To be effective, we have to use a high normal state resistivity superconducting material with a gap frequency higher than the frequencies of operation (millimeter waves). Several measurements were made at low temperature on NbN and yielded very high resistivities. Preliminary results of components dc behavior is shown. Thanks to its low power consumption, fast modulation and low weight, this component is a perfect candidate for future CMB space missions.

  11. High pressure driven superconducting critical temperature tuning in Sb2Se3 topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anversa, Jonas; Chakraborty, Sudip; Piquini, Paulo; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, we are reporting the change of superconducting critical temperature in Sb2Se3 topological insulator under the influence of an external hydrostatic pressure based on first principles electronic structure calculations coupled with Migdal-Eliashberg model. Experimentally, it was shown previously that Sb2Se3 was undergoing through a transition to a superconducting phase when subjected to a compressive pressure. Our results show that the critical temperature increases up to 6.15 K under the pressure unto 40 GPa and, subsequently, drops down until 70 GPa. Throughout this pressure range, the system is preserving the initial Pnma symmetry without any structural transformation. Our results suggest that the possible relevant mechanism behind the superconductivity in Sb2Se3 is primarily the electron-phonon coupling.

  12. Magnetism and superconductivity driven by identical 4f states in a heavy-fermion metal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joe E; Nair, S; Stockert, O; Witte, U; Nicklas, M; Schedler, R; Bianchi, A; Fisk, Z; Wirth, S; Steglich, K

    2009-01-01

    The apparently inimical relationship between magnetism and superconductivity has come under increasing scrutiny in a wide range of material classes, where the free energy landscape conspires to bring them in close proximity to each other. Particularly enigmatic is the case when these phases microscopically interpenetrate, though the manner in which this can be accomplished remains to be fully comprehended. Here, we present combined measurements of elastic neutron scattering, magnetotransport, and heat capacity on a prototypical heavy fermion system, in which antiferromagnetism and superconductivity are observed. Monitoring the response of these states to the presence of the other, as well as to external thermal and magnetic perturbations, points to the possibility that they emerge from different parts of the Fermi surface. Therefore, a single 4f state could be both localized and itinerant, thus accounting for the coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity.

  13. Preformed pair induced quantum phase transition in fulleride superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Richard H.; March, Norman H.

    There continues to be enormous interest in the BCS to BEC transition. While the BCS and BEC "end points" seem to be well-established, in the intermediate region - home to fulleride and high temperature superconductors - considerable extrapolation of the models must be done as there still is no exact theory. Last year we reported a revealing reinterpretation of the Boson-Fermion model (BFM) by comparing it to the ldquocoldrdquo atom formulation. While the ground and singly excited states appear to remain continuous in all models we have examined, the collective modes due to a Feshbach resonance (tuned by doping) cause a breakdown of the Migdal theorem, thereby transforming the nature of the superconductivity. As a result of vertex corrections there is a fundamental change in the nature of the superconductivity due to the formation of ldquopreformed pairsrdquo as the previously suggested location (Squire and March, Int J Quantum Chem 2007, 107, 3013) of a quantum critical point in the fulleride phase diagram is passed. The result is a quantum phase transition between BCS and BEC superconductivity (SC) in the BFM. We discuss features of the resonance and the experimentally observed preformed pair formation in fullerides, essential to the BFM, and often speculated since the work of Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink (J Low Temp Phys 1985, 59, 980). Here we present arguments to establish a model of the preformed pair which can be favorably compared with a circular charge density wave (CDW) isolated on a fulleride molecule due to Coulomb splitting of the Jahn-Teller active Hg vibrational modes. Our conclusions are: (1) the doping of two electrons into triply degenerate t1u orbitals results in the experimentally observed singlet state (CDW); and (2) this CDW (preformed pair) results in suppression of BCS SC and enables the Feshbach resonance.

  14. High-temperature superconductivity in Y-Ba-Cu-O: identification of a copper-rich superconducting phase

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, A.M.; Badding, J.V.; Geselbracht, M.J.; Ham, W.K.; Holland, G.F.; Hoskins, R.L.; Keller, S.W.; Millikan, C.F.; zur Loye, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    For the past 15 years, advances in superconductivity have come about only slowly and even a 0.5 K increase in transition temperature was noteworthy. Until April 1986, the highest transition temperatures were near 23 K. At that time, Bednorz and Mueller reported superconductivity in La-Ba-Cu-O compounds above 30 K. The authors report here the composition and properties of a superconducting phase containing Y, Ba, Cu, and O which is copper-rich compared with Y/sub 1.2/Ba/sub 0.8/CuO/sub 4/. This phase show 10-20% Meissner effect, with T/sub 0/ = 90 K. Further the most exciting aspect of this phase is that it is near a low melting (below 1200 /sup 0/C) eutectic; if the phase metals congruently it will be possible to fashion wires.

  15. Phase-controlled superconducting heat-flux quantum modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giazotto, F.; Martínez-Pérez, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    We theoretically put forward the concept of a phase-controlled superconducting heat-flux quantum modulator. Its operation relies on phase-dependent heat current predicted to occur in temperature-biased Josephson tunnel junctions. The device behavior is investigated as a function of temperature bias across the junctions, bath temperature, and junctions asymmetry as well. In a realistic Al-based setup the structure could provide temperature modulation amplitudes up to ˜50 mK with flux-to-temperature transfer coefficients exceeding ˜125 mK/Φ0 below 1 K, and temperature modulation frequency of the order of a few MHz. The proposed structure appears as a promising building-block for the implementation of caloritronic devices operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  16. Superconducting phases of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosenko, Evan; Aji, Vivek

    Layered group-VI dichalcogenides, e.g., MoS2, are two dimensional materials that engender novel coupled spin and valley physics. Characterized by strong spin-orbit coupling and inversion symmetry breaking, they give rise to novel phenomena such as the spin Hall and valley Hall effect. In this talk, I focus on the intrinsic and substrate induced superconducting phases expected in this new class of materials. We will discuss the nature of the quasiparticles resulting from valley discriminating, pair breaking processes, and the effect of the BCS phase on the nature of opto-electronic coupling and nontrivial Berry curvature associated with the bands near each valley. We would like to acknowledge support from ARO W911NF1510079.

  17. Coherent Population Trapping in a Superconducting Phase Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, William R.; Dutton, Zachary; Ohki, Thomas A.; Schlafer, John; Mookerji, Bhaskar; Kline, Jeffery S.; Pappas, David P.

    2010-03-01

    The phenomenon of Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) of an atom (or solid state ``artificial atom''), and the associated effect of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT), are clear demonstrations of quantum interference due to coherence in multi-level quantum systems. We report observation of CPT in a superconducting phase qubit by simultaneously driving two coherent transitions in a λ-type configuration, utilizing the three lowest lying levels of a local minimum of the phase qubit. We observe ˜60% suppression of excited state population under conditions of two-photon resonance, where EIT and CPT are expected to occur. We present data and matching theoretical simulations showing the development of CPT in time. We also used the observed time dependence of the excited state population to characterize quantum dephasing times of the system, as predicted in [1]. [1] K.V. Murali, Z. Dutton, W.D. Oliver, D.S. Crankshaw, and T.P.Orlando, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 087003 (2004).

  18. Observing the geometric phase of a superconducting harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechal, M.; Berger, S.; Abdumalikov, A. A.; Fink, J. M.; Mlynek, J. A.; Steffen, L.; Wallraff, A.; Filipp, S.

    2012-02-01

    Steering a quantum harmonic oscillator state along cyclic trajectories leads to a path-dependent geometric phase [1]. However, the linearity of the system precludes its observation without a non-linear quantum probe. We therefore make use of a superconducting qubit serving as an interferometer to measure the adiabatic geometric phase of a harmonic oscillator realized as an on-chip resonant circuit [2]. We study the geometric phase for a variety of trajectories and show that, in agreement with theory, it is proportional to the area enclosed by the trajectory in the space of coherent states. At the transition to the non-adiabatic regime, oscillatory dephasing effects caused by residual qubit-resonator entanglement are observed and analyzed. We also discuss the possibility of using the harmonic oscillator geometric phase to implement two-qubit phase gates. [4pt] [1] S. Chaturvedi, M. S. Sriram, V. Srinivasan, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 20, L1071 (1987).[2] M. Pechal et al., arXiv:1109.1157v1 [quant-ph].

  19. High-pressure superconducting phase diagram of 6Li: Isotope effects in dense lithium

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Anne Marie; Temple, Scott R.; Bishop, Jasmine K.; Deemyad, Shanti

    2015-01-01

    We measured the superconducting transition temperature of 6Li between 16 and 26 GPa, and report the lightest system to exhibit superconductivity to date. The superconducting phase diagram of 6Li is compared with that of 7Li through simultaneous measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Below 21 GPa, Li exhibits a direct (the superconducting coefficient, α, Tc∝M−α, is positive), but unusually large isotope effect, whereas between 21 and 26 GPa, lithium shows an inverse superconducting isotope effect. The unusual dependence of the superconducting phase diagram of lithium on its atomic mass opens up the question of whether the lattice quantum dynamic effects dominate the low-temperature properties of dense lithium. PMID:25538300

  20. High-pressure superconducting phase diagram of 6Li: isotope effects in dense lithium.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Anne Marie; Temple, Scott R; Bishop, Jasmine K; Deemyad, Shanti

    2015-01-01

    We measured the superconducting transition temperature of (6)Li between 16 and 26 GPa, and report the lightest system to exhibit superconductivity to date. The superconducting phase diagram of (6)Li is compared with that of (7)Li through simultaneous measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Below 21 GPa, Li exhibits a direct (the superconducting coefficient, α, T(c) proportional M(-α), is positive), but unusually large isotope effect, whereas between 21 and 26 GPa, lithium shows an inverse superconducting isotope effect. The unusual dependence of the superconducting phase diagram of lithium on its atomic mass opens up the question of whether the lattice quantum dynamic effects dominate the low-temperature properties of dense lithium.

  1. Rotating-frame relaxation as a noise spectrum analyser of a superconducting qubit undergoing driven evolution.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Gustavsson, Simon; Bylander, Jonas; Jin, Xiaoyue; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Cory, David G; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Orlando, Terry P; Oliver, William D

    2013-01-01

    Gate operations in a quantum information processor are generally realized by tailoring specific periods of free and driven evolution of a quantum system. Unwanted environmental noise, which may in principle be distinct during these two periods, acts to decohere the system and increase the gate error rate. Although there has been significant progress characterizing noise processes during free evolution, the corresponding driven-evolution case is more challenging as the noise being probed is also extant during the characterization protocol. Here we demonstrate the noise spectroscopy (0.1-200 MHz) of a superconducting flux qubit during driven evolution by using a robust spin-locking pulse sequence to measure relaxation (T(1ρ)) in the rotating frame. In the case of flux noise, we resolve spectral features due to coherent fluctuators, and further identify a signature of the 1 MHz defect in a time-domain spin-echo experiment. The driven-evolution noise spectroscopy complements free-evolution methods, enabling the means to characterize and distinguish various noise processes relevant for universal quantum control. PMID:23945930

  2. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    DOE PAGES

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Ruegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; et al

    2015-09-08

    We report that the recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreasesmore » upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5≲ p ≲ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc3.2 as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.« less

  3. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 < or ~  p < or ~ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548

  4. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    SciTech Connect

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Ruegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-08

    We report that the recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5≲ p ≲ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc3.2 as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  5. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    PubMed Central

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p  3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p  7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc  1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5  p  7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548

  6. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-08

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 < or ~  p < or ~ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  7. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p  3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p  7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc  1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5  p  7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  8. Free-electron laser multiplex driven by a superconducting linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Plath, Tim; Amstutz, Philipp; Bödewadt, Jörn; Brenner, Günter; Ekanayake, Nagitha; Faatz, Bart; Hacker, Kirsten; Honkavaara, Katja; Lazzarino, Leslie Lamberto; Lechner, Christoph; Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Scholz, Matthias; Schreiber, Siegfried; Vogt, Mathias; Zemella, Johann; Laarmann, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate femtosecond XUV and X-ray pulses at peak powers in the gigawatt range. The FEL user facility FLASH at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) is driven by a superconducting linear accelerator with up to 8000 pulses per second. Since 2014, two parallel undulator beamlines, FLASH1 and FLASH2, have been in operation. In addition to the main undulator, the FLASH1 beamline is equipped with an undulator section, sFLASH, dedicated to research and development of fully coherent extreme ultraviolet photon pulses using external seed lasers. In this contribution, the first simultaneous lasing of the three FELs at 13.4 nm, 20 nm and 38.8 nm is presented.

  9. Free-electron laser multiplex driven by a superconducting linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Plath, Tim; Amstutz, Philipp; Bödewadt, Jörn; Brenner, Günter; Ekanayake, Nagitha; Faatz, Bart; Hacker, Kirsten; Honkavaara, Katja; Lazzarino, Leslie Lamberto; Lechner, Christoph; Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Scholz, Matthias; Schreiber, Siegfried; Vogt, Mathias; Zemella, Johann; Laarmann, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate femtosecond XUV and X-ray pulses at peak powers in the gigawatt range. The FEL user facility FLASH at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) is driven by a superconducting linear accelerator with up to 8000 pulses per second. Since 2014, two parallel undulator beamlines, FLASH1 and FLASH2, have been in operation. In addition to the main undulator, the FLASH1 beamline is equipped with an undulator section, sFLASH, dedicated to research and development of fully coherent extreme ultraviolet photon pulses using external seed lasers. In this contribution, the first simultaneous lasing of the three FELs at 13.4 nm, 20 nm and 38.8 nm is presented. PMID:27577757

  10. Tuning spin-triplet correlations via the superconducting phase difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoust, Mohammad; Halterman, Klaus; Linder, Jacob

    2013-03-01

    We have considered a lateral s-wave superconductor (S)-ferromagnetic (F) junction where the F layer is part of a Josephson junction loop. It is known that long-ranged spin-triplet correlations dominate the proximity effect when the F layer is thick and has an inhomogeneous magnetization texture. We have studied the sensitivity of the quasi-particle current through a F layer with spiral magnetization pattern against the applied superconducting phase difference. We demonstrate that strong modifications to the corresponding DOS in the inhomogeneous F layer are linked to the presence of equal spin triplet correlations that are odd in time (or frequency). Our results further indicate that the proposed structure can lead to a more stable sensitivity in comparison with either its uniform F or normal metal counterparts. This finding suggests a way to make practical use of spin-triplet correlations in a device designed for detecting extremely weak magnetic fields on the single-spin level. This work is supported in part by ONR and by grants of HPC resources from DOD (HPCMP).

  11. Superconducting Phase in λ-(BEDT-STF)2GaCl4 at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamidate, Takaaki; Oka, Yuki; Shindo, Hironori; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Matsunaga, Noriaki; Nomura, Kazushige; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements under pressure were conducted on the organic conductor λ-(BEDT-STF)2GaCl4, which is situated between λ-(ET)2GaCl4 and λ-(BETS)2GaCl4. Magnetic susceptibility was also measured at ambient pressure. A drop in resistivity, which is associated with the superconducting transition, was observed at Tc ≈ 5 K above 1.22 GPa. The superconducting phase was confirmed by pair-breaking under a magnetic field. This is the first observation of superconductivity in λ-(BEDT-STF)2GaCl4. The temperature dependence of spin susceptibility suggests a two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin system without any magnetic ordering. The phase adjacent to the superconducting phase in λ-type systems is not the antiferromagnetic phase, unlike the case for κ-(ET)2X.

  12. Robustness of superconductivity to competing magnetic phases in tetragonal FeS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Franziska K. K.; Lang, Franz; Topping, Craig V.; Baker, Peter J.; Pratt, Francis L.; Wright, Sophie E.; Woodruff, Daniel N.; Clarke, Simon J.; Blundell, Stephen J.

    2016-10-01

    We have determined the superconducting and magnetic properties of a hydrothermally synthesized powder sample of tetragonal FeS using muon spin rotation (μ SR ) . The superconducting properties are entirely consistent with those of a recently published study, showing fully gapped behavior and giving a penetration depth of λa b=204 (3 ) nm. However, our zero-field μ SR data are rather different and indicate the presence of a small, nonsuperconducting magnetic phase within the sample. These results highlight that sample-to-sample variations in magnetism can arise in hydrothermally prepared phases, but interestingly the superconducting behavior is remarkably insensitive to these variations.

  13. Superconductivity:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchetti, N.

    In this paper a short historical account of the discovery of superconductivity and of its gradual development is given. The physical interpretation of its various aspects took about forty years (from 1911 to 1957) to reach a successful description of this phenomenon in terms of a microscopic theory At the very end it seemed that more or less everything could be reasonably interpreted even if modifications and refinements of the original theory were necessary. In 1986 the situation changed abruptly when a cautious but revolutionary paper appeared showing that superconductivity was found in certain ceramic oxides at temperatures above those up to then known. A rush of frantic experimental activity started world-wide and in less than one year it was shown that superconductivity is a much more widespread phenomenon than deemed before and can be found at temperatures well above the liquid air boiling point. The complexity and the number of the substances (mainly ceramic oxides) involved call for a sort of modern alchemy if compounds with the best superconducting properties are to be manufactured. We don't use the word alchemy in a deprecatory sense but just to emphasise that till now nobody can say why these compounds are what they are: superconductors.

  14. High temperature superconductivity in sulfur hydride under ultrahigh pressure: A complex superconducting phase beyond conventional BCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, M.-H.; Bianconi, Antonio; Simon, Arndt

    2016-05-01

    The recent report of superconductivity under high pressure at the record transition temperature of Tc =203 K in pressurized H2S has been identified as conventional in view of the observation of an isotope effect upon deuteration. Here it is demonstrated that conventional theories of superconductivity in the sense of BCS or Eliashberg formalisms cannot account for the pressure dependence of the isotope coefficient. The only way out of the dilemma is a multi-band approach of superconductivity where already small interband coupling suffices to achieve the high values of Tc together with the anomalous pressure dependent isotope coefficient. In addition, it is shown that anharmonicity of the hydrogen bonds vanishes under pressure whereas anharmonic phonon modes related to sulfur are still active.

  15. A PROCEDURE TO SET PHASE AND AMPLITUDE OF THE RF IN THE SNS LINAC'S SUPERCONDUCTING CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    L.M. YOUNG

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes a procedure to set the phase and amplitude of the RF fields in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac's superconducting cavities. The linac uses superconducting cavities to accelerate the H{sup -} ion beam from the normal conducting linac at 185 MeV to a final energy of {approx}1 GeV. There are two types of cavities in the linac, 33 cavities with a geometric beta of 0.61 and 48 cavities with a geometric beta of 0.81. The correct phase setting of any single superconducting cavity depends on the RF phase and amplitude of all the preceding superconducting cavities. For the beam to be properly accelerated it must arrive at each cavity with a relative phase ({phi}{sub s}), called the synchronous phase, of about -20 degrees. That is, it must arrive early with respect to the phase at which it would gain the maximum energy by 20 degrees. This timing provides the longitudinal focusing. Beam particles arriving slightly later gain more energy and move faster relative to the synchronous beam particle. The problem is to set the phase and amplitude of each cavity in the linac so that the synchronous particle arrives at each cavity with the correct phase. The amplitude of each superconducting cavity will be adjusted as high as possible constrained only by the available RF power and the breakdown field of the cavity.

  16. Quantum phase slips in superconducting Nb nanowire networks deposited on self-assembled Si templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, C.; Trezza, M.; Chiarella, F.; Vecchione, A.; Bondarenko, V. P.; Prischepa, S. L.; Attanasio, C.

    2012-10-01

    Robust porous silicon substrates were employed for generating interconnected networks of superconducting ultrathin Nb nanowires. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to investigate the morphology of the samples, which constitute of polycrystalline single wires with grain size of about 10 nm. The samples exhibit nonzero resistance over a broad temperature range below the critical temperature, fingerprint of phase slippage processes. The transport data are satisfactory reproduced by models describing both thermal and quantum fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter in thin homogeneous superconducting wires.

  17. Texturing of high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires by laser-driven directional solidification in an thermal gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varshney, Usha; Eichelberger, B. Davis, III

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the technique of laser-driven directional solidification in a controlled thermal gradient of yttria stabilized zirconia core coated Y-Ba-Cu-O materials to produce textured high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires with improved critical current densities in the extended range of magnetic fields at temperatures greater than 77 K. The approach involves laser heating to minimize phase segregation by heating very rapidly through the two-phase incongruent melt region to the single phase melt region and directionally solidifying in a controlled thermal gradient to achieve highly textured grains in the fiber axis direction. The technique offers a higher grain growth rate and a lower thermal budget compared with a conventional thermal gradient and is amenable as a continuous process for improving the J(sub c) of high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires. The technique has the advantage of suppressing weak-link behavior by orientation of crystals, formation of dense structures with enhanced connectivity, formation of fewer and cleaner grain boundaries, and minimization of phase segregation in the incongruent melt region.

  18. Development of passive superconducting bearings. Phase 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, D.K.

    1993-05-14

    This report documents the work performed by MTI under contract to Strategic Defense Initiative Organization to develop the technology of Superconducting Bearings. This work, had been supported by NASA and DARPA in addition to SDIO. As a result of this work, MTI had developed a passive superconducting bearing that is used to levitate relatively heavy rotors. It used this bearing to levitate a 7 lb rotor and spin at speeds of up to 12,000 rpm. The success of this effort indicates that the superconducting bearings have potential for transition from a mere laboratory curiosity to a functional bearing component in a wider range of practical applications such as cryoturbopumps, miniature cryocoolers and magnetic refrigerators. In addition, MTI had investigated several configurations of using superconductors to support loads along a single axis. The effort was directed to identify a specific configuration that offers a very high stiffness.

  19. Chirp-driven giant phase space vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman

    2016-06-01

    In a collisionless, unbounded, one-dimensional plasma, modelled using periodic boundary conditions, formation of steady state phase space coherent structures or phase space vortices (PSV) is investigated. Using a high resolution one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson solver based on piecewise-parabolic advection scheme, the formation of giant PSV is addressed numerically. For an infinitesimal external drive amplitude and wavenumber k, we demonstrate the existence of a window of chirped external drive frequency that leads to the formation of giant PSV. The linear, small amplitude, external drive, when chirped, is shown to couple effectively to the plasma and increase both streaming of "untrapped" and "trapped" particle fraction. The steady state attained after the external drive is turned off and is shown to lead to a giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities, with excess density fraction, defined as the deviation from the Maxwellian background, Δ n / n 0 ≃ 20 % - 25 % . It is shown that the process depends on the chirp time duration Δt. The excess density fraction Δn/n0, which contains both trapped and untrapped particle contribution, is also seen to scale with Δt, only inhibited by the gradient of the distribution in velocity space. Both single step drive and multistep chirp processes are shown to lead to steady state giant PSV, with multiple extrema due to embedded holes and clumps, long after the external drive is turned off.

  20. Superconducting resonator used as a phase and energy detector for linac setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.

    2016-07-01

    Booster linacs for tandem accelerators and positive ion superconducting injectors have matured into standard features of many accelerator laboratories. Both types of linac are formed as an array of independently-phased resonators operating at room temperature or in a superconducting state. Each accelerating resonator needs to be individually set in phase and amplitude for optimum acceleration efficiency. The modularity of the linac allows the velocity profile along the structure to be tailored to accommodate a wide range charge to mass ratio. The linac setup procedure, described in this paper, utilizes a superconducting resonator operating in a beam bunch phase detection mode. The main objective was to derive the full set of phase distributions for quick and efficient tuning of the entire accelerator. The phase detector was operated in overcoupling mode in order to minimize de-tuning effects of microphonic background. A mathematical expression was derived to set a limit on resonator maximum accelerating field during the crossover search to enable extracting unambiguous beam phase data. A set of equations was obtained to calculate the values of beam phase advance and energy gain produced by accelerating resonators. An extensive range of linac setting up configurations was conducted to validate experimental procedures and analytical models. The main application of a superconducting phase detector is for fast tuning for beams of ultralow intensities, in particular in the straight section of linac facilities.

  1. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation andmore » dynamics in these systems.« less

  2. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems.

  3. Self-optimized superconductivity attainable by interlayer phase separation at cuprate interfaces.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takahiro; Nomura, Yusuke; Biermann, Silke; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    Stabilizing superconductivity at high temperatures and elucidating its mechanism have long been major challenges of materials research in condensed matter physics. Meanwhile, recent progress in nanostructuring offers unprecedented possibilities for designing novel functionalities. Above all, thin films of cuprate and iron-based high-temperature superconductors exhibit remarkably better superconducting characteristics (for example, higher critical temperatures) than in the bulk, but the underlying mechanism is still not understood. Solving microscopic models suitable for cuprates, we demonstrate that, at an interface between a Mott insulator and an overdoped nonsuperconducting metal, the superconducting amplitude is always pinned at the optimum achieved in the bulk, independently of the carrier concentration in the metal. This is in contrast to the dome-like dependence in bulk superconductors but consistent with the astonishing independence of the critical temperature from the carrier density x observed at the interfaces of La2CuO4 and La2-x Sr x CuO4. Furthermore, we identify a self-organization mechanism as responsible for the pinning at the optimum amplitude: An emergent electronic structure induced by interlayer phase separation eludes bulk phase separation and inhomogeneities that would kill superconductivity in the bulk. Thus, interfaces provide an ideal tool to enhance and stabilize superconductivity. This interfacial example opens up further ways of shaping superconductivity by suppressing competing instabilities, with direct perspectives for designing devices. PMID:27482542

  4. Self-optimized superconductivity attainable by interlayer phase separation at cuprate interfaces.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takahiro; Nomura, Yusuke; Biermann, Silke; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    Stabilizing superconductivity at high temperatures and elucidating its mechanism have long been major challenges of materials research in condensed matter physics. Meanwhile, recent progress in nanostructuring offers unprecedented possibilities for designing novel functionalities. Above all, thin films of cuprate and iron-based high-temperature superconductors exhibit remarkably better superconducting characteristics (for example, higher critical temperatures) than in the bulk, but the underlying mechanism is still not understood. Solving microscopic models suitable for cuprates, we demonstrate that, at an interface between a Mott insulator and an overdoped nonsuperconducting metal, the superconducting amplitude is always pinned at the optimum achieved in the bulk, independently of the carrier concentration in the metal. This is in contrast to the dome-like dependence in bulk superconductors but consistent with the astonishing independence of the critical temperature from the carrier density x observed at the interfaces of La2CuO4 and La2-x Sr x CuO4. Furthermore, we identify a self-organization mechanism as responsible for the pinning at the optimum amplitude: An emergent electronic structure induced by interlayer phase separation eludes bulk phase separation and inhomogeneities that would kill superconductivity in the bulk. Thus, interfaces provide an ideal tool to enhance and stabilize superconductivity. This interfacial example opens up further ways of shaping superconductivity by suppressing competing instabilities, with direct perspectives for designing devices.

  5. Self-optimized superconductivity attainable by interlayer phase separation at cuprate interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Takahiro; Nomura, Yusuke; Biermann, Silke; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Stabilizing superconductivity at high temperatures and elucidating its mechanism have long been major challenges of materials research in condensed matter physics. Meanwhile, recent progress in nanostructuring offers unprecedented possibilities for designing novel functionalities. Above all, thin films of cuprate and iron-based high-temperature superconductors exhibit remarkably better superconducting characteristics (for example, higher critical temperatures) than in the bulk, but the underlying mechanism is still not understood. Solving microscopic models suitable for cuprates, we demonstrate that, at an interface between a Mott insulator and an overdoped nonsuperconducting metal, the superconducting amplitude is always pinned at the optimum achieved in the bulk, independently of the carrier concentration in the metal. This is in contrast to the dome-like dependence in bulk superconductors but consistent with the astonishing independence of the critical temperature from the carrier density x observed at the interfaces of La2CuO4 and La2−xSrxCuO4. Furthermore, we identify a self-organization mechanism as responsible for the pinning at the optimum amplitude: An emergent electronic structure induced by interlayer phase separation eludes bulk phase separation and inhomogeneities that would kill superconductivity in the bulk. Thus, interfaces provide an ideal tool to enhance and stabilize superconductivity. This interfacial example opens up further ways of shaping superconductivity by suppressing competing instabilities, with direct perspectives for designing devices. PMID:27482542

  6. Time-reversal symmetry breaking superconductivity in the coexistence phase with magnetism in Fe pnictides.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Alberto; Fernandes, Rafael M; Chubukov, Andrey V

    2014-10-17

    We argue that superconductivity in the coexistence region with spin-density-wave (SDW) order in weakly doped Fe pnictides erdiffers qualitatively from the ordinary s(+-) state outside the coexistence region as it develops an additional gap component which is a mixture of intrapocket singlet (s(++)) and interpocket spin-triplet pairings (the t state). The coupling constant for the t channel is proportional to the SDW order and involves interactions that do not contribute to superconductivity outside of the SDW region. We argue that the s(+-)- and t-type superconducting orders coexist at low temperatures, and the relative phase between the two is, in general, different from 0 or π, manifesting explicitly the breaking of the time-reversal symmetry promoted by long-range SDW order. We argue that time reversal may get broken even before true superconductivity develops.

  7. Chemical analysis of superconducting phase in K-doped picene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Takashi; Nishiyama, Saki; Nguyen, Huyen L. T.; Terao, Takahiro; Izumi, Masanari; Sakai, Yusuke; Zheng, Lu; Goto, Hidenori; Itoh, Yugo; Onji, Taiki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Sugino, Hisako; Gohda, Shin; Okamoto, Hideki; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Potassium-doped picene (K3.0picene) with a superconducting transition temperature (T C) as high as 14 K at ambient pressure has been prepared using an annealing technique. The shielding fraction of this sample was 5.4% at 0 GPa. The T C showed a positive pressure-dependence and reached 19 K at 1.13 GPa. The shielding fraction also reached 18.5%. To investigate the chemical composition and the state of the picene skeleton in the superconducting sample, we used energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, MALDI-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Both EDX and MALDI-TOF indicated no contamination with materials other than K-doped picene or K-doped picene fragments, and supported the preservation of the picene skeleton. However, it was also found that a magnetic K-doped picene sample consisted mainly of picene fragments or K-doped picene fragments. Thus, removal of the component contributing the magnetic quality to a superconducting sample should enhance the volume fraction.

  8. Chemical analysis of superconducting phase in K-doped picene.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Takashi; Nishiyama, Saki; Nguyen, Huyen L T; Terao, Takahiro; Izumi, Masanari; Sakai, Yusuke; Zheng, Lu; Goto, Hidenori; Itoh, Yugo; Onji, Taiki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C; Sugino, Hisako; Gohda, Shin; Okamoto, Hideki; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Potassium-doped picene (K3.0picene) with a superconducting transition temperature (T C) as high as 14 K at ambient pressure has been prepared using an annealing technique. The shielding fraction of this sample was 5.4% at 0 GPa. The T C showed a positive pressure-dependence and reached 19 K at 1.13 GPa. The shielding fraction also reached 18.5%. To investigate the chemical composition and the state of the picene skeleton in the superconducting sample, we used energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, MALDI-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Both EDX and MALDI-TOF indicated no contamination with materials other than K-doped picene or K-doped picene fragments, and supported the preservation of the picene skeleton. However, it was also found that a magnetic K-doped picene sample consisted mainly of picene fragments or K-doped picene fragments. Thus, removal of the component contributing the magnetic quality to a superconducting sample should enhance the volume fraction. PMID:27604421

  9. Diagnosis of Interaction-driven Topological Phase via Exact Diagonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Han-Qing; He, Yuan-Yao; Fang, Chen; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-08-01

    We propose a general scheme for diagnosing interaction-driven topological phases in the weak interaction regime using exact diagonalization (ED). The scheme comprises the analysis of eigenvalues of the point-group operators for the many-body eigenstates and the correlation functions for physical observables to extract the symmetries of the order parameters and the topological numbers of the underlying ground states at the thermodynamic limit from a relatively small size system afforded by ED. As a concrete example, we investigate the interaction effects on the half-filled spinless fermions on the checkerboard lattice with a quadratic band crossing point. Numerical results support the existence of a spontaneous quantum anomalous Hall phase purely driven by a nearest-neighbor weak repulsive interaction, separated from a nematic Mott insulator phase at strong repulsive interaction by a first-order phase transition.

  10. Diagnosis of Interaction-driven Topological Phase via Exact Diagonalization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Qing; He, Yuan-Yao; Fang, Chen; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-08-01

    We propose a general scheme for diagnosing interaction-driven topological phases in the weak interaction regime using exact diagonalization (ED). The scheme comprises the analysis of eigenvalues of the point-group operators for the many-body eigenstates and the correlation functions for physical observables to extract the symmetries of the order parameters and the topological numbers of the underlying ground states at the thermodynamic limit from a relatively small size system afforded by ED. As a concrete example, we investigate the interaction effects on the half-filled spinless fermions on the checkerboard lattice with a quadratic band crossing point. Numerical results support the existence of a spontaneous quantum anomalous Hall phase purely driven by a nearest-neighbor weak repulsive interaction, separated from a nematic Mott insulator phase at strong repulsive interaction by a first-order phase transition. PMID:27541471

  11. Diagnosis of Interaction-driven Topological Phase via Exact Diagonalization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Qing; He, Yuan-Yao; Fang, Chen; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-08-01

    We propose a general scheme for diagnosing interaction-driven topological phases in the weak interaction regime using exact diagonalization (ED). The scheme comprises the analysis of eigenvalues of the point-group operators for the many-body eigenstates and the correlation functions for physical observables to extract the symmetries of the order parameters and the topological numbers of the underlying ground states at the thermodynamic limit from a relatively small size system afforded by ED. As a concrete example, we investigate the interaction effects on the half-filled spinless fermions on the checkerboard lattice with a quadratic band crossing point. Numerical results support the existence of a spontaneous quantum anomalous Hall phase purely driven by a nearest-neighbor weak repulsive interaction, separated from a nematic Mott insulator phase at strong repulsive interaction by a first-order phase transition.

  12. Superconductivity in the high-Tc Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O system - Phase identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Prewitt, C. T.; Angel, R. J.; Ross, N. L.; Finger, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    Four phases are observed in superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O samples. The superconducting phase, with onset temperature near 120 K, is a 15.4-A-layered compound with composition near Bi2Ca1Sr2Cu2O9 and an A-centered orthorhombic unit subcell 5.41 x 5.44 x 30.78 A. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy data are consistent with a structure of alternating perovskite and Bi2O2 layers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal a b-axis superstructure of 27.2 A, numerous (001) stacking faults, and other defects.

  13. Solid–Liquid Phase Change Driven by Internal Heat Generation

    SciTech Connect

    John Crepeau; Ali s. Siahpush

    2012-07-01

    This article presents results of solid-liquid phase change, the Stefan Problem, where melting is driven internal heat generation, in a cylindrical geometry. The comparison between a quasi-static analytical solution for Stefan numbers less than one and numerical solutions shows good agreement. The computational results of phase change with internal heat generation show how convection cells form in the liquid region. A scale analysis of the same problem shows four distinct regions of the melting process.

  14. Nanoscale phase separation and superconductivity in the one-dimensional Hirsch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfossi, Alberto; Degli Esposti Boschi, Cristian; Montorsi, Arianna

    2009-06-01

    We investigate numerically at various fillings the ground state of the one-dimensional Hubbard model with correlated hopping x (Hirsch model). It is found that, for a large range of filling values n around half filling, and for repulsive Coulomb interaction u≤uc(x,n) , phase separation at a nanoscale (NPS phase) between two conducting phases at different densities occurs when x≳2/3 . The NPS phase is accompanied by the opening of a spin gap and the system behaves as a Luther-Emery liquid with dominant superconducting correlations. Close to half filling, an anomalous peak emerges in the charge structure factor related to the density of doubly occupied sites, which determines the size of the droplets in the NPS phase. For 1/2≲x≲2/3 a crossover to a homogeneous phase, still superconducting, takes place.

  15. Classification of topological phases in periodically driven interacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Else, Dominic V.; Nayak, Chetan

    2016-05-01

    We consider topological phases in periodically driven (Floquet) systems exhibiting many-body localization, protected by a symmetry G . We argue for a general correspondence between such phases and topological phases of undriven systems protected by symmetry Z ⋊G where the additional Z accounts for the discrete time-translation symmetry. Thus, for example, the bosonic phases in d spatial dimensions without intrinsic topological order [symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases] are classified by the cohomology group Hd +1[Z ⋊G ,U (1 ) ] . For unitary symmetries, we interpret the additional resulting Floquet phases in terms of the lower-dimensional SPT phases that are pumped to the boundary during one time step. These results also imply the existence of novel symmetry-enriched topological (SET) orders protected solely by the periodicity of the drive.

  16. Giant phonon anomaly associated with superconducting fluctuations in the pseudogap phase of cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Konik, Robert M.; Rice, T. M.; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The pseudogap in underdoped cuprates leads to significant changes in the electronic structure, and was later found to be accompanied by anomalous fluctuations of superconductivity and certain lattice phonons. Here we propose that the Fermi surface breakup due to the pseudogap, leads to a breakup of the pairing order into two weakly coupled sub-band amplitudes, and a concomitant low energy Leggett mode due to phase fluctuations between them. This increases the temperature range of superconducting fluctuations containing an overdamped Leggett mode. In this range inter-sub-band phonons show strong damping due to resonant scattering into an intermediate state with a pair of overdamped Leggett modes. In the ordered state, the Leggett mode develops a finite energy, changing the anomalous phonon damping into an anomaly in the dispersion. This proposal explains the intrinsic connection between the anomalous pseudogap phase, enhanced superconducting fluctuations and giant anomalies in the phonon spectra. PMID:26785835

  17. Giant phonon anomaly associated with superconducting fluctuations in the pseudogap phase of cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Konik, Robert M.; Rice, T. M.; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2016-01-20

    The pseudogap in underdoped cuprates leads to significant changes in the electronic structure, and was later found to be accompanied by anomalous fluctuations of superconductivity and certain lattice phonons. Here we propose that the Fermi surface breakup due to the pseudogap, leads to a breakup of the pairing order into two weakly coupled sub-band amplitudes, and a concomitant low energy Leggett mode due to phase fluctuations between them. This increases the temperature range of superconducting fluctuations containing an overdamped Leggett mode. In this range inter-sub-band phonons show strong damping due to resonant scattering into an intermediate state with a pairmore » of overdamped Leggett modes. In the ordered state, the Leggett mode develops a finite energy, changing the anomalous phonon damping into an anomaly in the dispersion. Finally, this proposal explains the intrinsic connection between the anomalous pseudogap phase, enhanced superconducting fluctuations and giant anomalies in the phonon spectra.« less

  18. Elucidating the magnetic and superconducting phases in the alkali metal intercalated iron chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Yi, Ming; Tian, Wei; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Birgeneau, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    The complex interdigitated phases have greatly frustrated attempts to document the basic features of the superconductivity in the alkali metal intercalated iron chalcogenides. Here, using elastic neutron scattering, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and resistivity measurements, we elucidate the relations of these phases in RbxFeySe2 -zSz . We find (i) the iron content is crucial in stabilizing the stripe antiferromagnetic (AF) phase with rhombic iron vacancy order (y ≈1.5 ) , the block AF phase with √{5 }×√{5 } iron vacancy order (y ≈1.6 ) , and the iron vacancy-free phase (y ≈2 ) ; and (ii) the iron vacancy-free superconducting phase (z =0 ) evolves into an iron vacancy-free metallic phase with sulfur substitution (z >1.5 ) due to the progressive decrease of the electronic correlation strength. Both the stripe AF phase and the block AF phase are Mott insulators. The iron-rich compounds (y >1.6 ) undergo a first order transition from an iron vacancy disordered phase at high temperatures into the √{5 }×√{5 } iron vacancy ordered phase and the iron vacancy-free phase below Ts. Our data demonstrate that there are miscibility gaps between these three phases. The existence of the miscibility gaps in the iron content is a key to understanding the relationship between these complicated phases.

  19. Tetracritical points and the superconducting phases of UPt[sub 3]: Uniaxial pressure effects

    SciTech Connect

    Boukhny, M.; Bullock, G.L.; Shivaram, B.S. ); Hinks, D.G. )

    1994-09-19

    Using signatures in the longitudinal sound velocity we have mapped for the first time experimentally the pressure dependence of the phase boundaries in superconducting UPt[sub 3] for magnetic field, [ital H], parallel to the [ital a] axis. With increasing pressure, [ital P][sub [ital c

  20. Shrinking of the Cooper Pair Insulator Phase in Thin Films with Ultrasmall Superconducting Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, J. C.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; Valles, J. M., Jr.; Fernandes, G.; Xu, J. M.

    The ubiquity of the bosonic Cooper Pair Insulator (CPI) phase near the two-dimensional superconductor to insulator transition (SIT) is a long standing question. While a number of two dimensional materials exhibit bosonic insulating phases similar to the Mott Insulator in arrays of ultrasmall, Josephson coupled superconducting islands, others show behaviors consistent with a fermionic insulating phase. Utilizing specially prepared anodized aluminum oxide substrates, we are able to fabricate films reminiscent of arrays of superconducting islands whose properties are tunable by varying the substrate morphology. Our recent work has focused on arrays of islands which possess an energy level spacing comparable to the mean field superconducting gap, where one expects pair breaking followed by fermionic Anderson Localization as the dominant mechanism by which superconductivity is destroyed. Early results show that the paradigmatic bosonic insulator exists only very near the disorder tuned SIT, while films only marginally deeper in the insulating phase exhibit transport distinct from the CPI's reentrant, activated transport. We are grateful for the support of NSF Grant No. DMR-1307290, the AFOSR, and the AOARD. Currently at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, China.

  1. Neutron scattering study on the magnetic and superconducting phases of MnP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Shinichiro; Lancon, Diane; Ronnow, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Gardner, Jason

    We have performed series of neutron scattering experiments on MnP. MnP has been investigated for decades because of its rich magnetic phase diagram. The magnetic structure of MnP is ferromagnetic (FM) below TC = 291 K. It transforms into a helimagnetic structure at TS = 47 K with a propagation vector q = 0 . 117a* . Superconductivity was found in MnP under pressures of 8 GPa with a TSC around 1 K by J.-G. Cheng. Since Mn-based superconductors are rare, and the superconducting phase occurs in the vicinity of FM, new magnetic and helimagnetic phases, there is a need to understand how the magnetism evolves as one approach the superconducting state. MnP is believed to be a double helix magnetic structure at TS = 47 K. We observed new 2 δ and 3 δ satellite peaks whose intensity are 200 ~ 1000 times smaller than these of 1 δ satellite peaks on the cold triple axis spectrometer SIKA under zero magnetic fields. We also found the periods of helimagnetic structure changes as a function of temperature. If time permits, we will discuss recent experiments under pressure. However, we have complete picture of magnetic structure of this system with and without applied pressure, revealing the interplay between the magnetic and superconducting phases.

  2. COOLING OF COMPACT STARS WITH COLOR SUPERCONDUCTING PHASE IN QUARK-HADRON MIXED PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki E-mail: hashimoto@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2013-03-01

    We present a new scenario for the cooling of compact stars considering the central source of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The Cas A observation shows that the central source is a compact star that has high effective temperature, and it is consistent with the cooling without exotic phases. The observation also gives the mass range of M {>=} 1.5 M {sub Sun }, which may conflict with the current plausible cooling scenario of compact stars. There are some cooled compact stars such as Vela or 3C58, which can barely be explained by the minimal cooling scenario, which includes the neutrino emission by nucleon superfluidity (PBF). Therefore, we invoke the exotic cooling processes, where a heavier star cools faster than lighter one. However, the scenario seems to be inconsistent with the observation of Cas A. Therefore, we present a new cooling scenario to explain the observation of Cas A by constructing models that include a quark color superconducting (CSC) phase with a large energy gap; this phase appears at ultrahigh density regions and reduces neutrino emissivity. In our model, a compact star has a CSC quark core with a low neutrino emissivity surrounded by high emissivity region made by normal quarks. We present cooling curves obtained from the evolutionary calculations of compact stars: while heavier stars cool slowly, and lighter ones indicate the opposite tendency without considering nucleon superfluidity. Furthermore, we show that our scenario is consistent with the recent observations of the effective temperature of Cas A during the last 10 years, including nucleon superfluidity.

  3. Superconductivity of high-pressure phases of S and Se to 230 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzhkin, Viktor; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Timofeev, Yuri; Eremets, Mikhail; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell

    2000-03-01

    We have investigated in detail the superconducting state of sulfur in its β-Po phase from 160 to 230 GPa. The superconducting Tc is close to 17 K from 160 to 200 GPa, and drops to 15 K at 230 GPa. Similar behavior was predicted recently [1] from ab initio LDA calculations. The high value of Tc in the β-Po phase is consistent with electon-phonon coupling mechanism with reasonably strong electron-phonon coupling (λ=0.76), and with the standard value of the Morel-Anderson pseudopotential μ^*=0.11 [1]. Our measurements in Se at high pressures indicate superconductivity from 17 to 23 GPa, which apparently has not been previously reported. We relate this behavior to the occurence of new metastable phase in Se which can be observed on decompression from 30 GPa at low temperatures. The results for Tc in Se at higher pressures will be also presented. We will also discuss the similiarities in high-pressure induced superconductivity of chalcogen family members: S, Se, and Te. ^1 Sven P. Rudin and Amy Y. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3049 (1999).

  4. Phase Diagram and High-Temperature Superconductivity of Compressed Selenium Hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shoutao; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Jurong; Liu, Hanyu; Zhong, Xin; Song, Hai-Feng; Yang, Guochun; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming

    2015-10-01

    Recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (Tc = 190 K) in sulfur hydrides at megabar pressures breaks the traditional belief on the Tc limit of 40 K for conventional superconductors, and opens up the doors in searching new high-temperature superconductors in compounds made up of light elements. Selenium is a sister and isoelectronic element of sulfur, with a larger atomic core and a weaker electronegativity. Whether selenium hydrides share similar high-temperature superconductivity remains elusive, but it is a subject of considerable interest. First-principles swarm structure predictions are performed in an effort to seek for energetically stable and metallic selenium hydrides at high pressures. We find the phase diagram of selenium hydrides is rather different from its sulfur analogy, which is indicated by the emergence of new phases and the change of relative stabilities. Three stable and metallic species with stoichiometries of HSe2, HSe and H3Se are identified above ~120 GPa and they all exhibit superconductive behaviors, of which the hydrogen-rich HSe and H3Se phases show high Tc in the range of 40-110 K. Our simulations established the high-temperature superconductive nature of selenium hydrides and provided useful route for experimental verification.

  5. Phase Diagram and High-Temperature Superconductivity of Compressed Selenium Hydrides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shoutao; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Jurong; Liu, Hanyu; Zhong, Xin; Song, Hai-Feng; Yang, Guochun; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (Tc = 190 K) in sulfur hydrides at megabar pressures breaks the traditional belief on the Tc limit of 40 K for conventional superconductors, and opens up the doors in searching new high-temperature superconductors in compounds made up of light elements. Selenium is a sister and isoelectronic element of sulfur, with a larger atomic core and a weaker electronegativity. Whether selenium hydrides share similar high-temperature superconductivity remains elusive, but it is a subject of considerable interest. First-principles swarm structure predictions are performed in an effort to seek for energetically stable and metallic selenium hydrides at high pressures. We find the phase diagram of selenium hydrides is rather different from its sulfur analogy, which is indicated by the emergence of new phases and the change of relative stabilities. Three stable and metallic species with stoichiometries of HSe2, HSe and H3Se are identified above ~120 GPa and they all exhibit superconductive behaviors, of which the hydrogen-rich HSe and H3Se phases show high Tc in the range of 40–110 K. Our simulations established the high-temperature superconductive nature of selenium hydrides and provided useful route for experimental verification. PMID:26490223

  6. Phase Diagram and High-Temperature Superconductivity of Compressed Selenium Hydrides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shoutao; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Jurong; Liu, Hanyu; Zhong, Xin; Song, Hai-Feng; Yang, Guochun; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (Tc = 190 K) in sulfur hydrides at megabar pressures breaks the traditional belief on the Tc limit of 40 K for conventional superconductors, and opens up the doors in searching new high-temperature superconductors in compounds made up of light elements. Selenium is a sister and isoelectronic element of sulfur, with a larger atomic core and a weaker electronegativity. Whether selenium hydrides share similar high-temperature superconductivity remains elusive, but it is a subject of considerable interest. First-principles swarm structure predictions are performed in an effort to seek for energetically stable and metallic selenium hydrides at high pressures. We find the phase diagram of selenium hydrides is rather different from its sulfur analogy, which is indicated by the emergence of new phases and the change of relative stabilities. Three stable and metallic species with stoichiometries of HSe2, HSe and H3Se are identified above ~120 GPa and they all exhibit superconductive behaviors, of which the hydrogen-rich HSe and H3Se phases show high Tc in the range of 40-110 K. Our simulations established the high-temperature superconductive nature of selenium hydrides and provided useful route for experimental verification. PMID:26490223

  7. Topological Floquet Phases in Driven Coupled Rashba Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Klinovaja, Jelena; Stano, Peter; Loss, Daniel

    2016-04-29

    We consider periodically driven arrays of weakly coupled wires with conduction and valence bands of Rashba type and study the resulting Floquet states. This nonequilibrium system can be tuned into nontrivial phases such as topological insulators, Weyl semimetals, and dispersionless zero-energy edge mode regimes. In the presence of strong electron-electron interactions, we generalize these regimes to the fractional case, where elementary excitations have fractional charges e/m with m being an odd integer. PMID:27176529

  8. Topological Floquet Phases in Driven Coupled Rashba Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinovaja, Jelena; Stano, Peter; Loss, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    We consider periodically driven arrays of weakly coupled wires with conduction and valence bands of Rashba type and study the resulting Floquet states. This nonequilibrium system can be tuned into nontrivial phases such as topological insulators, Weyl semimetals, and dispersionless zero-energy edge mode regimes. In the presence of strong electron-electron interactions, we generalize these regimes to the fractional case, where elementary excitations have fractional charges e /m with m being an odd integer.

  9. Spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi{sub 3} phase in Ni-Bi bilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Siva, Vantari; Senapati, Kartik Prusty, Sudakshina; Sahoo, Pratap K.; Satpati, Biswarup

    2015-02-28

    We report the spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi{sub 3} phase in thermally evaporated Ni-Bi bilayer films. High reaction-diffusion coefficient of Bi is believed to drive the formation of NiBi{sub 3} during the deposition of Bi on the Ni film. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and glancing incidence X-ray depth profiling confirmed the presence of NiBi{sub 3} throughout the top Bi layer. Superconducting transition at ∼3.9 K, close to the bulk value, was confirmed by transport and magnetization measurements. The bilayers were irradiated with varying fluence of 100 MeV Au ions to study the robustness of superconducting order in presence of large concentration of defects. Superconducting parameters of NiBi{sub 3}, such as transition temperature and upper critical field, remained unchanged upto an ion dose of 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The diffusive formation of NiBi{sub 3} in Ni opens the possibility of studying superconducting proximity effect at a truly clean superconductor-ferromagnet interface.

  10. Superconducting H5S2 phase in sulfur-hydrogen system under high-pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takahiro; Nakanishi, Akitaka; Shimizu, Katsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Oda, Tatsuki; Suzuki, Naoshi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, hydrogen sulfide was experimentally found to show the high superconducting critical temperature (Tc) under high-pressure. The superconducting Tc shows 30–70 K in pressure range of 100–170 GPa (low-Tc phase) and increases to 203 K, which sets a record for the highest Tc in all materials, for the samples annealed by heating it to room temperature at pressures above 150 GPa (high-Tc phase). Here we present a solid H5S2 phase predicted as the low-Tc phase by the application of the genetic algorithm technique for crystal structure searching and first-principles calculations to sulfur-hydrogen system under high-pressure. The H5S2 phase is thermodynamically stabilized at 110 GPa, in which asymmetric hydrogen bonds are formed between H2S and H3S molecules. Calculated Tc values show 50–70 K in pressure range of 100–150 GPa within the harmonic approximation, which can reproduce the experimentally observed low-Tc phase. These findings give a new aspect of the excellent superconductivity in compressed sulfur-hydrogen system. PMID:26983593

  11. Superconducting H5S2 phase in sulfur-hydrogen system under high-pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takahiro; Nakanishi, Akitaka; Shimizu, Katsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Oda, Tatsuki; Suzuki, Naoshi

    2016-03-01

    Recently, hydrogen sulfide was experimentally found to show the high superconducting critical temperature (Tc) under high-pressure. The superconducting Tc shows 30–70 K in pressure range of 100–170 GPa (low-Tc phase) and increases to 203 K, which sets a record for the highest Tc in all materials, for the samples annealed by heating it to room temperature at pressures above 150 GPa (high-Tc phase). Here we present a solid H5S2 phase predicted as the low-Tc phase by the application of the genetic algorithm technique for crystal structure searching and first-principles calculations to sulfur-hydrogen system under high-pressure. The H5S2 phase is thermodynamically stabilized at 110 GPa, in which asymmetric hydrogen bonds are formed between H2S and H3S molecules. Calculated Tc values show 50–70 K in pressure range of 100–150 GPa within the harmonic approximation, which can reproduce the experimentally observed low-Tc phase. These findings give a new aspect of the excellent superconductivity in compressed sulfur-hydrogen system.

  12. Nonlinear Phase Dynamics in a Driven Bosonic Josephson Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Boukobza, Erez; Moore, Michael G.; Cohen, Doron; Vardi, Amichay

    2010-06-18

    We study the collective dynamics of a driven two-mode Bose-Hubbard model in the Josephson interaction regime. The classical phase space is mixed, with chaotic and regular components, which determine the dynamical nature of the fringe visibility. For a weak off-resonant drive, where the chaotic component is small, the many-body dynamics corresponds to that of a Kapitza pendulum, with the relative phase {phi} between the condensates playing the role of the pendulum angle. Using a master equation approach we show that the modulation of the intersite potential barrier stabilizes the {phi}={pi} 'inverted pendulum' coherent state, and protects the fringe visibility.

  13. Superconductivity-induced phase-periodic transport in nanoscale structures

    SciTech Connect

    Leadbeater, M.; Lambert, C.J.

    1997-07-01

    We present numerical results for the phase-periodic conductance of an Andreev interferometer and predict the existence of a voltage-induced crossover from a zero-phase minimum to a zero-phase maximum. This contrasts with a recent analysis of Stoof and Nazarov and Volkov, Allsopp, and Lambert, which predicts a vanishing amplitude of oscillation at zero temperature and voltage, respectively, and demonstrates that such behavior is nonuniversal. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Superconductivity-induced phase-periodic transport in nanoscale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbeater, M.; Lambert, C. J.

    1997-07-01

    We present numerical results for the phase-periodic conductance of an Andreev interferometer and predict the existence of a voltage-induced crossover from a zero-phase minimum to a zero-phase maximum. This contrasts with a recent analysis of Stoof and Nazarov and Volkov, Allsopp, and Lambert, which predicts a vanishing amplitude of oscillation at zero temperature and voltage, respectively, and demonstrates that such behavior is nonuniversal.

  15. The non-magnetic collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 and superconductivity in the iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, J. H.; Tucker, G. S.; Pratt, D. K.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Ran, S.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; McQueeney, R. J.; Goldman, A. I.

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the non-superconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is non-magnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Work at ORNL's Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. High fidelity all-microwave controlled-phase gate for superconducting qubits by cavity vacuum displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Hanhee; Zhou, D.; Reed, M. D.; Kirchmair, G.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a new all-microwave controlled phase entangling gate for the superconducting qubits in the three-dimensional circuit QED (3D cQED) architecture. The gate exploits the strong coupling between qubits and a cavity, wherein the cavity frequency dispersively shifts depending on the qubit register state. We off-resonantly displace the cavity vacuum state; each computational state evolves a different phase due to the dispersive coupling, yielding a conditional phase. While designed to exploit the advantages of the 3D cQED architecture, the gate requires only dispersive coupling, making the gate applicable to a wide variety of superconducting qubit architectures. We demonstrate 98% gate fidelity evaluated by quantum process tomography, and will discuss how appropriate choices of system parameters could increase this number and how we could minimize the gate infidelity due to measurement induced dephasing and non-adiabatic gate procedure.

  17. Suppression of superconductivity and structural phase transitions under pressure in tetragonal FeS.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiaofang; Liu, Ying; Lü, Xujie; Zhang, Sijia; Bu, Kejun; Jin, Changqing; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Pressure is a powerful tool to study iron-based superconductors. Here, we report systematic high-pressure transport and structural characterizations of the newly discovered superconductor FeS. It is found that superconductor FeS (tetragonal) partly transforms to a hexagonal structure at 0.4 GPa, and then completely transforms to an orthorhombic phase at 7.4 GPa and finally to a monoclinic phase above 9.0 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature of tetragonal FeS was gradually depressed by pressure, different from the case in tetragonal FeSe. With pressure increasing, the S-Fe-S angles only slightly change but the anion height deviates farther from 1.38 Å. This change of anion height, together with the structural instability under pressure, should be closely related to the suppression of superconductivity. We also observed an anomalous metal-semiconductor transition at 6.0 GPa and an unusual increased resistance with further compression above 9.6 GPa. The former can be ascribed to the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural phase transition, and the latter to the electronic structure changes of the high-pressure monoclinic phase. Finally, a phase diagram of tetragonal FeS as functions of pressure and temperature was mapped out for the first time, which will shed new light on understanding of the structure and physics of the superconducting FeS. PMID:27498699

  18. Suppression of superconductivity and structural phase transitions under pressure in tetragonal FeS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiaofang; Liu, Ying; Lü, Xujie; Zhang, Sijia; Bu, Kejun; Jin, Changqing; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-08-01

    Pressure is a powerful tool to study iron-based superconductors. Here, we report systematic high-pressure transport and structural characterizations of the newly discovered superconductor FeS. It is found that superconductor FeS (tetragonal) partly transforms to a hexagonal structure at 0.4 GPa, and then completely transforms to an orthorhombic phase at 7.4 GPa and finally to a monoclinic phase above 9.0 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature of tetragonal FeS was gradually depressed by pressure, different from the case in tetragonal FeSe. With pressure increasing, the S-Fe-S angles only slightly change but the anion height deviates farther from 1.38 Å. This change of anion height, together with the structural instability under pressure, should be closely related to the suppression of superconductivity. We also observed an anomalous metal-semiconductor transition at 6.0 GPa and an unusual increased resistance with further compression above 9.6 GPa. The former can be ascribed to the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural phase transition, and the latter to the electronic structure changes of the high-pressure monoclinic phase. Finally, a phase diagram of tetragonal FeS as functions of pressure and temperature was mapped out for the first time, which will shed new light on understanding of the structure and physics of the superconducting FeS.

  19. Suppression of superconductivity and structural phase transitions under pressure in tetragonal FeS.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiaofang; Liu, Ying; Lü, Xujie; Zhang, Sijia; Bu, Kejun; Jin, Changqing; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-08-08

    Pressure is a powerful tool to study iron-based superconductors. Here, we report systematic high-pressure transport and structural characterizations of the newly discovered superconductor FeS. It is found that superconductor FeS (tetragonal) partly transforms to a hexagonal structure at 0.4 GPa, and then completely transforms to an orthorhombic phase at 7.4 GPa and finally to a monoclinic phase above 9.0 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature of tetragonal FeS was gradually depressed by pressure, different from the case in tetragonal FeSe. With pressure increasing, the S-Fe-S angles only slightly change but the anion height deviates farther from 1.38 Å. This change of anion height, together with the structural instability under pressure, should be closely related to the suppression of superconductivity. We also observed an anomalous metal-semiconductor transition at 6.0 GPa and an unusual increased resistance with further compression above 9.6 GPa. The former can be ascribed to the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural phase transition, and the latter to the electronic structure changes of the high-pressure monoclinic phase. Finally, a phase diagram of tetragonal FeS as functions of pressure and temperature was mapped out for the first time, which will shed new light on understanding of the structure and physics of the superconducting FeS.

  20. Suppression of superconductivity and structural phase transitions under pressure in tetragonal FeS

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xiaofang; Liu, Ying; Lü, Xujie; Zhang, Sijia; Bu, Kejun; Jin, Changqing; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Pressure is a powerful tool to study iron-based superconductors. Here, we report systematic high-pressure transport and structural characterizations of the newly discovered superconductor FeS. It is found that superconductor FeS (tetragonal) partly transforms to a hexagonal structure at 0.4 GPa, and then completely transforms to an orthorhombic phase at 7.4 GPa and finally to a monoclinic phase above 9.0 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature of tetragonal FeS was gradually depressed by pressure, different from the case in tetragonal FeSe. With pressure increasing, the S-Fe-S angles only slightly change but the anion height deviates farther from 1.38 Å. This change of anion height, together with the structural instability under pressure, should be closely related to the suppression of superconductivity. We also observed an anomalous metal-semiconductor transition at 6.0 GPa and an unusual increased resistance with further compression above 9.6 GPa. The former can be ascribed to the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural phase transition, and the latter to the electronic structure changes of the high-pressure monoclinic phase. Finally, a phase diagram of tetragonal FeS as functions of pressure and temperature was mapped out for the first time, which will shed new light on understanding of the structure and physics of the superconducting FeS. PMID:27498699

  1. Interlayer-state-driven superconductivity in CaC6 studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Wonshik; Kim, Yeongkwan; Han, Garam; Leem, Choonshik; Kim, Chul; Koh, Yoonyoung; Kim, Beomyoung; Kim, Youngwook; Kim, Jun Sung; Kim, Keun Su; Rotenberg, Eli; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Kim, Changyoung

    2015-12-01

    We performed angle-resolved photoemission experiments on CaC6 and measured kz-dependent electronic structures to investigate the interlayer states. The results reveal a spherical interlayer Fermi surface centered at the Γ point. We also find that the graphene-driven band possesses a weak kz dispersion. The overall electronic structure shows a peculiar single-graphene-layer periodicity in the kz direction although the CaC6 unit cell is supposed to contain three graphene layers. This suggests that the c -axis ordering of Ca has little effect on the electronic structure of CaC6. In addition to CaC6, we also studied the a low-temperature superconductor BaC6. For BaC6, the graphene-band Dirac-point energy is smaller than that of CaC6. Based on data from CaC6 and BaC6, we rule out the Cx y phonon mode as the origin of the superconductivity in CaC6, which strongly suggests interlayer-state-driven superconductivity.

  2. Doping-driven evolution of the superconducting state from a doped Mott insulator: Cluster dynamical mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civelli, M.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we investigate the zero-temperature doping-driven evolution of a superconductor toward the Mott insulator in a two-dimensional electron model, relevant for high-temperature superconductivity. To this purpose we use a cluster extension of dynamical mean-field theory. Our results show that a standard d -wave superconductor, realized at high doping, is driven into the Mott insulator via an intermediate superconducting state displaying unconventional physical properties. By restoring the translational invariance of the lattice, we give an interpretation of these findings in momentum space. In particular, we show that at a finite doping a strong momentum-space differentiation takes place: non-Fermi liquid and insulatinglike (pseudogap) characters rise in some regions (antinodes), while Fermi liquid quasiparticles survive in other regions (nodes) of momentum space. We describe the consequence of these happenings on the spectral properties, stressing in particular the behavior of the superconducting gap, which reveals two distinct nodal and antinodal energy scales as a function of doping, detected in photoemission and Raman spectroscopy experiments. We study and compare with experimental results the doping-dependent behavior of other physical quantities, such as for instance, the nodal quasiparticle velocity (extracted in angle-resolved photoemission) and the low-energy slopes of the local density of states and of the Raman scattering response. We then propose a description of the evolution of the electronic structure while approaching the Mott transition. We show that, within our formalism, a strong asymmetry naturally arises in the local density of states, measured in scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We investigate in detail the doping evolution of the electronic bands, focusing on the kinklike quasiparticle dispersion observed with angle-resolved photoemission in specific cuts of the momentum-energy space. We finally show the consequences of the

  3. Questioning the existence of superconducting potassium doped phases for aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Mototada; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2015-07-01

    Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons doped with potassium (K) such as K3 [picene (PCN)] and K3 [phenanthrene (PHN)] is found for only armchair-type polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this paper the thermodynamics of the reaction processes of PHN or anthracene (AN, zigzag type) with K was studied using differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction. We show that PHN decomposes during the reaction, triggered by hydrogen abstraction, to give metal hydride KH and unknown amorphous. No stable doped phases exist in Kx(PHN ) with stoichiometries of x =1 -3 . However, in the case of AN, a stable doped phase forms. We claim that PHN, which has been reported to be energetically more stable in the ground state than AN by first principle calculations, is unstable upon doping. We also suggest that the superconductivity in K3(PCN ) is due to the misinterpretation of experimental data, which actually arises from ferromagnetic impurities. We have never detected the superconductivity above 2 K in these compounds. The superconductivity in both Kx(PHN ) and Kx(PCN ) is concluded to be highly questionable.

  4. Superconducting matrix fault current limiter with current-driven trigger mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing

    2008-04-15

    A modular and scalable Matrix-type Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. An inductor is connected in series with the trigger superconductor in the trigger matrix and physically surrounds the superconductor. The current surge during a fault will generate a trigger magnetic field in the series inductor to cause fast and uniform quenching of the trigger superconductor to significantly reduce burnout risk due to superconductor material non-uniformity.

  5. Novel superconducting phases of Tl-based compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostadinov, I. Z.; Mateev, M.; Michov, M.; Skumriev, V.; Tsakin, E.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers report the measurements of the I(sub c)(T) of the 102 K phase. They also discuss briefly the composition of the lattice parameters and the ac susceptibility relation to the grain size and microstructure.

  6. Metallic Nonsuperconducting Phase and D -Wave Superconductivity in Zn-Substituted La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinska, K.; Cieplak, Marta Z.; Guha, S.; Malinowski, A.; Skoskiewicz, T.; Plesiewicz, W.; Berkowski, M.; Boyce, B.; Lemberger, Thomas R.; Lindenfeld, P.

    2000-01-03

    Measurements of the resistivity, magnetoresistance, and penetration depth were made on films of La{sub 1.85} Sr{sub 0.15} CuO{sub 4} , with up to 12 at. % of Zn substituted for the Cu. The results show that the quadratic temperature dependence of the inverse square of the penetration depth, indicative of d -wave superconductivity, is not affected by doping. The suppression of superconductivity leads to a metallic nonsuperconducting phase, as expected for a pairing mechanism related to spin fluctuations. The metal-insulator transition occurs in the vicinity of k{sub F}l{approx_equal}1 , and appears to be disorder driven, with the carrier concentration unaffected by doping. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  7. Superconductivity in metastable phases of phosphorus-hydride compounds under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Livas, José A.; Amsler, Maximilian; Heil, Christoph; Sanna, Antonio; Boeri, Lilia; Profeta, Gianni; Wolverton, Chris; Goedecker, Stefan; Gross, E. K. U.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen-rich compounds have been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally in the quest for novel high-temperature superconductors. Reports on sulfur hydride attaining metallicity under pressure and exhibiting superconductivity at temperatures as high as 200 K have spurred an intense search for room-temperature superconductors in hydride materials. Recently, compressed phosphine was reported to metallize at pressures above 45 GPa, reaching a superconducting transition temperature (TC) of 100 K at 200 GPa. However, neither the exact composition nor the crystal structure of the superconducting phase have been conclusively determined. In this work, the phase diagram of PHn (n =1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ) was extensively explored by means of ab initio crystal structure predictions using the minima hopping method (MHM). The results do not support the existence of thermodynamically stable PHn compounds, which exhibit a tendency for elemental decomposition at high pressure even when vibrational contributions to the free energies are taken into account. Although the lowest energy phases of PH1 ,2 ,3 display TC's comparable to experiments, it remains uncertain if the measured values of TC can be fully attributed to a phase-pure compound of PHn.

  8. Oxygen Deficient YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ : Two Superconducting Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankowski, J.; ¦L+/-Zak, A.; Kempiñski, W.; Andrzejewski, B.; Reichel, B.; Plesch, G.

    2003-03-01

    A set of oxygen deficient powder and granular samples of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ceramics was studied by means of thermogravimetric and magnetically modulated microwave absorption methods. Especially the last method has turned out to be a powerful method, which was used to determine the dependence of critical temperature T c on the oxygen parameter δ. Using these methods it has been shown that the removing of oxygen evokes the inhomogeneous oxygen distribution in the samples and a change in carrier concentration till to the loss of superconducting properties. A superconducting phase with T_c=60 K, which occurs in oxygen deficient YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ sample, is an unstable phase.

  9. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    DOE PAGES

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying amore » connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.« less

  10. Multiple quantum phase transitions and superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermions.

    PubMed

    Weng, Z F; Smidman, M; Jiao, L; Lu, Xin; Yuan, H Q

    2016-09-01

    Heavy fermions have served as prototype examples of strongly-correlated electron systems. The occurrence of unconventional superconductivity in close proximity to the electronic instabilities associated with various degrees of freedom points to an intricate relationship between superconductivity and other electronic states, which is unique but also shares some common features with high temperature superconductivity. The magnetic order in heavy fermion compounds can be continuously suppressed by tuning external parameters to a quantum critical point, and the role of quantum criticality in determining the properties of heavy fermion systems is an important unresolved issue. Here we review the recent progress of studies on Ce based heavy fermion superconductors, with an emphasis on the superconductivity emerging on the edge of magnetic and charge instabilities as well as the quantum phase transitions which occur by tuning different parameters, such as pressure, magnetic field and doping. We discuss systems where multiple quantum critical points occur and whether they can be classified in a unified manner, in particular in terms of the evolution of the Fermi surface topology. PMID:27533524

  11. Multiple quantum phase transitions and superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermions.

    PubMed

    Weng, Z F; Smidman, M; Jiao, L; Lu, Xin; Yuan, H Q

    2016-09-01

    Heavy fermions have served as prototype examples of strongly-correlated electron systems. The occurrence of unconventional superconductivity in close proximity to the electronic instabilities associated with various degrees of freedom points to an intricate relationship between superconductivity and other electronic states, which is unique but also shares some common features with high temperature superconductivity. The magnetic order in heavy fermion compounds can be continuously suppressed by tuning external parameters to a quantum critical point, and the role of quantum criticality in determining the properties of heavy fermion systems is an important unresolved issue. Here we review the recent progress of studies on Ce based heavy fermion superconductors, with an emphasis on the superconductivity emerging on the edge of magnetic and charge instabilities as well as the quantum phase transitions which occur by tuning different parameters, such as pressure, magnetic field and doping. We discuss systems where multiple quantum critical points occur and whether they can be classified in a unified manner, in particular in terms of the evolution of the Fermi surface topology.

  12. Multiple quantum phase transitions and superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Z. F.; Smidman, M.; Jiao, L.; Lu, Xin; Yuan, H. Q.

    2016-09-01

    Heavy fermions have served as prototype examples of strongly-correlated electron systems. The occurrence of unconventional superconductivity in close proximity to the electronic instabilities associated with various degrees of freedom points to an intricate relationship between superconductivity and other electronic states, which is unique but also shares some common features with high temperature superconductivity. The magnetic order in heavy fermion compounds can be continuously suppressed by tuning external parameters to a quantum critical point, and the role of quantum criticality in determining the properties of heavy fermion systems is an important unresolved issue. Here we review the recent progress of studies on Ce based heavy fermion superconductors, with an emphasis on the superconductivity emerging on the edge of magnetic and charge instabilities as well as the quantum phase transitions which occur by tuning different parameters, such as pressure, magnetic field and doping. We discuss systems where multiple quantum critical points occur and whether they can be classified in a unified manner, in particular in terms of the evolution of the Fermi surface topology.

  13. The research of parallel-coupled linear-phase superconducting filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianliang; Zhou, Liguo; Yang, Kai; Luo, Chao; Jiang, Mingyan; Dang, Wei; Ren, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a research on the mechanism of a linear phase filter constructed with parallel-connected sub-networks, considering that linear phase characteristic of a filter can be achieved when the group delays of sub-networks compensate each other. This paper also gives several coupling and routing diagrams of linear phase filters with different parallel-connected networks, and then the coupling matrixes of three 8-order filters and one 10-order filter are synthesized. One of the coupling matrixes is utilized to design a 8-order parallel-connected network high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear phase filter with two pairs of transmission zeros, so as to verify the correctness of theory data and the feasibility of the circuit design for the proposed 8-order and higher order parallel-connected network linear phase filter. The HTS linear phase filter is designed on YBCO/LaAlO3/YBCO superconducting substrate, at 77 K, the measured center frequency is 2000 MHz with a bandwidth of 30 MHz, the insertion loss is less than 0.3 dB and the reflection is better than -12.5 dB in passband. The group delay is less than ±5 ns over the 60% passband, which shows that the filter has a good linear phase characteristic.

  14. Phase noise analysis of the sapphire loaded superconducting niobium cavity oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, Michael; Blair, David G.

    1994-02-01

    Measured phase noise of two GaAs FET amplifiers and a varactor phase shifter at 9.7 GHz reveal that optimum bias conditions change when cooling from room to liquid helium temperatures. This understanding enables optimization of the electronic noise in an all cryogenic tunable sapphire loaded superconducting cavity (SLOSC) X-Band loop oscillator. The measured phase noise was limited by vibrations of the tuning mechanism. In a fixed frequency SLOSC oscillator the phase noise was limited by the amplifier noise, and has been measured to be -140 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz from the unfiltered port of loop oscillator. Comparison of component and oscillator phase noise allows us to calculate the phase noise at the filtered port to be -175 dBc/ Hz at 1 kHz offset.

  15. Geometric phases and quantum correlations of superconducting two-qubit system with dissipative effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liyuan; Yu, Yanxia; Cai, Xiaoya; Pan, Hui; Wang, Zisheng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate time-dependent Pancharatnam phases and the relations between such geometric phases and quantum correlations, i.e., quantum discord and concurrence, of superconducting two-qubit coupling system in dissipative environment with the mixture effects of four different eigenstates of density matrix. We find that the time-dependent Pancharatnam phases not only keep the motion memory of such a two-qubit system, but also include the information of quantum correlations. We show that the sudden died and alive phenomena of quantum entanglement are intrinsic in the transition of Pancharatnam phase in the X-state and the complex oscillations of Pancharatnam phase in the Y-state. The faster the Pancharatnam phases change, the slower the quantum correlations decay. In particular, we find that a subspace of quantum entanglement can exist in the Y-state by choosing suitable coupling parameters between two-qubit system and its environment, or initial conditions.

  16. Strong vacuum squeezing from bichromatically driven Kerrlike cavities: from optomechanics to superconducting circuits

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, Rafael; de Valcárcel, Germán J.

    2016-01-01

    Squeezed light, displaying less fluctuation than vacuum in some observable, is key in the flourishing field of quantum technologies. Optical or microwave cavities containing a Kerr nonlinearity are known to potentially yield large levels of squeezing, which have been recently observed in optomechanics and nonlinear superconducting circuit platforms. Such Kerr-cavity squeezing however suffers from two fundamental drawbacks. First, optimal squeezing requires working close to turning points of a bistable cycle, which are highly unstable against noise thus rendering optimal squeezing inaccessible. Second, the light field has a macroscopic coherent component corresponding to the pump, making it less versatile than the so-called squeezed vacuum, characterised by a null mean field. Here we prove analytically and numerically that the bichromatic pumping of optomechanical and superconducting circuit cavities removes both limitations. This finding should boost the development of a new generation of robust vacuum squeezers in the microwave and optical domains with current technology. PMID:26916946

  17. A cryogenic phase locking loop system for a superconducting integrated receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudchenko, A. V.; Koshelets, V. P.; Dmitriev, P. N.; Ermakov, A. B.; Yagoubov, P. A.; Pylypenko, O. M.

    2009-08-01

    The authors present a new cryogenic device, an ultrawideband cryogenic phase locking loop system (CPLL). The CPLL was developed for phase locking of a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) in a superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) but can be used for any cryogenic terahertz oscillator. The key element of the CPLL is the cryogenic phase detector (CPD), a recently proposed new superconducting element. The CPD is an innovative implementation of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction. All components of the CPLL reside inside a cryostat at 4.2 K, with the loop length of cables 50 cm and the total loop delay 4.5 ns. So small a delay results in a CPLL synchronization bandwidth as wide as 40 MHz and allows phase locking of more than 60% of the power emitted by the FFO, even for FFO linewidths of about 11 MHz. This percentage of phase locked power is three times that achieved with conventional room temperature PLLs. Such an improvement enables reducing the FFO phase noise and extending the SIR operation range.

  18. Phase-field-crystal model of phase and microstructural stability in driven nanocrystalline systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Opoku, Nana; Hoyt, Jeffrey J.; Provatas, Nikolas

    2012-12-01

    We present a phase-field-crystal model for driven systems which describes competing effects between thermally activated diffusional processes and those driven by externally imposed ballistic events. The model demonstrates how the mesoscopic Enrique and Bellon [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.84.2885 84, 2885 (2000)] model of externally induced ballistic mixing can be incorporated into the atomistic phase-field-crystal formalism. The combination of the two approaches results in a model capable of describing the microstructural and compositional evolution of a driven system while incorporating elastoplastic effects. The model is applied to the study of grain growth in nanocrystalline materials subjected to an external driving.

  19. Planned High-gradient Flat-beam-driven Dielectric Wakefield Experiments at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, Francois; Mihalcea, Daniel; Piot, Philippe; Zhu, Jun

    2014-07-01

    In beam driven dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWA), high-gradient short-wavelength accelerating fields are generally achieved by employing dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs)  with small aperture which constraints the beam sizes. In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a low-energy (50-MeV) flat beams to induce high-gradient wakes in a slab-symmetric DLW. We demonstrate via numerical simulations the possibility to produce axial electric field with peak amplitude close to 0.5 GV/m. Our studies are carried out using the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) photoinjector beamline. We finally discuss a possible experiment that could be performed in the ASTA photoinjector and eventually at higher energies.  

  20. Enhancement of superconductivity under pressure and the magnetic phase diagram of tantalum disulfide single crystals.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafiez, M; Zhao, X-M; Kordyuk, A A; Fang, Y-W; Pan, B; He, Z; Duan, C-G; Zhao, J; Chen, X-J

    2016-08-18

    In low-dimensional electron systems, charge density waves (CDW) and superconductivity are two of the most fundamental collective quantum phenomena. For all known quasi-two-dimensional superconductors, the origin and exact boundary of the electronic orderings and superconductivity are still attractive problems. Through transport and thermodynamic measurements, we report on the field-temperature phase diagram in 2H-TaS2 single crystals. We show that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) increases by one order of magnitude from temperatures at 0.98 K up to 9.15 K at 8.7 GPa when the Tc becomes very sharp. Additionally, the effects of 8.7 GPa illustrate a suppression of the CDW ground state, with critically small Fermi surfaces. Below the Tc the lattice of magnetic flux lines melts from a solid-like state to a broad vortex liquid phase region. Our measurements indicate an unconventional s-wave-like picture with two energy gaps evidencing its multi-band nature.

  1. Enhancement of superconductivity under pressure and the magnetic phase diagram of tantalum disulfide single crystals.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafiez, M; Zhao, X-M; Kordyuk, A A; Fang, Y-W; Pan, B; He, Z; Duan, C-G; Zhao, J; Chen, X-J

    2016-01-01

    In low-dimensional electron systems, charge density waves (CDW) and superconductivity are two of the most fundamental collective quantum phenomena. For all known quasi-two-dimensional superconductors, the origin and exact boundary of the electronic orderings and superconductivity are still attractive problems. Through transport and thermodynamic measurements, we report on the field-temperature phase diagram in 2H-TaS2 single crystals. We show that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) increases by one order of magnitude from temperatures at 0.98 K up to 9.15 K at 8.7 GPa when the Tc becomes very sharp. Additionally, the effects of 8.7 GPa illustrate a suppression of the CDW ground state, with critically small Fermi surfaces. Below the Tc the lattice of magnetic flux lines melts from a solid-like state to a broad vortex liquid phase region. Our measurements indicate an unconventional s-wave-like picture with two energy gaps evidencing its multi-band nature. PMID:27534898

  2. Enhancement of superconductivity under pressure and the magnetic phase diagram of tantalum disulfide single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Zhao, X.-M.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Fang, Y.-W.; Pan, B.; He, Z.; Duan, C.-G.; Zhao, J.; Chen, X.-J.

    2016-01-01

    In low-dimensional electron systems, charge density waves (CDW) and superconductivity are two of the most fundamental collective quantum phenomena. For all known quasi-two-dimensional superconductors, the origin and exact boundary of the electronic orderings and superconductivity are still attractive problems. Through transport and thermodynamic measurements, we report on the field-temperature phase diagram in 2H-TaS2 single crystals. We show that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) increases by one order of magnitude from temperatures at 0.98 K up to 9.15 K at 8.7 GPa when the Tc becomes very sharp. Additionally, the effects of 8.7 GPa illustrate a suppression of the CDW ground state, with critically small Fermi surfaces. Below the Tc the lattice of magnetic flux lines melts from a solid-like state to a broad vortex liquid phase region. Our measurements indicate an unconventional s-wave-like picture with two energy gaps evidencing its multi-band nature. PMID:27534898

  3. Enhancement of superconductivity under pressure and the magnetic phase diagram of tantalum disulfide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Zhao, X.-M.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Fang, Y.-W.; Pan, B.; He, Z.; Duan, C.-G.; Zhao, J.; Chen, X.-J.

    2016-08-01

    In low-dimensional electron systems, charge density waves (CDW) and superconductivity are two of the most fundamental collective quantum phenomena. For all known quasi-two-dimensional superconductors, the origin and exact boundary of the electronic orderings and superconductivity are still attractive problems. Through transport and thermodynamic measurements, we report on the field-temperature phase diagram in 2H-TaS2 single crystals. We show that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) increases by one order of magnitude from temperatures at 0.98 K up to 9.15 K at 8.7 GPa when the Tc becomes very sharp. Additionally, the effects of 8.7 GPa illustrate a suppression of the CDW ground state, with critically small Fermi surfaces. Below the Tc the lattice of magnetic flux lines melts from a solid-like state to a broad vortex liquid phase region. Our measurements indicate an unconventional s-wave-like picture with two energy gaps evidencing its multi-band nature.

  4. On Cyclical Phase Transformations in Driven Alloy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong K.

    2008-05-01

    Cyclical phase transformations occurring in driven materials syntheses such as ball milling are described in terms of a free energy minimization process of participant phases. The oscillatory flow behavior of metals with low stacking fault energies during hot working is taken as a prototype in which a ductile crystalline phase sustains undulation in its free energy, due to the alternate succession of work-hardening and work-softening mechanisms. A time-dependent, oscillatory free energy function is then obtained by solving a delay differential equation (DDE), which accounts for a time lag due to diffusion. To understand cyclical transitions on an atomistic scale, work is extended to molecular dynamics simulations. Under shear deformation, a two-dimensional nanocrystal shows cyclical transitions between an equilibrium rhombus and a nonequilibrium square phase. Three-dimensional simulations show crystalline-to-glass transitions at high strain rates, but very high shear strain rates are found to lead to a latticelike network structure in the plane perpendicular to the shear direction, with strings of atoms parallel to the shear direction.

  5. Superconducting Meissner effect bearings for cryogenic turbomachines, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Martin, Jerry L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the final report of a Phase 2 SBIR project to develop Meissner effect bearings for miniature cryogenic turbomachines. The bearing system was designed for use in miniature cryogenic turboexpanders in reverse-Brayton-cycle cryocoolers. The cryocoolers are designed to cool sensors on satellites. Existing gas bearings for this application run in a relatively warm state. The heat loss from the bearings into the shaft and into the cold process gas imposes a penalty on the cycle efficiency. By using cold Meissner effect bearings, this heat loss could be minimized, and the input power per unit of cooling for these cryocoolers could be reduced. Two bearing concepts were explored in this project. The first used an all-magnetic passive radial suspension to position the shaft over a range of temperatures from room temperature to 77 K. This bearing concept was proven to be feasible, but impractical for the miniature high-speed turbine application since it lacked the required shaft positioning accuracy. A second bearing concept was then developed. In this concept, the Meissner effect bearings are combined with self-acting gas bearings. The Meissner effect bearing provides the additional stiffness and damping required to stabilize the shaft at low temperature, while the gas bearing provides the necessary accuracy to allow very small turbine tip clearances (5mm) and high speeds (greater than 500,000 rpm).

  6. Experiments on Interaction of Quasiparticles with Two-Level-Systems in a Superconducting Phase Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilmes, Alexander; Lisenfeld, Jürgen; Heimes, Andreas; Zanker, Sebastian; Schön, Gerd; Ustinov, Alexey

    2015-03-01

    Two-Level-Systems (TLS) are one of the main sources of decoherence in superconducting qubits. Some individual and coherent TLS, present in the tunnel barrier of the qubit's Josephson junction, can be coherently operated via the qubit. In the past, experiments on superconducting glasses indicated that quasiparticles may give rise to TLS energy loss similar to Korringa relaxation. We will present experiments in which we use a phase qubit to explore the interaction of single TLS with non-equilibrium quasiparticles. We have implemented in-situ quasiparticle injection by using an on-chip dc-SQUID that is pulse-biased beyond its critical current. The quasiparticle density is calibrated by measuring associated characteristic changes to the qubit resonance frequency and energy relaxation rate. The coherence times of individual TLS is measured in dependence of the non-equilibrium quasiparticle density and compared to thermally generated quasiparticles. PI, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.

  7. The superconducting phase and electronic excitations of (Rb,Cs) Fe 2 As 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, J.; Shermadini, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Bukowski, Z.; Batlogg, B.

    2011-03-01

    We present specific heat, transport and Muon-Spin Rotation (μ SR) results on (Rb,Cs) Fe 2 As 2 . RbFe 2 As 2 was only recently found to be superconducting below 2.6 K by Bukowski et al. Compared to the related BaFe 2 As 2 the electron density is lower and no magnetic order is observed. For the superconducting phase the superfluid density was calculated from μ SR data. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density and the magnetic penetration depth is well described by a multi-gap scenario. In addition the electronic contribution the specific heat was studied for different compositions and magnetic fields and reveals a high value for the Sommerfeld coefficient γ .

  8. Interplay between quantum confinement and Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase in superconducting nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, P.; Zegrodnik, M.

    2016-09-01

    In superconducting nanofilms the energy quantization induced by the confinement in the direction perpendicular to the film splits the band of single-electron states into series of subbands. The quantum size effect leads to the experimentally observed oscillations of the critical magnetic field with increasing nanofilm thickness. Here, we study the influence of the quantum confinement on the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase in superconducting nanofilms. We show that the range of the magnetic fields for which the FFLO phase is stable oscillates as a function of the film thickness with the phase shift equal to one half of the period corresponding to the critical magnetic field oscillations. Due to the multiband character of the system a division of the FFLO phase stability region appears leading to a phase diagram which is qualitatively different than the one corresponding to a single-band situation. The number of subregions created in such manner depends on the number of bands participating in the formation of the paired state.

  9. Lamb-shift enhancement and detection in strongly driven superconducting circuits.

    PubMed

    Gramich, Vera; Gasparinetti, Simone; Solinas, Paolo; Ankerhold, Joachim

    2014-07-11

    It is shown that strong driving of a quantum system substantially enhances the Lamb shift induced by broadband reservoirs, which are typical for solid-state devices. By varying drive parameters the impact of environmental vacuum fluctuations with continuous spectral distribution onto system observables can be tuned in a distinctive way. This provides experimentally feasible measurement schemes for the Lamb shift in superconducting circuits based on Cooper pair boxes, where it can be detected either in shifted dressed transition frequencies or in pumped charge currents.

  10. The Kohn-Luttinger mechanism and phase diagram of the superconducting state in the Shubin-Vonsovsky model

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, M. Yu.; Val'kov, V. V.; Mitskan, V. A.; Korovuskin, M. M.

    2013-10-15

    Using the Shubin-Vonsovsky model in the weak-coupling regime W > U > V (W is the bandwidth, U is the Hubbard onsite repulsion, and V is the Coulomb interaction at neighboring sites) based on the Kohn-Luttinger mechanism, we determined the regions of the existence of the superconducting phases with the d{sub xy}, p, s, and d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} symmetry types of the order parameter. It is shown that the effective interaction in the Cooper channel considerably depends not only on single-site but also on intersite Coulomb correlations. This is demonstrated by the example of the qualitative change and complication of the phase diagram of the superconducting state. The superconducting (SC) phase induction mechanism is determined taking into account polarization contributions in the second-order perturbation theory in the Coulomb interaction. The results obtained for the angular dependence of the superconducting gap in different channels are compared with angule-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results. The influence of long-range hops in the phase diagram and critical superconducting transition temperature in different channels is analyzed. The conditions for the appearance of the Kohn-Luttinger superconductivity with the d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} symmetry and high critical temperatures T{sub c} {approx} 100 K near the half-filling are determined.

  11. Ligand-Driven Phase Separation in Binary Particle Brush Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstaller, Michael; Schmitt, Michael; Zhang, Jianan; Yan, Jiajun; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    The tethering of polymer chains to the surface of nanoparticles (to form so-called `particle brush materials') has emerged as an effective means to enable the bottom-up assembly of one-component hybrid materials with controlled microstructure and improved mechanical stability as well as novel optical or acoustic properties. The polymer-like interactions and response of these particle-brush materials suggest intriguing new opportunities to control structure formation in multicomponent particle mixtures. This contribution will demonstrate that polymer-ligand interactions can drive phase separation processes in mixed particle systems that share analogies to those of regular binary polymer blends. The role of particle size, density and degree of polymerization of tethered chains as well as the interaction parameter between the distinct tethered chains on the mechanism and kinetics of phase separation processes in mixed particle brush systems will be discussed. Ligand-driven phase separation will be shown to enable the efficient fabrication of monochromatic domain structured in mixed quantum dot systems that might find application in next generation quantum dot-enabled LEDs. Support by the National Science Foundation (via Grant DMR-1410845) is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Low temperature phase formation of Tl-based superconducting thin films in reduced oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y.; Foong, F.; Liou, S. H.; Ho, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Tl-Ba-Cu-Cu-O superconducting thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering with postannealing in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Single-phase Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O(x) can form on the MgO substrate at 800 C under P(O2) about 0.1 atm. However the phase formation temperature can be affected by the starting composition of the film. Tl1Ba2Ca2Cu3O(x) phase can be formed by simply lowering the Tl2O pressure. The thermal stability of Tl1Ba2Ca2Cu3O(x) phase was studied by resistivity measurements at high temperatures.

  13. Ostwald-Driven Phase Separation in Bimetallic Nanoparticle Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Prévot, Geoffroy; Nguyen, Nhat Tai; Alloyeau, Damien; Ricolleau, Christian; Nelayah, Jaysen

    2016-04-26

    The compositional stability of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial for many applications. We have studied the coarsening of amorphous carbon-supported Au-Pd NPs during annealing at 873 K. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy measurements, we show that, despite a complete miscibility of the two metals, the particle assembly undergoes a phase separation during annealing, which leads to two distinct populations: Au-rich NPs with a mean radius of 3.5 nm and large Pd-rich NPs with a mean radius of 25 nm. Thermodynamic calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations explain this behavior that is driven by the competition between surface and mixing energy and by the different mobilities of the two atomic species. PMID:26989906

  14. Phase Transition to a Time-Reversal Symmetry-Breaking State in d-Wave Superconducting Films with Rough Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashitani, Seiji; Miyawaki, Nobumi

    2015-03-01

    The normal-superconducting phase transition in d-wave superconducting films is discussed with a focus on the effect of diffuse surface scattering. A specularity parameter S characterizing the boundary condition is introduced for systematic analysis of the surface effect. When S = 1 (the specular limit), the film can exhibit a novel superconductivity that spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry, as was shown by Vorontsov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 177001 (2009)]. We find that this superconducting phase is suppressed as the degree of surface roughness increases, i.e., as the specularity S decreases. In particular, it is completely suppressed when S = 0 (the diffusive limit). Those results are explained from the viewpoint of surface odd-frequency pairing.

  15. Current driven transition from Abrikosov-Josephson to Josephson-like vortex in mesoscopic lateral S/S’/S superconducting weak links

    PubMed Central

    Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Barone, C.; Pagano, S.; Gombos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S’/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S’. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S’ region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links. PMID:27752137

  16. Magnetoresistance in the magnetic and superconducting phases of RuSr 2GdCu 2O 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, J. L.; Jurelo, A. R.; Pureur, P.

    The transverse magnetoresistance of RuSr 2GdCu 2O 8 is studied as a function of the applied field in several fixed temperatures spanning the superconducting and purely magnetic phases. In low applied fields, the magnetoresistance is positive and results from suppression of superconducting fluctuations. In the high field-high temperature regimes, a spin-disorder contribution to the magnetoresistance is identified. This fact indicates that the magnetic Ru-O 2 atomic layers have a conducting character.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of 110 K superconducting phase in Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. L.; Stevens, R.; Lo, W.; Zhen, Y. S.

    1990-12-01

    The temperatures and sequence of formation of superconducting phases within the composition Bi(1.6)Pb(0.4)Sr2Ca2Cu4O(x) were determined using simultaneous DTA and TGA, XRD, and SEM. A single phase high-Tc ceramic was obtained by a solid state reaction using predetermined firing conditions, although a TEM study showed a small amount of glass phase in the grain boundary tripoint regions. The unit cell of the high-Tc phase was refined as a = 0.5413 nm, b = 0.5414 nm, c = 3.715 nm. The melting temperature of the high-Tc phase is in the region of 852-862 C. The effect of lead was believed to lower the temperature of formation of the high-Tc phase. Lead was also found to evaporate from the matrix during and after high-Tc phase formation, whereas bismuth was found to be stable in both the low-Tc phase and high-Tc phase compounds.

  18. Development of a fast scintillator based beam phase measurement system for compact superconducting cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Tanushyam; Kanti Dey, Malay; Dhara, Partha; Roy, Suvodeep; Debnath, Jayanta; Balakrishna Bhole, Rajendra; Dutta, Atanu; Pradhan, Jedidiah; Pal, Sarbajit; Pal, Gautam; Roy, Amitava; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2013-05-01

    In an isochronous cyclotron, measurements of central phase of the ion beam with respect to rf and the phase width provide a way to tune the cyclotron for maximum energy gain per turn and efficient extraction. We report here the development of a phase measurement system and the measurements carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre's (VECC's) K = 500 superconducting cyclotron. The technique comprises detecting prompt γ-rays resulting from the interaction of cyclotron ion beam with an aluminium target mounted on a radial probe in coincidence with cyclotron rf. An assembly comprising a fast scintillator and a liquid light-guide inserted inside the cyclotron was used to detect the γ-rays and to transfer the light signal outside the cyclotron where a matching photo-multiplier tube was used for light to electrical signal conversion. The typical beam intensity for this measurement was a few times 1011 pps.

  19. Direct observation of nanoscale interface phase in the superconducting chalcogenide KxFe2 -ySe2 with intrinsic phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, A.; Poccia, N.; Joseph, B.; Innocenti, D.; Campi, G.; Zozulya, A.; Westermeier, F.; Schavkan, A.; Coneri, F.; Bianconi, A.; Takeya, H.; Mizuguchi, Y.; Takano, Y.; Mizokawa, T.; Sprung, M.; Saini, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have used scanning micro x-ray diffraction to characterize different phases in superconducting KxFe2 -ySe2 as a function of temperature, unveiling the thermal evolution across the superconducting transition temperature (Tc˜32 K), phase separation temperature (Tp s˜520 K), and iron-vacancy order temperature (Tv o˜580 K). In addition to the iron-vacancy ordered tetragonal magnetic phase and orthorhombic metallic minority filamentary phase, we have found clear evidence of the interface phase with tetragonal symmetry. The metallic phase is surrounded by this interface phase below ˜300 K, and is embedded in the insulating texture. The spatial distribution of coexisting phases as a function of temperature provides clear evidence of the formation of protected metallic percolative paths in the majority texture with large magnetic moment, required for the electronic coherence for the superconductivity. Furthermore, a clear reorganization of iron-vacancy order around the Tp s and Tc is found with the interface phase being mostly associated with a different iron-vacancy configuration, that may be important for protecting the percolative superconductivity in KxFe2 -ySe2 .

  20. Possible suggestions for order parameter phase-sensitive experiments in the superconducting iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David

    2010-03-01

    The iron pnictide superconductors have undergone intensive study since the original discovery by Kamihara et al early in 2008, with maximum Tc's exceeding 50 K. Despite this, the most basic questions such as pairing symmetry and mechanism have not been definitively settled. For the cuprates, the SQUID loop and tricrystal phase-sensitive experiments were instrumental in finally determining the d-wave gap symmetry; similar experiments were designed and implemented for triplet p-wave superconductivity. However, the main challenge in pnictides is to distinguish between two superconducting states, the sign-changing ``s±" and single-sign ``s++ states, which belong to the same point symmetry class. This means that while designing a Josephson loop one needs to invent a recipe to filter out different types of carriers at the two different contacts. By definition this is a quantitative rather than qualitative effect, and involves the relative amplitude of the order parameter, density-of-states and Fermi velocity, and the character of the electronic wavefunctions. Presently proposed methods either attempt to determine an optimal angle (i.e., non-90^o) for a SQUID junction, use different barrier characteristics in different directions, or exploit `sandwich' junctions employing two or more superconductors. In this talk, I discuss several recent proposals for phase-sensitive experiments which could help resolve the pairing symmetry controversy, as well as experimental work in this area.

  1. Magnetic and superconducting phase diagram of the half-Heusler topological semimetal HoPdBi.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, A M; Pan, Y; Mao, X; Jehee, R; Araizi, G K; Huang, Y K; Paulsen, C; Wu, S C; Yan, B H; de Visser, A

    2015-07-15

    We report a study of the magnetic and electronic properties of the non-centrosymmetric half-Heusler antiferromagnet HoPdBi (TN = 2.0 K). Magnetotransport measurements show HoPdBi has a semimetallic behavior with a carrier concentration n = 3.7 × 10(18) cm(-3) extracted from the Shubnikov-de Haas effect. The magnetic phase diagram in the field-temperature plane has been determined by transport, magnetization, and thermal expansion measurements: magnetic order is suppressed at BM ~ 3.6 T for T --> 0. Superconductivity with Tc ~ 1.9 K is found in the antiferromagnetic phase. Ac-susceptibility measurements provide solid evidence for bulk superconductivity below Tc = 0.75 K with a screening signal close to a volume fraction of 100%. The upper critical field shows an unusual linear temperature variation with Bc2(T --> 0) = 1.1 T. We also report electronic structure calculations that classify HoPdBi as a new topological semimetal, with a non-trivial band inversion of 0.25 eV. PMID:26086396

  2. Magnetic and superconducting phase diagram of the half-Heusler topological semimetal HoPdBi.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, A M; Pan, Y; Mao, X; Jehee, R; Araizi, G K; Huang, Y K; Paulsen, C; Wu, S C; Yan, B H; de Visser, A

    2015-07-15

    We report a study of the magnetic and electronic properties of the non-centrosymmetric half-Heusler antiferromagnet HoPdBi (TN = 2.0 K). Magnetotransport measurements show HoPdBi has a semimetallic behavior with a carrier concentration n = 3.7 × 10(18) cm(-3) extracted from the Shubnikov-de Haas effect. The magnetic phase diagram in the field-temperature plane has been determined by transport, magnetization, and thermal expansion measurements: magnetic order is suppressed at BM ~ 3.6 T for T --> 0. Superconductivity with Tc ~ 1.9 K is found in the antiferromagnetic phase. Ac-susceptibility measurements provide solid evidence for bulk superconductivity below Tc = 0.75 K with a screening signal close to a volume fraction of 100%. The upper critical field shows an unusual linear temperature variation with Bc2(T --> 0) = 1.1 T. We also report electronic structure calculations that classify HoPdBi as a new topological semimetal, with a non-trivial band inversion of 0.25 eV.

  3. Superconducting scanning tunneling microscopy tips in a magnetic field: Geometry-controlled order of the phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Eltschka, Matthias Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R.; Kondrashov, Oleg V.; Skvortsov, Mikhail A.; Kern, Klaus

    2015-09-21

    The properties of geometrically confined superconductors significantly differ from their bulk counterparts. Here, we demonstrate the geometrical impact for superconducting scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips, where the confinement ranges from the atomic to the mesoscopic scale. To this end, we compare the experimentally determined magnetic field dependence for several vanadium tips to microscopic calculations based on the Usadel equation. For our theoretical model of a superconducting cone, we find a direct correlation between the geometry and the order of the superconducting phase transition. Increasing the opening angle of the cone changes the phase transition from first to second order. Comparing our experimental findings to the theory reveals first and second order quantum phase transitions in the vanadium STM tips. In addition, the theory also explains experimentally observed broadening effects by the specific tip geometry.

  4. Nonlinear instabilities driven by coherent phase-space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, Maxime

    2012-10-01

    Coherent phase-space (PS) structures are an important feature of plasma turbulence. They can drive nonlinear instabilities [1], intermittency in drift-wave turbulence [2], and transport [3]. We aim at a comprehensive understanding of turbulence, not just as an ensemble of waves, as quasilinear theory implies, but as a mixture of coupled waves and localized structures. This work, which focuses on isolated PS structures, is a fundamental advance in this direction. We analyze the effects of self-binding negative fluctuations (PS holes) on stability, intermittency and anomalous resistivity, both analytically and numerically. We present a new theory which describes the growth of a hole or clump [4]. We find that PS holes grow nonlinearly, independently of linear stability. Numerical simulations clarify the physics of nonlinear instabilities in both subcritical and supercritical conditions. When many resonances are unstable, several holes can coalesce into one main macro-scale structure, which survives much longer than a quasilinear diffusion time, suggesting that it may be crucial to resolve phase-space turbulence in analytical and numerical studies of transport. These findings are applied to two fundamental paradigms of plasma physics: bump-on-tail instabilities in 1D electronic plasma and current-driven ion-acoustic instabilities electron-ion plasma. Our results expose important limits of routinely-used linear and quasilinear theories.[4pt] [1] T.H. Dupree, Phys. Fluids 15, 334 (1972); R.H. Berman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1249 (1982).[0pt] [2] P.W. Terry, P.H. Diamond, and T.S. Hahm, Phys. Fluids B 2, 2048 (1990).[0pt] [3] H. Biglari et al., Phys. Fluids 31, 2644 (1988); Y. Kosuga et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 122305 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Lesur, P.H. Diamond, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

  5. Self-driven cooling loop for a large superconducting magnet in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, A. J.; Snyder, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    Pressurized cooling loops in which superfluid helium circulation is driven by the heat being removed have been previously demonstrated in laboratory tests. A simpler and lighter version which eliminates a heat exchanger by mixing the returning fluid directly with the superfluid helium bath was analyzed. A carefully designed flow restriction must be used to prevent boiling in this low-pressure system. A candidate design for Astromag is shown that can keep the magnet below 2.0 K during magnet charging. This gives a greater margin against accidental quench than approaches that allow the coolant to warm above the lambda point. A detailed analysis of one candidate design is presented.

  6. Redistribution of phase fluctuations in a periodically driven cuprate superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, R.; Zhu, B.; Rexin, T.; Cavalleri, A.; Mathey, L.

    2015-03-01

    We study the thermally fluctuating state of a bilayer cuprate superconductor under the periodic action of a staggered field oscillating at optical frequencies. This analysis distills essential elements of the recently discovered phenomenon of light-enhanced coherence in YBa2Cu3O6 +x , which was achieved by periodically driving infrared active apical oxygen distortions. The effect of a staggered periodic perturbation is studied using a Langevin and Fokker-Planck description of driven, coupled Josephson junctions, which represent two neighboring pairs of layers and their two plasmons. In a toy model including only two junctions, we demonstrate that the external driving leads to a suppression of phase fluctuations of the low-energy plasmon, an effect which is amplified via the resonance of the high-energy plasmon. When extending the modeling to the full layers, we find that this reduction becomes far more pronounced, with a striking suppression of the low-energy fluctuations, as visible in the power spectrum. We also find that this effect acts on the in-plane fluctuations, which are reduced on long length scales. All these findings provide a physical framework to describe light control in cuprates.

  7. Possible "Magnéli" Phases and Self-Alloying in the Superconducting Sulfur Hydride.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Ryosuke; Sano, Wataru; Arita, Ryotaro; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2016-08-12

    We theoretically give an infinite number of metastable crystal structures for the superconducting sulfur hydride H_{x}S under pressure. Previously predicted crystalline phases of H_{2}S and H_{3}S have been thought to have important roles for experimentally observed low and high T_{c}, respectively. The newly found structures are long-period modulated crystals where slablike H_{2}S and H_{3}S regions intergrow on a microscopic scale. The extremely small formation enthalpy for the H_{2}S-H_{3}S boundary indicated by first-principles calculations suggests possible alloying of these phases through the formation of local H_{3}S regions. The modulated structures and gradual alloying transformations between them not only explain the peculiar pressure dependence of T_{c} in sulfur hydride observed experimentally, but also could prevail in the experimental samples under various compression schemes. PMID:27563975

  8. Phase transitions in trajectories of a superconducting single-electron transistor coupled to a resonator.

    PubMed

    Genway, Sam; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Armour, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Recent progress in the study of dynamical phase transitions has been made with a large-deviation approach to study trajectories of stochastic jumps using a thermodynamic formalism. We study this method applied to an open quantum system consisting of a superconducting single-electron transistor, near the Josephson quasiparticle resonance, coupled to a resonator. We find that the dynamical behavior shown in rare trajectories can be rich even when the mean dynamical activity is small, and thus the formalism gives insights into the form of fluctuations. The structure of the dynamical phase diagram found from the quantum-jump trajectories of the resonator is studied, and we see that sharp transitions in the dynamical activity may be related to the appearance and disappearance of bistabilities in the state of the resonator as system parameters are changed. We also demonstrate that for a fast resonator, the trajectories of quasiparticles are similar to the resonator trajectories. PMID:23004718

  9. Possible "Magnéli" Phases and Self-Alloying in the Superconducting Sulfur Hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Ryosuke; Sano, Wataru; Arita, Ryotaro; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically give an infinite number of metastable crystal structures for the superconducting sulfur hydride HxS under pressure. Previously predicted crystalline phases of H2S and H3S have been thought to have important roles for experimentally observed low and high Tc, respectively. The newly found structures are long-period modulated crystals where slablike H2S and H3S regions intergrow on a microscopic scale. The extremely small formation enthalpy for the H2S -H3S boundary indicated by first-principles calculations suggests possible alloying of these phases through the formation of local H3S regions. The modulated structures and gradual alloying transformations between them not only explain the peculiar pressure dependence of Tc in sulfur hydride observed experimentally, but also could prevail in the experimental samples under various compression schemes.

  10. Passive Superconducting Flux Conservers for Rotating-Magnetic-Field-Driven Field-Reversed Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Oz, E.; Myers, C. E.; Edwards, M. R.; Berlinger, B.; Brooks, A.; Cohen, S. A.

    2011-01-05

    The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) experiment employs an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMFo) current drive and plasma heating system to form and sustain high-Β plasmas. For radial confinement, an array of coaxial, internal, passive, flux-conserving (FC) rings applies magnetic pressure to the plasma while still allowing radio-frequency RMFo from external coils to reach the plasma. The 3 ms pulse duration of the present experiment is limited by the skin time (τfc) of its room-temperature copper FC rings. To explore plasma phenomena with longer characteristic times, the pulse duration of the next-generation PFRC-2 device will exceed 100 ms, necessitating FC rings with (τfc > 300 ms. In this paper we review the physics of internal, discrete, passive FCs and describe the evolution of the PFRC's FC array. We then detail new experiments that have produced higher performance FC rings that contain embedded high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. Several HTS tape winding configurations have been studied and a wide range of extended skin times, from 0.4 s to over 103 s, has been achieved. The new FC rings must carry up to 3 kA of current to balance the expected PFRC-2 plasma pressure, so the dependence of the HTS-FC critical current on the winding configuration and temperature was also studied. From these experiments, the key HTS-FC design considerations have been identified and HTS-FC rings with the desired performance characteristics have been produced.

  11. Self-heterodyne detection of the in situ phase of an atomic superconducting quantum interference device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, R.; Kumar, A.; Eckel, S.; Jendrzejewski, F.; Campbell, G. K.; Edwards, Mark; Tiesinga, E.

    2015-09-01

    We present theoretical and experimental analysis of an interferometric measurement of the in situ phase drop across and current flow through a rotating barrier in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This experiment is the atomic analog of the rf-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The phase drop is extracted from a spiral-shaped density profile created by the spatial interference of the expanding toroidal BEC and a reference BEC after release from all trapping potentials. We characterize the interferometer when it contains a single particle, which is initially in a coherent superposition of a torus and reference state, as well as when it contains a many-body state in the mean-field approximation. The single-particle picture is sufficient to explain the origin of the spirals, to relate the phase-drop across the barrier to the geometry of a spiral, and to bound the expansion times for which the in situ phase can be accurately determined. Mean-field estimates and numerical simulations show that the interatomic interactions shorten the expansion time scales compared to the single-particle case. Finally, we compare the mean-field simulations with our experimental data and confirm that the interferometer indeed accurately measures the in situ phase drop.

  12. Phase fluctuation in overdoped cuprates? Superconducting dome due to Mott-ness of the tightly bound preformed pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Wei; Yang, Fan

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the current lore, we demonstrate that even the overdoped cuprates suffer from superconducting phase fluctuation in the strong binding limit. Specifically, the Mott-ness of the underlying doped holes dictates naturally a generic optimal doping around 15% and nearly complete loss of phase coherence around 25%, giving rise to a dome shape of superconducting transition temperature in excellent agreement with experimental observations of the cuprates. We verify this effect with a simple estimation using Gutzwiller approximation of the preformed pairs, obtained through variational Monte Carlo calculation. This realization suggests strongly the interesting possibility that the high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates might be mostly described by Bose-Einstein condensation, without crossing over to amplitude fluctuating Cooper pairs. Supported by Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  13. Improvement of superconducting properties of (Bi, Pb)-2223phase by TlF3 doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoudel, A.; Amira, A.; Mahamdioua, N.; Boudjadja, Y.; Varilci, A.; Altintas, S. P.; Terzioglu, C.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the superconducting properties of thallium fluoride (TlF3)doped Bi1.8-xTlxPb0.35Sr2Ca2Cu3OyF3x(x=0-0.15)compounds are presented. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the proportion of (Bi, Pb)-2223phase is higher than the secondary (Bi, Pb)-2212one in all samples and its highest value is about 82.74%for x=0.05. From the resistivity curves, the highest values of the onset critical transition temperature (Tc.on), the offset critical transition temperature (Tc.off) are seen for x=0.10. The calculation of activation energy (U0) in the TAFF (thermally activation flux flow) region proves the positive effect of TlF3 doping on the dissipative behavior of energy near Tc.off. Flux pinning strength is enhanced by increasing TlF3content up to x=0.10, and decreased by the application of a magnetic field. The other superconducting parameters like T(Hc2), T(Hirr), ξ(0) and μ0Hc2(0) are also improved significantly by doping. The obtained results of Ac susceptibility measurements show that the onset temperature of diamagnetism is improved by TlF3 doping, in accordance with the resistivity results.

  14. Geometric phase of a qubit driven by a phase noise laser under non-Markovian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Berrada, K.

    2014-01-15

    Robustness of the geometric phase (GP) with respect to the environmental effects is a basic condition for an effective quantum computation. Here, we study quantitatively the GP of a two-level atom system driven by a phase noise laser under non-Markovian dynamics in terms of different parameters involved in the whole system. We find that with the change of the damping coupling, the GP is very sensitive to its properties exhibiting long collapse and revival phenomena, which play a significant role in enhancing the stabilization and control of the system dynamics. Moreover, we show that the GP can be considered as a tool for testing and characterizing the nature of the qubit–environment coupling. Due to the significance of how a system is quantum correlated with its environment in the construction of a scalable quantum computer, the entanglement dynamics between the qubit with its environment under external classical noise is evaluated and investigated during the time evolution. -- Highlights: •Geometric phase under noise phase laser. •Dynamics of the geometric phase under non-Markovian dynamics in the presence of classical noise. •Solution of master equation of the system in terms atomic inversion. •Nonlocal correlation between the system and its environment under non-Markovianity.

  15. First demonstration and performance of an injection locked continuous wave magnetron to phase control a superconducting cavity

    SciTech Connect

    A.C. Dexter, G. Burt, R.G. Carter, I. Tahir, H. Wang, K. Davis, R. Rimmer

    2011-03-01

    The applications of magnetrons to high power proton and cw electron linacs are discussed. An experiment is described where a 2.45 GHz magnetron has been used to drive a single cell superconducting cavity. With the magnetron injection locked, a modest phase control accuracy of 0.95° rms has been demonstrated. Factors limiting performance have been identified.

  16. A unifying phase diagram with correlation-driven superconductor-to-insulator transition for the 122 series of iron chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X. H.; Chen, S. D.; Jiang, J.; Ye, Z. R.; Yu, T. L.; Xu, D. F.; Xu, M.; Feng, Y.; Yan, Y. J.; Xie, B. P.; Zhao, J.; Gu, D. C.; Sun, L. L.; Mao, Qianhui; Wang, Hangdong; Fang, Minghu; Zhang, C. J.; Hu, J. P.; Sun, Z.; Feng, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 122 series of iron chalcogenide superconductors, for example KxFe2 -ySe2 , only possesses electron Fermi pockets. Their distinctive electronic structure challenges the picture built upon iron pnictide superconductors, where both electron and hole Fermi pockets coexist. However, partly due to the intrinsic phase separation in this family of compounds, many aspects of their behavior remain elusive. In particular, the evolution of the 122 series of iron chalcogenides with chemical substitution still lacks a microscopic and unified interpretation. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we studied a major fraction of 122 iron chalcogenides, including the isovalently "doped" KxFe2 -ySe2 -zSz,RbxFe2 -ySe2 -zTez , and (Tl,K) xFe2 -ySe2 -zSz . We found that the bandwidths of the low energy Fe 3 d bands in these materials depend on doping; and more crucially, as the bandwidth decreases, the ground state evolves from a metal to a superconductor, and eventually to an insulator, yet the Fermi surface in the metallic phases is unaffected by the isovalent dopants. Moreover, the correlation-driven insulator found here with small band filling may be a novel insulating phase. Our study shows that almost all the known 122-series iron chalcogenides can be understood via one unifying phase diagram which implies that moderate correlation strength is beneficial for the superconductivity.

  17. Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states in a superconducting ring with magnetic fields: Phase diagram and the first-order phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Ryosuke; Takada, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Shunji; Marmorini, Giacomo; Hayakawa, Hisao; Nitta, Muneto

    2015-12-01

    We find the angular Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states (or the twisted kink crystals) in which a phase and an amplitude of a pair potential modulate simultaneously in a quasi-one-dimensional superconducting ring with a static Zeeman magnetic field applied on the ring and static Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux penetrating the ring. The superconducting ring with magnetic flux produces a persistent current, whereas the Zeeman split of Fermi energy results in the spatial modulation of the pair potential. We show that these two magnetic fields stabilize the FFLO phase in a large parameter region of the magnetic fields. We further draw the phase diagram with the two kinds of first-order phase transitions; one corresponds to phase slips separating the Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux, and the other separates the number of peaks of the pair amplitude for the Zeeman magnetic field.

  18. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Magnetic excitations of Fe1 + ySexTe1 - x in magnetic and superconductive phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkevich, P.; Bendele, M.; Boothroyd, A. T.; Conder, K.; Gvasaliya, S. N.; Khasanov, R.; Pomjakushina, E.; Roessli, B.

    2010-04-01

    We have used inelastic neutron scattering and muon-spin rotation to compare the low energy magnetic excitations in single crystals of superconducting Fe1.01Se0.50Te0.50 and non-superconducting Fe1.10Se0.25Te0.75. We confirm the existence of a spin resonance in the superconducting phase of Fe1.01Se0.50Te0.50, at an energy of 7 meV and a wavevector of (1/2, 1/2, 0). The non-superconducting sample exhibits two incommensurate magnetic excitations at (1/2, 1/2, 0) ± (0.18, - 0.18, 0) which rise steeply in energy, but no resonance is observed at low energies. A strongly dispersive low energy magnetic excitation is also observed in Fe1.10Se0.25Te0.75 close to the commensurate antiferromagnetic ordering wavevector (1/2 - δ, 0, 1/2), where δ≈0.03. The magnetic correlations in both samples are found to be quasi-two-dimensional in character and persist well above the magnetic (Fe1.10Se0.25Te0.75) and superconducting (Fe1.01Se0.50Te0.50) transition temperatures.

  19. Magnetic Transport Properties in GdBa2Cu3- x Ru x O7- δ Superconducting Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Aly, A. I.; Mahmoud, S. A.; Awad, R.; Ibrahim, I. H.; Barakat, M. Me.

    2012-04-01

    Bulk superconducting samples of type GdBa2Cu3- x Ru x O7- δ phase, Gd-123, with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.15 were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction technique. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the electrical resistivity measurements were performed in order to investigate the effect of Ru4+ ions substitution on Gd-123 phase. Enhancement of the phase formation and the superconducting transition temperature T c for GdBa2Cu3- x Ru x O7- δ phase up to x=0.05 was observed. The effect of magnetic field up to 4.4 kG on the electrical resistivity behavior of the prepared samples was studied to investigate the flux motion of this phase. The derived flux pinning energy U, based on the thermally activated flux creep TAFC model, decreased with increasing the magnetic field B. The flux pinning energy followed the exponent behavior as U( B)˜ B - β . The superconducting transition width ΔT increased as the magnetic field increased, showing the scaling relation as ΔT˜ B n . Using Ambegaokar and Halperin AH theory, the magnetic field and temperature dependence of U was found to be U( B, T)˜ ΔTB - η , η= β+ n. The critical current density J c (0) enhanced up to x=0.05, beyond which it decreased with further increase in Ru-content.

  20. Phase Diagram and Electronic Properties of High-Tc Superconducting Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuna, Davor

    We firstly briefly summarize some of the most relevant recent results and open questions across rather complex electronic phase diagram of cuprates. We continue with a discussion of results on thin superconducting oxide films grown by laser ablation. Systematic studies show that BSCCO-phases and LSCO-214 exhibit conductor-like Fermi edge, whereas materials containing "chains" (like YBCO-123) are prone to very rapid surface degradation, most likely related to critical oxygen loss at the outermost layers. Recently, direct ARPES dispersion measurements on in-situ grown, strained 10UC thin LSCO-214 films (Tc = 44 K) have shown the band crossing of Fermi level well before the Brillouin zone boundary. This is in contrast to the flat band observed in unstrained single crystals — and to the band flattening predicted by band calculations for in-plane compressive strain. In spite of density of states reduction near the Fermi level, the critical temperature increases in strained films with respect to unstrained crystals; this poses further challenge to HTSC theory.

  1. Entanglement driven phase transitions in spin-orbital models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Wen-Long; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Horsch, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To demonstrate the role played by the von Neumann entropy (vNE) spectra in quantum phase transitions we investigate the one-dimensional anisotropic SU(2)\\otimes {XXZ} spin-orbital model with negative exchange parameter. In the case of classical Ising orbital interactions we discover an unexpected novel phase with Majumdar-Ghosh-like spin-singlet dimer correlations triggered by spin-orbital entanglement (SOE) and having k=π /2 orbital correlations, while all the other phases are disentangled. For anisotropic XXZ orbital interactions both SOE and spin-dimer correlations extend to the antiferro-spin/alternating-orbital phase. This quantum phase provides a unique example of two coupled order parameters which change the character of the phase transition from first-order to continuous. Hereby we have established the vNE spectral function as a valuable tool to identify the change of ground state degeneracies and of the SOE of elementary excitations in quantum phase transitions.

  2. Relation between the structural phase transition and superconductivity in CuxIrTe2 -ySey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitani, M.; Sakai, H.; Tokura, Y.; Ishiwata, S.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the relation between structural transition with Ir-dimer formation and superconductivity in IrTe2 by combining the Se substitution and the Cu intercalation. Regardless of the structural transition temperature (Ts), which increases with increasing the Se content (y ) in IrTe2 -ySey , superconductivity emerges robustly by the Cu intercalation. As the Cu content x in CuxIrTe2 -ySey increases, Ts tends to decrease, followed by the emergence of superconductivity with showing the highest critical temperature (Tc) at the optimum Cu concentration (xopt) close to the structural phase boundary. Based on the transport and thermodynamic properties, the electron-phonon coupling constant is found to be enhanced near the structural phase boundary, which suggests an essential role of the structural instability for the superconductivity in doped IrTe2. With increasing y from 0 to 0.5 in CuxIrTe2 -ySey , Ts at x =0 increases by about 80%, whereas Tc at x =xopt decreases by about 20%. This can be understood by the weakening of the interlayer hybridization upon the Se substitution, resulting in the weak but negative correlation between Ts and Tc through y .

  3. Precision phase control for the radio frequency system of K500 superconducting cyclotron at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Som, Sumit; Ghosh, Surajit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Roy, Suprakash

    2013-11-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) has commissioned K500 Superconducting cyclotron (SCC) based on MSU and Texas A and M university cyclotrons. The radio frequency (RF) system of SCC has been commissioned with the stringent requirement of various RF parameters. The three-phase RF system of Superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9–27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.1°, respectively. The phase control system has the option to change the relative phase difference between any two RF cavities and maintain the phase stability within ±0.1° during round-the-clock cyclotron operation. The said precision phase loop consists of both analogue In-phase/Quadrature modulator to achieve faster response and also Direct Digital Synthesis based phase shifter to achieve wide dynamic range as well. This paper discusses detail insights into the various issues of phase control for the K500 SCC at VECC, Kolkata.

  4. Quantum dynamical field theory for nonequilibrium phase transitions in driven open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Jamir; Diehl, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    We develop a quantum dynamical field theory for studying phase transitions in driven open systems coupled to Markovian noise, where nonlinear noise effects and fluctuations beyond semiclassical approximations influence the critical behavior. We systematically compare the diagrammatics, the properties of the renormalization group flow, and the structure of the fixed points of the quantum dynamical field theory and of its semiclassical counterpart, which is employed to characterize dynamical criticality in three-dimensional driven-dissipative condensates. As an application, we perform the Keldysh functional renormalization of a one-dimensional driven open Bose gas, where a tailored diffusion Markov noise realizes an analog of quantum criticality for driven-dissipative condensation. We find that the associated nonequilibrium quantum phase transition does not map into the critical behavior of its three-dimensional classical driven counterpart.

  5. Fluctuation-driven electroweak phase transition. [in early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  6. Phase diagram and electronic indication of high-temperature superconductivity at 65 K in single-layer FeSe films.

    PubMed

    He, Shaolong; He, Junfeng; Zhang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Defa; Liu, Xu; Mou, Daixiang; Ou, Yun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Yan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2013-07-01

    The recent discovery of possible high-temperature superconductivity in single-layer FeSe films has generated significant experimental and theoretical interest. In both the cuprate and the iron-based high-temperature superconductors, superconductivity is induced by doping charge carriers into the parent compound to suppress the antiferromagnetic state. It is therefore important to establish whether the superconductivity observed in the single-layer sheets of FeSe--the essential building blocks of the Fe-based superconductors--is realized by undergoing a similar transition. Here we report the phase diagram for an FeSe monolayer grown on a SrTiO3 substrate, by tuning the charge carrier concentration over a wide range through an extensive annealing procedure. We identify two distinct phases that compete during the annealing process: the electronic structure of the phase at low doping (N phase) bears a clear resemblance to the antiferromagnetic parent compound of the Fe-based superconductors, whereas the superconducting phase (S phase) emerges with the increase in doping and the suppression of the N phase. By optimizing the carrier concentration, we observe strong indications of superconductivity with a transition temperature of 65±5 K. The wide tunability of the system across different phases makes the FeSe monolayer ideal for investigating not only the physics of superconductivity, but also for studying novel quantum phenomena more generally.

  7. Electromagnetically superconducting phase of QCD vacuum induced by strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Chernodub, M. N.

    2011-05-23

    In this talk we discuss our recent suggestion that the QCD vacuum in a sufficiently strong magnetic field (stronger than 10{sup 16} Tesla) may undergo a spontaneous transition to an electromagnetically superconducting state. The possible superconducting state is anisotropic (the vacuum exhibits superconductivity only along the axis of the uniform magnetic field) and inhomogeneous (in the transverse directions the vacuum structure shares similarity with the Abrikosov lattice of an ordinary type-II superconductor). The electromagnetic superconductivity of the QCD vacuum is suggested to occur due to emergence of specific quark-antiquark condensates which carry quantum numbers of electrically charged rho mesons. A Lorentz-covariant generalization of the London transport equations for the magnetic-field-induced superconductivity is given.

  8. Precision phase control for the radio frequency system of K500 superconducting cyclotron at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Som, Sumit; Ghosh, Surajit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Roy, Suprakash

    2013-11-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) has commissioned K500 Superconducting cyclotron (SCC) based on MSU and Texas A&M university cyclotrons. The radio frequency (RF) system of SCC has been commissioned with the stringent requirement of various RF parameters. The three-phase RF system of Superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.1°, respectively. The phase control system has the option to change the relative phase difference between any two RF cavities and maintain the phase stability within ±0.1° during round-the-clock cyclotron operation. The said precision phase loop consists of both analogue In-phase∕Quadrature modulator to achieve faster response and also Direct Digital Synthesis based phase shifter to achieve wide dynamic range as well. This paper discusses detail insights into the various issues of phase control for the K500 SCC at VECC, Kolkata.

  9. Theoretical predictions of novel superconducting phases of BaGe3 stable at atmospheric and high pressures.

    PubMed

    Zurek, Eva; Yao, Yansun

    2015-03-16

    A series of new superconducting binary silicides and germanides have recently been synthesized under high-pressure high-temperature conditions. A representative member of this group, BaGe3, was theoretically investigated using evolutionary structure searches coupled with structural analogies in the pressure range from 1 atm to 250 GPa, where three new phases were discovered. At 1 atm, in addition to the synthesized P63/mmc phase, we predicted two new phases, I4/mmm and Amm2, to be dynamically stable. The Amm2 structure comprises Ge clusters and triangular prisms intercalated with Ba and Ge atoms, a unique structural motif unknown to this group. The I4/mmm structure has been previously synthesized in binary silicides and is calculated to be thermodynamically stable in BaGe3 between 15.6 and 35.4 GPa. Above 35.4 GPa, two new phases of P6̅m2 and R3̅m symmetry become the global minima and remain so up to the highest pressure considered. These two phases have very similar enthalpies, and both feature layers of double Kagome nets of Ge intercalated with Ba-Ge layers. The predicted phases are suggested to be metallic with itinerant electrons and to be potentially superconducting from the considerable electron-phonon coupling strength. Density functional perturbation calculations combined with the Allen-Dynes-modified McMillan formula were used to estimate the superconducting critical temperatures (Tc) for these new phases, which, with slight pressure variations, are comparable to the experimental Tc measured for the P63/mmc phase.

  10. Topology-driven magnetic quantum phase transition in topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinsong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Tang, Peizhe; Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Li, Kang; Wang, Li-Li; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chaoxing; Duan, Wenhui; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun; Ma, Xucun; Wang, Yayu

    2013-03-29

    The breaking of time reversal symmetry in topological insulators may create previously unknown quantum effects. We observed a magnetic quantum phase transition in Cr-doped Bi2(SexTe1-x)3 topological insulator films grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Across the critical point, a topological quantum phase transition is revealed through both angle-resolved photoemission measurements and density functional theory calculations. We present strong evidence that the bulk band topology is the fundamental driving force for the magnetic quantum phase transition. The tunable topological and magnetic properties in this system are well suited for realizing the exotic topological quantum phenomena in magnetic topological insulators.

  11. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting dome in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare with the Ginzburg–Landau coherence length. We find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying a connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.

  12. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying a connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.

  13. Design and test of a superconducting magnet in a linear accelerator for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Quanling; Xu, Fengyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Xiangchen; Chen, Anbin; Wei, Xiaotao; Gao, Yao; Hou, Zhenhua; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Haoshu

    2014-11-01

    A batch superconducting solenoid magnet for the ADS proton linear accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested in a vertical dewar in Sept. 2013. A total of ten superconducting magnets will be installed into two separate cryomodules. Each cryomodule contains six superconducting spoke RF cavities for beam acceleration and five solenoid magnets for beam focusing. The multifunction superconducting magnet contains a solenoid for beam focusing and two correctors for orbit correction. The design current for the solenoid magnet is 182 A. A quench performance test shows that the operating current of the solenoid magnet can reach above 300 A after natural quenching on three occasions during current ramping (260 A, 268 A, 308 A). The integrated field strength and leakage field at the nearby superconducting spoke cavities all meet the design requirements. The vertical test checked the reliability of the test dewar and the quench detection system. This paper presents the physical and mechanical design of the batch magnets, the quench detection technique, field measurements, and a discussion of the residual field resulting from persistent current effects.

  14. Solid-phase chemistry driven by energetic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Molecules in the solid phase have been detected in the line of sight of quiescent molecular clouds and star forming regions as icy mantles on dust grains. Although about 10 molecular species have been firmly identified in icy grain mantles, it is believed that many, also complex, species are present in the solid phase which are not detected due to the detection limits of infrared spectroscopy. It is generally accepted that some of the observed species (such as CO) freeze out from the gas phase while others (such as water and methanol) are formed on grains after surface reactions. Other species (such as CO2 and OCS), are not expected to freeze out in significant amount from the gas phase and grain surface models do not account for their observed abundance. It has been suggested that these molecules, along with other more complex species, are formed after energetic processing (i.e. cosmic ion and UV irradiation) of icy grain mantles. All these species are released to the gas-phase after desorption of icy mantles. Here we will present some recent laboratory experiments which show the formation of (complex) molecular species after energetic processing of simple ices. Icy targets have been processed by ion bombardment and UV photolysis both in separate experiments and recently, for the first time, simultaneously. When C-rich species are present in the initial ice, an organic refractory material is also formed.

  15. RNA transcription modulates phase transition-driven nuclear body assembly

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Joel; Weber, Stephanie C.; Vaidya, Nilesh; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear bodies are RNA and protein-rich, membraneless organelles that play important roles in gene regulation. The largest and most well-known nuclear body is the nucleolus, an organelle whose primary function in ribosome biogenesis makes it key for cell growth and size homeostasis. The nucleolus and other nuclear bodies behave like liquid-phase droplets and appear to condense from the nucleoplasm by concentration-dependent phase separation. However, nucleoli actively consume chemical energy, and it is unclear how such nonequilibrium activity might impact classical liquid–liquid phase separation. Here, we combine in vivo and in vitro experiments with theory and simulation to characterize the assembly and disassembly dynamics of nucleoli in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. In addition to classical nucleoli that assemble at the transcriptionally active nucleolar organizing regions, we observe dozens of “extranucleolar droplets” (ENDs) that condense in the nucleoplasm in a transcription-independent manner. We show that growth of nucleoli and ENDs is consistent with a first-order phase transition in which late-stage coarsening dynamics are mediated by Brownian coalescence and, to a lesser degree, Ostwald ripening. By manipulating C. elegans cell size, we change nucleolar component concentration and confirm several key model predictions. Our results show that rRNA transcription and other nonequilibrium biological activity can modulate the effective thermodynamic parameters governing nucleolar and END assembly, but do not appear to fundamentally alter the passive phase separation mechanism. PMID:26351690

  16. RNA transcription modulates phase transition-driven nuclear body assembly.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joel; Weber, Stephanie C; Vaidya, Nilesh; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2015-09-22

    Nuclear bodies are RNA and protein-rich, membraneless organelles that play important roles in gene regulation. The largest and most well-known nuclear body is the nucleolus, an organelle whose primary function in ribosome biogenesis makes it key for cell growth and size homeostasis. The nucleolus and other nuclear bodies behave like liquid-phase droplets and appear to condense from the nucleoplasm by concentration-dependent phase separation. However, nucleoli actively consume chemical energy, and it is unclear how such nonequilibrium activity might impact classical liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we combine in vivo and in vitro experiments with theory and simulation to characterize the assembly and disassembly dynamics of nucleoli in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. In addition to classical nucleoli that assemble at the transcriptionally active nucleolar organizing regions, we observe dozens of "extranucleolar droplets" (ENDs) that condense in the nucleoplasm in a transcription-independent manner. We show that growth of nucleoli and ENDs is consistent with a first-order phase transition in which late-stage coarsening dynamics are mediated by Brownian coalescence and, to a lesser degree, Ostwald ripening. By manipulating C. elegans cell size, we change nucleolar component concentration and confirm several key model predictions. Our results show that rRNA transcription and other nonequilibrium biological activity can modulate the effective thermodynamic parameters governing nucleolar and END assembly, but do not appear to fundamentally alter the passive phase separation mechanism. PMID:26351690

  17. Transition to a labyrinthine phase in a driven granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merminod, Simon; Jamin, Timothée; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Labyrinthine patterns arise in two-dimensional physical systems submitted to competing interactions, in fields ranging from solid-state physics to hydrodynamics. For systems of interacting particles, labyrinthine and stripe phases were studied in the context of colloidal particles confined into a monolayer, both numerically by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally using superparamagnetic particles. Here we report an experimental observation of a labyrinthine phase in an out-of-equilibrium system constituted of macroscopic particles. Once sufficiently magnetized, they organize into short chains of particles in contact and randomly orientated. We characterize the transition from a granular gas state towards a solid labyrinthine phase, as a function of the ratio of the interaction strength to the kinetic agitation. The spatial local structure is analyzed by means of accurate particle tracking. Moreover, we explain the formation of these chains using a simple model.

  18. Electronic Structure of the Cuprate Superconducting and Pseudogap Phases from Spectroscopic Imaging STM

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Schmidt, A.R.; Fujita, K.; Kim, E.-A.; Lawler, M.J.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Lee, D.-H.

    2011-06-21

    We survey the use of spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM) to probe the electronic structure of underdoped cuprates. Two distinct classes of electronic states are observed in both the d-wave superconducting (dSC) and the pseudogap (PG) phases. The first class consists of the dispersive Bogoliubov quasiparticle excitations of a homogeneous d-wave superconductor, existing below a lower energy scale E = {Delta}{sub 0}. We find that the Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (QPI) signatures of delocalized Cooper pairing are restricted to a k-space arc, which terminates near the lines connecting k = {+-}({pi}/a{sub 0},0) to k = {+-}(0,{pi}/a{sub 0}). This arc shrinks continuously with decreasing hole density such that Luttinger's theorem could be satisfied if it represents the front side of a hole-pocket that is bounded behind by the lines between k = {+-}({pi}/a{sub 0},0) and k = {+-}(0,{pi}/a{sub 0}). In both phases, the only broken symmetries detected for the |E| < {Delta}{sub 0} states are those of a d-wave superconductor. The second class of states occurs proximate to the PG energy scale E = {Delta}{sub 1}. Here the non-dispersive electronic structure breaks the expected 90{sup o}-rotational symmetry of electronic structure within each unit cell, at least down to 180{sup o}-rotational symmetry. This electronic symmetry breaking was first detected as an electronic inequivalence at the two oxygen sites within each unit cell by using a measure of nematic (C{sub 2}) symmetry. Incommensurate non-dispersive conductance modulations, locally breaking both rotational and translational symmetries, coexist with this intra-unit-cell electronic symmetry breaking at E = {Delta}{sub 1}. Their characteristic wavevector Q is determined by the k-space points where Bogoliubov QPI terminates and therefore changes continuously with doping. The distinct broken electronic symmetry states (intra-unit-cell and finite Q) coexisting at E {approx} {Delta}{sub 1} are

  19. Phase separation in artificial vesicles driven by light and curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldin, Melissa; Pomp, Wim; Schmidt, Thomas; Giomi, Luca; Kraft, Daniela; Physics of Life Processes Team; Soft; Bio Mechanics Collaboration; Self-Assembly in Soft Matter Systems Collaboration

    The role of phase-demixing in living cells, leading to the lipid-raft hypothesis, has been extensively studied. Lipid domains of higher lipid chain order are proposed to regulate protein spatial organization. Giant Unilamellar Vesicles provide an artificial model to study phase separation. So far temperature was used to initiate the process. Here we introduce a new methodology based on the induction of phase separation by light. To this aim, the composition of the lipid membrane is varied by photo-oxidation of lipids. The control of the process gained by using light allowed us to observe vesicle shape fluctuations during phase-demixing. The presence of fluctuations near the critical mixing point resembles features of a critical process. We quantitatively analyze these fluctuations using a 2d elastic model, from which we can estimate the material parameters such as bending rigidity and surface tension, demonstrating the non-equilibrium critical behaviour. Finally, I will describe recent attempts toward tuning the membrane composition by controlling the vesicle curvature.

  20. Ultrafast phase-change logic device driven by melting processes

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Wang, Wei-Jie; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Zhao, Rong; Chong, Tow-Chong; Elliott, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    The ultrahigh demand for faster computers is currently tackled by traditional methods such as size scaling (for increasing the number of devices), but this is rapidly becoming almost impossible, due to physical and lithographic limitations. To boost the speed of computers without increasing the number of logic devices, one of the most feasible solutions is to increase the number of operations performed by a device, which is largely impossible to achieve using current silicon-based logic devices. Multiple operations in phase-change–based logic devices have been achieved using crystallization; however, they can achieve mostly speeds of several hundreds of nanoseconds. A difficulty also arises from the trade-off between the speed of crystallization and long-term stability of the amorphous phase. We here instead control the process of melting through premelting disordering effects, while maintaining the superior advantage of phase-change–based logic devices over silicon-based logic devices. A melting speed of just 900 ps was achieved to perform multiple Boolean algebraic operations (e.g., NOR and NOT). Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations and in situ electrical characterization revealed the origin (i.e., bond buckling of atoms) and kinetics (e.g., discontinuouslike behavior) of melting through premelting disordering, which were key to increasing the melting speeds. By a subtle investigation of the well-characterized phase-transition behavior, this simple method provides an elegant solution to boost significantly the speed of phase-change–based in-memory logic devices, thus paving the way for achieving computers that can perform computations approaching terahertz processing rates. PMID:25197044

  1. Field-induced superconducting phase of FeSe in the BCS-BEC cross-over.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Shigeru; Watashige, Tatsuya; Hanaguri, Tetsuo; Kohsaka, Yuhki; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Mizukami, Yuta; Endo, Ryota; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Kazushi; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Wolf, Thomas; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji

    2014-11-18

    Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF ~ 1(~0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime. PMID:25378706

  2. Field-induced superconducting phase of FeSe in the BCS-BEC cross-over

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Shigeru; Watashige, Tatsuya; Hanaguri, Tetsuo; Kohsaka, Yuhki; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Mizukami, Yuta; Endo, Ryota; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Kazushi; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Wolf, Thomas; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose–Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF∼1(∼0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime. PMID:25378706

  3. Structural and magnetic phase diagram of CrAs and its relationship with pressure-induced superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yao; Wang, Qisi; Hao, Yiqing; Pan, Bingying; Feng, Yu; Huang, Qingzhen; Harriger, L. W.; Leao, J. B.; Zhao, Yang; Chisnell, R. M.; Lynn, J. W.; Cao, Huibo; Hu, Jiangping; Zhao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    We use neutron diffraction to study the structure and magnetic phase diagram of the newly discovered pressure-induced superconductor CrAs. Unlike most magnetic unconventional superconductors where the magnetic moment direction barely changes upon doping, here we show that CrAs exhibits a spin reorientation from the a b plane to the a c plane, along with an abrupt drop of the magnetic propagation vector at a critical pressure (Pc≈0.6 GPa). This magnetic phase transition, accompanied by a lattice anomaly, coincides with the emergence of bulk superconductivity. With further increasing pressure, the magnetic order completely disappears near the optimal Tc regime (P ≈0.94 GPa). Moreover, the Cr magnetic moments tend to be aligned antiparallel between nearest neighbors with increasing pressure toward the optimal superconductivity regime. Our findings suggest that the noncollinear helimagnetic order is strongly coupled to structural and electronic degrees of freedom, and that the antiferromagnetic correlations between nearest neighbors might be essential for superconductivity.

  4. Phase relations in KxFe2-ySe2 and the structure of superconducting KxFe2Se2 via high-resolution synchrotron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Daniel P.; Chung, Duck Young; Claus, Helmut; Francisco, Melanie C.; Avci, Sevda; Llobet, Anna; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2012-11-01

    Superconductivity in iron selenides has experienced a rapid growth, but not without major inconsistencies in the reported properties. For alkali-intercalated iron selenides, even the structure of the superconducting phase is a subject of debate, in part because the onset of superconductivity is affected much more delicately by stoichiometry and preparation than in cuprate or pnictide superconductors. If high-quality, pure, superconducting intercalated iron selenides are ever to be made, the intertwined physics and chemistry must be explained by systematic studies of how these materials form and by and identifying the many coexisting phases. To that end, we prepared pure K2Fe4Se5 powder and superconductors in the KxFe2-ySe2 system, and examined differences in their structures by high-resolution synchrotron and single-crystal x-ray diffraction. We found four distinct phases: semiconducting K2Fe4Se5, a metallic superconducting phase KxFe2Se2 with x ranging from 0.38 to 0.58, the phase KFe1.6Se2 with full K occupancy and no Fe vacancy ordering, and a oxidized phase K0.51(5)Fe0.70(2)Se that forms the PbClF structure upon exposure to moisture. We find that the vacancy-ordered phase K2Fe4Se5 does not become superconducting by doping, but the distinct iron-rich minority phase KxFe2Se2 precipitates from single crystals upon cooling from above the vacancy ordering temperature. This coexistence of separate metallic and semiconducting phases explains a broad maximum in resistivity around 100 K. Further studies to understand the solubility of excess Fe in the KxFe2-ySe2 structure will shed light on the maximum fraction of superconducting KxFe2Se2 that can be obtained by solid state synthesis.

  5. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well.

  6. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well.

  7. Event-triggered feedback in noise-driven phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromer, Justus A.; Lindner, Benjamin; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2014-03-01

    Using a stochastic nonlinear phase oscillator model, we study the effect of event-triggered feedback on the statistics of interevent intervals. Events are associated with the entering of a new cycle. The feedback is modeled by an instantaneous increase (positive feedback) or decrease (negative feedback) of the oscillator frequency whenever an event occurs followed by an exponential decay on a slow time scale. In addition to the known excitable and oscillatory regimes, which are separated by a saddle node on invariant circle bifurcation, positive feedback can lead to bistable dynamics and a change of the system's excitability. The feedback has also a strong effect on noise-induced phenomena like coherence resonance or anticoherence resonance. Both positive and negative feedback can lead to more regular output for particular noise strengths. Finally, we investigate serial correlations in the sequence of interevent intervals that occur due to the additional slow dynamics. We derive approximations for the serial correlation coefficient and show that positive feedback results in extended positive interval correlations, whereas negative feedback yields short-ranging negative correlations. Investigating the interplay of feedback and the nonlinear phase dynamics close to the bifurcation, we find that correlations are most pronounced for optimal feedback strengths.

  8. Formation of the 110-K superconducting phase in Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, W.; Sobolewski, R.; Gorecka, J.; Lewandowski, S.J. )

    1991-09-15

    Investigation of the 110-K Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub {ital x}} phase formation in superconducting thin films of Bi-based cuprates is reported. The films were dc magnetron sputtered from single Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O targets of various stoichiometries, and subsequently annealed in air at high temperatures. The influence of the initial Pb content, annealing conditions, as well as the substrate material on the growth of the 110-K phase was investigated. We found that the films, fully superconducting above 100 K could be reproducibly fabricated on various dielectric substrates from Pb-rich targets by optimizing annealing conditions for each initial Pb/Bi ratio. Heavy Pb doping considerably accelerated formation of the 110-K phase, reducing the film annealing time to less than 1 h. Films containing, according to the x-ray measurement, more than 90% of the 110-K phase were obtained on MgO substrates, after sputtering from the Bi{sub 2}Pb{sub 2.5}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2.15}Cu{sub 3.3}O{sub {ital x}} target and annealing in air for 1 h at 870 {degree}C. The films were {ital c}-axis oriented, with 4.5-K-wide superconducting transition, and zero resistivity at 106 K. Their critical current density was 2 {times} 10{sup 2} A/cm{sup 2} at 90 K, and above 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} below 60 K. The growth of the 110-K phase on epitaxial substrates, such as CaNdAlO{sub 4} and SrTiO{sub 3}, was considerably deteriorated, and the presence of the 80- and 10-K phases was detected. Nevertheless, the best films deposited on these substrates were fully superconducting at 104 K and exhibited critical current densities above 2 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} below 60 K{minus}one order of magnitude greater than the films deposited on MgO.

  9. Symmetry of spin excitation spectra in the tetragonal paramagnetic and superconducting phases of 122-ferropnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. T.; Inosov, D. S.; Yaresko, A.; Graser, S.; Sun, D. L.; Bourges, Ph.; Sidis, Y.; Li, Yuan; Kim, J.-H.; Haug, D.; Ivanov, A.; Hradil, K.; Schneidewind, A.; Link, P.; Faulhaber, E.; Glavatskyy, I.; Lin, C. T.; Keimer, B.; Hinkov, V.

    2010-10-01

    We study the symmetry of spin excitation spectra in 122-ferropnictide superconductors by comparing the results of first-principles calculations with inelastic neutron-scattering (INS) measurements on BaFe1.85Co0.15As2 and BaFe1.91Ni0.09As2 samples that exhibit neither static magnetic phases nor structural phase transitions. In both the normal and superconducting (SC) states, the spectrum lacks the three-dimensional 42/m screw symmetry around the ((1)/(2)(1)/(2)L) axis that is implied by the I4/mmm space group. This is manifest both in the in-plane anisotropy of the normal- and SC-state spin dynamics and in the out-of-plane dispersion of the spin-resonance mode. We show that this effect originates from the higher symmetry of the magnetic Fe sublattice with respect to the crystal itself, hence the INS signal inherits the symmetry of the unfolded Brillouin zone (BZ) of the Fe sublattice. The in-plane anisotropy is temperature independent and can be qualitatively reproduced in normal-state density-functional-theory calculations without invoking a symmetry-broken (“nematic”) ground state that was previously proposed as an explanation for this effect. Below the SC transition, the energy of the magnetic resonant mode ωres , as well as its intensity and the SC spin gap inherit the normal-state intensity modulation along the out-of-plane direction L with a period twice larger than expected from the body-centered-tetragonal BZ symmetry. The amplitude of this modulation decreases at higher doping, providing an analogy to the splitting between even and odd resonant modes in bilayer cuprates. Combining our and previous data, we show that at odd L a universal linear relationship ℏωres≈4.3kBTc holds for all the studied Fe-based superconductors, independent of their carrier type. Its validity down to the lowest doping levels is consistent with weaker electron correlations in ferropnictides as compared to the underdoped cuprates.

  10. Formation mechanism of superconducting phase and its three-dimensional architecture in pseudo-single-crystal KxFe2-ySe2

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yong; Xing, Qingfeng; Straszheim, Warren E.; Marshman, Jeff; Pedersen, Pal; McLaughlin, Richard; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2016-02-11

    Here, we report how the superconducting phase forms in pseudo-single-crystal KxFe2-ySe2. In situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation reveals that, as an order-disorder transition occurs, on cooling, most of the high-temperature iron-vacancy-disordered phase gradually changes into the iron-vacancy-ordered phase whereas a small quantity of the high-temperature phase retains its structure and aggregates to the stripes with more iron concentration but less potassium concentration compared to the iron-vacancy-ordered phase. The stripes that are generally recognized as the superconducting phase are actually formed as a remnant of the high-temperature phase with a compositional change after an “imperfect” order-disorder transition. It should bemore » emphasized that the phase separation in pseudo-single-crystal KxFe2-ySe2 is caused by the iron-vacancy order-disorder transition. The shrinkage of the high-temperature phase and the expansion of the newly created iron-vacancy-ordered phase during the phase separation rule out the mechanism of spinodal decomposition proposed in an early report [Wang et al, Phys. Rev. B 91, 064513 (2015)]. Since the formation of the superconducting phase relies on the occurrence of the iron-vacancy order-disorder transition, it is impossible to synthesize a pure superconducting phase by a conventional solid state reaction or melt growth. By focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, we further demonstrate that the superconducting phase forms a contiguous three-dimensional architecture composed of parallelepipeds that have a coherent orientation relationship with the iron-vacancy-ordered phase.« less

  11. Formation mechanism of superconducting phase and its three-dimensional architecture in pseudo-single-crystal KxF e2 -yS e2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Xing, Qingfeng; Straszheim, Warren E.; Marshman, Jeff; Pedersen, Pal; McLaughlin, Richard; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2016-02-01

    We report how the superconducting phase forms in pseudo-single-crystal KxF e2 -yS e2 . In situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation reveals that, as an order-disorder transition occurs, on cooling, most of the high-temperature iron-vacancy-disordered phase gradually changes into the iron-vacancy-ordered phase, whereas a small quantity of the high-temperature phase retains its structure and aggregates to the stripes with more iron concentration but less potassium concentration compared to the iron-vacancy-ordered phase. The stripes that are generally recognized as the superconducting phase are actually formed as a remnant of the high-temperature phase with a compositional change after an "imperfect" order-disorder transition. It should be emphasized that the phase separation in pseudo-single-crystal KxF e2 -yS e2 is caused by the iron-vacancy order-disorder transition. The shrinkage of the high-temperature phase and the expansion of the newly created iron-vacancy-ordered phase during the phase separation rule out the mechanism of spinodal decomposition proposed in an early report [Z. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 064513 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.064513]. Since the formation of the superconducting phase relies on the occurrence of the iron-vacancy order-disorder transition, it is impossible to synthesize a pure superconducting phase by a conventional solid state reaction or melt growth. By focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, we further demonstrate that the superconducting phase forms a contiguous three-dimensional architecture composed of parallelepipeds that have a coherent orientation relationship with the iron-vacancy-ordered phase.

  12. Structural Stability Driven by the Spin-Orbit Coupling and the Superconductivity in simple-cubic Polonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chang-Jong; Kim, Kyoo; Min, B. I.

    2013-03-01

    Polonium is the only element which has the simple-cubic (SC) structure in the periodic table. We have studied its structural stability based on the phonon dispersion calculations using the first-principles all-electron full-potential band method. We have demonstrated that the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in SC-Po suppresses the Peierls instability and makes the SC structure stable. We have also discussed the structural chirality realized in beta-Po, as a consequence of the phonon instability. Further, we have investigated the possible superconductivity in SC-Po, and predicted that it becomes a superconductor with Tc ~ 4 K at ambient pressure. The transverse soft phonon mode at q ~ 2/3 R, which is greatly affected by the SOC, plays an important role both in the structural stability and the superconductivity in SC-Po. We have explored effects of the SOC and the volume variation on the phonon dispersions and superconducting properties of SC-Po.

  13. A phase diagram for fluid-driven sediment trasport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Abe

    When a fluid flows laterally over a granular bed, grains may be transported with the flow. This process shapes much of the natural world. The boundary between states with and without grain motion has been studied for decades. However, this boundary is not well understood, since the process whereby grains are transported involves the coupling of several complex phenomena: turbulent fluid flow near a rough boundary, Darcy flow through the pore structure of the granular bed, the yield strength of granular beds comprised of frictional grains with irregular shape, and inertial effects of grains that become entrained in the flow. In order to clarify the essential physics that governs the onset of granular motion, we study this process computationally by including only the minimal features and then adding complexities one by one. We start with a simple numerical model that includes only gravity, grain-grain interactions that are repulsive and frictionless, and a purely horizontal viscous fluid flow. By varying the fluid flow rate and the effective viscosity, we find behavior that is qualitatively consistent with a large collection of experimental data known as the Shields curve. Thus, our results suggest that the main features of this curve result from a competition between grain inertia and viscous damping. We find this phase diagram to be qualitatively insensitive to secondary effects, such as friction, irregular grain shape, and restitution losses. Funded by U.S. Army Research Office under Grant No. W911NF-14-1-0005.

  14. Superconductivity and phase diagram of (Li0.8Fe0.2)OHFeSe1 -xSx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. F.; Wang, N. Z.; Luo, X. G.; Zhang, G. H.; Gong, X. L.; Huang, F. Q.; Chen, X. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of (Li0.8Fe0.2)OHFeSe1 -xSx (0 ≤x ≤1 ) samples were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal reaction method and the phase diagram is established. Magnetic susceptibility suggests that an antiferromagnetism arising from (Li0.8Fe0.2)OH layers coexists with superconductivity, and the antiferromagnetic transition temperature nearly remains constant for various S doping levels. In addition, the lattice parameters of the both a and c axes decrease and the superconducting transition temperature Tc is gradually suppressed with the substitution of S for Se, and eventually superconductivity vanishes at x =0.90 . The decrease of Tc could be attributed to the effect of chemical pressure induced by the smaller ionic size of S relative to that of Se, being consistent with the effect of hydrostatic pressure on (Li0.8Fe0.2)OHFeSe . But the detailed investigation on the relationships between Tc and the crystallographic facts suggests a very different dependence of Tc on anion height from the Fe2 layer or C h -Fe 2 -C h angle from those in FeAs-based superconductors.

  15. Interaction-driven phases in a Dirac semimetal: exact diagonalization results.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huaiming; Jia, Yongfei

    2014-11-26

    The interaction-driven phases in the Dirac semimetal (SM) of the π-flux model on the square lattice are studied with nearest-(NN), next-nearest-(NNN) and next-next-nearest-neighbor (NNNN) interactions using the exact diagonalization method. We find that the NN interaction drives a phase transition from the SM phase to a charge density wave insulator. In the presence of the NNN interaction, the system becomes an anisotropic SM for small interactions and an insulator with the stripe order for large ones. The NNNN interaction drives the Dirac SM to a dimmerized insulator. The interplay of the NNN and NNNN interactions is also studied. We find that the NNNN interaction firstly eliminates the effect of the NNN interaction and then develops its favorable order. In the calculations, the signature of the interaction-driven quantum anomalous Hall phase is not found.

  16. Properties of electrostatically-driven granular medium: Phase transitions and charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Kalatsky, V. A.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W.-K.; Vinokur, V. M.; Welp, U.

    1999-10-14

    The experimental and theoretical study of electrostatically driven granular material are reported. It is shown that the charged granular medium undergoes a hysteretic first order phase transition from the immobile condensed state (granular solid) to a fluidized dilated state (granular gas) with a changing applied electric field. In addition a spontaneous precipitation of dense clusters from the gas phase and subsequent coarsening--coagulation of these clusters is observed. Molecular dynamics simulations shows qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  17. Design of single-phase driven screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lien-Kai; Tsai, Mi-Ching

    2016-05-01

    Most screw-thread-type ultrasonic motors are designed to be two-phase driven. This paper aims to present a novel single phase driven design that generates the required wobble motion, thus significantly simplifying the driving circuit of the ultrasonic motor. The proposed single-phase driven screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor works with two orthogonal bending modes generated by an asymmetric stator design. The novel stator design can improve the vibration displacement and further enhance the performance of the single phase driven motor. The vibration characteristics of the asymmetric stator structure were analyzed by ANSYS finite element analysis software. Based on the design and analysis processes, a prototype of the desired screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor was fabricated and tested. When the operating voltage is 200 Vpp, the obtained main characteristics of the proposed motor are as follows: the working frequency is between 28.3 and 29.5 kHz; the maximum no-load velocity is approximately 4.1 mm s-1; and the thrust force is 1.6 N.

  18. Design of single-phase driven screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lien-Kai; Tsai, Mi-Ching

    2016-05-01

    Most screw-thread-type ultrasonic motors are designed to be two-phase driven. This paper aims to present a novel single phase driven design that generates the required wobble motion, thus significantly simplifying the driving circuit of the ultrasonic motor. The proposed single-phase driven screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor works with two orthogonal bending modes generated by an asymmetric stator design. The novel stator design can improve the vibration displacement and further enhance the performance of the single phase driven motor. The vibration characteristics of the asymmetric stator structure were analyzed by ANSYS finite element analysis software. Based on the design and analysis processes, a prototype of the desired screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor was fabricated and tested. When the operating voltage is 200 Vpp, the obtained main characteristics of the proposed motor are as follows: the working frequency is between 28.3 and 29.5 kHz; the maximum no-load velocity is approximately 4.1 mm s(-1); and the thrust force is 1.6 N.

  19. Reentrant behavior in the superconducting phase-dependent resistance of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    den Hartog, S.G.; van Wees, B.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-12-01

    We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless energy, the resistance oscillations are suppressed and disappear almost completely at zero bias voltage. We find a qualitative agreement with the calculated reentrant behavior of the resistance and discuss quantitative deviations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Joint measurement of current-phase relations and transport properties of hybrid junctions using a three junctions superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect

    Basset, J.; Delagrange, R.; Weil, R.; Kasumov, A.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.

    2014-07-14

    We propose a scheme to measure both the current-phase relation and differential conductance dI/dV of a superconducting junction, in the normal and the superconducting states. This is done using a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device with two Josephson junctions in parallel with the device under investigation and three contacts. As a demonstration, we measure the current-phase relation and dI/dV of a small Josephson junction and a carbon nanotube junction. In this latter case, in a regime where the nanotube is well conducting, we show that the non-sinusoidal current phase relation we find is consistent with the theory for a weak link, using the transmission extracted from the differential conductance in the normal state. This method holds great promise for future investigations of the current-phase relation of more exotic junctions.

  1. Stabilization of Majorana modes in magnetic vortices in the superconducting phase of topological insulators using topologically trivial bands.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Ghaemi, Pouyan; Hughes, Taylor L

    2012-12-01

    It has been shown that doped topological insulators, up to a certain level of doping, still preserve some topological signatures of the insulating phase such as axionic electromagnetic response and the presence of a Majorana mode in the vortices of a superconducting phase. Multiple topological insulators such as HgTe, ScPtBi, and other ternary Heusler compounds have been identified and generically feature the presence of a topologically trivial band between the two topological bands. In this Letter we show that the presence of such a trivial band can stabilize the topological signature over a much wider range of doping. Specifically, we calculate the structure of vortex modes in the superconducting phase of doped topological insulators, a model that captures the features of HgTe and the ternary Heusler compounds. We show that, due to the hybridization with the trivial band, Majorana modes are preserved over a large, extended doping range for p doping. In addition to presenting a viable system where much less fine-tuning is required to observe the Majorana modes, our analysis opens a route to study other topological features of doped compounds that cannot be modeled using the simple Bi(2)Se(3) Dirac model.

  2. One-phase dual converter for two quadrant power control of superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, M.; Kustom, R.I.; Boom, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental development of a new dc-ac-dc converter for superconducting magnet power supplies. The basic operating principles of the circuit are described followed by a theoretical treatment of the dynamics and control of the system. The successful results of the first experimental operation and control of such a circuit are presented and discussed.

  3. Quantum and thermal phase slips in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) ultrathin crystalline nanowire: application to single photon detection.

    PubMed

    Delacour, Cécile; Pannetier, Bernard; Villegier, Jean-Claude; Bouchiat, Vincent

    2012-07-11

    We present low-temperature electronic transport properties of superconducting nanowires obtained by nanolithography of 4-nm-thick niobium nitride (NbN) films epitaxially grown on sapphire substrate. Below 6 K, clear evidence of phase slippages is observed in the transport measurements. Upon lowering the temperature, we observe the signatures of a crossover between a thermal and a quantum behavior in the phase slip regimes. We find that phase slips are stable even at the lowest temperatures and that no hotspot is formed. The photoresponse of these nanowires is measured as a function of the light irradiation wavelength and temperature and exhibits a behavior comparable with previous results obtained on thicker films.

  4. Infinite magnetoresistance from the spin dependent proximity effect in symmetry driven bcc-Fe/V/Fe heteroepitaxial superconducting spin valves.

    PubMed

    Miao, Guo-Xing; Ramos, Ana V; Moodera, Jagadeesh S

    2008-09-26

    Superconductivity in fully epitaxial bcc-Fe/V/Fe hybrid spin valve structures is influenced by the spin currents and supercurrents as well as band symmetry. The transition temperature is spin dependent in the presence of the proximity effect. A unique feature in this system is the band symmetry filtering taking place at the Fe/V interface. The absence of Delta2 Bloch states at the Fermi level in the Fe spin majority channel leads to spin selectivity and reduced transparency at the interface. Infinite magnetoresistance with clear remanence states is obtained, and implies the potential for spintronic applications. PMID:18851482

  5. Investigation of superconducting properties of nanowires prepared by template synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, S.; Piraux, L.

    2003-05-01

    We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have a uniform diameter of ~40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (~500). The diameter of the nanowires is small enough to ensure a one-dimensional superconducting regime in a wide temperature range below Tc. The non-zero resistance in the superconducting state and its variation caused by fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter were measured versus temperature, magnetic field, and applied dc current (or voltage). The current-induced breakdowns in the voltage-current characteristics may be explained by the formation of phase slip centres. Moreover, dc voltage driven measurements reveal the existence of a new S-shape behaviour near the formation of these phase slip centres.

  6. 1D-transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, S.; Piraux, L.

    2003-09-01

    We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have uniform diameter of ∼40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (∼500). The diameter of the nanowire is small enough to ensure a 1D superconducting regime in a wide temperature range below Tc. The non-zero resistance in the superconducting state and its variation caused by fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter were measured versus temperature, magnetic field, and applied DC current (or voltage). The current induced breakdowns in the V- I characteristics may be explained by the formation of phase slip centers. Moreover, DC voltage driven measurements reveal the existence of a new S-shape behavior near the formation of these phase slip centers.

  7. PREFACE: Superconducting materials Superconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charfi Kaddour, Samia; Singleton, John; Haddad, Sonia

    2011-11-01

    and by invited authors selected by the editor. We are grateful to IUPAP, ICTP and the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, United States Air Force Laboratory. We would like to acknowledge the authors for their careful work, and finally we thank Dr L Smith the publisher of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for her patience and help. Superconducting materials contents Raman spectrum in the pseudogap phase of the underdoped cuprates: effect of phase coherence and the signature of the KT-type superconducting transitionTao Li and Haijun Liao Pressure effects on Dirac fermions in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3Takahiro Himura, Takao Morinari and Takami Tohyama Effect of Zn doping in hole-type 1111 phase (Pr, Sr)FeAsOXiao Lin, Chenyi Shen, Chen Lv, Jianjian Miao, Hao Tan, Guanghan Cao and Zhu-An Xu Superconductivity and ferromagnetism in EuFe2(As1 - xPx)2*Guanghan Cao, Shenggao Xu, Zhi Ren, Shuai Jiang, Chunmu Feng and Zhu'an Xu OInhomogeneous superconductivity in organic conductors: the role of disorder and magnetic fieldS Haddad, S Charfi-Kaddour and J-P Pouget

  8. Entropy-driven formation of chiral nematic phases by computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussi, Simone; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the macroscopic chiral behaviour of liquid crystals from the microscopic chirality of the particles is highly non-trivial, even when the chiral interactions are purely entropic in nature. Here we introduce a novel chiral hard-particle model, namely particles with a twisted polyhedral shape and obtain a stable fully entropy-driven cholesteric phase by computer simulations. By slightly modifying the triangular base of the particle, we are able to switch from a left-handed prolate (calamitic) to a right-handed oblate (discotic) cholesteric phase using the same right-handed twisted particle model. Furthermore, we show that not only prolate and oblate chiral nematic phases, but also other novel entropy-driven phases, namely chiral blue phases, chiral nematic phases featuring both twist and splay deformations, chiral biaxial nematic phases with one of the axes twisted, can be obtained by varying particle biaxiality and chirality. Our results allow to identify general guidelines for the stabilization of these phases.

  9. Entropy-driven formation of chiral nematic phases by computer simulations

    PubMed Central

    Dussi, Simone; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the macroscopic chiral behaviour of liquid crystals from the microscopic chirality of the particles is highly non-trivial, even when the chiral interactions are purely entropic in nature. Here we introduce a novel chiral hard-particle model, namely particles with a twisted polyhedral shape and obtain a stable fully entropy-driven cholesteric phase by computer simulations. By slightly modifying the triangular base of the particle, we are able to switch from a left-handed prolate (calamitic) to a right-handed oblate (discotic) cholesteric phase using the same right-handed twisted particle model. Furthermore, we show that not only prolate and oblate chiral nematic phases, but also other novel entropy-driven phases, namely chiral blue phases, chiral nematic phases featuring both twist and splay deformations, chiral biaxial nematic phases with one of the axes twisted, can be obtained by varying particle biaxiality and chirality. Our results allow to identify general guidelines for the stabilization of these phases. PMID:27067806

  10. Evolution of High-Temperature Superconductivity from a Low-T_{c} Phase Tuned by Carrier Concentration in FeSe Thin Flakes.

    PubMed

    Lei, B; Cui, J H; Xiang, Z J; Shang, C; Wang, N Z; Ye, G J; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Sun, Z; Chen, X H

    2016-02-19

    We report the evolution of superconductivity in an FeSe thin flake with systematically regulated carrier concentrations by the liquid-gating technique. With electron doping tuned by the gate voltage, high-temperature superconductivity with an onset at 48 K can be achieved in an FeSe thin flake with T_{c} less than 10 K. This is the first time such high temperature superconductivity in FeSe is achieved without either an epitaxial interface or external pressure, and it definitely proves that the simple electron-doping process is able to induce high-temperature superconductivity with T_{c}^{onset} as high as 48 K in bulk FeSe. Intriguingly, our data also indicate that the superconductivity is suddenly changed from a low-T_{c} phase to a high-T_{c} phase with a Lifshitz transition at a certain carrier concentration. These results help to build a unified picture to understand the high-temperature superconductivity among all FeSe-derived superconductors and shed light on the further pursuit of a higher T_{c} in these materials.

  11. Superconductivity, Faraday effect, and optical absorption in the commensurate flux phase of the t-J model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. P.; Douçot, B.

    1992-01-01

    Using a large-N slave-boson formulation of the t-J model on the square lattice that has explicit spinon-holon decoupling of the correlated electron, we study the stability and electromagnetic response of the commensurate flux phase in the limit near half filling. A region of stability for the flux phase is found located between a dimer phase region near half filling and a fluxless metallic phase region far from half filling. The commensurate flux phase itself is found to be a superconductor of the anyon type. Furthermore, it is shown that the parity-time-reversal-violating characteristic of this phase results in a frequency-dependent Faraday effect. This effect manifests itself as a zero-field Hall effect in the low-frequency limit, where the off-diagonal conductance scales with the hole concentration. Associated with this result, it is also found that the commensurate flux phase supports a series of optical absorption peaks at energies on the order of J. Lastly, inclusion of instanton tunneling events in the effective gauge-field action results in the confinement of the spinon and holon degrees of freedom. This confinement effect, however, weakens exponentially as one approaches the Mott transition. The present results are discussed in the context of the high-Tc superconducting oxides.

  12. Elastic, superconducting, and thermodynamic properties of the cubic metallic phase of AlH3 via first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong-Kai; Ge, Ni-Na; Ji, Guang-Fu; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Cai, Ling-Cang; Zhou, Su-Qin; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2013-09-01

    The lattice dynamic, elastic, superconducting, and thermodynamic properties of the high-pressure cubic metallic phase AlH3 are studied within density function theory. The calculated elastic modulus and phonon dispersion curves at various pressures indicate that the cubic phase is both mechanically and dynamically stable above 73 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature was calculated using Allen-Dynes modification of the McMillan formula based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. It is found that Tc approaches a linear decrease in the low pressure range at the rate dTC/dP ≈-0.22 K/GPa but gradually decreases exponentially at higher pressure, and then it becomes 0 K upon further compression. The calculations indicate that Tc is about 2.042 K at 110 GPa, in agreement with experimental results. The soft phonon modes, especially the lowest acoustic mode, contribute almost 79% to the total electron-phonon coupling parameter sλ for cubic AlH3 at 73 GPa. However, they disappear gradually with increasing pressure, showing a responsibility for the variation of Tc. The thermodynamic properties of cubic AlH3, such as the dependence of thermal expansion coefficient αV on pressure and temperature, the specific heat capacity CP, as well as the electronic specific heat coefficient Cel, were also investigated by the quasi-harmonic approximation theory.

  13. Phase field study of interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liang; Russell, Alan

    2014-03-28

    The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.

  14. Phase field study of interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization in a composite comprized of two mutually insoluble phases

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Liang; Russell, Alan

    2014-03-27

    The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.

  15. Coherent A1g Phonon in thin Film Superconductor FeSe0.5Te0.5: π/2 Phase Difference over Superconducting Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jimin; Wu, Yanling; Hu, Minhui; Tian, Yichao; Cao, Lixin; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-01

    Coherent A1 g phonon mode in a thin film superconductor FeSe0.5Te0.5 was generated and detected using ultrafast laser pulses. At below and above the transition temperature Tc, the coherent lattice oscillation we observed exhibited a π/2 phase difference, manifesting a ``displacive limit ~ impulsive limit'' transition upon crossing a phase transition within the same sample. We ascribe this π/2 phase difference to the different lifetimes (τc) of excited charge density components that couples to the fully symmetric A1 g phonon mode, i.e. the different strength of electron-phonon couplings. In the superconducting and paramagnetic metallic states the lifetimes of such carrier excitations are largely different. Our investigation reveals possible correlation of superconducting electrons with zone-center optical phonons. Our 170nm thin film sample contains tension stress, which leads to enhanced Tc and thus facilitated our measurements. Financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB821402), the NSFC (11274372, 10974246) and the External Cooperation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (GJHZ1403).

  16. Pressure-Induced Unconventional Superconducting Phase in the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshenbaum, Kevin; Syers, P. S.; Hope, A. P.; Butch, N. P.; Jeffries, J. R.; Weir, S. T.; Hamlin, J. J.; Maple, M. B.; Vohra, Y. K.; Paglione, J.

    2013-08-01

    Simultaneous low-temperature electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements were performed on single-crystalline Bi2Se3 under applied pressures up to 50 GPa. As a function of pressure, superconductivity is observed to onset above 11 GPa with a transition temperature Tc and upper critical field Hc2 that both increase with pressure up to 30 GPa, where they reach maximum values of 7 K and 4 T, respectively. Upon further pressure increase, Tc remains anomalously constant up to the highest achieved pressure. Conversely, the carrier concentration increases continuously with pressure, including a tenfold increase over the pressure range where Tc remains constant. Together with a quasilinear temperature dependence of Hc2 that exceeds the orbital and Pauli limits, the anomalously stagnant pressure dependence of Tc points to an unconventional pressure-induced pairing state in Bi2Se3 that is unique among the superconducting topological insulators.

  17. Integrating superconducting phase and topological crystalline quantum spin Hall effect in hafnium intercalated gallium film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the growth of superconducting atomic hexagonal Ga layers on GaN surface we have calculated the electronic properties of Hf intercalated honeycomb Ga layers using first-principles theory. In contrast to the hexagonal Ga layers where substrate is necessary for their stability, we find the above structure to be dynamically stable in its freestanding form with small formation energy. In particular, six Dirac cones composed of Hf-dxy/dx2-y2 orbitals are observed in the first Brillouin zone, slightly below the Fermi energy. Spin-orbit coupling opens a large band gap of 177 meV on these Dirac cones. By calculating its mirror Chern number, we demonstrate that this band gap is topologically nontrivial and protected by mirror symmetry. Such mirror symmetry protected band gaps are rare in hexagonal lattice. A large topological crystalline quantum spin Hall conductance σSH ˜ -4 e2/h is also revealed. Moreover, electron-phonon coupling calculations reveal that this material is superconducting with a transition temperature Tc = 2.4 K, mainly contributed by Ga out-of-plane vibrations. Our results provide a route toward manipulating quantum spin Hall and superconducting behaviors in a single material which helps to realize Majorana fermions and topological superconductors.

  18. Synthesis of Y1BaCu3O(x) superconducting powders by intermediate phase reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moure, C.; Fernandez, J. F.; Tartaj, J.; Recio, P.; Duran, P.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure for synthesizing Y1Ba2Cu3O(x) by solid state reactions was developed. The method is based on the use of barium compounds, previously synthesized, as intermediate phases for the process. The reaction kinetics of this procedure were established between 860 C and 920 C. The crystal structure and the presence of second phases were studied by means of XRD. The sintering behavior and ceramic parameters were also determined. The orthorhombic type-I structure was obtained on the synthesized bodies after a cooling cycle in an air atmosphere. Superconducting transition took place at 91 K. Sintering densities higher than 95 percent D sub th were attained at temperatures below 940 C.

  19. Evidence for electronic gap-driven metal-semiconductor transition in phase-change materials

    PubMed Central

    Shakhvorostov, Dmitry; Nistor, Razvan A.; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; Martyna, Glenn J.; Newns, Dennis M.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Liu, Xiao-hu; Hughes, Zak E.; Paul, Sujata; Cabral, Cyril; Raoux, Simone; Shrekenhamer, David B.; Basov, Dimitri N.; Song, Young; Müser, Martin H.

    2009-01-01

    Phase-change materials are functionally important materials that can be thermally interconverted between metallic (crystalline) and semiconducting (amorphous) phases on a very short time scale. Although the interconversion appears to involve a change in local atomic coordination numbers, the electronic basis for this process is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that in a nearly vacancy-free binary GeSb system where we can drive the phase change both thermally and, as we discover, by pressure, the transformation into the amorphous phase is electronic in origin. Correlations between conductivity, total system energy, and local atomic coordination revealed by experiments and long time ab initio simulations show that the structural reorganization into the amorphous state is driven by opening of an energy gap in the electronic density of states. The electronic driving force behind the phase change has the potential to change the interconversion paradigm in this material class. PMID:19549858

  20. Glassy phases and driven response of the phase-field-crystal model with random pinning.

    PubMed

    Granato, E; Ramos, J A P; Achim, C V; Lehikoinen, J; Ying, S C; Ala-Nissila, T; Elder, K R

    2011-09-01

    We study the structural correlations and the nonlinear response to a driving force of a two-dimensional phase-field-crystal model with random pinning. The model provides an effective continuous description of lattice systems in the presence of disordered external pinning centers, allowing for both elastic and plastic deformations. We find that the phase-field crystal with disorder assumes an amorphous glassy ground state, with only short-ranged positional and orientational correlations, even in the limit of weak disorder. Under increasing driving force, the pinned amorphous-glass phase evolves into a moving plastic-flow phase and then, finally, a moving smectic phase. The transverse response of the moving smectic phase shows a vanishing transverse critical force for increasing system sizes. PMID:22060323

  1. Glassy phases and driven response of the phase-field-crystal model with random pinning.

    PubMed

    Granato, E; Ramos, J A P; Achim, C V; Lehikoinen, J; Ying, S C; Ala-Nissila, T; Elder, K R

    2011-09-01

    We study the structural correlations and the nonlinear response to a driving force of a two-dimensional phase-field-crystal model with random pinning. The model provides an effective continuous description of lattice systems in the presence of disordered external pinning centers, allowing for both elastic and plastic deformations. We find that the phase-field crystal with disorder assumes an amorphous glassy ground state, with only short-ranged positional and orientational correlations, even in the limit of weak disorder. Under increasing driving force, the pinned amorphous-glass phase evolves into a moving plastic-flow phase and then, finally, a moving smectic phase. The transverse response of the moving smectic phase shows a vanishing transverse critical force for increasing system sizes.

  2. Conformity-driven agents support ordered phases in the spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Antonioni, Alberto; Caravelli, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the spatial Public Goods Game in the presence of fitness-driven and conformity-driven agents. This framework usually considers only the former type of agents, i.e., agents that tend to imitate the strategy of their fittest neighbors. However, whenever we study social systems, the evolution of a population might be affected also by social behaviors as conformism, stubbornness, altruism, and selfishness. Although the term evolution can assume different meanings depending on the considered domain, here it corresponds to the set of processes that lead a system towards an equilibrium or a steady state. We map fitness to the agents' payoff so that richer agents are those most imitated by fitness-driven agents, while conformity-driven agents tend to imitate the strategy assumed by the majority of their neighbors. Numerical simulations aim to identify the nature of the transition, on varying the amount of the relative density of conformity-driven agents in the population, and to study the nature of related equilibria. Remarkably, we find that conformism generally fosters ordered cooperative phases and may also lead to bistable behaviors.

  3. Improving the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations of systems that undergo temperature-driven phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, L.; Castro-Palacio, J. C.

    2013-07-01

    Recently, Velazquez and Curilef proposed a methodology to extend Monte Carlo algorithms based on a canonical ensemble which aims to overcome slow sampling problems associated with temperature-driven discontinuous phase transitions. We show in this work that Monte Carlo algorithms extended with this methodology also exhibit a remarkable efficiency near a critical point. Our study is performed for the particular case of a two-dimensional four-state Potts model on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions. This analysis reveals that the extended version of Metropolis importance sampling is more efficient than the usual Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology to improve the efficiency of MC simulations of systems that undergo any type of temperature-driven phase transition.

  4. Electrically Driven Single Phase Thermal Management: STP-H5 EHD Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrically Driven Single Phase Thermal Management: STP-H5 iEHDS Experiment is a technology demonstration of prototype proof of concept hardware to establish the feasilibilty and long term operation of this hardware. This is a structural thermal plate that will operate continuous as part of the STP-H5 ISEM experiment for up to 18 months. This presentation discusses the design, fabrication and environmental operational paramertes of the experiment hardware.

  5. Interplay of Superconductivity and Fermi-Liquid Transport in Rh-Doped CaFe2As2 with Lattice-Collapse Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danura, Masataka; Kudo, Kazutaka; Oshiro, Yoshihiro; Araki, Shingo; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Nohara, Minoru

    2011-10-01

    Ca(Fe1-xRhx)2As2 undergoes successive phase transitions with increasing Rh doping in the T = 0 limit. The antiferromagnetic-metal phase with orthorhombic structure at 0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.020 is driven to a superconducting phase with uncollapsed-tetragonal (ucT) structure at 0.020 ≤ x ≤ 0.024; a non-superconducting collapsed-tetragonal (cT) phase takes over at x ≥ 0.024. The breakdown of Fermi-liquid transport is observed in the ucT phase above Tc. In the adjacent cT phase, Fermi-liquid transport is restored along with a disappearance of superconductivity. This interplay of superconductivity and Fermi-liquid transport suggests the essential role of magnetic fluctuations in the emergence of superconductivity in doped CaFe2As2.

  6. GENERAL: A Possible Population-Driven Phase Transition in Cicada Chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Si-Yuan; Jin, Yu-Liang; Zhao, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the collective synchronization of cicada chirping. Using both experimental and phenomenological numerical techniques, here we show that the onset of a periodic two-state acoustic synchronous behavior in cicada chorus depends on a critical size of population Nc = 21, above which a typical chorus state appears periodically with a 30 second-silence state in between, and further clarify its possibility concerning a new class of phase transition, which is unusually driven by population. This work has relevance to acoustic synchronization and to general physics of phase transition.

  7. Strongly correlated superconductivity and pseudogap phase near a multiband Mott insulator.

    PubMed

    Capone, Massimo; Fabrizio, Michele; Castellani, Claudio; Tosatti, Erio

    2004-07-23

    Near a Mott transition, strong electron correlations may enhance Cooper pairing. This is demonstrated in the dynamical mean field theory solution of a twofold-orbital degenerate Hubbard model with an inverted on-site Hund rule exchange, favoring local spin-singlet configurations. Close to the Mott insulator (which here is a local version of a valence bond insulator) a pseudogap non-Fermi-liquid metal, a superconductor, and a normal metal appear, in striking similarity with the physics of cuprates. The strongly correlated s-wave superconducting state has a larger Drude weight than the corresponding normal state. The role of the impurity Kondo problem is underscored.

  8. Low temperature superconducting phase of the ternary pnictide SrPd2Sb2 with CaBe2Ge2-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, N.; Suzuki, H.; Tsukamoto, T.; Nakano, T.; Takeda, N.

    2016-02-01

    We find that low temperature superconducting phase (LSP) of SrPd2Sb2 with the CaBe2Ge2-type structure at Tc = 1.4 K. Superconducting transition is found at Tc = 1.4 K in electrical resistivity ρ(T). Specific heat C(T) shows a clear anomaly at Tc = 1.2 K, which shows that superconductivity is of bulk nature. From ρ(T) in several magnetic fields, the upper critical field μ0Hc2(0) is estimated to be 36 mT, which is strongly suppressed, and is 16.7 times smaller than that of 1.9 K phase.

  9. Electronic inhomogeneities in the superconducting phase of CaFe1.96Ni0.04As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Anirban; Kumar, Neeraj; Thamizhavel, A.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2015-02-01

    Superconductivity in CaFe2-xNixAs2 emerges in close proximity to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered parent state and the AFM phase overlaps with superconducting (SC) phase for a small range of x-values. We present scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study of an underdoped CaFe2-xNixAs2 single crystal in the vicinity of the boundary of the two phases. Both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements show a superconducting TC of 15 K and from later we deduce a superconducting fraction of 1.2%. Topographic images show reasonably flat surface with signatures of atomic resolution. Spectra between 120 K and 20 K are spatially homogeneous and show signatures of spin density wave (SDW) gap. Below TC, spectra show significant spatial inhomogeneity with a depression in density of states in±5 meV energy range. Inhomogeneity reduces significantly as the temperature goes above TC and disappears completely far above TC. These observations are discussed in terms of an inhomogeneous electronic phase that may exist due to the vicinity of this composition to the SC dome boundary on the underdoped side of the phase diagram.

  10. Structural and magnetic phase transitions near optimal superconductivity in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ding; Lu, Xingye; Zhang, Wenliang; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang; Wang, Peipei; Chen, Genfu; Han, Fei; Banjara, Shree R.; Sapkota, A.; et al

    2015-04-17

    In this study, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution x-ray and neutron scattering to study structural and magnetic phase transitions in phosphorus-doped BaFe2(As1-xPx)2. Thus, previous transport, NMR, specific heat, and magnetic penetration depth measurements have provided compelling evidence for the presence of a quantum critical point (QCP) near optimal superconductivity at x = 0.3. However, we show that the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural (Ts) and paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic (AF, TN) transitions in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 are always coupled and approach to TN ≈ Ts ≥ Tc (≈ 29 K) for x = 0.29 before vanishing abruptly for x ≥ 0.3. These results suggestmore » that AF order in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 disappears in a weakly first order fashion near optimal superconductivity, much like the electron-doped iron pnictides with an avoided QCP.« less

  11. Fracture Driven by Phase Inhomogeneity in Higher Grade Dual Phase Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-11-01

    Ductile fracture behavior of higher grade dual phase (DP) steels is observed to be quite different from the typical ductile fracture of mild steel and high strength low alloy (HSLA). In this paper, the approximate range of martensite volume fraction where the microstructure-level phase inhomogeneity may have dominant effects on the overall deformation/failure behavior of DP steels is determined using the microstructure-based modeling approach. For this purpose, various finite element models with different martensite volume fractions are first developed, and then the effects of the ductility of ferrite phase and the voids on the overall ductility of DP steels are examined. The results indicate that, when martensite volume fraction in DP steels exceeds about 15%, the microstructure-level phase inhomogeneity becomes the key factor dominating the ductile fracture of DP steels.

  12. Synthesis of Y1Ba2Cu3O(sub x) superconducting powders by intermediate phase reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, C.; Fernandez, J. F.; Recio, P.; Duran, P.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more striking problems for the synthesis of the Y1Ba2Cu3Ox compound is the high-temperature decomposition of the BaCO3. This compound is present as raw material or as an intermediate compound in chemical processes such as amorphous citrate, coprecipitation oxalate, sol-gel process, acetate pyrolisis, etc. This fact makes difficult the total formation reaction of the Y1Ba2Cu3Ox phase and leads to the presence of undesirable phases such as the BaCuO2 phase, the 'green phase', Y2BaCuO5 and others. Here, a new procedure to overcome this difficulty is studied. The barium cation is previously combined with yttrium and/or copper to form intermediate compounds which can react between them to give Y1Ba2Cu3Ox. BaY2O4 and BaCu2O3 react according to the equation BaY2O4+3BaCu2O3 yields 2Y1Ba2Cu3Ox. BaY2O4 is a stable compound of the Y2O3-BaO system; BaCu2O3 is an intimate mixture of BaCuO2 and uncombined CuO. The reaction kinetics of these phases have been established between 860 and 920 C. The phase evolution has been determined. The crystal structure of the Y1Ba2Cu3Ox obtained powder was studied. According to the results obtained from the kinetics study the Y1Ba2Cu3Ox the synthesis was performed at temperatures of 910 to 920 C for short treatment times (1 to 2 hours). Pure Y1Ba2Cu3Ox was prepared, which develops orthorombic type I structure despite of the cooling cycle. Superconducting transition took place at 91 K. The sintering behavior and the superconducting properties of sintered samples were studied. Density, microstructure and electrical conductivity were measured. Sintering densities higher than 95 percent D(sub th) were attained at temperatures below 940 C. Relatively fine grained microstructure was observed, and little or no-liquid phase was detected.

  13. Evidence for Coexistence of Bulk Superconductivity and Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in the Heavy Fermion System CeCo(In(1-x)Cdx)5.

    PubMed

    Howald, Ludovic; Stilp, Evelyn; de Réotier, Pierre Dalmas; Yaouanc, Alain; Raymond, Stéphane; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Lapertot, Gérard; Baines, Christopher; Keller, Hugo

    2015-07-30

    In the generic phase diagram of heavy fermion systems, tuning an external parameter such as hydrostatic or chemical pressure modifies the superconducting transition temperature. The superconducting phase forms a dome in the temperature-tuning parameter phase diagram, which is associated with a maximum of the superconducting pairing interaction. Proximity to antiferromagnetism suggests a relation between the disappearance of antiferromagnetic order and superconductivity. We combine muon spin rotation, neutron scattering, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques to gain access to the magnetic and electronic structure of CeCo(In(1-x)Cdx)5 at different time scales. Different magnetic structures are obtained that indicate a magnetic order of itinerant character, coexisting with bulk superconductivity. The suppression of the antiferromagnetic order appears to be driven by a modification of the bandwidth/carrier concentration, implying that the electronic structure and consequently the interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is strongly affected by hydrostatic and chemical pressure.

  14. Evidence for Coexistence of Bulk Superconductivity and Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in the Heavy Fermion System CeCo(In1−xCdx)5

    PubMed Central

    Howald, Ludovic; Stilp, Evelyn; de Réotier, Pierre Dalmas; Yaouanc, Alain; Raymond, Stéphane; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Lapertot, Gérard; Baines, Christopher; Keller, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    In the generic phase diagram of heavy fermion systems, tuning an external parameter such as hydrostatic or chemical pressure modifies the superconducting transition temperature. The superconducting phase forms a dome in the temperature—tuning parameter phase diagram, which is associated with a maximum of the superconducting pairing interaction. Proximity to antiferromagnetism suggests a relation between the disappearance of antiferromagnetic order and superconductivity. We combine muon spin rotation, neutron scattering, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques to gain access to the magnetic and electronic structure of CeCo(In1−xCdx)5 at different time scales. Different magnetic structures are obtained that indicate a magnetic order of itinerant character, coexisting with bulk superconductivity. The suppression of the antiferromagnetic order appears to be driven by a modification of the bandwidth/carrier concentration, implying that the electronic structure and consequently the interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is strongly affected by hydrostatic and chemical pressure. PMID:26224422

  15. Evidence for Coexistence of Bulk Superconductivity and Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in the Heavy Fermion System CeCo(In(1-x)Cdx)5.

    PubMed

    Howald, Ludovic; Stilp, Evelyn; de Réotier, Pierre Dalmas; Yaouanc, Alain; Raymond, Stéphane; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Lapertot, Gérard; Baines, Christopher; Keller, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    In the generic phase diagram of heavy fermion systems, tuning an external parameter such as hydrostatic or chemical pressure modifies the superconducting transition temperature. The superconducting phase forms a dome in the temperature-tuning parameter phase diagram, which is associated with a maximum of the superconducting pairing interaction. Proximity to antiferromagnetism suggests a relation between the disappearance of antiferromagnetic order and superconductivity. We combine muon spin rotation, neutron scattering, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques to gain access to the magnetic and electronic structure of CeCo(In(1-x)Cdx)5 at different time scales. Different magnetic structures are obtained that indicate a magnetic order of itinerant character, coexisting with bulk superconductivity. The suppression of the antiferromagnetic order appears to be driven by a modification of the bandwidth/carrier concentration, implying that the electronic structure and consequently the interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is strongly affected by hydrostatic and chemical pressure. PMID:26224422

  16. Phase-driven magneto-electrical characteristics of single-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Shu-Jui; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Liang, Jaw-Yeu; Chung, Chi-Sheng; Pan, Hui; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Lee, Yi-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Magnetism of the MoS2 semiconducting atomic layer was highlighted for its great potential in the applications of spintronics and valleytronics. In this study, we demonstrate an evolution of magneto-electrical properties of single layer MoS2 with the modulation of defect configurations and formation of a partial 1T phase. With Ar treatment, sulfur was depleted within the MoS2 flake leading to a 2H (low-spin) --> partial 1T (high-spin) phase transition. The phase transition was accompanied by the development of a ferromagnetic phase. Alternatively, the phase transition could be driven by the desorption of S atoms at the edge of MoS2via O2 treatment while with a different ordering magnitude in magnetism. The edge-sensitive magnetism of the single-layer MoS2 was monitored by magnetic force microscopy and validated by a first-principle calculation with graded-Vs (sulfur vacancy) terminals set at the edge, where band-splitting appeared more prominent with increasing Vs. Treatment with Ar and O2 enabled a dual electrical characteristic of the field effect transistor (FET) that featured linear and saturated responses of different magnitudes in the Ids-Vds curves, whereas the pristine MoS2 FET displayed only a linear electrical dependency. The correlation and tuning of the Vs-1T phase transition would provide a playground for tailoring the phase-driven properties of MoS2 semiconducting atomic layers in spintronic applications.Magnetism of the MoS2 semiconducting atomic layer was highlighted for its great potential in the applications of spintronics and valleytronics. In this study, we demonstrate an evolution of magneto-electrical properties of single layer MoS2 with the modulation of defect configurations and formation of a partial 1T phase. With Ar treatment, sulfur was depleted within the MoS2 flake leading to a 2H (low-spin) --> partial 1T (high-spin) phase transition. The phase transition was accompanied by the development of a ferromagnetic phase. Alternatively, the

  17. Superconducting phase diagram and FFLO signature in λ-(BETS)2GaCl4 from rf penetration depth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglio, William A.; Winter, Laurel E.; Cho, Kyuil; Agosta, C. C.; Fravel, B.; Montgomery, L. K.

    2011-06-01

    We report the phase diagram of λ-(BETS)2GaCl4 [where BETS is bis(ethylene-dithio)tetraselenafulvalene] from rf penetration depth measurements with a tunnel diode oscillator in a pulsed magnetic field. We examined four samples with 1100 field sweeps in a range of angles with the magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the conducting planes. In the parallel direction, Hc2 appears to include a tricritical point at 1.6 K and 10 T with a phase line that increases to 11 T as the temperature is decreased to 500 mK. The second phase line forms a clearly defined high-field low-temperature region satisfying several of the conditions of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. We show remarkably good fits of Hc2 to Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theory in the reentrant α>1, λso=0 regime. We also note a sharp angle dependence of the phase diagram about the field -parallel orientation that characterizes Pauli paramagnetic limiting and further supports the possibility of FFLO behavior. Unrelated to the FFLO study, at fields and temperatures below Hc2 and Tc, we find rich structure in the penetration depth data that we attribute to impurities at the surface altering the superconducting properties while maintaining the same crystallographic axes as Hc2.

  18. Pressure-Induced Mott Transition Followed by a 24-K Superconducting Phase in BaFe2S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Touru; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yutaka; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2015-12-01

    We performed high-pressure study for a Mott insulator BaFe2S3 , by measuring dc resistivity and ac susceptibility up to 15 GPa. We found that the antiferromagnetic insulating state at the ambient pressure is transformed into a metallic state at the critical pressure, Pc=10 GPa , and the superconductivity with the optimum Tc=24 K emerges above Pc. Furthermore, we found that the metal-insulator transition (Mott transition) boundary terminates at a critical point around 10 GPa and 75 K. The obtained pressure-temperature (P -T ) phase diagram is similar to those of the organic and fullerene compounds; namely, BaFe2S3 is the first inorganic superconductor in the vicinity of bandwidth control type Mott transition.

  19. Phase-driven magneto-electrical characteristics of single-layer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Shu-Jui; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Liang, Jaw-Yeu; Chung, Chi-Sheng; Pan, Hui; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Lee, Yi-Hsien

    2016-03-14

    Magnetism of the MoS2 semiconducting atomic layer was highlighted for its great potential in the applications of spintronics and valleytronics. In this study, we demonstrate an evolution of magneto-electrical properties of single layer MoS2 with the modulation of defect configurations and formation of a partial 1T phase. With Ar treatment, sulfur was depleted within the MoS2 flake leading to a 2H (low-spin) → partial 1T (high-spin) phase transition. The phase transition was accompanied by the development of a ferromagnetic phase. Alternatively, the phase transition could be driven by the desorption of S atoms at the edge of MoS2via O2 treatment while with a different ordering magnitude in magnetism. The edge-sensitive magnetism of the single-layer MoS2 was monitored by magnetic force microscopy and validated by a first-principle calculation with graded-Vs (sulfur vacancy) terminals set at the edge, where band-splitting appeared more prominent with increasing Vs. Treatment with Ar and O2 enabled a dual electrical characteristic of the field effect transistor (FET) that featured linear and saturated responses of different magnitudes in the Ids-Vds curves, whereas the pristine MoS2 FET displayed only a linear electrical dependency. The correlation and tuning of the Vs-1T phase transition would provide a playground for tailoring the phase-driven properties of MoS2 semiconducting atomic layers in spintronic applications. PMID:26892905

  20. Use of the electrically-driven emulsion phase contactor in chemical and biochemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, C; DePaoli, D.W.; Scott, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    An electrically driven liquid-liquid contactor has been developed to enhance the efficiency of chemical and biochemical processes. A uniform electric field is utilized to induce a drop dispersion- coalescence cycle, producing high surface area for interfacial mass transfer under continuous-countercurrent-flow conditions. The mass- transport capability of this system has been analyzed by observing the extraction of acetic acid from water (dispersed phase) into methyl isobutyl ketone. Results showed that, due to increased efficiency of mass transfer, the electrically-driven device could be an order of magnitude smaller than a conventional contactor accomplishing the same level of separation. In the case of biochemical processes within non-aqueous environments, a biocatalyst (enzymes or bacteria) is introduced in the aqueous (dispersed) phase. The biocatalyst uses nutrients and other reactants to selectively transform species transferred from the continuous (organic) phase to the interior of the drops. An example of such system that has been investigated is the oxidation of p-cresol dissolved in toluene by aqueous-phase horseradish peroxidase.

  1. Impurity scattering effects on the superconducting properties and the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition in FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Pu, Y. J.; Brisbois, J.; Peng, R.; Feng, D. L.; Chareev, D. A.; Silhanek, A. V.; Krellner, C.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Chen, Xiao-Jia

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the doping dependence of the phase diagram of FeSe-based superconductors is still required due to the lack of a clean and systematic means of doping control. Here, we report on the magneto-optical imaging, thermodynamic and transport properties, as well as in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of impurity scattering in stoichiometric FeSe single crystals. Co doping at the Fe site is found to decrease the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). The upper critical field and specific heat all indicate a possible multiband superconductivity with strong coupling in the Co-doped system. A remarkable feature in FeSe is that its temperature dependent resistivity exhibits a wide hump at high temperatures, a signature of a crossover from a semiconductinglike behavior to metallic behavior. A structural tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition (Ts) (a consequence of the electronic nematicity) is suppressed by either physical or chemical pressures. Due to the reconstruction of the Fermi surface at Ts, specific heat anomalies at Ts present Δ Cp/Ts≈γn , being γn the Sommerfield coefficient at low temperature. This reflect an additional electronic instability in the FeSe1 -xSx system. ARPES data between 180 and 282 K indicates the existence of a chemical potential shift with increasing thermal excitations, resulting in a change of the Fermi-surface topology and exhibiting a semimetal behavior. We found that the temperature-induced Lifshitz transition is much higher than the temperature for the nematic order.

  2. Anomalies in vortex lattice dynamics driven by induced ac currents in superconducting films with magnetic arrays of two-fold symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A. J.; Chiliotte, C. E.; Pasquini, G.; Bekeris, V.; Gomez, A.; del Valle, J.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Prieto, J. L.; Vicent, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the vortex lattice driven by ac induced currents in the critical state regime, for T > 0.70 TC. The samples are superconducting films grown on top of two-fold symmetry array of magnetic dots. In these heterostructures, the induced ac currents flow parallel to the short and to the long side of the pinning array in different areas of the samples simultaneously. This behavior produces remarkable effects in the vortex lattice dynamics. First of all, periodic features are observed in the ac susceptibility versus applied magnetic field measurements which are related to matching effects between the vortex lattices and the magnetic array. However, the vortex lattice reconfiguration observed in magnetotransport experiments is absent. Some of these features are revealed as maxima instead of being minima, indicating higher mobility at certain matching fields. Competing unstable vortex configurations could lead to increase vortex mobility precluding the reconfiguration transition. At high temperatures, where the matching effects show up, the magnetic permeability of the dots is the mechanism that governs the JC(T) behavior. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the pinning force FP(T) shows a temperature crossover related to an unexpected enhancement in vortex mobility. Vortex-vortex interaction and the interplay between trapped and interstitial vortices are a hint to explain these phenomena.

  3. A tunable millimeter-wave phase shifter driven by dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araromi, O. A.; Romano, P.; Rosset, S.; Perruisseau-Carrier, J.; Shea, H. R.

    2014-03-01

    We present the successful operation of the first dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) driven tunable millimeter-wave phase shifter. The development of dynamically reconfigurable microwave/millimeter-wave (MW/MMW) antenna devices is becoming a prime need in the field of telecommunications and sensing. The real time updating of antenna characteristics such as coverage or operation frequency is particularly desired. However, in many circumstances currently available technologies suffer from high EM losses, increased complexity and cost. Conversely, reconfigurable devices based on DEAs offer low complexity, low electromagnetic (EM) losses and analogue operation. Our tunable phase shifter consists of metallic strips suspended a fixed distance above a coplanar waveguide (CPW) by planar DEAs. The planar actuators displace the metallic strips (10 mm in length) in-plane by 500 μm, modifying the EM field distribution, resulting in the desired phase shift. The demanding spacing (50 +/-5 μm between CPW and metallic strips) and parallel alignment criteria required for optimal device operation are successfully met in our device design and validated using bespoke methods. Our current device, approximately 60 mm x 60 mm in planar dimensions, meets the displacement requirements and we observe a considerable phase shift (~95° at 25 GHz) closely matching numerical simulations. Moreover, our device achieves state of the art performance in terms of phase shift per EM loss ~235°/dB (35 GHz), significantly out performing other phase shifter technologies, such as MMIC phase shifters.

  4. Transition temperature to the superconducting phase of QCD at high baryon density

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William E.; Liu, James T.; Ren, Hai-cang

    2000-09-01

    Recent interest in the study of color superconductivity has focused on the regime of high baryon density where perturbative QCD may be employed. Based on the dominant one-gluon-exchange interaction, both the transition temperature and zero temperature gap have been determined to leading order in the coupling g. While the leading non-BCS behavior T{sub C}{approx}{mu}g{sup -5}e{sup -{kappa}}{sup /g} is easily obtained, the pre-exponential factor has proved more difficult to evaluate. Focusing on the transition temperature, we present a perturbative derivation of this factor, exact to leading order in g. This approach is first motivated by the study of a toy model and involves working to second order in the perturbative expansion. We compare this result to the zero temperature gap. Additionally, we extend the analysis to the case of higher angular momentum for longitudinal and transverse quark pairing. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Thermally activated phase slips from metastable states in mesoscopic superconducting rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic, Ivana; Lollo, Anthony; Harris, Jack

    In equilibrium, a flux-biased superconducting ring at low temperature can occupy any of several metastable states. The particular state that the ring occupies depends on the history of the applied flux, as different states are separated from each other by flux-dependent energy barriers. There is a critical value of the applied flux at which a given barrier goes to zero, the state becomes unstable, and the system transition into another state. In recent experiments performed on arrays of rings we showed that this transition occurs close to the critical flux predicted by Ginzburg-Landau theory. Here, we will describe experiments in which we have extended these measurements to an individual ring in order to study the thermal activation of the ring over a barrier that has been tuned close to zero. We measure the statistics of transitions as function of temperature and ramp rate.

  6. Double phase slips and bound defect pairs in parametrically driven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Riecke, H.; Granzow, G.D.

    1997-12-31

    Spatio-temporal chaos in parametrically driven waves is investigated in one and two dimensions using numerical simulations of Ginzburg-Landau equations. A regime is identified in which in one dimension the dynamics are due to double phase slips. In very small systems they are found to arise through a Hopf bifurcation off a mixed mode. In large systems they can lead to a state of localized spatio-temporal chaos, which can be understood within the framework of phase dynamics. In two dimensions the double phase slips are replaced by bound defect pairs. Our simulations indicate the possibility of an unbinding transition of these pairs, which is associated with a transition from ordered to disordered defect chaos.

  7. Superconductivity in bad metals

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    It is argued that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ``bad metals`` with such a poor conductivity that the usual mean-field theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. Some consequences for high temperature superconductors are described.

  8. Origin of Pressure-induced Superconducting Phase in KxFe2-ySe2 studied by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Toshinori; Takano, Yoshihiko; Lin, Jung-Fu; Fujita, Hidenori; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Ishii, Hirofumi; Liao, Yen-Fa; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Pressure dependence of the electronic and crystal structures of KxFe2-ySe2, which has pressure-induced two superconducting domes of SC I and SC II, was investigated by x-ray emission spectroscopy and diffraction. X-ray diffraction data show that compressibility along the c-axis changes around 12 GPa, where a new superconducting phase of SC II appears. This suggests a possible tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal phase transition. X-ray emission spectroscopy data also shows the change in the electronic structure around 12 GPa. These results can be explained by the scenario that the two SC domes under pressure originate from the change of Fermi surface topology. Our results here show the pronounced increase of the density of states near the Fermi surface under pressure with a structural phase transition, which can help address our fundamental understanding for the appearance of the SC II phase.

  9. Origin of Pressure-induced Superconducting Phase in KxFe2-ySe2 studied by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Toshinori; Takano, Yoshihiko; Lin, Jung-Fu; Fujita, Hidenori; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Ishii, Hirofumi; Liao, Yen-Fa; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Pressure dependence of the electronic and crystal structures of KxFe2-ySe2, which has pressure-induced two superconducting domes of SC I and SC II, was investigated by x-ray emission spectroscopy and diffraction. X-ray diffraction data show that compressibility along the c-axis changes around 12 GPa, where a new superconducting phase of SC II appears. This suggests a possible tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal phase transition. X-ray emission spectroscopy data also shows the change in the electronic structure around 12 GPa. These results can be explained by the scenario that the two SC domes under pressure originate from the change of Fermi surface topology. Our results here show the pronounced increase of the density of states near the Fermi surface under pressure with a structural phase transition, which can help address our fundamental understanding for the appearance of the SC II phase. PMID:27499373

  10. Detection of an unconventional superconducting phase in the vicinity of the strong first-order magnetic transition in CrAs using (75)As-nuclear quadrupole resonance.

    PubMed

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Nakahara, Shingo; Akamatsu, Rui; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2015-03-20

    Pressure-induced superconductivity was recently discovered in the binary helimagnet CrAs. We report the results of measurements of nuclear quadrupole resonance for CrAs under pressure. In the vicinity of the critical pressure P(c) between the helimagnetic (HM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases, a phase separation is observed. The large internal field remaining in the phase-separated HM state indicates that the HM phase disappears through a strong first-order transition. This indicates the absence of a quantum critical point in CrAs; however, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(1) reveals that substantial magnetic fluctuations are present in the PM state. The absence of a coherence effect in 1/T(1) in the superconducting state provides evidence that CrAs is the first Cr-based unconventional superconductor. PMID:25839303

  11. Origin of Pressure-induced Superconducting Phase in KxFe2−ySe2 studied by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Toshinori; Takano, Yoshihiko; Lin, Jung-Fu; Fujita, Hidenori; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Ishii, Hirofumi; Liao, Yen-Fa; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Mizuki, Jun’ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Pressure dependence of the electronic and crystal structures of KxFe2−ySe2, which has pressure-induced two superconducting domes of SC I and SC II, was investigated by x-ray emission spectroscopy and diffraction. X-ray diffraction data show that compressibility along the c-axis changes around 12 GPa, where a new superconducting phase of SC II appears. This suggests a possible tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal phase transition. X-ray emission spectroscopy data also shows the change in the electronic structure around 12 GPa. These results can be explained by the scenario that the two SC domes under pressure originate from the change of Fermi surface topology. Our results here show the pronounced increase of the density of states near the Fermi surface under pressure with a structural phase transition, which can help address our fundamental understanding for the appearance of the SC II phase. PMID:27499373

  12. Origin of Pressure-induced Superconducting Phase in KxFe2‑ySe2 studied by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Toshinori; Takano, Yoshihiko; Lin, Jung-Fu; Fujita, Hidenori; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Ishii, Hirofumi; Liao, Yen-Fa; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Mizuki, Jun’Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    Pressure dependence of the electronic and crystal structures of KxFe2‑ySe2, which has pressure-induced two superconducting domes of SC I and SC II, was investigated by x-ray emission spectroscopy and diffraction. X-ray diffraction data show that compressibility along the c-axis changes around 12 GPa, where a new superconducting phase of SC II appears. This suggests a possible tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal phase transition. X-ray emission spectroscopy data also shows the change in the electronic structure around 12 GPa. These results can be explained by the scenario that the two SC domes under pressure originate from the change of Fermi surface topology. Our results here show the pronounced increase of the density of states near the Fermi surface under pressure with a structural phase transition, which can help address our fundamental understanding for the appearance of the SC II phase.

  13. Detection of an unconventional superconducting phase in the vicinity of the strong first-order magnetic transition in CrAs using (75)As-nuclear quadrupole resonance.

    PubMed

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Nakahara, Shingo; Akamatsu, Rui; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2015-03-20

    Pressure-induced superconductivity was recently discovered in the binary helimagnet CrAs. We report the results of measurements of nuclear quadrupole resonance for CrAs under pressure. In the vicinity of the critical pressure P(c) between the helimagnetic (HM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases, a phase separation is observed. The large internal field remaining in the phase-separated HM state indicates that the HM phase disappears through a strong first-order transition. This indicates the absence of a quantum critical point in CrAs; however, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(1) reveals that substantial magnetic fluctuations are present in the PM state. The absence of a coherence effect in 1/T(1) in the superconducting state provides evidence that CrAs is the first Cr-based unconventional superconductor.

  14. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  15. Superconductivity in doped insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ``bad metals``, with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described.

  16. Cation disorder and gas phase equilibrium in an YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x superconducting thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Chan; Ki Park, Yong; Park, Jong-Chul; Kang, Suk-Joong L.; Yong Yoon, Duk

    1997-02-01

    YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x superconducting thin films have been grown by in situ off-axis rf sputtering with varying oxygen pressure, Ba/Y ratio in a target, and deposition temperature. With decreasing oxygen pressure, increasing Ba/Y ratio, increasing deposition temperature, the critical temperature of the thin films decreased and the c-axis length increased. The property change of films with the variation of deposition variables has been explained by a gas phase equilibrium of the oxidation reaction of Ba and Y. Applying Le Chatelier's principle to the oxidation reaction, we were able to predict the relation of deposition variables and the resultant properties of thin films; the prediction was in good agreement with the experimental results. From the relation between the three deposition variables and gas phase equilibrium, a 3-dimensional processing diagram was introduced. This diagram has shown that the optimum deposition condition of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x thin films is not a fixed point but can be varied. The gas phase equilibrium can also be applied to the explanation of previous results that good quality films were obtained at low deposition temperature using active species, such as O, O 3, and O 2+.

  17. Evolution of Superconducting and Hidden Order Phases in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} under Applied Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Maple, M. Brian; Jeffries, Jason R.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Yukich, Benjamin T.

    2008-07-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements performed under applied hydrostatic pressure and in magnetic fields have been used to probe the hidden order (HO) and superconducting (SC) states of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, which have ambient-pressure transition temperatures T{sub 0} = 17.5 K and T{sub c} = 1.5 K, respectively. T{sub 0} increases with applied pressure and a distinct kink in its pressure dependence is observed at 15 kbar; this feature is associated with the onset of antiferromagnetism. The pressure dependence of the SC upper critical field has been measured with the external field aligned parallel to both crystalline axes. The SC phase is smoothly suppressed to a critical pressure of about 15 kbar and no qualitative change in the critical field curves is observed. The co-evolution of the HO and SC phases is discussed within the context of a model in which the two phases compete for Fermi surface fraction. (authors)

  18. Correlated anomalous phase diffusion of coupled phononic modes in a sideband-driven resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F.; Dong, X.; Zou, J.; Dykman, M. I.; Chan, H. B.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamical backaction from a periodically driven optical cavity can reduce the damping of a mechanical resonator, leading to parametric instability accompanied by self-sustained oscillations. Here we study experimentally and theoretically new aspects of the backaction and the discrete time-translation symmetry of a driven system using a micromechanical resonator with two nonlinearly coupled vibrational modes with strongly differing frequencies and decay rates. We find self-sustained oscillations in both the low- and high-frequency modes. Their frequencies and amplitudes are determined by the nonlinearity, which also leads to bistability and hysteresis. The phase fluctuations of the two modes show near-perfect anti-correlation, a consequence of the discrete time-translation symmetry. Concurrently, the phase of each mode undergoes anomalous diffusion. The phase variance follows a power law time dependence, with an exponent determined by the 1/f-type resonator frequency noise. Our findings enable compensating for the fluctuations using a feedback scheme to achieve stable frequency downconversion.

  19. Correlated anomalous phase diffusion of coupled phononic modes in a sideband-driven resonator

    PubMed Central

    Sun, F.; Dong, X.; Zou, J.; Dykman, M. I.; Chan, H. B.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical backaction from a periodically driven optical cavity can reduce the damping of a mechanical resonator, leading to parametric instability accompanied by self-sustained oscillations. Here we study experimentally and theoretically new aspects of the backaction and the discrete time-translation symmetry of a driven system using a micromechanical resonator with two nonlinearly coupled vibrational modes with strongly differing frequencies and decay rates. We find self-sustained oscillations in both the low- and high-frequency modes. Their frequencies and amplitudes are determined by the nonlinearity, which also leads to bistability and hysteresis. The phase fluctuations of the two modes show near-perfect anti-correlation, a consequence of the discrete time-translation symmetry. Concurrently, the phase of each mode undergoes anomalous diffusion. The phase variance follows a power law time dependence, with an exponent determined by the 1/f-type resonator frequency noise. Our findings enable compensating for the fluctuations using a feedback scheme to achieve stable frequency downconversion. PMID:27576597

  20. Correlated anomalous phase diffusion of coupled phononic modes in a sideband-driven resonator.

    PubMed

    Sun, F; Dong, X; Zou, J; Dykman, M I; Chan, H B

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical backaction from a periodically driven optical cavity can reduce the damping of a mechanical resonator, leading to parametric instability accompanied by self-sustained oscillations. Here we study experimentally and theoretically new aspects of the backaction and the discrete time-translation symmetry of a driven system using a micromechanical resonator with two nonlinearly coupled vibrational modes with strongly differing frequencies and decay rates. We find self-sustained oscillations in both the low- and high-frequency modes. Their frequencies and amplitudes are determined by the nonlinearity, which also leads to bistability and hysteresis. The phase fluctuations of the two modes show near-perfect anti-correlation, a consequence of the discrete time-translation symmetry. Concurrently, the phase of each mode undergoes anomalous diffusion. The phase variance follows a power law time dependence, with an exponent determined by the 1/f-type resonator frequency noise. Our findings enable compensating for the fluctuations using a feedback scheme to achieve stable frequency downconversion. PMID:27576597

  1. Structural and magnetic phase diagram of CeFeAsO(1- x)F(x) and its relation to high-temperature superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Huang, Q; de la Cruz, Clarina; Li, Shiliang; Lynn, J W; Chen, Y; Green, M A; Chen, G F; Li, G; Li, Z; Luo, J L; Wang, N L; Dai, Pengcheng

    2008-12-01

    Recently, high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductivity was discovered in the iron pnictide RFeAsO(1-x)F(x) (R, rare-earth metal) family of materials. We use neutron scattering to study the structural and magnetic phase transitions in CeFeAsO(1-x)F(x) as the system is tuned from a semimetal to a high-Tc superconductor through fluorine (F) doping, x. In the undoped state, CeFeAsO develops a structural lattice distortion followed by a collinear antiferromagnetic order with decreasing temperature. With increasing fluorine doping, the structural phase transition decreases gradually and vanishes within the superconductivity dome near x=0.10, whereas the antiferromagnetic order is suppressed before the appearance of superconductivity for x>0.06, resulting in an electronic phase diagram remarkably similar to that of the high-Tc copper oxides. Comparison of the structural evolution of CeFeAsO(1-x)F(x) with other Fe-based superconductors suggests that the structural perfection of the Fe-As tetrahedron is important for the high-Tc superconductivity in these Fe pnictides.

  2. Ab initio studies on phase transition, thermoelastic, superconducting and thermodynamic properties of the compressed cubic phase of AlH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong-Kai; Ge, Ni-Na; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Ji, Guang-Fu; Cai, Ling-Cang; Gu, Zhuo-Wei

    2014-03-01

    The phase transition, thermoelastic, lattice dynamic, and thermodynamic properties of the cubic metallic phase AlH3 were obtained within the density-function perturbation theory. The calculated elastic modulus and phonon dispersion curves under various pressures at 0 K indicate the cubic phase is both mechanically and dynamically stable above 73 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature Tc was calculated using the Allen-Dynes modification of the McMillan formula based on BCS theory. The calculations show that Tc for the cubic phase AlH3 is 8.5 K (μ*=0.1) at the onset of this phase (73 GPa), while decreases to 5.7 K at 80 GPa and almost disappears at 110 GPa, consisting with experimental phenomenon that there was no superconducting transition observed down to 4 K over a wide pressure range 110-164 GPa. It is found that the soft phonon mode for branch 1, namely, the lowest acoustic mode, plays a crucial role in elevating the total EPC parameter λ of cubic AlH3. And the evolution of Tc with pressure follows the corresponding change of this soft mode, i.e. this mode is responsible for the disappearance of Tc in experiments. Meanwhile, the softening of this lowest acoustic mode originates from the electronic momentum transfer from M to R point. This phenomenon provides an important insight into why drastic changes in the diffraction pattern were observed in the pressure range of 63-73 GPa in Goncharenko's experiments. Specifically, once finite electronic temperature effects are included, we find that dynamical instabilities can be removed in the phonon dispersion for P ≥63 GPa, rendering the metastability of this phase in the range of 63-73 GPa, and Tc (15.4 K) becomes remarkably high under the lowest possible pressure (63 GPa) compared with that of under 73 GPa (8.5 K). Our calculations open the possibility that finite temperature may allow cubic AlH3 to be dynamically stabilized even for pressures below 73 GPa. It is reasonable to deduced that if special

  3. Ab initio studies on phase transition, thermoelastic, superconducting and thermodynamic properties of the compressed cubic phase of AlH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yong-Kai; Ge, Ni-Na; Chen, Xiang-Rong E-mail: cyfjkf@caep.ac.cn; Ji, Guang-Fu E-mail: cyfjkf@caep.ac.cn; Cai, Ling-Cang; Gu, Zhuo-Wei

    2014-03-28

    The phase transition, thermoelastic, lattice dynamic, and thermodynamic properties of the cubic metallic phase AlH{sub 3} were obtained within the density-function perturbation theory. The calculated elastic modulus and phonon dispersion curves under various pressures at 0 K indicate the cubic phase is both mechanically and dynamically stable above 73 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} was calculated using the Allen-Dynes modification of the McMillan formula based on BCS theory. The calculations show that T{sub c} for the cubic phase AlH{sub 3} is 8.5 K (μ{sup *}=0.1) at the onset of this phase (73 GPa), while decreases to 5.7 K at 80 GPa and almost disappears at 110 GPa, consisting with experimental phenomenon that there was no superconducting transition observed down to 4 K over a wide pressure range 110–164 GPa. It is found that the soft phonon mode for branch 1, namely, the lowest acoustic mode, plays a crucial role in elevating the total EPC parameter λ of cubic AlH{sub 3}. And the evolution of T{sub c} with pressure follows the corresponding change of this soft mode, i.e. this mode is responsible for the disappearance of T{sub c} in experiments. Meanwhile, the softening of this lowest acoustic mode originates from the electronic momentum transfer from M to R point. This phenomenon provides an important insight into why drastic changes in the diffraction pattern were observed in the pressure range of 63–73 GPa in Goncharenko's experiments. Specifically, once finite electronic temperature effects are included, we find that dynamical instabilities can be removed in the phonon dispersion for P≥63 GPa, rendering the metastability of this phase in the range of 63–73 GPa, and T{sub c} (15.4 K) becomes remarkably high under the lowest possible pressure (63 GPa) compared with that of under 73 GPa (8.5 K). Our calculations open the possibility that finite temperature may allow cubic AlH{sub 3} to be

  4. Magneto-optical measurements as tests for time-reversal symmetry breaking in the hidden order and superconducting phases of URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitulnik, Aharon

    It is now experimentally well established that the superconducting (SC) phase of URu2Si2 with Tc =1.5K emerges from the hidden order (HO) phase with THO = 17.5K. Thus, it is of great interest to discern the different symmetries of both phases. In particular, recent theoretical proposals for time-reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) order parameters of either phases pose the question of whether the HO one drives the SC one, or TRSB appears in the SC phase independently. In this talk we report high resolution polar Kerr effect (PKE) measurements as a function of temperature for several high-quality single crystals of URu2Si2. We find an onset of PKE below the superconducting transition that is consistent with a TRS-breaking order parameter. This effect appears to be independent of an additional, possibly extrinsic, PKE generated in the hidden order phase, and contains structure below Tc suggestive of additional physics within the superconducting state. Work supported by DOE.

  5. Chaotic phase similarities and recurrences in a damped-driven Duffing oscillator.

    PubMed

    Bonatto, Cristian; Gallas, Jason A C; Ueda, Yoshisuke

    2008-02-01

    We report strong evidence of remarkably close periodic repetitions of the structuring of the parameter space of a damped-driven Duffing oscillator as the amplitude of the drive increases. Families of period-adding cascades and some intricate networks of periodic oscillations embedded in chaotic phases are also found to recur closely as the driving force grows. Such surprising regularities suggest that some hitherto unknown renormalization mechanism may be operating in higher codimension, controlling the alternation of chaos and order in parameter space of certain flows. PMID:18352113

  6. Effect of Charge Patterning on the Phase Behavior of Polymer Coacervates for Charge Driven Self Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Sing, Charles E.

    Oppositely charged polymers can undergo associative liquid-liquid phase separation when mixed under suitable conditions of ionic strength, temperature and pH to form what are known as `polymeric complex coacervates'. Polymer coacervates find use in diverse array of applications like microencapsulation, drug delivery, membrane filtration and underwater adhesives. The similarity between complex coacervate environments and those in biological systems has also found relevance in areas of bio-mimicry. Our previous works have demonstrated how local charge correlations and molecular connectivity can drastically affect the phase behavior of coacervates. The precise location of charges along the chain therefore dramatically influences the local charge correlations, which consequently influences the phase behavior of coacervates. We investigate the effect of charge patterning along the polymer chain on the phase behavior of coacervates in the framework of the Restricted Primitive Model using Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that charge patterning dramatically changes the phase behavior of polymer coacervates, which contrasts with the predictions of the classical Voorn-Overbeek theory. This provides the basis for designing new materials through charge driven self assembly by controlling the positioning of the charged monomers along the chain.

  7. Measurement of Phase Difference for Micromachined Gyros Driven by Rotating Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zengping; Zhang, Fuxue; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for realizing a phase difference measurement of a new gyro. A silicon micromachined gyro was mounted on rotating aircraft for aircraft attitude control. Aircraft spin drives the silicon pendulum of a gyro rotating at a high speed so that it can sense the transverse angular velocity of the rotating aircraft based on the gyroscopic precession principle when the aircraft has transverse rotation. In applications of the rotating aircraft single channel control system, such as damping in the attitude stabilization loop, the gyro signal must be kept in sync with the control signal. Therefore, the phase difference between both signals needs to be measured accurately. Considering that phase difference is mainly produced by both the micromachined part and the signal conditioning circuit, a mathematical model has been established and analyzed to determine the gyro's phase frequency characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a dynamic simulation has been done for a case where the spin frequency is 15 Hz. Experimental results with the proposed measurement method applied to a silicon micromachined gyro driven by a rotating aircraft demonstrate that it is effective in practical applications. Measured curve and numerical analysis of phase frequency characteristic are in accordance, and the error between measurement and simulation is only 5.3%. PMID:23966195

  8. Measurement of phase difference for micromachined gyros driven by rotating aircraft.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zengping; Zhang, Fuxue; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-21

    This paper presents an approach for realizing a phase difference measurement of a new gyro. A silicon micromachined gyro was mounted on rotating aircraft for aircraft attitude control. Aircraft spin drives the silicon pendulum of a gyro rotating at a high speed so that it can sense the transverse angular velocity of the rotating aircraft based on the gyroscopic precession principle when the aircraft has transverse rotation. In applications of the rotating aircraft single channel control system, such as damping in the attitude stabilization loop, the gyro signal must be kept in sync with the control signal. Therefore, the phase difference between both signals needs to be measured accurately. Considering that phase difference is mainly produced by both the micromachined part and the signal conditioning circuit, a mathematical model has been established and analyzed to determine the gyro's phase frequency characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a dynamic simulation has been done for a case where the spin frequency is 15 Hz. Experimental results with the proposed measurement method applied to a silicon micromachined gyro driven by a rotating aircraft demonstrate that it is effective in practical applications. Measured curve and numerical analysis of phase frequency characteristic are in accordance, and the error between measurement and simulation is only 5.3%.

  9. The happy marriage between electron-phonon superconductivity and Mott physics in Cs3C60: A first-principle phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Massimo; Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Arita, Ryotaro

    The phase diagram of doped fullerides like Cs3C60 as a function of the spacing between fullerene molecules is characterized by a first-order transition between a Mott insulator and an s-wave superconductor with a dome-shaped behavior of the critical temperature. By means of an ab-initio modeling of the bandstructure, the electron-phonon interaction and the interaction parameter and a Dynamical Mean-Field Theory solution, we reproduce the phase diagram and demonstrate that phonon superconductivity benefits from strong correlations confirming earlier model predictions. The role of correlations is manifest also in infrared measurements carried out by L. Baldassarre. The superconducting phase shares many similarities with ''exotic'' superconductors with electronic pairing, suggesting that the anomalies in the ''normal'' state, rather than the pairing glue, can be the real common element unifying a wide family of strongly correlated superconductors including cuprates and iron superconductors

  10. Effects of v- or Cr-DOPING on Phase Formation, Electric Properties and Superconductivity of the 3212-TYPE Phase Pb2Sr2(Ca0.5Y0.5)Cu3Oz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Qian, Y. T.; Luo, H. M.; Qu, B.; Sheng, Z. Z.; Wang, L. M.

    The effects of vanadium or chromium on the formation, electric properties and superconductivity of Pb-3212 phase (Pb2Cu)Sr2(Ca0.5Y0.5)Cu2Oz are studied. The sites of V or Cr in PbO-CuOδ-PbO structure unit for Pb-3212 phase is also investigated. Compared with the effects of Cr-doping, V can totally substitute Ca to form a new compound Pb2Sr2(V0.5Y0.5)Cu3Oz, and V has relatively greater substitution amount in (Pb2-xMx)Sr2(Ca0.5Y0.5)Cu3Oz (M = Cr or V). Moreover, the resistivity and superconductivity of the above samples decrease with increasing V or Cr amount. Among them, the effects of V is greater, and its location (in Pb or Ca site) also affects greatly the superconductivity.

  11. Topological quantum phase transitions driven by external electric fields in Sb2Te3 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsung; Kim, Choong H.; Kim, Heung-Sik; Ihm, Jisoon

    2012-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we show that topological quantum phase transitions are driven by external electric fields in thin films of Sb2Te3. The film, as the applied electric field normal to its surface increases, is transformed from a normal insulator to a topological insulator or vice versa depending on the film thickness. We identify the band topology by directly calculating the invariant from electronic wave functions. The dispersion of edge states is also found to be consistent with the bulk band topology in view of the bulk-boundary correspondence. We present possible applications of the topological phase transition as an on/off switch of the topologically protected edge states in nano-scale devices. PMID:22203972

  12. Critical slowing down, phase relations, and dissipation in driven oscillatory systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tsarouhas, G.E.; Ross, J. )

    1989-04-06

    Three dynamical properties of forced nonlinear systems are discussed with approximate analytic solutions obtained from the dynamic equations for oscillatory systems, near a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, driven by periodic perturbations of small amplitude. With these solutions we first obtain the phase difference between the response of the system and the periodic perturbation and its dependence on the parameters, and hence the mechanism, of the system. Second, we derive expressions for critical slowing down near edges of entrainment bands, with consideration of possible variation of both the radius and phase of the perturbed limit cycle with the amplitude of perturbation. Third, we show by analysis the previously numerically calculated variation of the dissipation within entrainment bands, which depends on the square of the amplitude of the response of the perturbed system.

  13. Three Temperature Regimes in Superconducting Photon Detectors: Quantum, Thermal and Multiple Phase-Slips as Generators of Dark Counts

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew; Semenov, Alexander; Korneev, Alexander; Korneeva, Yulia; Gol’tsman, Gregory; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    We perform measurements of the switching current distributions of three w ≈ 120 nm wide, 4 nm thick NbN superconducting strips which are used for single-photon detectors. These strips are much wider than the diameter of the vortex cores, so they are classified as quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D). We discover evidence of macroscopic quantum tunneling by observing the saturation of the standard deviation of the switching distributions at temperatures around 2 K. We analyze our results using the Kurkijärvi-Garg model and find that the escape temperature also saturates at low temperatures, confirming that at sufficiently low temperatures, macroscopic quantum tunneling is possible in quasi-2D strips and can contribute to dark counts observed in single photon detectors. At the highest temperatures the system enters a multiple phase-slip regime. In this range single phase-slips are unable to produce dark counts and the fluctuations in the switching current are reduced. PMID:25988591

  14. Quantitative X-ray phase-contrast microtomography from a compact laser-driven betatron source

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, J.; Schleede, S.; Khrennikov, K.; Bech, M.; Thibault, P.; Heigoldt, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Karsch, S.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has recently led to a revolution in resolving power and tissue contrast in biomedical imaging, microscopy and materials science. The necessary high spatial coherence is currently provided by either large-scale synchrotron facilities with limited beamtime access or by microfocus X-ray tubes with rather limited flux. X-rays radiated by relativistic electrons driven by well-controlled high-power lasers offer a promising route to a proliferation of this powerful imaging technology. A laser-driven plasma wave accelerates and wiggles electrons, giving rise to a brilliant keV X-ray emission. This so-called betatron radiation is emitted in a collimated beam with excellent spatial coherence and remarkable spectral stability. Here we present a phase-contrast microtomogram of a biological sample using betatron X-rays. Comprehensive source characterization enables the reconstruction of absolute electron densities. Our results suggest that laser-based X-ray technology offers the potential for filling the large performance gap between synchrotron- and current X-ray tube-based sources. PMID:26189811

  15. Quantitative mapping of phase coexistence in Mott-Peierls insulator during electronic and thermally driven phase transition.

    PubMed

    Madan, Himanshu; Jerry, Matthew; Pogrebnyakov, Alexej; Mayer, Theresa; Datta, Suman

    2015-02-24

    Quantitative impedance mapping of the spatially inhomogeneous insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is performed with a lateral resolution of 50 nm through near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) at 16 GHz. SMM is used to measure spatially resolved electronic properties of the phase coexistence in an unstrained VO2 film during the electrically as well as thermally induced IMT. A quantitative impedance map of both the electrically driven filamentary conduction and the thermally induced bulk transition is established. This was modeled as a 2-D heterogeneous resistive network where the distribution function of the IMT temperature across the sample is captured. Applying the resistive network model for the electrically induced IMT case, we reproduce the filamentary nature of electronically induced IMT, which elucidates a cascading avalanche effect triggered by the local electric field across nanoscale insulating and metallic domains.

  16. Disorder-dependent superconducting phase diagram at high magnetic fields in Fe1+ySexTe1-x (x˜0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre, T.; Li, G.; Whalen, J. B.; Conner, B. S.; Zhou, H. D.; Grissonnanche, G.; Kostov, M. K.; Gurevich, A.; Siegrist, T.; Balicas, L.

    2011-11-01

    We compare the superconducting phase-diagram under high magnetic fields (up to H=45 T) of Fe1+ySe0.4Te0.6 single crystals originally grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger (BRST) technique, which were annealed to display narrow superconducting transitions and the optimal transition temperature Tc≳14 K, with the diagram for samples of similar stoichiometry grown by the traveling-solvent floating-zone technique as well as with the phase diagram reported for crystals grown by a self-flux method. We find that the so-annealed samples tend to display higher ratios Hc2/Tc, particularly for fields applied along the interplanar direction, where the upper critical field Hc2(T) exhibits a pronounced concave down curvature followed by saturation at lower temperatures T. This last observation is consistent with previous studies indicating that this system is Pauli limited. An analysis of our Hc2(T) data using a multiband theory suggests the emergence of the Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchnikov state at low temperatures. A detailed structural x-ray analysis, reveals no impurity phases but an appreciable degree of mosaicity in as-grown BRST single crystals that remains unaffected by the annealing process. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis showed that the annealed samples have a more homogeneous stoichiometric distribution of both Fe and Se with virtually the same content of interstitial Fe as the nonannealed ones. Thus we conclude that the excess of Fe, in contrast to structural disorder, contributes to the decrease of the superconducting upper-critical fields of this series. Finally, a scaling analysis of the fluctuation conductivity in the superconducting critical regime, suggests that the superconducting fluctuations have a two-dimensional character in this system.

  17. Phase and vortex correlations in superconducting Josephson-junction arrays at irrational magnetic frustration.

    PubMed

    Granato, Enzo

    2008-07-11

    Phase coherence and vortex order in a Josephson-junction array at irrational frustration are studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations using the parallel-tempering method. A scaling analysis of the correlation length of phase variables in the full equilibrated system shows that the critical temperature vanishes with a power-law divergent correlation length and critical exponent nuph, in agreement with recent results from resistivity scaling analysis. A similar scaling analysis for vortex variables reveals a different critical exponent nuv, suggesting that there are two distinct correlation lengths associated with a decoupled zero-temperature phase transition. PMID:18764218

  18. Phase and vortex correlations in superconducting Josephson-junction arrays at irrational magnetic frustration.

    PubMed

    Granato, Enzo

    2008-07-11

    Phase coherence and vortex order in a Josephson-junction array at irrational frustration are studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations using the parallel-tempering method. A scaling analysis of the correlation length of phase variables in the full equilibrated system shows that the critical temperature vanishes with a power-law divergent correlation length and critical exponent nuph, in agreement with recent results from resistivity scaling analysis. A similar scaling analysis for vortex variables reveals a different critical exponent nuv, suggesting that there are two distinct correlation lengths associated with a decoupled zero-temperature phase transition.

  19. Near infrared light-driven liquid crystal phase transition enabled by hydrophobic mesogen grafted plasmonic gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Cuevas, Karla G; Wang, Ling; Xue, Chenming; Singh, Gautam; Kumar, Satyendra; Urbas, Augustine; Li, Quan

    2015-06-18

    Light-driven phase transition in liquid crystals is a fascinating endeavour from both scientific and technological points of view. Here we demonstrate the proof-of-principle that the photothermal effect of organo-soluble plasmonic gold nanorods can introduce the phase transition of thermotropic liquid crystals upon near infrared laser irradiation. Interestingly, the reverse process occurs when the laser is switched off.

  20. Nonlinear driven response of a phase-field crystal in a periodic pinning potential.

    PubMed

    Achim, C V; Ramos, J A P; Karttunen, M; Elder, K R; Granato, E; Ala-Nissila, T; Ying, S C

    2009-01-01

    We study numerically the phase diagram and the response under a driving force of the phase field crystal model for pinned lattice systems introduced recently for both one- and two-dimensional systems. The model describes the lattice system as a continuous density field in the presence of a periodic pinning potential, allowing for both elastic and plastic deformations of the lattice. We first present results for phase diagrams of the model in the absence of a driving force. The nonlinear response to a driving force on an initially pinned commensurate phase is then studied via overdamped dynamic equations of motion for different values of mismatch and pinning strengths. For large pinning strength the driven depinning transitions are continuous, and the sliding velocity varies with the force from the threshold with power-law exponents in agreement with analytical predictions. Transverse depinning transitions in the moving state are also found in two dimensions. Surprisingly, for sufficiently weak pinning potential we find a discontinuous depinning transition with hysteresis even in one dimension under overdamped dynamics. We also characterize structural changes of the system in some detail close to the depinning transition.

  1. Buckling, driven by constrained phase separation, of toroid-shaped hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriyev, Michael S.; Chang, Ya-Wen; Souslov, Anton; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Goldbart, Paul M.

    We investigate the buckling process observed in connection with the temperature-induced shrinking of an elastic toroid composed of hydrogel. Hydrogels are polymeric network media that become swollen when mixed with water, provided the temperature is low enough. As the temperature is increased beyond a certain point, such gels undergo a first-order de-swelling transition to a de-mixed state, in which the network segregates from the water, resulting in a shrunken phase. It is known that the rapid heating of swollen hydrogels beyond the de-swelling transition results in the formation of a shrunken-phase boundary region, or shell. This shell hinders the expulsion of fluid associated with the equilibration of the sample interior, and gives rise to a prolonged period of coexistence between shrunken and swollen domains in the interior of the sample. In contrast with the spherical case, toroidal samples have been observed to undergo a constrained phase separation that is accompanied by a global buckling (or ``Pringling'') deformation of the sample shape. We present a model of hydrogel toroid Pringling in which such deformations are driven by this phase separation process.

  2. Direct spectroscopic evidence for phase competition between the pseudogap and superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A; He, Rui-Hua; Vishik, Inna M; Moritz, Brian; He, Yu; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Moore, Robert G; Lu, Donghui; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Sasagawa, Takao; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shinichi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Hussain, Zahid; Devereaux, Thomas P; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-01-01

    In the high-temperature (T(c)) cuprate superconductors, a growing body of evidence suggests that the pseudogap phase, existing below the pseudogap temperature T*, is characterized by some broken electronic symmetries distinct from those associated with superconductivity. In particular, recent scattering experiments have suggested that charge ordering competes with superconductivity. However, no direct link of an interplay between the two phases has been identified from the important low-energy excitations. Here, we report an antagonistic singularity at T(c) in the spectral weight of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) as compelling evidence for phase competition, which persists up to a high hole concentration p ~ 0.22. Comparison with theoretical calculations confirms that the singularity is a signature of competition between the order parameters for the pseudogap and superconductivity. The observation of the spectroscopic singularity at finite temperatures over a wide doping range provides new insights into the nature of the competitive interplay between the two orders and the complex phase diagram near the pseudogap critical point.

  3. Direct spectroscopic evidence for phase competition between the pseudogap and superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A; He, Rui-Hua; Vishik, Inna M; Moritz, Brian; He, Yu; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Moore, Robert G; Lu, Donghui; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Sasagawa, Takao; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shinichi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Hussain, Zahid; Devereaux, Thomas P; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2015-01-01

    In the high-temperature (T(c)) cuprate superconductors, a growing body of evidence suggests that the pseudogap phase, existing below the pseudogap temperature T*, is characterized by some broken electronic symmetries distinct from those associated with superconductivity. In particular, recent scattering experiments have suggested that charge ordering competes with superconductivity. However, no direct link of an interplay between the two phases has been identified from the important low-energy excitations. Here, we report an antagonistic singularity at T(c) in the spectral weight of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) as compelling evidence for phase competition, which persists up to a high hole concentration p ~ 0.22. Comparison with theoretical calculations confirms that the singularity is a signature of competition between the order parameters for the pseudogap and superconductivity. The observation of the spectroscopic singularity at finite temperatures over a wide doping range provides new insights into the nature of the competitive interplay between the two orders and the complex phase diagram near the pseudogap critical point. PMID:25362356

  4. High pressure phase transition and superconductivity in transition metal nitride HfN and ZrN: An ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asvini Meenaatci, A. T.; prabha, S. Kanaga; palanichamy, R. Rajeswara; Iyakutti, K.

    2012-06-01

    The high pressure structural investigations of HfN and ZrN have been studies using ab initio calculations. It is predicted that ZrN undergoes a structural phase transition from NaCl to ZB structure at around 90.17GPa whereas there is no phase transition for HfN. However at higher pressure (at 108.67GPa) HfN undergo a phase transition from ZB to WC structure. Apart from this, the ground state properties, elastic constants and superconducting transition temperature are calculated and compared with the available results.

  5. Photoinduced superconductivity in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Garry; Aron, Camille; Chamon, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    We show that optically pumped semiconductors can exhibit superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon in the case of a two-band semiconductor tunnel-coupled to broad-band reservoirs and driven by a continuous wave laser. More realistically, we also show that superconductivity can be induced in a two-band semiconductor interacting with a broad-spectrum light source. We furthermore discuss the case of a three-band model in which the middle band replaces the broad-band reservoirs as the source of dissipation. In all three cases, we derive the simple conditions on the band structure, electron-electron interaction, and hybridization to the reservoirs that enable superconductivity. We compute the finite superconducting pairing and argue that the mechanism can be induced through both attractive and repulsive interactions and is robust to high temperatures.

  6. Helium cooling systems for large superconducting physics detector magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.

    The large superconducting detector magnets used for high energy physics experiments are virtually all indirectly cooled. In general, these detector magnets are not cryogenically stabilized. Therefore, there are a number of choices for cooling large indirectly cooled detector magnets. These choices include; 1) forced two-phase helium cooling driven by the helium refrigerator J-T circuit, 2) forced two-phase helium cooling driven by a helium pump, and 3) a peculation gravity feed cooling system which uses liquid helium from a large storage dewar. The choices for the cooling of a large detector magnet are illustrated by applying these concepts to a 4.2 meter diameter 0.5 tesla thin superconducting solenoid for an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  7. Single and three-phase AC losses in HTS superconducting power transmission line prototype cables

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; Coulter, J.Y.; Fleshler, S.

    1997-11-01

    AC losses in two, one-meter-long lengths of HTS prototype multi-strand conductors (PMC`s) are measured with a temperature-difference calorimeter. Both single-phase and three-phase losses are examined with ac currents up to 1,000 A rms. The calorimeter, designed specifically for these measurements, has a precision of 1 mW. PMC {number_sign}1 has two helically-wound, non-insulated layers of HTS tape (19 tapes per layer), each layer wrapped with opposite pitch. PMC {number_sign}2 is identical except for insulation between the layers. The measured ac losses show no significant effect of interlayer insulation and depend on about the third power of the current--a result in agreement with the Bean-Norris model adapted to the double-helix configuration. The three-phase losses are a factor of two higher than those exhibited by a single isolated conductor, indicating a significant interaction between phases.

  8. Spin Texture and Spin Dynamics in Superconducting Cuprates Near the Phase Transition Revealed by the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochelaev, B. I.

    2016-04-01

    A short review of experimental results and theoretical models of the spin texture and spin dynamics in superconducting cuprates near the phase transition developed on the basis of the EPR measurements is given. Distortions of the long-range antiferromagnetic order in the YBa_2 Cu_3 O_{6+y} were investigated for y=0.1-0.4 using Yb^{3+} ions as the EPR probe. In weakly doped samples with y=0.1 , a strong anisotropy of the EPR linewidth is revealed which was related to the indirect spin-spin interaction between the ytterbium ions via antiferromagnetic spin-waves. In the case of the doping level y=0.2-0.3 , the EPR signal consists of narrow and broad lines, which were attributed to formation of charged domain walls. A theoretical analysis is well consistent with experimental results for the case of coplanar elliptical domain walls. A discussion of possible reasons for the observed unusual planar oxygen isotope effect on a critical temperature T_c related to charge heterogeneity in underdoped cuprates is given.

  9. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift.

    PubMed

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R; Frusher, S D; Ridgway, K R

    2009-12-29

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans. PMID:20018706

  10. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift

    PubMed Central

    Ling, S. D.; Johnson, C. R.; Frusher, S. D.; Ridgway, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans. PMID:20018706

  11. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift.

    PubMed

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R; Frusher, S D; Ridgway, K R

    2009-12-29

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans.

  12. An EMG-based, muscle driven forward simulation of single support phase of gait.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, Ilse; Spaepen, A; Papaioannou, G; Stewart, C

    2002-05-01

    This paper describes the process used to generate lower limb kinematics during single limb stance phase of gait, using musculoskeletal modelling, muscle driven forward simulation and gradient based optimisation techniques (including design of experiment techniques). Initial inputs to the forward simulation process were the normalised quantified muscle activation patterns of 22 muscles, and the initial segmental configuration (both angles and angular velocity) derived from Winter (The biomechanics and motor control of human gait, 1987, University of Waterloo Press, pp. 1-72). Two distinct musculoskeletal models (one including 6 DOF, the other 7 DOF) were defined and a muscle driven forward simulation was implemented.A series of optimisation sequences then were executed to modify the muscle activation patterns and initial segmental configuration, until the system output of the forward simulation approximated the angle data reported by. The accuracy and effectiveness of the analysis sequence proposed and the model response obtained using two distinct musculoskeletal models were verified and analysed with respect to the kinesiology of normal walking. PMID:11955500

  13. Conformism-driven phases of opinion formation on heterogeneous networks: the q-voter model case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Squartini, Tiziano

    2015-10-01

    The q-voter model, a variant of the classic voter model, has been analyzed by several authors. While allowing us to study opinion dynamics, this model is also believed to be one of the most representative among the many defined in the wide field of sociophysics. Here, we investigate the consequences of conformity on the consensus reaching process, by numerically simulating a q-voter model with agents behaving either as conformists or nonconformists, embedded on heterogeneous network topologies (as small-world and scale-free). In fact, although it is already known that conformity enhances the reaching of consensus, the related process is often studied only on fully-connected networks, thus strongly limiting our full understanding of it. This paper represents a first step in the direction of analyzing more realistic social models, showing that different opinion formation phases, driven by the conformist agents density, are observable. As a result, we identify threshold values of the density of conformist agents, varying across different topologies and separating different regimes of our system, ranging from a disordered phase, where different opinions coexist, to a gradually more ordered phase, where consensus is eventually reached.

  14. Interaction-induced hopping phase in driven-dissipative coupled photonic microcavities.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, S R K; Amo, A; Sagnes, I; Le Gratiet, L; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Bloch, J

    2016-01-01

    The Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) describes bosons hopping across sites and interacting on-site. Inspired by the success of BHM simulators with atoms in optical lattices, proposals for implementing the BHM with photons in coupled nonlinear cavities have recently emerged. Two coupled semiconductor microcavities constitute a model system where the hopping, interaction and decay of exciton polaritons-mixed light-matter quasiparticles-can be engineered in combination with site-selective coherent driving to implement the driven-dissipative two-site optical BHM. Here we explore the interplay of interference and nonlinearity in this system, in a regime where three distinct density profiles can be observed under identical driving conditions. We demonstrate how the phase acquired by polaritons hopping between cavities can be controlled through polariton-polariton interactions. Our results open new perspectives for synthesizing density-dependent gauge fields using polaritons in two-dimensional multicavity systems. PMID:27307038

  15. Interaction-induced hopping phase in driven-dissipative coupled photonic microcavities

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, S. R. K.; Amo, A.; Sagnes, I.; Le Gratiet, L.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) describes bosons hopping across sites and interacting on-site. Inspired by the success of BHM simulators with atoms in optical lattices, proposals for implementing the BHM with photons in coupled nonlinear cavities have recently emerged. Two coupled semiconductor microcavities constitute a model system where the hopping, interaction and decay of exciton polaritons—mixed light-matter quasiparticles—can be engineered in combination with site-selective coherent driving to implement the driven-dissipative two-site optical BHM. Here we explore the interplay of interference and nonlinearity in this system, in a regime where three distinct density profiles can be observed under identical driving conditions. We demonstrate how the phase acquired by polaritons hopping between cavities can be controlled through polariton-polariton interactions. Our results open new perspectives for synthesizing density-dependent gauge fields using polaritons in two-dimensional multicavity systems. PMID:27307038

  16. Interaction-induced hopping phase in driven-dissipative coupled photonic microcavities.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, S R K; Amo, A; Sagnes, I; Le Gratiet, L; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Bloch, J

    2016-06-16

    The Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) describes bosons hopping across sites and interacting on-site. Inspired by the success of BHM simulators with atoms in optical lattices, proposals for implementing the BHM with photons in coupled nonlinear cavities have recently emerged. Two coupled semiconductor microcavities constitute a model system where the hopping, interaction and decay of exciton polaritons-mixed light-matter quasiparticles-can be engineered in combination with site-selective coherent driving to implement the driven-dissipative two-site optical BHM. Here we explore the interplay of interference and nonlinearity in this system, in a regime where three distinct density profiles can be observed under identical driving conditions. We demonstrate how the phase acquired by polaritons hopping between cavities can be controlled through polariton-polariton interactions. Our results open new perspectives for synthesizing density-dependent gauge fields using polaritons in two-dimensional multicavity systems.

  17. The chemically driven phase transformation in a memristive abacus capable of calculating decimal fractions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanni; Xia, Yidong; Yin, Kuibo; Lu, Jianxin; Yin, Qiaonan; Yin, Jiang; Sun, Litao; Liu, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    The accurate calculation of decimal fractions is still a challenge for the binary-coded computations that rely on von Neumann paradigm. Here, we report a kind of memristive abacus based on synaptic Ag-Ge-Se device, in which the memristive long-term potentiation and depression are caused by a chemically driven phase transformation. The growth and the rupture of conductive Ag₂Se dendrites are confirmed via in situ transmission electron microscopy. By detecting the change in memristive synaptic weight, the quantity of input signals applied onto the device can be "counted". This makes it possible to achieve the functions of abacus that is basically a counting frame. We demonstrate through experimental studies that this kind of memristive abacus can calculate decimal fractions in the light of the abacus algorithms. This approach opens up a new route to do decimal arithmetic in memristive devices without encoding binary-coded decimal.

  18. A Single-Cell Model of Phase-Driven Control of Ventricular Fibrillation Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Grzęda, Krzysztof R.; Anumonwo, Justus M.B.; O'Connell, Ryan; Jalife, José

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling the rotation frequency of functional reentry in ventricular fibrillation (VF) are poorly understood. It has been previously shown that Ba2+ at concentrations up to 50 μmol/L slows the rotation frequency in the intact guinea pig (GP) heart, suggesting a role of the inward rectifier current (IK1) in the mechanism governing the VF response to Ba2+. Given that other biological (e.g., sinoatrial node) and artificial systems display phase-locking behavior, we hypothesized that the mechanism for controlling the rotation frequency of a rotor by IK1 blockade is phase-driven, i.e., the phase shift between transmembrane current and voltage remains constant at varying levels of IK1 blockade. We measured whole-cell admittance in isolated GP myocytes and in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing Kir 2.1 and 2.3 channels. The admittance phase, i.e., the phase difference between current and voltage, was plotted versus the frequency in control conditions and at 10 or 50 μmol/L Ba2+ (in GP heart cells) or 1 mM Ba2+ (in HEK cells). The horizontal distance between plots was called the “frequency shift in a single cell” and analyzed. The frequency shift in a single cell was −14.14 ± 5.71 Hz (n = 14) at 10 μM Ba2+ and −18.51 ± 4.00 Hz (n = 10) at 50 μM Ba2+, p < 0.05. The values perfectly matched the Ba2+-induced reduction of VF frequency observed previously in GP heart. A similar relationship was found in the computer simulations. The phase of Ba2+-sensitive admittance in GP cells was −2.65 ± 0.32 rad at 10 Hz and −2.79 ± 0.26 rad at 30 Hz. In HEK cells, the phase of Ba2+-sensitive admittance was 3.09 ± 0.03 rad at 10 Hz and 3.00 ± 0.17 rad at 30 Hz. We have developed a biological single-cell model of rotation-frequency control. The results show that although rotation frequency changes as a result of IK1 blockade, the phase difference between transmembrane current and transmembrane voltage remains constant

  19. Final Report - Development of a Multi-Spoke Superconducting Cavity for Nuclear Physics, Light Sources, and Driven Systems Applications (ODU Contribution)

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, Jean

    2014-11-14

    This report summarizes the work done by Old Dominion University, in collaboration with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility toward the development of high-velocity superconducting spoke cavities.

  20. Phase Shift Experiments Identifying Kramers Doublets in a Chaotic Superconducting Microwave Billiard of Threefold Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembowski, C.; Dietz, B.; Gräf, H.-D.; Heine, A.; Leyvraz, F.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Richter, A.; Seligman, T. H.

    2003-01-01

    The spectral properties of a two-dimensional microwave billiard showing threefold symmetry have been studied with a new experimental technique. This method is based on the behavior of the eigenmodes under variation of a phase shift between two input channels, which strongly depends on the symmetries of the eigenfunctions. Thereby a complete set of 108 Kramers doublets has been identified by a simple and purely experimental method. This set clearly shows Gaussian unitary ensemble statistics, although the system is time-reversal invariant.

  1. Robustness of s-wave pairing symmetry in iron-based superconductors and its implications for fundamentals of magnetically driven high-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiangping; Yuan, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Based on the assumption that the superconducting state belongs to a single irreducible representation of lattice symmetry, we propose that the pairing symmetry in all measured iron-based superconductors is generally consistent with the A 1 g s-wave. Robust s-wave pairing throughout the different families of iron-based superconductors at different doping regions signals two fundamental principles behind high- T c superconducting mechanisms: (i) the correspondence principle: the short-range magnetic-exchange interactions and the Fermi surfaces act collaboratively to achieve high- T c superconductivity and determine pairing symmetries; (ii) the magnetic-selection pairing rule: superconductivity is only induced by the magnetic-exchange couplings from the super-exchange mechanism through cation-anion-cation chemical bonding. These principles explain why unconventional high- T c superconductivity appears to be such a rare but robust phenomena, with its strict requirements regarding the electronic environment. The results will help us to identify new electronic structures that can support high- T c superconductivity.

  2. Field driven ferromagnetic phase evolution originating from the domain boundaries in antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicular anitsotropy films

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Juanita; Hauet, Thomas; Gunther, Christian; Hovorka, Ondrej; Berger, Andreas; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Hellwig, Olav

    2008-05-01

    Strong perpendicular anisotropy systems consisting of Co/Pt multilayer stacks that are antiferromagnetically coupled via thin Ru or NiO layers have been used as model systems to study the competition between local interlayer exchange and long-range dipolar interactions [1,2]. Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) studies of such systems reveal complex magnetic configurations with a mix of antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferromagnetic (FM) phases. However, MFM allows detecting surface stray fields only and can interact strongly with the magnetic structure of the sample, thus altering the original domain configuration of interest [3,4]. In the current study they combine magnetometry and state-of-the-art soft X-ray transmission microscopy (MXTM) to investigate the external field driven FM phase evolution originating from the domain boundaries in such antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicular anisotropy films. MXTM allows directly imaging the perpendicular component of the magnetization in an external field at sub 100 nm spatial resolution without disturbing the magnetic state of the sample [5,6]. Here they compare the domain evolution for two similar [Co(4{angstrom})/Pt(7{angstrom})]x-1/{l_brace}Co(4{angstrom})/Ru(9{angstrom})/[Co(4{angstrom})/Pt(7{angstrom})]x-1{r_brace}16 samples with slightly different Co/Pt stack thickness, i.e. slightly different strength of internal dipolar fields. After demagnetization they obtain AF domains with either sharp AF domain walls for the thinner multilayer stacks or 'tiger-tail' domain walls (one dimensional FM phase) for the thicker stacks. When increasing the external field strength the sharp domain walls in the tinner stack sample transform into the one-dimensional FM phase, which then serves as nucleation site for further FM stripe domains that spread out into all directions to drive the system towards saturation. Energy calculations reveal the subtle difference between the two samples and help to understand the observed transition, when

  3. Buckley Prize Talk: Bosons on the Boundaries: The magnetic field driven superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebard, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    Experiments probing the competition between superconductivity and disorder in two-dimensional (2D) thin-film systems have provided fascinating glimpses into the physics of superconductor-insulator (S-I) quantum phase transitions (QPTs). This talk will address the use of externally applied magnetic fields to tune through the S-I transition of amorphous composite indium oxide (α-InOx) thin films prepared at different stages of disorder. Air-stable α-InOx films are particularly advantageous for these studies: the disorder parameter as measured by the sheet resistance can be reproducibly controlled during deposition and the films are uniformly homogeneous out to macroscopic length scales. Temperature-dependent resistance and current-voltage measurements confirm the power-law decay of the order-parameter correlation function appropriate to a Kosterlitz-Thouless description of phase transitions in 2D systems. Accordingly, the superconducting phase transition temperature Tc is related to the unbinding of vortex-antivortex pairs either by temperature and/or disorder. The application of magnetic fields unveils fundamentally different physics in which, rather than a vortex unbinding transition, a field-tuned QPT emerges with the signature of a disorder-dependent critical field Bc that identifies the delocalization and Bose condensation of field-induced vortices. The concomitant pronounced divergence in resistance, which becomes increasing sharp as the temperature is lowered, marks the boundary between a superconductor harboring both Bose condensed Cooper pairs and localized vortices and an insulator harboring both Bose condensed vortices and localized Cooper pairs. The data for this putative QPT are well described by finite temperature scaling theory with critical exponent values accurately determined. At higher fields there is a second critical field where the transverse resistance appears to diverge, signaling the unbinding of pairs with the superconducting energy gap

  4. Magnetic Field Reentrant Superconductivity in Aluminum Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretz-Sullivan, Terence; Goldman, Allen

    Reentrance to the superconducting state through the application of a magnetic field to quasi-one dimensional superconductors driven resistive by current, is counter to the expected properties of superconductors. It was not until recently that a microscopic mechanism explaining the phenomenon was proposed in which superconductivity and phase slip driven dissipation coexist in a non-equilibrium state. Here we present additional results of magnetic field induced reentrance into the superconducting state in quasi-one-dimensional aluminum nanowires with an in-plane magnetic field both transverse to, and along the wire axis. The reentrant behavior is seen in the magnetic field dependence of the I-V characteristic and resistance vs. temperature, and in the wire's magnetoresistance at 450mK. This work was supported by DOE Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-FG02-02ER46004. Samples were fabricated at the Minnesota Nanofabrication Center. Parts of this work were carried out in the University of Minnesota Characterization Facility, a member of the Materials Research Facilities Network (www.mrfn.org) funded via the NSF MRSEC program.

  5. Gas-phase and transpiration-driven mechanisms for volatilization through wetland macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew C; Jaffé, Peter R

    2012-05-15

    Natural and constructed wetlands have gained attention as potential tools for remediation of shallow sediments and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Wetland macrophytes are known to enhance rates of contaminant removal via volatilization, but the magnitude of different volatilization mechanisms, and the relationship between volatilization rates and contaminant physiochemical properties, remain poorly understood. Greenhouse mesocosm experiments using the volatile tracer sulfur hexafluoride were conducted to determine the relative magnitudes of gas-phase and transpiration-driven volatilization mechanisms. A numerical model for vegetation-mediated volatilization was developed, calibrated with tracer measurements, and used to predict plant-mediated volatilization of common VOCs as well as quantify the contribution of different volatilization pathways. Model simulations agree with conclusions from previous work that transpiration is the main driver for volatilization of VOCs, but also demonstrate that vapor-phase transport in wetland plants is significant, and can represent up to 50% of the total flux for compounds with greater volatility like vinyl chloride.

  6. Bona fide interaction-driven topological phase transition in correlated SPT states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zi Yang; He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    It is expected the interplay between non-trivial band topology and strong electron correlation will lead to very rich physics. Thus a controlled study of the competition between topology and correlation is of great interest. Here, employing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide a concrete example of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on an AA stacking bilayer honeycomb lattice with inter-layer antiferromagnetic interaction. Our simulation identified several different phases: a quantum spin-Hall insulator (QSH), a xy-plane antiferromagnetic Mott insulator (xy-AFM) and an inter-layer dimer-singlet insulator (dimer-singlet). Most importantly, a bona fide topological phase transition between the QSH and the dimer-singlet insulators, purely driven by the inter-layer antiferromagnetic interaction is found. At the transition, the spin and charge gap of the system close while the single-particle excitations remain gapped, which means that this transition has no mean field analogue and it can be viewed as a transition between bosonic SPT states. At one special point, this transition is described by a (2+1)d O(4) nonlinear sigma model with exact SO(4) symmetry, and a topological term at theta=p. Relevance of this work towards more general interacting SPT states is discussed.

  7. Bona fide interaction-driven topological phase transition in correlated symmetry-protected topological states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-03-01

    It is expected that the interplay between nontrivial band topology and strong electron correlation will lead to very rich physics. Thus a controlled study of the competition between topology and correlation is of great interest. Here, employing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide a concrete example of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on an AA-stacking bilayer honeycomb lattice with interlayer antiferromagnetic interaction. Our simulation identified several different phases: a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSH), an x y -plane antiferromagnetic Mott insulator, and an interlayer dimer-singlet insulator. Most importantly, a bona fide topological phase transition between the QSH and the dimer-singlet insulators, purely driven by the interlayer antiferromagnetic interaction, is found. At the transition, the spin and charge gap of the system close while the single-particle excitations remain gapped, which means that this transition has no mean-field analog and it can be viewed as a transition between bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states. At one special point, this transition is described by a (2 +1 )d O (4 ) nonlinear sigma model with exact S O (4 ) symmetry and a topological term at exactly Θ =π . The relevance of this work towards more general interacting SPT states is discussed.

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering study of a nonmagnetic collapsed tetragonal phase in nonsuperconducting CaFe2As2: evidence of the impact of spin fluctuations on superconductivity in the iron-arsenide compounds.

    PubMed

    Soh, J H; Tucker, G S; Pratt, D K; Abernathy, D L; Stone, M B; Ran, S; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C; Kreyssig, A; McQueeney, R J; Goldman, A I

    2013-11-27

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the nonsuperconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is nonmagnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds.

  9. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of a Nonmagnetic Collapsed Tetragonal Phase in Nonsuperconducting CaFe2As2: Evidence of the Impact of Spin Fluctuations on Superconductivity in the Iron-Arsenide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, J. H.; Tucker, G. S.; Pratt, D. K.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; McQueeney, R. J.; Goldman, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the nonsuperconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is nonmagnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds.

  10. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of a Nonmagnetic Collapsed Tetragonal Phase in Nonsuperconducting CaFe2As2: Evidence of the Impact of Spin Fluctuations on Superconductivity in the Iron-Arsenide Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Jing-Han; Tucker, Ggregory S.; Pratt, Daniel K.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Ran, Sheng; Budko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Kreyssig, Andreas; McQueeney, Robert J.; Goldman, Alan I.

    2013-11-27

    The relationship between antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and superconductivity has become a central topic of research in studies of superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We present unambiguous evidence of the absence of magnetic fluctuations in the nonsuperconducting collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 via inelastic neutron scattering time-of-flight data, which is consistent with the view that spin fluctuations are a necessary ingredient for unconventional superconductivity in the iron pnictides. We demonstrate that the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 is nonmagnetic, and discuss this result in light of recent reports of high-temperature superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase of closely related compounds.

  11. Electronic and magnetic phase diagram of [Beta]Fe[subscript1.01]Se with superconductivity at 36.7 K under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, S.; McQueen, T.M.; Troyan, I.A.; Palasyuk, T.; Eremets, M.I.; Cava, R.J.; Naghavi, S.; Casper, F.; Ksenofontov, V.; Wortmann, G.; Felser, C.

    2010-09-17

    The discovery of new high-temperature superconductors based on FeAs has led to a new 'gold rush' in high-T{sub C} superconductivity. All of the new superconductors share the same common structural motif of FeAs layers and reach T{sub C} values up to 55 K. Recently, superconductivity has been reported in FeSe, which has the same iron pnictide layer structure, but without separating layers. Here, we report the magnetic and electronic phase diagram of {beta}-Fe{sub 1.01}Se as a function of temperature and pressure. The superconducting transition temperature increases from 8.5 to 36.7 K under an applied pressure of 8.9 GPa. It then decreases at higher pressures. A marked change in volume is observed at the same time as T{sub C} rises, owing to a collapse of the separation between the Fe{sub 2}Se{sub 2} layers. No static magnetic ordering is observed for the whole p-T phase diagram. We also report that at higher pressures (starting around 7 GPa and completed at 38 GPa), Fe{sub 1.01}Se transforms to a hexagonal NiAs-type structure and exhibits non-magnetic behavior.

  12. Suppression of magnetism and development of superconductivity within the collapsed tetragonal phase of Ca0.67Sr0.33Fe2As2 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Butch, N. P.; Kirshenbaum, K.; Saha, S. R.; Samudrala, G.; Weir, S. T.; Vohra, Y. K.; Paglione, J.

    2012-05-01

    Structural and electronic characterizations of (Ca0.67Sr0.33)Fe2As2 have been performed as a function of pressure up to 12 GPa using conventional and designer diamond anvil cells. The compound (Ca0.67Sr0.33)Fe2As2 behaves intermediately between its end members, displaying a suppression of magnetism and the onset of superconductivity. Like other members of the AFe2As2 family, (Ca0.67Sr0.33)Fe2As2 undergoes a pressure-induced isostructural volume collapse, which we associate with the development of As-As bonding across the mirror plane of the structure. This collapsed tetragonal phase abruptly cuts off the magnetic state and supports superconductivity with a maximum Tc=22.2K. The maximum Tc of the superconducting phase is not strongly correlated with any structural parameter, but its proximity to the abrupt suppression of magnetism as well as the volume-collapse transition suggests that magnetic interactions and structural inhomogeneity may play a role in its development.

  13. Thermal analysis, phase equilibria, and superconducting properties in magnesium boride and carbon doped magnesium boride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, Scot David

    In this work, the low temperature synthesis of MgB2 from Mg/B and MgH2/B powder mixtures was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). For the Mg/B powder mixture, two exothermic reaction events were observed and the first reaction event was initiated by the decomposition of Mg(OH)2 on the surface of the magnesium powder. For the MgH 2/B powder mixture, there was an endothermic event at ˜375 °C (the decomposition of MgH2 into H2 and Mg) and an exothermic event ˜600 °C (the reaction of Mg and B). The Kissinger analysis method was used to estimate the apparent activation energy of the Mg and B reaction using DSC data with different furnace ramp rates. The limitations of MgB2 low temperature synthesis led to the development of a high pressure induction furnace that was constructed using a pressure vessel and an induction heating power supply. The purpose was to not only synthesize more homogeneous MgB2 samples, but also to determine whether MgB2 melts congruently or incongruently. A custom implementation of the Smith Thermal Analysis method was developed and tested on aluminum and AlB2, the closest analogue to MgB2. Measurements on MgB2 powder and a high purity Mg/B elemental mixture confirmed that MgB2 melts incongruently and decomposes into a liquid and MgB4 at ˜1445 °C at 10 MPa via peritectic decomposition. Another measurement using a Mg/B elemental mixture with impure boron suggested that ˜0.7 wt% carbon impurity in the boron raised the incongruent melting temperature to ˜1490-1500 °C. Lastly, the solubility limit for carbon in MgB2 was studied by making samples from B4C and Mg at 1530 °C, 1600 °C and 1700 °C in the high pressure furnace. All three samples had three phases: Mg, MgB2C2, and carbon doped MgB2. The MgB 2C2 and carbon doped MgB2 grain size increased with temperature and the 1700 °C sample had needle-like grains for both phases. The presence of the ternary phase, MgB2C2, suggested that the maximum doping limit for carbon in

  14. Phase-matched Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier for superconducting qubit readout - experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Chris; O'Brien, K.; Schwartz, M. E.; Hover, D.; Bolkhovsky, V.; Tolpygo, S.; Fitch, G.; Weir, T.; Oliver, W. D.; Zhang, X.; Siddiqi, I.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new generation of Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifiers (JTWPAs) utilizing the technique of resonant phase matching. Due to its transmission line geometry, the JTWPA is not limited by the gain-bandwidth tradeoffs inherent in resonator-based parametric amplifiers. We present experimental results on the amplifier performance of the JTWPA, demonstrating gain in excess of 20 dB over an instantaneous bandwidth of more than 2 GHz with a 1 dB compression power of -100 dBm. The system noise temperature with the JTWPA is less than a factor of 3 above the quantum limit as measured using a 3D transmon in the weak measurement regime to provide a precise power calibration at the relevant experimental reference plane. We also utilize quantum weak measurement to provide an independent measure of the quantum measurement efficiency, in good agreement with the noise power measurement. We demonstrate projective qubit readout with a raw measurement fidelity exceeding 98% in an 80 ns integration window, and extrapolate this performance to a multi-qubit system. Work supported by IARPA.

  15. Superconductive wire

    DOEpatents

    Korzekwa, David A.; Bingert, John F.; Peterson, Dean E.; Sheinberg, Haskell

    1995-01-01

    A superconductive article is made by inserting a rigid mandrel into an internal cavity of a first metallic tube, said tube having an interior surface and an exterior surface, said interior surface defining the interior cavity, forming a layer of a superconductive material or superconductive precursor upon the exterior surface of said first metallic tube, machining the layer of superconductive material or superconductive precursor to a predetermined diameter to form an intermediate article configured for insertion into a second metallic tube having an interior diameter corresponding to the predetermined diameter, inserting the machined intermediate article into a second metallic tube having an internal diameter corresponding to the predetermined diameter of the intermediate article to form a composite intermediate article, reducing or ironing the composite intermediate article to a predetermined cross-sectional diameter, and sintering the reduced or ironed composite intermediate article at temperatures and for time sufficient for the superconductive material or superconductive precursor to exhibit superconductivity.

  16. Superconductive wire

    DOEpatents

    Korzekwa, D.A.; Bingert, J.F.; Peterson, D.E.; Sheinberg, H.

    1995-07-18

    A superconductive article is made by inserting a rigid mandrel into an internal cavity of a first metallic tube, said tube having an interior surface and an exterior surface, said interior surface defining the interior cavity, forming a layer of a superconductive material or superconductive precursor upon the exterior surface of said first metallic tube, machining the layer of superconductive material or superconductive precursor to a predetermined diameter to form an intermediate article configured for insertion into a second metallic tube having an interior diameter corresponding to the predetermined diameter, inserting the machined intermediate article into a second metallic tube having an internal diameter corresponding to the predetermined diameter of the intermediate article to form a composite intermediate article, reducing or ironing the composite intermediate article to a predetermined cross-sectional diameter, and sintering the reduced or ironed composite intermediate article at temperatures and for time sufficient for the superconductive material or superconductive precursor to exhibit superconductivity. 2 figs.

  17. Phase space scales of free energy dissipation in gradient-driven gyrokinetic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Bratanov, V.; Navarro, A. Bañón; Navarro

    2014-08-01

    A reduced four-dimensional (integrated over perpendicular velocity) gyrokinetic model of slab ion temperature gradient-driven turbulence is used to study the phase-space scales of free energy dissipation in a turbulent kinetic system over a broad range of background gradients and collision frequencies. Parallel velocity is expressed in terms of Hermite polynomials, allowing for a detailed study of the scales of free energy dynamics over the four-dimensional phase space. A fully spectral code - the DNA code - that solves this system is described. Hermite free energy spectra are significantly steeper than would be expected linearly, causing collisional dissipation to peak at large scales in velocity space even for arbitrarily small collisionality. A key cause of the steep Hermite spectra is a critical balance - an equilibration of the parallel streaming time and the nonlinear correlation time - that extends to high Hermite number n. Although dissipation always peaks at large scales in all phase space dimensions, small-scale dissipation becomes important in an integrated sense when collisionality is low enough and/or nonlinear energy transfer is strong enough. Toroidal full-gyrokinetic simulations using the Gene code are used to verify results from the reduced model. Collision frequencies typically found in present-day experiments correspond to turbulence regimes slightly favoring large-scale dissipation, while turbulence in low-collisionality systems like ITER and space and astrophysical plasmas is expected to rely increasingly on small-scale dissipation mechanisms. This work is expected to inform gyrokinetic reduced modeling efforts like Large Eddy Simulation and gyrofluid techniques.

  18. Epigenetic Switch Driven by DNA Inversions Dictates Phase Variation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juanjuan; An, Haoran; Liu, Yanni; Wang, Kailing; Miao, Zhun; Liang, Wenbo; Sebra, Robert; Wang, Guilin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Zhang, Jing-Ren

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism for phenotypic diversification in all forms of life. We previously described remarkable cell-to-cell heterogeneity in epigenetic pattern within a clonal population of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading human pathogen. We here report that the epigenetic diversity is caused by extensive DNA inversions among hsdSA, hsdSB, and hsdSC, three methyltransferase hsdS genes in the Spn556II type-I restriction modification (R-M) locus. Because hsdSA encodes the sequence recognition subunit of this type-I R-M DNA methyltransferase, these site-specific recombinations generate pneumococcal cells with variable HsdSA alleles and thereby diverse genome methylation patterns. Most importantly, the DNA methylation pattern specified by the HsdSA1 allele leads to the formation of opaque colonies, whereas the pneumococci lacking HsdSA1 produce transparent colonies. Furthermore, this HsdSA1-dependent phase variation requires intact DNA methylase activity encoded by hsdM in the Spn556II (renamed colony opacity determinant or cod) locus. Thus, the DNA inversion-driven ON/OFF switch of the hsdSA1 allele in the cod locus and resulting epigenetic switch dictate the phase variation between the opaque and transparent phenotypes. Phase variation has been well documented for its importance in pneumococcal carriage and invasive infection, but its molecular basis remains unclear. Our work has discovered a novel epigenetic cause for this significant pathobiology phenomenon in S. pneumoniae. Lastly, our findings broadly represents a significant advancement in our understanding of bacterial R-M systems and their potential in shaping epigenetic and phenotypic diversity of the prokaryotic organisms because similar site-specific recombination systems widely exist in many archaeal and bacterial species. PMID:27427949

  19. Epigenetic Switch Driven by DNA Inversions Dictates Phase Variation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Li, Jing-Wen; Feng, Zhixing; Wang, Juanjuan; An, Haoran; Liu, Yanni; Wang, Yang; Wang, Kailing; Zhang, Xuegong; Miao, Zhun; Liang, Wenbo; Sebra, Robert; Wang, Guilin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Zhang, Jing-Ren

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism for phenotypic diversification in all forms of life. We previously described remarkable cell-to-cell heterogeneity in epigenetic pattern within a clonal population of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading human pathogen. We here report that the epigenetic diversity is caused by extensive DNA inversions among hsdSA, hsdSB, and hsdSC, three methyltransferase hsdS genes in the Spn556II type-I restriction modification (R-M) locus. Because hsdSA encodes the sequence recognition subunit of this type-I R-M DNA methyltransferase, these site-specific recombinations generate pneumococcal cells with variable HsdSA alleles and thereby diverse genome methylation patterns. Most importantly, the DNA methylation pattern specified by the HsdSA1 allele leads to the formation of opaque colonies, whereas the pneumococci lacking HsdSA1 produce transparent colonies. Furthermore, this HsdSA1-dependent phase variation requires intact DNA methylase activity encoded by hsdM in the Spn556II (renamed colony opacity determinant or cod) locus. Thus, the DNA inversion-driven ON/OFF switch of the hsdSA1 allele in the cod locus and resulting epigenetic switch dictate the phase variation between the opaque and transparent phenotypes. Phase variation has been well documented for its importance in pneumococcal carriage and invasive infection, but its molecular basis remains unclear. Our work has discovered a novel epigenetic cause for this significant pathobiology phenomenon in S. pneumoniae. Lastly, our findings broadly represents a significant advancement in our understanding of bacterial R-M systems and their potential in shaping epigenetic and phenotypic diversity of the prokaryotic organisms because similar site-specific recombination systems widely exist in many archaeal and bacterial species. PMID:27427949

  20. Superconducting transistor

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting transistor is formed by disposing three thin films of superconducting material in a planar parallel arrangement and insulating the films from each other by layers of insulating oxides to form two tunnel junctions. One junction is biased above twice the superconducting energy gap and the other is biased at less than twice the superconducting energy gap. Injection of quasiparticles into the center film by one junction provides a current gain in the second junction.

  1. Superconductivity and chemical composition of the high-Tc phase (Tc = 111 K) in the Sb-Pb-Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijima, Naota; Gronsky, Ronald; McKernan, Steffen K.; Endo, Hozumi; Oguri, Yasuo

    1991-01-01

    A superconducting phase with a critical temperature of 111 K in the Sb-Pb-Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system has been synthesized by means of a long firing period. Its crystal structure is similar to the high-Tc phase (107 K) in the Pb-Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system, and its average chemical composition is 4.3, 2.6, 19.2, 21.4, 15.8 and 36.9 percent for Sb, Pb, Bi, Sr, Ca, and Cu, respectively. The summation of the Sb concentration and the Ca concentration is approximately the same for all the samples of this phase, implying that Sb substitutes for Ca, and oxygen atoms are introduced to compensate the oxygen deficiency in the central Cu-O layer sandwiched by the two Ca layers in the crystal structure of the high-Tc phase.

  2. Phase coherence and pairing amplitude in photo-excited superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfetti, Luca; Piovera, Christian; Zhang, Zailan

    2016-05-01

    New data on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) reveal interesting aspects of photoexcited superconductors. The electrons dynamics show that inelastic scattering by nodal quasiparticles decreases when the temperature is lowered below the critical value of the superconducting phase transition. This drop of electronic dissipation is astonishingly robust and survives to photoexcitation densities much larger than the value sustained by long-range superconductivity. The unconventional behavior of quasiparticle scattering is ascribed to superconducting correlations extending on a length scale comparable to the inelastic mean-free path. Our measurements indicate that strongly driven superconductors enter in a regime without phase coherence but finite pairing amplitude.

  3. Aspartate Rescues S-phase Arrest Caused by Suppression of Glutamine Utilization in KRas-driven Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deven; Menon, Deepak; Bernfeld, Elyssa; Mroz, Victoria; Kalan, Sampada; Loayza, Diego; Foster, David A

    2016-04-22

    During G1-phase of the cell cycle, normal cells respond first to growth factors that indicate that it is appropriate to divide and then later in G1 to the presence of nutrients that indicate sufficient raw material to generate two daughter cells. Dividing cells rely on the "conditionally essential" amino acid glutamine (Q) as an anaplerotic carbon source for TCA cycle intermediates and as a nitrogen source for nucleotide biosynthesis. We previously reported that while non-transformed cells arrest in the latter portion of G1 upon Q deprivation, mutant KRas-driven cancer cells bypass the G1 checkpoint, and instead, arrest in S-phase. In this study, we report that the arrest of KRas-driven cancer cells in S-phase upon Q deprivation is due to the lack of deoxynucleotides needed for DNA synthesis. The lack of deoxynucleotides causes replicative stress leading to activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)-mediated DNA damage pathway, which arrests cells in S-phase. The key metabolite generated from Q utilization was aspartate, which is generated from a transaminase reaction whereby Q-derived glutamate is converted to α-ketoglutarate with the concomitant conversion of oxaloacetate to aspartate. Aspartate is a critical metabolite for both purine and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. This study identifies the molecular basis for the S-phase arrest caused by Q deprivation in KRas-driven cancer cells that arrest in S-phase in response to Q deprivation. Given that arresting cells in S-phase sensitizes cells to apoptotic insult, this study suggests novel therapeutic approaches to KRas-driven cancers.

  4. Spectroscopic Fingerprint of Phase-Incoherent Superconductivity in the Underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Davis, J.; Fujita, K.; Schmidt, A.R.; Kim, C.K.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.

    2009-08-28

    A possible explanation for the existence of the cuprate 'pseudogap' state is that it is a d-wave superconductor without quantum phase rigidity. Transport and thermodynamic studies provide compelling evidence that supports this proposal, but few spectroscopic explorations of it have been made. One spectroscopic signature of d-wave superconductivity is the particle-hole symmetric 'octet' of dispersive Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference modulations. Here we report on this octet's evolution from low temperatures to well into the underdoped pseudogap regime. No pronounced changes occur in the octet phenomenology at the superconductor's critical temperature T{sub c}, and it survives up to at least temperature T {approx} 1.5 T{sub c}. In this pseudogap regime, we observe the detailed phenomenology that was theoretically predicted for quasiparticle interference in a phase-incoherent d-wave superconductor. Thus, our results not only provide spectroscopic evidence to confirm and extend the transport and thermodynamics studies, but they also open the way for spectroscopic explorations of phase fluctuation rates, their effects on the Fermi arc, and the fundamental source of the phase fluctuations that suppress superconductivity in underdoped cuprates.

  5. Superconductivity versus structural phase transition in the closely related Bi2Rh3.5S2 and Bi2Rh3S2

    DOE PAGES

    Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Xie, Weiwei; Lin, Qisheng; Taufour, Valentin; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Miller, Gordon J.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-05-19

    Single crystals of Bi2Rh3S2 and Bi2Rh3.5S2 were synthesized by solution growth, and the crystal structures and thermodynamic and transport properties of both compounds were studied. In the case of Bi2Rh3S2, a structural first-order transition at around 165 K is identified by single-crystal diffraction experiments, with clear signatures visible in resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat data. No superconducting transition for Bi2Rh3S2 was observed down to 0.5 K. In contrast, no structural phase transition at high temperature was observed for Bi2Rh3.5S2; however, bulk superconductivity with a critical temperature, Tc ≈ 1.7 K, was observed. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ and the Debye temperaturemore » (ΘD) were found to be 9.41 mJ mol–1K–2 and 209 K, respectively, for Bi2Rh3S2, and 22 mJ mol–1K–2 and 196 K, respectively, for Bi2Rh3.5S2. As a result, the study of the specific heat in the superconducting state of Bi2Rh3.5S2 suggests that Bi2Rh3.5S2 is a weakly coupled, BCS superconductor.« less

  6. Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. K.; Ashburn, J. R.; Torng, C. J.; Hor, P. H.; Meng, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A stable and reproducible superconductivity transition between 80 and 93 K has been achieved and maintained in a Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure in a simple liquid-nitrogen Dewar. An upper critical field Hc2(0) estimate of between 80 and 180 T is obtained, and the paramagnetic limiting field at 0 K for a sample with a T(c) of about 90 K is 165 T. It is suggested that the lattice parameters, the valence ratio, and the sample treatments all play a role in achieving superconductivity above 77 K.

  7. On the suppression of superconducting phase formation in YBCO materials by templated synthesis in the presence of a sulfated biopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elliott; Schnepp, Zoe; Wimbush, Stuart C.; Hall, Simon R.

    2008-11-01

    The use of biopolymers as templates to control superconductor crystallization is a recent phenomenon and is generating a lot of interest both from the superconductor community and in materials chemistry circles. This work represents a critical finding in the use of such biopolymers, in particular the contraindicatory nature of sulfur when attempting to affect a morphologically controlled synthesis. Synthesis of superconducting nanoparticles was attempted using carrageenan as a morphological template. Reactive sulfate groups on the biopolymer prevent this, producing instead significant quantities of barium sulfate nanotapes. By substituting the biopolymer for structurally analogous, non-sulfated agar, we show that superconducting nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized.

  8. Electron pairing without superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guanglei; Tomczyk, Michelle; Lu, Shicheng; Veazey, Joshua P; Huang, Mengchen; Irvin, Patrick; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Hellberg, C Stephen; Levy, Jeremy

    2015-05-14

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is the first and best known superconducting semiconductor. It exhibits an extremely low carrier density threshold for superconductivity, and possesses a phase diagram similar to that of high-temperature superconductors--two factors that suggest an unconventional pairing mechanism. Despite sustained interest for 50 years, direct experimental insight into the nature of electron pairing in SrTiO3 has remained elusive. Here we perform transport experiments with nanowire-based single-electron transistors at the interface between SrTiO3 and a thin layer of lanthanum aluminate, LaAlO3. Electrostatic gating reveals a series of two-electron conductance resonances-paired electron states--that bifurcate above a critical pairing field Bp of about 1-4 tesla, an order of magnitude larger than the superconducting critical magnetic field. For magnetic fields below Bp, these resonances are insensitive to the applied magnetic field; for fields in excess of Bp, the resonances exhibit a linear Zeeman-like energy splitting. Electron pairing is stable at temperatures as high as 900 millikelvin, well above the superconducting transition temperature (about 300 millikelvin). These experiments demonstrate the existence of a robust electronic phase in which electrons pair without forming a superconducting state. Key experimental signatures are captured by a model involving an attractive Hubbard interaction that describes real-space electron pairing as a precursor to superconductivity. PMID:25971511

  9. Electron pairing without superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Jeremy

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is the first and best known superconducting semiconductor. It exhibits an extremely low carrier density threshold for superconductivity, and possesses a phase diagram similar to that of high-temperature superconductors--two factors that suggest an unconventional pairing mechanism. Despite sustained interest for 50 years, direct experimental insight into the nature of electron pairing in SrTiO3 has remained elusive. Here we perform transport experiments with nanowire-based single-electron transistors at the interface between SrTiO3 and a thin layer of lanthanum aluminate, LaAlO3. Electrostatic gating reveals a series of two-electron conductance resonances--paired electron states--that bifurcate above a critical pairing field Bp of about 1-4 tesla, an order of magnitude larger than the superconducting critical magnetic field. For magnetic fields below Bp, these resonances are insensitive to the applied magnetic field; for fields in excess of Bp, the resonances exhibit a linear Zeeman-like energy splitting. Electron pairing is stable at temperatures as high as 900 millikelvin, well above the superconducting transition temperature (about 300 millikelvin). These experiments demonstrate the existence of a robust electronic phase in which electrons pair without forming a superconducting state. Key experimental signatures are captured by a model involving an attractive Hubbard interaction that describes real-space electron pairing as a precursor to superconductivity. Support from AFOSR, ONR, ARO, NSF, DOE and NSSEFF is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Driven-dissipative many-body systems with mixed power-law interactions: Bistabilities and temperature-driven nonequilibrium phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šibalić, N.; Wade, C. G.; Adams, C. S.; Weatherill, K. J.; Pohl, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of a driven-dissipative spin ensemble with competing power-law interactions. We demonstrate that dynamical phase transitions as well as bistabilities can emerge for asymptotic van der Waals interactions, but critically rely on the presence of a slower decaying potential core. Upon introducing random particle motion, we show that a finite gas temperature can drive a phase transition with regards to the spin degree of freedom and eventually leads to mean-field behavior in the high-temperature limit. Our work reconciles contrasting observations of recent experiments with Rydberg atoms in the cold-gas and hot-vapor domain, and introduces an efficient theoretical framework in the latter regime.

  11. Superconductivity in Opal-based superconducting nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. K.; Charnaya, E. V.; Chang, L. J.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Lin, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigate superconducting nanocomposites (SCNCs) to elucidate superconductivity in nanostructured type I superconductor. In, Sn and Hg are loaded into opal matrices by high pressure up to 10kbar, in which introducing superconducting metals into templates preserves their own 3D nanostructures. The opal matrices is adopted because it is a well-developed nanoconfinement and widely used in the studies of photonic crystal due to its periodically-superlatticed nanoporous structure. The SCNCs are then measured by Quantum Design MPMS 3 under different external magnetic fields reveal the field dependences of Tc and irreversibility temperature (Tirr). Next, AC susceptibility measurements of SCNCs determine grain coupling, vortex dynamics and field dependence of activation barrier (Ua) as well as Tc. Additionally, the phase diagrams of these SCNCs are analyzed to study superconductivity for a system with similar nanogeometry. Exotic phase diagrams in the opal SCNC studies reveal an enhanced upper critical field (Hc2 (0)) and curvature crossover of upper critical field line. Additionally, according to the field dependence of Ua(H), curvature crossover of the upper critical field line can occur, owing to vortex phase transition.

  12. The two-phase flow at gas-evolving electrodes: Bubble-driven and Lorentz-force-driven convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weier, T.; Landgraf, S.

    2013-03-01

    We observe electrolysis with gas evolution, a phenomenon occurring in a number of industrial scale electrochemical processes. Here, water electrolysis takes place in a small undivided electrolysis cell consisting of vertical electrodes embedded in a larger glass vessel which contains a dilute NaOH solution. Fluid flow velocities are measured by particle image velocimetry with fluorescent tracers, while size distribution and velocities of the bubbles are determined from bubble shadow images obtained with a high speed camera. Coalescence phenomena are observed in the flow and explain the relatively wide distribution of bubble sizes. Depending on the gap width and the current density, bubbles ascending near the electrodes form two discernible bubble curtains (low average void fraction, wide gaps) or a flow profile more akin to a channel flow (high average void fraction, small gaps). If the flow consists of separate bubble curtains, instabilities develop not unlike to those of a single phase wall jet. Finally, the influence of different wall parallel Lorentz force configurations on the velocity distribution in the cell is investigated. These Lorentz forces are generated by permanent magnets mounted behind the electrodes. Depending on gap width, current density, and magnet configuration, liquid phase velocities can be increased by several times compared to the baseline case.

  13. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  14. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  15. Topological Superconductivity in Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Shingo

    Dirac semimetals host bulk band-touching Dirac points and a surface Fermi loop. We develop a theory of superconducting Dirac semimetals. Establishing a relation between the Dirac points and the surface Fermi loop, we clarify how the nontrivial topology of Dirac semimetals affects their superconducting state. We note that the unique orbital texture of Dirac points and a structural phase transition of the crystal favor symmetry-protected topological superconductivity with a quartet of surface Majorana fermions. We suggest the possible application of our theory to recently discovered superconducting states in Cd3As2.

  16. Self-Assembly of Nanostructured, Complex, Multi-cation Films via Spontaneous Phase Separation and Strain-driven Ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung Hun; Stocks, George Malcolm; Zuev, Yuri L; More, Karren Leslie; Meng, Jianyong; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous self-assembly of a multi-cation nanophase in another multi-cation matrix phase is a promising bottom-up approach to fabricate novel, nanocomposite structures for a range of applications. In an effort to understand the mechanisms for such self-assembly, we report on complimentary experimental and theoretical studies to first understand and then control or guide the self-assembly of insulating BaZrO3 (BZO) nanodots within REBa2Cu3O7- (RE=rare earth elements including Y, REBCO) superconducting films. It was determined that the strain field developed around BZO nanodots embedded in REBCO matrix is a key driving force dictating the self-assembly of BZO nanodots along REBCO c-axis. The size selection and spatial ordering of BZO self-assembly were simulated using thermodynamic and kinetic models. The BZO self-assembly was controllable by tuning the interphase strain field. REBCO superconducting films with BZO defects arrays self-assembled to align in both vertical (REBCO c-axis) and horizontal (REBCO ab-planes) directions, resulted in the maximized pinning and Jc performance for all field angles with smaller angular Jc anisotropy. The work has broad implications for fabrication of controlled self-assembled nanostructures for a range of applications via strain-tuning.

  17. Exotic s-wave superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerides.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro

    2016-04-20

    Alkali-doped fullerides (A3C60 with A = K, Rb, Cs) show a surprising phase diagram, in which a high transition-temperature (Tc) s-wave superconducting state emerges next to a Mott insulating phase as a function of the lattice spacing. This is in contrast with the common belief that Mott physics and phonon-driven s-wave superconductivity are incompatible, raising a fundamental question on the mechanism of the high-Tc superconductivity. This article reviews recent ab initio calculations, which have succeeded in reproducing comprehensively the experimental phase diagram with high accuracy and elucidated an unusual cooperation between the electron-phonon coupling and the electron-electron interactions leading to Mott localization to realize an unconventional s-wave superconductivity in the alkali-doped fullerides. A driving force behind the exotic physics is unusual intramolecular interactions, characterized by the coexistence of a strongly repulsive Coulomb interaction and a small effectively negative exchange interaction. This is realized by a subtle energy balance between the coupling with the Jahn-Teller phonons and Hund's coupling within the C60 molecule. The unusual form of the interaction leads to a formation of pairs of up- and down-spin electrons on the molecules, which enables the s-wave pairing. The emergent superconductivity crucially relies on the presence of the Jahn-Teller phonons, but surprisingly benefits from the strong correlations because the correlations suppress the kinetic energy of the electrons and help the formation of the electron pairs, in agreement with previous model calculations. This confirms that the alkali-doped fullerides are a new type of unconventional superconductors, where the unusual synergy between the phonons and Coulomb interactions drives the high-Tc superconductivity.

  18. Exotic s-wave superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro

    2016-04-01

    Alkali-doped fullerides ({{A}3}{{\\text{C}}60} with A  =  K, Rb, Cs) show a surprising phase diagram, in which a high transition-temperature ({{T}\\text{c}} ) s-wave superconducting state emerges next to a Mott insulating phase as a function of the lattice spacing. This is in contrast with the common belief that Mott physics and phonon-driven s-wave superconductivity are incompatible, raising a fundamental question on the mechanism of the high-{{T}\\text{c}} superconductivity. This article reviews recent ab initio calculations, which have succeeded in reproducing comprehensively the experimental phase diagram with high accuracy and elucidated an unusual cooperation between the electron-phonon coupling and the electron-electron interactions leading to Mott localization to realize an unconventional s-wave superconductivity in the alkali-doped fullerides. A driving force behind the exotic physics is unusual intramolecular interactions, characterized by the coexistence of a strongly repulsive Coulomb interaction and a small effectively negative exchange interaction. This is realized by a subtle energy balance between the coupling with the Jahn-Teller phonons and Hund’s coupling within the {{\\text{C}}60} molecule. The unusual form of the interaction leads to a formation of pairs of up- and down-spin electrons on the molecules, which enables the s-wave pairing. The emergent superconductivity crucially relies on the presence of the Jahn-Teller phonons, but surprisingly benefits from the strong correlations because the correlations suppress the kinetic energy of the electrons and help the formation of the electron pairs, in agreement with previous model calculations. This confirms that the alkali-doped fullerides are a new type of unconventional superconductors, where the unusual synergy between the phonons and Coulomb interactions drives the high-{{T}\\text{c}} superconductivity.

  19. The electrochemically controlled phase behavior of La(2-x)Nd(x)CuO(4+partial): A model study of high superconducting transition temperature ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, William Joseph

    1997-09-01

    Lasb2CuOsb4 is of interest because it possesses all of the fundamental properties exhibited by the cuprate superconductors. It is also more stable and has a simpler structure than other materials with higher Tsb{c}'s (i.e., YBasb2Cusb3Osb{7-partial}). Electrochemical methods were to investigate the oxygen stoichiometry dependent phase behavior in the system Lasb{2-x}Ndsb{x}CuOsb{4+partial}. Bulk cuprate pellets were oxidized at room temperature and phase segregation as a function of temperature was monitored using synchrotron x-ray techniques. Superconducting Tsb{c}'s and relative fractions were measured through the Meissner Effect. Oxygen stoichiometries were measured through gravimetry and iodometric titration. In order to avoid slow Osp{2-} diffusion rate limitations, electrochemical studies were also performed on thin films ({0) do not show this phase segregation at any temperature studied. The mobile oxygen/hole interstitial are believed to become pinned by the random potential introduced by the Ndsp{3+} ions. Electrochemical studies of thin films elucidated three distinct oxidation processes in Lasb2CuOsb4 and two in Lasb{2-x}Ndsb{x}CuOsb4. Through coulometry, the oxidation waves were found to occur at stoichiometries related to the miscibility gap, the 32K phase and the 45K phases. Consistent with the observed electrochemistry, are the structural studies. These experiments lead to the discovery of an oxygen superstructure at high partial and a second coexistent 45K superconducting phase. The oxygen ordering may be related to an overlapping array of ordered electron spins. This transition is observed in both Lasb{2-x}Ndsb{x}CuOsb{4+partial}\\ (x≤0.35) and the pure Lasb2CuOsb{4+partial}. The findings are consistent one band Hubbard theory.

  20. Mechanism-driven phase I translational study of trifluoperazine in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Molokie, Robert E; Wilkie, Diana J; Wittert, Harriett; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Zhao, Zhongsheng; He, Ying; Wang, Zaijie J

    2014-01-15

    Recent evidence of neuropathic pain among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) reveals a need for adjuvant analgesic treatments for these patients. Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) has a known role in neuropathic pain and trifluoperazine is a potent CaMKIIα inhibitor. The study aim was to determine trifluoperazine's acute effects, primarily on adverse effects and secondarily on pain intensity reduction, in adults with SCD. In a phase I, open-label study of 6 doses of trifluoperazine (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 7.5, 10mg), we obtained 7-hourly and 24-h repeated measures of adverse effects, pain intensity, and supplemental opioid analgesics in 18 adults with SCD (18 hemoglobin SS disease, 15 women, average age 35.8±8.9 years, ranged 23-53) each of whom received a single dose. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Subjects reported moderate to severe sedative effects at 7.5 and 10mg doses, respectively. Eight subjects reported 50% reduction in chronic pain without severe sedation or supplemental opioid analgesics; one of these subjects had dystonia 24.5h after the 10mg dose. The analgesic effect lasted for at least 24h in 3 subjects. Sedation resolved with caffeine and dystonia resolved with diphenhydramine. Adults with SCD experienced minimal adverse effects at doses under 10mg. In this molecular mechanism-driven translational study, trifluoperazine shows promise as an analgesic drug that is worthy of further testing in a randomized controlled study of adults with SCD starting at a dose of 1mg in repeated doses to determine long-term adverse and analgesic effects.

  1. Superconducting Cable

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-07-22

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  2. Superconducting Cable

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-03-08

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  3. Superconducting condensation energy of CeCu2Si2 and theoretical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    ,'' to be published in JPSJ (invited review paper).[0pt] [2] O. Stockert, J. Arndt, E. Faulhaber, C. Geibel, H. S. Jeevan, S. Kirchner, M. Loewenhaupt, K. Schmalzl, W. Schmidt, Q. Si, F. Steglich, ``Magnetically driven superconductivity in CeCu2Si2,'' Nature Physics, 7, 119-124 (2011).[0pt] [3] S. Kirchner and Q. Si, to be published.[0pt] [4] Q. Si, ``Quantum Criticality and Global Phase Diagram of Magnetic Heavy Fermions,'' Phys. Status Solidi B247, 476 (2010).

  4. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic, Ivan; Logvenov, Gennady; Gozar, Adrian Mihai

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  5. Status of superconducting power transformer development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.C.; McConnell, B.W.; Mehta, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Development of the superconducting transformer is arguably the most difficult of the ac power applications of superconductivity - this is because of the need for very low ac losses, adequate fault and surge performance, and the rigors of the application environment. This paper briefly summarizes the history of superconducting transformer projects, reviews the key issues for superconducting transformers, and examines the status of HTS transformer development. Both 630-kVA, three-phase and 1-MVA single phase demonstration units are expected to operate in late 1996. Both efforts will further progress toward the development of economical and performance competitive superconducting transformers.

  6. Suppression of phase separation and giant enhancement of superconducting transition temperature in FeSe1−xTex thin films

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Yoshinori; Sawada, Yuichi; Nabeshima, Fuyuki; Maeda, Atsutaka

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the successful fabrication on CaF2 substrates of FeSe1−xTex films with 0≤x≤1, including the region of 0.1≤x≤0.4, which is well known to be the “phase-separation region,” via pulsed laser deposition that is a thermodynamically nonequilibrium method. In the resulting films, we observe a giant enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, in the region of 0.1≤x≤0.4: The maximum value reaches 23 K, which is ∼1.5 times as large as the values reported for bulk samples of FeSe1−xTex. We present a complete phase diagram of FeSe1−xTex films. Surprisingly, a sudden suppression of Tc is observed at 0.1superconductivity realized in x=0−0.1 and in x≥0.2. To obtain a film of FeSe1−xTex with high Tc, the controls of the Te content x and the in-plane lattice strain are found to be key factors. PMID:25646450

  7. Reciprocal-space structure and dispersion of the magnetic resonant mode in the superconducting phase of RbxFe2-ySe2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friemel, G.; Park, J. T.; Maier, T. A.; Tsurkan, V.; Li, Yuan; Deisenhofer, J.; Krug von Nidda, H.-A.; Loidl, A.; Ivanov, A.; Keimer, B.; Inosov, D. S.

    2012-04-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering is employed to study the reciprocal-space structure and dispersion of magnetic excitations in the normal and superconducting states of single-crystalline Rb0.8Fe1.6Se2. We show that the recently discovered magnetic resonant mode in this compound has a quasi-two-dimensional character, similar to overdoped iron-pnictide superconductors. Moreover, it has a rich in-plane structure that is dominated by four elliptical peaks, symmetrically surrounding the Brillouin zone corner, without 5×5 reconstruction. We also present evidence for the dispersion of the resonance peak, as its position in momentum space depends on energy. Comparison of our findings with the results of band structure calculations leads to a robust bulk-sensitive estimate of the electron count in the superconducting phase and provides strong support for the itinerant origin of the observed signal. It can be traced back to the nesting of electronlike Fermi pockets in the doped metallic phase of the sample in the absence of iron-vacancy ordering.

  8. Optimization of BaZrO3 concentration as secondary phase in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 for high current applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal A.; Malik, Manzoor A.; Asokan, K.

    2016-04-01

    We report the superconducting state properties of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) on introduction of BaZrO3 (BZO) as a secondary phase. YBCO+xBZO (x= 0, 2, 4, 6, and 10 wt%) composite samples were prepared by solid state reaction method and characterized for structural, morphological and superconducting properties. X-ray diffraction confirms the increased crystallinity and images of scanning electron microscopy measurement show an increase in both grain size and grain connectivity on addition of BZO in YBCO. These effects are well pronounced in an applied magnetic field. Critical current density, JC, as well as the pinning force peaks at 4% of BZO concentration showed significant difference. A three-fold enhancement in JC and a six-fold enhancement in pinning force were observed at this optimum BZO concentration. This has been attributed to the pinning of flux lines in YBCO due to introduction of BZO as a secondary phase. These results show that this composite has potential application in high current applications.

  9. Phase transition beneath the superconducting dome in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Orenstein, J.; Sachdev, Subir; Senthil, T.

    2015-08-01

    We present a theory for the large suppression of the superfluid density ρs in BaFe2(As1 -xPx )2 in the vicinity of a putative spin-density wave quantum critical point at a P doping, x =xc . We argue that the transition becomes weakly first order in the vicinity of xc, and disorder induces puddles of superconducting and antiferromagnetic regions at short length scales; thus, the system becomes an electronic microemulsion. We propose that frustrated Josephson couplings between the superconducting grains suppress ρs. In addition, the presence of "normal" quasiparticles at the interface of the frustrated Josephson junctions will give rise to a highly nontrivial feature in the low-frequency response in a narrow vicinity around xc. We propose a number of experiments to test our theory.

  10. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking of Population in a Nonadiabatically Driven Atomic Trap: An Ising-Class Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kihwan; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Ki-Hwan; Jang, Kiyoub; Jhe, Wonho; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Doochul

    2006-04-21

    We have observed spontaneous symmetry breaking of the population of Brownian particles between two moving potentials in the spatiotemporally symmetric system. Cold atoms preferentially occupy one of the dynamic double-well potentials, produced in the parametrically driven dissipative magneto-optical trap far from equilibrium, above a critical number of atoms. We find that the population asymmetry, which may be interpreted as the biased Brownian motion, can be qualitatively described by the mean-field Ising-class phase transition. This in situ study may be useful for investigation of dynamic phase transition or temporal behavior of critical phenomena.

  11. Nucleation and temperature-driven phase transitions of silicene superstructures on Ag(1 1 1).

    PubMed

    Grazianetti, C; Chiappe, D; Cinquanta, E; Fanciulli, M; Molle, A

    2015-07-01

    Silicene grown on Ag(1 1 1) is characterized by several critical parameters. Among them, the substrate temperature plays a key role in determining the morphology during growth. However, an unexpected important role is also equally played by the post-deposition annealing temperature which determines the self-organization of silicene domains even in the submonolayer coverage regime and consecutive transitions between silicene with different periodicity. These temperature-driven phase transitions can be exploited to select the desired majority silicene phase, thus allowing for the manipulation of silicene properties.

  12. Superconductivity in highly disordered dense carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ranga P; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Struzhkin, Viktor V; Kim, Minseob; Muramatsu, Takaki; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Sinogeikin, Stanislav

    2013-07-16

    High pressure plays an increasingly important role in both understanding superconductivity and the development of new superconducting materials. New superconductors were found in metallic and metal oxide systems at high pressure. However, because of the filled close-shell configuration, the superconductivity in molecular systems has been limited to charge-transferred salts and metal-doped carbon species with relatively low superconducting transition temperatures. Here, we report the low-temperature superconducting phase observed in diamagnetic carbon disulfide under high pressure. The superconductivity arises from a highly disordered extended state (CS4 phase or phase III[CS4]) at ~6.2 K over a broad pressure range from 50 to 172 GPa. Based on the X-ray scattering data, we suggest that the local structural change from a tetrahedral to an octahedral configuration is responsible for the observed superconductivity.

  13. Magnetic-field induced crossover of superconducting percolation regimes in the layered organic Mott system {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Cl.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.; Brandenberg, J.; Schlueter, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Max Planck Inst. for Chemical Physics of Solids

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuation spectroscopy is used to investigate the organic bandwidth-controlled Mott system {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Cl. We find evidence for percolative-type superconductivity in the spatially inhomogeneous coexistence region of antiferromagnetic insulating and superconducting states. When the superconducting transition is driven by a magnetic field, percolation seems to be dominated by instable superconducting clusters upon approaching T{sub c}(B) from above, before a 'classical' type of percolation is resumed at low fields, dominated by the fractional change of superconducting clusters. The 1/f noise is resolved into Lorentzian spectra in the crossover region, where the action of an individual fluctuator is enhanced, pointing to a mesoscopic phase separation.

  14. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  15. Itinerant ferromagnetism and p +i p' superconductivity in doped bilayer silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Da; Yang, Fan; Yao, Yugui

    2015-09-01

    We study the electronic instabilities of doped bilayer silicene using the random phase approximation. In contrast to the singlet d +i d' superconductivity at the low doping region, we find that the system is an itinerant ferromagnet in the narrow doping regions around the Van Hove singularities, and a triplet p +i p' superconductor in the vicinity of these regions. Adding a weak Kane-Mele spin-orbit coupling to the system further singles out the time-reversal invariant equal-spin helical p +i p' pairing as the leading instability. The triplet pairing identified here is driven by the ferromagnetic fluctuations, which become strong and enhance the superconducting critical temperature remarkably near the phase boundaries between ferromagnetism and superconductivity.

  16. Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp

    2015-12-11

    Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds. PMID:26705649

  17. Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds.

  18. Pseudogap and superconducting phases in high TC superconductivity based on an improved slave-boson representation of t-J Hamiltonian with the inclusion of a rigorous Lagrange multiplier field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Ki-Suk; Salk, Sung-Ho Suck

    2002-03-01

    By overcoming the usual mean field treatment of Lagrange multiplier field which appears in the slave-boson representation of the t-J Hamiltonian, we present a derivation of an effective Lagrangian for the study of high TC phase diagram. The new Lagrangian exhibits the importance of additional spinon-spinon, holon-holon and spinon-holon coupling terms, as a result of more accurate account of single occupancy constraint beyond the mean field level. From the use of the newly derived effective Lagrangian we will explore how these additional coupling terms affect the phase diagram involving the pseudogap and superconducting temperature. In this study we will present the applications of both the holon-pair bose condensation theory of Lee and Salk[1] and the single holon-bose condensation theory of Ubbens and Lee[2] to our improved method of accounting the Lagrange multipler field. 1. S. -S. Lee and Sung-Ho Suck Salk,Phys. Rev. B 64 052501 (2001); Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 13, 3455 (1999); Physica C.353, 130 (2001) 2. M. U. Ubbens and P. A. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 46, 8434 (1992); Phys. Rev. B 49, 6853 (1994)

  19. Superconducting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Kwon, Chuhee; Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2005-09-13

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  20. Superconducting structure

    DOEpatents

    Kwon, Chuhee; Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2003-04-01

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  1. An organizing principle for two-dimensional strongly correlated superconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Fratino, L.; Sémon, P.; Sordi, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Superconductivity in the cuprates exhibits many unusual features. We study the two-dimensional Hubbard model with plaquette dynamical mean-field theory to address these unusual features and relate them to other normal-state phenomena, such as the pseudogap. Previous studies with this method found that upon doping the Mott insulator at low temperature a pseudogap phase appears. The low-temperature transition between that phase and the correlated metal at higher doping is first-order. A series of crossovers emerge along the Widom line extension of that first-order transition in the supercritical region. Here we show that the highly asymmetric dome of the dynamical mean-field superconducting transition temperature , the maximum of the condensation energy as a function of doping, the correlation between maximum and normal-state scattering rate, the change from potential-energy driven to kinetic-energy driven pairing mechanisms can all be understood as remnants of the normal state first-order transition and its associated crossovers that also act as an organizing principle for the superconducting state. PMID:26964524

  2. Interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in iron-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chubukov, Andrey V

    2015-06-10

    This proposal is for theoretical work on strongly correlated electron systems, which are at the center of experimental and theoretical activities in condensed-matter physics. The interest to this field is driven fascinating variety of observed effects, universality of underlying theoretical ideas, and practical applications. I propose to do research on Iron-based superconductors (FeSCs), which currently attract high attention in the physics community. My goal is to understand superconductivity and magnetism in these materials at various dopings, the interplay between the two, and the physics in the phase in which magnetism and superconductivity co-exist. A related goal is to understand the origin of the observed pseudogap-like behavior in the normal state. My research explores the idea that superconductivity is of electronic origin and is caused by the exchange of spin-fluctuations, enhanced due to close proximity to antiferromagnetism. The multi-orbital/multi-band nature of FeSCs opens routes for qualitatively new superconducting states, particularly the ones which break time-reversal symmetry. By all accounts, the coupling in pnictdes is below the threshold for Mott physics and I intend to analyze these systems within the itinerant approach. My plan is to do research in two stages. I first plan to address several problems within weak-coupling approach. Among them: (i) what sets stripe magnetic order at small doping, (ii) is there a preemptive instability into a spin-nematic state, and how stripe order affects fermions; (iii) is there a co-existence between magnetism and superconductivity and what are the system properties in the co-existence state; (iv) how superconductivity emerges despite strong Coulomb repulsion and can the gap be s-wave but with nodes along electron FSs, (v) are there complex superconducting states, like s+id, which break time reversal symmetry. My second goal is to go beyond weak coupling and derive spin-mediated, dynamic interaction between

  3. A two-phase charge-density real-space-pairing model of high-Tc superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Humphreys

    1999-03-01

    It is usually assumed that high-T(c) superconductors have a periodic band structure and a periodic charge density, although amorphous low-T(c) superconductors are known. In this paper, it is suggested that the CuO(2) conduction planes of cuprate superconductors consist of regions of two different charge densities which do not normally repeat periodically. It is suggested that the pairing of holes occurs in real space in cuprate superconductors. It is proposed that the hole-pairing mechanism is magnetic exchange coupling and the pairing force is strong, the pairing energy being greater than kT at room temperature. The bound hole pair is essentially a bipolaron. A real-space model is very tentatively suggested in which the CuO(2) planes of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) contain nanodomains of a 3 x 3 hole lattice surrounded by interfaces one unit cell wide in which the holes are paired. In the superconducting state in this model, the existing hole pairs condense and move coherently and collectively around the insulating nanodomains, like trams running around blocks of houses, with one hole on each tramline. The hole pairs move in an elegant manner with hole pairs hopping from oxygen to oxygen via adjacent copper sites. The model explains the superconducting current being in the ab plane and it also explains the very short coherence lengths. Because the pairing force is strong, the model suggests that room-temperature superconductivity might be possible in carefully designed new oxide materials.

  4. Technology of RF superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This work has several parts, two of which are collaborative development projects with the majority of the work being performed at Argonne. The first is the development of a superconducting RFQ structure in collaboration with AccSys Technology Inc. of Pleasanton, California, funded as a Phase II SBIR grant. Another is a collaborative project with the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India (who are funding the work) to develop new superconducting ion accelerating structures. Other initiatives are developing various aspects of the technology required to utilize ATLAS as a secondary beam linac for radioactive beams.

  5. Characterization of the phase composition, crystal structure and superconducting properties of Fe1.02SeyTe1-y-xSx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouhaswa, A. S.; Merentsov, A. I.; Baranov, N. V.

    2016-08-01

    Two series of the Fe1.02Se0.5Te0.5-xSx (I) and Fe1.02Se0.4Te0.6-xSx (II) samples with the sulfur for tellurium substitution and with the invariable Se concentrations have been synthesized and studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The superconducting PbO-type phase is found to persists in the first series up to x = 0.4 and in the second one up to x = 0.5. Despite the lower ionic radius of sulfur in comparison with tellurium the replacement of tellurium by sulfur does not lead to contraction of the unit cell volume of the superconducting phase in both I and II series with ternary mixture of chalcogens. Variations of the lattice parameters caused by the S for Te substitution in the Fe1.02Se0.5Te0.5-xSx and Fe1.02Se0.4Te0.6-xSx samples are found to be less pronounced than that reported for the Fe1.02Te0.5Se0.5-xSx system and are accompanied by lowering of the critical temperature. The behavior of the lattice parameters and critical temperature of Fe(S,Se,Te) materials with the ternary mixture of chalcogens at substitutions is ascribed to the changes in the volume fraction and chemical compositions of the coexisting tetragonal and hexagonal phases.

  6. Field-temperature phase diagram of superconductivity in Sr2RuO4-Ru under out-of-plane uniaxial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, H.; Kittaka, S.; Yonezawa, S.; Yaguchi, H.; Maeno, Y.

    2012-12-01

    One of the interesting issues on the spin-triplet superconductor Sr2RuO4 (Tc = 1.5 K) is the origin of the Tc enhancement up to about 3 K in the eutectic system Sr2RuO4-Ru. We have recently revealed a striking fact that Tc of pure Sr2RuO4 is also enhanced up to 3.2 K by uniaxial pressure along the c axis (P||c). When P||c is applied to Sr2RuO4-Ru, there is a crossover at P*||c ~ 0.4 GPa from behavior attributable to interfacial superconductivity (SC) to behavior similar to that in pure Sr2RuO4 under P||c. We focus on the field-temperature phase diagrams of Sr2RuO4-Ru above and below P*||c. We revealed that the H-T curves of Sr2RuO4-Ru both above and below P*||c are concave-up. This fact suggests that the P||c-originated SC above P*||c as well as the interfacial SC below P*||c are granular-like. We also found that the H-T curves of these SCs do not scale with Tc's, which is possibly related to a difference in the spatial distribution of superconducting regions.

  7. Visualization of electrochemically driven solid-state phase transformations using operando hard X-ray spectro-imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Linsen; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wang, Jiajun; Gao, Peng; Ding, Qi; Yu, Young-Sang; Wang, Feng; Cabana, Jordi; Wang, Jun; Jin, Song

    2015-04-20

    In situ techniques with high temporal, spatial and chemical resolution are key to understand ubiquitous solid-state phase transformations, which are crucial to many technological applications. Hard X-ray spectro-imaging can visualize electrochemically driven phase transformations but demands considerably large samples with strong absorption signal so far. Here we show a conceptually new data analysis method to enable operando visualization of mechanistically relevant weakly absorbing samples at the nanoscale and study electrochemical reaction dynamics of iron fluoride, a promising high-capacity conversion cathode material. In two specially designed samples with distinctive microstructure and porosity, we observe homogeneous phase transformations during both discharge and charge, faster and more complete Li-storage occurring in porous polycrystalline iron fluoride, and further, incomplete charge reaction following a pathway different from conventional belief. In conclusion, these mechanistic insights provide guidelines for designing better conversion cathode materials to realize the promise of high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Unbiased estimation in seamless phase II/III trials with unequal treatment effect variances and hypothesis-driven selection rules.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David S; Prevost, A Toby; Bowden, Jack

    2016-09-30

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials offer an efficient way to select an experimental treatment and perform confirmatory analysis within a single trial. However, combining the data from both stages in the final analysis can induce bias into the estimates of treatment effects. Methods for bias adjustment developed thus far have made restrictive assumptions about the design and selection rules followed. In order to address these shortcomings, we apply recent methodological advances to derive the uniformly minimum variance conditionally unbiased estimator for two-stage seamless phase II/III trials. Our framework allows for the precision of the treatment arm estimates to take arbitrary values, can be utilised for all treatments that are taken forward to phase III and is applicable when the decision to select or drop treatment arms is driven by a multiplicity-adjusted hypothesis testing procedure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27103068

  9. Unbiased estimation in seamless phase II/III trials with unequal treatment effect variances and hypothesis-driven selection rules.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David S; Prevost, A Toby; Bowden, Jack

    2016-09-30

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials offer an efficient way to select an experimental treatment and perform confirmatory analysis within a single trial. However, combining the data from both stages in the final analysis can induce bias into the estimates of treatment effects. Methods for bias adjustment developed thus far have made restrictive assumptions about the design and selection rules followed. In order to address these shortcomings, we apply recent methodological advances to derive the uniformly minimum variance conditionally unbiased estimator for two-stage seamless phase II/III trials. Our framework allows for the precision of the treatment arm estimates to take arbitrary values, can be utilised for all treatments that are taken forward to phase III and is applicable when the decision to select or drop treatment arms is driven by a multiplicity-adjusted hypothesis testing procedure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Visualization of electrochemically driven solid-state phase transformations using operando hard X-ray spectro-imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linsen; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wang, Jiajun; Gao, Peng; Ding, Qi; Yu, Young-Sang; Wang, Feng; Cabana, Jordi; Wang, Jun; Jin, Song

    2015-01-01

    In situ techniques with high temporal, spatial and chemical resolution are key to understand ubiquitous solid-state phase transformations, which are crucial to many technological applications. Hard X-ray spectro-imaging can visualize electrochemically driven phase transformations but demands considerably large samples with strong absorption signal so far. Here we show a conceptually new data analysis method to enable operando visualization of mechanistically relevant weakly absorbing samples at the nanoscale and study electrochemical reaction dynamics of iron fluoride, a promising high-capacity conversion cathode material. In two specially designed samples with distinctive microstructure and porosity, we observe homogeneous phase transformations during both discharge and charge, faster and more complete Li-storage occurring in porous polycrystalline iron fluoride, and further, incomplete charge reaction following a pathway different from conventional belief. These mechanistic insights provide guidelines for designing better conversion cathode materials to realize the promise of high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25892338

  11. Superconducting nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Metlushko, V.

    1998-07-13

    Within the last year it has been realized that the remarkable properties of superconducting thin films containing a periodic array of defects (such as sub-micron sized holes) offer a new route for developing a novel superconducting materials based on precise control of microstructure by modern photolithography. A superconductor is a material which, when cooled below a certain temperature, loses all resistance to electricity. This means that superconducting materials can carry large electrical currents without any energy loss--but there are limits to how much current can flow before superconductivity is destroyed. The current at which superconductivity breaks down is called the critical current. The value of the critical current is determined by the balance of Lorentz forces and pinning forces acting on the flux lines in the superconductor. Lorentz forces proportional to the current flow tend to drive the flux lines into motion, which dissipates energy and destroys zero resistance. Pinning forces created by isolated defects in the microstructure oppose flux line motion and increase the critical current. Many kinds of artificial pinning centers have been proposed and developed to increase critical current performance, ranging from dispersal of small non-superconducting second phases to creation of defects by proton, neutron or heavy ion irradiation. In all of these methods, the pinning centers are randomly distributed over the superconducting material, causing them to operate well below their maximum efficiency. We are overcome this drawback by creating pinning centers in aperiodic lattice (see Fig 1) so that each pin site interacts strongly with only one or a few flux lines.

  12. Superconducting thermal neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, V.; Pietropaolo, A.; Celentano, G.; Cirillo, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Salvato, M.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Vannozzi, A.

    2016-09-01

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium nitride (NbN) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle is well described by a hot spot mechanism: upon the occurrence of the nuclear reactions n + 10B → α + 7Li + 2.8 MeV, the energy released by the secondary particles into the strip induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T below 11K and current-biased below the critical current IC, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed and compared to those of a borated Nb superconducting strip.

  13. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  14. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-03-01

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, 10B + n → α + 7Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  15. Topological Superconductivity on the Surface of Fe-Based Superconductors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Tang, Peizhe; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2016-07-22

    As one of the simplest systems for realizing Majorana fermions, the topological superconductor plays an important role in both condensed matter physics and quantum computations. Based on ab initio calculations and the analysis of an effective 8-band model with superconducting pairing, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional extended s-wave Fe-based superconductors such as Fe_{1+y}Se_{0.5}Te_{0.5} have a metallic topologically nontrivial band structure, and exhibit a normal-topological-normal superconductivity phase transition on the (001) surface by tuning the bulk carrier doping level. In the topological superconductivity (TSC) phase, a Majorana zero mode is trapped at the end of a magnetic vortex line. We further show that the surface TSC phase only exists up to a certain bulk pairing gap, and there is a normal-topological phase transition driven by the temperature, which has not been discussed before. These results pave an effective way to realize the TSC and Majorana fermions in a large class of superconductors. PMID:27494494

  16. Topological Superconductivity on the Surface of Fe-Based Superconductors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Tang, Peizhe; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2016-07-22

    As one of the simplest systems for realizing Majorana fermions, the topological superconductor plays an important role in both condensed matter physics and quantum computations. Based on ab initio calculations and the analysis of an effective 8-band model with superconducting pairing, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional extended s-wave Fe-based superconductors such as Fe_{1+y}Se_{0.5}Te_{0.5} have a metallic topologically nontrivial band structure, and exhibit a normal-topological-normal superconductivity phase transition on the (001) surface by tuning the bulk carrier doping level. In the topological superconductivity (TSC) phase, a Majorana zero mode is trapped at the end of a magnetic vortex line. We further show that the surface TSC phase only exists up to a certain bulk pairing gap, and there is a normal-topological phase transition driven by the temperature, which has not been discussed before. These results pave an effective way to realize the TSC and Majorana fermions in a large class of superconductors.

  17. Topological Superconductivity on the Surface of Fe-Based Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Tang, Peizhe; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    As one of the simplest systems for realizing Majorana fermions, the topological superconductor plays an important role in both condensed matter physics and quantum computations. Based on ab initio calculations and the analysis of an effective 8-band model with superconducting pairing, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional extended s -wave Fe-based superconductors such as Fe1 +ySe0.5 Te0.5 have a metallic topologically nontrivial band structure, and exhibit a normal-topological-normal superconductivity phase transition on the (001) surface by tuning the bulk carrier doping level. In the topological superconductivity (TSC) phase, a Majorana zero mode is trapped at the end of a magnetic vortex line. We further show that the surface TSC phase only exists up to a certain bulk pairing gap, and there is a normal-topological phase transition driven by the temperature, which has not been discussed before. These results pave an effective way to realize the TSC and Majorana fermions in a large class of superconductors.

  18. Bipolaronic superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Ranninger, J.

    1981-08-01

    Superconducting properties of narrow-band electrons are examined in the strong-coupling limit. It is shown that bipolarons (localized spatially nonoverlapping Cooper pairs) formed by strong electron-phonon interaction have under certain conditions superconducting properties which are characteristic of superfluid charged Bose systems. They represent an example of the "molecular" superconductivity proposed by Schafroth, Butler, and Blatt

    [Helv. Phys. Acta 30 93 (1957)]
    . The Meissner effect and the penetration depth of bipolaronic superconductors are examined. The relationship between Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductors and bipolaronic ones is discussed.

  19. Bipolaronic superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, A.; Ranninger, J.

    1981-08-01

    Superconducting properties of narrow-band electrons are examined in the strong-coupling limit. It is shown that bipolarons (localized spatially nonoverlapping Cooper pairs) formed by strong electron-phonon interaction have under certain conditions superconducting properties which are characteristic of superfluid charged Bose system. They represent an example of the ''molecular'' superconductivity proposed by Schafroth, Butler, and Blatt. The Meissner effect and the penetration depth of bipolaronic superconductor are examined. The relationship between Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductors and bipolaronic ones is discussed.

  20. Synthesis of diamond-like phase from graphite by ultrafast laser driven dynamical compression.

    PubMed

    Maia, Francisco C B; Samad, Ricardo E; Bettini, Jefferson; Freitas, Raul O; Vieira Junior, Nilson D; Souza-Neto, Narcizo M

    2015-07-07

    Rapid variations of the environmental energy caused by ultrashort laser pulses have induced phase transitions in carbon allotropes, therefore bringing the promise of revealing new carbon phases. Here, by exposing polycrystalline graphite to 25 fs laser pulses at 4 J/cm(2) fluence under standard air atmosphere, we demonstrated the synthesis of translucent micrometer-sized structures carrying diamond-like and onion-like carbon phases. Texturized domains of the diamond phase were also identified. Concerning different synthesized carbon forms, pulse superposition and singularities of the thermodynamical process, we pinpoint the synthesis mechanism by the laser-induced subsequent products energetically evolving to attain the diamond-like phase.

  1. Possible interaction driven topological phases in (111) bilayers of LaNiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kai-Yu; Zhu, Wenguang; Xiao, Di; Okamoto, Satoshi; Wang, Ziqiang; Ran, Ying

    2011-01-01

    We use the variational mean-field approach to systematically study the phase diagram of a bilayer heterostructure of the correlated transition metal oxide LaNiO3, grown along the (111) direction. The Ni3+ ions with d7 (or e1g) configuration form a buckled honeycomb lattice. We show that as a function of the strength of the on-site interactions, various topological phases emerge. In the presence of a reasonable size of the Hund s coupling, as the correlation is tuned from intermediate to strong, the following sequence of phases is found: (1) a Dirac half-semimetal phase, (2) a quantum anomalous Hall insulator (QAHI) phase with Chern number one, and (3) a ferromagnetic nematic phase breaking the lattice point group symmetry. The spin-orbit couplings and magnetism are both dynamically generated in the QAHI phase.

  2. Evidence of superconductivity-induced phonon spectra renormalization in alkali-doped iron selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opačić, M.; Lazarević, N.; Šćepanović, M.; Ryu, Hyejin; Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, C.; Popović, Z. V.

    2015-12-01

    Polarized Raman scattering spectra of superconducting K x Fe2-y Se2 and non-superconducting K0.8Fe1.8Co0.2Se2 single crystals were measured in the temperature range from 10 K up to 300 K. Two Raman active modes from the I4/mmm phase and seven from the I4/m phase are observed in the frequency range from 150 to 325 cm-1 in both compounds, suggesting that the K0.8Fe1.8Co0.2Se2 single crystal also has a two-phase nature. The temperature dependence of the Raman mode energy is analyzed in terms of lattice thermal expansion and phonon-phonon interaction. The temperature dependence of the Raman mode linewidth is dominated by temperature-induced anharmonic effects. It is shown that the change in Raman mode energy with temperature is dominantly driven by thermal expansion of the crystal lattice. An abrupt change of the A1g mode energy near {{T}\\text{C}} was observed in K x Fe2-y Se2, whereas it is absent in non-superconducting K0.8Fe1.8Co0.2Se2. Phonon energy hardening at low temperatures in the superconducting sample is a consequence of superconductivity-induced redistribution of the electronic states below the critical temperature.

  3. Evidence of superconductivity-induced phonon spectra renormalization in alkali-doped iron selenides.

    PubMed

    Opačić, M; Lazarević, N; Šćepanović, M; Ryu, Hyejin; Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, C; Popović, Z V

    2015-12-01

    Polarized Raman scattering spectra of superconducting K(x)Fe(2-y)Se2 and non-superconducting K0.8Fe1.8Co0.2Se2 single crystals were measured in the temperature range from 10 K up to 300 K. Two Raman active modes from the I4/mmm phase and seven from the I4/m phase are observed in the frequency range from 150 to 325 cm(-1) in both compounds, suggesting that the K0.8Fe1.8Co0.2Se2 single crystal also has a two-phase nature. The temperature dependence of the Raman mode energy is analyzed in terms of lattice thermal expansion and phonon-phonon interaction. The temperature dependence of the Raman mode linewidth is dominated by temperature-induced anharmonic effects. It is shown that the change in Raman mode energy with temperature is dominantly driven by thermal expansion of the crystal lattice. An abrupt change of the A1g mode energy near T(C) was observed in K(x)Fe(2-y) Se2, whereas it is absent in non-superconducting K0.8Fe1.8Co0.2Se2. Phonon energy hardening at low temperatures in the superconducting sample is a consequence of superconductivity-induced redistribution of the electronic states below the critical temperature. PMID:26569081

  4. Non-Fermi Liquid Regimes and Superconductivity in the Low Temperature Phase Diagrams of Strongly Correlated d- and f-Electron Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian Maple, M.; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Hamlin, James J.; Janoschek, Marc

    2010-10-01

    Standard models for simple metals and insulators often fail for systems based on elements with unstable d- or f-electron shells, where strong electronic correlations can generate new and unexpected states of matter. Such a scenario can often be induced when a magnetic phase transition is tuned to absolute zero temperature by an external control parameter such as chemical composition, pressure or magnetic field. At the resulting quantum critical point (QCP), emergent phenomena, such as unconventional superconductivity and novel magnetic phases are frequently observed. The temperature and energy dependences of the physical properties are also found to deviate from expectations for a simple Fermi liquid. This “non-Fermi-liquid” (NFL) behavior is commonly manifested as weak power laws and logarithmic divergences in the physical properties at low temperatures and is often found in a V-shaped region near a QCP, which has become the “classic” QCP phase diagram. However, there is also a growing number of materials where the NFL behavior either occurs far away from the QCP, within an ordered phase, or may not be associated with any putative QCP. Thus, after nearly 20 years of research, it remains unknown whether NFL physics is universal, or if a multitude of unique subclasses exist. In this article, we review research that has primarily been carried out in our laboratory on systems that exhibit NFL behavior that does not conform to the “classic” QCP scenario.

  5. Calcination and solid state reaction of ceramic-forming components to provide single-phase superconducting materials having fine particle size

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Emerson, James E.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved method for the preparation of single phase, fine grained ceramic materials from precursor powder mixtures where at least one of the components of the mixture is an alkali earth carbonate. The process consists of heating the precursor powders in a partial vacuum under flowing oxygen and under conditions where the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 evolved during the calcination is kept to a very low level relative to the oxygen. The process has been found particularly suitable for the preparation of high temperature copper oxide superconducting materials such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x "123" and YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.8 "124".

  6. Bulk superconductivity in novel Bi4O4S3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shiva; Husain, M.; Patnaik, S.; Awana, V.

    2013-03-01

    We report here synthesis and superconductivity in BiS2 based newly discovered Bi4O4S3 compound. The compound is synthesized through vacuum encapsulation technique and is contaminated with small impurities of Bi2S3 and Bi. The compound is crystallized in tetragonal I4/mmm space group. Bulk superconductivity with superconducting transition temperature (TC) of 4.4 K is confirmed by AC, DC magnetization and resistivity measurements. For further confirmation of intrinsic bulk superconductivity, we have heat treated Bi at same temperature and in similar condition. Bi is crystallized in rhombohedral R-3m space group (impurity phase Bi is also indexed in same space group) and is non-superconducting. This excludes any possibility of impurity driven superconductivity in the Bi4O4S3 compound. Isothermal magnetization (M-H) measurements indicated closed loops with clear signatures of flux pinning and irreversible behavior. The magneto-transport ρ (T , H) measurements showed a resistive broadening and decrease in TC (ρ = 0) to lower temperatures with increasing magnetic field. The extrapolated upper critical field Hc2(0) is around 31 kOe. In the normal state the ρ ~ T2 is not indicated. National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi-110012, India

  7. Role of superconductivity in superconducting transmission line resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiao-Ke

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the role of superconductivity in superconducting transmission line resonator, we derive the mode equations using the macroscopic wavefunction of the Cooper pairs. We make an appropriate scaling to obtain the dimensionless form of equations and establish the validity of good conductor approximation under most circumstances. Quantization of superconducting transmission line resonator is realized by the black-box principle. We also briefly discuss that the deviation from good conductor behavior would result in the observable effects, such as the considerable decrease of phase velocity and the soliton.

  8. A fully superconducting bearing system for flywheel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ke-xi; Wu, Dong-jie; Jiao, Y. L.; Zheng, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    A fully superconducting magnetic suspension structure has been designed and constructed for the purpose of superconducting bearing applications in flywheel energy storage systems. A thrust type bearing and two journal type bearings, those that are composed of melt textured high-Tc superconductor YBCO bulks and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, are used in the bearing system. The rotor dynamical behaviors, including critical speeds and rotational loss, are studied. Driven by a variable-frequency three-phase induction motor, the rotor shaft attached with a 25 kg flywheel disc can be speeded up to 15 000 rpm without serious resonance occurring. Although the flywheel system runs stably in the supercritical speeds region, very obvious rotational loss is unavoidable. The loss mechanism has been discussed in terms of eddy current loss and hysteresis loss.

  9. Detection of an Unconventional Superconducting Phase in the Vicinity of the Strong First-Order Magnetic Transition in CrAs Using As 75 -Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Nakahara, Shingo; Akamatsu, Rui; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2015-03-01

    Pressure-induced superconductivity was recently discovered in the binary helimagnet CrAs. We report the results of measurements of nuclear quadrupole resonance for CrAs under pressure. In the vicinity of the critical pressure Pc between the helimagnetic (HM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases, a phase separation is observed. The large internal field remaining in the phase-separated HM state indicates that the HM phase disappears through a strong first-order transition. This indicates the absence of a quantum critical point in CrAs; however, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 reveals that substantial magnetic fluctuations are present in the PM state. The absence of a coherence effect in 1 /T1 in the superconducting state provides evidence that CrAs is the first Cr-based unconventional superconductor.

  10. Superconductivity in Weyl semimetal candidate MoTe2.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanpeng; Naumov, Pavel G; Ali, Mazhar N; Rajamathi, Catherine R; Schnelle, Walter; Barkalov, Oleg; Hanfland, Michael; Wu, Shu-Chun; Shekhar, Chandra; Sun, Yan; Süß, Vicky; Schmidt, Marcus; Schwarz, Ulrich; Pippel, Eckhard; Werner, Peter; Hillebrand, Reinald; Förster, Tobias; Kampert, Erik; Parkin, Stuart; Cava, R J; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Medvedev, Sergey A

    2016-03-14

    Transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted research interest over the last few decades due to their interesting structural chemistry, unusual electronic properties, rich intercalation chemistry and wide spectrum of potential applications. Despite the fact that the majority of related research focuses on semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (for example, MoS2), recently discovered unexpected properties of WTe2 are provoking strong interest in semimetallic transition metal dichalcogenides featuring large magnetoresistance, pressure-driven superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. We investigate the sister compound of WTe2, MoTe2, predicted to be a Weyl semimetal and a quantum spin Hall insulator in bulk and monolayer form, respectively. We find that bulk MoTe2 exhibits superconductivity with a transition temperature of 0.10 K. Application of external pressure dramatically enhances the transition temperature up to maximum value of 8.2 K at 11.7 GPa. The observed dome-shaped superconductivity phase diagram provides insights into the interplay between superconductivity and topological physics.

  11. Superconductivity in Weyl semimetal candidate MoTe2.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanpeng; Naumov, Pavel G; Ali, Mazhar N; Rajamathi, Catherine R; Schnelle, Walter; Barkalov, Oleg; Hanfland, Michael; Wu, Shu-Chun; Shekhar, Chandra; Sun, Yan; Süß, Vicky; Schmidt, Marcus; Schwarz, Ulrich; Pippel, Eckhard; Werner, Peter; Hillebrand, Reinald; Förster, Tobias; Kampert, Erik; Parkin, Stuart; Cava, R J; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Medvedev, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted research interest over the last few decades due to their interesting structural chemistry, unusual electronic properties, rich intercalation chemistry and wide spectrum of potential applications. Despite the fact that the majority of related research focuses on semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (for example, MoS2), recently discovered unexpected properties of WTe2 are provoking strong interest in semimetallic transition metal dichalcogenides featuring large magnetoresistance, pressure-driven superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. We investigate the sister compound of WTe2, MoTe2, predicted to be a Weyl semimetal and a quantum spin Hall insulator in bulk and monolayer form, respectively. We find that bulk MoTe2 exhibits superconductivity with a transition temperature of 0.10 K. Application of external pressure dramatically enhances the transition temperature up to maximum value of 8.2 K at 11.7 GPa. The observed dome-shaped superconductivity phase diagram provides insights into the interplay between superconductivity and topological physics. PMID:26972450

  12. Superconductivity in Weyl semimetal candidate MoTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yanpeng; Naumov, Pavel G.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Rajamathi, Catherine R.; Schnelle, Walter; Barkalov, Oleg; Hanfland, Michael; Wu, Shu-Chun; Shekhar, Chandra; Sun, Yan; Süß, Vicky; Schmidt, Marcus; Schwarz, Ulrich; Pippel, Eckhard; Werner, Peter; Hillebrand, Reinald; Förster, Tobias; Kampert, Erik; Parkin, Stuart; Cava, R. J.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Medvedev, Sergey A.

    2016-03-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted research interest over the last few decades due to their interesting structural chemistry, unusual electronic properties, rich intercalation chemistry and wide spectrum of potential applications. Despite the fact that the majority of related research focuses on semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (for example, MoS2), recently discovered unexpected properties of WTe2 are provoking strong interest in semimetallic transition metal dichalcogenides featuring large magnetoresistance, pressure-driven superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. We investigate the sister compound of WTe2, MoTe2, predicted to be a Weyl semimetal and a quantum spin Hall insulator in bulk and monolayer form, respectively. We find that bulk MoTe2 exhibits superconductivity with a transition temperature of 0.10 K. Application of external pressure dramatically enhances the transition temperature up to maximum value of 8.2 K at 11.7 GPa. The observed dome-shaped superconductivity phase diagram provides insights into the interplay between superconductivity and topological physics.

  13. Superconductivity in Weyl semimetal candidate MoTe2

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanpeng; Naumov, Pavel G.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Rajamathi, Catherine R.; Schnelle, Walter; Barkalov, Oleg; Hanfland, Michael; Wu, Shu-Chun; Shekhar, Chandra; Sun, Yan; Süß, Vicky; Schmidt, Marcus; Schwarz, Ulrich; Pippel, Eckhard; Werner, Peter; Hillebrand, Reinald; Förster, Tobias; Kampert, Erik; Parkin, Stuart; Cava, R. J.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Medvedev, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted research interest over the last few decades due to their interesting structural chemistry, unusual electronic properties, rich intercalation chemistry and wide spectrum of potential applications. Despite the fact that the majority of related research focuses on semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (for example, MoS2), recently discovered unexpected properties of WTe2 are provoking strong interest in semimetallic transition metal dichalcogenides featuring large magnetoresistance, pressure-driven superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. We investigate the sister compound of WTe2, MoTe2, predicted to be a Weyl semimetal and a quantum spin Hall insulator in bulk and monolayer form, respectively. We find that bulk MoTe2 exhibits superconductivity with a transition temperature of 0.10 K. Application of external pressure dramatically enhances the transition temperature up to maximum value of 8.2 K at 11.7 GPa. The observed dome-shaped superconductivity phase diagram provides insights into the interplay between superconductivity and topological physics. PMID:26972450

  14. Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.

  15. Phase transition of nanotube-confined water driven by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhaoming; Luo, Yin; Ma, Jianpeng; Wei, Guanghong

    2011-04-01

    The effects of electric field on the phase behaviors of water encapsulated in a thick single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) (diameter = 1.2 nm) have been studied by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations at atmospheric pressure. We found that liquid water can freeze continuously into either pentagonal or helical solidlike ice nanotube in SWCNT, depending on the strengths of the external electric field applied along the tube axis. Remarkably, the helical one is new ice phase which was not observed previously in the same size of SWCNT in the absence of electric field. Furthermore, a discontinuous solid-solid phase transition is observed between pentagonal and helical ice nanotubes as the strengths of the external electric field changes. The mechanism of electric-field-induced phase transition is discussed. The dependence of ice structures on the chiralities of SWCNTs is also investigated. Finally, we present a phase diagram of confined water in the electric field-temperature plane.

  16. Synthesis of diamond-like phase from graphite by ultrafast laser driven dynamical compression

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Francisco C. B.; Samad, Ricardo E.; Bettini, Jefferson; Freitas, Raul O.; Vieira Junior, Nilson D.; Souza-Neto, Narcizo M.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid variations of the environmental energy caused by ultrashort laser pulses have induced phase transitions in carbon allotropes, therefore bringing the promise of revealing new carbon phases. Here, by exposing polycrystalline graphite to 25 fs laser pulses at 4 J/cm2 fluence under standard air atmosphere, we demonstrated the synthesis of translucent micrometer-sized structures carrying diamond-like and onion-like carbon phases. Texturized domains of the diamond phase were also identified. Concerning different synthesized carbon forms, pulse superposition and singularities of the thermodynamical process, we pinpoint the synthesis mechanism by the laser-induced subsequent products energetically evolving to attain the diamond-like phase. PMID:26149413

  17. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.

    1990-07-17

    Methods and systems are disclosed for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a packing'' are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets. 2 figs.

  18. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1990-01-01

    Methods and systems for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a "packing" are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets.

  19. Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.

  20. Pressure-induced isostructural phase transition and correlation of FeAs coordination with the superconducting properties of 111-type Na(1-x)FeAs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingqing; Yu, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiancheng; Deng, Zheng; Lv, Yuxi; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Sijia; Liu, Haozhe; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Lin; Mao, Hokwang; Shen, Guoyin; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Ren, Yang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lin, Zhijun; Zhao, Yusheng; Jin, Changqing

    2011-05-25

    The effect of pressure on the crystalline structure and superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) of the 111-type Na(1-x)FeAs system using in situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and diamond anvil cell techniques is studied. A pressure-induced tetragonal to tetragonal isostructural phase transition was found. The systematic evolution of the FeAs(4) tetrahedron as a function of pressure based on Rietveld refinements on the powder X-ray diffraction patterns was obtained. The nonmonotonic T(c)(P) behavior of Na(1-x)FeAs is found to correlate with the anomalies of the distance between the anion (As) and the iron layer as well as the bond angle of As-Fe-As for the two tetragonal phases. This behavior provides the key structural information in understanding the origin of the pressure dependence of T(c) for 111-type iron pnictide superconductors. A pressure-induced structural phase transition is also observed at 20 GPa.

  1. Pressure-induced isostructural phase transition and correlation of FeAs coordination with the superconducting properties of 111-type Na

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qingqing; Yu, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiancheng; Deng, Zheng; Lv, Yuxi; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Sijia; Liu, Haozhe; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Lin; Mao, Hokwang; Shen, Guoyin; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Ren, Yang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lin, Zhijun; Zhao, Yusheng; Jin, Changqing

    2011-05-25

    The effect of pressure on the crystalline structure and superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) of the 111-type Na{sub 1–x}FeAs system using in situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and diamond anvil cell techniques is studied. A pressure-induced tetragonal to tetragonal isostructural phase transition was found. The systematic evolution of the FeAs{sub 4} tetrahedron as a function of pressure based on Rietveld refinements on the powder X-ray diffraction patterns was obtained. The nonmonotonic T{sub c}(P) behavior of Na{sub 1–x}FeAs is found to correlate with the anomalies of the distance between the anion (As) and the iron layer as well as the bond angle of As–Fe–As for the two tetragonal phases. This behavior provides the key structural information in understanding the origin of the pressure dependence of T{sub c} for 111-type iron pnictide superconductors. A pressure-induced structural phase transition is also observed at 20 GPa.

  2. Interplay of screening and superconductivity in low-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhoff, G.; Rösner, M.; Groenewald, R. E.; Haas, S.; Wehling, T. O.

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative description of Coulomb interactions is developed for two-dimensional superconducting materials, enabling us to compare intrinsic with external screening effects, such as those due to substrates. Using the example of a doped monolayer of MoS2 embedded in a tunable dielectric environment, we demonstrate that the influence of external screening is limited to a length scale, bounded from below by the effective thickness of the quasi-two-dimensional material and from above by its intrinsic screening length. As a consequence, it is found that unconventional Coulomb-driven superconductivity cannot be induced in MoS2 by tuning the substrate properties alone. Our calculations of the retarded Morel-Anderson Coulomb potential μ* reveal that the Coulomb interactions, renormalized by the reduced layer thickness and the substrate properties, can shift the onset of the electron-phonon driven superconducting phase in monolayer MoS2 but do not significantly affect the critical temperature at optimal doping.

  3. Chaotic phase synchronization in bursting-neuron models driven by a weak periodic force.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hiroyasu; Suetani, Hiromichi; Kurths, Jürgen; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the entrainment of a neuron model exhibiting a chaotic spiking-bursting behavior in response to a weak periodic force. This model exhibits two types of oscillations with different characteristic time scales, namely, long and short time scales. Several types of phase synchronization are observed, such as 1:1 phase locking between a single spike and one period of the force and 1:l phase locking between the period of slow oscillation underlying bursts and l periods of the force. Moreover, spiking-bursting oscillations with chaotic firing patterns can be synchronized with the periodic force. Such a type of phase synchronization is detected from the position of a set of points on a unit circle, which is determined by the phase of the periodic force at each spiking time. We show that this detection method is effective for a system with multiple time scales. Owing to the existence of both the short and the long time scales, two characteristic phenomena are found around the transition point to chaotic phase synchronization. One phenomenon shows that the average time interval between successive phase slips exhibits a power-law scaling against the driving force strength and that the scaling exponent has an unsmooth dependence on the changes in the driving force strength. The other phenomenon shows that Kuramoto's order parameter before the transition exhibits stepwise behavior as a function of the driving force strength, contrary to the smooth transition in a model with a single time scale.

  4. Boundary-field-driven control of discontinuous phase transitions on hyperbolic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoju; Verstraete, Frank; Gendiar, Andrej

    2016-08-01

    The multistate Potts models on two-dimensional hyperbolic lattices are studied with respect to various boundary effects. The free energy is numerically calculated using the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. We analyze phase transitions of the Potts models in the thermodynamic limit with respect to contracted boundary layers. A false phase transition is present even if a couple of the boundary layers are contracted. Its significance weakens, as the number of the contracted boundary layers increases, until the correct phase transition (deep inside the bulk) prevails over the false one. For this purpose, we derive a thermodynamic quantity, the so-called bulk excess free energy, which depends on the contracted boundary layers and memorizes additional boundary effects. In particular, the magnetic field is imposed on the outermost boundary layer. While the boundary magnetic field does not affect the second-order phase transition in the bulk if suppressing all the boundary effects on the hyperbolic lattices, the first-order (discontinuous) phase transition is significantly sensitive to the boundary magnetic field. Contrary to the phase transition on the Euclidean lattices, the discontinuous phase transition on the hyperbolic lattices can be continuously controlled (within a certain temperature coexistence region) by varying the boundary magnetic field.

  5. Boundary-field-driven control of discontinuous phase transitions on hyperbolic lattices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoju; Verstraete, Frank; Gendiar, Andrej

    2016-08-01

    The multistate Potts models on two-dimensional hyperbolic lattices are studied with respect to various boundary effects. The free energy is numerically calculated using the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. We analyze phase transitions of the Potts models in the thermodynamic limit with respect to contracted boundary layers. A false phase transition is present even if a couple of the boundary layers are contracted. Its significance weakens, as the number of the contracted boundary layers increases, until the correct phase transition (deep inside the bulk) prevails over the false one. For this purpose, we derive a thermodynamic quantity, the so-called bulk excess free energy, which depends on the contracted boundary layers and memorizes additional boundary effects. In particular, the magnetic field is imposed on the outermost boundary layer. While the boundary magnetic field does not affect the second-order phase transition in the bulk if suppressing all the boundary effects on the hyperbolic lattices, the first-order (discontinuous) phase transition is significantly sensitive to the boundary magnetic field. Contrary to the phase transition on the Euclidean lattices, the discontinuous phase transition on the hyperbolic lattices can be continuously controlled (within a certain temperature coexistence region) by varying the boundary magnetic field. PMID:27627272

  6. Search for Superconductivity in Micrometeorites

    PubMed Central

    Guénon, S.; Ramírez, J. G.; Basaran, Ali C.; Wampler, J.; Thiemens, M.; Taylor, S.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10−12 cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials. None of these micrometeorites contained superconducting compounds, but we saw the Verwey transition of magnetite in our microwave system. This demonstrates that we are able to detect electro-magnetic phase transitions in extraterrestrial materials at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:25476841

  7. Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Nathaniel B.; Joye, Samantha B.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term burial of organic carbon in sediments results in the net accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere, thereby mediating the redox state of the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere. Sediment microbial activity plays a major role in determining whether particulate organic carbon is recycled or buried. A diverse consortium of microorganisms that hydrolyze, ferment, and terminally oxidize organic compounds mediates anaerobic organic matter mineralization in anoxic sediments. Variable temperature regulation of the sequential processes, leading from the breakdown of complex particulate organic carbon to the production and subsequent consumption of labile, low-molecular weight, dissolved intermediates, could play a key role in controlling rates of overall organic carbon mineralization. We examined sediment organic carbon cycling in a sediment slurry and in flow through bioreactor experiments. The data show a variable temperature response of the microbial functional groups mediating organic matter mineralization in anoxic marine sediments, resulting in the temperature-driven decoupling of the production and consumption of organic intermediates. This temperature-driven decoupling leads to the accumulation of labile, low-molecular weight, dissolved organic carbon at low temperatures and low-molecular weight dissolved organic carbon limitation of terminal metabolism at higher temperatures. PMID:16286654

  8. Data-driven risk identification in phase III clinical trials using central statistical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Catherine; Venet, David; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    Our interest lies in quality control for clinical trials, in the context of risk-based monitoring (RBM). We specifically study the use of central statistical monitoring (CSM) to support RBM. Under an RBM paradigm, we claim that CSM has a key role to play in identifying the "risks to the most critical data elements and processes" that will drive targeted oversight. In order to support this claim, we first see how to characterize the risks that may affect clinical trials. We then discuss how CSM can be understood as a tool for providing a set of data-driven key risk indicators (KRIs), which help to organize adaptive targeted monitoring. Several case studies are provided where issues in a clinical trial have been identified thanks to targeted investigation after the identification of a risk using CSM. Using CSM to build data-driven KRIs helps to identify different kinds of issues in clinical trials. This ability is directly linked with the exhaustiveness of the CSM approach and its flexibility in the definition of the risks that are searched for when identifying the KRIs. In practice, a CSM assessment of the clinical database seems essential to ensure data quality. The atypical data patterns found in some centers and variables are seen as KRIs under a RBM approach. Targeted monitoring or data management queries can be used to confirm whether the KRIs point to an actual issue or not.

  9. Data-driven risk identification in phase III clinical trials using central statistical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Catherine; Venet, David; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    Our interest lies in quality control for clinical trials, in the context of risk-based monitoring (RBM). We specifically study the use of central statistical monitoring (CSM) to support RBM. Under an RBM paradigm, we claim that CSM has a key role to play in identifying the "risks to the most critical data elements and processes" that will drive targeted oversight. In order to support this claim, we first see how to characterize the risks that may affect clinical trials. We then discuss how CSM can be understood as a tool for providing a set of data-driven key risk indicators (KRIs), which help to organize adaptive targeted monitoring. Several case studies are provided where issues in a clinical trial have been identified thanks to targeted investigation after the identification of a risk using CSM. Using CSM to build data-driven KRIs helps to identify different kinds of issues in clinical trials. This ability is directly linked with the exhaustiveness of the CSM approach and its flexibility in the definition of the risks that are searched for when identifying the KRIs. In practice, a CSM assessment of the clinical database seems essential to ensure data quality. The atypical data patterns found in some centers and variables are seen as KRIs under a RBM approach. Targeted monitoring or data management queries can be used to confirm whether the KRIs point to an actual issue or not. PMID:26233672

  10. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds

    SciTech Connect

    White, B. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-02-27

    Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion com- pounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates and iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.

  11. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds

    DOE PAGES

    White, B. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-02-27

    Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion com- pounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates andmore » iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.« less

  12. Chemical potential driven phase transition of black holes in anti-de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galante, Mario; Giribet, Gaston; Goya, Andrés; Oliva, Julio

    2015-11-01

    Einstein-Maxwell theory conformally coupled to a scalar field in D dimensions may exhibit a phase transition at low temperature whose end point is an asymptotically anti-de Sitter black hole with a scalar field profile that is regular everywhere outside and on the horizon. This provides a tractable model to study the phase transition of hairy black holes in anti-de Sitter space in which the backreaction on the geometry can be solved analytically.

  13. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    PubMed

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions.

  14. Ultrafast phase transition via catastrophic phonon collapse driven by plasmonic hot-electron injection.

    PubMed

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Wang, Bin; Brady, Nathaniel F; Seo, Minah; Nag, Joyeeta; Prasankumar, Rohit P; Hilton, David J; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Haglund, Richard F

    2014-03-12

    Ultrafast photoinduced phase transitions could revolutionize data-storage and telecommunications technologies by modulating signals in integrated nanocircuits at terahertz speeds. In quantum phase-changing materials (PCMs), microscopic charge, lattice, and orbital degrees of freedom interact cooperatively to modify macroscopic electrical and optical properties. Although these interactions are well documented for bulk single crystals and thin films, little is known about the ultrafast dynamics of nanostructured PCMs when interfaced to another class of materials as in this case to active plasmonic elements. Here, we demonstrate how a mesh of gold nanoparticles, acting as a plasmonic photocathode, induces an ultrafast phase transition in nanostructured vanadium dioxide (VO2) when illuminated by a spectrally resonant femtosecond laser pulse. Hot electrons created by optical excitation of the surface-plasmon resonance in the gold nanomesh are injected ballistically across the Au/VO2 interface to induce a subpicosecond phase transformation in VO2. Density functional calculations show that a critical density of injected electrons leads to a catastrophic collapse of the 6 THz phonon mode, which has been linked in different experiments to VO2 phase transition. The demonstration of subpicosecond phase transformations that are triggered by optically induced electron injection opens the possibility of designing hybrid nanostructures with unique nonequilibrium properties as a critical step for all-optical nanophotonic devices with optimizable switching thresholds.

  15. Field-driven phase transitions in a quasi-two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M. B.; Broholm, C.; Reich, D. H.; Schiffer, P.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Vorderwisch, P.; Harrison, N.

    2007-02-01

    We report magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature to characterize the S = 1/2 quasi-two-dimensional (2D) frustrated magnet piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC). The experiments reveal four distinct phases. At low temperatures and fields the material forms a quantum paramagnet with a 1 meV singlet triplet gap and a magnon bandwidth of 1.7 meV. The singlet state involves multiple spin pairs some of which have negative ground state bond energies. Increasing the field at low temperatures induces 3D long-range antiferromagnetic order at 7.5 Tesla through a continuous phase transition that can be described as magnon Bose Einstein condensation. The phase transition to a fully polarized ferromagnetic state occurs at 37 Tesla. The ordered antiferromagnetic phase is surrounded by a renormalized classical region. The crossover to this phase from the quantum paramagnet is marked by a distinct anomaly in the magnetic susceptibility which coincides with closure of the finite temperature singlet triplet pseudo gap. The phase boundary between the quantum paramagnet and the Bose Einstein condensate features a finite temperature minimum at T = 0.2 K, which may be associated with coupling to nuclear spin or lattice degrees of freedom close to quantum criticality.

  16. Ternary phase diagram of dipalmitoyl-PC/dilauroyl-PC/cholesterol: nanoscopic domain formation driven by cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Feigenson, G W; Buboltz, J T

    2001-01-01

    A ternary phase diagram is proposed for the hydrated lamellar lipid mixture dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dilauroylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (DPPC/DLPC/cholesterol) at room temperature. The entire composition space has been thoroughly mapped by complementary experimental techniques, revealing interesting phase behavior that has not been previously described. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows a regime of coexisting DPPC-rich ordered and DLPC-rich fluid lamellar phases, having an upper boundary at apparently constant cholesterol mole fraction chi(chol) approximately 0.16. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments confirm the identification and extent of this two-phase regime and, furthermore, reveal a 1-phase regime between chi(chol) approximately 0.16 and 0.25, consisting of ordered and fluid nanoscopic domains. Dipyrene-PC excimer/monomer measurements confirm the new regime between chi(chol) approximately 0.16 and 0.25 and also show that rigidly ordered phases seem to disappear around chi(chol) approximately 0.25. This study should be considered as a step toward a more complete understanding of lateral heterogeneity within biomembranes. Cholesterol may play a role in domain separation on the nanometer scale. PMID:11371452

  17. ALLOYING-DRIVEN PHASE STABILITY IN GROUP-VB TRANSITION METALS UNDER COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, A; Soderlind, P

    2011-04-11

    The change in phase stability of Group-VB (V, Nb, and Ta) transition metals due to pressure and alloying is explored by means of first-principles electronic-structure calculations. It is shown that under compression stabilization or destabilization of the ground-state body-centered cubic (bcc) phase of the metal is mainly dictated by the band-structure energy that correlates well with the position of the Kohn anomaly in the transverse acoustic phonon mode. The predicted position of the Kohn anomaly in V, Nb, and Ta is found to be in a good agreement with data from the inelastic x-ray or neutron scattering measurements. In the case of alloying the change in phase stability is defined by the interplay between the band-structure and Madelung energies. We show that band-structure effects determine phase stability when a particular Group-VB metal is alloyed with its nearest neighbors within the same d-transition series: the neighbor with less and more d electrons destabilize and stabilize the bcc phase, respectively. When V is alloyed with neighbors of a higher (4d- or 5d-) transition series, both electrostatic Madelung and band-structure energies stabilize the body-centered-cubic phase. The opposite effect (destabilization) happens when Nb or Ta is alloyed with neighbors of the 3d-transition series.

  18. Reentrant Superconductivity Driven by Quantum Tricritical Fluctuations in URhGe: Evidence from Co 59 NMR in URh0.9Co0.1Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Y.; Aoki, D.; Mayaffre, H.; Krämer, S.; Julien, M.-H.; Berthier, C.; Horvatić, M.; Sakai, H.; Kambe, S.; Araki, S.

    2015-05-01

    Our measurements of the Co 59 NMR spin-spin relaxation in URh0.9Co0.1Ge reveal a divergence of electronic spin fluctuations in the vicinity of the field-induced quantum critical point at HR≈13 T , around which reentrant superconductivity (RSC) occurs in the ferromagnetic heavy fermion compound URhGe. We map out the strength of spin fluctuations in the (Hb,Hc ) plane of magnetic field components and show that critical fluctuations develop in the same limited region near the field HR as that where RSC is observed. This strongly suggests these quantum fluctuations as the pairing glue responsible for the RSC. The fluctuations observed are characteristic of a tricritical point, followed by a phase bifurcation toward quantum critical end points.

  19. Production of Seamless Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities from Ultra-fine Grained Niobium, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Crooks, Ph.D., P.E.

    2009-10-31

    The positron and electron linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) will require over 14,000, nine-cell, one meter length, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities [ILC Reference Design Report, 2007]. Manufacturing on this scale will benefit from more efficient fabrication methods. The current methods of fabricating SRF cavities involve deep drawing of the halves of each of the elliptical cells and joining them by high-vacuum, electron beam welding, with at least 19 circumferential welds per cavity. The welding is costly and has undesirable effects on the cavity surfaces, including grain-scale surface roughening at the weld seams. Hydroforming of seamless tubes avoids welding, but hydroforming of coarse-grained seamless tubes results in strain-induced surface roughening. Surface roughness limits accelerating fields, because asperities prematurely exceed the critical magnetic field and become normal conducting. This project explored the technical and economic feasibility of an improved processing method for seamless tubes for hydroforming. Severe deformation of bulk material was first used to produce a fine structure, followed by extrusion and flow-forming methods of tube making. Extrusion of the randomly oriented, fine-grained bulk material proceeded under largely steady-state conditions, and resulted in a uniform structure, which was found to be finer and more crystallographically random than standard (high purity) RRR niobium sheet metal. A 165 mm diameter billet of RRR grade niobium was processed into five, 150 mm I.D. tubes, each over 1.8 m in length, to meet the dimensions used by the DESY ILC hydroforming machine. Mechanical properties met specifications. Costs of prototype tube production were approximately twice the price of RRR niobium sheet, and are expected to be comparable with economies of scale. Hydroforming and superconducting testing will be pursued in subsequent collaborations with DESY and Fermilab. SRF Cavities are used to construct

  20. Compact and phase-error-robust multilayered AWG-based wavelength selective switch driven by a single LCOS.

    PubMed

    Sorimoto, Keisuke; Tanizawa, Ken; Uetsuka, Hisato; Kawashima, Hitoshi; Mori, Masahiko; Hasama, Toshifumi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-15

    A novel liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS)-based wavelength selective switch (WSS) is proposed, fabricated, and demonstrated. It employs a multilayered arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) as a wavelength multiplex/demultiplexer. The LCOS deflects spectrally decomposed beams channel by channel and switches them to desired waveguide layers of the multilayered AWG. In order to obtain the multilayered AWG with high yield, phase errors of the AWG is externally compensated for by an additional phase modulation with the LCOS. This additional phase modulation is applied to the equivalent image of the facet of the AWG, which is projected by a relay lens. In our previously-reported WSS configuration, somewhat large footprint and increased cost were the drawbacks, since two LCOSs were required: one LCOS was driven for the inter-port switching operation, and the other was for the phase-error compensation. In the newly proposed configuration, on the other hand, both switching and compensation operations are performed using a single LCOS. This reduction of the component count is realized by introducing the folded configuration with a reflector. The volume of the WSS optics is 80 × 100 × 60 mm3, which is approximately 40% smaller than the previous configuration. The polarization-dependent loss and inter-channel crosstalk are less than 1.5 dB and -21.0 dB, respectively. An error-free transmission of 40-Gbit/s NRZ-OOK signal through the WSS is successfully demonstrated.

  1. Compact and phase-error-robust multilayered AWG-based wavelength selective switch driven by a single LCOS.

    PubMed

    Sorimoto, Keisuke; Tanizawa, Ken; Uetsuka, Hisato; Kawashima, Hitoshi; Mori, Masahiko; Hasama, Toshifumi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-15

    A novel liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS)-based wavelength selective switch (WSS) is proposed, fabricated, and demonstrated. It employs a multilayered arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) as a wavelength multiplex/demultiplexer. The LCOS deflects spectrally decomposed beams channel by channel and switches them to desired waveguide layers of the multilayered AWG. In order to obtain the multilayered AWG with high yield, phase errors of the AWG is externally compensated for by an additional phase modulation with the LCOS. This additional phase modulation is applied to the equivalent image of the facet of the AWG, which is projected by a relay lens. In our previously-reported WSS configuration, somewhat large footprint and increased cost were the drawbacks, since two LCOSs were required: one LCOS was driven for the inter-port switching operation, and the other was for the phase-error compensation. In the newly proposed configuration, on the other hand, both switching and compensation operations are performed using a single LCOS. This reduction of the component count is realized by introducing the folded configuration with a reflector. The volume of the WSS optics is 80 × 100 × 60 mm3, which is approximately 40% smaller than the previous configuration. The polarization-dependent loss and inter-channel crosstalk are less than 1.5 dB and -21.0 dB, respectively. An error-free transmission of 40-Gbit/s NRZ-OOK signal through the WSS is successfully demonstrated. PMID:23938561

  2. Pb solubility of the high-temperature superconducting phase Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(10+d)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaesche, Stefanie; Majewski, Peter; Aldinger, Fritz

    1995-01-01

    For the nominal composition of Bi(2.27-x)Pb(x)Sr2 Ca2 Cu3 O(10+d) lead content was varied from x = 0.05 to 0.45. The compositions were examined between 830 and 890 C which is supposed to be the temperature range over which the so-called 2223 phase (Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(10+d)) is stable. Only compositions between x = 0.18 to 0.36 could be synthesized in a single phase state. For x is greater than 0.36 a lead containing phase with a stoichiometry of Pb4(Sr,Ca)5CuO(d) is formed, for x is less than 0.18 mainly Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(10+d) and cuprates are the equilibrium phases. The temperature range for the 2223 phase was found to be 830 to 890 C but the 2223 phase has extremely varying cation ratios over this temperature range. Former single phase 2223 samples turn to multi phase samples when annealed at slightly higher or lower temperatures. A decrease in the Pb solubility with increasing temperature was found for the 2223 phase.

  3. Electrically driven reversible insulator-metal phase transition in 1T-TaS2.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Matthew J; Liu, Yu; Lu, Wen-Jian; Li, Li-Jun; Sun, Yu-Ping; Robinson, Joshua A; Datta, Suman

    2015-03-11

    In this work, we demonstrate abrupt, reversible switching of resistance in 1T-TaS2 using dc and pulsed sources, corresponding to an insulator-metal transition between the insulating Mott and equilibrium metallic states. This transition occurs at a constant critical resistivity of 7 mohm-cm regardless of temperature or bias conditions and the transition time is significantly smaller than abrupt transitions by avalanche breakdown in other small gap Mott insulating materials. Furthermore, this critical resistivity corresponds to a carrier density of 4.5 × 10(19) cm(-3), which compares well with the critical carrier density for the commensurate to nearly commensurate charge density wave transition. These results suggest that the transition is facilitated by a carrier driven collapse of the Mott gap in 1T-TaS2, which results in fast (3 ns) switching.

  4. Picosecond dynamics of a shock-driven displacive phase transformation in Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinburne, T. D.; Glavicic, M. G.; Rahman, K. M.; Jones, N. G.; Coakley, J.; Eakins, D. E.; White, T. G.; Tong, V.; Milathianaki, D.; Williams, G. J.; Rugg, D.; Sutton, A. P.; Dye, D.

    2016-04-01

    High-pressure solid-state transformations at high strain rates are usually observed after the fact, either during static holding or after unloading, or inferred from interferometry measurements of the sample surface. The emergence of femtosecond x-ray diffraction techniques provides insight into the dynamics of short-time-scale events such as shocks. We report laser pump-probe experiments of the response of Zr to laser-driven shocks over the first few nanoseconds of the shock event, enabling the α →ω transition and orientation relationship to be observed in real time with picosecond resolution. A clear orientation relationship of (101 ¯0 ) α|| (101 ¯1 ) ω is found, in conflict with ω →α annealing experiments in zirconium and the two α →ω pathways proposed for titanium.

  5. Optimal Phase-Control Strategy for Damped-Driven Duffing Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meucci, R.; Euzzor, S.; Pugliese, E.; Zambrano, S.; Gallas, M. R.; Gallas, J. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Phase-control techniques of chaos aim to extract periodic behaviors from chaotic systems by applying weak harmonic perturbations with a suitably chosen phase. However, little is known about the best strategy for selecting adequate perturbations to reach desired states. Here we use experimental measures and numerical simulations to assess the benefits of controlling individually the three terms of a Duffing oscillator. Using a real-time analog indicator able to discriminate on-the-fly periodic behaviors from chaos, we reconstruct experimentally the phase versus perturbation strength stability areas when periodic perturbations are applied to different terms governing the oscillator. We verify the system to be more sensitive to perturbations applied to the quadratic term of the double-well Duffing oscillator and to the quartic term of the single-well Duffing oscillator.

  6. Optimal Phase-Control Strategy for Damped-Driven Duffing Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Meucci, R; Euzzor, S; Pugliese, E; Zambrano, S; Gallas, M R; Gallas, J A C

    2016-01-29

    Phase-control techniques of chaos aim to extract periodic behaviors from chaotic systems by applying weak harmonic perturbations with a suitably chosen phase. However, little is known about the best strategy for selecting adequate perturbations to reach desired states. Here we use experimental measures and numerical simulations to assess the benefits of controlling individually the three terms of a Duffing oscillator. Using a real-time analog indicator able to discriminate on-the-fly periodic behaviors from chaos, we reconstruct experimentally the phase versus perturbation strength stability areas when periodic perturbations are applied to different terms governing the oscillator. We verify the system to be more sensitive to perturbations applied to the quadratic term of the double-well Duffing oscillator and to the quartic term of the single-well Duffing oscillator. PMID:26871335

  7. Electrical wind force-driven and dislocation-templated amorphization in phase-change nanowires.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung-Wook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Lo, Yu Chieh; Qi, Liang; Li, Ju; Lu, Ye; Johnson, A T Charlie; Jung, Yeonwoong; Nukala, Pavan; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2012-06-22

    Phase-change materials undergo rapid and reversible crystalline-to-amorphous structural transformation and are being used for nonvolatile memory devices. However, the transformation mechanism remains poorly understood. We have studied the effect of electrical pulses on the crystalline-to-amorphous phase change in a single-crystalline Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) (GST) nanowire memory device by in situ transmission electron microscopy. We show that electrical pulses produce dislocations in crystalline GST, which become mobile and glide in the direction of hole-carrier motion. The continuous increase in the density of dislocations moving unidirectionally in the material leads to dislocation jamming, which eventually induces the crystalline-to-amorphous phase change with a sharp interface spanning the entire nanowire cross section. The dislocation-templated amorphization explains the large on/off resistance ratio of the device.

  8. Labyrinthine phase and slow dynamics in a driven magnetic granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merminod, Simon; Jamin, Timothee; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael; Division of Non-equilibrium Physics Team

    Labyrinthine patterns arise in two-dimensional physical systems submitted to competing interactions, ranging from the fields of solid-state physics to hydrodynamics. Here we experimentally investigate a labyrinthine phase in an out-of-equilibrium system constituted of vibrated granular particles. Once sufficiently magnetized, they self-organize into short chains of particles in contact and randomly orientated. We quantitatively characterize the transition from a granular gas state to a labyrinthine phase, and we explain the formation of these chains using a simple model. Interestingly, the labyrinthine phase does not display any steady state: its morphology evolves with the aging time on very long timescales. Experiments suggest that here, slow dynamics involves strong structural rearrangements and therefore is comparable to slow dynamics in structural glasses. We characterize this aging process and evaluate to what extent this analogy holds.

  9. Temperature-driven volume transition in hydrogels: Phase-coexistence and interface localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, E. N. M.; Nardinocchi, P.; Sciarra, G.

    2016-05-01

    We study volume transition phenomenon in hydrogels within the framework of Flory-Rehner thermodynamic modelling; we show that starting from different models for the Flory parameter different conclusions can be achieved, in terms of admissible coexisting equilibria of the system. In particular, with explicit reference to a one-dimensional problem we establish the ranges of both temperature and traction which allow for the coexistence of a swollen and a shrunk phase. Through consideration of an augmented Flory-Rehner free-energy, which also accounts for the gradient of volume changes, we determine the position of the interface between the coexisting phases, and capture the connection profile between them.

  10. Pressure-induced phase transitions and correlation between structure and superconductivity in iron-based superconductor Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinggeng; Liu, Haozhe; Ehm, Lars; Dong, Dawei; Chen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingqing; Hu, Wanzheng; Wang, Nanlin; Jin, Changqing

    2013-07-15

    High-pressure angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments on iron-based superconductor Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs were performed up to 54.9 GPa at room temperature. A tetragonal to tetragonal isostructural phase transition starts at about 13.9 GPa, and a new high-pressure phase has been found above 33.8 GPa. At pressures above 19.9 GPa, Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs completely transforms to a high-pressure tetragonal phase, which remains in the same tetragonal structure with a larger a-axis and smaller c-axis than those of the low-pressure tetragonal phase. The structure analysis shows a discontinuity in the pressure dependences of the Fe-As and Ce-(O, F) bond distances, as well as the As-Fe-As and Ce-(O, F)-Ce bond angles in the transition region, which correlates with the change in T(c) of this compound upon compression. The isostructural phase transition in Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs leads to a drastic drop in the superconducting transition temperature T(c) and restricts the superconductivity at low temperature. For the 1111-type iron-based superconductors, the structure evolution and following superconductivity changes under compression are related to the radius of lanthanide cations in the charge reservoir layer.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic, Superconducting, and other Phase Transitions in novel F-Electron Materials at Ultra-high Pressures - Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maple, Brian; Jeffires, Jason

    2006-07-28

    This grant, entitled “Experimental investigation of magnetic, superconducting and other phase transitions in novel f-electron materials at ultrahigh pressures,” spanned the funding period from May 1st, 2003 until April 30th, 2006. The major goal of this grant was to develop and utilize an ultrahigh pressure facility—capable of achieving very low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and extreme pressures as well as providing electrical resistivity, ac susceptibility, and magnetization measurement capabilities under pressure—for the exploration of magnetic, electronic, and structural phases and any corresponding interactions between these states in novel f-electron materials. Realizing this goal required the acquisition, development, fabrication, and implementation of essential equipment, apparatuses, and techniques. The following sections of this report detail the establishment of an ultrahigh pressure facility (Section 1) and measurements performed during the funding period (Section 2), as well as summarize the research project (Section 3), project participants and their levels of support (Section 4), and publications and presentations (Section 5).

  12. Helical superconducting black holes.

    PubMed

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  13. Nitrogen-sensitized dual phase titanate/titania for visible-light driven phenol degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yu Hua; Subramaniam, Vishnu P.; Gong, Dangguo; Tang, Yuxin; Highfield, James; Pehkonen, Simo O.; Pichat, Pierre; Chen, Zhong

    2012-12-15

    A dual-phase material (DP-160) comprising hydrated titanate (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O) and anatase (TiO{sub 2}) was synthesized in a low-temperature one-pot process in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) as the N-source. The unique structure exhibits strong visible light absorption. The chromophore is linked to Ti-N bonds derived from both surface sensitization and sub-surface (bulk) doping. From transmission electron microscope (TEM) and textural studies by N{sub 2} physisorption, the composite exists as mesoporous particles with a grain size of {approx}20 nm and mean pore diameter of 3.5 nm, responsible for the high surface area ({approx}180 m{sup 2}/g). DP-160 demonstrated photocatalytic activity in the degradation of phenol under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). The activity of the composite was further enhanced by a small addition (0.001 M) of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which also gave rise to some visible light activity in the control samples. This effect is believed to be associated with the surface peroxo-titanate complex. GC-MS analyses showed that the intermediate products of phenol degradation induced by visible light irradiation of DP-160 did not differ from those obtained by UV (band-gap) irradiation of TiO{sub 2}. The overall performance of the composite is attributed to efficient excitation via inter-band states (due to N-doping), surface sensitization, improved adsorptive properties of aromatic compounds due to the N-carbonaceous overlayer, and the presence of heterojunctions that are known to promote directional charge transfer in other mixed-phase titanias like Degussa P25. - graphical abstract: Nitrogen-sensitized dual phase titanate/titania photocatalyst showing extended visible light absorption and efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature one-pot synthesis of visible light active dual phase photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual phase consists of

  14. Circulatory osmotic desalination driven by a mild temperature gradient based on lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition materials.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yeongbong; Nakayama, Daichi; Noh, Minwoo; Jang, Sangmok; Kim, Taeho; Lee, Yan

    2013-11-28

    Abrupt changes in effective concentration and osmotic pressure of lower critical solution temperature (LCST) mixtures facilitate the design of a continuous desalination method driven by a mild temperature gradient. We propose a prototype desalination system by circulating LCST mixtures between low and high temperature (low T and high T) units. Water molecules could be drawn from a high-salt solution to the LCST mixture through a semipermeable membrane at a temperature lower than the phase transition temperature, at which the effective osmotic pressure of the LCST mixture is higher than the high-salt solution. After transfer of water to the high T unit where the LCST mixture is phase-separated, the water-rich phase could release the drawn water into a well-diluted solution through the second membrane due to the significant decrease in effective concentration. The solute-rich phase could be recovered in the low T unit via a circulation process. The molar mass, phase transition temperature, and aqueous solubility of the LCST solute could be tuneable for the circulatory osmotic desalination system in which drawing, transfer, release of water, and the separation and recovery of the solutes could proceed simultaneously. Development of a practical desalination system that draws water molecules directly from seawater and produces low-salt water with high purity by mild temperature gradients, possibly induced by sunlight or waste heat, could be attainable by a careful design of the molecular structure and combination of the circulatory desalination systems based on low- and high-molar-mass LCST draw solutes.

  15. Visualization of electrochemically driven solid-state phase transformations using operando hard X-ray spectro-imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Linsen; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wang, Jiajun; Gao, Peng; Ding, Qi; Yu, Young-Sang; Wang, Feng; Cabana, Jordi; Wang, Jun; Jin, Song

    2015-04-20

    In situ techniques with high temporal, spatial and chemical resolution are key to understand ubiquitous solid-state phase transformations, which are crucial to many technological applications. Hard X-ray spectro-imaging can visualize electrochemically driven phase transformations but demands considerably large samples with strong absorption signal so far. Here we show a conceptually new data analysis method to enable operando visualization of mechanistically relevant weakly absorbing samples at the nanoscale and study electrochemical reaction dynamics of iron fluoride, a promising high-capacity conversion cathode material. In two specially designed samples with distinctive microstructure and porosity, we observe homogeneous phase transformations during both discharge andmore » charge, faster and more complete Li-storage occurring in porous polycrystalline iron fluoride, and further, incomplete charge reaction following a pathway different from conventional belief. In conclusion, these mechanistic insights provide guidelines for designing better conversion cathode materials to realize the promise of high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.« less

  16. Stabilization and relative phase effects in a dichromatically driven diatomic Morse molecule: interpretation based on nonlinear classical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Constantoudis, Vassilios; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A

    2005-02-22

    The dissociation dynamics of a dichromatically laser-driven diatomic Morse molecule vibrating in the ground state is investigated by applying tools of the nonlinear theory of classical Hamiltonian systems. Emphasis is placed on the role of the relative phase of the two fields, phi. First, it is found that, just like in quantum mechanics, there is dependence of the dissociation probability on phi. Then, it is demonstrated that addition of the second laser leads to suppression of probability (stabilization), when the intensity of the first laser is kept constant just above or below the single laser dissociation threshold. This "chemical bond hardening" diminishes as phi increases. These effects are investigated and interpreted in terms of modifications in phase space topology. Variations of phi as well as of the intensity of the second laser may cause (i) appearance/disappearance of the stability island corresponding to the common resonance with the lowest energy and (ii) deformation and movement of the region of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori that survive from the undriven system. The latter is the main origin in phase space of stabilization and phi dependence. Finally, it is shown that the use of short laser pulses enhances both effects.

  17. The dynamics of capillary-driven two-phase flow: the role of nanofluid structural forces.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Alex; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Capillary-driven flows are fundamental phenomena and are involved in many key technological processes, such as oil recovery through porous rocks, ink-jet printing, the bubble dynamics in a capillary, microfluidic devices and labs on chips. Here, we discuss and propose a model for the oil displacement dynamics from the capillary by the nanofluid (which is composed of a liquid suspension of nanoparticles); we elucidate the physics of the novelty of the phenomenon and its application. The oil displacement by the nanofluid flow is a multi-stage phenomenon, first leading to the oil film formation on the capillary wall, its break-up, and retraction over the capillary wall; this lead to the formation of the oil double concave meniscus. With time, the process repeats itself, leading to the formation of a regular "necklace" of oil droplets inside the capillary. Finally, the oil droplets are separated by the nanofluid film from the capillary wall. The light reflected differential interferometry technique is applied to investigate the nanofluid interactions with the glass wall. We find nanoparticles tend to self-structure into multiple layers close to the solid wall, which cause the structural forces to arise that lead to the oil displacement from the capillary. This research is expected to benefit the understanding of nanofluid phenomena in a capillary and promote their use in technological applications. PMID:25465201

  18. Ion Beam Driven Shock Device Using Accelerated High Density Plasmoid by Phased Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchida, Minoru

    1997-07-01

    Different from three methods to generate high shock pressure by acceleration of high density plasma or particles (intense ion beams, plasma gun and rail gun) having their intrinsic deficiencies, new frontier is proposed to propel the shock physics and chemistry by using the high density plasma. In the present paper, new scheduled Z-pinch method is developed as a new device to generate high shock pressure. In the present method, plasma density can be compressed to the order of 10^18 to 10^19 cm-3, and high density plasma can be accelerated by zippering together with axial shock pressure, resulting in high-velocity launching of flyer. In the present paper, systematic experimental works are performed to demonstrate that high energy plasma flow can be electro-magnetically driven by the scheduled capillary Z-pinch, and to characterize the ion velocity and its current density. The estimated value of ion speed from the plasma-measurement reaches to 7 x 10^7 cm/s corresponding to 70 to 100 KeV for Ar. Copper flyer can be shot with the velocity range from 1km/s to 3km/s in the standard condition.

  19. Metal-Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows.

  20. Metal - Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials

    PubMed Central

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows. PMID:27033314

  1. Metal - Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-04-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows.

  2. Carrier-envelope phase-dependent electronic conductivity in an air filament driven by few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lifeng; Lu, Xin; Teng, Hao; Xi, Tingting; Chen, Shiyou; He, Peng; He, Xinkui; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-07-01

    The modulation of the electron conductivity in an air filament, which is produced by carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilized 7-fs laser pulses, is realized experimentally. Numerical results based on a coupled 3D+1 generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation including the real electric-field dependent ionization model are in good agreement with those from the experiment. It is demonstrated that the CEP effect on the electron density originates from the CEP-induced modification of the electric field of the laser pulse, and this modification is amplified during nonlinear propagation. The results provide important information to help understand the physical mechanism of the filaments driven by few-cycle femtosecond laser pulses.

  3. Disorder-driven topological phase transition in B i2S e3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Salehi, Maryam; Moon, Jisoo; Zhang, Wenhan; Li, Haoxiang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Han, Myung-Geun; Wu, Liang; Emge, Thomas; Lee, Hang-Dong; Xu, Can; Rhee, Seuk Joo; Gustafsson, Torgny; Armitage, N. Peter; Zhu, Yimei; Dessau, Daniel S.; Wu, Weida; Oh, Seongshik

    2016-10-01

    Topological insulators (TI) are a phase of matter that host unusual metallic surface states. Unlike the states that exist on the surface of conventional materials, these so-called topological surfaces states (TSS) are protected against disorder-related localization effects by time reversal symmetry through strong spin-orbit coupling. By combining transport measurements, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that there exists a critical level of disorder beyond which the TI B i2S e3 loses its ability to protect the metallic TSS and transitions to a fully insulating state. The absence of the metallic surface channels dictates that there is a change in the material's topological character, implying that disorder can lead to a topological phase transition even without breaking the time reversal symmetry. This observation challenges the conventional notion of topologically protected surface states and should prompt new studies as to the fundamental nature of topological phase of matter in the presence of disorder.

  4. Interplay Of Magnetism And Superconductivity In Cecoin5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovich, R.; Tokiwa, Y.; Ronning, F.; Bianchi, A.; Capan, C.; Young, B. L.; Urbano, R. R.; Curro, N. J.; Park, T.; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E.; Sarrao, J. L.

    CeCoIn5 is a heavy fermion superconductor which appears to be straddling the boundary between the superconducting and magnetic ground states. At the superconducting critical field H c2 this material displays NFL behavior in transport and thermodynamic properties, pointing at a Quantum Critical Point (QCP) at H c2, and hinting at the presence of magnetic fluctuations, probably due to an AFM order superseded by the superconductivity. In the High-Field-Low-Temperature (HFLT) corner of the superconducting phase of CeCoIn5, within 20% off H c2, an additional phase appears within the superconducting phase, and the normal-to-superconducting transition itself becomes first order. This behavior is consistent with a strong Pauli limited superconductivity, and the low temperature high field phase being an inhomogeneous superconducting FFLO phase. Recent NMR experiments, however, point to a long range magnetic order within HFLT state. Experiments on CeRhIn5 under pressure show magnetic field induced AFM order within the superconducting phase, with some similarities to the phase diagram of CeCoIn5. Could the HFLT phase transition be due to magnetic order? Importantly, the HFLT phase does not extend into the normal state above H c2. We need a picture of a magnetism "attracted" to superconductivity to explain the data on the HFLT phase in CeCoIn5.

  5. Superconducting materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ruvalds, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors.

  6. Superconducting Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses superconducting microelectronics based on the Josephson effect and its advantages over conventional integrated circuits in speed and sensitivity. Considers present uses in standards laboratories (voltage) and in measuring weak magnetic fields. Also considers future applications in superfast computer circuitry using Superconducting…

  7. Superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-{Tc} superconductor at low temperature.

  8. On nematicity, magnetism and superconductivity in FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhmer, Anna

    FeSe is unique among iron-based superconductors, notably regarding the interrelationships of structure, magnetism, and superconductivity. At ambient pressure, FeSe exhibits a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic (nematic) phase transition at Ts = 90 K, similar to other iron-based materials, but unlike them, no long-range magnetic order. One consequence is the unique possibility to study the in-plane resistivity anisotropy, arguably the most investigated 'nematic property', without interfering effects from the Fermi surface reconstruction induced by antiferromagnetic order. Recent findings pose the question whether nematicity in FeSe is driven by magnetic fluctuations, as often assumed in other iron-based systems. In particular, magnetic fluctuations, which are prominent at low temperatures, are not observed above Ts in FeSe by NMR, even though indicated by inelastic neutron scattering. The pressure-temperature phase diagram, recently obtained in new comprehensiveness using vapor-grown single crystals, shows that the structural transition is suppressed at 2 GPa and a new, likely magnetic phase is stabilized above 0.8 GPa, where Tc has a local maximum. Various theoretical scenarios have been proposed to explain this nematic transition far away from the magnetic order. Surprisingly, the degree of the orthorhombic distortion does not decrease below the superconducting transition at Tc = 8 K, suggesting that nematic and superconducting ``channels'' do not compete. Our new results on the superconducting state under pressure, show a non-monotonic pressure dependence of the upper critical field, which is well explained by the Fermi surface evolution. Further, we have successfully detwinned FeSe crystals and measured the in-plane resistivity anisotropy and elastoresistivity coefficients and compared them with model calculations of inelastic scattering from spin fluctuations. This work was supported by the Ames Laboratory, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  9. Terahertz detection of magnetic field-driven topological phase transition in HgTe-based transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kadykov, A. M.; Teppe, F. Consejo, C.; Ruffenach, S.; Marcinkiewicz, M.; Desrat, W.; Dyakonova, N.; Knap, W.; Viti, L.; Vitiello, M. S.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Morozov, S. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2015-10-12

    We report on terahertz photoconductivity under magnetic field up to 16 T of field effect transistor based on HgTe quantum well (QW) with an inverted band structure. We observe pronounced cyclotron resonance and Shubnikov-de Haas-like oscillations, indicating a high mobility electron gas in the transistor channel. We discover that nonlinearity of the transistor channel allows for observation of characteristic features in photoconductivity at critical magnetic field corresponding to the phase transition between topological quantum spin Hall and trivial quantum Hall states in HgTe QW. Our results pave the way towards terahertz topological field effect transistors.

  10. Phase conjugation and adiabatic mode conversion in a driven optical parametric oscillator with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Coutinho dos Santos, B.; Souza, C. E. R.; Dechoum, K.; Khoury, A. Z.

    2007-11-15

    We developed a theoretical model for the spatial mode dynamics of an optical parametric oscillator under injection of orbital angular momentum. This process is interpreted in terms of a Poincare representation of first order spatial modes. The spatial properties of the down-converted fields can be easily understood from their symmetries in this geometric representation. By considering an adiabatic mode conversion of the injected signal, we calculate the evolution of the down-converted beams. A phase conjugation effect is predicted which is a consequence of the symmetry in the Poincare sphere. We also propose an experiment to measure this effect.

  11. Stress-driven phase transformation and the roughening of solid-solid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Angheluta, L; Jettestuen, E; Mathiesen, J; Renard, F; Jamtveit, B

    2008-03-01

    The application of stress to multiphase solid-liquid systems often results in morphological instabilities. Here we propose a solid-solid phase transformation model for roughening instability in the interface between two porous materials with different porosities under normal compression stresses. This instability is triggered by a finite jump in the free energy density across the interface, and it leads to the formation of fingerlike structures aligned with the principal direction of compaction. The model is proposed as an explanation for the roughening of stylolites-irregular interfaces associated with the compaction of sedimentary rocks that fluctuate about a plane perpendicular to the principal direction of compaction.

  12. Phase-field modeling of temperature gradient driven pore migration coupling with thermal conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Liangzhe Zhang; Michael R Tonks; Paul C Millett; Yongfeng Zhang; Karthikeyan Chockalingam; Bulent Biner

    2012-04-01

    Pore migration in a temperature gradient (Soret effect) is investigated by a phase-field model coupled with a heat transfer calculation. Pore migration is observed towards the high temperature domain with velocities that agree with analytical solution. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the pores, the temperature gradient across individual pores is increased, which in turn, accelerates the pore migration. In particular, for pores filled with xenon and helium, the pore velocities are increased by a factor of 2.2 and 2.1, respectively. A quantitative equation is then derived to predict the influence of the low thermal conductivity of pores.

  13. Two state coercivity driven by phase coexistence in vanadium sesquioxide/nickel bulk hybrid material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, C.; Quesada, A.; Saerbeck, T.; Garcia, M. A.; de la Rubia, M. A.; Valmianski, I.; Fernández, J. F.; Schuller, I. K.

    2016-09-01

    We developed a bulk hybrid material consisting of a vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) matrix with nickel (Ni) rich inclusions that exhibit a switchable two-state magnetic coercivity. The V2O3 matrix magnetoelastically couples with the Ni-rich inclusions and its structural phase transition causes two possible magnetic coercivity states. Differences of up to 13% in the temperature window of 14 K are observed, depending whether the transition occurs from rhombohedral to monoclinic or vice versa. These findings provide a pathway for the development of bulk switchable coercivity materials. We present routes to further enhance the magnetoelastic effect by increasing the oxide/ferromagnetic material coupling.

  14. Nonlinear pulse propagation and phase velocity of laser-driven plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-03-25

    Laser evolution and plasma wave excitation by a relativistically-intense short-pulse laser in underdense plasma are investigated in the broad pulse limit, including the effects of pulse steepening, frequency red-shifting, and energy depletion. The nonlinear plasma wave phase velocity is shown to be significantly lower than the laser group velocity and further decreases as the pulse propagates owing to laser evolution. This lowers the thresholds for trapping and wavebreaking, and reduces the energy gain and efficiency of laser-plasma accelerators that use a uniform plasma profile.

  15. Optical signatures of electric-field-driven magnetic phase transitions in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Tista; Shukla, Alok

    2016-06-01

    Experimental challenges in identifying various types of magnetic ordering in graphene quantum dots (QDs) pose a major hurdle in the application of these nanostructures for spintronic devices. Based upon phase diagrams obtained by employing the π -electron Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that the magnetic states undergo phase transition under the influence of an external electric field. Our calculations of the electroabsorption spectra of these QDs indicate that the spectrum in question carries strong signatures of their magnetic state (FM vs AFM), thus suggesting the possibility of an all-optical characterization of their magnetic nature. Further, the gaps for the up and the down spins are the same in the absence of an external electric field, both for the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and the ferromagnetic (FM) states of QDs. But, once the QDs are exposed to a suitably directed external electric field, gaps for different spins split and exhibit distinct variations with respect to the strength of the field. The nature of variation exhibited by the energy gaps corresponding to the up and down spins is different for the AFM and FM configurations of QDs. This selective manipulation of the spin-polarized gap splitting by an electric field in finite graphene nanostructures can open up new frontiers in the design of graphene-based spintronic devices.

  16. Wavelet-based noise-model driven denoising algorithm for differential phase contrast mammography.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Carolina; Wang, Zhentian; Stampanoni, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Traditional mammography can be positively complemented by phase contrast and scattering x-ray imaging, because they can detect subtle differences in the electron density of a material and measure the local small-angle scattering power generated by the microscopic density fluctuations in the specimen, respectively. The grating-based x-ray interferometry technique can produce absorption, differential phase contrast (DPC) and scattering signals of the sample, in parallel, and works well with conventional X-ray sources; thus, it constitutes a promising method for more reliable breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Recently, our team proved that this novel technology can provide images superior to conventional mammography. This new technology was used to image whole native breast samples directly after mastectomy. The images acquired show high potential, but the noise level associated to the DPC and scattering signals is significant, so it is necessary to remove it in order to improve image quality and visualization. The noise models of the three signals have been investigated and the noise variance can be computed. In this work, a wavelet-based denoising algorithm using these noise models is proposed. It was evaluated with both simulated and experimental mammography data. The outcomes demonstrated that our method offers a good denoising quality, while simultaneously preserving the edges and important structural features. Therefore, it can help improve diagnosis and implement further post-processing techniques such as fusion of the three signals acquired.

  17. Phase-locked spiking of inner ear hair cells and the driven noisy Adler equation

    PubMed Central

    Shlomovitz, Roie; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Ji, Seung; Bozovic, Dolores; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2014-01-01

    The inner ear constitutes a remarkably sensitive mechanical detector. This detection occurs in a noisy and highly viscous environment, as the sensory cells—the hair cells—are immersed in a fluid-filled compartment and operate at room or higher temperatures. We model the active motility of hair cell bundles of the vestibular system with the Adler equation, which describes the phase degree of freedom of bundle motion. We explore both analytically and numerically the response of the system to external signals, in the presence of white noise. The theoretical model predicts that hair bundles poised in the quiescent regime can exhibit sporadic spikes—sudden excursions in the position of the bundle. In this spiking regime, the system exhibits stochastic resonance, with the spiking rate peaking at an optimal level of noise. Upon the application of a very weak signal, the spikes occur at a preferential phase of the stimulus cycle. We compare the theoretical predictions of our model to experimental measurements obtained in vitro from individual hair cells. Finally, we show that an array of uncoupled hair cells could provide a sensitive detector that encodes the frequency of the applied signal. PMID:25485081

  18. Homogeneous percolation versus arrested phase separation in attractively-driven nanoemulsion colloidal gels.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Matthew E; Gao, Yongxiang; Moran, Shannon E; Lee, Jinkee; Godfrin, Michael; Tripathi, Anubhav; Bose, Arijit; Doyle, Patrick S

    2014-05-01

    We elucidate mechanisms for colloidal gelation of attractive nanoemulsions depending on the volume fraction (ϕ) of the colloid. Combining detailed neutron scattering, cryo-transmission electron microscopy and rheological measurements, we demonstrate that gelation proceeds by either of two distinct pathways. For ϕ sufficiently lower than 0.23, gels exhibit homogeneous fractal microstructure, with a broad gel transition resulting from the formation and subsequent percolation of droplet-droplet clusters. In these cases, the gel point measured by rheology corresponds precisely to arrest of the fractal microstructure, and the nonlinear rheology of the gel is characterized by a single yielding process. By contrast, gelation for ϕ sufficiently higher than 0.23 is characterized by an abrupt transition from dispersed droplets to dense clusters with significant long-range correlations well-described by a model for phase separation. The latter phenomenon manifests itself as micron-scale "pores" within the droplet network, and the nonlinear rheology is characterized by a broad yielding transition. Our studies reinforce the similarity of nanoemulsions to solid particulates, and identify important qualitative differences between the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of colloidal gels formed by homogeneous percolation and those formed by phase separation.

  19. Phase-locked spiking of inner ear hair cells and the driven noisy Adler equation.

    PubMed

    Shlomovitz, Roie; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Ji, Seung; Bozovic, Dolores; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2014-12-01

    The inner ear constitutes a remarkably sensitive mechanical detector. This detection occurs in a noisy and highly viscous environment, as the sensory cells-the hair cells-are immersed in a fluid-filled compartment and operate at room or higher temperatures. We model the active motility of hair cell bundles of the vestibular system with the Adler equation, which describes the phase degree of freedom of bundle motion. We explore both analytically and numerically the response of the system to external signals, in the presence of white noise. The theoretical model predicts that hair bundles poised in the quiescent regime can exhibit sporadic spikes-sudden excursions in the position of the bundle. In this spiking regime, the system exhibits stochastic resonance, with the spiking rate peaking at an optimal level of noise. Upon the application of a very weak signal, the spikes occur at a preferential phase of the stimulus cycle. We compare the theoretical predictions of our model to experimental measurements obtained in vitro from individual hair cells. Finally, we show that an array of uncoupled hair cells could provide a sensitive detector that encodes the frequency of the applied signal. PMID:25485081

  20. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics due to quantum tunneling of phase slips in superconducting Nb nanowire networks

    SciTech Connect

    Trezza, M.; Cirillo, C.; Sabatino, P.; Carapella, G.; Attanasio, C.; Prischepa, S. L.

    2013-12-16

    We report on the transport properties of an array of N∼30 interconnected Nb nanowires, grown by sputtering on robust porous Si substrates. The analyzed system exhibits a broad resistive transition in zero magnetic field, H, and highly nonlinear V(I) characteristics as a function of H, which can be both consistently described by quantum tunneling of phase slips.

  1. Flow-parametric regulation of shear-driven phase separation in two and three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ã` Náraigh, Lennon; Shun, Selma; Naso, Aurore

    2015-06-01

    The Cahn-Hilliard equation with an externally prescribed chaotic shear flow is studied in two and three dimensions. The main goal is to compare and contrast the phase separation in two and three dimensions, using high-resolution numerical simulation as the basis for the study. The model flow is parametrized by its amplitudes (thereby admitting the possibility of anisotropy), length scales, and multiple time scales, and the outcome of the phase separation is investigated as a function of these parameters as well as the dimensionality. In this way, a parameter regime is identified wherein the phase separation and the associated coarsening phenomenon are not only arrested but in fact the concentration variance decays, thereby opening up the possibility of describing the dynamics of the concentration field using the theories of advection diffusion. This parameter regime corresponds to long flow correlation times, large flow amplitudes and small diffusivities. The onset of this hyperdiffusive regime is interpreted by introducing Batchelor length scales. A key result is that in the hyperdiffusive regime, the distribution of concentration (in particular, the frequency of extreme values of concentration) depends strongly on the dimensionality. Anisotropic scenarios are also investigated: for scenarios wherein the variance saturates (corresponding to coarsening arrest), the direction in which the domains align depends on the flow correlation time. Thus, for correlation times comparable to the inverse of the mean shear rate, the domains align in the direction of maximum flow amplitude, while for short correlation times, the domains initially align in the opposite direction. However, at very late times (after the passage of thousands of correlation times), the fate of the domains is the same regardless of correlation time, namely alignment in the direction of maximum flow amplitude. A theoretical model to explain these features is proposed. These features and the theoretical

  2. Flow-parametric regulation of shear-driven phase separation in two and three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Náraigh, Lennon Ó; Shun, Selma; Naso, Aurore

    2015-06-01

    The Cahn-Hilliard equation with an externally prescribed chaotic shear flow is studied in two and three dimensions. The main goal is to compare and contrast the phase separation in two and three dimensions, using high-resolution numerical simulation as the basis for the study. The model flow is parametrized by its amplitudes (thereby admitting the possibility of anisotropy), length scales, and multiple time scales, and the outcome of the phase separation is investigated as a function of these parameters as well as the dimensionality. In this way, a parameter regime is identified wherein the phase separation and the associated coarsening phenomenon are not only arrested but in fact the concentration variance decays, thereby opening up the possibility of describing the dynamics of the concentration field using the theories of advection diffusion. This parameter regime corresponds to long flow correlation times, large flow amplitudes and small diffusivities. The onset of this hyperdiffusive regime is interpreted by introducing Batchelor length scales. A key result is that in the hyperdiffusive regime, the distribution of concentration (in particular, the frequency of extreme values of concentration) depends strongly on the dimensionality. Anisotropic scenarios are also investigated: for scenarios wherein the variance saturates (corresponding to coarsening arrest), the direction in which the domains align depends on the flow correlation time. Thus, for correlation times comparable to the inverse of the mean shear rate, the domains align in the direction of maximum flow amplitude, while for short correlation times, the domains initially align in the opposite direction. However, at very late times (after the passage of thousands of correlation times), the fate of the domains is the same regardless of correlation time, namely alignment in the direction of maximum flow amplitude. A theoretical model to explain these features is proposed. These features and the theoretical

  3. Cluster dynamic mean-field study on the superconductivity in doped honeycomb lattice Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao Yan; Dang, Hung T.; Wessel, Stefen; Meng, Zi Yang

    The issue of superconductivities emerging from doped honeycomb lattice Mott insulator remains inconclusive. Existing proposals, such as p+ip triplet pairing driven by ferromagnetic fluctuations, d+id singlet pairing driven by antiferromagnetic fluctuations or van Hove singularities in the band structure, are not compatible. This is mainly due to the limitation of various approximated techniques employed in addressing such question with inherent strongly correlated nature. Trying to clarify the situation, we perform large-scale cluster dynamic mean-field simulations to explore the superconductivity instabilities in the doped honeycomb lattice Hubbard model, from medium to strong coupling. To benchmark, we make use of both interaction- and hybridization-expansion continuous time quantum Monte Carlo methods to exactly solve the quantum cluster embedded in self-consistently determined mean-field bath. Temperature dependence of various superconducting susceptibilities are calculated, hence, we provide the least biased results of the competition of the superconductivity in different channels in the phase diagram spanned by doping and electronic interaction.

  4. Ion beam analysis and EPR studies for GdBa2Cu3-xRuxO7-δ superconducting phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, R.; Abou-Aly, A. I.; Roumié, M.; Mahmoud, S. A.; Barakat, M. ME.

    2012-07-01

    Superconducting samples of the type GdBa2Cu3-xRuxO7-δ with 0.000 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.300 were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction technique. The phase formation percentage, lattice parameters, orthorhombic distortion and oxygen-content were calculated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data. The real elemental-content of the prepared samples was estimated from particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). In addition, the oxygen-content was determined using elastic Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) technique at 3 MeV proton beam and Rietveld XRD analysis. Moreover, the prepared samples were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The number of spins N participating in EPR resonance and the paramagnetic susceptibility χ were calculated as a function of both Ru-content and temperature. In addition, the activation energy Ea, Curie constant C, Curie temperature θ, the effective magnetic moment μ and the electronic specific heat coefficient γ were estimated as a function of Ru-content.

  5. A chemically driven quantum phase transition in a two-molecule Kondo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esat, Taner; Lechtenberg, Benedikt; Deilmann, Thorsten; Wagner, Christian; Krüger, Peter; Temirov, Ruslan; Rohlfing, Michael; Anders, Frithjof B.; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic properties of nanostructures that consist of a small number of atoms or molecules are typically determined by magnetic exchange interactions. Here, we show that non-magnetic, chemical interactions can have a similarly decisive effect if spin-moment-carrying orbitals extend in space and therefore allow the direct coupling of magnetic properties to wavefunction overlap and the formation of bonding and antibonding orbitals. We demonstrate this for a dimer of metal-molecule complexes on the Au(111) surface. A changing wavefunction overlap between the two monomers drives the surface-adsorbed dimer through a quantum phase transition from an underscreened triplet to a singlet ground state, with one configuration being located extremely close to a quantum critical point.

  6. Self organization of exotic oil-in-oil phases driven by tunable electrohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Atul; Ghosh, Shankar; Bhattacharya, S; Yethiraj, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Self organization of large-scale structures in nature - either coherent structures like crystals, or incoherent dynamic structures like clouds - is governed by long-range interactions. In many problems, hydrodynamics and electrostatics are the source of such long-range interactions. The tuning of electrostatic interactions has helped to elucidate when coherent crystalline structures or incoherent amorphous structures form in colloidal systems. However, there is little understanding of self organization in situations where both electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions are present. We present a minimal two-component oil-in-oil model system where we can control the strength and lengthscale of the electrohydrodynamic interactions by tuning the amplitude and frequency of the imposed electric field. As a function of the hydrodynamic lengthscale, we observe a rich phenomenology of exotic structure and dynamics, from incoherent cloud-like structures and chaotic droplet dynamics, to polyhedral droplet phases, to coherent droplet arrays.

  7. Ultra-fast nano-scale phase transitions in systems driven far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, A.; Lopasso, E. M.; Caro, M.; Turchi, P. E. A.

    2004-03-01

    We study the thermodynamic forces acting on the evolution of the nanoscale regions excited by laser shots into solid targets. We analyze the role of diffusion, thermo-migration, and the liquidus-solidus two-phase field crossing, as the system cools down from the induced melt under different conditions of energy deposition. To determine the relevance of these thermodynamic forces, solute redistribution is evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations of equilibrium Au-Ni solid solutions. Our results show the combined effects of thermo-migration and solute redistribution that, depending on the material, can reinforce or cancel each other. These effects show that the combination of ultra-fast but nano-scale characteristics of these processes can be used to produce nanoscale modifications of composition in alloys

  8. Barkhausen-like antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition driven by spin polarized current

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Ippei; Naito, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Mitsuru; Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-08-24

    We provide clear evidence for the effect of a spin polarized current on the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition of an FeRh wire at Co/FeRh wire junctions, where the antiferromagnetic ground state of FeRh is suppressed by injecting a spin polarized current. We find a discrete change in the current-voltage characteristics with increasing current density, which we attribute to the Barkhausen-like motion of antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interfaces within the FeRh wire. The effect can be understood via spin transfer, which exerts a torque to the antiferromagnetic moments of FeRh, together with non-equilibrium magnetic effective field at the interface. The conclusion is reinforced by the fact that spin unpolarized current injection from a nonmagnetic Cu electrode has no effects on the antiferromagnetic state of FeRh.

  9. Monte Carlo studies of a driven lattice gas. I. Growth and asymmetry during phase segregation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, F.J.; Laberge, C.A.; Lebowitz, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    We investigate the effects of an external field on the kinetics of phase segregation in systems with conservative diffusive dynamics. We find that, in contrast to the situation without a field, there are now qualitative differences between the results of microscopic simulations of a 2D lattice model with biased Kawasaki exchanges and those obtained from various modifications of the macroscopic Cahn-Hilliard equation (mCH). While both microscopic simulations and numerical solutions of MCH yield triangular domains, we find that in the former the triangles mainly point opposite to the field, while in the latter and in new calculations with the mCH they point along the field. On the other hand, the rate of growth of the clusters and their final state, bands parallel to the field, are similar. This issue and the question of the mesoscopic behavior of cell dynamical systems is discussed but not resolved.

  10. Disorder-driven first-order phase transformations: A model for hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, K.; Kartha, S.; Krumhansl, J.A.; Roberts, B.W.; Sethna, J.P.; Shore, J.D. )

    1994-05-15

    Hysteresis loops in some magnetic systems are composed of small avalanches (manifesting themselves as Barkhausen pulses). Hysteresis loops in other first-order phase transitions (including some magnetic systems) often occur via one large avalanche. The transition between these two limiting cases is studied, by varying the disorder in the zero-temperature random-field Ising model. Sweeping the external field through zero at weak disorder, we get one large avalanche with small precursors and aftershocks. At strong disorder, we get a distribution of small avalanches (small Barkhausen effect). At the critical value of disorder where a macroscopic jump in the magnetization first occurs, universal power-law behavior of the magnetization and of the distribution of (Barkhausen) avalanches is found. This transition is studied by mean-field theory, perturbative expansions, and numerical simulation in three dimensions.

  11. Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Salleo, Alberto; Taylor, Seth T.; Martin, Michael C.; Panero, Wendy R.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Genin, Francois Y.; Sands, Timothy

    2002-05-31

    A combination of electron diffraction and infrared reflectance measurements shows that synthetic silica transforms partially into stishovite under high-intensity (GW/cm2) laser irradiation, probably by the formation of a dense ionized plasma above the silica surface. During the transformation the silicon coordination changes from four-fold to six-fold and the silicon-oxygen bond changes from mostly covalent to mostly ionic, such that optical properties of the transformed material differ significantly from those of the original glass. This phase transformation offers one suitable mechanism by which laser-induced damage grows catastrophically once initiated, thereby dramatically shortening the service lifetime of optics used for high-power photonics applications such as inertial confinement fusion.

  12. The topological quantum phase transitions in Lieb lattice driven by the Rashba SOC and exchange field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Qiao, Qian; Wang, Bin; Ding, Xiu-Huan; Zhang, Yi-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect and the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in Lieb lattice are investigated in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and uniform exchange field. The Lieb lattice has a simple cubic symmetry, which is characterized by the single Dirac-cone per Brillouin zone and the middle flat band in the band structure. The intrinsic SOC is essentially needed to open the full energy gap in the bulk. The QSH effect could survive even in the presence of the exchange field. In terms of the first Chern number and the spin Chern number, we study the topological nature and the topological phase transition from the time-reversal symmetry broken QSH effect to the QAH effect. For Lieb lattice ribbons, the energy spectrum and the wave-function distributions are obtained numerically, where the helical edge states and the chiral edge states reveal the non-trivial topological QSH and QAH properties, respectively.

  13. Exposure-driven macroalgal phase shift following catastrophic disturbance on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roff, George; Chollett, Iliana; Doropoulos, Christopher; Golbuu, Yimnang; Steneck, Robert S.; Isechal, Adelle L.; van Woesik, Robert; Mumby, Peter J.

    2015-09-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in post-disturbance dynamics of ecosystems by modulating recovery of surviving communities and influencing patterns of succession. Here, we document the effects of wave exposure following a catastrophic disturbance on coral reefs in driving a phase shift to macroalgal dominance. In December 2012, a Category 5 super typhoon (`Typhoon Bopha') passed 50 km to the south of Palau (Micronesia), causing a major loss of reef corals. Immediately post-disturbance, a rapid and extensive phase shift of the macroalgae Liagora sp. (Rhodophyta) was observed at sites exposed to chronic wave exposure. To quantify the influence of biotic and abiotic drivers in modulating the extent of post-disturbance Liagora blooms, we compared benthic substrates and herbivore assemblages at sites surveyed pre- and post-disturbance across a gradient of wave exposure. Relative changes in herbivore biomass and coral cover before and after disturbance did not significantly predict the extent of Liagora cover, indicating that changes in herbivore biomass or reductions in grazing pressure were not directly responsible for driving the Liagora blooms. By contrast, the degree of wave exposure experienced at sites post-disturbance explained >90 % of model variance ( p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.69), in that Liagora was absent at low exposure sites, while most extensive blooms were observed at highly exposed sites. At regional scales, spatial maps of wave exposure accurately predicted the presence of Liagora at impacted sites throughout the Palau archipelago (>150 km distance), highlighting the predictive capacity of wave exposure as an explanatory variable and the deterministic nature of post-disturbance macroalgal blooms. Understanding how physical conditions modulate recovery of ecosystems after disturbance allows insight into post-disturbance dynamics and succession of communities, ultimately allowing management strategies to prioritise restoration efforts in regions

  14. Pseudo‐projection–driven, self‐gated cardiac cine imaging using cartesian golden step phase encoding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liheng; Derbyshire, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a novel two‐dimensional self‐gated imaging technique for free‐breathing cardiac cine MRI that is free of motion‐detection overhead and requires minimal planning for motion tracking. Methods Motion along the readout direction was extracted solely from normal Cartesian imaging readouts near ky = 0. During imaging, the readouts below a certain |ky| threshold were scaled in magnitude and filtered in time to form “pseudo‐projections,” enabling projection‐based motion tracking along readout without frequently acquiring the central phase encode. A discrete golden step phase encode scheme allowed the |ky| threshold to be freely set after the scan while maintaining uniform motion sampling. Results The pseudo‐projections stream displayed sufficient spatiotemporal resolution for both cardiac and respiratory tracking, allowing retrospective reconstruction of free‐breathing non‐electrocardiogram (ECG) cines. The technique was tested on healthy subjects, and the resultant image quality, measured by blood‐myocardium boundary sharpness, myocardial mass, and single‐slice ejection fraction was found to be comparable to standard breath‐hold ECG‐gated cines. Conclusion The use of pseudo‐projections for motion tracking was found feasible for cardiorespiratory self‐gated imaging. Despite some sensitivity to flow and eddy currents, the simplicity of acquisition makes the proposed technique a valuable tool for self‐gated cardiac imaging. Magn Reson Med 76:417–429, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID

  15. Non-equilibrium phase transition in a two-species driven-diffusive model of classical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadermazi, Mohammad; Jafarpour, Farhad H.

    2016-09-01

    A two-species driven-diffusive model of classical particles is introduced on a lattice with periodic boundary condition. The model consists of a finite number of first class particles in the presence of a second class particle. While the first class particles can only hop forward, the second class particle is able to hop both forward and backward with specific rates. We have shown that the partition function of this model can be calculated exactly. The model undergoes a non-equilibrium phase transition when a condensation of the first class particles occurs behind the second class particle. The phase transition point and the spatial correlations between the first class particles are calculated exactly. On the other hand, we have shown that this model can be mapped onto a two-dimensional walk model. The random walker can only move on the first quarter of a two-dimensional plane and that it takes the paths which can start at any height and end at any height upper than the height of the starting point. The initial vertex (starting point) and the final vertex (end point) of each lattice path are weighted. The weight of the outset point depends on the height of that point while the weight of the end point depends on the height of both the outset point and the end point of each path. The partition function of this walk model is calculated using a transfer matrix method.

  16. Myelin membrane assembly is driven by a phase transition of myelin basic proteins into a cohesive protein meshwork.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shweta; Snaidero, Nicolas; Pähler, Gesa; Frey, Steffen; Sánchez, Paula; Zweckstetter, Markus; Janshoff, Andreas; Schneider, Anja; Weil, Marie-Theres; Schaap, Iwan A T; Görlich, Dirk; Simons, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Rapid conduction of nerve impulses requires coating of axons by myelin. To function as an electrical insulator, myelin is generated as a tightly packed, lipid-rich multilayered membrane sheath. Knowledge about the mechanisms that govern myelin membrane biogenesis is required to understand myelin disassembly as it occurs in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that myelin basic protein drives myelin biogenesis using weak forces arising from its inherent capacity to phase separate. The association of myelin basic protein molecules to the inner leaflet of the membrane bilayer induces a phase transition into a cohesive mesh-like protein network. The formation of this protein network shares features with amyloid fibril formation. The process is driven by phenylalanine-mediated hydrophobic and amyloid-like interactions that provide the molecular basis for protein extrusion and myelin membrane zippering. These findings uncover a physicochemical mechanism of how a cytosolic protein regulates the morphology of a complex membrane architecture. These results provide a key mechanism in myelin membrane biogenesis with implications for disabling demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

  17. Broadband Phonon Scattering in PbTe-based Materials Driven Near the Peierls Phase Transition by Strain or Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, Ivana; Murphy, Ronan; Murray, Eamonn; Fahy, Stephen

    Efficient thermoelectric energy conversion is highly desirable as 60% of the consumed energy is wasted as heat. Low lattice thermal conductivity is one of the key factors leading to high thermoelectric efficiency of a material. However, the major obstacle in the design of such materials is the difficulty in efficiently scattering phonons across the frequency spectrum. Using first principles calculations, we predict that driving PbTe materials close to a Peierls-like phase transition could be a powerful strategy to solve this problem. We illustrate this concept by applying tensile [001] strain to PbTe and its alloys with another rock-salt IV-VI material, PbSe; and by alloying PbTe with a IV-VI Peierls-distorted material, GeTe. This induces extremely soft optical modes, which increase acoustic-optical phonon coupling and decrease phonon lifetimes at all frequencies. We show that PbTe, Pb(Se,Te) and (Pb,Ge)Te alloys driven near the phase transition in the described manner could have the lattice thermal conductivity considerably lower than that of PbTe. The proposed concept may open new opportunities for the development of more efficient thermoelectric materials. This work was supported by Science Foundation Ireland and the Marie-Curie Action COFUND under Starting Investigator Research Grant 11/SIRG/E2113.

  18. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  19. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  20. Direct Spectroscopic Evidence for Phase Competition between the Pseudogap and Superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nowadnick, Elizabeth A.; He, Rui-Hua; Vishik, Inna M.; Moritz, Brian; He, Yu; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Moore, Robert G.; Lu, Donghui; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Sasagawa, Takao; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuku; Uchida, Shinichi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Hussain, Zahid; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2014-11-02

    In the high-temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors, increasing evidence suggests that the pseudogap, existing below the pseudogap temperature T*, has a distinct broken electronic symmetry from that of superconductivity. Particularly, recent scattering experiments on the underdoped cuprates have suggested that a charge ordering competes with superconductivity. However, no direct link of this physics and the important low-energy excitations has been identified. We report an antagonistic singularity at Tc in the spectral weight of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ as a compelling evidence for phase competition, which persists up to a high hole concentration p ~ 0.22. Comparison with a theoretical calculation confirms that the singularity is a signature of competition between the order parameters for the pseudogap and superconductivity. Our observation of the spectroscopic singularity at finite temperatures over a wide doping range provides new insights into the nature of the competitive interplay between the two intertwined phases and the complex phase diagram near the pseudogap critical point.