Nonequilibrium dynamic phases in driven vortex lattices with periodic pinning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, Charles Michael
1998-12-01
We present the results of an extensive series of simulations of flux-gradient and current driven vortices interacting with either random or periodically arranged pinning sites. First, we consider flux-gradient-driven simulations of superconducting vortices interacting with strong randomly-distributed columnar pinning defects, as an external field H(t) is quasi-statically swept from zero through a matching field Bsb{phi}. Here, we find significant changes in the behavior of the local flux density B(x, y, H(t)), magnetization M(H(t)), critical current Jsb{c}(B(t)), and the individual vortex flow paths, as the local flux density crosses Bsb{phi}. Further, we find that for a given pin density, Jsb{c}(B) can be enhanced by maximizing the distance between the pins for B < Bsb{phi}. For the case of periodic pinning sites as a function of applied field, we find a rich variety of ordered and partially-ordered vortex lattice configurations. We present formulas that predict the matching fields at which commensurate vortex configurations occur and the vortex lattice orientation with respect to the pinning lattice. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent imaging experiments on square pinning arrays (K. Harada et al., Science 274, 1167 (1996)). For current driven simulations with periodic pinning we find a remarkable number of dynamical plastic flow phases. Signatures of the transitions between these different dynamical phases include sudden jumps in the current-voltage curves, hysteresis, as well as marked changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. These phases are outlined in a series of dynamic phase diagrams. We show that several of these phases and their phase-boundaries can be understood in terms of analytical arguments. Finally, when the vortex lattice is driven at varying angles with respect to the underlying periodic pinning array, the transverse voltage-current V(I) curves show a series of mode-locked plateaus with the overall V(I) forming
Hall Noise and Transverse Freezing in Driven Vortex Lattices
Kolton, A.B.; Dominguez, D.; Gro/nbech-Jensen, N.
1999-10-01
We study driven vortex lattices in superconducting thin films. Above the critical force F{sub c} we find two dynamical phase transitions at F{sub p} and F{sub t} , which could be observed in simultaneous noise measurements of the longitudinal and Hall voltage. At F{sub p} there is a transition from plastic flow to smectic flow, where the voltage noise is isotropic (Hall noise = longitudinal noise) and there is a peak in the differential resistance. At F{sub t} there is a sharp transition to a frozen transverse solid, where the Hall noise falls abruptly and vortex motion is localized in the transverse direction. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C. J.; Nori, F.
1998-03-01
We present results from extensive simulations of driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic pinning arrays. Changing an applied driving force produces an exceptionally rich variety of distinct dynamic phases which include over a dozen well defined plastic flow phases. Transitions between different dynamical phases are marked by sharp jumps in the V(I) curves that coincide with distinct changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. A series of dynamical phase diagrams are presented which outline the onset of the different dynamical phases (C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 2648 (1997); and to be published. Videos are avaliable at http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/ñori/. Using force balance arguments, several of the phase boundaries can be derived analyticaly.
Dynamic Phases in Driven Vortex Lattices in Superconductors with Periodic Pinning Arrays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C. J.; Nori, F.
1997-03-01
In an extensive series of simulations of driven vortices interacting with periodic pinning arrays, an extremely rich variety of novel plastic flow phases, very distinct from those observed in random arrays, are found as a function of applied driving force. We show that signatures of the transitions between these different dynamical phases appear as pronounced jumps and dips in the I-V curves, coinciding with marked changes in the microscopic structure and flow behavior of the vortex lattice. When the number of vortices is greater than the number of pinning sites, we observe up to six distinct dynamical phases, including a pinned phase, a flow of interstitial vortices between pinned vortices, a disordered flow, a 1D flow along the pinning rows, and a homogeneous flow. By varying a wide range of microscopic pinning parameters, including pinning strength, size, density, and degree of ordering, as well as varying temperature and commensurability, we obtain a series of dynamic phase diagrams. A short video will also be presented to highlight these different dynamic phases.
Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.
Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.
1999-09-16
We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.
Onset of motion and dynamic reordering of a vortex lattice.
Li, Guohong; Andrei, Eva Y; Xiao, Z L; Shuk, P; Greenblatt, M
2006-01-13
Time resolved transport measurements on a driven vortex lattice in an undoped 2H-NbSe2 crystal show that the response to a current pulse is governed by healing of defects as the lattice evolves from a stationary to a moving steady state and that the response time reflects the degree of order in the initial vortex state. We find that stationary field cooled vortex lattices become more ordered with decreasing temperature and identify a temperature below which a qualitative change in the response signals the disappearance of topological defects.
Extended applications of the vortex lattice method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miranda, L. R.
1976-01-01
The application of the vortex lattice method to problems not usually dealt with by this technique is considered. It is shown that if the discrete vortex lattice is considered as an approximation to surface-distributed vorticity, then the concept of the generalized principal part of an integral yields a residual term to the vortex-induced velocity that renders the vortex lattice method valid for supersonic flow. Special schemes for simulating non-zero thickness lifting surfaces and fusiform bodies with vortex lattice elements are presented. Thickness effects of wing-like components are simulated by a double vortex lattice layer, and fusiform bodies are represented by a vortex grid arranged on a series of concentric cylindrical surfaces. Numerical considerations peculiar to the application of these techniques are briefly discussed.
Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.
Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R
2013-09-06
Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.
Persistence of Metastable Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2 in the Presence of Vortex Motion
Rastovski, Catherine; Schlesinger, Kimberly; Gannon, William J; Dewhurst, Charles; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Eskildsen, Morten
2013-01-01
Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.
Majorana fermions in vortex lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Rudro
2013-03-01
We consider Majorana fermions tunneling between vortices, within an array of such vortices in a 2D chiral p-wave superconductor. We calculate that the tunneling amplitude for Majorana fermions in a pair of vortices is proportional to the sine of half the difference between the global order parameter phases at the two vortices. Using this result we study tight-binding models of Majorana fermions in vortices arranged in a triangular or square lattice. In both cases we find that this phase-tunneling relationship leads to the creation of superlattices where the Majorana fermions form macroscopically degenerate `flat' bands at zero energy, in addition to other dispersive bands. This finding suggests that in vortex arrays tunneling processes do not change the energies of a finite fraction of Majorana fermions and hence brighten the prospects of topological quantum computing with a large number of Majorana states.
Majorana Fermions in Vortex Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Rudro R.
2013-09-01
We consider Majorana fermions tunneling among an array of vortices in a 2D chiral p-wave superconductor or equivalent material. The amplitude for Majorana fermions to tunnel between a pair of vortices is found to necessarily depend on the background superconducting phase profile; it is found to be proportional to the sine of half the difference between the phases at the two vortices. Using this result we study tight-binding models of Majorana fermions in vortices arranged in triangular or square lattices. In both cases we find that the aforementioned phase-tunneling relationship leads to the creation of superlattices where the Majorana fermions form macroscopically degenerate localizable flat bands at zero energy, in addition to other dispersive bands. This finding suggests that tunneling processes in these vortex arrays do not change the energies of a finite fraction of Majorana fermions, contrary to previous expectation. The presence of flat Majorana bands, and hence less-than-expected decoherence in these vortex arrays, bodes well for the prospects of topological quantum computation with large numbers of Majorana states.
Majorana fermions in vortex lattices.
Biswas, Rudro R
2013-09-27
We consider Majorana fermions tunneling among an array of vortices in a 2D chiral p-wave superconductor or equivalent material. The amplitude for Majorana fermions to tunnel between a pair of vortices is found to necessarily depend on the background superconducting phase profile; it is found to be proportional to the sine of half the difference between the phases at the two vortices. Using this result we study tight-binding models of Majorana fermions in vortices arranged in triangular or square lattices. In both cases we find that the aforementioned phase-tunneling relationship leads to the creation of superlattices where the Majorana fermions form macroscopically degenerate localizable flat bands at zero energy, in addition to other dispersive bands. This finding suggests that tunneling processes in these vortex arrays do not change the energies of a finite fraction of Majorana fermions, contrary to previous expectation. The presence of flat Majorana bands, and hence less-than-expected decoherence in these vortex arrays, bodes well for the prospects of topological quantum computation with large numbers of Majorana states.
Chen, Ting-Wei; Jheng, Shih-Da; Jiang, T F; Cheng, Szu-Cheng
2017-03-01
The dynamics of an exciton-polariton condensate (EPC) subject to harmonic confinement can cause spontaneously formed vortices to arrange into a triangular vortex lattice. The stability of such a spontaneously formed vortex lattice is still unknown. We investigate the quantum fluctuations of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating EPC with a rotation frequency close to the harmonic trap. In such a large condensate, we find that a vortex lattice with a triangular structure is stable, whereas one with a square structure becomes unstable. This result indicates that a driven-dissipative vortex array with strong quantum fluctuations can occur in an EPC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ting-Wei; Jheng, Shih-Da; Jiang, T. F.; Cheng, Szu-Cheng
2017-03-01
The dynamics of an exciton-polariton condensate (EPC) subject to harmonic confinement can cause spontaneously formed vortices to arrange into a triangular vortex lattice. The stability of such a spontaneously formed vortex lattice is still unknown. We investigate the quantum fluctuations of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating EPC with a rotation frequency close to the harmonic trap. In such a large condensate, we find that a vortex lattice with a triangular structure is stable, whereas one with a square structure becomes unstable. This result indicates that a driven-dissipative vortex array with strong quantum fluctuations can occur in an EPC.
Josephson vortex lattice in layered superconductors
Koshelev, A. E.; Dodgson, M. J. W.
2013-09-15
Many superconducting materials are composed of weakly coupled conducting layers. Such a layered structure has a very strong influence on the properties of vortex matter in a magnetic field. This review focuses on the properties of the Josephson vortex lattice generated by the magnetic field applied in the direction of the layers. The theoretical description is based on the Lawrence-Doniach model in the London limit, which takes only the phase degree of freedom of the superconducting order parameter into account. In spite of its simplicity, this model leads to an amazingly rich set of phenomena. We review in detail the structure of an isolated vortex line and various properties of the vortex lattice, in both dilute and dense limits. In particular, we extensively discuss the influence of the layered structure and thermal fluctuations on the selection of lattice configurations at different magnetic fields.
Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids.
Martin, A M; Marchant, N G; O'Dell, D H J; Parker, N G
2017-03-15
The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas-Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.
Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, A. M.; Marchant, N. G.; O’Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.
2017-03-01
The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross–Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas–Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition.
Structural Phase Transitions of Vortex Matter in an Optical Lattice
Pu, H.; Yi, S.; Baksmaty, L.O.; Bigelow, N.P.
2005-05-20
We consider the vortex structure of a rapidly rotating trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of a corotating periodic optical lattice potential. We observe a rich variety of structural phases which reflect the interplay of the vortex-vortex and vortex-lattice interactions. The lattice structure is very sensitive to the ratio of vortices to pinning sites and we observe structural phase transitions and domain formation as this ratio is varied.
Historical evolution of vortex-lattice methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deyoung, J.
1976-01-01
A review of the beginning and some orientation of the vortex-lattice method were given. The historical course of this method was followed in conjunction with its field of computational fluid dynamics, spanning the period from L.F. Richardson's paper in 1910 to 1975. The following landmarks were pointed out: numerical analysis of partial differential equations, lifting-line theory, finite-difference method, 1/4-3/4 rule, block relaxation technique, application of electronic computers, and advanced panel methods.
Variational theory for disordered vortex lattices
Bouchaud, J.; Mezard, M.; Yedidia, J.S. Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure et de l'Universite de Paris-Sud, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris CEDEX 05 )
1991-12-30
We derive a variational replica-symmetry-breaking theory for the effect of random impurities on two- and three-dimensional vortex lattices. We find that the translational correlation functions decay as stretched exponentials with exponents which seem to be in good agreement with experiments. We predict, in the absence of dislocations, long-range orientational order in three {ital and} {ital and} {ital two} dimensions.
Three-wave electron vortex lattices for measuring nanofields.
Dwyer, C; Boothroyd, C B; Chang, S L Y; Dunin-Borkowski, R E
2015-01-01
It is demonstrated how an electron-optical arrangement consisting of two electron biprisms can be used to generate three-wave vortex lattices with effective lattice spacings between 0.1 and 1 nm. The presence of vortices in these lattices was verified by using a third biprism to perform direct phase measurements via off-axis electron holography. The use of three-wave lattices for nanoscale electromagnetic field measurements via vortex interferometry is discussed, including the accuracy of vortex position measurements and the interpretation of three-wave vortex lattices in the presence of partial spatial coherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Front propagation in a vortex lattice: dependence on boundary conditions and vortex depth.
Beauvier, E; Bodea, S; Pocheau, A
2016-11-04
We experimentally address the propagation of reaction-diffusion fronts in vortex lattices by combining, in a Hele-Shaw cell and at low Reynolds number, forced electroconvective flows and an autocatalytic reaction in solution. We consider both vortex chains and vortex arrays, the former referring to mixed free/rigid boundary conditions for vortices and the latter to free boundary conditions. Varying the depth of the fluid layer, we observe no variation of the mean front velocities for vortex arrays and a noticeable variation for vortex chains. This questions the two-dimensional character of front propagation in low Reynolds number vortex lattices, as well as the mechanisms of this dependence.
The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.
2014-01-01
Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…
The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.
2014-01-01
Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…
Vortex Lattices in the Bose-Fermi Superfluid Mixture.
Jiang, Yuzhu; Qi, Ran; Shi, Zhe-Yu; Zhai, Hui
2017-02-24
In this Letter we show that the vortex lattice structure in the Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture can undergo a sequence of structure transitions when the Fermi superfluid is tuned from the BCS regime to the BEC regime. This is due to the difference in the vortex core structure of a Fermi superfluid in the BCS regime and in the BEC regime. In the BCS regime the vortex core is nearly filled, while the density at the vortex core gradually decreases until it empties out in the BEC regime. Therefore, with the density-density interaction between the Bose and the Fermi superfluids, interaction between the two sets of vortex lattices gets stronger in the BEC regime, which yields the structure transition of vortex lattices. In view of the recent realization of this superfluid mixture and vortices therein, our theoretical predication can be verified experimentally in the near future.
Harnessing optical vortex lattices in nematic liquid crystals.
Barboza, R; Bortolozzo, U; Assanto, G; Vidal-Henriquez, E; Clerc, M G; Residori, S
2013-08-30
By creating self-induced vortexlike defects in the nematic liquid crystal layer of a light valve, we demonstrate the realization of programable lattices of optical vortices with arbitrary distribution in space. On each lattice site, every matter vortex acts as a photonic spin-to-orbital momentum coupler and an array of circularly polarized input beams is converted into an output array of vortex beams with topological charges consistent with the matter lattice. The vortex arrangements are explained on the basis of light-induced matter defects of both signs and consistent topological rules.
Effect of impurities on the vortex lattice in Bose-Einstein condensates on optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mithun, T.; Porsezian, K.; Dey, Bishwajyoti
2015-06-01
We numerically solve the Gross-Pitaeveskii equation to study the Bose-Einstein condensate in the rotating harmonical tarp and co-rotating optical lattice. The effect of a pinning site or impurity shows that it is able to move the vortex lattice center to either left or right depending on the position of the impurity. Also, it is observed that the impurity at the random positions can destroy the vortex lattice and the resulting disordered lattice has more energy.
Quasi-Long-Range Order and Vortex Lattice in the Three-State Potts Model.
Bhattacharya, Soumyadeep; Ray, Purusattam
2016-03-04
We show that the order-disorder phase transition in the three-state Potts ferromagnet on a square lattice is driven by a coupled proliferation of domain walls and vortices. Raising the vortex core energy above a threshold value decouples the proliferation and splits the transition into two. The phase between the two transitions exhibits an emergent U(1) symmetry and quasi-long-range order. Lowering the core energy below a threshold value also splits the order-disorder transition but the system forms a vortex lattice in the intermediate phase.
A quasi-vortex-lattice method in thin wing theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. E.
1974-01-01
A quasi-continuous method is developed for solving thin-wing problems. For the purpose of satisfying the wing boundary conditions, the spanwise vortex distribution is assumed to be stepwise-constant, while the chordwise vortex integral is reduced to a finite sum through a modified trapezoidal rule and the theory of Chebyshev polynomials. Wing-edge and Cauchy singularities are acounted for. The total aerodynamic characteristics are obtained by an appropriate quadrature integration. The two-dimensional results for airfoils without flap deflection reproduce the exact solutions in lift and pitching moment coefficients, the leading edge suction, and the pressure difference at a finite number of points. For a flapped airfoil, the present results are more accurate than those given by the vortex-lattice method. The three-dimensional results also show an improvement over the results of the vortex-lattice method. Extension to nonplanar applications is discussed.
Fluctuating pancake vortices revealed by dissipation of Josephson vortex lattice.
Koshelev, A. E.; Buzdin, A. I.; Kakeya, I.; Yamamoto, T.; Kadowaki, K.
2011-06-01
In strongly anisotropic layered superconductors in tilted magnetic fields, the Josephson vortex lattice coexists with the lattice of pancake vortices. Due to the interaction between them, the dissipation of the Josephson vortex lattice is very sensitive to the presence of the pancake vortices. If the c-axis magnetic field is smaller than the corresponding lower critical field, the pancake stacks are not formed but the individual pancakes may exist in the fluctuational regime either near the surface in large-size samples or in the central region for small-size mesas. We calculate the contribution of such fluctuating pancake vortices to the c-axis conductivity of the Josephson vortex lattice and compare the theoretical results with measurements on small mesas fabricated out of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} crystals. A fingerprint of fluctuating pancakes is a characteristic exponential dependence of the c-axis conductivity observed experimentally. Our results provide strong evidence of the existence of the fluctuating pancakes and their influence on the Josephson vortex lattice dissipation.
Vortex-Lattice Utilization. [in aeronautical engineering and aircraft design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The many novel, innovative, and unique implementations and applications of the vortex-lattice method to aerodynamic design and analysis which have been performed by Industry, Government, and Universities were presented. Although this analytical tool is not new, it continues to be utilized and refined in the aeronautical community.
Creation of vortex lattices by a wavefront division.
Masajada, J; Popiolek-Masajada, A; Leniec, M
2007-04-16
The Young's double-slit experiment is one of the most popular stories in the history of physics. This paper, like many others, has emerged from the Young's idea. It investigates the diffraction of the plane or spherical wave produced by three or four small holes in an opaque screen. It was noticed that the interference field contained a lattice of optical vortices which were equivalent to those produced in optical vortex interferometer. The vortex lattice generated by the three holes possessed some unique properties from which the analytical formulae for vortex points position were derived. We also pointed out the differences between our case and the double-slit experiment. Finally, some remarks on possible applications of our arrangement are discussed briefly. These theoretical considerations are illustrated with the use of experimental results.
Stability of Polar Vortex Lattice in Ferroelectric Superlattices.
Hong, Zijian; Damodaran, Anoop R; Xue, Fei; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Britson, Jason; Yadav, Ajay K; Nelson, Christopher T; Wang, Jian-Jun; Scott, James F; Martin, Lane W; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Chen, Long-Qing
2017-04-12
A novel mesoscale state comprising of an ordered polar vortex lattice has been demonstrated in ferroelectric superlattices of PbTiO3/SrTiO3. Here, we employ phase-field simulations, analytical theory, and experimental observations to evaluate thermodynamic conditions and geometric length scales that are critical for the formation of such exotic vortex states. We show that the stability of these vortex lattices involves an intimate competition between long-range electrostatic, long-range elastic, and short-range polarization gradient-related interactions leading to both an upper and a lower bound to the length scale at which these states can be observed. We found that the critical length is related to the intrinsic domain wall width, which could serve as a simple intuitive design rule for the discovery of novel ultrafine topological structures in ferroic systems.
Non-Abelian Vortex Lattice in Dense QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, E.
2015-11-01
We show a possible spontaneous color ferromagnetismin the lattice system of non-Abelian vortices in rotating quark matter. The non-Abelian vortex has Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes and CP(N-1) modes for SU(N) color and SU(N) flavor, which are localized along the vortex core. The CP(N-1) mode on each vortex site represents an orientation of color flux, and interaction among these modes causes the color ferromagnetism. The low energy effective theory in this system is described bya 3+1 dimensional CP(N-1) non-linear sigma model, from which we obtain magnon-like NG modes with an anisotropic dispersion relationω_p^2=apx,y^2+bp_z^2, when the vortex lines extend along z axis.
Vortex penetration depth of organic superconductors: Evidence for vortex lattice melting
Tea, N.H.; Giannetta, R.W.; Salamon, M.B.; Williams, J.M.; Wang, H.H.; Geiser, U.
1997-07-01
The authors observe a crossover field H* in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the rf vortex penetration depth in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br for {rvec H}{sub dc}{parallel}{cflx b}-axis. They find that H* can be described quantitatively by the 3D Lindemann melting theory; thus, it corresponds to the melting of the vortex lattice in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and lies very close to the irreversibility line. In the vortex-liquid state, they argue that the saturation of the vortex penetration depth in a magnetic field results from the finite size of the sample. The results do not have the scaling form predicted by the Coffey-Clem model in contrast to previous findings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopasov, A. A.; Savinov, D. A.; Mel'nikov, A. S.
2017-03-01
We suggest a simple model describing the temperature-driven crossover between Abrikosov vortex lattice and superconducting droplet state in dirty superconductors with fluctuations either in the impurity concentration or in the crystal axes orientation. Our analysis is based on the Usadel-type theory with a spatially modulated diffusion coefficient. This modulation appears to break a regular vortex lattice into a random set of weakly coupled superconducting droplets emerging below the fluctuating upper critical field Hc 2(T ) . These droplets cause the resistivity drop at the onset of superconducting transition, being responsible for the increasing broadening of the resistive transition in the increasing magnetic field. The above crossover reveals itself in a positive curvature of the Hc 2(T ) curves, allowing us, thus, to explain the phase diagrams observed in a wide class of disordered superconducting materials.
Stabilization of active matter by flow-vortex lattices and defect ordering
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Adamer, Michael F.; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2016-01-01
Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like and chaotic patterns. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and through numerical simulations, that the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter. Moreover, we discover unexpected vortex ordering at this wet–dry crossover. We show that the self organization of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices, which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects, suggests potential applications in the design and control of active materials. PMID:26837846
Stabilization of active matter by flow-vortex lattices and defect ordering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doostmohammadi, Amin; Adamer, Michael F.; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2016-02-01
Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like and chaotic patterns. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and through numerical simulations, that the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter. Moreover, we discover unexpected vortex ordering at this wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organization of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices, which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects, suggests potential applications in the design and control of active materials.
He, Liang; Sieberer, Lukas M; Diehl, Sebastian
2017-02-24
We find a first-order transition driven by the strength of nonequilibrium conditions of one-dimensional driven open condensates. Associated with this transition is a new stable nonequilibrium phase, space-time vortex turbulence, whose vortex density and quasiparticle distribution show strongly nonthermal behavior. Below the transition, we identify a new time scale associated with noise-activated unbound space-time vortices, beyond which, the temporal coherence function changes from a Kardar-Parisi-Zhang-type subexponential to a disordered exponential decay. Experimental realization of the nonequilibrium vortex turbulent phase is facilitated in driven open condensates with a large diffusion rate.
Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices.
Sedrakyan, Tigran A; Galitski, Victor M; Kamenev, Alex
2015-11-06
We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state.
A vortex-lattice method for general, unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konstadinopoulos, P.; Thrasher, D. F.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L.
1985-01-01
A general method of calculating unsteady, incompressible, inviscid, three-dimensional flows around arbitrary planforms has been developed. The method is an extension of the vortex-lattice technique. It is not limited by aspect ratio, camber, or angle of attack, as long as vortex breakdown does not occur above the surface of the wing and separation occurs only along sharp edges. As the wing performs arbitrary maneuvers, the position of the wake and the distribution of circulation on the wing and in the wake are obtained as functions of time. One desirable feature of the present method is its ability to treat steady lifting flows very efficiently. Several examples of steady and unsteady flows are presented. These include rectangular wings, with and without flaps, delta, and cropped delta wings.
Dynamic Matching of Vortex Lattice in Superconducting Multilayers
Gurevich, A.; Kadyrov, E.; Larbalestier, D.C.
1996-11-01
We observed oscillations of a nonlinear flux flow resistivity {ital R}({ital j},{ital H}) as a function of a parallel magnetic field 6{lt}{ital H}{lt}9 T in Nb-Ti/Cu multilayers. We show that the oscillations in {ital R}({ital H}), which have the field period {Delta}{ital H}{approx_equal}0.1 T independent of temperature and current, indicate a long-range order in the rapidly moving vortex structure. The critical current {ital I}{sub {ital c}}({ital H}) exhibits no oscillations characteristic of {ital R}({ital H}). We propose an explanation of the effect in terms of dynamic matching of the moving vortex lattice with periodic microstructure and show that both {Delta}{ital H} and the amplitude of the oscillations of {ital R}({ital H}) are inversely proportional to the sample thickness. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Goldstein Lab Team
2013-11-01
In conventional electronic materials, spins can organize into ordered phases that give rise to ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic behavior. Here, we report similar observations in a completely different system: a suspension of swimming bacteria. When a dense Bacillus subtilis suspension is confined to a small circular chamber, it can spontaneously form a stable vortex (``spin'') state that can persist for several minutes. By coupling up to 100 such chambers in microfluidic devices, we are able to realize bacterial spin lattices of different geometries. Depending on that geometry and the effective coupling strength between neighboring vortices, we observe the formation of stable ``antiferromagnetic'' and ``ferromagnetic'' bacterial vortex states, that appear to be controlled by the subtle competition between bacterial boundary layer flows and bulk dynamics.
A vortex-lattice method for general, unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konstadinopoulos, P.; Thrasher, D. F.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L.
1985-01-01
A general method of calculating unsteady, incompressible, inviscid, three-dimensional flows around arbitrary planforms has been developed. The method is an extension of the vortex-lattice technique. It is not limited by aspect ratio, camber, or angle of attack, as long as vortex breakdown does not occur above the surface of the wing and separation occurs only along sharp edges. As the wing performs arbitrary maneuvers, the position of the wake and the distribution of circulation on the wing and in the wake are obtained as functions of time. One desirable feature of the present method is its ability to treat steady lifting flows very efficiently. Several examples of steady and unsteady flows are presented. These include rectangular wings, with and without flaps, delta, and cropped delta wings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.
In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.
Vortex Lattices in Rotating Atomic Bose Gases with Dipolar Interactions
Cooper, N.R.; Rezayi, E.H.; Simon, S.H.
2005-11-11
We show that dipolar interactions have dramatic effects on the ground states of rotating atomic Bose gases in the weak-interaction limit. With increasing dipolar interaction (relative to the net contact interaction), the mean field, or high filling factor, ground state undergoes a series of transitions between vortex lattices of different symmetries: triangular, square, 'stripe', and 'bubble' phases. We also study the effects of dipolar interactions on the quantum fluids at low filling factors. We show that the incompressible Laughlin state at filling factor {nu}=1/2 is replaced by compressible stripe and bubble phases.
Spontaneous Symmetry-Breaking Vortex Lattice Transitions in Pure Niobium
Laver, M.; Forgan, E.M.; Brown, S.P.; Bowell, C.; Ramos, S.; Lycett, R.J.; Charalambous, D.; Fort, D.; Christen, D.K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Dewhurst, C.D.; Cubitt, R.
2006-04-28
We report an extensive investigation of magnetic vortex lattice (VL) structures in single crystals of pure niobium with the magnetic field applied parallel to a fourfold symmetry axis, so as to induce frustration between the cubic crystal symmetry and hexagonal VL coordination expected in an isotropic situation. We observe new VL structures and phase transitions; all the VL phases observed (including those with an exactly square unit cell) spontaneously break some crystal symmetry. One phase even has the lowest possible symmetry of a two-dimensional Bravais lattice. This is quite unlike the situation in high-T{sub c} or borocarbide superconductors, where VL structures orient along particular directions of high crystal symmetry. The causes of this behavior are discussed.
Vortex Lattice Metastability and Power Law Dynamics in MgB2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastovski, Catherine; Kuhn, S. J.; Smith, K.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Gannon, W. J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.
2014-03-01
Previous small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) of MgB2 with H ∥ c found a triangular VL which undergoes a field-driven 30° reorientation transition, forming three distinct ground state phases. A high degree of metastability exists between the VL phases of MgB2 that cannot be attributed to vortex pinning and may be a result of the jamming of VL domains [C. Rastovski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 107002 (2013)]. To further investigate the effect of vortex motion on the metastable to ground state VL transition, we applied a small AC magnetic field parallel or perpendicular to the vortices to ``shake'' the lattice. The metastable VL volume fraction decreased with a two-step power law dependence on the number of applied AC cycles. The slow and then fast power law decay of the metastable state may indicate first nucleation and then growth of ground state VL domains. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-FG02-10ER46783.
Dynamics of polarized vortex solitons in nonlocal media with Bessel optical lattices.
Zhang, Bingzhi; Chen, Zhifeng
2015-09-21
We investigate the formation of polarized vortex solitons in nonlocal media with Bessel optical lattices and show the various dynamics of these solitons. Particularly, the stable high-order polarized vortex solitons, which are not found in local media with Bessel optical lattices, are found in nonlocal media. It is found that the nonlocal nonlinearity plays an important role in the stability of these solitons which is similar to that of phase vortex solitons. However, we show that the dynamics of these polarized vortex solitons are quite different from the phase vortex solitons.
Exact matter-wave vortices in a driven optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Yan; Hai, Wenhua; Zhou, Zheng
2013-07-01
We investigate vortex dynamics of a periodically driven Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a spatially two-dimensional optical lattice. An exact Floquet solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is obtained for a certain parameter region which can be divided into the phase-jumping and phase-continuing regions. In the former region, the exact solution can describe spatiotemporal evolution of multiple vortices. For a small ratio of driving strength to optical lattice depth the vortices keep nearly unmoved. With the increase of the ratio, the vortices undergo an effective interaction and periodically evolve along some fixed circular orbits that leads the vortex dipoles and quadrupoles to produce and break alternatively. There is a critical ratio in the phase-jumping region beyond which the vortices generate and melt periodically. In the phase-continuing region, the condensate in the exact Floquet state evolves periodically without zero-density nodes. It is numerically demonstrated that the exact solution is stable under an initial perturbation for both parameter regions, except for a subregion of the phase-jumping region in which stability of the condensate is lost. However, the solution is structurally stable under a small parameter perturbation only for the phase-continuing region, while for the whole phase-jumping region the structural stability is destroyed. The results suggest a scheme for creating and controlling matter-wave vortices.
Thermally driven continuous-wave and pulsed optical vortex.
Ding, Yitian; Xu, Miaomiao; Zhao, Yongguang; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang
2014-04-15
We demonstrated a continuous-wave (cw) and pulsed optical vortex with topological charges driven by heat generated during the lasing process without introducing the astigmatism effect and reducing lasing efficiency. During the lasing process, the topological charges were changeable by the thermal-induced lens and selected by the mode-matching between the pump and oscillating beams. With a graphene sample as the saturable absorber, a pulsed optical vortex was achieved at a wavelength of 1.36 μm, which identified that graphene could be used as a pulse modulator for the generation of a pulsed optical vortex. Thermally driven cw and pulsed optical vortexes should have various promising applications based on the compact structure, changeable topological charges, and specific wavelength.
Vortex formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating deep optical lattice
Kato, Akira; Nakano, Yuki; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Matsui, Tetsuo
2011-11-15
We study the dynamics of vortex nucleation and lattice formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating square optical lattice by numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Different dynamical regimes of vortex nucleation are found, depending on the depth and period of the optical lattice. We make an extensive comparison with the experiments by R. A. Williams et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 050404 (2010)], especially focusing on the issues of the critical rotation frequency for the first vortex nucleation and the vortex number as a function of rotation frequency.
Melting of Vortex Lattice in Bose-Einstein Condensate in Presence of Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bishwajyoti
We study the vortex lattice dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in presence of single impurity as well as random impurities or disorder. The single impurity is modeled by a Gaussian function while disorder is introduced in the system by a uniform random potential. Such potentials can be created experimentally by lasers. We solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensions using split-step Crank-Nicolson method. We first show that a single vortex can be pinned by an impurity. We then show that even a single impurity can distort the vortex lattice. For sufficiently strong impurity potential, the vortex lattice gets pinned to the impurity. We also show that a new type of giant hole with hidden vortices inside it can be created in the vortex lattice by a cluster of impurities. In presence of random impurity potential or disorder, the vortices get pinned at random positions leading to melting of the vortex lattice. We further show that the vortex lattice melting can also be induced by the pseudorandom potential generated by the superposition of two optical lattices. The absence of long-range order in the melted vortex lattice is demonstrated from the structure factor profile and the histogram of the distance between each pair of vortices. I would like to thank DST, India and BCUD SPPU, for financial assisance through research grants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez, Daniel; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Bishop, A. R.
1995-12-01
We study a three-dimensional network of Josephson junctions in a magnetic field, which undergoes a first-order melting transition of the triangular vortex lattice. We perform a Langevin dynamics calculation of the resistance and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. We find hysteresis in the resistance as a function of temperature as measured in untwinned YBa2Cu3O7. Close to the melting temperature the I-V curves are S shaped with hysteresis and show a melting transition when increasing the current, driven by the blowing out of current nucleated vortex loops.
Transverse forces on a vortex in lattice models of superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonin, E. B.
2013-12-01
The paper derives the transverse forces (the Magnus and the Lorentz forces) in the lattice models of superfluids in the continuous approximation. The continuous approximation restores translational invariance absent in the original lattice model, but the theory is not Galilean invariant. As a result, calculation of the two transverse forces on the vortex, Magnus force and Lorentz force, requires the analysis of two balances, for the true momentum of particles in the lattice (Magnus force) and for the quasimomentum (Lorentz force) known from the Bloch theory of particles in the periodic potential. While the developed theory yields the same Lorentz force, which was well known before, a new general expression for the Magnus force was obtained. The theory demonstrates how a small Magnus force emerges in the Josephson-junction array if the particle-hole symmetry is broken. The continuous approximation for the Bose-Hubbard model close to the superfluid-insulator transition was developed, which was used for calculation of the Magnus force. The theory shows that there is an area in the phase diagram for the Bose-Hubbard model, where the Magnus force has an inverse sign with respect to that which is expected from the sign of velocity circulation.
Vortex lattice phases in bosonic ladders in the presence of gauge field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piraud, Marie; Greschner, Sebastian; Kolley, Fabian; McCulloch, Ian P.; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Vekua, Temo
2016-05-01
We study vortex lattices in the interacting Bose-Hubbard model defined on two- and three-leg ladder geometries in the presence of a homogeneous flux. Our work is motivated by recent experiments using laser assisted-tunneling in optical lattices and lattices in synthetic dimensions, which studied the regime of weak interactions. We focus on the effects arising from stronger interactions, in both the real space optical lattice and the synthetic dimension schemes. Based on extensive density matrix renormalization group simulations and a bosonization analysis, we show that vortex lattices form at certain commensurate vortex densities. We identify the parameter space in which they emerge, and study their properties. Very interestingly, an enlarged unit cell forms in the vortex lattice phases, which can lead to the reversal of the current circulation-direction in both geometries. We demonstrate this effect in weak coupling and at sufficiently low temperature, and show that it is significant for intermediate interactions.
Impurity and Dislocation Mediated Vortex Lattice Melting in Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bishwajyoti
2015-05-01
We present a numerical study of a Bose condensed gas in a harmonic trap potential in presence of impurities and dislocations in two-dimensions at zero temperature. The impurity is modeled by a Gaussian function and the line dislocation is modeled by a 'Dirac comb' potential. Such potentials can be created experimentally by laser light. We solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensions using split-step Crank-Nicolson method. To characterize the melting of the vortex lattice we calculate the structure factor and from this the angular distortion of the vortex lattice. We also calculate the histogram of distances between each pair of vortices. The angular distortion of the vortex lattice shows large variations with changes in the impurity or dislocation positions. Also, the angular distortion of the vortex lattice increases with increase in the strength of the impurity and dislocation potentials and shows a jumps to a higher value at a particular strength indicating vortex lattice melting. Large distortion of the vortex lattice is also seen with variations of the number of dislocations and their positions with respect to the Abrikosov lattice. The histogram shows absence of separated peaks indicating the melting of the vortex lattice. The author would like to thank SERB, DST (India) for financial support through a research project.
Observation of Vortex Nucleation in a Rotating Two-Dimensional Lattice of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Williams, R. A.; Al-Assam, S.; Foot, C. J.
2010-02-05
We report the observation of vortex nucleation in a rotating optical lattice. A {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate was loaded into a static two-dimensional lattice and the rotation frequency of the lattice was then increased from zero. We studied how vortex nucleation depended on optical lattice depth and rotation frequency. For deep lattices above the chemical potential of the condensate we observed a linear dependence of the number of vortices created with the rotation frequency, even below the thermodynamic critical frequency required for vortex nucleation. At these lattice depths the system formed an array of Josephson-coupled condensates. The effective magnetic field produced by rotation introduced characteristic relative phases between neighboring condensates, such that vortices were observed upon ramping down the lattice depth and recombining the condensates.
Tailored complex 3D vortex lattice structures by perturbed multiples of three-plane waves.
Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Joseph, Joby
2012-04-20
As three-plane waves are the minimum number required for the formation of vortex-embedded lattice structures by plane wave interference, we present our experimental investigation on the formation of complex 3D photonic vortex lattice structures by a designed superposition of multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves. The unfolding of the generated complex photonic lattice structures with higher order helical phase is realized by perturbing the superposition of a relatively phase-encoded, axially equidistant multiple of three noncoplanar plane waves. Through a programmable spatial light modulator assisted single step fabrication approach, the unfolded 3D vortex lattice structures are experimentally realized, well matched to our computer simulations. The formation of higher order intertwined helices embedded in these 3D spiraling vortex lattice structures by the superposition of the multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves interference is also studied.
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2016-01-01
Despite their inherent non-equilibrium nature1, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states2,3 that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases4,5 of conventional condensed matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies6,7, microbial suspensions8,9 and tissues10 to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish11 and flocks of birds12. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial13 and biological6–9,14 systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: Through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct phases of ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The preferred phase can be controlled by tuning the vortex coupling through changes of the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents15,16, reminiscent of those in quantum systems17–19. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems. PMID:27213004
Dynamic and Structural Studies of Metastable Vortex Lattice Domains in MgB2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Waard, E. R.; Kuhn, S. J.; Rastovski, C.; Eskildsen, M. R.; Leishman, A.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Debeer-Schmitt, L.; Littrell, K.; Karpinski, J.; Zhigadlo, N. D.
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in the type-II superconductor MgB2 have revealed an unprecedented degree of metastability that is demonstrably not due to vortex pinning, [C. Rastovski et al . , Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 107002 (2013)]. The VL can be driven to the GS through successive application of an AC magnetic field. Here we report on detailed studies of the transition kinetics and structure of the VL domains. Stroboscopic studies of the transition revealed a stretched exponential decrease of the metastable volume fraction as a function of the number of applied AC cycles, with subtle differences depending on whether the AC field is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the DC field used to create the VL. We speculate the slower transition kinetics for the transverse AC field may be due to vortex cutting. Spatial studies include scanning SANS measurements showing the VL domain distribution within the MgB2 single crystal as well as measurements of VL correlation lengths. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award DE-FG02-10ER46783.
Phase diagram of a lattice of pancake vortex molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Y.; Crisan, A.; Shivagan, D. D.; Iyo, A.; Shirage, P. M.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Terada, N.
2009-10-01
On a superconducting bi-layer with thickness much smaller than the penetration depth, λ, a vortex molecule might form. A vortex molecule is composed of two fractional vortices and a soliton wall. The soliton wall can be regarded as a Josephson vortex missing magnetic flux (degenerate Josephson vortex) due to an incomplete shielding. The magnetic energy carried by fractional vortices is less than in the conventional vortex. This energy gain can pay a cost to form a degenerate Josephson vortex. The phase diagram of the vortex molecule is rich because of its rotational freedom.
Observation of the vortex lattice melting by NMR spin-lattice relaxation in the mixed state
Bulaevskii, L.N.; Hammel, P.C.; Vinokur, V.M.
1994-01-01
For anisotropic layered superconductors the effect of moving vortices on the nuclear spin magnetization is calculated. Current is supposed to flow along layers, and applied magnetic field is tilted with respect to c-axis. In the solid phase the motion of the vortex lattice produces an alternating magnetic field perpendicular to the applied field which causes the decay of the spin-echo amplitude. This decay rate will display an array of peaks as a function of frequency. In the liquid phase this alternating field contribute to the longitudinal relaxation rate W{sub 1} which has a single peak.
Vortex lattices generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Ohta, A.; Kashiwa, R.; Sakaguchi, H.
2010-11-15
Vortex streets are formed from sheared initial conditions in classical fluids even without viscosity, which is called the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We demonstrate that similar vortex streets are generated from sheared initial conditions by the direct numerical simulation of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation which describes the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensates. Furthermore, we show the vortex-lattice formation from sheared initial conditions analogous to the rigid-body rotation in the GP equation under a rotating harmonic potential. The vortex-lattice formation by the dynamical instability in the system without energy dissipation differs from the vortex-lattice formation process by the imaginary time evolution of the GP equation where the lowest energy state is obtained.
Tornadolike gravity-driven vortex model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, R. G.; Boldman, D. R.
1974-01-01
The buoyancy-induced vorticity concentration produced as the fluid in a vortex accelerates vertically was studied. The boiloff from liquid nitrogen, to which a small amount of initial vorticity was added, provided a source of cool, heavy gas in which a concentration of vorticity took place. Condensation streamers made the flow visible. It is shown that the presence of a surface boundary layer is not necessary for the effective concentration of vorticity. A simple theoretical analysis of the phenomenon was also made. A radial contraction of the flow with vertical position and a characteristic hook shape in the top view of the streamlines were observed in both theory and experiment. The vorticity concentration observed may be similar to that which occurs in tornadoes.
Strain-induced intervortex interaction and vortex lattices in tetragonal superconductors
Lin, Shi -Zeng; Kogan, Vladimir G.
2017-02-22
In superconductors with strong coupling between superconductivity and elasticity manifested in a strong dependence of transition temperature on pressure, there is an additional contribution to intervortex interactions due to the strain field generated by vortices. When vortex lines are along the c axis of a tetragonal crystal, a square vortex lattice (VL) is favored at low vortex densities, because the vortex-induced strains contribution to the intervortex interactions is long range. At intermediate magnetic fields, the triangular lattice is stabilized. Furthermore, the triangular lattice evolves to the square lattice upon increasing magnetic field, and eventually the system locks to the squaremore » structure. We argue, however, that as magnetic field approaches the upper critical field Hc2 the elastic intervortex interactions disappear faster than the standard London interactions, so that VL should return to the triangular structure. Our results are compared to VLs observed in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5.« less
Extension of a vortex-lattice method to include the effects of leading-edge separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mook, D. T.; Maddox, S. A.
1974-01-01
Vortex-lattice methods have been used successfully to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of lifting surfaces without leading-edge separation. It is shown how an existing vortex-lattice method can be modified to include the effects of leading-edge separation. The modified version is then used to calculate the aerodynamic loads on a highly swept delta wing. The results are compared with Peckham's (1958) experimental data.
Extension of a vortex-lattice method to include the effects of leading-edge separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mook, D. T.; Maddox, S. A.
1974-01-01
Vortex-lattice methods have been used successfully to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of lifting surfaces without leading-edge separation. It is shown how an existing vortex-lattice method can be modified to include the effects of leading-edge separation. The modified version is then used to calculate the aerodynamic loads on a highly swept delta wing. The results are compared with Peckham's (1958) experimental data.
Gradient Driven Flow: Lattice Gas, Diffusion Equation and Measurement Scales
2001-01-01
03-200 1 Journal Article (refereed) 2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Gradient Driven Flow : Lattice Gas, Diffusion Equation and...time regime, the collective motion exhibits an onset of oscillation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Diffusion; Fick’s Law; Gradient Driven Flow ; Lattice Gas 16...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 20010907 062 Gradient driven flow : lattice gas, diffusion equation and measurement scales R.B
UBIQUITOUS SOLAR ERUPTIONS DRIVEN BY MAGNETIZED VORTEX TUBES
Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Lele, S. K.; Mansour, N. N.; Wray, A. A.
2013-06-10
The solar surface is covered by high-speed jets transporting mass and energy into the solar corona and feeding the solar wind. The most prominent of these jets have been known as spicules. However, the mechanism initiating these eruption events is still unknown. Using realistic numerical simulations we find that small-scale eruptions are produced by ubiquitous magnetized vortex tubes generated by the Sun's turbulent convection in subsurface layers. The swirling vortex tubes (resembling tornadoes) penetrate into the solar atmosphere, capture and stretch background magnetic field, and push the surrounding material up, generating shocks. Our simulations reveal complicated high-speed flow patterns and thermodynamic and magnetic structure in the erupting vortex tubes. The main new results are: (1) the eruptions are initiated in the subsurface layers and are driven by high-pressure gradients in the subphotosphere and photosphere and by the Lorentz force in the higher atmosphere layers; (2) the fluctuations in the vortex tubes penetrating into the chromosphere are quasi-periodic with a characteristic period of 2-5 minutes; and (3) the eruptions are highly non-uniform: the flows are predominantly downward in the vortex tube cores and upward in their surroundings; the plasma density and temperature vary significantly across the eruptions.
Formation flying benefits based on vortex lattice calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.
1977-01-01
A quadrilateral vortex-lattice method was applied to a formation of three wings to calculate force and moment data for use in estimating potential benefits of flying aircraft in formation on extended range missions, and of anticipating the control problems which may exist. The investigation led to two types of formation having virtually the same overall benefits for the formation as a whole, i.e., a V or echelon formation and a double row formation (with two staggered rows of aircraft). These formations have unequal savings on aircraft within the formation, but this allows large longitudinal spacings between aircraft which is preferable to the small spacing required in formations having equal benefits for all aircraft. A reasonable trade-off between a practical formation size and range benefit seems to lie at about three to five aircraft with corresponding maximum potential range increases of about 46 percent to 67 percent. At this time it is not known what fraction of this potential range increase is achievable in practice.
Toroidal vortex development in a swirl-driven cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hewitt, Richard; Tavener, Simon
2005-11-01
We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical (axisymmetric, finite-element) investigation into steady secondary vortex flows in swirl-driven annular cavities. The flow is driven by the symmetric rotation of both end walls and an inner cylindrical boundary. In all cases the outer boundary of the flow domain is a stationary circular cylinder. At moderate Reynolds numbers, toroidal vortex structures arise either through the creation of stagnation points (in the meridional plane) at the inner bounding cylinder, or on the mid-plane of symmetry. A detailed description of the flow regimes is presented, suggesting that a cascade of such vortices can be created. Experimental results are reported that visualize some of the new states and confirm the prediction that they are stable to (mid-plane) symmetry breaking perturbations. We also consider how the minimum Reynolds number for such non-trivial flow structures behaves in the limit of small aspect ratios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Umeda, Kanji
2016-06-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation for two-component rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with the Rashba-type spin-orbit (SO) coupling is studied with numerical simulations and variational analyses. A multiquantum vortex state becomes a ground state in a harmonic potential when mutual interaction is absent. When the attractive interaction is strong, the multiquantum vortex state exhibits modulational instability in the azimuthal direction, and a soliton-like state appears. When the repulsive interaction is strong, a vortex lattice state with a multiquantum vortex at the center is created. We find that the vortex lattice state is approximated at a linear combination of multiquantum vortex states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, C.; Ge, J.-Y.; He, A.; Zharinov, V. S.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Zhou, Y. H.; Silhanek, A. V.; Van de Vondel, J.
2017-07-01
We investigate the degeneracy of the superconducting vortex matter ground state by directly visualizing the vortex configurations in a kagome lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe microscopy. The observed vortex patterns, at specific applied magnetic fields, are in good agreement with the configurations obtained using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations. Both results indicate that the long-range interaction in this nanostructured superconductor is unable to lift the degeneracy between different vortex states and the pattern formation is mainly ruled by the nearest-neighbor interaction. This simplification makes it possible to identify a set of simple rules characterizing the vortex configurations. We demonstrate that these rules can explain both the observed vortex distributions and the magnetic-field-dependent degree of degeneracy.
The quasi-vortex-lattice method for wings with edge vortex separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, J. L.; Lan, E.
1980-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of wings with leading-edge vortex separation were predicted using a method based on a flow model with free vortex elements which are allowed to merge into a concentrated core. The calculated pressure distribution is more accurate than that predicted by methods with discrete vortex filaments alone. In addition, the computer time is reduced approximately by half.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.
1976-01-01
A new subsonic method has been developed by which the mean camber surface can be determined for trimmed noncoplanar planforms with minimum vortex drag. This method uses a vortex lattice and overcomes previous difficulties with chord loading specification. A Trefftz plane analysis is utilized to determine the optimum span loading for minimum drag, then solved for the mean camber surface of the wing, which provides the required loading. Sensitivity studies, comparisons with other theories, and applications to configurations which include a tandem wing and a wing winglet combination have been made and are presented.
A generalized vortex lattice method for subsonic and supersonic flow applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miranda, L. R.; Elliot, R. D.; Baker, W. M.
1977-01-01
If the discrete vortex lattice is considered as an approximation to the surface-distributed vorticity, then the concept of the generalized principal part of an integral yields a residual term to the vorticity-induced velocity field. The proper incorporation of this term to the velocity field generated by the discrete vortex lines renders the present vortex lattice method valid for supersonic flow. Special techniques for simulating nonzero thickness lifting surfaces and fusiform bodies with vortex lattice elements are included. Thickness effects of wing-like components are simulated by a double (biplanar) vortex lattice layer, and fusiform bodies are represented by a vortex grid arranged on a series of concentrical cylindrical surfaces. The analysis of sideslip effects by the subject method is described. Numerical considerations peculiar to the application of these techniques are also discussed. The method has been implemented in a digital computer code. A users manual is included along with a complete FORTRAN compilation, an executed case, and conversion programs for transforming input for the NASA wave drag program.
Dissipative vortex solitons in two-dimensional lattices
Mejia-Cortes, C.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Molina, Mario I.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.
2010-12-15
We report the existence of stable symmetric vortex-type solutions for two-dimensional nonlinear discrete dissipative systems governed by a cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. We construct a whole family of vortex solitons with a topological charge S=1. Surprisingly, the dynamical evolution of unstable solutions of this family does not significantly alter their profile, but instead their phase distribution completely changes; they transform into two-charge swirl-vortex solitons. We dynamically excite this structure showing its experimental feasibility.
Hall Effect in the Vortex Lattice of d-Wave Superconductors with Anisotropic Fermi Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohno, Wataru; Ueki, Hikaru; Kita, Takafumi
2017-02-01
On the basis of the augmented quasiclassical theory of superconductivity with the Lorentz force, we study the magnetic field dependence of the charge distribution due to the Lorentz force in a d-wave vortex lattice with anisotropic Fermi surfaces. Owing to the competition between the energy-gap and Fermi surface anisotropies, the charge profile in the vortex lattice changes dramatically with increasing magnetic field because of the overlaps of each nearest vortex-core charge. In addition, the accumulated charge in the core region may reverse its sign as a function of magnetic field. This strong field dependence of the vortex-core charge cannot be observed in the model with an isotropic Fermi surface.
Azimuthal-spin-wave-mode-driven vortex-core reversals
Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Kim, Sang-Koog
2015-01-14
We studied, by micromagnetic numerical calculations, asymmetric vortex-core reversals driven by the m = −1 and m = +1 azimuthal spin-wave modes' excitations in soft magnetic circular nano-disks. We addressed the similarities and differences between the asymmetric core reversals in terms of the temporal evolutions of the correlated core-motion speed, locally concentrated perpendicular gyrofield, and magnetization dip near the original vortex core. The criterion for the core reversals was found to be the magnetization dip that must reach the out-of-plane magnetization component, m{sub z} = −p, with the initial polarization p, where p = +1 (−1) for the upward (downward) core magnetization. The core-motion speed and the associated perpendicular gyrofield, variable and controllable with static perpendicular field, H{sub z}, applied perpendicularly to the disk plane, must reach their threshold values to meet the ultimate core-reversal criterion. Also, we determined the H{sub z} strength and direction dependence of the core-switching time and threshold exciting field strength required for the core reversals, whose parameters are essential in the application aspect. This work offers deeper insights into the azimuthal spin-wave-driven core-reversal dynamics as well as an efficient means of controlling the azimuthal-modes-driven core reversals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Dong-Soo; Jeong, Han-Byeol; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-09-01
We performed micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations in studying the effects of change in the primitive unit cells of one-dimensional (1D) vortex arrays on collective vortex-gyration dispersion. As the primitive basis, we consider alternating constituent materials (NiMnSb vs. Permalloy) and alternating dimensions including constituent disk diameter and thickness. In the simplest case, that of one vortex-state disk of given dimensions and single material in the primitive cell, only a single branch of collective vortex-gyration dispersion appears. By contrast, two constituent disks' different alternating materials, thicknesses, and diameters yield characteristic two-branch dispersions, the band widths and gaps of which differ in each case. This work offers not only an efficient means of manipulating collective vortex-gyration band structures but also a foundation for the development of a rich variety of 1D or 2D magnonic crystals and their band structures based on dipolar-coupled-vortex arrays.
Formation of Vortex Lattices in Superfluid Bose Gases at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.
2016-05-01
We study the dynamics of a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at finite temperatures. Using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism, based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semiclassical kinetic equation for a thermal cloud, we numerically simulate vortex lattice formation in the presence of a time-dependent rotating trap potential. At low rotation frequency, the thermal cloud undergoes rigid body rotation, while the condensate exhibits irrotational flow. Above a certain threshold rotation frequency, vortices penetrate into the condensate and form a vortex lattice. Our simulation result clearly indicates a crucial role for the thermal cloud, which triggers vortex lattice formation in the rotating BEC.
System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
Vortex clusters and multiquanta flux lattices in thin films of anisotropic superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samokhvalov, A. V.; Savinov, D. A.; Mel'Nikov, A. S.; Buzdin, A. I.
2010-09-01
The distinctive features of equilibrium vortex structures in thin films of anisotropic superconductors in tilted magnetic fields are studied for the limits of moderate and strong anisotropy. The energetically favorable shape of isolated vortex lines is found in the framework of two particular models describing these limiting cases: London theory with an anisotropic mass tensor and London-type model for a stack of Josephson-decoupled superconducting layers. The increase in the field tilting is shown to result in qualitative changes in the vortex-vortex interaction potential: the balance between long-range attractive and repulsive forces occurs to be responsible for a formation of a minimum of the interaction potential vs the intervortex distance. This minimum appears to exist only for a certain restricted range of the vortex tilting angles which shrinks with the decrease in the system anisotropy parameter. Tilted vortices with such unusual interaction potential form clusters with the size depending on the field tilting angle and film thickness or/and can arrange into multiquanta flux lattice. The magnetic flux through the unit cells of the corresponding flux line lattices equals to an integer number M of flux quanta. Thus, the increase in the field tilting should be accompanied by the series of the phase transitions between the vortex lattices with different M .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milošević, M. V.; Peeters, F. M.
2004-05-01
Within the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, we investigate the vortex structure of a thin superconducting film (SC) with a regular matrix of ferromagnetic dots (FD) deposited on top of it. The vortex pinning properties of such a magnetic lattice are studied, and the field polarity dependent votex pinning is observed. The exact vortex configuration depends on the size of the magnetic dots, their polarity, periodicity of the FD-rooster and the properties of the SC expressed through the effective Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ*.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.
1986-01-01
It is proposed that the study of Rusak et al. (1985), which reports numerical modeling sensitivities on longitudinal force/moment properties for a vortex-lattice method incorporating free vortex filaments to represent the leading-edge vortex separation, employs a formula that is strongly affected by the particular points of analysis chosen. This results in a narrowly applicable curve fit, where numerical sensitivities of the theory are inappropriately traded off against physical effects that are not modeled in that theory. Attention is also given to questionable drag estimate computations.
Vortex lattices in planar Bose-Einstein condensates with dipolar interactions.
Zhang, Jian; Zhai, Hui
2005-11-11
In this Letter, we investigate the effects of dipole-dipole interactions on the vortex lattices in fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. For single planar condensate, we show that the triangular lattice structure will be unfavorable when the s-wave interaction is attractive and exceeds a critical value. It will first change to a square lattice, and then become more and more flat with the increase of s-wave attraction, until the collapse of the condensate. For an array of coupled planar condensates, we discuss how the dipole-dipole interactions between neighboring condensates compete with quantum tunneling processes, which affects the relative displacement of two neighboring vortex lattices and leads to the loss of phase coherence between different condensates.
Vortex Lattices in Planar Bose-Einstein Condensates with Dipolar Interactions
Zhang Jian; Zhai Hui
2005-11-11
In this Letter, we investigate the effects of dipole-dipole interactions on the vortex lattices in fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. For single planar condensate, we show that the triangular lattice structure will be unfavorable when the s-wave interaction is attractive and exceeds a critical value. It will first change to a square lattice, and then become more and more flat with the increase of s-wave attraction, until the collapse of the condensate. For an array of coupled planar condensates, we discuss how the dipole-dipole interactions between neighboring condensates compete with quantum tunneling processes, which affects the relative displacement of two neighboring vortex lattices and leads to the loss of phase coherence between different condensates.
Model for nodal quasiparticle scattering in a disordered vortex lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltseva, Marianna; Coleman, P.
2009-10-01
Recent scanning-tunneling experiments on Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2 by Hanaguri [Science 323, 923 (2009)] observe field-dependent quasiparticle interference effects which are sensitive to the sign of the d -wave order parameter. Their analysis of spatial fluctuations in the local density of states shows that there is a selective enhancement of quasiparticle scattering events that preserve the gap sign and a selective depression of the quasiparticle scattering events that reverse the gap sign. We introduce a model which accounts for this phenomenon as a consequence of vortex pinning to impurities. Each pinned vortex embeds several impurities in its core. The observations of recent experiments can be accounted for by assuming that the scattering potentials of the impurities inside the vortex cores acquire an additional resonant or Andreev scattering component, both of which induce gap sign preserving scattering events.
Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for loads on wings in lift-generated wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, J.
1994-01-01
A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by use of measurements made in the 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel of the lift, rolling-moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling moment distributions are used to determine the accuracy of the vortex-lattice code. It was found that the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering of following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts. The increase in deviation of the computed from the measured loads with size of the following wing is attributed to the increase in distortion of the structure of the vortex wake as it approaches and passes the larger following wings.
Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for loads on wings in lift-generated wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, J.
1994-01-01
A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by use of measurements made in the 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel of the lift, rolling-moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling moment distributions are used to determine the accuracy of the vortex-lattice code. It was found that the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering of following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts. The increase in deviation of the computed from the measured loads with size of the following wing is attributed to the increase in distortion of the structure of the vortex wake as it approaches and passes the larger following wings.
Chaotic and ballistic dynamics in time-driven quasiperiodic lattices.
Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-04-01
We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of classical particles in a driven quasiperiodic lattice based on the Fibonacci sequence. An intricate transient dynamics of extraordinarily long ballistic flights at distinct velocities is found. We argue how these transients are caused and can be understood by a hierarchy of block decompositions of the quasiperiodic lattice. A comparison to the cases of periodic and fully randomized lattices is performed.
Chaotic and ballistic dynamics in time-driven quasiperiodic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-04-01
We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of classical particles in a driven quasiperiodic lattice based on the Fibonacci sequence. An intricate transient dynamics of extraordinarily long ballistic flights at distinct velocities is found. We argue how these transients are caused and can be understood by a hierarchy of block decompositions of the quasiperiodic lattice. A comparison to the cases of periodic and fully randomized lattices is performed.
Vortex-Antivortex-Pair Lattices in Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ben; Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu
2014-04-01
We investigate theoretically the ground states of Bose-Einstein condensates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices within mean-field framework. We obtain numerically the Bloch states and energy spectrum for the single particle Hamiltonian, meanwhile the analytical solution of Bloch states is also presented. For a spin-orbit coupling Bose-Einstein condensates with a weak interaction, we show the existence of the vortex-antivortex-pair lattices state by simulating the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konle, Marco; Sattelmayer, Thomas
2009-10-01
The interaction of heat release by chemical reaction and the flow dominates flame transition in swirling flows caused by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). The simultaneous application of 1 kHz high-speed particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) for the analysis of the flow field and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence for the detection of the flame front is particularly useful for the improvement of the understanding of the observed fast CIVB driven flame propagation. For the first time, the combination of both techniques was successfully applied to confined swirling flows. In the study, the flow field characteristics of an aerodynamically stabilized burner system with CIVB are analyzed in great depth. The influence of geometric parameters of the swirl generator was investigated and conclusions concerning the proper burner design of vortex breakdown premix burners are drawn from the experimental results. In particular, the effect of the vortex core with respect to the stability of the swirl stabilized burner is analyzed. The contribution of combustion to vortex breakdown is shown comparing isothermal and reacting flows. The presented data reveals that at the onset of CIVB driven flame transition, the azimuthal vorticity leads to the formation of a closed recirculation bubble at the tip of the internal recirculation zone. Once this bubble propagates upstream, the flame is able to follow and propagate relative to the bulk flow velocity with a velocity far beyond the turbulent flame speed. The interaction of reaction and flow was observed for different volumetric heat releases. The experiments confirm the CIVB theory of the authors, which was initially developed on the basis of a CFD study alone. Both the volume expansion and the baroclinic torque have an effect on whether fast flame propagation occurs. Whereas the volume expansion caused by the heat release stabilizes the flow field and the reaction, the baroclinic torque stimulates flame transition. For
Validation of Vortex-Lattice Method for Loads on Wings in Lift-Generated Wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossow, Vernon J.
1995-01-01
A study is described that evaluates the accuracy of vortex-lattice methods when they are used to compute the loads induced on aircraft as they encounter lift-generated wakes. The evaluation is accomplished by the use of measurements made in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel of the lift, rolling moment, and downwash in the wake of three configurations of a model of a subsonic transport aircraft. The downwash measurements are used as input for a vortex-lattice code in order to compute the lift and rolling moment induced on wings that have a span of 0.186, 0.510, or 1.022 times the span of the wake-generating model. Comparison of the computed results with the measured lift and rolling-moment distributions the vortex-lattice method is very reliable as long as the span of the encountering or following wing is less than about 0.2 of the generator span. As the span of the following wing increases above 0.2, the vortex-lattice method continues to correctly predict the trends and nature of the induced loads, but it overpredicts the magnitude of the loads by increasing amounts.
Some applications of the quasi vortex-lattice method in steady and unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. E.
1976-01-01
The quasi vortex-lattice method is reviewed and applied to the evaluation of backwash, with applications to ground effect analysis. It is also extended to unsteady aerodynamics, with particular interest in the calculation of unsteady leading-edge suction. Some applications in ornithopter aerodynamics are given.
Marasinghe, Madara L; Paganin, David M; Premaratne, Malin
2011-03-15
We previously demonstrated that Mie scattering of stationary partially coherent light by dielectric spheres generates coherence vortices. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a lattice of coherence vortices can be generated by Mie scattering of partially coherent electromagnetic waves by a system of three coplanar dielectric spheres. Spontaneous coherence-vortex creation and destruction is observed in our computer modeling of this system.
Visualizing the morphology of vortex lattice domains in a bulk type-II superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimann, T.; Mühlbauer, S.; Schulz, M.; Betz, B.; Kaestner, A.; Pipich, V.; Böni, P.; Grünzweig, C.
2015-11-01
Alike materials in the solid state, the phase diagram of type-II superconductors exhibit crystalline, amorphous, liquid and spatially inhomogeneous phases. The multitude of different phases of vortex matter has thence proven to act as almost ideal model system for the study of both the underlying properties of superconductivity but also of general phenomena such as domain nucleation and morphology. Here we show how neutron grating interferometry yields detailed information on the vortex lattice and its domain structure in the intermediate mixed state of a type-II niobium superconductor. In particular, we identify the nucleation regions, how the intermediate mixed state expands, and where it finally evolves into the Shubnikov phase. Moreover, we complement the results obtained from neutron grating interferometry by small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the spatially resolved morphology found in the intermediate mixed state, and very small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the domain structure of the vortex lattice.
Visualizing the morphology of vortex lattice domains in a bulk type-II superconductor
Reimann, T.; Mühlbauer, S.; Schulz, M.; Betz, B.; Kaestner, A.; Pipich, V.; Böni, P.; Grünzweig, C.
2015-01-01
Alike materials in the solid state, the phase diagram of type-II superconductors exhibit crystalline, amorphous, liquid and spatially inhomogeneous phases. The multitude of different phases of vortex matter has thence proven to act as almost ideal model system for the study of both the underlying properties of superconductivity but also of general phenomena such as domain nucleation and morphology. Here we show how neutron grating interferometry yields detailed information on the vortex lattice and its domain structure in the intermediate mixed state of a type-II niobium superconductor. In particular, we identify the nucleation regions, how the intermediate mixed state expands, and where it finally evolves into the Shubnikov phase. Moreover, we complement the results obtained from neutron grating interferometry by small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the spatially resolved morphology found in the intermediate mixed state, and very small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the domain structure of the vortex lattice. PMID:26522610
Yao, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shuai
2016-05-27
The expanded classical Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice is investigated with the next-nearest-neighboring Heisenberg interaction considered. The simulation shows a rich phase diagram with periodic behavior in a wide parameter range. Beside the double 120° ordered phase, an inhomogeneous phase is uncovered to exhibit a topological triple-vortex lattice, corresponding to the hexagonal domain structure of vector chirality, which is stabilized by the mixed frustration of two sources: the geometrical frustration arising from the lattice structure as well as the frustration from the Kitaev couplings.
Z2-vortex lattice in the ground state of the triangular Kitaev-Heisenberg model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daghofer, Maria; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Roessler, Ulrich K.; van den Brink, Jeroen
2013-03-01
Investigating the classical Kitaev-Heisenberg Hamiltonian on a triangular lattice, we establish the presence of an incommensurate non-coplanar magnetic phase, which is identified as a lattice of Z2 vortices. The vortices, topological point defects in the SO(3) order parameter of the nearby Heisenberg antiferromagnet, are not thermally excited but due to the spin-orbit coupling and arise at temperature T --> 0 . This Z2-vortex lattice is stable in a parameter regime relevant to iridates. We show that in the other, strongly anisotropic, limit a robust nematic phase emerges. Sponsored by the DFG (Emmy-Noether program).
Yao, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shuai
2016-01-01
The expanded classical Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice is investigated with the next-nearest-neighboring Heisenberg interaction considered. The simulation shows a rich phase diagram with periodic behavior in a wide parameter range. Beside the double 120° ordered phase, an inhomogeneous phase is uncovered to exhibit a topological triple-vortex lattice, corresponding to the hexagonal domain structure of vector chirality, which is stabilized by the mixed frustration of two sources: the geometrical frustration arising from the lattice structure as well as the frustration from the Kitaev couplings. PMID:27229486
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qiang
2016-02-01
Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study the vortex formation in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in synthetic magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential combined with an optical lattice. We obtain numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the vortex formation by synthetic magnetic field method with those by rotating frame method. We conclude that a large angular momentum indeed can be created in the presence of the optical lattice. However, it is still more difficult to rotate the condensate by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating frame even if the optical lattice is added, and the chemical potential and energy remain almost unchanged by increasing rotational frequency.
Han, Qiang
2010-01-27
In this paper, we present a method to construct the eigenspace of the tight-binding electrons moving on a 2D square lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping in the presence of a perpendicular uniform magnetic field which imposes (quasi-)periodic boundary conditions for the wavefunctions in the magnetic unit cell. Exact unitary transformations are put forward to correlate the discrete eigenvectors of the 2D electrons with those of the Harper equation. The cyclic tridiagonal matrix associated with the Harper equation is then tridiagonalized by another unitary transformation. The obtained truncated eigenbasis is utilized to expand the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for the superconducting vortex lattice state, which shows the merit of our method in studying large-sized systems. To test our method, we have applied our results to study the vortex lattice state of an s-wave superconductor.
Commensurate vortex lattices and oscillation effects in superconducting Mo/Si and W/Si multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, M. Yu.; Yuzephovich, O. I.; Bomze, Yu. V.; Buchstab, E. I.; Fogel, N. Ya.
2005-03-01
We report experimental results of a vortex lattice structure investigation in artificial superconducting Mo/Si and W/Si superlattices. Resistance R and critical current Ic measurements in parallel magnetic fields are performed as well as measurements in tilted magnetic fields. At temperatures where the condition of strong layering is satisfied the dependences Ic(H∥) and R(H∥) exhibit oscillatory behavior. It is shown that the appearance of oscillations and of reentrant behavior (vanishing of the resistivity in definite ranges of H∥) are due to the strong intrinsic pinning and to the effect of commensurability between the vortex lattice period and multilayer wavelength. The locations of Ic(H∥) and R(H∥) extrema correspond to the stable states of a commensurate vortex lattice. Our experimental data are in good quantitative agreement with the Ivlev, Kopnin, and Pokrovsky (IKP) theory. It is shown that the values of the commensurability fields depend exclusively on the superlattice period s and anisotropy coefficient γ and do not depend on the type of materials used for multilayer preparation. A memory effect, i.e., dependence of the oscillation pattern on the magnetic history of the sample, is observed. It is shown experimentally that the state of the vortex matter in the layered superconductors is essentially different from that of type-II superconductors with a random distribution of the pinning centers. Investigation of oscillation and reentrance behavior may be used as a new tool for the study of the vortex lattice arrangement in layered superconductors. The essential advantage of this method is connected with its simplicity and with the possibility of using it in arbitrary large fields. Investigations of the commensurate states may be used for rather precise determination of the anisotropy coefficient γ.
Tilted vortex lattice in irradiate Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirkovic, J.; Kakeya, I.; Savel'ev, S.; Kashiwagi, T.; Markovic, B.; Kadowaki, K.
2016-01-01
In order to enlighten the structure of vortex matter in irradiated layered Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals, the interaction of Josephson vortices and pancake vortices in was investigated by means of the local ac-magnetic permeability measurements by using the miniature local coils, while vortex matter in pristine crystals was studied by in-plane resistivity measurements. The transition anomaly, separating the strong pinning phase and the weak pinning vortex phase was found by both techniques deep in the vortex solid phase solid near ab-plane, indicating crossover from the vortex chains + lattice phase to tilted vortex chains phase. While the columnar defects affect strongly the first-order vortex-lattice melting transition, the magnetic permeability anomaly, associated with the crossover from vortex chains + lattice phase to tilted lattice, is surprisingly still clear, deep in the vortex solid phase. However, the stronger columnar defects eventually affect the crossover anomaly that it disappears too.
Model for nodal quasiparticle scattering in a disordered vortex lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltseva, Marianna; Coleman, Piers
2008-03-01
Recent experiments by T. Hanaguri et al. on underdoped Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2 [1] have observed quasiparticle interference effects [2], which are sensitive to the sign of the d-wave order parameter. In a magnetic field, they observe a sizable transfer of scattering spectral weight from scattering events between anti-nodes of opposite sign to scattering events between anti-nodes of the same sign. We interpret high momentum phase-coherent scattering in terms of the quasiparticle scattering off the vortex walls. The reduction of scattering at even-odd scattering points indicates that the vortices ``screen'' some of the underlying impurity scattering, as the impurities get trapped inside the vortex cores. [1] T. Hanaguri, Y. Kohsaka, J. C. Davis, C. Lupien, I. Yamada, M. Azuma, M. Takano, K. Ohishi, M. Ono, H. Takagi, cond-mat/07083728. [2] Y. Kohsaka, C. Taylor, K. Fujita, A. Schmidt, C. Lupien, T. Hanaguri, M. Azuma, M. Takano, H. Eisaki, H. Takagi, S. Uchida, J. C. Davis, Science 315, 1380-1385 (2007).
Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.
2012-11-01
The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.
1994-01-01
This program represents a subsonic aerodynamic method for determining the mean camber surface of trimmed noncoplaner planforms with minimum vortex drag. With this program, multiple surfaces can be designed together to yield a trimmed configuration with minimum induced drag at some specified lift coefficient. The method uses a vortex-lattice and overcomes previous difficulties with chord loading specification. A Trefftz plane analysis is used to determine the optimum span loading for minimum drag. The program then solves for the mean camber surface of the wing associated with this loading. Pitching-moment or root-bending-moment constraints can be employed at the design lift coefficient. Sensitivity studies of vortex-lattice arrangements have been made with this program and comparisons with other theories show generally good agreement. The program is very versatile and has been applied to isolated wings, wing-canard configurations, a tandem wing, and a wing-winglet configuration. The design problem solved with this code is essentially an optimization one. A subsonic vortex-lattice is used to determine the span load distribution(s) on bent lifting line(s) in the Trefftz plane. A Lagrange multiplier technique determines the required loading which is used to calculate the mean camber slopes, which are then integrated to yield the local elevation surface. The problem of determining the necessary circulation matrix is simplified by having the chordwise shape of the bound circulation remain unchanged across each span, though the chordwise shape may vary from one planform to another. The circulation matrix is obtained by calculating the spanwise scaling of the chordwise shapes. A chordwise summation of the lift and pitching-moment is utilized in the Trefftz plane solution on the assumption that the trailing wake does not roll up and that the general configuration has specifiable chord loading shapes. VLMD is written in FORTRAN for IBM PC series and compatible computers
Arithmetic of focused vortex beams in three-dimensional optical lattice arrays.
Davis, Jeffrey A; Cottrell, Don M; McCormick, Kyle R; Albero, Jorge; Moreno, Ignacio
2014-04-01
In this work, we present a method to generate a 3D lattice of vortex beams. We apply phase look-up tables (LUTs) designed to generate gratings having an arbitrary content of diffraction orders. This phase LUT can be applied to a variety of diffraction optical elements, such as linear phase gratings, blazed diffractive lenses, and spiral phase patterns. We concentrate on combinations of all of these to create 3D structures of vortex beams. In particular, we generate all of these elements in the first output quadrant and eliminate the zero-order diffraction that often unavoidably accompanies these patterns. We discuss different ways of producing these 3D vortex gratings, and how the various output beams are related to the arithmetic of the 3D distribution of topological charges. Experimental results are provided by means of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator.
Zehetmayer, M.
2015-01-01
Order-disorder transitions take place in many physical systems, but observing them in detail in real materials is difficult. In two- or quasi-two-dimensional systems, the transition has been studied by computer simulations and experimentally in electron sheets, dusty plasmas, colloidal and other systems. Here I show the different stages of defect formation in the vortex lattice of a superconductor while it undergoes an order-disorder transition by presenting real-space images of the lattice from scanning tunneling spectroscopy. When the system evolves from the ordered to the disordered state, the predominant kind of defect changes from dislocation pairs to single dislocations, and finally to defect clusters forming grain boundaries. Correlation functions indicate a hexatic-like state preceding the disordered state. The transition in the microscopic vortex distribution is mirrored by the well-known spectacular second peak effect observed in the macroscopic current density of the superconductor. PMID:25784605
Observation of Coupled Vortex Lattices in a Mass-Imbalance Bose and Fermi Superfluid Mixture.
Yao, Xing-Can; Chen, Hao-Ze; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Jiang, Xiao; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-09-30
Quantized vortices play an essential role in diverse superfluid phenomena. In a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, especially of two mass-imbalance species, such macroscopic quantum phenomena are particularly rich due to the interplay between the Bose and Fermi superfluidity. However, generating a Bose-Fermi two-species superfluid, producing coupled vortex lattices within, and further probing interspecies interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we experimentally realize a two-species superfluid with dilute gases of lithium-6 and potassium-41, having a mass ratio of about seven. By rotating the superfluid mixture, we simultaneously produce coupled vortex lattices of the two species and thus present a definitive visual evidence for the double superfluidity. Moreover, we report several unconventional behaviors, due to the Bose-Fermi interaction, on the formation and decay of two-species vortices.
Rotating superfluids in anharmonic traps: From vortex lattices to giant vortices
Correggi, Michele; Pinsker, Florian; Rougerie, Nicolas; Yngvason, Jakob
2011-11-15
We study a superfluid in a rotating anharmonic trap and explicate a rigorous proof of a transition from a vortex lattice to a giant vortex state as the rotation is increased beyond a limiting speed determined by the interaction strength. The transition is characterized by the disappearance of the vortices from the annulus where the bulk of the superfluid is concentrated due to centrifugal forces while a macroscopic phase circulation remains. The analysis is carried out within two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii theory at large coupling constant and reveals significant differences between ''soft'' anharmonic traps (like a quartic plus quadratic trapping potential) and traps with a fixed boundary: in the latter case the transition takes place in a parameter regime where the size of vortices is very small relative to the width of the annulus, whereas in soft traps the vortex lattice persists until the width of the annulus becomes comparable to the vortex cores. Moreover, the density profile in the annulus where the bulk is concentrated is, in the soft case, approximately Gaussian with long tails and not of the Thomas-Fermi type like in a trap with a fixed boundary.
Application of the Vortex-Lattice Method to Propeller Performance Analysis
1982-07-01
TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT-EN’ Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...unlimited Preface This report is my attempt to expand-the knowledge avail- able in the area of propeller performance. My principal con- cern has been in...Performance Using the Vortex Lattice Method and the Blade Element-Method . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Vii List of Symbols A panel area AR aspect ratio
Skyrmionic vortex lattices in coherently coupled three-component Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlova, Natalia V.; Kuopanportti, Pekko; Milošević, Milorad V.
2016-08-01
We show numerically that a harmonically trapped and coherently Rabi-coupled three-component Bose-Einstein condensate can host unconventional vortex lattices in its rotating ground state. The discovered lattices incorporate square and zig-zag patterns, vortex dimers and chains, and doubly quantized vortices, and they can be quantitatively classified in terms of a skyrmionic topological index, which takes into account the multicomponent nature of the system. The exotic ground-state lattices arise due to the intricate interplay of the repulsive density-density interactions and the Rabi couplings as well as the ubiquitous phase frustration between the components. In the frustrated state, domain walls in the relative phases can persist between some components even at strong Rabi coupling, while vanishing between others. Consequently, in this limit the three-component condensate effectively approaches a two-component condensate with only density-density interactions. At intermediate Rabi coupling strengths, however, we face unique vortex physics that occurs neither in the two-component counterpart nor in the purely density-density-coupled three-component system.
Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order in bacterial vortex lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wioland, Hugo; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2016-04-01
Despite their inherently non-equilibrium nature, living systems can self-organize in highly ordered collective states that share striking similarities with the thermodynamic equilibrium phases of conventional condensed-matter and fluid systems. Examples range from the liquid-crystal-like arrangements of bacterial colonies, microbial suspensions and tissues to the coherent macro-scale dynamics in schools of fish and flocks of birds. Yet, the generic mathematical principles that govern the emergence of structure in such artificial and biological systems are elusive. It is not clear when, or even whether, well-established theoretical concepts describing universal thermostatistics of equilibrium systems can capture and classify ordered states of living matter. Here, we connect these two previously disparate regimes: through microfluidic experiments and mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that lattices of hydrodynamically coupled bacterial vortices can spontaneously organize into distinct patterns characterized by ferro- and antiferromagnetic order. The coupling between adjacent vortices can be controlled by tuning the inter-cavity gap widths. The emergence of opposing order regimes is tightly linked to the existence of geometry-induced edge currents, reminiscent of those in quantum systems. Our experimental observations can be rationalized in terms of a generic lattice field theory, suggesting that bacterial spin networks belong to the same universality class as a wide range of equilibrium systems.
Vortex-antivortex lattices in superconducting films with arrays of magnetic dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milosevic, M. V.; Peeters, F. M.
2004-03-01
Using the numerical approach within the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, we investigate the vortex structure of a thin superconducting film (SC) with a regular matrix of out-of-plane magnetized ferromagnetic dots (FD) deposited on top of it. The perturbation of the superconducting order parameter in the SC film as subject of the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the FDs is studied, and various vortex-antivortex configurations are observed, with net vorticity equal zero. In the case of a periodic array of magnetic disks, vortices are confined under the disks, while the antivortices form a rich spectra of lattice states. In the ground state, antivortices are arranged in the so-called matching configurations between the FDs, while other configurational varieties have higher energy. In the metastable regime, the states with fractional number of vortex-antivortex pairs per unit cell are found, some of which with strongly distorted vortex cores. The exact (anti)vortex structure depends on the size, thickness and magnetization of the magnetic dots, periodicity of the FD-rooster and the properties of the SC expressed through the effective Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ ^* . We discuss the further experimental implications, such as magnetic-field-induced superconductivity.
2D Vortex Motion Driven by a Background Vorticity Gradient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schecter, D. A.; Dubin, D. H. E.
1999-11-01
A background vorticity gradient can strongly influence the motion of vortices in 2D fluids. Examples are vortex motion in magnetized electron plasmas and hurricane tracks in planetary atmospheres.(See for example Huang, Fine and Driscoll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 4424 (1995); C.G. Rossby, J. Mar. Res. 7, 175 (1948). Here, the vortex motion is examined numerically and analytically for the case of a point-like vortex in a background shear flow that is initially axisymmetric. The vortex acts to level the local background vorticity gradient. Conservation of angular momentum dictates that positive vortices (``clumps'') and negative vortices (``holes'') react oppositely: clumps move up the gradient, whereas holes move down the gradient. Both clumps and holes can be classified as either prograde or retrograde, depending on whether they rotate with or against the local background shear. An analysis, in which the background response to the vortex is linearized, gives the trajectory of a small retrograde vortex. When the vortex is prograde, the background response is nonlinear. A prograde vortex moves along the gradient at a slower rate that is given by a simple ``mix-and-move'' estimate. This rate vanishes when the local shear is sufficiently large, due to the trapping of background fluid around the vortex.
2D Vortex Motion Driven by a Background Vorticity Gradient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schecter, D. A.; Dubin, D. H. E.
1999-11-01
A background vorticity gradient can strongly influence the motion of vortices in 2D fluids. Examples are vortex motion in magnetized electron plasmas and hurricane tracks in planetary atmospheres. Here, the vortex motion is examined numerically and analytically for the case of a point-like vortex in a background shear flow that is initially axisymmetric.(Schecter and Dubin, to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. (1999).) The vortex acts to level the local background vorticity gradient. Conservation of angular momentum dictates that positive vortices (``clumps'') and negative vortices (``holes'') react oppositely: clumps move up the gradient, whereas holes move down the gradient. Both clumps and holes can be classified as either prograde or retrograde, depending on whether they rotate with or against the local background shear. An analysis, in which the background response to the vortex is linearized, gives the trajectory of a small retrograde vortex. When the vortex is prograde, the background response is nonlinear. A prograde vortex moves along the gradient at a slower rate that is given by a simple ``mix-and-move'' estimate. This rate vanishes when the local shear is sufficiently large, due to the trapping of background fluid around the vortex.
Poisson effect driven anomalous lattice expansion in metal nanoshells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Ganesh; Shervani, Suboohi; Mishra, Gargi; De, Deb; Kumar, Arun; Sivakumar, Sri; Balani, Kantesh; Pala, Raj; Subramaniam, Anandh
2017-03-01
Surface stress can have profound effects on nanoscale materials and can lead to a contraction of the lattice in nanoparticles to compensate for the under-coordination of the surface atoms. The effect of elastic properties like Poisson's ratio can be accentuated in lower dimensional systems. The current study focuses on hollow metal nanoshells (MNSs), wherein there is interplay between the surface stresses existing in the inner and outer surfaces. Using a two scale computational method and transmission electron microscopy, we not only show a lattice expansion (in the radial direction) due to purely surface stress effects in a metallic system but also discover anomalous lattice expansion in the case of very thin walled MNSs. We argue that this effect, wherein the stress in the outer surface causes expansion in the radial lattice parameter (instead of compression), is a Poisson effect driven phenomenon. Although Ni nanoshells are used as an illustrative system for the studies, we generalize this effect for all metal nanoshells.
Lennard-Jones and lattice models of driven fluids.
Díez-Minguito, M; Garrido, P L; Marro, J
2005-08-01
We introduce a nonequilibrium off-lattice model for anisotropic phenomena in fluids. This is a Lennard-Jones generalization of the driven lattice-gas model in which the particles' spatial coordinates vary continuously. A comparison between the two models allows us to discuss some exceptional, hardly realistic features of the original discrete system--which has been considered a prototype for nonequilibrium anisotropic phase transitions. We thus help to clarify open issues, and discuss on the implications of our observations for future investigation of anisotropic phase transitions.
Geometrical vortex lattice pinning and melting in YBaCuO submicron bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papari, G. P.; Glatz, A.; Carillo, F.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Massarotti, D.; Rouco, V.; Longobardi, L.; Beltram, F.; Vinokur, V. M.; Tafuri, F.
2016-12-01
Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), most efforts of researchers have been focused on the fabrication of superconducting devices capable of immobilizing vortices, hence of operating at enhanced temperatures and magnetic fields. Recent findings that geometric restrictions may induce self-arresting hypervortices recovering the dissipation-free state at high fields and temperatures made superconducting strips a mainstream of superconductivity studies. Here we report on the geometrical melting of the vortex lattice in a wide YBCO submicron bridge preceded by magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations fingerprinting the underlying regular vortex structure. Combined magnetoresistance measurements and numerical simulations unambiguously relate the resistance oscillations to the penetration of vortex rows with intermediate geometrical pinning and uncover the details of geometrical melting. Our findings offer a reliable and reproducible pathway for controlling vortices in geometrically restricted nanodevices and introduce a novel technique of geometrical spectroscopy, inferring detailed information of the structure of the vortex system through a combined use of MR curves and large-scale simulations.
Geometrical Vortex Lattice Pinning and Melting in YBaCuO Submicron Bridges.
Papari, G. P.; Glatz, A.; Carillo, F.; ...
2016-12-23
Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), most efforts of researchers have been focused on the fabrication of superconducting devices capable of immobilizing vortices, hence of operating at enhanced temperatures and magnetic fields. Recent findings that geometric restrictions may induce self-arresting hypervortices recovering the dissipation-free state at high fields and temperatures made superconducting strips a mainstream of superconductivity studies. Here in this paper we report on the geometrical melting of the vortex lattice in a wide YBCO submicron bridge preceded by magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations fingerprinting the underlying regular vortex structure. Combined magnetoresistance measurements and numerical simulations unambiguously relate the resistancemore » oscillations to the penetration of vortex rows with intermediate geometrical pinning and uncover the details of geometrical melting. Our findings offer a reliable and reproducible pathway for controlling vortices in geometrically restricted nanodevices and introduce a novel technique of geometrical spectroscopy, inferring detailed information of the structure of the vortex system through a combined use of MR curves and large-scale simulations.« less
Geometrical Vortex Lattice Pinning and Melting in YBaCuO Submicron Bridges.
Papari, G. P.; Glatz, A.; Carillo, F.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Massarotti, D.; Rouco, V.; Longobardi, L.; Beltram, F.; Vinokur, V. M.; Tafuri, F.
2016-12-23
Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), most efforts of researchers have been focused on the fabrication of superconducting devices capable of immobilizing vortices, hence of operating at enhanced temperatures and magnetic fields. Recent findings that geometric restrictions may induce self-arresting hypervortices recovering the dissipation-free state at high fields and temperatures made superconducting strips a mainstream of superconductivity studies. Here in this paper we report on the geometrical melting of the vortex lattice in a wide YBCO submicron bridge preceded by magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations fingerprinting the underlying regular vortex structure. Combined magnetoresistance measurements and numerical simulations unambiguously relate the resistance oscillations to the penetration of vortex rows with intermediate geometrical pinning and uncover the details of geometrical melting. Our findings offer a reliable and reproducible pathway for controlling vortices in geometrically restricted nanodevices and introduce a novel technique of geometrical spectroscopy, inferring detailed information of the structure of the vortex system through a combined use of MR curves and large-scale simulations.
Geometrical vortex lattice pinning and melting in YBaCuO submicron bridges
Papari, G. P.; Glatz, A.; Carillo, F.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Massarotti, D.; Rouco, V.; Longobardi, L.; Beltram, F.; Vinokur, V. M.; Tafuri, F.
2016-01-01
Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), most efforts of researchers have been focused on the fabrication of superconducting devices capable of immobilizing vortices, hence of operating at enhanced temperatures and magnetic fields. Recent findings that geometric restrictions may induce self-arresting hypervortices recovering the dissipation-free state at high fields and temperatures made superconducting strips a mainstream of superconductivity studies. Here we report on the geometrical melting of the vortex lattice in a wide YBCO submicron bridge preceded by magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations fingerprinting the underlying regular vortex structure. Combined magnetoresistance measurements and numerical simulations unambiguously relate the resistance oscillations to the penetration of vortex rows with intermediate geometrical pinning and uncover the details of geometrical melting. Our findings offer a reliable and reproducible pathway for controlling vortices in geometrically restricted nanodevices and introduce a novel technique of geometrical spectroscopy, inferring detailed information of the structure of the vortex system through a combined use of MR curves and large-scale simulations. PMID:28008911
Geometrical vortex lattice pinning and melting in YBaCuO submicron bridges.
Papari, G P; Glatz, A; Carillo, F; Stornaiuolo, D; Massarotti, D; Rouco, V; Longobardi, L; Beltram, F; Vinokur, V M; Tafuri, F
2016-12-23
Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), most efforts of researchers have been focused on the fabrication of superconducting devices capable of immobilizing vortices, hence of operating at enhanced temperatures and magnetic fields. Recent findings that geometric restrictions may induce self-arresting hypervortices recovering the dissipation-free state at high fields and temperatures made superconducting strips a mainstream of superconductivity studies. Here we report on the geometrical melting of the vortex lattice in a wide YBCO submicron bridge preceded by magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations fingerprinting the underlying regular vortex structure. Combined magnetoresistance measurements and numerical simulations unambiguously relate the resistance oscillations to the penetration of vortex rows with intermediate geometrical pinning and uncover the details of geometrical melting. Our findings offer a reliable and reproducible pathway for controlling vortices in geometrically restricted nanodevices and introduce a novel technique of geometrical spectroscopy, inferring detailed information of the structure of the vortex system through a combined use of MR curves and large-scale simulations.
Vortex lattices and defect-mediated viscosity reduction in active liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slomka, Jonasz; Dunkel, Jorn
2016-11-01
Generic pattern-formation and viscosity-reduction mechanisms in active fluids are investigated using a generalized Navier-Stokes model that captures the experimentally observed bulk vortex dynamics in microbial suspensions. We present exact analytical solutions including stress-free vortex lattices and introduce a computational framework that allows the efficient treatment of previously intractable higher-order shear boundary conditions. Large-scale parameter scans identify the conditions for spontaneous flow symmetry breaking, defect-mediated low-viscosity phases and negative-viscosity states amenable to energy harvesting in confined suspensions. The theory uses only generic assumptions about the symmetries and long-wavelength structure of active stress tensors, suggesting that inviscid phases may be achievable in a broad class of non-equilibrium fluids by tuning confinement geometry and pattern scale selection.
New convergence criteria for the vortex-lattice models of the leading-edge separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1976-01-01
The convergence criterion for the vortex-lattice technique which deals with delta wings exhibiting significant leading-edge separation was studied. It was shown that one can predict pressure distributions without irregularities which agree fairly well with experimental data (which show some irregularities of their own) by replacing the system of discrete vortex lines with a single concentrated core. This core has a circulation equal to the algebraic sum of the circulations around the discrete lines and is located at the centroid of these lines. Moreover, there is a requirement that the position and strength of the core must converge as the number of elements increases. Because the calculation of the position and strength of the core is much less involved than the calculation of the loads, this approach has the additional desirable feature of requiring less computational time.
Phase transition of ultracold atoms immersed in a Bose-Einstein-condensate vortex lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaviguri, R. H.; Comparin, T.; Bagnato, V. S.; Caracanhas, M. A.
2017-05-01
We investigate the quantum phases of ultracold atoms trapped in a vortex lattice using a mixture of two bosonic species (A and B ), in the presence of an artificial gauge field. Heavy atoms of species B are confined in the array of vortices generated in species A , and they are described through a Bose-Hubbard model. In contrast to the optical-lattice setups, the vortex lattice has an intrinsic dynamics, given by its Tkachenko modes. Including these quantum fluctuations in the effective model for B atoms yields an extended Bose-Hubbard model, with an additional "phonon" -mediated long-range attraction. The ground-state phase diagram of this model is computed through a variational Ansatz and the quantum Monte Carlo technique. When compared with the ordinary Bose-Hubbard case, the long-range interatomic attraction causes a shift and resizing of the Mott-insulator regions. Finally, we discuss the experimental feasibility of the proposed scheme, which relies on the proper choice of the atomic species and on a large control of physical parameters, like the scattering lengths and the vorticity.
Controlled wave-packet manipulation with driven optical lattices
Arlinghaus, Stephan; Holthaus, Martin
2011-12-15
Motivated by recent experimental progress achieved with ultracold atoms in kilohertz-driven optical lattices, we provide a theoretical discussion of mechanisms governing the response of a particle in a cosine lattice potential to strong forcing pulses with smooth envelope. Such pulses effectuate adiabatic motion of a wave packet's momentum distribution on quasienergy surfaces created by spatiotemporal Bloch waves. Deviations from adiabaticity can then be deliberately exploited for exerting coherent control and for reaching target states which may not be accessible by other means. As one particular example, we consider an analog of the {pi} pulses known from optical resonance. We also suggest adapting further techniques previously developed for controlling atomic and molecular dynamics by laser pulses to the coherent control of matter waves in shaken optical lattices.
Short-Time Behavior and Criticality of Driven Lattice Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Urna; Volpati, Valerio; Caracciolo, Sergio; Gambassi, Andrea
2017-02-01
The nonequilibrium short-time critical behaviors of driven and undriven lattice gases are investigated via Monte Carlo simulations in two spatial dimensions starting from a fully disordered initial configuration. In particular, we study the time evolution of suitably defined order parameters, which account for the strong anisotropy introduced by the homogeneous drive. We demonstrate that, at short times, the dynamics of all these models is unexpectedly described by an effective continuum theory in which transverse fluctuations, i.e., fluctuations averaged along the drive, are Gaussian, irrespective of this being actually the case in the stationary state. Strong numerical evidence is provided, in remarkable agreement with that theory, both for the driven and undriven lattice gases, which therefore turn out to display the same short-time dynamics.
Disorder-Driven Metal-Insulator Transitions in Deformable Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Sante, Domenico; Fratini, Simone; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Ciuchi, Sergio
2017-01-01
We show that, in the presence of a deformable lattice potential, the nature of the disorder-driven metal-insulator transition is fundamentally changed with respect to the noninteracting (Anderson) scenario. For strong disorder, even a modest electron-phonon interaction is found to dramatically renormalize the random potential, opening a mobility gap at the Fermi energy. This process, which reflects disorder-enhanced polaron formation, is here given a microscopic basis by treating the lattice deformations and Anderson localization effects on the same footing. We identify an intermediate "bad insulator" transport regime which displays resistivity values exceeding the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit and with a negative temperature coefficient, as often observed in strongly disordered metals. Our calculations reveal that this behavior originates from significant temperature-induced rearrangements of electronic states due to enhanced interaction effects close to the disorder-driven metal-insulator transition.
COMMENT: Comment on 'Transverse fluctuations in the driven lattice gas'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albano, Ezequiel V.
2004-08-01
Extensive simulation results of the transverse fluctuations in two driven lattice gases, the classical one with current and a modified version without current, are in agreement with the field theory proposed by Garrido et al (GSM). Based on the facts that results from both models are indistinguishable and they obey excellent scaling only by using GSM exponents, I concluded that the conclusions of the recent letter by Caracciolo et al are flawed.
Effect of Rolling Massage on the Vortex Flow in Blood Vessels with Lattice Boltzmann Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Hou Hui
The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese Medical Massage, which is a nature therapy in eliminating many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on the cavity flows in blood vessel under the rolling manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the vortex flows are fully disturbed by the rolling massage. The flow behavior depends on the rolling velocity and the rolling depth. Rolling massage has a better effect on the flows in the cavity than that of the flows in a planar blood vessel. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.
Cooperative ring exchange and quantum melting of vortex lattices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti; Baskaran, G.
2004-02-01
Cooperative ring exchange is suggested as a mechanism of quantum melting of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating quasi-two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using an approach pioneered by Kivelson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 873 (1986)] for the fractional quantized Hall effect, we calculate the condition for quantum melting instability by considering large-correlated ring exchanges in a two-dimensional Wigner crystal of vortices in a strong 'pseudomagnetic field' generated by the background superfluid Bose particles. BEC may be profitably used to address issues of quantum melting of a pristine Wigner solid devoid of complications of real solids.
Interaction of vortex lattice with ultrasound and the acoustic Faraday effect
Dominguez, D.; Bulaevskii, L.; Ivlev, B.; Maley, M.; Bishop, A.R. |
1995-03-27
The interaction of sound with the vortex lattice is considered for high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors, taking into account pinning and electrodynamic forces between vortices and crystal displacements. At low temperatures the Magnus force results in the acoustic Faraday effect; the velocity of sound propagating along the magnetic field depends on the polarization. This effect is linear in the Magnus force and magnetic field in crystals with equivalent {ital a} and {ital b} axes for a field parallel to the {ital c} axis. In the thermally activated flux flow regime, the Faraday effect is caused by electric and magnetic fields induced by vortices and acting on ions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levin, D.
1981-01-01
A nonsteady vortex-lattice method is introduced for predicting the dynamic stability derivatives of a delta wing undergoing an oscillatory motion. The analysis is applied to several types of small oscillations in pitch. The angle of attack varied between + or - 1 deg, with the mean held at 0 deg when the flow was assumed to be attached and between + or - 1 deg and the mean held at 15 deg when both leading-edge separation and wake roll-up were included. The computed results for damping in pitch are compared with several other methods and with experiments, and are found to be consistent and in good agreement.
Rossby vortex simulation on a paraboloidal coordinate system using the lattice Boltzmann method.
Yu, H; Zhao, K
2001-11-01
In this paper, we apply our compressible lattice Boltzmann model to a rotating parabolic coordinate system to simulate Rossby vortices emerging in a layer of shallow water flowing zonally in a rotating paraboloidal vessel. By introducing a scaling factor, nonuniform curvilinear mesh can be mapped to a flat uniform mesh and then normal lattice Boltzmann method works. Since the mass per unit area on the two-dimensional (2D) surface varies with the thickness of the water layer, the 2D flow seems to be "compressible" and our compressible model is applied. Simulation solutions meet with the experimental observations qualitatively. Based on this research, quantitative solutions and many natural phenomena simulations in planetary atmospheres, oceans, and magnetized plasma, such as the famous Jovian Giant Red Spot, the Galactic Spiral-vortex, the Gulf Stream, and the Kuroshio Current, etc., can be expected.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.; Herbert, H. E.
1982-01-01
The latest production version, MARK IV, of the NASA-Langley vortex lattice computer program is summarized. All viable subcritical aerodynamic features of previous versions were retained. This version extends the previously documented program capabilities to four planforms, 400 panels, and enables the user to obtain vortex-flow aerodynamics on cambered planforms, flowfield properties off the configuration in attached flow, and planform longitudinal load distributions.
Reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting of the vortex-lattice in YBCO single crystal
Hucho, C.; Carter, J. M.; Muller, V.; Petrean, A.; Kwok, W. K.
1999-10-12
A vibrating sample technique was used to study the elastic behavior of the magnetic vortex system in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} single crystal. The setup consists of a system of two weakly coupled mechanical oscillators (transducer, sample), the frequency and Q of which depends sensitively on the frequencies of the two subsystems as well as the coupling between both. By sweeping a magnetic field at temperatures below the superconducting transition temperature {Tc} the authors observe pronounced attenuation peaks of temperature-dependent characteristic field strengths H{sub 1} and H{sub 2}. These fields mark temperature-dependent points of constant elasticity of the vortex-ensemble. Since softening precedes the melting of the vortex-lattice by approaching H{sub o1} as well as H{sub o2}, the observed angular dependence of H{sub 1} and H{sub 2} is interpreted as due to reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting.
Supercooling of the disordered vortex lattice in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta)
van Der Beek CJ; Colson; Indenbom; Konczykowski
2000-05-01
Time-resolved local induction measurements near the vortex lattice order-disorder transition in optimally doped Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) crystals show that the high-field, disordered phase can be quenched to fields as low as half the transition field. Over an important range of fields, the electrodynamical behavior of the vortex system is governed by the coexistence of ordered and disordered vortex phases in the sample. We interpret the results as supercooling of the high-field phase and the possible first-order nature of the order-disorder transition at the "second magnetization peak."
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fridman, I.; Lukic, V.; Kloc, C.; Petrovic, C.; Wei, J. Y. T.
2014-03-01
The Cooper pairing in a variety of superconductors involves carriers from multiple bands, which can optimize the pairing phase space and provide novel pairing interactions. We have developed a novel technique to probe multiband pairing, using a directional diamagnetic supercurrent to perturb the quasiparticle density-of-states spectrum, and measuring the spectral evolution due to pair breaking by finite superfluid momentum. This technique is demonstrated on the layered superconductor 2H-NbSe2, using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at 300 mK with an in-plane magnetic field up to 9 T. The STM spectroscopy measurements revealed unambiguous evidence for multiband pairing, as well as a novel reorientation transition of the in-plane vortex lattice. We will discuss the first-order and quantum-critical characteristics of this transition, in terms of the geometric frustration of a distorted hexagonal vortex lattice, and show that this transition is intimately related to the multiband pairing. Work supported by NSERC, CFI/OIT, CIFAR, U.S. DOE and Brookhaven Science Associates (No. DE-Ac02-98CH10886).
Entropy and magnetization jumps at the 1st-order vortex lattice melting transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodgson, Matthew J. W.
1998-03-01
We explain the magnitude and temperature dependence of the jumps measured at the vortex lattice melting transition in high-Tc superconductors.(M.J.W. Dodgson, V.B. Geshkenbein, H. Nordborg and G. Blatter, cond-mat/9705220, to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) For the anisotropic Y_1Ba_2Cu_3O_7-δ system the London free energy takes a simple scaling form, allowing us to derive the exact results for the jumps in entropy, magnetization, and specific heat to within a numerical prefactor, which we take from the simulations of Nordborg and Blatter.(H. Nordborg and G. Blatter, Phys Rev. Lett. 79), 1925 (1997) As the zero field transition at T=Tc is approached, we find a constant entropy jump Δ S≈ 0.4kB per vortex per layer, a specific heat jump Δ c/T≈ 13 (1-T/T_c) mJmol-1K-2, and a jump in the induction Δ B≈ 4 (1-T/T_c) Gauss, in good agreement with experiment. Recent measurements(A. Schilling (unpublished).) at different field angles to the crystal c--axis are well explained within this framework using anisotropic scaling theory. In strongly layered materials such as Bi_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O_8, the electromagnetic and Josephson interactions both play an important role because of the low melting field B_m<Φ_0/λ^2. For this case we use dimensional scaling to predict the correct form of the jumps in magnetization and entropy, which are qualitatively different from the results in anisotropic YBCO. We show that there is no conceptual problem with the large entropy and specific heat jumps observed: without including extra degrees of freedom beyond the vortices themselves, we are able to give a consistent explanation of all the experimental features of the vortex--lattice melting transition in layered and continuous anisotropic materials.
Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wulf, Thomas; Okupnik, Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-09-01
We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non-Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism, we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of the transport for global disorder.
Slow relaxation and aging kinetics for the driven lattice gas.
Daquila, George L; Täuber, Uwe C
2011-05-01
We numerically investigate the long-time behavior of the density-density autocorrelation function in driven lattice gases with particle exclusion and periodic boundary conditions in one, two, and three dimensions using precise Monte Carlo simulations. In the one-dimensional asymmetric exclusion process on a ring with half the lattice sites occupied, we find that correlations induce extremely slow relaxation to the asymptotic power law decay. We compare the crossover functions obtained from our simulations with various analytic results in the literature and analyze the characteristic oscillations that occur in finite systems away from half-filling. As expected, in three dimensions correlations are weak and consequently the mean-field description is adequate. We also investigate the relaxation toward the nonequilibrium steady state in the two-time density-density autocorrelations, starting from strongly correlated initial conditions. We obtain simple aging scaling behavior in one, two, and three dimensions, with the expected power laws.
Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices
Wulf, Thomas Okupnik, Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-09-15
We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non-Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism, we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of the transport for global disorder.
A dilation-driven vortex flow in sheared granular materials explains a rheometric anomaly.
Krishnaraj, K P; Nott, Prabhu R
2016-02-11
Granular flows occur widely in nature and industry, yet a continuum description that captures their important features is yet not at hand. Recent experiments on granular materials sheared in a cylindrical Couette device revealed a puzzling anomaly, wherein all components of the stress rise nearly exponentially with depth. Here we show, using particle dynamics simulations and imaging experiments, that the stress anomaly arises from a remarkable vortex flow. For the entire range of fill heights explored, we observe a single toroidal vortex that spans the entire Couette cell and whose sense is opposite to the uppermost Taylor vortex in a fluid. We show that the vortex is driven by a combination of shear-induced dilation, a phenomenon that has no analogue in fluids, and gravity flow. Dilatancy is an important feature of granular mechanics, but not adequately incorporated in existing models.
A dilation-driven vortex flow in sheared granular materials explains a rheometric anomaly
Krishnaraj, K. P.; Nott, Prabhu R.
2016-01-01
Granular flows occur widely in nature and industry, yet a continuum description that captures their important features is yet not at hand. Recent experiments on granular materials sheared in a cylindrical Couette device revealed a puzzling anomaly, wherein all components of the stress rise nearly exponentially with depth. Here we show, using particle dynamics simulations and imaging experiments, that the stress anomaly arises from a remarkable vortex flow. For the entire range of fill heights explored, we observe a single toroidal vortex that spans the entire Couette cell and whose sense is opposite to the uppermost Taylor vortex in a fluid. We show that the vortex is driven by a combination of shear-induced dilation, a phenomenon that has no analogue in fluids, and gravity flow. Dilatancy is an important feature of granular mechanics, but not adequately incorporated in existing models. PMID:26864086
Large Deviations in Weakly Interacting Boundary Driven Lattice Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wijland, Frédéric; Rácz, Zoltán
2005-01-01
One-dimensional, boundary-driven lattice gases with local interactions are studied in the weakly interacting limit. The density profiles and the correlation functions are calculated to first order in the interaction strength for zero-range and short-range processes differing only in the specifics of the detailed-balance dynamics. Furthermore, the effective free-energy (large-deviation function) and the integrated current distribution are also found to this order. From the former, we find that the boundary drive generates long-range correlations only for the short-range dynamics while the latter provides support to an additivity principle recently proposed by Bodineau and Derrida.
Three-dimensional vortex solitons in quasi-two-dimensional lattices.
Leblond, Hervé; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru
2007-08-01
We consider the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a quasi-2D square-lattice potential (which corresponds to the optical lattice trapping a self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate, or, in some approximation, to a photonic-crystal fiber, in terms of nonlinear optics). Stable 3D solitons, with embedded vorticity S=1 and 2, are found by means of the variational approximation and in a numerical form. They are built, basically, as sets of four fundamental solitons forming a rhombus, with phase shifts piS2 between adjacent sites, and an empty site in the middle. The results demonstrate two species of stable 3D solitons, which were not studied before, viz., localized vortices ("spinning light bullets," in terms of optics) with S>1 , and vortex solitons (with any S not equal 0 ) supported by a lattice in the 3D space. Typical scenarios of instability development (collapse or decay) of unstable localized vortices are identified too.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klironomos, Alexios
I present a derivation of the nondispersive elastic moduli for the vortex lattice within the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model. I derive an extension of the virial theorem for superconductivity for anisotropic superconductors, with the anisotropy arising from s-d mixing or an anisotropic Fermi surface. The structural transition from rhombic to square vortex lattice is studied within this model along with the effects of thermal fluctuations on the structural transition. The reentrant transition from square to rhombic vortex lattice for high fields and the instability with respect to rigid rotations of the vortex lattice, predicted by calculations within the nonlocal London model, are also present in the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model. I also study the fingering of an electron droplet in a special Quantum Hall regime, where electrostatic forces are weak. Performing Monte Carlo simulations I study the growth and fingering of the electron droplet in an inhomogeneous magnetic field as the number of electrons is increased. I expand on recent theoretical results and find excellent agreement between my simulations and the theoretical predictions.
A vortex-lattice method in the linear theory on a two-dimensional supercavitating flat plate foil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kida, T.; Take, T.
1983-02-01
The vortex-lattice method has been found very satisfactory in the case of steady subsonic wing theory, however, the discrete numerical methods, such as the vortex-lattice method, have not been studied in detail for supercavitating flows. One of the discrete numerical method, a vortex-lattice method, is developed in the present paper for cavitating flows around a two dimensional flat plate foil. The governing equations in the linear theory are represented as a set of coupled integral equations with Cauchy kernel, and there are unknown functions which are not under integral signs. For solving them, they are exchanged to an alternative set of coupled integral equations by a new variable, and the present vortex-lattice method is schemed for equal spacing of the vortices and sources in this new variable. The position of the collocation points is determined, and it is sufficient to treat unknown functions which are not integral signs as step functions. Moreover, the proof of the convergence of this method is shown and the accuracy is estimated.
Lattice-Polarity-Driven Epitaxy of Hexagonal Semiconductor Nanowires.
Wang, Ping; Yuan, Ying; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xinqiang; Zheng, Xiantong; Rong, Xin; Wang, Tao; Sheng, Bowen; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Bian, Lifeng; Yang, Xuelin; Xu, Fujun; Qin, Zhixin; Li, Xinzheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Shen, Bo
2016-02-10
Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is demonstrated on InN NWs. In-polarity InN NWs form typical hexagonal structure with pyramidal growth front, whereas N-polarity InN NWs slowly turn to the shape of hexagonal pyramid and then convert to an inverted pyramid growth, forming diagonal pyramids with flat surfaces and finally coalescence with each other. This contrary growth behavior driven by lattice-polarity is most likely due to the relatively lower growth rate of the (0001̅) plane, which results from the fact that the diffusion barriers of In and N adatoms on the (0001) plane (0.18 and 1.0 eV, respectively) are about 2-fold larger in magnitude than those on the (0001̅) plane (0.07 and 0.52 eV), as calculated by first-principles density functional theory (DFT). The formation of diagonal pyramids for the N-polarity hexagonal NWs affords a novel way to locate quantum dot in the kink position, suggesting a new recipe for the fabrication of dot-based devices.
Photonic currents in driven and dissipative resonator lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertz, Thomas; Vasić, Ivana; Hartmann, Michael J.; Hofstetter, Walter
2016-07-01
Arrays of coupled photonic cavities driven by external lasers represent a highly controllable setup to explore photonic transport. In this paper we address (quasi)-steady states of this system that exhibit photonic currents introduced by engineering driving and dissipation. We investigate two approaches: in the first one, photonic currents arise as a consequence of a phase difference of applied lasers and, in the second one, photons are injected locally and currents develop as they redistribute over the lattice. Effects of interactions are taken into account within a mean-field framework. In the first approach, we find that the current exhibits a resonant behavior with respect to the driving frequency. Weak interactions shift the resonant frequency toward higher values, while in the strongly interacting regime in our mean-field treatment the effect stems from multiphotonic resonances of a single driven cavity. For the second approach, we show that the overall lattice current can be controlled by incorporating few cavities with stronger dissipation rates into the system. These cavities serve as sinks for photonic currents and their effect is maximal at the onset of quantum Zeno dynamics.
Vortex Lattice Studies in CeCoIn₅ with H⊥c
Das, P.; White, J. S.; Holmes, A. T.; ...
2012-02-23
We present small angle neutron scattering studies of the vortex lattice (VL) in CeCoIn₅ with magnetic fields applied parallel (H) to the antinodal [100] and nodal [110] directions. For H II 100], a single VL orientation is observed, while a 90° reorientation transition is found for H II [110]. For both field orientations and VL configurations we find a distorted hexagonal VL with an anisotropy, Γ=2.0±0.05. The VL form factor shows strong Pauli paramagnetic effects similar to what have previously been reported for H II [001]. At high fields, above which the upper critical field (Hc2) becomes a first-order transition,more » an increased disordering of the VL is observed.« less
Quantum melting of a two-dimensional vortex lattice at zero temperature
Rozhkov, A.; Stroud, D.
1996-11-01
We consider the quantum melting of a two-dimensional flux lattice at temperature {ital T} = 0 in the {open_quote}{open_quote}superclean limit.{close_quote}{close_quote} In this regime, we find that vortex motion is dominated by the Magnus force. A Lindemann criterion predicts melting when {ital n}{sub {ital v}}/{ital n}{sub {ital p}}{ge}{beta}, where {ital n}{sub {ital v}} and {ital n}{sub {ital p}} are the areal number densities of vortex pancakes and Cooper pairs, and {beta}{approx_equal}0.1. A second criterion is derived by using Wigner-crystal and Laughlin wave functions for the solid and liquid phases respectively, and setting the two energies equal. This gives a melting value similar to the Lindemann result. We discuss the numerical value of the {ital T}=0 melting field for thin layers of a low-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductor, such as {ital a}-MoGe, and single layers of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} materials. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
A self-learning coupled map lattice for vortex shedding in cable and cylinder wakes.
Balasubramanian, G; Olinger, D J; Demetriou, M A
2004-06-01
A coupled map lattice (CML) with self-learning features is developed to model flow over freely vibrating cables and stationary cylinders at low Reynolds numbers. Coupled map lattices that combine a series of low-dimensional circle maps with a diffusion model have been used previously to predict qualitative features of these flows. However, the simple nature of these CML models implies that there will be unmodeled wake features if a detailed, quantitative comparison is made with laboratory or simulated wake flows. Motivated by a desire to develop an improved CML model, we incorporate self-learning features into a new CML that is first trained to precisely estimate wake patterns from a target numerical simulation. A new convective-diffusive map that includes additional wake dynamics is developed. The new self-learning CML uses an adaptive estimation scheme (multivariable least-squares algorithm). Studies of this approach are conducted using wake patterns from a Navier-Stokes solution (spectral element-based NEKTAR simulation) of freely vibrating cable wakes at Reynolds numbers Re=100. It is shown that the self-learning model accurately and efficiently estimates the simulated wake patterns. The self-learning scheme is then successfully applied to vortex shedding patterns obtained from experiments on stationary cylinders. This constitutes a first step toward the use of the self-learning CML as a wake model in flow control studies of laboratory wake flows.
Interaction-induced exotic vortex states in an optical lattice clock with spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xiaofan; Pan, Jian-Song; Yi, Wei; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang
2017-08-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [L. F. Livi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 220401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.220401], we study the ground-state properties of interacting fermions in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock with spin-orbit coupling. As the electronic and the hyperfine-spin states in the clock-state manifolds can be treated as effective sites along distinct synthetic dimensions, the system can be considered as multiple two-leg ladders with uniform magnetic flux penetrating the plaquettes of each ladder. As the interorbital spin-exchange interactions in the clock-state manifolds couple individual ladders together, we show that exotic interaction-induced vortex states emerge in the coupled-ladder system, which compete with existing phases of decoupled ladders and lead to a rich phase diagram. Adopting the density matrix renormalization group approach, we map out the phase diagram, and investigate in detail the currents and the density-density correlations of the various phases. Our results reveal the impact of interactions on spin-orbit coupled systems, and are particularly relevant to the ongoing exploration of spin-orbit coupled optical lattice clocks.
Magnetic-field-induced vortex-lattice transition in HgBa2CuO4 +δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jeongseop A.; Xin, Yizhou; Stolt, I.; Halperin, W. P.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Chan, M. K.
2017-01-01
Measurements of the 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quadrupolar spectrum of apical oxygen in HgBa2CuO4 +δ were performed over a range of magnetic fields from 6.4-30 T in the superconducting state. Oxygen-isotope-exchanged single crystals were investigated with doping corresponding to superconducting transition temperatures from 74 K underdoped, to 78 K overdoped. The apical oxygen site was chosen since its NMR spectrum has narrow quadrupolar satellites that are well separated from any other resonance. Nonvortex contributions to the spectra can be deconvolved in the time domain to determine the local magnetic field distribution from the vortices. Numerical analysis using Brandt's Ginzburg-Landau theory was used to find structural parameters of the vortex lattice, penetration depth, and coherence length as a function of magnetic field in the vortex solid phase. From this analysis we report a vortex structural transition near 15 T from an oblique lattice with an opening angle of 73∘ at low magnetic fields to a triangular lattice with 60∘ stabilized at high field. The temperature for onset of vortex dynamics has been identified from spin-spin relaxation. This is independent of the magnetic field at sufficiently high magnetic field similar to that reported for YBa2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ and is correlated with mass anisotropy of the material. This behavior is accounted for theoretically only in the limit of very high anisotropy.
Colloquium: Atomic quantum gases in periodically driven optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckardt, André
2017-01-01
Time-periodic forcing in the form of coherent radiation is a standard tool for the coherent manipulation of small quantum systems like single atoms. In the last years, periodic driving has more and more also been considered as a means for the coherent control of many-body systems. In particular, experiments with ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices subjected to periodic driving in the lower kilohertz regime have attracted much attention. Milestones include the observation of dynamic localization, the dynamic control of the quantum phase transition between a bosonic superfluid and a Mott insulator, as well as the dynamic creation of strong artificial magnetic fields and topological band structures. This Colloquium reviews these recent experiments and their theoretical description. Moreover, fundamental properties of periodically driven many-body systems are discussed within the framework of Floquet theory, including heating, relaxation dynamics, anomalous topological edge states, and the response to slow parameter variations.
Evidence of Ultrafast Charge Transfer Driven by Coherent Lattice Vibrations.
Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne A; Dawlaty, Jahan M
2017-01-05
We report evidence that intermolecular vibrations coherently drive charge transfer between the sites of a material on ultrafast time scales. Following a nonresonant stimulated Raman pump pulse that excites the organic material quinhydrone, we observe the initial appearance of oscillations due to intermolecular lattice vibrations and then the delayed appearance of a higher-frequency oscillation that we assign to a totally symmetric intramolecular vibration. We use the coherent dynamics of the transient reflectivity signal to propose that coherence transfer drives excitation of this intramolecular vibration. Furthermore, we conclude that the dynamical frequency shift of the intramolecular vibration reports the formation of a quasi-stable charge-separated state on ultrafast time scales. We calculate model dynamics using the extended Hubbard Hamiltonian to explain coherence transfer due to vibrationally driven charge transfer. These results demonstrate that the coherent excitation of low-frequency vibrations can drive charge transfer in the solid state and control material properties.
Slowing down the Josephson vortex lattice in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ with pancake vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koshelev, A. E.; Latyshev, Yu. I.; Konczykowski, M.
2006-09-01
We study theoretically and experimentally the influence of pancake vortices on motion of the Josephson vortex lattice in layered high-temperature superconductors. Mobility of the Josephson vortices in layered superconductors is strongly suppressed by a small amount of pancake-vortex stacks. Moving Josephson vortex lattice forces oscillating zigzag deformation of the pancake-vortex stacks contributing to damping. The salient feature of this contribution is its nonmonotonic dependence on the lattice velocity and the corresponding voltage. Maximum pancake effect is realized when the Josephson frequency matches the relaxation frequency of the stacks. The pancake-vortex damping is strongly suppressed by thermal fluctuations of the pancake vortices. This theoretical picture was qualitatively confirmed by experiments on two mesas prepared out of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ whiskers. We found that the Josephson-vortex flux-flow voltage is very sensitive to small c -axis magnetic field. The pancake-vortex contribution to the current indeed nonmonotonically depends on voltage and decreases with increasing temperature and in-plane magnetic field. We also found that irradiation with heavy ions has no noticeable direct influence on motion of the Josephson vortices but dramatically reduces the pancake-vortex contribution to the damping of the Josephson vortex lattice at low temperatures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. E.
1981-01-01
The nonplanar quasi-vortex-lattice method is applied to the calculation of lateral-directional stability derivatives of wings with and without vortex-lift effect. Results for conventional configurations and those with winglets, V-tail, etc. are compared with available data. All rolling moment derivatives are found to be accurately predicted. The prediction of side force and yawing moment derivatives for some configurations is not as accurate. Causes of the discrepancy are discussed. A user's manual for the program and the program listing are also included.
Effects of parallel dynamics on vortex structures in electron temperature gradient driven turbulence
Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
2011-01-15
Vortex structures and related heat transport properties in slab electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence are comprehensively investigated by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations, with the aim of elucidating the underlying physical mechanisms of the transition from turbulent to coherent states. Numerical results show three different types of vortex structures, i.e., coherent vortex streets accompanied with the transport reduction, turbulent vortices with steady transport, and a zonal-flow-dominated state, depending on the relative magnitude of the parallel compression to the diamagnetic drift. In particular, the formation of coherent vortex streets is correlated with the strong generation of zonal flows for the cases with weak parallel compression, even though the maximum growth rate of linear ETG modes is relatively large. The zonal flow generation in the ETG turbulence is investigated by the modulational instability analysis with a truncated fluid model, where the parallel dynamics such as acoustic modes for electrons is incorporated. The modulational instability for zonal flows is found to be stabilized by the effect of the finite parallel compression. The theoretical analysis qualitatively agrees with secondary growth of zonal flows found in the slab ETG turbulence simulations, where the transition of vortex structures is observed.
Flow-Driven Rapid Vesicle Fusion via Vortex Trapping.
Shin, Sangwoo; Ault, Jesse T; Stone, Howard A
2015-07-07
Fusion between suspended lipid vesicles is difficult to achieve without membrane proteins or ions because the vesicles have extremely low equilibrium membrane tension and high poration energy. Nonetheless, vesicle fusion in the absence of mediators can also be achieved by mechanical forcing that is strong enough to induce membrane poration. Here, we employ a strong fluid shear stress to achieve vesicle fusion. By utilizing a unique vortex formation phenomenon in branched channels as a platform for capturing, stressing, and fusing the lipid vesicles, we directly visualize using high-speed imaging the vesicle fusion events, induced solely by shear, on the time scale of submilliseconds. We show that a large vesicle with a size of up to ∼10 μm can be achieved by the fusion of nanoscale vesicles. This technique has the potential to be utilized as a fast and simple way to produce giant unilamellar vesicles and to serve as a platform for visualizing vesicle interactions and fusions in the presence of shear.
Vortex formation and dynamics in two-dimensional driven-dissipative condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebenstreit, F.
2016-12-01
We investigate the real-time evolution of lattice bosons in two spatial dimensions whose dynamics is governed by a Markovian quantum master equation. We employ the Wigner-Weyl phase space quantization and derive the functional integral for open quantum many-body systems that determines the time evolution of the Wigner function. Using the truncated Wigner approximation, in which quantum fluctuations are only taken into account in the initial state whereas the dynamics is governed by classical evolution equations, we study the buildup of long-range correlations due to the action of non-Hermitean quantum jump operators that constitute a mechanism for dissipative cooling. Starting from an initially disordered state corresponding to a vortex condensate, the dissipative process results in the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs and the establishment of quasi-long-range order at late times. We observe that a finite vortex density survives the cooling process, which disagrees with the analytically constructed vortex-free Bose-Einstein condensate at asymptotic times. This indicates that quantum fluctuations beyond the truncated Wigner approximation need to be included to fully capture the physics of dissipative Bose-Einstein condensation.
Explosive-driven shock wave and vortex ring interaction with a propane flame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannuzzi, P. M.; Hargather, M. J.; Doig, G. C.
2016-11-01
Experiments were performed to analyze the interaction of an explosively driven shock wave and a propane flame. A 30 g explosive charge was detonated at one end of a 3-m-long, 0.6-m-diameter shock tube to produce a shock wave which propagated into the atmosphere. A propane flame source was positioned at various locations outside of the shock tube to investigate the effect of different strength shock waves. High-speed retroreflective shadowgraph imaging visualized the shock wave motion and flame response, while a synchronized color camera imaged the flame directly. The explosively driven shock tube was shown to produce a repeatable shock wave and vortex ring. Digital streak images show the shock wave and vortex ring propagation and expansion. The shadowgrams show that the shock wave extinguishes the propane flame by pushing it off of the fuel source. Even a weak shock wave was found to be capable of extinguishing the flame.
Nonstationary current-driven dynamics of vortex domain walls in films with in-plane anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovik, M. N.; Filippov, B. N.; Korzunin, L. G.
2017-02-01
Micromagnetic simulation of a current-driven vortex domain wall motion in a film with in-plane anisotropy was carried out. The current density values j >jc were considered corresponding to the nonstationary motion, with the domain wall structure dynamic transformation occurred. A nonlinear dependence of the jc value on the film thickness was obtained. The nonstationary motion regime existence restricted the possibility to increase the domain wall velocity by increasing j and decreasing the damping parameter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.; Gloss, B. B.
1975-01-01
Because the potential flow suction along the leading and side edges of a planform can be used to determine both leading- and side-edge vortex lift, the present investigation was undertaken to apply the vortex-lattice method to computing side-edge suction force for isolated or interacting planforms. Although there is a small effect of bound vortex sweep on the computation of the side-edge suction force, the results obtained for a number of different isolated planforms produced acceptable agreement with results obtained from a method employing continuous induced-velocity distributions. By using the method outlined, better agreement between theory and experiment was noted for a wing in the presence of a canard than was previously obtained.
Ooi, S; Mochiku, T; Tachiki, M; Hirata, K
2015-02-27
The vortex-lattice melting transition of a limited number of vortices confined in mesoscopic square superconductors was studied by c-axis resistance measurements using stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions in Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+y}. In contrast to the melting transition in bulk crystals, we have first found a clear oscillatory behavior in the field dependence of the melting temperature in small samples of 5-10 μm square. The periods of the oscillations roughly obey the regularity of the matching conditions of square vortex lattices surrounded by a square boundary and the melting temperatures are enhanced around the vortex number of i^{2} (where i is an integer). The results suggest that a confinement effect by the square boundary stabilizes square lattice structures which are realized around i^{2} vortex number even in competition with the favorable Abrikosov triangular lattice in the bulk.
Gradient-Driven Vortex Motion in Nonneutral Plasmas and Ideal 2D Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schecter, David A.
2000-10-01
gradient exceeds a critical level, gradient-driven vortex motion is suppressed. An estimate of this critical shear compares favorably to vortex-in-cell simulations.
Dinardo, Brad A; Anderson, Dana Z
2016-12-01
We describe a system for loading a single atom from a reservoir into a blue-detuned crossed vortex bottle beam trap using a dynamic 1D optical lattice. The lattice beams are frequency chirped using acousto-optic modulators, which causes the lattice to move along its axial direction and behave like an optical conveyor belt. A stationary lattice is initially loaded with approximately 6000 atoms from a reservoir, and the conveyor belt transports them 1.1 mm from the reservoir to a bottle beam trap, where a single atom is loaded via light-assisted collisions. Photon counting data confirm that an atom can be delivered and loaded into the bottle beam trap 13.1% of the time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinardo, Brad A.; Anderson, Dana Z.
2016-12-01
We describe a system for loading a single atom from a reservoir into a blue-detuned crossed vortex bottle beam trap using a dynamic 1D optical lattice. The lattice beams are frequency chirped using acousto-optic modulators, which causes the lattice to move along its axial direction and behave like an optical conveyor belt. A stationary lattice is initially loaded with approximately 6000 atoms from a reservoir, and the conveyor belt transports them 1.1 mm from the reservoir to a bottle beam trap, where a single atom is loaded via light-assisted collisions. Photon counting data confirm that an atom can be delivered and loaded into the bottle beam trap 13.1% of the time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan
2016-01-01
The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).
Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.
2014-01-01
The SUGAR Truss-BracedWing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeing-developed N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD FixedWing Project. This future generation transport aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing a high aspect ratio wing design. The aspect ratio of the TBW is on the order of 14 which is significantly greater than those of current generation transport aircraft. This paper presents a recent aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX and an aerodynamic superposition approach. Based on the underlying linear potential flow theory, the principle of aerodynamic superposition is leveraged to deal with the complex aerodynamic configuration of the TBW. By decomposing the full configuration of the TBW into individual aerodynamic lifting components, the total aerodynamic characteristics of the full configuration can be estimated from the contributions of the individual components. The aerodynamic superposition approach shows excellent agreement with CFD results computed by FUN3D, USM3D, and STAR-CCM+.
Fractional Matching Effect due to Pinning of the Vortex Lattice by an Array of Magnetic Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoll, O. M.; Montero, M. I.; Jönsson-Åkerman, B. J.; Schuller, Ivan K.
2001-03-01
We have investigated the pinning of magnetic flux quanta by rectangular arrays of nanoscaled magnetic dots. We measured the resistivity vs. magnetic field characteristics using a high magnetic field resolution of up to 0.1 G over the full field range ( 2 kG to 2 kG). By this we the appearance of minima at half and third integer values of the matching field. It is well known that a reconfiguration of the vortex lattice from a rectangular to a square type geometry occurs in rectangular arrays of magnetic dots when the magnetic field is increased over a threshold value H_r. If we lower the magnetic field after crossing H_r, we find that some of the minima at the full integer matching field are missing. This hysteretic behavior occurs only when Hr is exceeded before the subsequent decrease of the magnetic field. We present the experimental results and discuss preliminary models for the explanation of these observations. This work was supported by the grants NSF and DOE. Two of us acknowledge postdoctoral fellowships by the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) (O.M.S.) and the Secretaria De Estado De Educacion Y Universidades (M.I.M.) respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, G. F.
1975-01-01
The application is considered of vortex lattice techniques to the problem of describing the aerodynamics and performance of statically thrusting propellers. A numerical lifting surface theory to predict the aerodynamic forces and power is performed. The chordwise and spanwise loading is modelled by bound vortices fixed to a twisted flat plate surface. In order to eliminate any apriori assumptions regarding the wake shape, it is assumed the propeller starts from rest. The wake is generated in time and allowed to deform under its own self-induced velocity field as the motion of the propeller progresses. The bound circulation distribution is then determined with time by applying the flow tangency boundary condition at certain selected control points on the blades. The aerodynamics of the infinite wing and finite wing are also considered. The details of wake formation and roll-up are investigated, particularly the localized induction effect. It is concluded that proper wake roll-up and roll-up rates can be established by considering the details of motion at the instant of start.
Description, Usage, and Validation of the MVL-15 Modified Vortex Lattice Analysis Capability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozoroski, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
MVL-15 is the most recent version of the Modified Vortex-Lattice (MVL) code developed within the Aerodynamics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) at NASA LaRC. The term "modified" refers to the primary modification of the core vortex-lattice methodology: inclusion of viscous aerodynamics tables that are linked to the linear solution via iterative processes. The inclusion of the viscous aerodynamics inherently converts the MVL-15 from a purely analytic linearized method to a semi-empirical blend which retains the rapid execution speed of the linearized method while empirically characterizing the section aerodynamics at all spanwise lattice points. The modification provides a means to assess non-linear effects on lift that occur at angles of attack near stall, and provides a means to determine the drag associated with the application of design strategies for lift augmentation such as the use of flaps or blowing. The MVL-15 code is applicable to the analyses of aircraft aerodynamics during cruise, but it is most advantageously applied to the analysis of aircraft operating in various high-lift configurations. The MVL methodology has been previously conceived and implemented; the initial concept version was delivered to the ASAB in 2001 (van Dam, C.), subsequently revised (Gelhausen, P. and Ozoroski, T. 2002 / AVID Inc., Gelhausen, P., and Roberts, M. 2004), and then overhauled (Ozoroski, T., Hahn, A. 2008). The latest version, MVL-15 has been refined to provide analysis transparency and enhanced to meet the analysis requirements of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Each revision has been implemented with reasonable success. Separate applications of the methodology are in use, including a similar in-house capability, developed by Olson, E. that is tailored for structural and acoustics analyses. A central premise of the methodology is that viscous aerodynamic data can be associated with analytic inviscid aerodynamic results at each spanwise wing section
Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K
2017-07-17
Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yuan-Chang; Lei, Hai-Yang; Hu, Jing-Guo
2015-09-01
In a magnetic nanostripe, the effects of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on the current-driven horizontal motion of vortex wall along the stripe and the vertical motion of the vortex core are studied by micromagnetic simulations. The results show that the horizontal and vertical motion can generally be monotonously enhanced by PMA. However, when the current is small, a nonmonotonic phenomenon for the horizontal motion is found. Namely, the velocity of the horizontal motion firstly decreases and then increases with the increase of the PMA. We find that the reason for this is that the PMA can firstly increase and then decrease the confining force induced by the confining potential energy. In addition, the PMA always enhances the driving force induced by the current. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11247026 and 11374253).
Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Senfu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Liu, Xianyin; Jin, Chendong; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang
2015-05-07
By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the dynamic of magnetic vortex driven by spin-polarized current in Permalloy nanodisks in the presence of interfacial/superficial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMI). It is found that spin-polarized current can drive the vortex precession. In the presence of DMI, the oscillation frequency of the vortex is about 3 times higher than that of without DMI for the same nanodisk. Moreover, the linewidth is more narrow than that of without DMI when the radius of nanodisk is 50 nm. In addition, the vortex can support a higher current density than that of without DMI. Introduction of DMI in this system can provide a new way to design magnetic vortex oscillator.
Quantifying spin torque effects using a current-driven magnetic vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchanan, Kristen
2013-03-01
Spin transfer torques offer great potential for the development of spin-based devices for processing and storing information but there is still debate surrounding the relative contributions of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin torque effects. Magnetic vortices in patterned magnetic films provide a model system that can be used to quantify these effects. Micromagnetic calculations of the current-driven motion of a magnetic vortex in a patterned Permalloy element show that the two spin torque effects have distinguishable influences on the trajectories of the vortex core and, furthermore, that the effect of the current-generated magnetic fields (Oersted) that are often non-negligible when current flows through magnetic nanostructures can also be separated out. An analysis of a series of experimental images of vortex trajectories obtained using a recently developed dynamic Lorentz transmission electron microscopy technique provides a measure of the non-adiabatic spin torque parameter with greatly improved precision. The work described here was carried out in collaboration with Shawn Pollard, L. Huang, Dario Arena, and Yimei Zhu (Brookhaven). This work was supported by the NSF and the DOE.
Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Bin
Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in vortex-driven combustors using a direct liquid fuel injection strategy was theoretically established and experimentally demonstrated in this dissertation work. Droplet size measurements revealed that with pulsed fuel injection management, fuel droplet size could be modulated periodically. Consequently, desired heat release fluctuation could be created. If this oscillatory heat release is coupled with the natural pressure oscillation in an out of phase manner, combustion instabilities can be suppressed. To identify proper locations of supplying additional liquid fuel for the purpose of achieving control, the natural heat release pattern in a vortex-driven combustor was characterized in this study. It was found that at high Damkohler number oscillatory heat release pattern closely followed the evolving vortex front. However, when Damkohler number became close to unity, heat release fluctuation wave no longer coincided with the coherent structures. A heat release deficit area was found near the dump plane when combustor was operated in lean premixed conditions. Active combustion instability suppression experiments were performed in a dump combustor using a controlled liquid fuel injection strategy. High-speed Schlieren results illustrated that vortex shedding plays an important role in maintaining self-sustained combustion instabilities. Complete combustion instability control requires total suppression of these large-scale coherent structures. The sound pressure level at the excited dominant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, T. H.; Yuan, Y.; Bao, W.; Clark, S. R.; Foot, C.; Jaksch, D.
2016-06-01
We investigate cold bosonic impurity atoms trapped in a vortex lattice formed by condensed bosons of another species. We describe the dynamics of the impurities by a bosonic Hubbard model containing occupation-dependent parameters to capture the effects of strong impurity-impurity interactions. These include both a repulsive direct interaction and an attractive effective interaction mediated by the Bose-Einstein condensate. The occupation dependence of these two competing interactions drastically affects the Hubbard model phase diagram, including causing the disappearance of some Mott lobes.
Johnson, T H; Yuan, Y; Bao, W; Clark, S R; Foot, C; Jaksch, D
2016-06-17
We investigate cold bosonic impurity atoms trapped in a vortex lattice formed by condensed bosons of another species. We describe the dynamics of the impurities by a bosonic Hubbard model containing occupation-dependent parameters to capture the effects of strong impurity-impurity interactions. These include both a repulsive direct interaction and an attractive effective interaction mediated by the Bose-Einstein condensate. The occupation dependence of these two competing interactions drastically affects the Hubbard model phase diagram, including causing the disappearance of some Mott lobes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feifel, W. M.
1976-01-01
A new method based on vortex lattice theory has been developed which can be applied to the combined analysis, induced drag optimization, and aerodynamic design of three-dimensional configurations of arbitrary shape. Geometric and aerodynamic constraints can be imposed on both the optimization and the design process. The method is compared with several known analytical solutions and is applied to several different design and optimization problems, including formation flight and wingtip fins for the Boeing KC-135 tanker airplane. Good agreement has been observed between the theoretical predictions and the wind tunnel test results for the KC-135 modification.
Dislocations in a vortex lattice and complexity of chlamydomonas ciliary beating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amnuanpol, Sitichoke
For the first topic the moving dislocations interrupt an orchestrating transport of vortices, leading to the different velocities of vortices at the different parts of a vortex lattice. Since the correlation of displacement grows algebraically in two dimensions rather than logarithmically in three dimensions, we emphasize the movement of edge dislocations on a single copper oxide plane. Effect of moving dislocations is particularly examined in connection to the velocity-force characteristics of vortices. Under the neutrality condition, the density of Burgers vectors of dislocations emerges in the equations of motion of vortices as a source term. Time evolution of the density of Burgers vectors is governed by a Fokker-Planck equation in which the drift and diffusion coefficients describe the interaction of dislocations and the thermal fluctuation, respectively. To find the Green's function of Fokker-Planck equation a perturbation series in the orders of drift coefficient which generally possesses the spatiotemporal dependence is constructed, analogous to the Born series of the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation. In contrast, the drift coefficient shows up only with the even orders and the sign in a series alternates. Dislocations slow the velocity of vortices below their linear flux flow velocity, like the pinning. Free dislocations are more efficient to slow the velocity of vortices than interacting dislocations. For the second topic the adaptation of Chlamydomonas ciliary beating to light stimulation during its phototaxis is studied by adopting a notion of memory believed to account for the slower responses. The influence of the past ciliary beating on the present one is expressed in terms of memory time estimated by a saturating point of Lipschitz number. Mutant cells seem to possess a memory time longer than wild type cells. Under a dark environment the ciliary beating shows strong time variability suitable for a temporal self-similarity study. The scaling
Vortex lattice melting in a boson ladder in an artificial gauge field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orignac, E.; Citro, R.; Di Dio, M.; De Palo, S.
2017-07-01
We consider a two-leg boson ladder in an artificial U(1) gauge field and show that, in the presence of interleg attractive interaction, the flux induced vortex state can be melted by dislocations. For increasing flux, instead of the Meissner to vortex transition in the commensurate-incommensurate universality class, first, an Ising transition from the Meissner state to a charge density wave takes place, then, at higher flux, the melted vortex phase is established via a disorder point where incommensuration develops in the rung current correlation function and in momentum distribution. Finally, the quasi-long-range ordered vortex phase is recovered for sufficiently small interaction. Our predictions for the observables, such as the spin current and the static structure factor, could be tested in current experiments with cold atoms in bosonic ladders.
Zhang, Wending; Huang, Ligang; Wei, Keyan; Li, Peng; Jiang, Biqiang; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Mei, Ting; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhao, Jianlin
2016-11-01
We propose a method to generate the high-order optical vortex in a few-mode fiber via cascaded acoustically driven vector mode conversion. Theoretical analysis showed that the vector mode conversion induced by the acoustically induced fiber grating (AIFG) could occur between two HE modes with adjacent azimuthal numbers. In the experiment conducted at 532 nm, two AIFGs were simultaneously induced in the same segment of the fiber by a radio frequency source containing two different frequency components. One AIFG was used to convert the left- and right-handed circular polarization fundamental modes to the ±1-order vortex modes, which were then further converted to the ±2-order vortex modes by the other AIFG. The topological charges of the vortex modes were verified using both coaxial and off-axial interference methods, showing typical signature patterns of spiral forms and forklike fringes, respectively.
Koshelev, A.E.
1997-11-01
The phase diagram of layered superconductors in the vortex state is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of the three-dimensional uniformly frustrated XY model with different anisotropy parameters. In the London regime the phase diagram of layered superconductors is shown to be universal if plotted in scaled temperature and field with the field scale being the two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) crossover field B{sub cr}. We find a very broad crossover region between quasi-two-dimensional and line-like melting regimes ranging from {approximately}B{sub cr} to {approximately}10B{sub cr}. The region is characterized by several distinct features: (i) the melting of the lattice occurs when the Josephson energy is suppressed to 64{percent} of its bare value; (ii) the latent heat at the transition does not change much with the anisotropy parameter; (iii) the jump of the Josephson energy at the transition is equal to the jump of the in-plane energy. The entropy jump reaches a maximum value of 0.45k{sub B}/vortex/layer at a field {approximately}10B{sub cr} and decreases with decreasing field due to an increase in the transition temperature. This behavior is found to be in a good agreement with experimental observations after the renormalization due to the temperature dependence of superconducting parameters is taken into account. The pancake alignment above the transition increases with increasing of the Josephson coupling. At high fields the melting is accompanied by a significant drop in the coupling energy and the destruction of vortex lines, while at small fields the vortex lines preserve at the transition. In the studied region of parameters we find that the line liquid does not have superconductivity along the direction of magnetic field in the thermodynamic limit. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Figliozzi, Patrick; Sule, Nishant; Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Burov, Stanislav; Gray, Stephen K; Rice, Stuart A; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Scherer, Norbert F
2017-02-01
To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system. We also show that a superior trap is created by using a Au nanoplate mirror in a retroreflection geometry, which increases the electric field intensity, the optical drive force, and spatial confinement. Using nanoparticles versus micron sized colloids significantly reduces the surface hydrodynamic friction allowing us to access small values of optical topological charge and drive force. We quantify a further 50% reduction of hydrodynamic friction when the nanoparticles are driven over the Au nanoplate mirrors versus over a mildly electrostatically repulsive glass surface. Further, we demonstrate through experiments and electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics simulations that the optical drive force and the interparticle interactions are not constant around the ring for linearly polarized light, resulting in a strong position-dependent variation in the nanoparticle velocity. The nonuniformity in the optical drive force is also manifest as an increase in fluctuations of interparticle separation, or effective temperature, as the optical driving force is increased. Finally, we resolve an open issue in the literature on periodic modulation of interparticle separation with comparative measurements of driven 300-nm-diameter polystyrene beads that also clearly reveal the significance of electrodynamic forces and interactions in optically driven colloidal systems. Therefore, the modulations in the optical forces and electrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figliozzi, Patrick; Sule, Nishant; Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Burov, Stanislav; Gray, Stephen K.; Rice, Stuart A.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Scherer, Norbert F.
2017-02-01
To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system. We also show that a superior trap is created by using a Au nanoplate mirror in a retroreflection geometry, which increases the electric field intensity, the optical drive force, and spatial confinement. Using nanoparticles versus micron sized colloids significantly reduces the surface hydrodynamic friction allowing us to access small values of optical topological charge and drive force. We quantify a further 50% reduction of hydrodynamic friction when the nanoparticles are driven over the Au nanoplate mirrors versus over a mildly electrostatically repulsive glass surface. Further, we demonstrate through experiments and electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics simulations that the optical drive force and the interparticle interactions are not constant around the ring for linearly polarized light, resulting in a strong position-dependent variation in the nanoparticle velocity. The nonuniformity in the optical drive force is also manifest as an increase in fluctuations of interparticle separation, or effective temperature, as the optical driving force is increased. Finally, we resolve an open issue in the literature on periodic modulation of interparticle separation with comparative measurements of driven 300-nm-diameter polystyrene beads that also clearly reveal the significance of electrodynamic forces and interactions in optically driven colloidal systems. Therefore, the modulations in the optical forces and electrodynamic interactions
Driven optical lattices as strong-field simulators
Arlinghaus, Stephan; Holthaus, Martin
2010-06-15
We argue that ultracold atoms in strongly shaken optical lattices can be subjected to conditions similar to those experienced by electrons in laser-irradiated crystalline solids, but without introducing secondary polarization effects. As a consequence, one can induce nonperturbative multiphoton-like resonances due to the mutual penetration of ac-Stark-shifted Bloch bands. These phenomena can be detected with a combination of currently available laboratory techniques.
Lattice-Boltzmann simulation of coalescence-driven island coarsening
Basagaoglu, H.; Green, C.T.; Meakin, P.; McCoy, B.J.
2004-01-01
The first-order phase separation in a thin fluid film was simulated using a two-dimensional lattice-Boltzman model (LBM) with fluid-fluid interactions. The effects of the domain size on the intermediate asymptotic island size distribution were also discussed. It was observed that the overall process is dominated by coalescence which is independent of island mass. The results show that the combined effects of growth, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening control the phase transition process in the LBM simulations.
Cubic lattice nanosheets: thickness-driven light emission.
Golberg, Dmitri; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Zhi
2014-07-22
Silicon has a diamond-like cubic crystal lattice for which two-dimensional (2D) nanometer thickness nanosheet crystallization appears not to be trivial. However, in this issue of ACS Nano, the group led by Heon-Jin Choi demonstrates the gas-phase dendritic growth of Si nanosheets, only 1 to 13 nm thick. Moreover, such nanosheets display strong thickness-dependent photoluminescence in a visible range with red, green, and blue emission each documented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janutka, Andrzej; Gawroński, Przemysław
2017-04-01
We study the oscillatory magnetization dynamics of a vortex-containing nanodot driven by an out-of-plane polarized electric current. The dot is an ultra-thin structure (of a thickness up to the magnetostatic exchange length, a nanodisc) created from a material with strong crystalline cubic anisotropy. Therefore, it is in-plane ordered, with an effective four-fold anisotropy. Provided that the dot diameter is sufficiently large compared to the crystalline anisotropy exchange length, a vortex-centered texture that consists of four closure domains and π/2 domain walls (DWs) is stable. We call such a texture a quasi-vortex. Under the out-of-plane polarized spin current, in a certain range of the current density, the quasi-vortex rotates without any displacement of its center or damage to its core via movement of the π/2 DWs. The DW motion is accompanied by cyclic deformations and significant oscillations of the out-of-plane component of the magnetization. We discuss the potential of the quasi-vortex-containing dot to serve as a free layer of a spin-transfer oscillator and suggest that it shows promise for improving the efficiency and/or simplicity of signal conversion relative to the usual spin-transfer vortex oscillators with a soft-magnetic free layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seabra, Luis; Sindzingre, Philippe; Momoi, Tsutomu; Shannon, Nic
2016-02-01
A large part of the interest in magnets with frustrated antiferromagnetic interactions comes from the many new phases found in applied magnetic field. In this article, we explore some of the new phases which arise in a model with frustrated ferromagnetic interactions, the J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model on a square lattice. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation and spin-wave theory, we uncover behavior reminiscent of some widely studied frustrated antiferromagnets, but with a number of new twists. We first demonstrate that, for a suitable choice of parameters, the phase diagram as a function of magnetic field and temperature is nearly identical to that of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice, including the celebrated 1 /3 -magnetization plateau. We then examine how this phase diagram changes when the model is tuned to a point where the classical ground state is highly degenerate. In this case, two new phases emerge: a classical, finite-temperature spin liquid, characterized by a "ring" in the spin structure factor S (q ) ; and a vortex crystal, a multiple-Q state with finite magnetization, which can be viewed as an ordered lattice of magnetic vortices. All of these new phases persist for a wide range of magnetic fields. We discuss the relationship between these results and published studies of frustrated antiferromagnets, together with some of the materials where these new phases might be observed in experiment.
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate.
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-18
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases.
Application of the nonlinear vortex-lattice concept to aircraft-interference problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1976-01-01
A discrete-vortex model was developed to account for the hazardous effects of the vortex trail issued from the edges of separation of a large leading wing on a small trailing wing. The model is divided into three main parts: the leading wing and its near wake, the near and far wakes of the leading wing, and the trailing wing and the portion of the far wake in its vicinity. The normal force, pitching moment, and rolling moment coefficients for the trailing wing are calculated. The circulation distribution in the vortex trail is calculated in the first part of the model where the leading wing is far upstream and hence is considered isolated. A numerical example is solved to demonstrate the feasibility of using this method to study interference between aircraft. The numerical results show the correct trends: The following wing experiences a loss in lift between the wing-tip vortex systems of the leading wing, a gain outside this region, and strong rolling moments which can change sign as the lateral relative position changes. All the results are strongly dependent on the vertical relative position.
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736
Chandra Ganguli, Somesh; Singh, Harkirat; Saraswat, Garima; Ganguly, Rini; Bagwe, Vivas; Shirage, Parasharam; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Raychaudhuri, Pratap
2015-01-01
The vortex lattice in a Type II superconductor provides a versatile model system to investigate the order-disorder transition in a periodic medium in the presence of random pinning. Here, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy in a weakly pinned Co0.0075NbSe2 single crystal, we show that the vortex lattice in a 3-dimensional superconductor disorders through successive destruction of positional and orientational order, as the magnetic field is increased across the peak effect. At the onset of the peak effect, the equilibrium quasi-long range ordered state transforms into an orientational glass through the proliferation of dislocations. At a higher field, the dislocations dissociate into isolated disclination giving rise to an amorphous vortex glass. We also show the existence of a variety of additional non-equilibrium metastable states, which can be accessed through different thermomagnetic cycling. PMID:26039699
Composite to Tilted Vortex Lattice Transition in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ in Oblique Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konczykowski, M.; van der Beek, C. J.; Koshelev, A. E.; Mosser, V.; Dodgson, M.; Kes, P. H.
2006-12-01
Precision measurements of the vortex phase diagram in single crystals of the layered superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ in oblique magnetic fields confirm the existence of a second phase transition, in addition to the usual first-order vortex-lattice melting line Hm(T). The transition has a strong first-order character, is accompanied by strong hysteresis, and intersects the melting line in a tricritical point (Hm⊥, Hcr∥). Its field dependence and the changing character of the melting line at the tricritical point strongly suggest that the ground state for magnetic fields closely aligned with the superconducting layers is a lattice of uniformly tilted vortex lines.
Das, Pinaki; Rastovski, Catherine; O'Brien, Timothy; Schlesinger, Kimberly; Dewhurst, Charles; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Eskildsen, Morten
2012-01-01
The vortex lattice (VL) symmetry and orientation in clean type-II superconductors depends sensitively on the host material anisotropy, vortex density and temperature, frequently leading to rich phase diagrams. Typically, a well-ordered VL is taken to imply a ground-state configuration for the vortex-vortex interaction. Using neutron scattering we studied the VL in MgB2 for a number of field-temperature histories, discovering an unprecedented degree of metastability in connection with a known, second-order rotation transition. This allows, for the first time, structural studies of a well-ordered, nonequilibrium VL. While the mechanism responsible for the longevity of the metastable states is not resolved, we speculate it is due to a jamming of VL domains, preventing a rotation to the ground-state orientation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneghello, Gianluca; Beyhaghi, Pooriya; Bewley, Thomas
2016-11-01
The identification of an optimized hydrofoil shape depends on an accurate characterization of both its geometry and the incoming, turbulent, free-stream flow. We analyze this dependence using the computationally inexpensive vortex lattice model implemented in AVL, coupled with the recently developed global, derivative-free optimization algorithm implemented in Δ - DOGS . Particular attention will be given to the effect of the free-stream turbulence level - as modeled by a change in the viscous drag coefficients - on the optimized values of the parameters describing the three dimensional shape of the foil. Because the simplicity of AVL, when contrasted with more complex and computationally expensive LES or RANS models, may cast doubts on its usefulness, its validity and limitations will be discussed by comparison with water tank measurement, and again taking into account the effect of the uncertainty in the free-stream characterization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, Lukas; Andrade, Eric C.; Vojta, Matthias
2016-12-01
The Heisenberg-Kitaev model is a paradigmatic model to describe the magnetism in honeycomb-lattice Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling, such as A2IrO3 (A =Na , Li ) and α -RuCl3 . Here, we study in detail the physics of the Heisenberg-Kitaev model in an external magnetic field. Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and spin-wave theory, we map out the classical phase diagram for different directions of the magnetic field. Broken SU(2) spin symmetry renders the magnetization process rather complex, with sequences of phases and metamagnetic transitions. In particular, we find various large-unit-cell and multi-Q phases including a vortex-crystal phase for a field in the [111 ] direction. We also discuss quantum corrections in the high-field phase.
Laver, M.; Bowell, C.; Forgan, E. M.; Abrahamsen, A. B.; Fort, D.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Muhlbauer, S.; Christen, David K; Kohlbrecher, J.; Cubitt, R.; Ramos, S.
2009-01-01
High-purity niobium exhibits a surprisingly rich assortment of vortex lattice (VL) structures for fields applied parallel to a fourfold symmetry axis, with all observed VL phases made up of degenerate domains that spontaneously break some crystal symmetry. Yet a single regular hexagonal VL domain is observed at all temperatures and fields parallel to a threefold symmetry axis. We report a detailed investigation of the transition between these lush and barren VL landscapes, discovering new VL structures and phase transitions at high fields. We show that the number and relative population of VL domains is intrinsically tied to the underlying crystal symmetry. We discuss how subtle anisotropies of the crystal may generate the remarkable VLs observed.
Janssen, Lukas; Andrade, Eric C; Vojta, Matthias
2016-12-30
The Heisenberg-Kitaev model is a paradigmatic model to describe the magnetism in honeycomb-lattice Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling, such as A_{2}IrO_{3} (A=Na, Li) and α-RuCl_{3}. Here, we study in detail the physics of the Heisenberg-Kitaev model in an external magnetic field. Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and spin-wave theory, we map out the classical phase diagram for different directions of the magnetic field. Broken SU(2) spin symmetry renders the magnetization process rather complex, with sequences of phases and metamagnetic transitions. In particular, we find various large-unit-cell and multi-Q phases including a vortex-crystal phase for a field in the [111] direction. We also discuss quantum corrections in the high-field phase.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vicroy, Dan D.
1988-01-01
The objective was to investigate and characterize the aerodynamic effect of shear flow through a series of sensitivity studies of the wind velocity gradients and wing planform geometry parameters. The wind shear effect was computed using a modified vortex-lattice computer program and characterized through the formulation of wind shear aerodynamic coefficients. The magnitude of the aerodynamic effect was demonstrated by computing the resultant change in the aerodynamics of a conventional wing and tail combination on a fixed flight path through a simulated microburst. The results of the study indicate that a significant amount of the control authority of an airplane may be required to counteract the wind shear induced forces and moments in the microburst environment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strganac, T. W.; Mook, D. T.
1986-01-01
A means of numerically simulating flutter is established by implementing a predictor-corrector algorithm to solve the equations of motion. Aerodynamic loads are provided by the unsteady vortex lattice method (UVLM). This method is illustrated via the obtainment of stable and unstable responses to initial disturbances in the case of two-degree-of-freedom motion. It was found that for some angles of attack and dynamic pressure, the initial disturbance decays, for others it grows (flutter). When flutter occurs, the solution yields the amplitude and period of the resulting limit cycle. The preliminaray results attest to the feasibility of this method for studying flutter in cases that would be difficult to treat using a classical approach.
Field induced suppression of the vortex lattice melting transition in twinned YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langan, R. M.; Gordeev, S. N.; Oussena, M.; Pinfold, S.; de Groot, P. A. J.; Jansen, L.; Gagnon, R.; Taillefer, L.
1997-08-01
We present magneto-resistance data for a high quality, twinned YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal, taken with the current applied along the ab plane. The crystal was examined at a number of angles to an applied magnetic field, of up to 20T, in order to observe the influence of correlated and point-like disorder on the vortex dynamics. When the applied field was orientated at 15° to the crystalline c-axis (θ=15°), for fields below H*=12T, we observed the kink in ϱ(T) associated with vortex lattice melting. We found that when the field exceeded this value, there was a complete suppression of this kink and the ϱ(T) curves resembled those of crystals with extensive point disorder. This suppression in melting occurs abruptly between 11T and 12T. The melting transition is recovered when the angle between the c-axis and the field is increased. An analysis of features around 12T in ϱ(T) and ϱ(θ) has been performed for a number of fields and angles.
Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Coalescence-Driven Island Coarsening
Hakan Basagaoglu; Christopher T. Green; Paul Meakin; Benjamin J. McCoy
2004-10-01
A two-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann model (LBM) with fluid-fluid interactions was used to simulate first-order phase separation in a thin fluid film. The intermediate asymptotic time dependence of the mean island size, island number concentration, and polydispersity were determined and compared with the predictions of the distribution-kinetics model. The comparison revealed that the combined effects of growth, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening control the phase transition process in the LBM simulations. However, the overall process is dominated by coalescence, which is independent of island mass. As the phase transition advances, the mean island size increases, the number of islands decrease, and the polydispersity approaches unity, which conforms to the predictions of the distribution-kinetics model. The effects of the domain size on the intermediate asymptotic island size distribution, scaling form of the island size distribution, and the crossover to the long-term asymptotic behavior were elucidated. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.
Lattice gas dynamics: application to driven vortices in two dimensional superconductors.
Gotcheva, Violeta; Wang, Albert T J; Teitel, S
2004-06-18
A continuous time Monte Carlo lattice gas dynamics is developed to model driven steady states of vortices in two dimensional superconducting networks. Dramatic differences are found when compared to a simpler Metropolis dynamics. Subtle finite size effects are found at low temperature, with a moving smectic that becomes unstable to an anisotropic liquid on sufficiently large length scales.
Phase diagram of incoherently driven strongly correlated photonic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biella, Alberto; Storme, Florent; Lebreuilly, José; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Carusotto, Iacopo; Ciuti, Cristiano
2017-08-01
We explore theoretically the nonequilibrium photonic phases of an array of coupled cavities in presence of incoherent driving and dissipation. In particular, we consider a Hubbard model system where each site is a Kerr nonlinear resonator coupled to a two-level emitter, which is pumped incoherently. Within a Gutzwiller mean-field approach, we determine the steady-state phase diagram of such a system. We find that, at a critical value of the intercavity photon hopping rate, a second-order nonequilibrium phase transition associated with the spontaneous breaking of the U(1 ) symmetry occurs. The transition from an incompressible Mott-like photon fluid to a coherent delocalized phase is driven by commensurability effects and not by the competition between photon hopping and optical nonlinearity. The essence of the mean-field predictions is corroborated by finite-size simulations obtained with matrix product operators and corner-space renormalization methods.
Scalings in diffusion-driven reaction A+B→C: Numerical simulations by lattice BGK models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Y. H.; Orszag, S. A.
1995-10-01
We are interested in applying lattice BGK models to the diffusion-driven reactive system A+B→C, which was investigated by Gálfi and Rácz with an asymptotic analysis and by Chopard and Droz with a cellular automaton model. The lattice BGK model is free from noise and flexible for various applications. We derive the general reaction-diffusion equations for the lattice BGK models under the assumption of local diffusive equilibrium. Two fourth-order terms are derived and verified by numerical simulations. The motivation of this study is to compare the lattice BGK results with existing results before we apply the models to more complicated systems. The scalings concern two exponents α and β appearing in the production rate of C component R(x, t)˜t -β G(xt -α ). We find the same values for α=1/6 and β=2/3 as Gálfi and Rácz found at the long time limit. A Gaussian-like function for G is numerically obtained, which confirms a similar result of Gálfi and Rácz. On the one hand, when compared with the asymptotic analysis, lattice BGK models are easy to apply to cases where no analytic or asymptotic results exist; on the other hand, when compared with cellular automaton models, lattice BGK models are faster, simpler, and more accurate. The discrepancy of the results between the cellular automaton model and the lattice BGK models for the exponents comes from the role of the intrinsic fluctuation. Once the time and space correlation of stochastic stirring is given, we can incorporate a random fluctuating term in lattice BGK models. The Schlögl model is also tested, showing the ability of lattice BGK models for generating Turing patterns, which may stimulate further interesting investigations.
Current-driven vortex domain wall motion in wire-tube nanostructures
Espejo, A. P.; Vidal-Silva, N.; López-López, J. A.; Goerlitz, D.; Nielsch, K.; Escrig, J.
2015-03-30
We have investigated the current-driven domain wall motion in nanostructures comprised of a pair of nanotube and nanowire segments. Under certain values of external magnetic fields, it is possible to pin a vortex domain wall in the transition zone between the wire and tube segments. We explored the behavior of this domain wall under the action of an electron flow applied in the opposite direction to the magnetic field. Thus, for a fixed magnetic field, it is possible to release a domain wall pinned simply by increasing the intensity of the current density, or conversely, for a fixed current density, it is possible to release the domain wall simply decreasing the magnetic external field. When the domain wall remains pinned due to the competition between the current density and the magnetic external field, it exhibits a oscillation frequency close to 8 GHz. The amplitude of the oscillations increases with the current density and decreases over time. On the other hand, when the domain wall is released and propagated through the tube segment, this shows the standard separation between a steady and a precessional regime. The ability to pin and release a domain wall by varying the geometric parameters, the current density, or the magnetic field transforms these wire-tube nanostructures in an interesting alternative as an on/off switch nano-transistor.
Cascaded spin motive force driven by the dynamics of the skyrmion lattice
Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Shimada, Yuhki
2013-12-09
We numerically investigate the spin motive force (SMF) driven by the dynamics of a Skyrmion lattice. The rotating mode of the Skyrmion core excited by the AC magnetic field induces the large spin-dependent electric field near the core. Due to the collective dynamics of Skyrmion lattice, the measurable voltage is enhanced by the cascade effect of the SMF. The amplitude of the AC voltage is estimated to 30 μV in a macroscopic sample, where 100 Skyrmions exist between two probes. We also investigate the SMF due to the dynamics of the helical magnetic state, where the enhancement of the SMF does not occur.
Mirković, J; Savel'ev, S E; Sugahara, E; Kadowaki, K
2001-01-29
The vortex-lattice melting transition in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8 + delta) single crystals was studied using in-plane resistivity measurements in magnetic fields tilted away from the c axis to the ab plane. In order to avoid the surface barrier effect which hinders the melting transition in the conventional transport measurements, we used the Corbino geometry of electric contacts. The complete H(c) - H(ab) phase diagram of the melting transition in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8 + delta) is obtained for the first time. The c-axis melting field component H(c)(melt) exhibits the novel, stepwise dependence on the in-plane magnetic fields H(ab) which is discussed on the basis of the crossing vortex-lattice structure. The peculiar resistance behavior observed near the ab plane suggests the change of phase transition character from first to second order.
Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.
2017-02-01
Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh
2013-01-01
This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.
Dong, Biao; Wang, Lin-Xue; Chen, Guang-Ping; Han, Wei; Zhang, Shou-Gang; Zhang, Xiao-Fei
2016-10-15
We perform a detailed numerical study of the equilibrium ground-state structures of a binary rotating Bose–Einstein condensate with unequal atomic masses. Our results show that the ground-state distribution and its related vortex configurations are complex events that differ markedly depending strongly on the strength of rotation frequency, as well as on the ratio of atomic masses. We also discuss the structures and radii of the clouds, the number and the size of the core region of the vortices, as a function of the rotation frequency, and of the ratio of atomic masses, and the analytical results agree well with our numerical simulations. This work may open an alternate way in the quantum control of the binary rotating quantum gases with unequal atomic masses. - Highlights: • A binary quantum gases with unequal atomic masses is considered. • Effects of the ratio of atomic masses and rotation frequency are discussed in full parameter space. • The detailed information about both the cloud and vortices are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh
2014-01-01
This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.
Milosević, M V; Peeters, F M
2005-06-10
Within the Ginzburg-Landau formalism, we predict two novel mechanisms of vortex-antivortex nucleation in a magnetically nanostructured superconductor. Although counterintuitive, nucleation of vortex-antivortex pairs can be activated in a superconducting (SC) film covered by arrays of submicron ferromagnets (FMs) when exposed to an external homogeneous magnetic field. In another scenario, we predict the thermal induction of vortex-antivortex configurations in SC-FM samples. This phenomenon leads to a new type of Little-Parks oscillations of the FM magnetization-temperature phase boundary of the SC film.
SANS study of vortex lattice structural transition in optimally doped (Ba1-x K x )Fe2As2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirdiş, S.; van der Beek, C. J.; Mühlbauer, S.; Su, Y.; Wolf, Th
2016-10-01
Small-angle neutron scattering on high quality single crystalline Ba1-x K x Fe2As2 reveals the transition from a low-field vortex solid phase with orientational order to a vortex polycrystal at high magnetic field. The vortex order-disorder transition is correlated with the second-peak feature in isothermal hysteresis loops, and is interpreted in terms of the generation of supplementary vortex solid dislocations. The sharp drop of the structure factor above the second peak field is explained by the dynamics of freezing of the vortex ensemble in the high field phase.
SANS study of vortex lattice structural transition in optimally doped (Ba1-x K x )Fe2As2.
Demirdiş, S; van der Beek, C J; Mühlbauer, S; Su, Y; Wolf, Th
2016-10-26
Small-angle neutron scattering on high quality single crystalline Ba1-x K x Fe2As2 reveals the transition from a low-field vortex solid phase with orientational order to a vortex polycrystal at high magnetic field. The vortex order-disorder transition is correlated with the second-peak feature in isothermal hysteresis loops, and is interpreted in terms of the generation of supplementary vortex solid dislocations. The sharp drop of the structure factor above the second peak field is explained by the dynamics of freezing of the vortex ensemble in the high field phase.
Interaction-Driven Spontaneous Quantum Hall Effect on a Kagome Lattice.
Zhu, W; Gong, Shou-Shu; Zeng, Tian-Sheng; Fu, Liang; Sheng, D N
2016-08-26
Topological states of matter have been widely studied as being driven by an external magnetic field, intrinsic spin-orbital coupling, or magnetic doping. Here, we unveil an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum Hall effect (a Chern insulator) emerging in an extended fermion-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice, based on a state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group on cylinder geometry and an exact diagonalization in torus geometry. We first demonstrate that the proposed model exhibits an incompressible liquid phase with doublet degenerate ground states as time-reversal partners. The explicit spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking is determined by emergent uniform circulating loop currents between nearest neighbors. Importantly, the fingerprint topological nature of the ground state is characterized by quantized Hall conductance. Thus, we identify the liquid phase as a quantum Hall phase, which provides a "proof-of-principle" demonstration of the interaction-driven topological phase in a topologically trivial noninteracting band.
Interaction-Driven Spontaneous Quantum Hall Effect on a Kagome Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Gong, Shou-Shu; Zeng, Tian-Sheng; Fu, Liang; Sheng, D. N.
2016-08-01
Topological states of matter have been widely studied as being driven by an external magnetic field, intrinsic spin-orbital coupling, or magnetic doping. Here, we unveil an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum Hall effect (a Chern insulator) emerging in an extended fermion-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice, based on a state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group on cylinder geometry and an exact diagonalization in torus geometry. We first demonstrate that the proposed model exhibits an incompressible liquid phase with doublet degenerate ground states as time-reversal partners. The explicit spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking is determined by emergent uniform circulating loop currents between nearest neighbors. Importantly, the fingerprint topological nature of the ground state is characterized by quantized Hall conductance. Thus, we identify the liquid phase as a quantum Hall phase, which provides a "proof-of-principle" demonstration of the interaction-driven topological phase in a topologically trivial noninteracting band.
Mode coupling of interaction quenched ultracold few-boson ensembles in periodically driven lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mistakidis, S. I.; Schmelcher, P.
2017-01-01
The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of interaction quenched finite ultracold bosonic ensembles in periodically driven one-dimensional optical lattices is investigated. It is shown that periodic driving enforces the bosons in the outer wells of the finite lattice to exhibit out-of-phase dipolelike modes, while in the central well the atomic cloud experiences a local breathing mode. The dynamical behavior is investigated with varying driving frequencies, revealing resonantlike behavior of the intrawell dynamics. An interaction quench in the periodically driven lattice gives rise to admixtures of different excitations in the outer wells, enhanced breathing in the center, and amplification of the tunneling dynamics. We then observe multiple resonances between the inter- and the intrawell dynamics at different quench amplitudes, with the position of the resonances being tunable via the driving frequency. Our results pave the way for future investigations of the use of combined driving protocols in order to excite different inter- and intrawell modes and to subsequently control them.
Multiresonance of energy transport and absence of heat pump in a force-driven lattice.
Zhang, Song; Ren, Jie; Li, Baowen
2011-09-01
Energy transport control in low dimensional nanoscale systems has attracted much attention in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the energy transport properties of the Frenkel-Kontorova lattice subject to a periodic driving force, in particular, the resonance behavior of the energy current by varying the external driving frequency. It is discovered that, in certain parameter ranges, multiple resonance peaks, instead of a single resonance, emerge. By comparing the nonlinear lattice model with a harmonic chain, we unravel the underlying physical mechanism for such a resonance phenomenon. Other parameter dependencies of the resonance behavior are examined as well. Finally, we demonstrate that heat pumping is actually absent in this force-driven model.
Karpov, D; Liu, Z; Rolo, T Dos Santos; Harder, R; Balachandran, P V; Xue, D; Lookman, T; Fohtung, E
2017-08-17
Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.Imaging of topological states of matter such as vortex configurations has generally been limited to 2D surface effects. Here Karpov et al. study the volumetric structure and dynamics of a vortex core mediated by electric-field induced structural phase transition in a ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticle.
Spin transfer driven resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex core for efficient rf detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menshawy, S.; Jenkins, A. S.; Merazzo, K. J.; Vila, L.; Ferreira, R.; Cyrille, M.-C.; Ebels, U.; Bortolotti, P.; Kermorvant, J.; Cros, V.
2017-05-01
Spin transfer magnetization dynamics have led to considerable advances in Spintronics, including opportunities for new nanoscale radiofrequency devices. Among the new functionalities is the radiofrequency (rf) detection using the spin diode rectification effect in spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs). In this study, we focus on a new phenomenon, the resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex in STNOs. This effect is observed when the excitation vortex radius, due to spin torques associated to rf currents, becomes larger than the actual radius of the STNO. This vortex expulsion is leading to a sharp variation of the voltage at the resonant frequency. Here we show that the detected frequency can be tuned by different parameters; furthermore, a simultaneous detection of different rf signals can be achieved by real time measurements with several STNOs having different diameters. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle towards the development of a new kind of nanoscale rf threshold detector.
Pradhan, Punyabrata; Amann, Christian P; Seifert, Udo
2010-10-08
We explore driven lattice gases for the existence of an intensive thermodynamic variable which could determine "equilibration" between two nonequilibrium steady-state systems kept in weak contact. In simulations, we find that these systems satisfy surprisingly simple thermodynamic laws, such as the zeroth law and the fluctuation-response relation between the particle-number fluctuation and the corresponding susceptibility remarkably well. However, at higher densities, small but observable deviations from these laws occur due to nontrivial contact dynamics and the presence of long-range spatial correlations.
Exposing local symmetries in distorted driven lattices via time-averaged invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wulf, T.; Morfonios, C. V.; Diakonos, F. K.; Schmelcher, P.
2016-05-01
Time-averaged two-point currents are derived and shown to be spatially invariant within domains of local translation or inversion symmetry for arbitrary time-periodic quantum systems in one dimension. These currents are shown to provide a valuable tool for detecting deformations of a spatial symmetry in static and driven lattices. In the static case the invariance of the two-point currents is related to the presence of time-reversal invariance and/or probability current conservation. The obtained insights into the wave functions are further exploited for a symmetry-based convergence check which is applicable for globally broken but locally retained potential symmetries.
Disorder Driven Destruction of a Phase Transition in the Vortex System of a Superconductor
Wilkin, N.K.; Jeldtoft Jensen, H.
1997-11-01
We investigate the effects of point disorder on the magnetically induced vortex system of a layered superconductor. The clean system is known to have a first order phase transition which is clearly identified by a sharp peak in the specific heat. The peak is lost abruptly as the strength of the disorder is increased. Hence, for strong disorder there is no phase transition (in the vortex degrees of freedom) as a function of temperature but merely a crossover which is still detectable in the {ital I-V} characteristic. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Failure of steady-state thermodynamics in nonuniform driven lattice gases.
Dickman, Ronald
2014-12-01
To be useful, steady-state thermodynamics (SST) must be self-consistent and have predictive value. Consistency of SST was recently verified for driven lattice gases under global weak exchange. Here I verify consistency of SST under local (pointwise) exchange, but only in the limit of a vanishing exchange rate; for a finite exchange rate the coexisting systems have different chemical potentials. I consider the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion on the square lattice, with nearest-neighbor hopping, and with hopping to both nearest and next-nearest neighbors. I show that SST does not predict the coexisting densities under a nonuniform drive or in the presence of a nonuniform density provoked by a hard wall or nonuniform transition rates. The steady-state chemical potential profile is, moreover, nonuniform at coexistence, contrary to the basic principles of thermodynamics. Finally, I discuss examples of a pair of systems possessing identical steady states but which do not coexist when placed in contact. The results of these studies confirm the validity of SST for coexistence between spatially uniform systems but cast serious doubt on its consistency and predictive value in systems with a finite rate of particle exchange between coexisting regions exhibiting a nonuniform particle density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiaoyan; Pellerin, Nicolas; Reggio, Marcelo; Bennacer, Rachid
2017-05-01
The method of lattice-Boltzmann multiple relaxation time (MRT) is commonly applied to study the conversion system consisting in a combination of forced convection and natural convection occurred in a cavity. Moving the top surface horizontally at a fixed speed, while two vertical walls are applied with constant different temperatures, assuming adiabatic case on both bottom and top walls. We consider a "non-cooperating" situation, where dynamics and buoyancy forces counterbalance. The cavity contains a circular cylinder placed at various positions. Boundary conditions for velocity and temperature have been applied to handle the non-Cartesian boundary of the cylinder. In lattice Boltzmann methods we adopt the double distribution model for calculating both the thermal and hydrodynamic fields. The D2Q5 and D2Q9 lattice are chosen to perform the simulations for a wide range of Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. By calculating the average Nusselt number, we also investigated the influence of different obstacle positions on characteristics of flow and heat transfer. The results show the influence of the obstacle position on the dimensionless numbers, so as to effect the heat transfer behaviors inside the cavity. It is also indicates that the governing parameters are also related to driven power for the upper surface sliding. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui
Emergence of stationary many-body entanglement in driven-dissipative Rydberg lattice gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sun Kyung; Cho, Jaeyoon; Choi, K. S.
2015-11-01
Non-equilibrium quantum dynamics represents an emerging paradigm for condensed matter physics, quantum information science, and statistical mechanics. Strongly interacting Rydberg atoms offer an attractive platform to examine driven-dissipative dynamics of quantum spin models with long-range order. Here, we explore the conditions under which stationary many-body entanglement persists with near-unit fidelity and high scalability. In our approach, coherent many-body dynamics is driven by Rydberg-mediated laser transitions, while atoms at the lattice boundary locally reduce the entropy of the many-body system. Surprisingly, the many-body entanglement is established by continuously evolving a locally dissipative Rydberg system towards the steady state, precisely as with optical pumping. We characterize the dynamics of multipartite entanglement in an one-dimensional lattice by way of quantum uncertainty relations, and demonstrate the long-range behavior of the stationary entanglement with finite-size scaling. Our work opens a route towards dissipative preparation of many-body entanglement with unprecedented scaling behavior.
Diffusion-driven self-assembly of rodlike particles: Monte Carlo simulation on a square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebovka, Nikolai I.; Tarasevich, Yuri Yu.; Gigiberiya, Volodymyr A.; Vygornitskii, Nikolai V.
2017-05-01
The diffusion-driven self-assembly of rodlike particles was studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The rods were represented as linear k -mers (i.e., particles occupying k adjacent sites). In the initial state, they were deposited onto a two-dimensional square lattice of size L ×L up to the jamming concentration using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. The size of the lattice, L , was varied from 128 to 2048, and periodic boundary conditions were applied along both x and y axes, while the length of the k -mers (determining the aspect ratio) was varied from 2 to 12. The k -mers oriented along the x and y directions (kx-mers and ky-mers, respectively) were deposited equiprobably. In the course of the simulation, the numbers of intraspecific and interspecific contacts between the same sort and between different sorts of k -mers, respectively, were calculated. Both the shift ratio of the actual number of shifts along the longitudinal or transverse axes of the k -mers and the electrical conductivity of the system were also examined. For the initial random configuration, quite different self-organization behavior was observed for short and long k -mers. For long k -mers (k ≥6 ), three main stages of diffusion-driven spatial segregation (self-assembly) were identified: the initial stage, reflecting destruction of the jamming state; the intermediate stage, reflecting continuous cluster coarsening and labyrinth pattern formation; and the final stage, reflecting the formation of diagonal stripe domains. Additional examination of two artificially constructed initial configurations showed that this pattern of diagonal stripe domains is an attractor, i.e., any spatial distribution of k -mers tends to transform into diagonal stripes. Nevertheless, the time for relaxation to the steady state essentially increases as the lattice size growth.
Carapella, G; Sabatino, P; Barone, C; Pagano, S; Gombos, M
2016-10-18
Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S'/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S'. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S' region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links.
Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Barone, C.; Pagano, S.; Gombos, M.
2016-01-01
Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S’/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S’. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S’ region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links. PMID:27752137
Driven dynamic mode-splitting of the magnetic vortex translational resonance.
Buchanan, K. S.; Grimsditch, M.; Fradin, F. Y.; Bader, S. D.; Novosad, V.
2007-12-31
A magnetic vortex in a restricted geometry possesses a nondegenerate translational excitation that corresponds to circular motion of its core at a characteristic frequency. For 40-nm thick, micron-sized permalloy elements, we find that the translational-mode microwave absorption peak splits into two peaks that differ in frequency by up to 25% as the driving field is increased. An analysis of micromagnetic equations shows that for large driving fields two stable solutions emerge.
Measurements of 2D Monopolar Vortex Motion Driven by a Background Vorticity Gradient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabantsev, A. A.; Driscoll, C. F.
2000-11-01
The movement of vortices up or down a background vorticity gradient has been measured in magnetized electron plasmas, showing quantitative agreement with recent 2D fluid theory.(D.A. Schecter and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 2191 (1999). Positive vortices move up the gradient, whereas negative vortices move down the gradient; for example, this effect gives the northwest drift of cyclones on the northern hemisphere β-plane. Experimentally, the electron column is a single sign of background vorticity with gradient partial ζ / partial r, and the resulting rotational flow has negative radial shear. Additional clumps of excess electrons are then self-trapped retrograde vortices, and ``holes'' in the electron density are prograde vortices. The experiments show that prograde vortices move about 10 times slower than retrograde vortices, in quantitative agreement with theory for the accessible regime of 0.2 < l / rv < 6; here, l is the vortex trapping length and rv is the vortex position. The experiments also confirm that the vortex motion ceases when the local gradient is sufficiently small. Interestingly, retrograde clumps leave a filamentary wake in the ambient flow, which generates a large number of long-lived secondary prograde holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindner, Michael; Donner, Reik V.
2017-03-01
We study the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers in a simple model of a driven two-dimensional vortex resembling real-world geophysical flow patterns. Using a discrete approximation of the system's transfer operator, we construct a directed network that describes the exchange of mass between distinct regions of the flow domain. By studying different measures characterizing flow network connectivity at different time-scales, we are able to identify the location of dynamically invariant structures and regions of maximum dispersion. Specifically, our approach allows us to delimit co-existing flow regimes with different dynamics. To validate our findings, we compare several network characteristics to the well-established finite-time Lyapunov exponents and apply a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify network measures that are particularly useful for unveiling the skeleton of Lagrangian chaos.
Lindner, Michael; Donner, Reik V
2017-03-01
We study the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers in a simple model of a driven two-dimensional vortex resembling real-world geophysical flow patterns. Using a discrete approximation of the system's transfer operator, we construct a directed network that describes the exchange of mass between distinct regions of the flow domain. By studying different measures characterizing flow network connectivity at different time-scales, we are able to identify the location of dynamically invariant structures and regions of maximum dispersion. Specifically, our approach allows us to delimit co-existing flow regimes with different dynamics. To validate our findings, we compare several network characteristics to the well-established finite-time Lyapunov exponents and apply a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify network measures that are particularly useful for unveiling the skeleton of Lagrangian chaos.
Experimental observation of anomalous topological edge modes in a slowly driven photonic lattice.
Mukherjee, Sebabrata; Spracklen, Alexander; Valiente, Manuel; Andersson, Erika; Öhberg, Patrik; Goldman, Nathan; Thomson, Robert R
2017-01-04
Topological quantum matter can be realized by subjecting engineered systems to time-periodic modulations. In analogy with static systems, periodically driven quantum matter can be topologically classified by topological invariants, whose non-zero value guarantees the presence of robust edge modes. In the high-frequency limit of the drive, topology is described by standard topological invariants, such as Chern numbers. Away from this limit, these topological numbers become irrelevant, and novel topological invariants must be introduced to capture topological edge transport. The corresponding edge modes were coined anomalous topological edge modes, to highlight their intriguing origin. Here we demonstrate the experimental observation of these topological edge modes in a 2D photonic lattice, where these propagating edge states are shown to coexist with a quasi-localized bulk. Our work opens an exciting route for the exploration of topological physics in time-modulated systems operating away from the high-frequency regime.
Experimental observation of anomalous topological edge modes in a slowly driven photonic lattice
Mukherjee, Sebabrata; Spracklen, Alexander; Valiente, Manuel; Andersson, Erika; Öhberg, Patrik; Goldman, Nathan; Thomson, Robert R.
2017-01-01
Topological quantum matter can be realized by subjecting engineered systems to time-periodic modulations. In analogy with static systems, periodically driven quantum matter can be topologically classified by topological invariants, whose non-zero value guarantees the presence of robust edge modes. In the high-frequency limit of the drive, topology is described by standard topological invariants, such as Chern numbers. Away from this limit, these topological numbers become irrelevant, and novel topological invariants must be introduced to capture topological edge transport. The corresponding edge modes were coined anomalous topological edge modes, to highlight their intriguing origin. Here we demonstrate the experimental observation of these topological edge modes in a 2D photonic lattice, where these propagating edge states are shown to coexist with a quasi-localized bulk. Our work opens an exciting route for the exploration of topological physics in time-modulated systems operating away from the high-frequency regime. PMID:28051060
Experimental observation of anomalous topological edge modes in a slowly driven photonic lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Sebabrata; Spracklen, Alexander; Valiente, Manuel; Andersson, Erika; Öhberg, Patrik; Goldman, Nathan; Thomson, Robert R.
2017-01-01
Topological quantum matter can be realized by subjecting engineered systems to time-periodic modulations. In analogy with static systems, periodically driven quantum matter can be topologically classified by topological invariants, whose non-zero value guarantees the presence of robust edge modes. In the high-frequency limit of the drive, topology is described by standard topological invariants, such as Chern numbers. Away from this limit, these topological numbers become irrelevant, and novel topological invariants must be introduced to capture topological edge transport. The corresponding edge modes were coined anomalous topological edge modes, to highlight their intriguing origin. Here we demonstrate the experimental observation of these topological edge modes in a 2D photonic lattice, where these propagating edge states are shown to coexist with a quasi-localized bulk. Our work opens an exciting route for the exploration of topological physics in time-modulated systems operating away from the high-frequency regime.
Long-time Behavior of Isolated Periodically Driven Interacting Lattice Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Alessio, Luca; Rigol, Marcos
2014-10-01
We study the dynamics of isolated interacting spin chains that are periodically driven by sudden quenches. Using full exact diagonalization of finite chains, we show that these systems exhibit three distinct regimes. For short driving periods, the Floquet Hamiltonian is well approximated by the time-averaged Hamiltonian, while for long periods, the evolution operator exhibits properties of random matrices of a circular ensemble (CE). In between, there is a crossover regime. Based on a finite-size scaling analysis and analytic arguments, we argue that, for thermodynamically large systems and nonvanishing driving periods, the evolution operator always exhibits properties of the CE of random matrices. Consequently, the Floquet Hamiltonian is a nonlocal Hamiltonian with multispin interaction terms, and the driving leads to the equivalent of an infinite temperature state at long times. These results are connected to the breakdown of the Magnus expansion and are expected to hold beyond the specific lattice model considered.
Competition of coarsening and shredding of clusters in a driven diffusive lattice gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunwar, Ambarish; Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2006-06-01
We investigate a driven diffusive lattice gas model with two oppositely moving species of particle. The model is motivated by bidirectional traffic of ants on a pre-existing trail. A third species, corresponding to pheromones used by the ants for communication, is not conserved and mediates interactions between the particles. Here we study the spatio-temporal organization of the particles. In the unidirectional variant of this model it is known to be determined by the formation and coarsening of 'loose clusters'. For our bidirectional model, we show that the interaction of oppositely moving clusters is essential. In the late stages of evolution the cluster size oscillates because of a competition between their 'shredding' during encounters with oppositely moving counterparts and subsequent 'coarsening' during collision-free evolution. We also establish a nontrivial dependence of the spatio-temporal organization on the system size.
Ultrafast magnetic vortex core switching driven by the topological inverse Faraday effect.
Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tatara, Gen
2012-09-21
We present a theoretical discovery of an unconventional mechanism of inverse Faraday effect which acts selectively on topological magnetic structures. The effect, topological inverse Faraday effect, is induced by the spin Berry's phase of the magnetic structure when a circularly polarized light is applied. Thus a spin-orbit interaction is not necessary unlike that in the conventional inverse Faraday effect. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that topological inverse Faraday effect realizes ultrafast switching of a magnetic vortex within a switching time of 150 ps without magnetic field.
Study of the critical behavior of the driven lattice gas model with limited nonequilibrium dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saracco, Gustavo P.; Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Bab, Marisa A.
2017-02-01
In this paper the nonequilibrium critical behavior is investigated using a variant of the well-known two-dimensional driven lattice gas (DLG) model, called modified driven lattice gas (MDLG). In this model, the application of the external field is regulated by a parameter p ɛ [ 0 , 1 ] in such a way that if p = 0, the field is not applied, and it becomes the Ising model, while if p = 1, the DLG model is recovered. The behavior of the model is investigated for several values of p by studying the dynamic evolution of the system within the short-time regime in the neighborhood of a phase transition. It is found that the system experiences second-order phase transitions in all the interval of p for the density of particles ρ = 0.5. The determined critical temperatures Tc(p) are greater than the critical temperature of the Ising model TcI, and increase with p up to the critical temperature of the DLG model in the limit of infinite driving fields. The dependence of Tc(p) on p is compatible with a power-law behavior whose exponent is ψ = 0.27(3) . Furthermore, the complete set of the critical and the anisotropic exponents is estimated. For the smallest value of p, the dynamics and β exponents are close to that calculated for the Ising model, and the anisotropic exponent Δ is near zero. As p is increased, the exponents and Δ change, meaning that the anisotropy effects increase. For the largest value investigated, the set of exponents approaches to that reported by the most recent theoretical framework developed for the DLG model.
Phase Transition of Bosons Driven by a Staggered Gauge Field in AN Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cha, Min-Chul
2013-06-01
We have studied the ground state properties of hard-core bosons in a two-leg optical ladder in the presence of uniform and staggered frustrations due to an artificial gauge field. By calculating the ground state via the Lanczos method, we find first-order phase transitions tuned by the staggered gauge field between the Meissner and the vortex states. The momentum distributions show that the Meissner state has edge and staggered currents, while the vortex states have vortex-solid or vortex-glass phases in the presence of a staggered field.
Experiments on Electron-Plasma Vortex Motion Driven by a Background Vorticity Gradient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabantsev, A. A.; Driscoll, C. F.
2000-10-01
The interaction of self-trapped vortices with a background vorticity gradient plays an important role in 2D hydrodynamics, including various aspects of relaxation and self-organization of 2D turbulence. In the present experiments, electron plasma columns with monotonically decreasing density profiles provide a vorticity background with (negative) shear in the rotational flow. Clumps of extra electrons are then retrograde vortices, rotating against the background shear; and regions with a deficit of electrons (holes) are prograde vortices. Theory predicts that clumps move up the background gradient, and holes move down the gradient, with velocities which depend differently on the ratio of the vortex trapping length to vortex radius, l / r_v. The present experiments show quantitative agreement with recent theory and simulations,(D.A. Schecter and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 2191 (1999). for the accessible regime of 0.2 < l/rv < 2. The experiments also show that moving clumps leave a spiral density wake, and that instability of these wakes results in a large number of long-lived holes.
Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández
2005-09-16
Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.
Hou, Diana; Maheshwari, Siddharth; Chang, Hsueh-Chia
2007-01-01
Rapid concentration and detection of bacteria in integrated chips and microfluidic devices is needed for the advancement of lab-on-a-chip devices because current detection methods require high concentrations of bacteria which render them impractical. We present a new chip-scale rapid bacteria concentration technique combined with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to enhance the detection of low bacteria count samples. This concentration technique relies on convection by a long-range converging vortex to concentrate the bacteria into a packed mound of 200 μm in diameter within 15 min. Concentration of bioparticle samples as low as 104 colony forming units (CFU)∕ml are presented using batch volumes as large as 150 μl. Mixtures of silver nanoparticles with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli F-amp, and Bacillus subtilis produce distinct and noticeably different Raman spectra, illustrating that this technique can be used as a detection and identification tool. PMID:19693355
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xixiong; Zhong, Chengwen; Zhuo, Congshan; Cao, Jun
2014-04-01
As a fundamental subject in fluid mechanics, sophisticated cavity flow patterns due to the movement of multi-lids have been routinely analyzed by the computational fluid dynamics community. Unlike those reported computational studies that were conducted using more conventional numerical methods, this paper features employing the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to numerically investigate the two-dimensional cavity flows generated by the movements of two adjacent lids. The obtained MRT-LBM results reveal a number of important bifurcation flow features, such as the symmetry and steadiness of cavity flows at low Reynolds numbers, the multiplicity of stable cavity flow patterns when the Reynolds number exceeds its first critical value, as well as the periodicity of the cavity flow after the second critical Reynolds number is reached. Detailed flow characteristics are reported that include the critical Reynolds numbers, the locations of the vortex centers, and the values of stream function at the vortex centers. Through systematic comparison against the simulation results obtained elsewhere by using the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model and other numerical schemes, not only does the MRT-LBM approach exhibit fairly satisfactory accuracy, but also demonstrates its remarkable flexibility that renders the adjustment of its multiple relaxation factors fully manageable and, thus, particularly accommodates the need of effectively investigating the multiplicity of flow patterns with complex behaviors.
Flame-vortex interaction driven combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor
Altay, H. Murat; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2009-05-15
The combustion dynamics of propane-hydrogen mixtures are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We systematically vary the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel composition to determine the stability map of the combustor. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio entering the flame is temporally and spatially uniform, and the combustion dynamics are governed only by flame-vortex interactions. Four distinct dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. At high but lean equivalence ratios, the flame is unstable and oscillates strongly as it is wrapped around the large unsteady wake vortex. At intermediate equivalence ratios, weakly oscillating quasi-stable flames are observed. Near the lean blowout limit, long stable flames extending from the corner of the step are formed. At atmospheric inlet temperature, the unstable mode resonates at the 1/4 wavemode of the combustor. As the inlet temperature is increased, the 5/4 wavemode of the combustor is excited at high but lean equivalence ratios, forming the high-frequency unstable flames. Higher hydrogen concentration in the fuel and higher inlet temperatures reduce the equivalence ratios at which the transitions between regimes are observed. We plot combustion dynamics maps or the response curves, that is the overall sound pressure level as a function of the equivalence ratio, for different operating conditions. We demonstrate that numerical results of strained premixed flames can be used to collapse the response curves describing the transitions among the dynamic modes onto a function of the heat release rate parameter alone, rather than a function dependent on the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravlev, Vladimir; Duan, Wenye; Maniv, Tsofar
2017-01-01
A self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a 2D strong type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields reveals a novel quantum mixed state around the semiclassical Hc 2, characterized by a well-defined Landau-Bloch band structure in the quasiparticle spectrum and suppressed order-parameter amplitude, which sharply crossover into the well-known semiclassical (Helfand-Werthamer) results upon decreasing magnetic field. Application to the 2D superconducting state observed recently on the surface of the topological insulator Sb2Te3 accounts well for the experimental data, revealing a strong type-II superconductor, with unusually low carrier density and very small cyclotron mass, which can be realized only in the strong coupling superconductor limit.
Anupindi, Kameswararao; Lai, Weichen; Frankel, Steven
2014-03-20
In the present work, lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied for simulating flow in a three-dimensional lid driven cubic and deep cavities. The developed code is first validated by simulating flow in a cubic lid driven cavity at 1000 and 12000 Reynolds numbers following which we study the effect of cavity depth on the steady-oscillatory transition Reynolds number in cavities with depth aspect ratio equal to 1, 2 and 3. Turbulence modeling is performed through large eddy simulation (LES) using the classical Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model to arrive at an optimum mesh size for all the simulations. The simulation results indicate that the first Hopf bifurcation Reynolds number correlates negatively with the cavity depth which is consistent with the observations from two-dimensional deep cavity flow data available in the literature. Cubic cavity displays a steady flow field up to a Reynolds number of 2100, a delayed anti-symmetry breaking oscillatory field at a Reynolds number of 2300, which further gets restored to a symmetry preserving oscillatory flow field at 2350. Deep cavities on the other hand only attain an anti-symmetry breaking flow field from a steady flow field upon increase of the Reynolds number in the range explored. As the present work involved performing a set of time-dependent calculations for several Reynolds numbers and cavity depths, the parallel performance of the code is evaluated a priori by running the code on up to 4096 cores. The computational time required for these runs shows a close to linear speed up over a wide range of processor counts depending on the problem size, which establishes the feasibility of performing a thorough search process such as the one presently undertaken.
Anupindi, Kameswararao; Lai, Weichen; Frankel, Steven
2014-01-01
In the present work, lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied for simulating flow in a three-dimensional lid driven cubic and deep cavities. The developed code is first validated by simulating flow in a cubic lid driven cavity at 1000 and 12000 Reynolds numbers following which we study the effect of cavity depth on the steady-oscillatory transition Reynolds number in cavities with depth aspect ratio equal to 1, 2 and 3. Turbulence modeling is performed through large eddy simulation (LES) using the classical Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model to arrive at an optimum mesh size for all the simulations. The simulation results indicate that the first Hopf bifurcation Reynolds number correlates negatively with the cavity depth which is consistent with the observations from two-dimensional deep cavity flow data available in the literature. Cubic cavity displays a steady flow field up to a Reynolds number of 2100, a delayed anti-symmetry breaking oscillatory field at a Reynolds number of 2300, which further gets restored to a symmetry preserving oscillatory flow field at 2350. Deep cavities on the other hand only attain an anti-symmetry breaking flow field from a steady flow field upon increase of the Reynolds number in the range explored. As the present work involved performing a set of time-dependent calculations for several Reynolds numbers and cavity depths, the parallel performance of the code is evaluated a priori by running the code on up to 4096 cores. The computational time required for these runs shows a close to linear speed up over a wide range of processor counts depending on the problem size, which establishes the feasibility of performing a thorough search process such as the one presently undertaken. PMID:24587561
Nonequilibrium lattice-driven dynamics of stripes in nickelates using time-resolved x-ray scattering
Lee, W. S.; Kung, Y. F.; Moritz, B.; ...
2017-03-13
Here, we investigate the lattice coupling to the spin and charge orders in the striped nickelate, La1.75 Sr0.25 NiO4, using time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering. Lattice-driven dynamics of both spin and charge orders are observed when the pump photon energy is tuned to that of an Eu bond- stretching phonon. We present a likely scenario for the behavior of the spin and charge order parameters and its implications using a Ginzburg-Landau theory.
Nonequilibrium lattice-driven dynamics of stripes in nickelates using time-resolved x-ray scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, W. S.; Kung, Y. F.; Moritz, B.; Coslovich, G.; Kaindl, R. A.; Chuang, Y. D.; Moore, R. G.; Lu, D. H.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Robinson, J. S.; Minitti, M. P.; Dakovski, G.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Gerber, S.; Sasagawa, T.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z. X.; Devereaux, T. P.
2017-03-01
We investigate the lattice coupling to the spin and charge orders in the striped nickelate, La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 , using time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering. Lattice-driven dynamics of both spin and charge orders are observed when the pump photon energy is tuned to that of an Eu bond- stretching phonon. We present a likely scenario for the behavior of the spin and charge order parameters and its implications using a Ginzburg-Landau theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swartz, Mitchell R.
2011-03-01
In lattice assisted nuclear reactions, hydrogen-loaded alloys enable near room temperature deuterium fusion and other nuclear reactions (1). The structural metamaterial shape of some D-loaded Pd nanostructures and deuterium flux (2) through them, driven by an applied electric field, appear to play decisive roles. The spiral Phusor -type cathode with open helical cylindrical geometry in a high electrical resistance solution is a LANR metamaterial design creating intrapalladial deuteron flow. Optimal operating point technology allows improved and more reproducible operation (3). LANR power gain can be considerable. In situ imaging has revealed that the excess power gain is linked to non-thermal near-IR emission when the LANR devices are operated at their OOP. LANR devices have shown power gains more than 200%, and short term power gains to ~ 8000 % . 1. Swartz, M, J. Sci. Exploration, 23, 4, 419-436 (2009). 2. Swartz, M, Fusion Technology, 22, 2, 296-300 (1992); 26, 4T, 74-77 (1994); 32, 126-130 (1997). 3. Swartz. M, Fusion Technology, 31, 63-74 (1997).
Absence of an interaction driven Chern insulating phase on the honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motruk, Johannes; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Pollmann, Frank
2015-03-01
Mean field calculations in the literature have suggested the existence of an interaction-induced Chern insulator (CI) phase in a tight-binding model of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions. The CI phase is an example of a state that breaks time-reversal symmetry spontaneously and possesses a quantized Hall conductance. However, it has been proven elusive in exact diagonalization (ED) studies of this system. Since ED is limited to small system sizes, the fate of this phase in the thermodynamic limit still remains unclear. Using the infinite density matrix renormalization group (iDMRG) algorithm we reach system sizes exceeding those accessible in ED calculations while keeping track of quantum fluctuations neglected in mean field studies. We map out the phase diagram as a function of both nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interaction strengths for an infinite cylinder geometry and find different charge-ordered phases but no sign of the interaction driven Chern insulator phase.
Control dynamics of interaction quenched ultracold bosons in periodically driven lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter; Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team
2016-05-01
The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold bosons following an interaction quench upon a periodically driven optical lattice is investigated. It is shown that an interaction quench triggers the inter-well tunneling dynamics, while for the intra-well dynamics breathing and cradle-like processes can be generated. In particular, the occurrence of a resonance between the cradle and tunneling modes is revealed. On the other hand, the employed periodic driving enforces the bosons in the mirror wells to oscillate out-of-phase and to exhibit a dipole mode, while in the central well the cloud experiences a breathing mode. The dynamical behaviour of the system is investigated with respect to the driving frequency revealing a resonant behaviour of the intra-well dynamics. To drive the system in a highly non-equilibrium state an interaction quench upon the driving is performed giving rise to admixtures of excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. As a result of the quench the system experiences multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.
Laterally driven interfaces in the three-dimensional Ising lattice gas.
Smith, Thomas H R; Vasilyev, Oleg; Maciołek, Anna; Schmidt, Matthias
2010-08-01
We study the steady state of a phase-separated driven Ising lattice gas in three dimensions using computer simulations with Kawasaki dynamics. An external force field F(z) acts in the x direction parallel to the interface, creating a lateral order parameter current j^{x}(z) which varies with distance z from the interface. Above the roughening temperature, our data for "shearlike" linear variation of F(z) are in agreement with the picture wherein shear acts as effective confinement in this system, thus suppressing the interfacial capillary-wave fluctuations. We find sharper magnetization profiles and reduced interfacial width as compared to equilibrium. Pair correlations are more suppressed in the vorticity direction y than in the driving direction; the opposite holds for the structure factor. Lateral transport of capillary waves occurs for those forms of F(z) for which the current j^{x}(z) is an odd function of z , for example the shearlike drive, and a "steplike" driving field. For a V-shaped driving force no such motion occurs, but capillary waves are suppressed more strongly than for the shearlike drive. These findings are in agreement with our previous simulation studies in two dimensions. Near and below the (equilibrium) roughening temperature the effective-confinement picture ceases to work, but the lateral motion of the interface persists.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siracusano, G.; Tomasello, R.; Giordano, A.; Puliafito, V.; Azzerboni, B.; Ozatay, O.; Carpentieri, M.; Finocchio, G.
2016-08-01
Solitons are very promising for the design of the next generation of ultralow power devices for storage and computation. The key ingredient to achieving this goal is the fundamental understanding of their stabilization and manipulation. Here, we show how the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (IDMI) is able to lift the energy degeneracy of a magnetic vortex state by stabilizing a topological soliton with radial chirality, hereafter called radial vortex. It has a noninteger Skyrmion number S (0.5 <|S |<1 ) due to both the vortex core polarity and the magnetization tilting induced by the IDMI boundary conditions. Micromagnetic simulations predict that a magnetoresistive memory based on the radial vortex state in both free and polarizer layers can be efficiently switched by a threshold current density smaller than 106 A /cm2 . The switching processes occur via the nucleation of topologically connected vortices and vortex-antivortex pairs, followed by spin-wave emissions due to vortex-antivortex annihilations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohlin, Kjell; Berggren, Karl Fredrik
2016-07-01
Faraday first characterised the behaviour of a fluid in a container subjected to vertical periodic oscillations. His study pertaining to hydrodynamic instability, the ‘Faraday instability’, has catalysed a myriad of experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for the transition of a system at rest to a new state of well-ordered vibrational patterns at fixed frequencies. Here we study dual strata in a shallow vessel containing distilled water and high-viscosity lubrication oil on top of it. At elevated driving power, beyond the Faraday instability, the top stratum is found to ‘freeze’ into a rigid pattern with maxima and minima. At the same time there is a dynamic crossover into a new state in the form of a lattice of recirculating vortices in the lower layer containing the water. Instrumentation and the physics behind are analysed in a phenomenological way together with a basic heuristic modelling of the wave field. The study, which is based on relatively low-budget equipment, stems from related art projects that have evolved over the years. The study is of value within basic research as well as in education, especially as more advanced collective project work in e.g. engineering physics, where it invites further studies of pattern formation, the emergence of vortex lattices and complexity.
Tsuji, Naoto; Oka, Takashi; Werner, Philipp; Aoki, Hideo
2011-06-10
We show theoretically that the sudden application of an appropriate ac field to correlated lattice fermions flips the band structure and effectively switches the interaction from repulsive to attractive. The nonadiabatically driven system is characterized by a negative temperature with a population inversion. We numerically demonstrate the converted interaction in an ac-driven Hubbard model with the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory solved by the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. Based on this, we propose an efficient ramp-up protocol for ac fields that can suppress heating, which leads to an effectively attractive Hubbard model with a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature of the equilibrium system.
Tsuji, Naoto; Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo; Werner, Philipp
2011-06-10
We show theoretically that the sudden application of an appropriate ac field to correlated lattice fermions flips the band structure and effectively switches the interaction from repulsive to attractive. The nonadiabatically driven system is characterized by a negative temperature with a population inversion. We numerically demonstrate the converted interaction in an ac-driven Hubbard model with the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory solved by the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. Based on this, we propose an efficient ramp-up protocol for ac fields that can suppress heating, which leads to an effectively attractive Hubbard model with a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature of the equilibrium system.
Robust synchronization of an arbitrary number of spin-torque-driven vortex nano-oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erokhin, Sergey; Berkov, Dmitry
2014-04-01
Nonlinear magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic nanoelements excited by a spin-polarized dc current is one of the most intensively studied phenomena in solid-state magnetism. Despite immense efforts, synchronization of oscillations induced in several such nanoelements [spin-torque-driven nano-oscillators (STNO)] still represents a major challenge from both the fundamental and technological points of view. In this paper we propose a system where synchronization of any number of STNOs, represented by magnetization vortices inside squared nanoelements, can be easily achieved. Using full-scale micromagnetic simulations we show that synchronization of these STNOs is extremely dynamically stable due to their very large coupling energy provided by the magnetodipolar interaction. Finally, we demonstrate that our concept allows robust synchronization of an arbitrary number of STNOs (arranged either as a one-dimensional chain or as a two-dimensional array), even when current supplying nanocontacts have a broad size distribution.
STM/STS studies on vortex and electronic state in YBa 2Cu 3O y
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizaki, Terukazu; Shibata, Kenji; Maki, Makoto; Kobayashi, Norio
2006-05-01
Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) studies have been performed on the LT-cleaved and the chemically etched surface of YBa2Cu3Oy single crystals. We find that the vortex structure can be observed on the chemically etched surface of YBa2Cu3Oy as a function of temperature and magnetic field. At low magnetic fields, we observed a slightly distorted triangular lattice, which is attributed to the Bragg-glass phase. The triangular lattice transforms into a disordered structure in high magnetic fields above the order-disorder transition H∗(T). We observed that the disordered vortices form small clusters comprising 5- and 7-fold coordination pairs. These microscopically determined vortex structures are in good agreement with the vortex matter phase diagram derived from the macroscopic measurements, thus providing the evidence of the field-driven transition in the vortex solid phase of YBa2Cu3Oy.
The Classical Lattice-Gas Method
1999-02-01
also be fixed obstacles with which the particles have perfectly elastic collisions. For example, one can simulate vortex shedding in a fluid flowing ...cause an attractive force between particles giving rise to an athermal liquid-gas phase transition.4 To simulate the correct macroscopic dynamics , the...rheology of mul- tiphase dynamics is driven by low Reynolds number flows . The rheology of droplets (for example 3 The first lattice Boltzmann simulations
THz-Driven Ultrafast Spin-Lattice Scattering in Amorphous Metallic Ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonetti, S.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Sher, M.-J.; Chen, Z.; Yang, S.-H.; Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Dürr, H. A.
2016-08-01
We use single-cycle THz fields and the femtosecond magneto-optical Kerr effect to, respectively, excite and probe the magnetization dynamics in two thin-film ferromagnets with different lattice structures: crystalline Fe and amorphous CoFeB. We observe Landau-Lifshitz-torque magnetization dynamics of comparable magnitude in both systems, but only the amorphous sample shows ultrafast demagnetization caused by the spin-lattice depolarization of the THz-induced ultrafast spin current. Quantitative modeling shows that such spin-lattice scattering events occur on similar time scales than the conventional spin conserving electronic scattering (˜30 fs ). This is significantly faster than optical laser-induced demagnetization. THz conductivity measurements point towards the influence of lattice disorder in amorphous CoFeB as the driving force for enhanced spin-lattice scattering.
Observation of Vortex Pinning in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Tung, S.; Schweikhard, V.; Cornell, E. A.
2006-12-15
We report the observation of vortex pinning in rotating gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. Vortices are pinned to columnar pinning sites created by a corotating optical lattice superimposed on the rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. We study the effects of two types of optical lattice: triangular and square. In both geometries we see an orientation locking between the vortex and the optical lattices. At sufficient intensity the square optical lattice induces a structural crossover in the vortex lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redapangu, Prasanna R.; Sahu, Kirti Chandra; Vanka, S. P.
2013-11-01
A three-dimensional multiphase lattice Boltzmann approach is used to study the pressure-driven displacement flow of two immiscible liquids of different densities and viscosities in an inclined square duct. A three-dimensional-fifteen-velocity (D3Q15) lattice model is used. The simulations are performed on a graphics processing unit (GPU) based machine. The effects of channel inclination, viscosity and density contrasts are investigated. The contours of the density and the average viscosity profiles in different planes are plotted and compared with two dimensional simulations. We demonstrate that the flow dynamics in three-dimensional channel is quite different as compared to that of two-dimensional channel. In particular, we found that the flow is relatively more coherent in three-dimensional channel than that in two-dimensional channel. A new screw-type instability is seen in the three-dimensional channel which cannot be observed in two-dimensional simulations.
Siracusano, G; Tomasello, R; Giordano, A; Puliafito, V; Azzerboni, B; Ozatay, O; Carpentieri, M; Finocchio, G
2016-08-19
Solitons are very promising for the design of the next generation of ultralow power devices for storage and computation. The key ingredient to achieving this goal is the fundamental understanding of their stabilization and manipulation. Here, we show how the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (IDMI) is able to lift the energy degeneracy of a magnetic vortex state by stabilizing a topological soliton with radial chirality, hereafter called radial vortex. It has a noninteger Skyrmion number S (0.5<|S|<1) due to both the vortex core polarity and the magnetization tilting induced by the IDMI boundary conditions. Micromagnetic simulations predict that a magnetoresistive memory based on the radial vortex state in both free and polarizer layers can be efficiently switched by a threshold current density smaller than 10^{6} A/cm^{2}. The switching processes occur via the nucleation of topologically connected vortices and vortex-antivortex pairs, followed by spin-wave emissions due to vortex-antivortex annihilations.
Phase transitions and connectivity in three-dimensional vortex equilibria
Akao, J.H.
1994-05-01
The statistical mechanics of collections of closed self avoiding vortex loops on a lattice are studied. The system is related to the vortex form of the three dimensional XY model and to lattice vortex equilibrium models of turbulence. The system exhibits vortex connectivity and screening effects, and models in vorticity variables the superfluid transition. The equilibrium states of the system are simulated by a grand canonical Monte Carlo method. A set of geometric transformations for self-avoiding loops is developed. The numerical method employs histogram sampling techniques and utilizes a modification to the Metropolis flow which enhances efficiency. Results are given for a region in the temperature-chemical potential plane, where the chemical potential is related to the vortex fugacity. A line of second order transitions is identified at low temperature. The transition is shown to be a percolation threshold at which connected vortex loops of infinite size appear in the system. The nature of the transition supports the assumption that the lambda transition in bulk superfluid helium is driven by vortices. An asymptotic analysis is performed for the energy and entropy scaling of the system as functions of the system size and the lattice spacing. These estimates indicate that the infinite temperature line is a phase boundary between small scale fractal vortices and large scale smooth vortices. A suggestion is made that quantum vortices have uniform structure on the scale of the lattice spacing and lie in the positive temperature regime, while classical vortices have uniform structure on the scale of the domain and lie in the negative temperature regime.
Vortex lattice structure in BaFe2(As0.67P0.33)2 via small-angle neutron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morisaki-Ishii, R.; Kawano-Furukawa, H.; Cameron, A. S.; Lemberger, L.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.; Forgan, E. M.; DeBeer-Schmitt, L. M.; Littrell, K.; Nakajima, M.; Kihou, K.; Lee, C. H.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; White, J. S.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Gavilano, J. L.; Zolliker, M.
2014-09-01
We have observed a magnetic vortex lattice (VL) in BaFe2(As0.67P0.33)2 (BFAP) single crystals by small-angle neutron scattering. With the field along the c axis, a nearly isotropic hexagonal VL was formed in the field range from 1 to 16 T, and no symmetry changes in the VL were observed. The temperature dependence of the VL signal was measured and confirms the presence of (non-d-wave) nodes in the superconducting gap structure for measurements at 5 T and below. The nodal effects were suppressed at high fields. At low fields, a VL reorientation transition was observed between 1 and 3 T, with the VL orientation changing by 45∘. Below 1 T, the VL structure was strongly affected by pinning and the diffraction pattern had a fourfold symmetry. We suggest that this (and possibly also the VL reorientation) is due to pinning to defects aligned with the crystal structure, rather than being intrinsic. The temperature dependence of the scaled intensity suggests that BFAP possesses at least one full gap and one nodal gap with circular symmetry. Judging from the symmetry, the node structure should take the form of an "accidental" circular line node, which is consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results [Y. Zhang, Z. R. Ye, Q. Q. Ge, F. Chen, J. Jiang, M. Xu, B. P. Xie, and D. L. Feng, Nature Physics 8, 371 (2012)., 10.1038/nphys2248].
A one-dimensional chain state of vortex matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bending, Simon
2003-03-01
The dependence of the vortex ground state on magnetic field direction in the highly anisotropic Bi_ 2Sr_ 2CaCu_ 2O_ 8+d (BSCCO) superconductor is a topic of considerable current interest. With the magnetic field tilted away from the high symmetry c-axis it is expected to consist of co-existing orthogonal 6-fold Abrikosov pancake vortex (PV) and rhombic Josephson vortex (JV) lattices. Furthermore it has been shown recently that small displacements of PVs driven by the underlying JV supercurrents can lead to an attractive interaction between these two crossing' lattices and can give rise to a very rich variety of composite lattice structures. We report here the use of high resolution scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) to directly probe the static and dynamic properties of these structures in BSCCO single crystals under independently applied H_ c and H_ // fields. At very low c-axis fields we observe a novel 1D vortex chain state where all pancake vortex stacks become trapped on underlying stacks of Josephson vortices. The remarkable dynamic properties of this system of interacting orthogonal vortex lattices will be described. In particular it will be shown how one sub-lattice can be used to manipulate the other with the exciting potential for building novel flux logic and flux amplifier devices. In addition the existence of 1D vortex chains explains many of the features observed in the magnetisation of HTS under strongly tilted magnetic fields. The dependence of vortex structures on in-plane field is in good quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions, yielding an almost temperature-independent anisotropy parameter of g=640+/-25 in the range 77-85K. We directly confirm that the PV/JV attraction arises from small PV displacements in the presence of JV supercurrents. In addition we demonstrate how the presence of quenched disorder leads to indirect JV pinning via interactions with weakly pinned PV stacks, and develop a theoretical model for this phenomenon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Bo; Lin, Jiayi; Darby, Ellis; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.
2009-07-01
Mechanical equilibrium at zero temperature does not necessarily imply thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature for a particle confined by a static but nonconservative force field. Instead, the diffusing particle can enter into a steady state characterized by toroidal circulation in the probability flux, which we call a Brownian vortex. The circulatory bias in the particle’s thermally driven trajectory is not simply a deterministic response to the solenoidal component of the force but rather reflects interplay between advection and diffusion in which thermal fluctuations extract work from the nonconservative force field. As an example of this previously unrecognized class of stochastic heat engines, we consider a colloidal sphere diffusing in a conventional optical tweezer. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonconservative optical forces bias the particle’s fluctuations into toroidal vortexes whose circulation can reverse direction with temperature or laser power.
Boundary-field-driven control of discontinuous phase transitions on hyperbolic lattices.
Lee, Yoju; Verstraete, Frank; Gendiar, Andrej
2016-08-01
The multistate Potts models on two-dimensional hyperbolic lattices are studied with respect to various boundary effects. The free energy is numerically calculated using the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. We analyze phase transitions of the Potts models in the thermodynamic limit with respect to contracted boundary layers. A false phase transition is present even if a couple of the boundary layers are contracted. Its significance weakens, as the number of the contracted boundary layers increases, until the correct phase transition (deep inside the bulk) prevails over the false one. For this purpose, we derive a thermodynamic quantity, the so-called bulk excess free energy, which depends on the contracted boundary layers and memorizes additional boundary effects. In particular, the magnetic field is imposed on the outermost boundary layer. While the boundary magnetic field does not affect the second-order phase transition in the bulk if suppressing all the boundary effects on the hyperbolic lattices, the first-order (discontinuous) phase transition is significantly sensitive to the boundary magnetic field. Contrary to the phase transition on the Euclidean lattices, the discontinuous phase transition on the hyperbolic lattices can be continuously controlled (within a certain temperature coexistence region) by varying the boundary magnetic field.
Boundary-field-driven control of discontinuous phase transitions on hyperbolic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Yoju; Verstraete, Frank; Gendiar, Andrej
2016-08-01
The multistate Potts models on two-dimensional hyperbolic lattices are studied with respect to various boundary effects. The free energy is numerically calculated using the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. We analyze phase transitions of the Potts models in the thermodynamic limit with respect to contracted boundary layers. A false phase transition is present even if a couple of the boundary layers are contracted. Its significance weakens, as the number of the contracted boundary layers increases, until the correct phase transition (deep inside the bulk) prevails over the false one. For this purpose, we derive a thermodynamic quantity, the so-called bulk excess free energy, which depends on the contracted boundary layers and memorizes additional boundary effects. In particular, the magnetic field is imposed on the outermost boundary layer. While the boundary magnetic field does not affect the second-order phase transition in the bulk if suppressing all the boundary effects on the hyperbolic lattices, the first-order (discontinuous) phase transition is significantly sensitive to the boundary magnetic field. Contrary to the phase transition on the Euclidean lattices, the discontinuous phase transition on the hyperbolic lattices can be continuously controlled (within a certain temperature coexistence region) by varying the boundary magnetic field.
Vortex dynamics in anisotropic traps
McEndoo, S.; Busch, Th.
2010-07-15
We investigate the dynamics of linear vortex lattices in anisotropic traps in two dimensions and show that the interplay between the rotation and the anisotropy leads to a rich but highly regular dynamics.
Dynamics of driven superconducting vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, Cynthia Olson
1998-09-01
Vortices in superconductors exhibit rich dynamical behaviors that are relevant to the physical properties of the material. In this thesis, we use simulations to study the dynamics of flux-gradient-driven vortices in different types of samples. We make connections between the microscopic behavior of the vortices and macroscopic experimentally observable measurements. First, we systematically quantify the effect of the pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties of vortex avalanches and vortex plastic flow. We relate the velocity field, cumulative patterns of vortex flow channels, and voltage noise measurements with statistical quantities, such as distributions of avalanche sizes. Samples with a high density of strong pinning sites produce very broad avalanche distributions. Easy-flow vortex channels appear in samples with a low pinning density, and typical avalanche sizes emerge in an otherwise broad distribution of sizes. We observe a crossover from interstitial motion in narrow channels to pin-to-pin motion in broad channels as the pin density is increased. Second, we also analyze the microscopic dynamics of vortex motion through channels that form river-like fractal networks in a variety of superconducting samples, and relate it to macroscopic measurable quantities such as the power spectrum. As a function of pinning strength, we calculate the fractal dimension, tortuosity, and the corresponding voltage noise spectrum. Above a certain pinning strength, a remarkable universal drop in both tortuosity and noise power occurs when the vortex motion changes from braiding channels to unbraided channels. Third, we also present a new dynamic phase diagram for driven vortices with varying lattice softness that indicates that, at high driving currents, at least two distinct dynamic phases of flux flow appear depending on the vortex-vortex interaction strength. When the flux lattice is soft, the vortices flow in independently moving channels with smectic structure. For
Spin-Chirality-Driven Ferroelectricity on a Perfect Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet
Mitamura, H.; Watanuki, R.; Kaneko, Koji; Onozaki, N.; Amou, Y.; Kittaka, S.; Kobayashi, Riki; Shimura, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Suzuki, K.; Chi, Songxue; Sakakibara, T.
2014-10-01
Magnetic field (B) variation of the electrical polarization P_{c} ( ∥c) of the perfect triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO_{4})_{2} is examined up to the saturation point of the magnetization for B⊥c. P_{c} is observed only in phases for which chirality is predicted in the in-plane magnetic structures. No strong anomaly is observed in P_{c} at the field at which the spin modulation along the c axis, and hence the spin helicity, exhibits a discontinuity to the commensurate state. These results indicate that the ferroelectricity in this compound originates predominantly from the spin chirality, the explanation of which would require a new mechanism for magnetoferroelectricity. Lastly, the obtained field-temperature phase diagrams of ferroelectricity well agree with those theoretically predicted for the spin chirality of a Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnet.
Spin-Chirality-Driven Ferroelectricity on a Perfect Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet
Mitamura, H.; Watanuki, R.; Kaneko, Koji; ...
2014-10-01
Magnetic field (B) variation of the electrical polarization Pc ( ∥c) of the perfect triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO4)2 is examined up to the saturation point of the magnetization for B⊥c. Pc is observed only in phases for which chirality is predicted in the in-plane magnetic structures. No strong anomaly is observed in Pc at the field at which the spin modulation along the c axis, and hence the spin helicity, exhibits a discontinuity to the commensurate state. These results indicate that the ferroelectricity in this compound originates predominantly from the spin chirality, the explanation of which would require a newmore » mechanism for magnetoferroelectricity. Lastly, the obtained field-temperature phase diagrams of ferroelectricity well agree with those theoretically predicted for the spin chirality of a Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnet.« less
Reversing the persistent current of particles in a driven optical ring lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales-Molina, L.; Arévalo, E.
2015-10-01
We study the dynamics of persistent bosonic currents in closed-loop atom circuits in the form of ring lattices and under the action of time periodic driving. The closed-loop atom circuits are described by a Bose-Hubbard model in the presence of a Peierls phase and with periodic boundary conditions. We find that the motion of matter waves can be controlled with the help of an external driving only applied in one site of the ring lattice. For tuned values of the interaction strength between particles, we show that there exists a frequency range of the external driving where not only suppression but also reversion of the persistent bosonic currents is achieved. Applications of our results are discussed.
Two-dimensional crystals of Rydberg excitations in a resonantly driven lattice gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrosyan, David
2013-10-01
The competition between resonant optical excitation of Rydberg states of atoms and their strong, long-range van der Waals interaction results in spatial ordering of Rydberg excitations in a two-dimensional lattice gas, as observed in a recent experiment of Schauß [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature11596 491, 87 (2012)]. Here we use semiclassical Monte Carlo simulations to obtain stationary states for hundreds of atoms in finite-size lattices. We show the formation of regular spatial structures of Rydberg excitations in a system of increasing size, and find highly sub-Poissonian distribution of the number of Rydberg excitations characterized by a large negative value of the Mandel Q parameter which is nearly independent of the system size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Cheng Gong; P-Y Maa, Jerome
2017-04-01
Numerical study on three-dimensional (3D), incompressible, four-sided lid (FSL) driven cavity flows has been conducted to show the effects of the transverse aspect ratio, K, on the flow field by using a multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann equation. The top wall is driven from left to right, the left wall is moved downward, whereas the right wall is driven upward, and the bottom wall is moved from right to left, all the four moving walls have the same speed and the others boundaries are fixed. Numerical computations are performed for several Reynolds numbers for laminar flows, up to 1000, with various transverse aspect ratios. The flow can reach a steady state and the flow pattern is symmetric with respect to the two cavity diagonals (i.e., the center of the cavity). At Reynolds number = 300, the flow structures of the 3D FSL cavity flow at steady state with various transverse aspect ratio, i.e., 3, 2, 1, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 only show the unstable symmetrical flow pattern. The stable asymmetrical flow pattern could be reproduced only by increasing the Reynolds number that is above a critical value which is dependent on the aspect ratio. It is found that an aspect ratio of more than 5 is needed to reproduce flow patterns, both symmetric and asymmetric flows, simulated by using 2D numerical models.
Two-color interface vortex solitons
Xu Zhiyong
2010-02-15
We study the existence and properties of vortex solitons supported by an interface between two distinct optical lattices imprinted in nonlinear quadratic media. We analyze the impact of guiding parameters of lattices and phase mismatching conditions on the existence and stability of two-color interface vortex solitons. The salient point is that interface vortex solitons feature highly asymmetric profiles, and are stable throughout almost the entire existence domain.
User's manual for interfacing a leading edge, vortex rollup program with two linear panel methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desilva, B. M. E.; Medan, R. T.
1979-01-01
Sufficient instructions are provided for interfacing the Mangler-Smith, leading edge vortex rollup program with a vortex lattice (POTFAN) method and an advanced higher order, singularity linear analysis for computing the vortex effects for simple canard wing combinations.
Time-Dependent Fluctuations and Superdiffusivity in the Driven Lattice Lorentz Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leitmann, Sebastian; Franosch, Thomas
2017-01-01
We consider a tracer particle on a lattice in the presence of immobile obstacles. Starting from equilibrium, a force pulling on the particle is switched on, driving the system to a new stationary state. We solve for the complete transient dynamics of the fluctuations of the tracer position along the direction of the force. The analytic result, exact in first order of the obstacle density and for arbitrarily strong driving, is compared to stochastic simulations. Upon strong driving, the fluctuations grow superdiffusively for intermediate times; however, they always become diffusive in the stationary state. The diffusion constant is nonanalytic for small driving and is enhanced by orders of magnitude by increasing the force.
Kolovsky, Andrey R.
2010-07-15
We discuss a method for creating bright matter solitons by loading a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms in a driven tilted optical lattice. It is shown that one can realize the self-focusing regime for the wave-packet dynamics by properly adjusting the phase of the driving field with respect to the phase of Bloch oscillations. If atom-atom interactions are larger than some critical value g{sub min}, this self-focusing regime is followed by the formation of bright solitons. Increasing the interactions above another critical value g{sub max} makes this process unstable. Instead of soliton formation one now meets the phenomenon of incoherent self-trapping. In this regime a fraction of atoms is trapped in incoherent localized wave packets, while the remaining atoms spread ballistically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Rou; Diao, Wei; Cheng, Yongguang; Zhu, Likun; Yu, Huidan (Whitney)
2014-11-01
An innovative self-circulation, self-regulation mechanism has recently been proposed to experimentally generate gaseous species from liquid reactants with little or zero parasitic power consumption. When a bubble grows at a location close to a virtual check valve, expansion of the left meniscus of the bubble is hindered due to its capability to provide a higher capillary pressure than the right meniscus does. We perform numerical simulation of bubble transport in a channel with a virtual check valve using lattice Boltzmann method to provide benchmarks for the experiments. A stable discretized lattice Boltzmann equation is employed to simulate incompressible bubble-liquid flows with density ratio above 1000. Polynomial wall free energy boundary condition is introduced and examined for static cases with a bubble sitting on solid surfaces for a triple contact among bubble, liquid, and solid surface. In this work, we focus on the effects of channel ratio between with and without check valve on the dynamics of bubble-driven liquid circulation. This work is supported by NSF Collabrotive Research (1264739).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarallo, M. G.; Alberti, A.; Poli, N.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Wang, F.-Y.; Tino, G. M.
2012-09-01
In this paper, we describe and compare different methods used for the accurate determination of forces acting on matter-wave packets in optical lattices. The quantum interference nature responsible for the production of both Bloch oscillations and coherent delocalization is investigated in detail. We study conditions for the optimal detection of Bloch oscillation for a thermal ensemble of cold atoms with a large velocity spread. We report on the experimental observation of resonant tunneling in an amplitude-modulated optical lattice up to the sixth harmonic with Fourier-limited linewidth. We then explore the fundamental and technical phenomena which limit both the sensitivity and the final accuracy of the atomic force sensor at a 10-7 precision level [Poli , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.038501 106, 038501 (2011)], with an analysis of the coherence time of the system. We address a few simple setup changes to go beyond the current accuracy.
Menezes, Raí M; Silva, Clécio C de Souza
2017-10-06
We investigate theoretically globally nonuniform configurations of quantized-flux vortices in clean superconductors trapped by an external force field that induces a nonuniform vortex density profile. Using an extensive series of numerical simulations, we demonstrate that, for suitable choices of the force field, and bellow a certain transition temperature, the vortex system self-organizes into highly inhomogeneous conformal crystals in a way as to minimize the total energy. These nonuniform structures are topologically ordered and can be mathematically mapped into a triangular Abrikosov lattice via a conformal transformation. Above the crystallization temperature, the conformal vortex crystal becomes unstable and gives place to a nonuniform polycrystalline structure. We propose a simple method to engineer the potential energy profile necessary for the observation of conformal crystals of vortices, which can also be applied to other 2D particle systems, and suggest possible experiments in which conformal or quasi-conformal vortex crystals could be observed in bulk superconductors and in thin films.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Silva, L. D.; Sales, M. O.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; Lyra, M. L.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.
2016-12-01
We investigate electronic transport in a one-dimensional model with four different types of atoms and long-ranged correlated disorder. The latter was attained by choosing an adequate distribution of on-site energies. The wave-packet dynamics is followed by taking into account effects due to a static electric field and electron-phonon coupling. In the absence of electron-phonon coupling, the competition between correlated disorder and the static electric field promotes the occurrence of wave-packet oscillations in the regime of strong correlations. When the electron-lattice coupling is switched on, phonon scattering degrades the Bloch oscillations. For weak electron-phonon couplings, a coherent oscillatory-like dynamics of the wave-packet centroid persists for short periods of time. For strong couplings the wave-packet acquires a diffusive-like displacement and spreading. A slower sub-diffusive spreading takes place in the regime of weak correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthoine, J.; Mettenleiter, M.; Repellin, O.; Buchlin, J.-M.; Candel, S.
2003-05-01
Aeroacoustic instabilities occur in many applications of technological interest and have undesirable effects on the steady operation of the system. Passive and active means are sought to reduce the level of oscillation and eliminate the instability. In the case of segmented solid rocket motors, observations indicate that low-frequency oscillations are generated by a coupling between vortex shedding in shear regions established in the flow and the acoustic eigenmodes of the system. This process is investigated in this article on a model-scale configuration representing the geometry of the motor. An active control loop is exploited to obtain resonant and non-resonant conditions for the same operating point. Adaptive techniques are used to stabilize the flow and the experiment serves as a testbed for active control. It is shown that an adaptive system may be applied to essentially suppress the pressure oscillations. The instability mechanism is then studied by analyzing the flow field with particle image velocimetry. It is found that control noticeably modifies the mean flow structure. Detailed studies of the vortex pattern in the shedding region indicate that the concentrated vorticity and the corresponding circulation values remain in the same range but that vorticity is shed more randomly when the resonance is eliminated by the controller. This indicates that control is achieved by reducing the level of organization in the vortex pattern. Under resonant conditions the level of pressure fluctuations results from coherent interactions between vortices and the downstream nozzle. This process feeds energy in one of the acoustic modes of the system enhancing the pressure level. It is made less effective by the control loop.
Hierarchy of Floquet gaps and edge states for driven honeycomb lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Piskunow, P. M.; Foa Torres, L. E. F.; Usaj, Gonzalo
2015-04-01
Electromagnetic driving in a honeycomb lattice can induce gaps and topological edge states with a structure of increasing complexity as the frequency of the driving lowers. While the high-frequency case is the most simple to analyze we focus on the multiple photon processes allowed in the low-frequency regime to unveil the hierarchy of Floquet edge states. In the case of low intensities an analytical approach allows us to derive effective Hamiltonians and address the topological character of each gap in a constructive manner. At high intensities we obtain the net number of edge states, given by the winding number, with a numerical calculation of the Chern numbers of each Floquet band. Using these methods, we find a hierarchy that resembles that of a Russian nesting doll. This hierarchy classifies the gaps and the associated edge states in different orders according to the electron-photon coupling strength. For large driving intensities, we rely on the numerical calculation of the winding number, illustrated in a map of topological phase transitions. The hierarchy unveiled with the low-energy effective Hamiltonians, along with the map of topological phase transitions, discloses the complexity of the Floquet band structure in the low-frequency regime. The proposed method for obtaining the effective Hamiltonian can be easily adapted to other Dirac Hamiltonians of two-dimensional materials and even the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator.
Spin liquid and infinitesimal-disorder-driven cluster spin glass in the kagome lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, M.; Zimmer, F. M.; Magalhaes, S. G.
2017-04-01
The interplay between geometric frustration (GF) and bond disorder is studied in the Ising kagome lattice within a cluster approach. The model considers antiferromagnetic short-range couplings and long-range intercluster disordered interactions. The replica formalism is used to obtain an effective single cluster model from where the thermodynamics is analyzed by exact diagonalization. We found that the presence of GF can introduce cluster freezing at very low levels of disorder. The system exhibits an entropy plateau followed by a large entropy drop close to the freezing temperature. In this scenario, a spin-liquid (SL) behavior prevents conventional long-range order, but an infinitesimal disorder picks out uncompensated cluster states from the multi-degenerate SL regime, potentializing the intercluster-disordered coupling and bringing the cluster spin-glass state. To summarize, our results suggest that the SL state combined with low levels of disorder can activate small clusters, providing hypersensitivity to the freezing process in geometrically frustrated materials and playing a key role in the glassy stabilization. We propose that this physical mechanism could be present in several geometrically frustrated materials. In particular, we discuss our results in connection with the recent experimental investigations of the Ising kagome compound Co3Mg(OH)6Cl2.
Spin liquid and infinitesimal-disorder-driven cluster spin glass in the kagome lattice.
Schmidt, M; Zimmer, F M; Magalhaes, S G
2017-04-26
The interplay between geometric frustration (GF) and bond disorder is studied in the Ising kagome lattice within a cluster approach. The model considers antiferromagnetic short-range couplings and long-range intercluster disordered interactions. The replica formalism is used to obtain an effective single cluster model from where the thermodynamics is analyzed by exact diagonalization. We found that the presence of GF can introduce cluster freezing at very low levels of disorder. The system exhibits an entropy plateau followed by a large entropy drop close to the freezing temperature. In this scenario, a spin-liquid (SL) behavior prevents conventional long-range order, but an infinitesimal disorder picks out uncompensated cluster states from the multi-degenerate SL regime, potentializing the intercluster-disordered coupling and bringing the cluster spin-glass state. To summarize, our results suggest that the SL state combined with low levels of disorder can activate small clusters, providing hypersensitivity to the freezing process in geometrically frustrated materials and playing a key role in the glassy stabilization. We propose that this physical mechanism could be present in several geometrically frustrated materials. In particular, we discuss our results in connection with the recent experimental investigations of the Ising kagome compound Co3Mg(OH)6Cl2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Liberto, M.; Malpetti, D.; Japaridze, G. I.; Morais Smith, C.
2014-08-01
We theoretically investigate the behavior of a system of fermionic atoms loaded in a bipartite one-dimensional optical lattice that is under the action of an external time-periodic driving force. By using Floquet theory, an effective model is derived. The bare hopping coefficients are renormalized by zeroth-order Bessel functions of the first kind with different arguments for the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor hopping. The insulating behavior characterizing the system at half filling in the absence of driving is dynamically suppressed, and for particular values of the driving parameter the system becomes either a standard metal or an unconventional metal with four Fermi points. The existence of the four-Fermi-point metal relies on the fact that, as a consequence of the shaking procedure, the next-nearest-neighbor hopping coefficients become significant compared to the nearest-neighbor ones. We use the bosonization technique to investigate the effect of on-site Hubbard interactions on the four-Fermi-point metal-insulator phase transition. Attractive interactions are expected to enlarge the regime of parameters where the unconventional metallic phase arises, whereas repulsive interactions reduce it. This metallic phase is known to be a Luther-Emery liquid (spin-gapped metal) for both repulsive and attractive interactions, contrary to the usual Hubbard model, which exhibits a Mott-insulator phase for repulsive interactions. Ultracold fermions in driven one-dimensional bipartite optical lattices provide an interesting platform for the realization of this long-studied four-Fermi-point unconventional metal.
Olson, C.J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F.
1997-09-01
Using large-scale simulations on parallel processors, we analyze in detail the dynamical behavior of superconducting vortices undergoing avalanches. In particular, we quantify the effect of the pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties of vortex avalanches and vortex plastic flow. These dynamical instabilities are triggered when the external magnetic field is increased slightly, and are thus driven by a flux gradient rather than by thermal effects. The flux profiles, composed of rigid flux lines that interact with 100 or more vortices, are maintained in the Bean critical state and do not decay away from it. By directly determining vortex positions during avalanches in the plastically moving lattice, we find that experimentally observable voltage bursts correspond to the pulsing movement of vortices along branched channels or winding chains in a manner reminiscent of lightning strikes. This kind of motion cannot be described by elastic theories. We relate the velocity field and cumulative patterns of vortex flow channels with statistical quantities, such as distributions of avalanche sizes. Samples with a high density of strong pinning sites produce very broad avalanche distributions. Easy-flow vortex channels appear in samples with a low pinning density, and typical avalanche sizes emerge in an otherwise broad distribution of sizes. We observe a crossover from interstitial motion in narrow channels to pin-to-pin motion in broad channels as pin density is increased. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
The physicist's companion to current fluctuations: one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2015-12-01
One of the main features of statistical systems out of equilibrium is the currents they exhibit in their stationary state: microscopic currents of probability between configurations, which translate into macroscopic currents of mass, charge, etc. Understanding the general behaviour of these currents is an important step towards building a universal framework for non-equilibrium steady states akin to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. In this review, we consider one-dimensional bulk-driven particle gases, and in particular the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with open boundaries, which is one of the most popular models of one-dimensional transport. We focus, in particular, on the current of particles flowing through the system in its steady state, and on its fluctuations. We show how one can obtain the complete statistics of that current, through its large deviation function, by combining results from various methods: exact calculation of the cumulants of the current, using the integrability of the model; direct diagonalization of a biased process in the limits of very high or low current; hydrodynamic description of the model in the continuous limit using the macroscopic fluctuation theory. We give a pedagogical account of these techniques, starting with a quick introduction to the necessary mathematical tools, as well as a short overview of the existing works relating to the ASEP. We conclude by drawing the complete dynamical phase diagram of the current. We also remark on a few possible generalizations of these results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrkac, Gino; Keatley, Paul S.; Bryan, Matthew T.; Butler, Keith
2015-11-01
The magnetic vortex has sparked the interest of the academic and industrial communities over the last few decades. From their discovery in the 1970s for bubble memory devices to their modern application as radio frequency oscillators, magnetic vortices have been adopted to modern telecommunication and sensor applications. Basic properties of vortex structures in the static and dynamic regime, from a theoretical and experimental point of view, are presented as well as their application in spin torque driven nano-pillar and magnetic tunnel junction devices. Single vortex excitations and phase locking phenomena of coupled oscillators are discussed with an outlook of vortex oscillators in magnetic hybrid structures with imprinted domain confinement and dynamic encryption devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulian, Ellen D.; Melkonyan, Gurgen G.; Gulian, Armen M.
2017-07-01
Using finite gap, time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, generalized to include non-thermal phonons, we report numerical simulations of vortex nucleation, propagation, and annihilation in thin, finite strips of magnetic-impurity free, perfectly homogeneous superconductors. When a steady electric current passes through the strip with either surface defects or nonequilibrium phonon sources (e.g., local ;hotspots;), periodic vortex generation and annihilation is observed even in the absence of external magnetic fields. Local pulses of electric field are produced upon annihilation. The injected phonon lines steer the vortices during their motion within the strip, potentially allowing control of the annihilation site.
Wu, Hao; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng
2015-02-05
Manganese-substitution-doped iron nitride MnFe3N holds great promise for applications in high-density magnetic recording and spintronic devices. However, existing theory contradicts experimental results on the structural and magnetic stability of MnFe3N, and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that the ferromagnetic state with enhanced magnetization in MnFe3N is driven by the electron correlation effect not previously considered. We further reveal a large nonlinear shear plasticity, which produces an unexpectedly high shear strength in MnFe3N despite its initial ductile nature near the equilibrium structure. Moreover, we identify strong lattice anharmonicity that plays a pivotal role in stabilizingmore » MnFe3N under high pressures at room temperature. These remarkable properties stem from the intriguing bonding nature of the parent compound Fe4N. Lastly, our results explain experimental results and offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms for the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of MnFe3N.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Gong, S. S.; Sheng, D. N.
2016-07-01
There has been a growing interest in realizing topologically nontrivial states of matter in band insulators, where a quantum Hall effect can appear as an intrinsic property of the band structure. While ongoing progress is under way with a number of directions, the possibility of realizing novel interaction-generated topological phases, without the requirement of a nontrivial invariant encoded in single-particle wave function or band structure, can significantly extend the class of topological materials and is thus of great importance. Here, we show an interaction-driven topological phase emerging in an extended Bose-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice, where the noninteracting band structure is topological trivial with zero Berry curvature in the Brillouin zone. By means of an unbiased state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group technique, we identify that the ground state in a broad parameter region is equivalent to a bosonic fractional quantum Hall Laughlin state, based on the characterization of universal properties including ground-state degeneracy, edge excitations, and anyonic quasiparticle statistics. Our work paves a way to finding an interaction-induced topological phase at the phase boundary of conventionally ordered solid phases.
Kitamura, Sota; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo
2015-07-24
We design an interaction-driven topological insulator for fermionic cold atoms in an optical lattice; that is, we pose the question of whether we can realize in a continuous space a spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by the interatom interaction into a topological Chern insulator. Such a state, sometimes called a "topological Mott insulator," has yet to be realized in solid-state systems, since this requires, in the tight-binding model, large off-site interactions on top of a small on-site interaction. Here, we overcome the difficulty by introducing a spin-dependent potential, where a spin-selective occupation of fermions in A and B sublattices makes the on-site interaction Pauli forbidden, while a sizeable intersite interaction is achieved by a shallow optical potential with a large overlap between neighboring Wannier orbitals. This puts the system away from the tight-binding model, so that we adopt density functional theory for cold atoms, here extended to accommodate noncollinear spin structures emerging in the topological regime, to quantitatively demonstrate the phase transition to the topological Mott insulator.
High-temperature ferrimagnetism driven by lattice distortion in double perovskite Ca2FeOsO6.
Feng, Hai L; Arai, Masao; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Guo, Yanfeng; Sathish, Clastin I; Wang, Xia; Yuan, Ya-Hua; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yamaura, Kazunari
2014-03-05
5d and 3d hybrid solid-state oxide Ca2FeOsO6 crystallizes into an ordered double-perovskite structure with a space group of P2₁/n with high-pressures and temperatures. Ca2FeOsO6 presents a long-range ferrimagnetic transition at a temperature of ~320 K (T(c)) and is not a band insulator, but is electrically insulating like the recently discovered Sr2CrOsO6 (T(c) ~725 K). The electronic stat of Ca2FeOsO6 is adjacent to a half-metallic state as well as that of Sr2CrOsO6. In addition, the high-T(c) ferrimagnetism was driven by lattice distortion, which was observed for the first time among double-perovskite oxides and represents complex interplays between spins and orbitals. Unlike conventional ferrite and garnet, the interplays likely play a pivotal role of the ferrimagnetism. A new class of 5d-3d hybrid ferrimagnetic insulators with high-T(c) is established to develop practically and scientifically useful spintronic materials.
Generic dynamical phase transition in one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases with exclusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2017-06-01
Dynamical phase transitions are crucial features of the fluctuations of statistical systems, corresponding to boundaries between qualitatively different mechanisms of maintaining unlikely values of dynamical observables over long periods of time. They manifest themselves in the form of non-analyticities in the large deviation function of those observables. In this paper, we look at bulk-driven exclusion processes with open boundaries. It is known that the standard asymmetric simple exclusion process exhibits a dynamical phase transition in the large deviations of the current of particles flowing through it. That phase transition has been described thanks to specific calculation methods relying on the model being exactly solvable, but more general methods have also been used to describe the extreme large deviations of that current, far from the phase transition. We extend those methods to a large class of models based on the ASEP, where we add arbitrary spatial inhomogeneities in the rates and short-range potentials between the particles. We show that, as for the regular ASEP, the large deviation function of the current scales differently with the size of the system if one considers very high or very low currents, pointing to the existence of a dynamical phase transition between those two regimes: high current large deviations are extensive in the system size, and the typical states associated to them are Coulomb gases, which are highly correlated; low current large deviations do not depend on the system size, and the typical states associated to them are anti-shocks, consistently with a hydrodynamic behaviour. Finally, we illustrate our results numerically on a simple example, and we interpret the transition in terms of the current pushing beyond its maximal hydrodynamic value, as well as relate it to the appearance of Tracy-Widom distributions in the relaxation statistics of such models. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working
Wind-driven, double-gyre, ocean circulation in a reduced-gravity, 2.5-layer, lattice Boltzmann model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, L. H.; Feng, S. D.; Luo, D. H.; Gao, S. T.
2006-07-01
A coupled lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with second-order accuracy is applied to the reduced-gravity, shallow water, 2.5-layer model for wind-driven double-gyre ocean circulation. By introducing the second-order integral approximation for the collision operator, the model becomes fully explicit. The Coriolis force and other external forces axe included in the model with second-order accuracy, which is consistent with the discretization accuracy of the LB equation. The feature of the multiple equilibria solutions is found in the numerical experiments under different Reynolds numbers based on this LB scheme. With the Reynolds number increasing from 3000 to 4000, the solution of this model is destabilized from the anti-syminetric double-gyre solution to the subtropic gyre solution and then to the subpolar gyre solution. The transitions between these equilibria. states are also found in some parameter ranges. The time-dependent variability of the circulation based on this LB simulation is also discussed for varying viscosity regimes. The flow of this model exhibits oscillations with different timescales varying from subannual to interannual. The corresponding statistical oscillation modes are obtained by spectral analysis. By analyzing the spatio-temporal structures of these modes, it is found that the subannual oscillation with a 9-month period originates from the barotropic Rossby basin mode. and the interannual oscillations with periods ranging from 1.5 years to 4.6 years originate from the recirculation gyre modes, which include the barotropic and the baroclinic recirculation gyre modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Z. M.; Dai, Y. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, T. T.; Zhao, X. T.; Zhao, X. G.; Zhang, Z. D.
2017-07-01
Magnetic vortices in patterned nanocomposite structures have been studied. A double-vortex structure consisting of two vortex cores with opposite chiralities and two edge half-vortices is realized in a micron-size circular disk, which consists of [Co/Pd]7/Ru/Py. A systemic study of the magnetization reversal of a double-vortex state and a single vortex state in an out-of-plane applied field has been performed by means of magnetic force microscopy. It is found that the interlayer exchange and dipolar interactions are critical for nucleation and annihilation of the double-vortex and the single vortex states. Micromagnetic simulations prove that the double-vortex state can stably exist in a patterned nanocomposite structure. Magnetic configurations ranging from the double-vortex and single vortex states to other multidomain states and the in-plane single-domain state are observed. The dependence of the magnetic configuration on the thickness of the soft-magnetic layer and spacer layer is presented in an experimental phase diagram. The results can significantly widen the practical applications of vortices on the three-dimensional spintronic memory and logic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poussou, Stephane B.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2012-09-01
The air ventilation system in wide-body aircraft cabins provides passengers with a healthy breathing environment. In recent years, the increase in global air traffic has amplified contamination risks by airborne flu-like diseases and terrorist threats involving the onboard release of noxious materials. In particular, passengers moving through a ventilated cabin may transport infectious pathogens in their wake. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the wake produced by a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow. Data were obtained in a water facility using particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence. Ventilation attenuated the downward convection of counter-rotating vortices produced near the free-end corners of the body and decoupled the downwash mechanism from forward entrainment, creating stagnant contaminant regions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony
1992-01-01
The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how core dynamics affects overall ring motion, and laminar vortex structures are described in two dimensions. Viscous and inviscid structures are related in terms of 'leapfrogging', head-on collisions, and collisions with a no-slip wall. Linear instability theory is shown to successfully describe observational data, although late stages in the breakdown are not completely understood. This study of vortex rings has important implications for key aerodynamic issues including sound generation, transport and mixing, and vortex interactions.
Cho, Inyong; Lee, Youngone
2009-01-15
We investigate vortex configurations with the 'vulcanization' term inspired by the renormalization of {phi}{sub *}{sup 4} theory in the canonical {theta}-deformed noncommutativity. We focus on the classical limit of the theory described by a single parameter which is the ratio of the vulcanization and the noncommutativity parameters. We perform numerical calculations and find that nontopological vortex solutions exist as well as Q-ball type solutions, but topological vortex solutions are not admitted.
Liu, Xianyin; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zhang, Senfu; Liu, Qingfang E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Jianbo E-mail: wangjb@lzu.edu.cn
2015-08-15
An interesting type of skyrmion-like spin texture, 2π-vortex, is obtained in a thin nano-disk with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We have simulated the existence of 2π-vortex by micromagnetic method. Furthermore, the spin polarized current is introduced in order to drive the motion of 2π-vortex in a nano-disk with diameter 2 R = 140 nm. When the current density matches with the current injection area, 2π-vortex soon reaches a stable precession (3∼4 ns). The relationship between the precession frequency of 2π-vortex and the current density is almost linear. It may have potential use in spin torque nano-oscillators.
Wingtip vortex turbine investigation for vortex energy recovery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abeyounis, William K.; Patterson, James C., Jr.; Stough, H. P., III; Wunschel, Alfred J.; Curran, Patrick D.
1990-01-01
A flight test investigation has been conducted to determine the performance of wingtip vortex turbines and their effect on aircraft performance. The turbines were designed to recover part of the large energy loss (induced drag) caused by the wingtip vortex. The turbine, driven by the vortex flow, reduces the strength of the vortex, resulting in an associated induced drag reduction. A four-blade turbine was mounted on each wingtip of a single-engine, T-tail, general aviation airplane. Two sets of turbine blades were tested, one with a 15' twist (washin) and one with no twist. Th power recovered by the turbine and the installed drag increment were measured. A trade-off between turbine power and induced drag reduction was found to be a function of turbine blade incidence angle. This test has demonstrated that the wingtip vortex turbine is an attractive alternate, as well as an emergency, power source.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgiev, Ivan T.; McKay, Susan R.
2005-12-01
We present a general position-space renormalization-group approach for systems in steady states far from equilibrium and illustrate its application to the three-state driven lattice gas. The method is based upon the possibility of a closed form representation of the parameters controlling transition rates of the system in terms of the steady state probability distribution of small clusters, arising from the application of the master equations to small clusters. This probability distribution on various length scales is obtained through a Monte Carlo algorithm on small lattices, which then yields a mapping between parameters on different length scales. The renormalization-group flows indicate the phase diagram, analogous to equilibrium treatments. For the three-state driven lattice gas, we have implemented this procedure and compared the resulting phase diagrams with those obtained directly from simulations. Results in general show the expected topology with one exception. For high densities, an unexpected additional fixed point emerges, which can be understood qualitatively by comparing it with the fixed point of the fully asymmetric exclusion process.
Shaping solitons by lattice defects
Dong Liangwei; Ye Fangwei
2010-11-15
We demonstrate the existence of shape-preserving self-localized nonlinear modes in a two-dimensional photonic lattice with a flat-topped defect that covers several lattice sites. The balance of diffraction, defocusing nonlinearity, and optical potential induced by lattices with various forms of defects results in novel families of solitons featuring salient properties. We show that the soliton shape can be controlled by varying the shape of lattice defects. The existence domains of fundamental and vortex solitons in the semi-infinite gap expand with the defect amplitude. Vortex solitons in the semi-infinite gap with rectangular intensity distributions will break into dipole solitons when the propagation constant exceeds a critical value. In the semi-infinite and first-finite gaps, we find that lattices with rectangular defects can support stable vortex solitons which exhibit noncanonical phase structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostroukh, V. P.; Baxevanis, B.; Akhmerov, A. R.; Beenakker, C. W. J.
2016-09-01
The critical current of a Josephson junction is an oscillatory function of the enclosed magnetic flux Φ , because of quantum interference modulated with periodicity h /2 e . We calculate these Fraunhofer oscillations in a two-dimensional (2D) ballistic superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) junction. For a Fermi circle the amplitude of the oscillations decays as 1 /Φ or faster. If the Fermi circle is strongly warped, as it is on a square lattice near the band center, we find that the amplitude decays slower, ∝1 /√{Φ } , when the magnetic length lm=√{ℏ /e B } drops below the separation L of the NS interfaces. The crossover to the slow decay of the critical current is accompanied by the appearance of a 2D array of current vortices and antivortices in the normal region, which form a bipartite rectangular lattice with lattice constant ≃lm2/L . The 2D lattice vanishes for a circular Fermi surface, when only the usual single row of Josephson vortices remains.
Meng, Qingyou; Varney, Christopher N; Fangohr, Hans; Babaev, Egor
2017-01-25
It was recently proposed to use the stray magnetic fields of superconducting vortex lattices to trap ultracold atoms for building quantum emulators. This calls for new methods for engineering and manipulating of the vortex states. One of the possible routes utilizes type-1.5 superconducting layered systems with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions. In order to explore the possible vortex states that can be engineered, we present two phase diagrams of phenomenological vortex matter models with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions featuring several attractive and repulsive length scales. The phase diagrams exhibit a plethora of phases, including conventional 2D lattice phases, five stripe phases, dimer, trimer, and tetramer phases, void phases, and stable low-temperature disordered phases. The transitions between these states can be controlled by the value of an applied external field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qingyou; Varney, Christopher N.; Fangohr, Hans; Babaev, Egor
2017-01-01
It was recently proposed to use the stray magnetic fields of superconducting vortex lattices to trap ultracold atoms for building quantum emulators. This calls for new methods for engineering and manipulating of the vortex states. One of the possible routes utilizes type-1.5 superconducting layered systems with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions. In order to explore the possible vortex states that can be engineered, we present two phase diagrams of phenomenological vortex matter models with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions featuring several attractive and repulsive length scales. The phase diagrams exhibit a plethora of phases, including conventional 2D lattice phases, five stripe phases, dimer, trimer, and tetramer phases, void phases, and stable low-temperature disordered phases. The transitions between these states can be controlled by the value of an applied external field.
Measuring vortex charge with a triangular aperture.
de Araujo, Luís E E; Anderson, Matthew E
2011-03-15
A triangular aperture illuminated with a vortex beam creates a truncated lattice diffraction pattern that identifies the charge of the vortex. In this Letter, we demonstrate the measurement of vortex charge via this approach for vortex beams up to charge ±7. We also demonstrate the use of this technique for measuring femtosecond vortices and noninteger vortices, comparing these results with numerical modeling. It is shown that this technique is simple and reliable, but care must be taken when interpreting the results for the noninteger case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohara, N.; Ochi, A.; Murakami, E.; Ienaga, K.; Kaneko, S.; Kokubo, N.; Okuma, S.
2017-07-01
We have developed measurements of the mode-locking (ML) resonance with pulsed currents, which generates much less heat than the conventional one with continuous currents. Here, we present the experimental details of the pulsed ML measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in determining the dynamic melting field of a driven vortex lattice for a weak-pinning thick amorphous Mo x Ge1-x film down to 0.05 K. We construct an ideal vortex phase diagram in the absence of pinning near zero temperature as a function of magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Umesh K.
2017-01-01
Ground state properties of spinless, extended Falicov-Kimball model (FKM) on a finite size triangular lattice with orbital magnetic field normal to the lattice are studied using numerical diagonalization and Monte-Carlo simulation methods. We show that the ground state configurations of localized electrons strongly depend on the magnetic field. Magnetic field induces a metal to insulator transition accompanied by segregated phase to an ordered regular phase except at density nf = 1 / 2 of localized electrons. It is proposed that magnetic field can be used as a new tool to produce segregated phase which was otherwise accessible only either with correlated hopping or with large on-site interactions.
Morisaki-Ishii, Rieko; Kawano-Furukawa, H.; Cameron, Alistair S.; Lemberger, L; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Holmes, Alexander T.; Forgan, E. M.; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M.; Littrell, Ken; Nakajima, M.; Kihou, K.; Lee, C. H.; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Uchida, S.; White, Jonathon; Dewhurst, C. D.; Gavilano, Jorge; Zolliker, Marcus
2014-09-09
We have observed a magnetic vortex lattice (VL) inBaFe_{2}(As_{0.67}P_{0.33})_{2} single crystals by smallangle neutron scattering. With the field along the c-axis, a nearly isotropic hexagonal VL was formed in the field range from 1 to 16 T, and no symmetry changes in the VL were observed. The temperature-dependence of the VL signal was measured and confirms the presence of (non d-wave) nodes in the superconducting gap structure for measurements at 5 T and below. The nodal effects were suppressed at high fields. At low fields, a VL reorientation transition was observed between 1 T and 3 T, with the VL orientation changing by 45 . Below 1 T, the VL structure was strongly affected by pinning and the diffraction pattern had a fourfold symmetry. We suggest that this (and possibly also the VL reorientation) is due to pinning to defects aligned with the crystal structure, rather than being intrinsic. The temperature dependence of the scaled intensity suggest that BFAP possesses at least one full gap and one nodal gap with circular symmetry. Judging from the symmetry, the node structure should take the form of an accidental circular line node, which is consistent with recent ARPES results1.
Wang, Yonggang; Zhou, Zhengyang; Wen, Ting; Zhou, Yannan; Li, Nana; Han, Fei; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Sun, Junliang; Pravica, Michael; Cornelius, Andrew L; Yang, Wenge; Zhao, Yusheng
2016-12-07
Spin-crossover (SCO) is generally regarded as a spectacular molecular magnetism in 3d(4)-3d(7) metal complexes and holds great promise for various applications such as memory, displays, and sensors. In particular, SCO materials can be multifunctional when a classical light- or temperature-induced SCO occurs along with other cooperative structural and/or electrical transport alterations. However, such a cooperative SCO has rarely been observed in condensed matter under hydrostatic pressure (an alternative external stimulus to light or temperature), probably due to the lack of synergy between metal neighbors under compression. Here, we report the observation of a pressure-driven, cooperative SCO in the two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb antiferromagnets MnPS3 and MnPSe3 at room temperature. Applying pressure to this confined 2D system leads to a dramatic magnetic moment collapse of Mn(2+) (d(5)) from S = 5/2 to S = 1/2. Significantly, a number of collective phenomena were observed along with the SCO, including a large lattice collapse (∼20% in volume), the formation of metallic bonding, and a semiconductor-to-metal transition. Experimental evidence shows that all of these events occur in the honeycomb lattice, indicating a strongly cooperative mechanism that facilitates the occurrence of the abrupt pressure-driven SCO. We believe that the observation of this cooperative pressure-driven SCO in a 2D system can provide a rare model for theoretical investigations and lead to the discovery of more pressure-responsive multifunctional materials.
Vortex liquid crystals in anisotropic type II superconductors.
Carlson, E W; Castro Neto, A H; Campbell, D K
2003-02-28
In an isotropic type II superconductor in a moderate magnetic field, the transition to the normal state occurs by vortex lattice melting. In certain anisotropic cases, the vortices acquire elongated cross sections and interactions. Systems of anisotropic, interacting constituents generally exhibit liquid crystalline phases. We examine the possibility of a two step melting in homogeneous type II superconductors with anisotropic superfluid stiffness from a vortex lattice into first a vortex smectic and then a vortex nematic at high temperature and magnetic field. We find that fluctuations of the ordered phase favor an instability to an intermediate smectic-A in the absence of intrinsic pinning.
Vortex methods and vortex statistics
Chorin, A.J.
1993-05-01
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (``blobs``) and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ``blob`` methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena.
Electromagnetic Radiation from Vortex Flow in Type-II Superconductors
Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.
2006-11-10
We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, {omega}{sub 0}=2{pi}v/a, up to a superconducting gap, {delta}/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.
Spectroscopy of magnetic excitations in magnetic superconductors using vortex motion.
Bulaevskii, L N; Hruska, M; Maley, M P
2005-11-11
In magnetic superconductors a moving vortex lattice is accompanied by an ac magnetic field which leads to the generation of spin waves. At resonance conditions the dynamics of vortices in magnetic superconductors changes drastically, resulting in strong peaks in the dc I-V characteristics at voltages at which the washboard frequency of the vortex lattice matches the spin wave frequency omegaS(g), where g are the reciprocal vortex lattice vectors. We show that if the washboard frequency lies above the magnetic gap, measurement of the I-V characteristics provides a new method to obtain information on the spectrum of magnetic excitations in borocarbides and cuprate layered magnetic superconductors.
Electromagnetic radiation from vortex flow in Type-II superconductors.
Bulaevskii, L N; Chudnovsky, E M
2006-11-10
We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, omega(0)=2pi v/a, up to a superconducting gap, Delta/variant Planck's over 2pi. Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.
Chorin, A.J. |
1993-06-01
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgiev, Ivan T.; McKay, Susan R.
2004-03-01
We have introduced a general position-space renormalization-group approach for non-equilibrium systems developed from the microscopic master equation. The method is based upon a closed form representation of the parameters of the system in terms of the steady state probability distribution of small clusters. From the master equation in terms of these small clusters, we build recursion relations linking parameters affecting transition rates on various length scales and determine the flow topology. Results for the three-state driven lattice gas show many of the expected features associated with the phase diagrams previously reported for this system, (G. Korniss, B. Schmittmann, and R.K.P. Zia, Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions in a Simple Three-State Lattice Gas, J. Stat. Phys. 86, 721 (1997).)in excellent agreement with simulations. The flow diagrams also exhibit added complexities, suggesting multiple regions within the ordered phase for some values of parameters and the presence of an extra "source" fixed point. (I.T. Georgiev, U. of Maine Ph.D. Thesis (2003); I.T. Georgiev and S.R. McKay, in preparation.)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itin, A. P.; Katsnelson, M. I.
2015-08-01
We consider 1D lattices described by Hubbard or Bose-Hubbard models, in the presence of periodic high-frequency perturbations, such as uniform ac force or modulation of hopping coefficients. Effective Hamiltonians for interacting particles are derived using an averaging method resembling classical canonical perturbation theory. As is known, a high-frequency force may renormalize hopping coefficients, causing interesting phenomena such as coherent destruction of tunneling and creation of artificial gauge fields. We find explicitly additional corrections to the effective Hamiltonians due to interactions, corresponding to nontrivial processes such as single-particle density-dependent tunneling, correlated pair hoppings, nearest neighbor interactions, etc. Some of these processes arise also in multiband lattice models, and are capable of giving rise to a rich variety of quantum phases. The apparent contradiction with other methods, e.g., Floquet-Magnus expansion, is explained. The results may be useful for designing effective Hamiltonian models in experiments with ultracold atoms, as well as in the field of ultrafast nonequilibrium magnetism. An example of manipulating exchange interaction in a Mott-Hubbard insulator is considered, where our corrections play an essential role.
Itin, A P; Katsnelson, M I
2015-08-14
We consider 1D lattices described by Hubbard or Bose-Hubbard models, in the presence of periodic high-frequency perturbations, such as uniform ac force or modulation of hopping coefficients. Effective Hamiltonians for interacting particles are derived using an averaging method resembling classical canonical perturbation theory. As is known, a high-frequency force may renormalize hopping coefficients, causing interesting phenomena such as coherent destruction of tunneling and creation of artificial gauge fields. We find explicitly additional corrections to the effective Hamiltonians due to interactions, corresponding to nontrivial processes such as single-particle density-dependent tunneling, correlated pair hoppings, nearest neighbor interactions, etc. Some of these processes arise also in multiband lattice models, and are capable of giving rise to a rich variety of quantum phases. The apparent contradiction with other methods, e.g., Floquet-Magnus expansion, is explained. The results may be useful for designing effective Hamiltonian models in experiments with ultracold atoms, as well as in the field of ultrafast nonequilibrium magnetism. An example of manipulating exchange interaction in a Mott-Hubbard insulator is considered, where our corrections play an essential role.
Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings
Cheng, M. Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2015-03-15
A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior.
Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.
2015-03-01
A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, "The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem," Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., "The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid," Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior.
Effect of Nondissipative Terms in Dynamical Phases of Vortex Matter in a Periodic Pinning Array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arovas, Daniel
2000-03-01
The zero temperature dynamical phases of driven vortex lattices [1] are reconsidered, introducing a nondynamical term (proportional to the sine of the Hall angle) into the equations of motion. While such a term does not affect the static thermodynamic phases of the system, it may have a profound effect on the dynamics. We find that finite Hall angle tends to reduce the effect of pinning in certain dynamical phases. [1] C. Reichhardt, C. J. Olson, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6534, 1998.
Vortex patterns in a fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensate
Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Dalibard, Jean
2005-02-01
For a fast rotating condensate in a harmonic trap, we investigate the structure of the vortex lattice using wave functions minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy in the lowest Landau level. We find that the minimizer of the energy in the rotating frame has a distorted vortex lattice for which we plot the typical distribution. We compute analytically the energy of an infinite regular lattice and of a class of distorted lattices. We find the optimal distortion and relate it to the decay of the wave function. Finally, we generalize our method to other trapping potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husain, H.; Shtern, F.; Hussain, V.
1996-11-01
The paper develops means of vortex breakdown (VB) control with the help of Controlling Vortex Generators (CVGs). Vortex breakdown plays the crucial role in many practical swirling flows, e.g. (a) leading-edge vortices above delta wings create a strong lift and (b) trailing vortices behind large aircraft disturbances are potentially dangerous to subsequent aircraft. It is useful to prevent VB in case (a) and to stimulate VB in case (b). We have recently obtained significant theoretical and experimental results related to swirling flow prediction and control. Firstly, a theory has been developed which models jump transitions in swirling flow (e.g. jumps in VB locations) and predicts ranges of control parameters where multiple stable states occur. Secondly, our experiments have revealed that effective control (enhancement and suppression) of VB can be achieved using CVGs. In our experiments we have used a thin rotaing rod as a CVG, placed along the axis of the basic swirling flow in a sealed cylinder driven by the rotating bottom disc. The effect of the rod depends on the direction of the rotation. With increasing rod co-rotational speed, the VB 'bubble' (VBB) becomes smaller and then disappear, and a cone-shaped wake forms. Counter-rotation of the rod causes increases VBBs' diameter and makes the flow unsteady. The VBBs begin to advect downstream, undergo tearing and pairing, and, hence, enhance mixing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Zhihao; Javanparast, Behnam; Enjalran, Matthew; Gingras, Michel
2014-03-01
We study the problem of partially ordered phases with periodically arranged disordered sites on the pyrochlore lattice. The periodicity of the phases is characterized by one or more wave vectors k = {1/21/21/2 } . Starting from a general microscopic Hamiltonian including anisotropic nearest-neighbor exchange, long-range dipolar interactions and second- and third-nearest neighbor exchange, we identify using standard mean-field theory (s-MFT) an extended range of interaction parameters that support partially ordered phases. We demonstrate that thermal fluctuations beyond s-MFT are responsible for the selection of one particular partially ordered phase, e.g. the ``4- k'' phase over the ``1- k'' phase. We suggest that the transition into the 4- k phase is continuous with its critical properties controlled by the cubic fixed point of a Ginzburg-Landau theory with a 4-component vector order-parameter. By combining an extension of the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer method originally used to study fluctuations in spin glasses with parallel-tempering Monte-Carlo simulations, we establish the phase diagram for different types of partially ordered phases. Our result reveals the origin of 4- k phase observed bellow 1K in Gd2Ti2O7. Funded by NSERC of Canada. M. G. acknowledge funding from Canadian Research Chair program (Tier 1).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Douglass, Eric; Zhao, Yunjie; Hill, Lucas; Brenman, David; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard
2008-11-01
Chaos has been observed in the formation of Taylor Vortex pairs in Modified Taylor Couette flow with hourglass geometry. Control of chaos has been demonstrated in this system employing the RPF algorithm. Seeking alternative algorithms, we are implementing the OGY algorithm in a numerical model of a damped driven mechanical pendulum and a physical apparatus. We report on both and future plans for the Modified Taylor-Couette system. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997). Rollins et al, Phys. Rev. E 47, R780 (1993). Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2340 (1999). E. Ott, C. Grebogi, & J. A. Yorke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1196 (1990). G. L. Baker, Am. J. Phys. 63, 832 (1995). J. A. Blackburn et al, Rev. Sci. Instr. 60, 422 (1989).
Lattice Boltzmann method and channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stensholt, Sigvat; Mongstad Hope, Sigmund
2016-07-01
Lattice Boltzmann methods are presented at an introductory level with a focus on fairly simple simulations that can be used to test and illustrate the model’s capabilities. Two scenarios are presented. The first is a simple laminar flow in a straight channel driven by a pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The second is a more complex, including a wedge where Moffatt vortices may be induced if the wedge is deep enough. Simulations of the Poiseuille flow scenario accurately capture the theoretical velocity profile. The experiment shows the location of the fluid-wall boundary and the effects viscosity has on the velocity and convergence time. The numerical capabilities of the lattice Boltzmann model are tested further by simulating the more complex Moffatt vortex scenario. The method reproduces with high accuracy the theoretical predction that Moffat vortices will not form in a wedge if the vertex angle exceeds 146°. Practical issues limitations of the lattice Boltzmann method are discussed. In particular the accuracy of the bounce-back boundary condition is first order dependent on the grid resolution.
Simulations of vortex generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koumoutsakos, P.
1995-01-01
We are interested in the study, via direct numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the stream direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise vorticity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations complement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators at NASA Ames and Stanford University (Saddoughi, 1994, and Jacobson and Reynolds, 1993). Jacobson and Reynolds (1993) used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and he observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. Our task is to simulate the flows generated by these devices and to conduct a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin (1994). The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands of particles allow for high resolution simulations. The results of the present simulations would help us assess some of the effects of three-dimensionality in experiments and investigate the role
Vortex 'puddles' and magic vortex numbers in mesoscopic superconducting disks
Connolly, M. R.; Milosevic, M. V.; Bending, S. J.; Clem, J. R.; Tamegai, T.
2009-01-01
The magnetic properties of a superconducting disk change dramatically when its dimensions become mesoscopic. Unlike large disks, where the screening currents induced by an applied magnetic field are strong enough to force vortices to accumulate in a 'puddle' at the centre, in a mesoscopic disk the interaction between one of these vortices and the edge currents can be comparable to the intervortex repulsion, resulting in a destruction of the ordered triangular vortex lattice structure at the centre. Vortices instead form clusters which adopt polygonal and shell-like structures which exhibit magic number states similar to those of charged particles in a confining potential, and electrons in artificial atoms. We have fabricated mesoscopic high temperature superconducting Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} disks and investigated their magnetic properties using magneto-optical imaging (MOI) and high resolution scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM). The temperature dependence of the vortex penetration field measured using MOI is in excellent agreement with models of the thermal excitation of pancake vortices over edge barriers. The growth of the central vortex puddle has been directly imaged using SHPM and magic vortex numbers showing higher stability have been correlated with abrupt jumps in the measured local magnetisation curves.
Vortex viscosity in magnetic superconductors due to radiation of spin waves.
Shekhter, A; Bulaevskii, L N; Batista, C D
2011-01-21
In type-II superconductors that contain a lattice of magnetic moments, vortices polarize the magnetic system inducing additional contributions to the vortex mass, vortex viscosity, and vortex-vortex interaction. Extra magnetic viscosity is caused by radiation of spin waves by a moving vortex. Like in the case of Cherenkov radiation, this effect has a characteristic threshold behavior and the resulting vortex viscosity may be comparable to the well-known Bardeen-Stephen contribution. The threshold behavior leads to an anomaly in the current-voltage characteristics, and a drop in dissipation for a current interval that is determined by the magnetic excitation spectrum.
Vortex Lattice UXO Mobility Model Integration
2015-03-01
25 Figure 10. Lake Erie ice thickness at two monitoring stations of the GLERL Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Base, 1968-1979...Technology Certification Program FRF Field Research Facility FUDS Formerly Used Defense Site GLERL Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory...IMM Impact/Mobility Model km kilometer kPa kilopascal LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging LWD International Great Lakes Low Water Datum, LWD
Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, J. F. (Editor); Osborn, R. F. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)
1986-01-01
Vortex modeling techniques and experimental studies of research configurations utilizing vortex flows are discussed. Also discussed are vortex flap investigations using generic and airplane research models and vortex flap theoretical analysis and design studies.
Lattice duality for the compact Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sieberer, L. M.; Wachtel, G.; Altman, E.; Diehl, S.
2016-09-01
A comprehensive theory of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in two-dimensional superfluids in thermal equilibrium can be developed within a dual representation which maps vortices in the superfluid to charges in a Coulomb gas. In this framework, the dissociation of vortex-antivortex pairs at the critical temperature corresponds to the formation of a plasma of free charges. The physics of vortex unbinding in driven-dissipative systems such as fluids of light, on the other hand, is much less understood. Here, we make a crucial step to fill this gap by deriving a transformation that maps the compact Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation, which describes the dynamics of the phase of a driven-dissipative condensate, to a dual electrodynamic theory. The latter is formulated in terms of modified Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic fields and a diffusion equation for the charges representing vortices in the KPZ equation. This mapping utilizes an adaption of the Villain approximation to a generalized Martin-Siggia-Rose functional integral representation of the compact KPZ equation on a lattice.
Vortex Molecules in Thin Films of Layered Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzdin, Alexander I.
2014-01-01
In bulk layered superconductors the vortices tilted with respect to the anisotropy axes attract each other at long distance, which leads to the vortex chains structures. In thin film the intervortex interaction is modified by an extremely slow decay of the supercurrent induced by a single vortex line (Pearl's effect). The interplay between these interactions in thin films is responsible for a formation of a minimum of the interaction potential vs. the intervortex distance. This minimum exists only for relatively strong tilting. Depending on the strength and the tilt of the magnetic field we may expect the formation of the vortex molecules rearranging in multiquanta flux lattices. The increase in the field tilting should be accompanied by the series of the phase transitions between the vortex lattices with different number of vortices per unit cell. The Lorentz microscopy technique seems to be an ideal tool to observe such effects.
Crossover from crossing to tilted vortex phase in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals near ab-plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirkovic, Jovan; Buzdin, Alexandre; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo
2013-01-01
In extremely anisotropic layered superconductors of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ the stacks of vortex pancakes (PV) and the Josephson vortex (JV) interpenetrate, and due to PV-JV mutual pinning energy, weakly interact and form various tilted and crossing lattice structures including vortex chains, stripes, mixed chain + lattice phases, etc. In order to study these phenomena, it is decisive to have excellent quality of samples and the ideal experimental techniques. The vortex phases in high-quality Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals were studied by in-plane resistivity measurement and local ac magnetic permeability. The sharp crossover was shown by both techniques, deep in the vortex solid state separating the Abrikosov dominant ‘strong pinning’ phase from the Josephson dominant ‘weak pinning’ phase. Those two vortex states were recognized as the mixed chain + lattice vortex phase and chains (tilted) vortex phase, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan
2014-11-01
A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.
Stochastic perturbations in vortex-tube dynamics.
Moriconi, L; Nobre, F A S
2004-11-01
A dual lattice vortex formulation of homogeneous turbulence is developed, within the Martin-Siggia-Rose field theoretical approach. It consists of a generalization of the usual dipole version of the Navier-Stokes equations, known to hold in the limit of vanishing external forcing. We investigate, as a straightforward application of our formalism, the dynamics of closed vortex tubes, randomly stirred at large length scales by Gaussian stochastic forces. We find that besides the usual self-induced propagation, the vortex tube evolution may be effectively modeled through the introduction of an additional white-noise correlated velocity field background. The resulting phenomenological picture is closely related to observations previously reported from a wavelet decomposition analysis of turbulent flow configurations.
Chapman-Enskog analysis for finite-volume formulation of lattice Boltzmann equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, D. V.
2013-06-01
The classical Chapman-Enskog expansion is performed for the recently proposed finite-volume formulation of lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) method [D.V. Patil, K.N. Lakshmisha, Finite volume TVD formulation of lattice Boltzmann simulation on unstructured mesh, J. Comput. Phys. 228 (2009) 5262-5279]. First, a modified partial differential equation is derived from a numerical approximation of the discrete Boltzmann equation. Then, the multi-scale, small parameter expansion is followed to recover the continuity and the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations with additional error terms. The expression for apparent value of the kinematic viscosity is derived for finite-volume formulation under certain assumptions. The attenuation of a shear wave, Taylor-Green vortex flow and driven channel flow are studied to analyze the apparent viscosity relation.
Quantum vortex dynamics in two-dimensional neutral superfluids
Wang, C.-C. Joseph; Duine, R. A.; MacDonald, A. H.
2010-01-15
We derive an effective action for the vortex-position degree of freedom in a superfluid by integrating out condensate phase- and density-fluctuation environmental modes. When the quantum dynamics of environmental fluctuations is neglected, we confirm the occurrence of the vortex Magnus force and obtain an expression for the vortex mass. We find that this adiabatic approximation is valid only when the superfluid droplet radius R, or the typical distance between vortices, is very much larger than the coherence length xi. We go beyond the adiabatic approximation numerically, accounting for the quantum dynamics of environmental modes and capturing their dissipative coupling to condensate dynamics. For the case of an optical-lattice superfluid, we demonstrate that vortex motion damping can be adjusted by tuning the ratio between the tunneling energy J and the on-site interaction energy U. We comment on the possibility of realizing vortex-Landau-level physics.
Three-dimensional vortex structures in a rotating dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishor Kumar, Ramavarmaraja; Sriraman, Thangarasu; Fabrelli, Henrique; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Gammal, Arnaldo
2016-08-01
We study three-dimensional vortex lattice structures in purely dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). By using the mean-field approximation, we obtain a stability diagram for the vortex states in purely dipolar BECs as a function of harmonic trap aspect ratio (λ) and dipole-dipole interaction strength (D) under rotation. Rotating the condensate within the unstable region leads to collapse while in the stable region furnishes stable vortex lattices of dipolar BECs. We analyse stable vortex lattice structures by solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in imaginary time. Further, the stability of vortex states is examined by evolution in real-time. We also investigate the distribution of vortices in a fully anisotropic trap by increasing eccentricity of the external trapping potential. We observe the breaking up of the condensate in two parts with an equal number of vortices on each when the trap is sufficiently weak, and the rotation frequency is high.
Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.
Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego
2008-11-01
This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.
Generalized formulation of Brownian Vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyses, Henrique; Bauer, Ross; Grier, David
2013-03-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic noise driven machines that arise from the motion of particles subjected to static non conservative force fields. This motion is characterized by a toroidal circulation in the probability flux whose direction can be tuned by changing the temperature of the system. A discrete minimal model for Brownian Vortexes were described by previous work done by B.Sun, D.G.Grier and A.Y.Grosberg. Here we theoretically look for a continuous model in the form of a generalization of the equilibrium Boltzmann relation for the probability density in the case where the driven forces have a non conservative solenoidal component. This generalized relation features the temperature induced probability flux reversal. We further extend our theory to time dependent force fields and study the possibility of stochastic resonance in the characteristic frequency of circulation of the driven particle. This model is experimentally applied to investigate the motion of colloidal spheres in an optical trap whose intensity is oscillatory in time.
Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals
Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog
2013-01-01
Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices. PMID:23877284
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-01-01
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-08-22
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-08-01
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions.
High order spectral difference lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Weidong
2017-09-01
This work presents a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) based high order spectral difference method for incompressible flows. In the present method, the spectral difference (SD) method is adopted to discretize the convection and collision term of the LBE to obtain high order (≥3) accuracy. Because the SD scheme represents the solution as cell local polynomials and the solution polynomials have good tensor-product property, the present spectral difference lattice Boltzmann method (SD-LBM) can be implemented on arbitrary unstructured quadrilateral meshes for effective and efficient treatment of complex geometries. Thanks to only first oder PDEs involved in the LBE, no special techniques, such as hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method (HDG), local discontinuous Galerkin method (LDG) and so on, are needed to discrete diffusion term, and thus, it simplifies the algorithm and implementation of the high order spectral difference method for simulating viscous flows. The proposed SD-LBM is validated with four incompressible flow benchmarks in two-dimensions: (a) the Poiseuille flow driven by a constant body force; (b) the lid-driven cavity flow without singularity at the two top corners-Burggraf flow; and (c) the unsteady Taylor-Green vortex flow; (d) the Blasius boundary-layer flow past a flat plate. Computational results are compared with analytical solutions of these cases and convergence studies of these cases are also given. The designed accuracy of the proposed SD-LBM is clearly verified.
Majorana Kramers pair in a nematic vortex
Wu, Fengcheng; Martin, Ivar
2017-06-05
A time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductor is characterized by a Kramers pair of Majorana zero-energy modes on boundaries and in a core of a TR invariant vortex. A vortex defect that preserves TR symmetry has remained primarily of theoretical interest, since typically a magnetic field, which explicitly breaks TR, needs to be applied to create vortices in superconductors. In this paper, we show that an odd-parity topological superconductor with a nematic pairing order parameter can host a nematic vortex that preserves TR symmetry and binds a Majorana Kramers pair. Such a nematic superconductor could be realized in metal-doped Bi2Se3, asmore » suggested by recent experiments. We provide an analytic solution for the zero modes in a continuous nematic vortex. In lattice, crystalline anisotropy can pin the two-component order parameter along high-symmetry directions. We show that a discrete nematic vortex, which forms when three nematic domains meet, also supports a TR pair of Majorana modes. Lastly, we discuss possible experiments to probe the zero modes.« less
Majorana Kramers pair in a nematic vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Fengcheng; Martin, Ivar
2017-06-01
A time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductor is characterized by a Kramers pair of Majorana zero-energy modes on boundaries and in a core of a TR invariant vortex. A vortex defect that preserves TR symmetry has remained primarily of theoretical interest, since typically a magnetic field, which explicitly breaks TR, needs to be applied to create vortices in superconductors. In this paper, we show that an odd-parity topological superconductor with a nematic pairing order parameter can host a nematic vortex that preserves TR symmetry and binds a Majorana Kramers pair. Such a nematic superconductor could be realized in metal-doped Bi2Se3 , as suggested by recent experiments. We provide an analytic solution for the zero modes in a continuous nematic vortex. In lattice, crystalline anisotropy can pin the two-component order parameter along high-symmetry directions. We show that a discrete nematic vortex, which forms when three nematic domains meet, also supports a TR pair of Majorana modes. Finally, we discuss possible experiments to probe the zero modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, Edwin; Benito-Llorens, José; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann
2017-04-01
We image vortex creep at very low temperatures using scanning tunneling microscopy in the superconductor Rh9In4S4 (Tc=2.25 K ). We measure the superconducting gap of Rh9In4S4 , finding Δ ≈0.33 meV , and image a hexagonal vortex lattice up to close to Hc 2, observing slow vortex creep at temperatures as low as 150 mK. We estimate thermal and quantum barriers for vortex motion and show that thermal fluctuations likely cause vortex creep, in spite of being at temperatures T /Tc<0.1 . We study creeping vortex lattices by making images during long times and show that the vortex lattice remains hexagonal during creep with vortices moving along one of the high-symmetry axes of the vortex lattice. Furthermore, the creep velocity changes with the scanning window suggesting that creep depends on the local arrangements of pinning centers. Vortices fluctuate on small-scale erratic paths, indicating that the vortex lattice makes jumps trying different arrangements during its travel along the main direction for creep. The images provide a visual account of how vortex lattice motion maintains hexagonal order, while showing dynamic properties characteristic of a glass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan
2015-11-01
Sadovskii vortices are patches of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. They were first constructed as models for wakes behind bluff objects. We investigate the Sadovskii vortex in a straining field and examine limiting cases to validate our computational method. One limit is the patch vortex in strain (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971), where there is no vortex sheet. We solve this as a free-boundary problem, and show that a simple method using the Biot-Savart law quickly gives solutions for stable shapes. When used for the more elongated (stronger straining field) situations, the method also leads to new vortex shapes. In the hollow vortex case, where there is no vortex patch and the circulation is entirely due to the vortex sheet (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691 2012), we use the Birkhoff-Rott equation to calculate the velocity of the fluid on the vortex boundary. The combination of these two methods can then be used to calculate the shape and velocity field of the Sadovksii vortex in strain.
Matching of the Flux Lattice to Geometrically Frustrated Pinning Arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trastoy, J.; Bernard, R.; Briatico, J.; Villegas, J. E.; Lesueur, J.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.
2013-03-01
We use vortex dynamics on artificial nanoscale energy landscapes as a model to experimentally investigate a problem inspired by ``spin ice'' systems. In particular, we study the matching of the flux lattice to pinning arrays in which the geometrical frustration is expected to impede a unique stable vortex configuration and to promote metastability. This is done with YBCO films in which the nanoscale vortex energy landscape is fabricated via masked ion irradiation. Surprisingly, we found that minimal changes in the distance between pinning sites lead to the suppression of some of the magneto-resistance matching effects, that is, for certain well-defined vortex densities. This effect strongly depends on the temperature. We argue that this behavior can be explained considering the arrays' geometrical frustration and the thermally activated reconfiguration of the vortex lattice between isoenergetic states. Work supported by the French ANR via SUPERHYRBIDS-II and ``MASTHER,'' and the Galician Fundacion Barrie
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids.
Di Giorgio, C; Bobba, F; Cucolo, A M; Scarfato, A; Moore, S A; Karapetrov, G; D'Agostino, D; Novosad, V; Yefremenko, V; Iavarone, M
2016-12-09
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field Hc2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids
Di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; Scarfato, A.; Moore, S. A.; Karapetrov, G.; D’Agostino, D.; Novosad, V.; Yefremenko, V.; Iavarone, M.
2016-01-01
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field Hc2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed. PMID:27934898
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids
Di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; Scarfato, A.; Moore, S. A.; Karapetrov, G.; D’Agostino, D.; Novosad, V.; Yefremenko, V.; Iavarone, M.
2016-12-09
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field H_{c2}. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Here, our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids
Di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; ...
2016-12-09
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopymore » is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field Hc2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Here, our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.« less
Observation of superconducting vortex clusters in S/F hybrids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Giorgio, C.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M.; Scarfato, A.; Moore, S. A.; Karapetrov, G.; D’Agostino, D.; Novosad, V.; Yefremenko, V.; Iavarone, M.
2016-12-01
While Abrikosov vortices repel each other and form a uniform vortex lattice in bulk type-II superconductors, strong confinement potential profoundly affects their spatial distribution eventually leading to vortex cluster formation. The confinement could be induced by the geometric boundaries in mesoscopic-size superconductors or by the spatial modulation of the magnetic field in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids. Here we study the vortex confinement in S/F thin film heterostructures and we observe that vortex clusters appear near magnetization inhomogeneities in the ferromagnet, called bifurcations. We use magnetic force microscopy to image magnetic bifurcations and superconducting vortices, while high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is used to obtain detailed information of the local electronic density of states outside and inside the vortex cluster. We find an intervortex spacing at the bifurcation shorter than the one predicted for the same superconductor in a uniform magnetic field equal to the thermodynamical upper critical field Hc2. This result is due to a local enhanced stray field and a competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and Lorentz force. Our findings suggest that special magnetic topologies could result in S/F hybrids that support superconductivity even when locally the vortex density exceeds the thermodynamic critical threshold value beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed.
Vortex structures of rotating spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Zhou Xiangfa; Zhou Jing; Wu Congjun
2011-12-15
We consider the quasi-two-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling in a rotating trap. The rotation angular velocity couples to the mechanical angular momentum, which contains a noncanonical part arising from SO coupling. The effects of an external Zeeman term favoring spin polarization along the radial direction is also considered, which has the same form as the noncanonical part of the mechanical angular momentum. The rotating condensate exhibits a variety of rich structures by varying the strengths of the trapping potential and interaction. With a strong trapping potential, the condensate exhibits a half-quantum vortex-lattice configuration. Such a configuration is driven to the normal one by introducing the external radial Zeeman field. In the case of a weak trap potential, the condensate exhibits a multidomain pattern of plane-wave states under the external radial Zeeman field.
Hydrodynamic Vortex on Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragazzo, Clodoaldo Grotta; de Barros Viglioni, Humberto Henrique
2017-04-01
The equations of motion for a system of point vortices on an oriented Riemannian surface of finite topological type are presented. The equations are obtained from a Green's function on the surface. The uniqueness of the Green's function is established under hydrodynamic conditions at the surface's boundaries and ends. The hydrodynamic force on a point vortex is computed using a new weak formulation of Euler's equation adapted to the point vortex context. An analogy between the hydrodynamic force on a massive point vortex and the electromagnetic force on a massive electric charge is presented as well as the equations of motion for massive vortices. Any noncompact Riemann surface admits a unique Riemannian metric such that a single vortex in the surface does not move ("Steady Vortex Metric"). Some examples of surfaces with steady vortex metric isometrically embedded in R^3 are presented.
Propeller tip vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.
1990-01-01
Propeller wakes interacting with aircraft aerodynamic surfaces are a source of noise and vibration. For this reason, flow visualization work on the motion of the helical tip vortex over a wing and through the second stage of a counterrotation propeller (CRP) has been pursued. Initially, work was done on the motion of a propeller helix as it passes over the center of a 9.0 aspect ratio wing. The propeller tip vortex experiences significant spanwise displacements when passing across a lifting wing. A stationary propeller blade or stator was installed behind the rotating propeller to model the blade vortex interaction in a CRP. The resulting vortex interaction was found to depend on the relative vortex strengths and vortex sign.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Jeong Il
A thermodynamic determination of the upper critical field Hc2 in the quasi-one dimensional molecular organic superconductor (TMTSF) 2ClO4 has been obtained for magnetic field accurately aligned along the in-plane, inter-chain direction by utilizing silicon cantilever magnetometer technology. This magnetically-measured upper critical field, simultaneously confirmed by electrical transport measurements, was found to well-exceed all paramagnetic limits known to date for spin singlet superconductors, strongly indicating that (TMTSF)2ClO4 is a spin triplet superconductor. Also, we were able to investigate novel structure in the upper critical field, where we observed that Hc2(T) has three different temperature regimes, characterized by an usual upturn at a temperature T* ˜ 0.2 K and a very unusual kink at a temperature T0 ˜ 1.04 K. In addition, the magnetic field-temperature superconducting vortex phase diagram of (TMTSF)2ClO4 has been obtained. The phase diagram showed a variety of vortex phases, including solid (Bragg lattice and disordered glass) and liquid (liquid-1 and liquid-2) subphases. A distinct irreversibility line was found, likely separating the solid from the liquid phase. Within the solid phase, we observed an unusual inverse transition driven by the pinning force, splitting the solid phase into a disordered glass and a Bragg lattice. Also, within the Bragg lattice, we observed a temperature-independent magnetic crossover line at low field (˜0.05 T), interpreted as possibly indicating the existence of multiple Tc's in (TMTSF)2X, further evidence for claiming this system to be a triplet superconductor.
Simulations of Active Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We are interested in the study, via numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the streamwise direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise voracity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations c Implement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators that have been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center and Stanford University. Jacobson and Reynolds used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. More recently, Lachowiez and Wlezien are investigating the flow generated by an electro-mechanically driven lid to be used for assertion control in aerodynamic applications. We are simulating the flows generated by these devices and we are conducting a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin. The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands ol'particle's allow for high resolution simulations
Simulations of Active Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We are interested in the study, via numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the streamwise direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise voracity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations c Implement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators that have been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center and Stanford University. Jacobson and Reynolds used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. More recently, Lachowiez and Wlezien are investigating the flow generated by an electro-mechanically driven lid to be used for assertion control in aerodynamic applications. We are simulating the flows generated by these devices and we are conducting a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin. The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands ol'particle's allow for high resolution simulations
Vortex cutting in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.
2015-03-01
Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.
Vortex generation in oscillatory canopy flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghisalberti, Marco; Schlosser, Tamara
2013-03-01
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the generation of coherent vortices at the top of a canopy in oscillatory (i.e., wave-dominated) flow. Through a series of flow visualization experiments, vortex formation is shown to occur when two conditions described by the Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) and Reynolds (Re) numbers are met. First, the wave period must be sufficiently long to allow the generation of the shear-driven instability at the top of the canopy; this occurs when KC ≳ 5. Second, the vortex instability must be able to overcome the stabilizing effects of viscosity; this occurs when Re ≳ 1000. The vortices greatly increase the rate of vertical mixing within the canopy, such that any prediction of residence time in a coastal canopy requires an understanding of whether vortex generation is occurring.
Vortex dynamics and Hall conductivity of hard-core bosons
Lindner, Netanel; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P.
2010-10-01
Magnetotransport of hard-core bosons is studied using an XXZ quantum spin model representation, appropriately gauged on the torus to allow for an external magnetic field. We find strong lattice effects near half filling. An effective quantum mechanical description of the vortex degrees of freedom is derived. Using semiclassical and numerical analysis we compute the vortex-hopping energy t{sub V}, which at half filling is close to magnitude of the boson hopping energy. The critical quantum melting density of the vortex lattice is estimated at 6.5x10{sup -3} vortices per unit cell. The Hall conductance is computed from the Chern numbers of the low-energy eigenstates. At zero temperature, it reverses sign abruptly at half filling. At precisely half filling, all eigenstates are doubly degenerate for any odd number of flux quanta. We prove the exact degeneracies on the torus by constructing an SU(2) algebra of point-group symmetries, associated with the center of vorticity. This result is interpreted as if each vortex carries an internal spin-half degree of freedom, which can manifest itself as a charge density modulation in its core. Our findings suggest interesting experimental implications for vortex motion of cold atoms in optical lattices and magnet transport of short coherence length superconductors.
Vortex distribution in the lowest Landau level
Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Nier, Francis
2006-01-15
We study the vortex distribution of the wave functions minimizing the Gross-Pitaevskii energy for a fast rotating condensate in the lowest Landau level (LLL): we prove that the minimizer cannot have a finite number of zeroes, thus the lattice is infinite, but not uniform. This uses the explicit expression of the projector onto the LLL. We also show that any slow varying envelope function can be approximated in the LLL by distorting the lattice. This is used in particular to approximate the inverted parabola and understand the role of 'invisible' vortices: the distortion of the lattice is very small in the Thomas-Fermi region but quite large outside, where the 'invisible' vortices lie.
Deflection of a Reflected Intense Vortex Laser Beam.
Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Huang, Shan; Shi, Yin; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan
2016-09-09
An interesting deflection effect deviating the optical reflection law is revealed in the relativistic regime of intense vortex laser plasma interaction. When an intense vortex laser obliquely impinges onto an overdense plasma target, the reflected beam deflects out of the plane of incidence with an experimentally observable deflection angle. The mechanism is demonstrated by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical modeling using the Maxwell stress tensor. The deflection results from the rotational symmetry breaking of the foil driven by the unsymmetrical shear stress of the vortex beam. The l-dependent shear stress, where l is the topological charge, as an intrinsic characteristic to the vortex beam, plays an important role as the ponderomotive force in relativistic vortex laser matter interaction.
Deflection of a Reflected Intense Vortex Laser Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Huang, Shan; Shi, Yin; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan
2016-09-01
An interesting deflection effect deviating the optical reflection law is revealed in the relativistic regime of intense vortex laser plasma interaction. When an intense vortex laser obliquely impinges onto an overdense plasma target, the reflected beam deflects out of the plane of incidence with an experimentally observable deflection angle. The mechanism is demonstrated by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical modeling using the Maxwell stress tensor. The deflection results from the rotational symmetry breaking of the foil driven by the unsymmetrical shear stress of the vortex beam. The l -dependent shear stress, where l is the topological charge, as an intrinsic characteristic to the vortex beam, plays an important role as the ponderomotive force in relativistic vortex laser matter interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Avraham; Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.
2017-02-01
We study the impact of the nonanalytic reconstruction of vortex cores on static vortex structures in weakly coupled superfluids. We show that, in rotating two-dimensional systems, the Abrikosov vortex lattice is unstable to vortex core deformation: Each zero of the wave function becomes a cut of finite length. The directors characterizing the orientations of the cuts are themselves ordered in superstructures due either to surface effects or to interaction with shear deformations of the lattice (spiral structure). Similar instability may also be observable in clean superconducting films.
Disordered vortex phases in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}
Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Olsson, R. J.; Karapetrov, G.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A.; Tobos, V.; Moulton, W. G.
2000-05-22
The disordered vortex phases induced by line and point pinning in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are explored. At high defect densities there is a single disordered solid separated from the liquid phase by a melting line. At low defect densities the topology of the phase diagram changes dramatically, with a vortex lattice phase adjoining disordered phases at high or low field. Critical points at the termination of first order melting separate the lattice and disordered phases. The line defect disordered phases follow the expected Bose glass behavior, while the point defect disordered phases do not exhibit the expected vortex glass behavior.
Normal Shock Vortex Interaction
2003-03-01
Figure 9: Breakdown map for normal-shock vortex-interaction. References [1] O. Thomer, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Numerical Simulation of Normal...and Oblique-Shock Vortex Interaction, ZAMM Band 80, Sub. 1, pp. 181-184, 2000. [2] O. Thomer, E. Krause, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Computational
Improved vortex reactor system
Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.
1995-01-01
An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Hsiao-Lung
Discrete vortex methods are used to provide computationally efficient simulations of vortex dynamics in fluid flows. An adaptive LQG controller is applied to reduce the oscillations in the wake caused by the vortex dynamics. The controller design is based on a discrete-time input/output model rather than the nonlinear differential equations of the discrete vortex model. The control philosophy is to identify time-varying parameters in the input/output model adaptively and use the identified parameters to update the control law. For numerically stable identification, an adaptive algorithm based on inverse QR decomposition is introduced. The derivation shows that this algorithm is a square-root implementation of recursive least squares estimation. For a preliminary test of the control strategy, the adaptive LQG controller is applied to a vortex street model simulated by discrete vortices. The identification shows that the stability of the identified zeros depends on whether the sensor is upstream or downstream of the actuator. Flow past a flat plate is another important application of the discrete vortex method. A control problem is studied and simulated in which suction at the back face of the plate is used to trap vortices behind the plate. Qualitatively, the results obtained with the discrete-vortex method used here agree with earlier results for a substantially different vortex method involving a small number of differential equations.
Houck, Edward D.
1994-01-01
A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.
Electrostatically Enhanced Vortex Separator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Earl R.
1993-01-01
Proposed device removes fine particles from high-pressure exhaust gas of chemical reactor. Negatively charged sectors on rotating disks in vortex generator attracts positively charged particles from main stream of exhaust gas. Electrostatic charge enhances particle-separating action of vortex. Gas without particles released to atmosphere.
Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.
Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
1985-01-01
A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.
Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays
Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan
2015-07-14
Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.
Vortex cutting in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.
2016-08-01
Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.
Aerodynamics of vortex generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breidenthal, Robert E., Jr.; Russell, David A.
1988-01-01
An experimental and theoretical study was undertaken of the separation delay and dramatic boundary-layer thinning that can occur in vortex-generator installations. Wind tunnel measurements of the dynamic-pressure profile downstream of a vortex generator were found to compare under certain conditions with that downstream of a suction slit, while water-tunnel visualization studies of vortex-generator height and geometry suggested optimum configurations, and only a minor effect of base porosity. A series of progressively more complex inviscid flow models was developed to be applied to a 3-D integral boundary-layer code. This code predicted layer thinning downstream of the suction site of the vortex models, and other observed features. Thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are now being used with the ultimate goal of clarifying the physical processes involved in vortex generator performance and developing calculational procedures capable of predicting it.
Vortex cutting in superconductors
Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.
2016-08-09
Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, in this paper, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Finally, our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.
Vortex cutting in superconductors
Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; ...
2016-08-09
Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, in this paper, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details ofmore » the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Finally, our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.« less
Skyrmion Flux Lattices and their μSR signature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich
2008-03-01
Recently, topological excitations known as skyrmions were predicted to exist in p-wave superconductors [1]. The elastic theory of an induced skyrmion lattice was developed in [2], and its melting curve was found to be qualitatively different from that for vortex lattices. Here we show that the muon spin resonance (μSR) signatures of the two types of lattices are also very different. μSR has been applied extensively to study the magnetic properties of vortex flux lattices [3]. The observable in this technique is the μSR line shape n(B), which is the probability density that a muon experiences a local magnetic induction B. In a vortex lattice, for small B, n(B) (1/B)/B. By contrast, for a skyrmion lattice we predict n(B) B^ (-3/2). This difference provides another way to easily distinguish between vortex and skyrmion flux lattices, and can thus help to identify p-wave superconductors. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, Phys.Rev. Lett. 98, 187002 (2007). [3] J. E. Sonier, J.H. Brewer, and R. F. Kiefl, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 769 (2000).
Composite vortex beams by coaxial superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Sujuan; Miao, Zhuang; He, Chao; Pang, Fufei; Li, Yingchun; Wang, Tingyun
2016-03-01
We propose the generation of novel composite vortex beams by coaxial superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with common waist position and waist parameter. Computer-generated holography by conjugate-symmetric extension is applied to produce the holograms of several composite vortex beams. Utilizing the holograms, fantastic light modes including optical ring lattice, double dark-ring and double bright-ring composite vortex beams etc. are numerically reconstructed. The generated composite vortex beams show diffraction broadening with some of them showing dynamic rotation around beam centers while propagating. Optical experiments based on a computer-controlled spatial light modulator (SLM) verify the numerical results. These novel composite vortex beams possess more complicated distribution and more controllable parameters for their potential application in comparison to conventional optical ring lattice.
The vortex-finding property of maximal center (and other) gauges
Faber, M.; Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.; Yamada, D.
1999-10-01
The authors argue that the vortex-finding property of maximal center gauge, i.e. the ability of this gauge to locate center vortices inserted by hand on any given lattice, is the key to its success in extracting the vortex content of thermalized lattice configurations. The authors explain how this property comes about, and why it is expected not only in maximal center gauge, but also in an infinite class of gauge conditions based on adjoint-representation link variables. In principle, the vortex-finding property can be foiled by Gribov copies. This fact is relevant to a gauge-fixing procedure devised by Kovacs and Tomboulis, where they show that the loss of center dominance, found in their procedure, is explained by a corresponding loss of the vortex-finding property. The dependence of center dominance on the vortex-finding property is demonstrated numerically in a number of other gauges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.
2000-01-01
A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.
Bornyakov, V.G.
2005-06-01
Possibilities that are provided by a lattice regularization of QCD for studying nonperturbative properties of QCD are discussed. A review of some recent results obtained from computer calculations in lattice QCD is given. In particular, the results for the QCD vacuum structure, the hadron mass spectrum, and the strong coupling constant are considered.
Vortex formation during rf heating of plasma
Motley, R.W.
1980-05-01
Experiments on a test plasma show that the linear theory of waveguide coupling to slow plasma waves begins to break down if the rf power flux exceeds approx. 30 W/cm/sup 2/. Probe measurements reveal that within 30 ..mu..s an undulation appears in the surface plasma near the mouth of the twin waveguide. This surface readjustment is part of a vortex, or off-center convective cell, driven by asymmetric rf heating of the plasma column.
Simulations of Active Vortex Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, N. N.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We are interested in the study, via numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. we consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the streamwise direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise vorticity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations complement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators that have been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center and Stanford University used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds We are simulating the flows generated by these devices and we are conducting a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin (1994). The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength Of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands of particles allow for high resolution simulations. We shall present simulation results of an oscillating plate at various Reynolds numbers and Strouhal frequencies.
Driving an individual vortex in the presence of a periodic pinning array
Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia
2009-01-01
Recently it has been demonstrated experimentally that it is possible to manipulate an individual vortex in a type-II superconductor using a magnetic force microscope tip. Using numerical simulations, we investigate the dynamics of a single driven individual vortex in the presence of a periodic pinning array and other vortices. Remarkably, we find that the effective drag on the driven vortex is reduced at the matching fields, which is opposite from the behavior of the critical current when all the vortices are driven. We discuss this effect in the context of the type of dynamics that occur at matching and nonmatching fields.
Influence of Initial Vorticity Distribution on Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Larry A.
2007-01-01
An analytical treatment has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. In particular, the presence of negative vorticity in the inner core of a vortex filament (one example of which is examined in this paper) subsequent to "cutting" by a solid body has a profound influence on the vortex reconnection, leading to analog flow behavior similar to vortex breakdown phenomena described in the literature. Initial vorticity distributions (three specific examples which are examined) without an inner core of negative vorticity do not exhibit vortex breakdown and instead manifest diffusion-like properties while undergoing vortex reconnection. Though this work focuses on laminar vortical flow, this work is anticipated to provide valuable insight into rotary-wing aerodynamics as well as other types of vortical flow phenomena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Y.; Leonard, A.; Spalart, P. R.
1985-01-01
A vortex breakdown was simulated by the vortex filament method, and detailed figures are presented based on the results. Deformations of the vortex filaments showed clear and large swelling at a particular axial station which implied the presence of a recirculation bubble at that station. The tendency for two breakdowns to occur experimentally was confirmed by the simulation, and the jet flow inside the bubble was well simulated. The particle paths spiralled with expansion, and the streamlines took spiral forms at the breakdown with expansion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barry, Anna M.
It is common in geophysical flows to observe localized regions of enhanced vorticity. This observation can be used to derive model equations to describe the motion and interaction of these localized regions, or vortices, and which are simpler than the original PDEs. The best known vortex model is derived from the incompressible Euler equations, and treats vortices as points in the plane. A large part of this dissertation utilizes this particular model, but we also survey other point vortex and weakly viscous models. The main focus of this thesis is an object known as the vortex crystal. These remarkable configurations of vortices maintain their basic shapes for long times, while perhaps rotating or translating rigidly in space. We study existence and stability of families of vortex crystals in the special case where N vortices have small and equal circulation and one vortex has large circulation. As the small circulation tends to zero, the weak vortices tend to a circle centered on the strong vortex. A special potential function of this limiting problem can be used to characterize orbits and stability. Whenever a critical point of this function is nondegenerate, we prove that the orbit can be continued via the Implicit Function Theorem, and its linear stability is determined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix of the potential. For general N, we find at least three distinct families of critical points, one of which continues to a linearly stable class of vortex crystals. Because the stable family is most likely to be observed in nature, we study it extensively. Continuation methods allow us to follow these critical points to nonzero weak vortex strength and investigate stability and bifurcations. In the large N limit of this family, we prove that there is a unique one parameter family of distributions which minimize a "generalized" potential. Finally, we use point vortex and weakly viscous vortex models to analyze vortex crystal configurations observed in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
A 10% scale B-737-100 model was tested in the vicinity of a vortex wake generated by a wing mounted on a support in the forward section of the NASA-Langley 30 x 60 ft. Wind Tunnel. The wing span, angle of attack, and generating wing location were varied to provide vortex strengths consistent with a large variety of combinations of leader-follower aircraft pairs during vortex encounters. The test, conducted as part of the AST Terminal Area Productivity Program, will provide data for validation of aerodynamic models which will be used for developing safe separate standards to apply to aircraft in terminal areas while increasing airport capacity.
Vortex Lift Augmentation by Suction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.
1983-01-01
Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.
Vortex Lift Augmentation by Suction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.
1983-01-01
Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.
Universal statistics of vortex lines.
Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T
2012-03-01
We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term.
Defect pair in the elastic lattice of pancake vortices
Slutzky, M.; Mints, R.G.; Brandt, E.H.
1997-07-01
An additional pancake-antipancake vortex pair is considered in the vortex lattice of layered superconductors. Within linear elastic continuum theory, the relaxation of the background lattice screens the long-range logarithmic interaction of the defect pair, reducing the factor ln(r{sub 0}/{xi}) to ln(a/{xi}) where r{sub 0} is the pair spacing, {xi} the in-plane coherence length, and a the vortex spacing. The finite tilt modulus does not destroy this ideal two-dimensional screening, yielding a small correction {approximately}(a{sup 2}/8{pi}{lambda}{sup 2})ln(r{sub 0}/a), which in principle is of long range, but has a very small prefactor when the vortex spacing a is smaller than the in-plane penetration depth {lambda}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
A time-reversal lattice Boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vergnault, E.; Malaspinas, O.; Sagaut, P.
2011-09-01
In this paper we address the time-reversed simulation of viscous flows by the lattice Boltzmann method (LB). The theoretical derivation of the reversed LB from the Boltzmann equation is detailed, and the method implemented for weakly compressible flows using the D2Q9 scheme. The implementation of boundary conditions is also discussed. The accuracy and stability are illustrated by four test cases, namely the propagation of an acoustic wave in a medium at rest and in an uniform mean flow, the Taylor-Green vortex decay and the vortex pair-wall collision.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, K.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.
2016-12-01
Fluid-driven fractures are critically important in a number of geoengineering application, such as to increase the permeability of an oil/gas reservoir and stimulate the productivity. On the contrary, near the underground storage sites for radioactive wastes or carbon dioxide, the propagation of fractures induced by pressurized gas should be avoided to detain the pollutants. Numerous numerical models have been developed to reproduce the physical phenomena of the fluid-driven fractures and have better understanding of the fracturing mechanism. However, it is still challenging to explicitly model the fluid-driven fracture propagation because it involves tightly coupled hydro-mechanical behavior with a singularity at the crack tip and complex interactions with pre-existing discontinuities in heterogeneous rock masses. This study investigates hydraulic fracture propagation and formation of discrete fracture networks using a coupled hydro-mechanical simulation code, TOUGH-RBSN. The modeling tool combines a multiphase fluid flow and heat transport simulator, TOUGH2, with a geomechanical and fracture-damage model, called the rigid-body-spring network (RBSN). Fractures are modeled as discrete features, and hydrological properties (e.g., permeability, porosity) of fracture elements are evaluated by fracture opening and aperture changes calculated at time steps of the simulations. Modeling capabilities for hydraulic fracturing processes are presented through simulations of a virtual fractured reservoir consisting of multiple pre-existing natural fractures. Case studies are conducted by changing the reservoir configurations, such as confining stress condition (e.g., degree of stress anisotropy), the matrix permeability, and the viscosity of injected fluid. In the preliminary results, the stress field and the fluid pressure distribution are provided to demonstrate modeling of complex hydro-mechanical interactions between propagating fractures and pre-existing fractures. The
Glory, Vortex Street off Baja California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
On June 19, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured both a vortex street and a glory visible amid the lattice of clouds over the Pacific Ocean off Baja California. In this image, the swirling clouds known as vortex streets appear along the left edge of the image, stretching southward from Isla Guadalupe. Another NASA satellite captured an earlier example of vortex streets in June 2000. These atmospheric vortices, known as Von Karman vortex streets, often occur in the wake of an obstacle to air flow, such as an island. Stratocumulus clouds--low-lying, sheets of puffy clouds-- over the ocean show the impact of the island on air flow visible though their alternating pattern of clockwise and counter-clockwise swirls. Southeast of the vortex street, a glory, which resembles a rainbow, hovers above the cloud cover. The glory is faint but large, 200 to 300 kilometers long, along a north-south orientation. This phenomenon can occur when the satellite passes directly between the Sun and a bank of clouds below. (People also observe them while looking down on clouds from airplanes.) Not just any kind of cloud can produce a glory; only clouds composed entirely of water droplets (as opposed to ice crystals) can make them. The droplets that form glories generally have diameters of less than 50 micrometers (a micrometers is a millionth of a meter). The water droplets bend the light, showing its different wavelengths, or colors. In this glory, reds and oranges are most visible. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.
Glory, Vortex Street off Baja California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
On June 19, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured both a vortex street and a glory visible amid the lattice of clouds over the Pacific Ocean off Baja California. In this image, the swirling clouds known as vortex streets appear along the left edge of the image, stretching southward from Isla Guadalupe. Another NASA satellite captured an earlier example of vortex streets in June 2000. These atmospheric vortices, known as Von Karman vortex streets, often occur in the wake of an obstacle to air flow, such as an island. Stratocumulus clouds--low-lying, sheets of puffy clouds-- over the ocean show the impact of the island on air flow visible though their alternating pattern of clockwise and counter-clockwise swirls. Southeast of the vortex street, a glory, which resembles a rainbow, hovers above the cloud cover. The glory is faint but large, 200 to 300 kilometers long, along a north-south orientation. This phenomenon can occur when the satellite passes directly between the Sun and a bank of clouds below. (People also observe them while looking down on clouds from airplanes.) Not just any kind of cloud can produce a glory; only clouds composed entirely of water droplets (as opposed to ice crystals) can make them. The droplets that form glories generally have diameters of less than 50 micrometers (a micrometers is a millionth of a meter). The water droplets bend the light, showing its different wavelengths, or colors. In this glory, reds and oranges are most visible. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.
Arndt, R.; Pennings, P.; Bosschers, J.; van Terwisga, T.
2015-01-01
Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures. PMID:26442147
2013-01-28
NASA Cassini spacecraft simultaneously peers through the haze in Titan equatorial region down to its surface and captures the vortex of clouds hovering over its south pole just to the right of the terminator on the moon dark side.
Arndt, R; Pennings, P; Bosschers, J; van Terwisga, T
2015-10-06
Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stough, H. P., III; Greene, George C.; Stewart, Eric C.; Stuever, Robert A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Rivers, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.
1993-01-01
NASA is conducting research that will enable safe improvements in the capacity of the nation's air transportation system. The wake-vortex hazard is a factor in establishing the minimum safe spacing between aircraft during landing and takeoff operations and, thus, impacts airport capacity. The ability to accurately model the wake hazard and determine safe separation distances for a wide range of aircraft and operational scenarios may provide the basis for significant increases in airport capacity. Current and planned NASA research is described which is focused on increasing airport capacity by safely reducing wake-hazard-imposed aircraft separations through advances in a number of technologies including vortex motion and decay prediction, vortex encounter modeling, wake-vortex hazard characterization, and in situ flow sensing.
Modeling gasodynamic vortex cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allahverdyan, A. E.; Fauve, S.
2017-08-01
We aim at studying gasodynamic vortex cooling in an analytically solvable, thermodynamically consistent model that can explain limitations on the cooling efficiency. To this end, we study an angular plus radial flow between two (coaxial) rotating permeable cylinders. Full account is taken of compressibility, viscosity, and heat conductivity. For a weak inward radial flow the model qualitatively describes the vortex cooling effect, in terms of both temperature and the decrease of the stagnation enthalpy, seen in short uniflow vortex (Ranque) tubes. The cooling does not result from external work and its efficiency is defined as the ratio of the lowest temperature reached adiabatically (for the given pressure gradient) to the lowest temperature actually reached. We show that for the vortex cooling the efficiency is strictly smaller than 1, but in another configuration with an outward radial flow, we find that the efficiency can be larger than 1. This is related to both the geometry and the finite heat conductivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, A. M., Jr.
1986-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.
Improved vortex reactor system
Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.
1995-05-09
An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, James C., Jr. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
A means for extracting rotational energy from the vortex created at aircraft wing tips which consists of a turbine with blades located in the crossflow of the vortex and attached downstream of the wingtip. The turbine has blades attached to a core. When the aircraft is in motion, rotation of a core transmits energy to a centrally attached shaft. The rotational energy thus generated may be put to use within the airfoil or aircraft fuselage.
Buoyant Norbury's vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blyth, Mark; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Salman, Hayder
2014-11-01
Norbury's vortices are a one-parameter family of axisymmetric vortex rings that are exact solutions to the Euler equations. Due to their relative simplicity, they are extensively used to model the behavior of real vortex rings found in experiments and in Nature. In this work, we extend the original formulation of the problem to include buoyancy effects for the case where the fluid that lies within the vortex has a different density to that of the ambient. In this modified formulation, buoyancy effects enter the problem through the baroclinic term of the vorticity equation. This permits an efficient numerical solution of the governing equation of motion in terms of a vortex contour method that tracks the evolution of the boundary of the vortex. Finally, we compare our numerical results with the theoretical analysis of the short-time evolution of a buoyant vortex. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant DPI2011-28356-C03-02 and by the London Mathematical Society.
Atmospheric-wake vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilanin, A. J.; Hirsh, J. E.; Teske, M. E.; Hecht, A. M.
1978-01-01
The interactions of a vortex wake with a turbulent stratified atmosphere are investigated with the computer code WAKE. It is shown that atmospheric shear, turbulence, and stratification can provide the dominant mechanisms by which vortex wakes decay. Computations included the interaction of a vortex wake with a viscous ground plane. The observed phenomenon of vortex bounce is explained in terms of secondary vorticity produced on the ground. This vorticity is swept off the ground and advected about the vortex pair, thereby altering the classic hyperbolic trajectory. The phenomenon of the solitary vortex is explained as an interaction of a vortex with crosswind shear. Here, the vortex having the sign opposite that of the sign of the vorticity in the shear is dispersed by a convective instability. This instability results in the rapid production of turbulence which in turn disperses the smoke marking the vortex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javanparast, Behnam; Hao, Zhihao; Enjalran, Matthew; Gingras, Michel J. P.
2015-04-01
We study the problem of partially ordered phases with periodically arranged disordered (paramagnetic) sites on the pyrochlore lattice, a network of corner-sharing tetrahedra. The periodicity of these phases is characterized by one or more wave vectors k ={1/2 1/2 1/2 } . Starting from a general microscopic Hamiltonian including anisotropic nearest-neighbor exchange, long-range dipolar interactions, and second- and third-nearest neighbor exchange, we use standard mean-field theory (SMFT) to identify an extended range of interaction parameters that support partially ordered phases. We demonstrate that thermal fluctuations ignored in SMFT are responsible for the selection of one particular partially ordered phase, e.g., the "4 -k " phase over the "1 -k " phase. We suggest that the transition into the 4 -k phase is continuous with its critical properties controlled by the cubic fixed point of a Ginzburg-Landau theory with a four-component vector order parameter. By combining an extension of the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer method originally used to study fluctuations in spin glasses with parallel-tempering Monte Carlo simulations, we establish the phase diagram for different types of partially ordered phases. Our results elucidate the long-standing puzzle concerning the origin of the 4 -k partially ordered phase observed in the Gd2Ti2O7 dipolar pyrochlore antiferromagnet below its paramagnetic phase transition temperature.
On variational features of vortex flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berdichevsky, V. L.
2008-09-01
Ideal incompressible fluid is a Hamiltonian system which possesses an infinite number of integrals, the circulations of velocity over closed fluid contours. This allows one to split all the degrees of freedom into the driving ones and the “slave” ones, the latter to be determined by the integrals of motions. The “slave” degrees of freedom correspond to “potential part” of motion, which is driven by vorticity. Elimination of the “slave” degrees of freedom from equations of ideal incompressible fluid yields a closed system of equations for dynamics of vortex lines. This system is also Hamiltonian. The variational principle for this system was found recently (Berdichevsky in Thermodynamics of chaos and order, Addison-Wesly-Longman, Reading, 1997; Kuznetsov and Ruban in JETP Lett 67, 1076 1081, 1998). It looks striking, however. In particular, the fluid motion is set to be compressible, while in the least action principle of fluid mechanics the incompressibility of motion is a built-in property. This striking feature is explained in the paper, and a link between the variational principle of vortex line dynamics and the least action principle is established. Other points made in this paper are concerned with steady motions. Two new variational principles are proposed for steady vortex flows. Their relation to Arnold’s variational principle of steady vortex motion is discussed.
Force Evaluation in the Lattice Boltzmann Method Involving Curved Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Renwei; Yu, Dazhi; Shyy, Wei; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The present work investigates two approaches for force evaluation in the lattice Boltzmann equation: the momentum- exchange method and the stress-integration method on the surface of a body. The boundary condition for the particle distribution functions on curved geometries is handled with second order accuracy based on our recent works. The stress-integration method is computationally laborious for two-dimensional flows and in general difficult to implement for three-dimensional flows, while the momentum-exchange method is reliable, accurate, and easy to implement for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows. Several test cases are selected to evaluate the present methods, including: (i) two-dimensional pressure-driven channel flow; (ii) two-dimensional uniform flow past a column of cylinders; (iii) two-dimensional flow past a cylinder asymmetrically placed in a channel (with vortex shedding); (iv) three-dimensional pressure-driven flow in a circular pipe; and (v) three-dimensional flow past a sphere. The drag evaluated by using the momentum-exchange method agrees well with the exact or other published results.
Magnetic Vortex Induced by Nonmagnetic Impurity in Frustrated Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shi-Zeng; Hayami, Satoru; Batista, Cristian D.
2016-05-01
We study the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity inserted in a two-dimensional frustrated ferromagnet above its saturation magnetic field Hsat for arbitrary spin S . We demonstrate that the ground state includes a magnetic vortex that is nucleated around the impurity over a finite range of magnetic field Hsat≤H ≤HsatI. Upon approaching the quantum critical point at H =Hsat, the radius of the magnetic vortex diverges as the magnetic correlation length: ξ ∝1 /√{H -Hsat }. These results are derived both for the lattice and in the continuum limit.
Vortex Solutions of the Defocusing Discrete Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation
Cuevas, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Law, K. J. H.
2009-09-09
We consider the existence, stability and dynamical evolution of dark vortex states in the two-dimensional defocusing DNLS equation, a model of interest both to atomic physics and to nonlinear optics. Our considerations are chiefly based on initializing such vortex configurations at the anti-continuum limit of zero coupling between adjacent sites, and continuing them to finite values of the coupling. Discrete defocusing vortices become unstable past a critical coupling strength and, subsequently feature a cascade of alternating stabilization-destabilization windows for any finite lattice.
Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey
2006-05-01
We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.
Fast vortex wall motion in wide permalloy strips from double switching of the vortex core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estévez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse
2017-08-01
We study vortex domain wall dynamics in wide permalloy strips driven by applied magnetic fields and spin-polarized electric currents. As recently reported [V. Estévez and L. Laurson, Phys. Rev. B 93, 064403 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.064403], for sufficiently wide strips and above a threshold field, periodic dynamics of the vortex core are localized in the vicinity of one of the strip edges, and the velocity drop typically observed for narrow strips is replaced by a high-velocity plateau. Here, we analyze this behavior in more detail by means of micromagnetic simulations. We show that the high-velocity plateau originates from a repeated double switching of the magnetic vortex core, underlying the periodic vortex core dynamics in the vicinity of the strip edge, i.e., the "attraction-repulsion" effect. We also discuss the corresponding dynamics driven by spin-polarized currents, as well as the effect of including quenched random structural disorder to the system.
Vortex patterns in moderately rotating Bose-condensed gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imran, Mohd; Ahsan, M. A. H.
2017-02-01
Using exact diagonalization, we investigate the many-body ground state for regular vortex patterns in a rotating Bose-condensed gas of N spinless particles, confined in a quasi-two-dimensional harmonic trap and interacting repulsively via finite-range Gaussian potential. The N-body Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized in given subspaces of quantized total angular momentum L z , to obtain the lowest-energy eigenstate. Further, the internal structure of these eigenstates is analyzed by calculating the corresponding conditional probability distribution. Specifically, the quantum mechanically stable as well as unstable states in a co-rotating frame are examined in the moderately rotating regime corresponding to angular momenta 4N≤slant {L}z< 5N for N = 16 bosons. In response to externally impressed rotation, the patterns of singly quantized vortices are formed, shaping into canonical polygons with a central vortex at the trap center. The internal structure of unstable states reveals the mechanism of entry, nucleation and pattern formation of vortices with structural phase transition, as the condensate goes from one stable vortical state to the other. The stable polygonal vortex patterns having discrete p-fold rotational symmetry with p = 5 and p = 6 are observed. The hexagonal vortex pattern with p = 6 symmetry is a precursor to the triangular vortex lattice of singly quantized vortices in the thermodynamic limit. For unstable states, quantum melting of vortex patterns due to uncertainty in positions of individual vortices, is also briefly discussed.
Point-vortex approach in two-dimensional turbulence
Kuvshinov, B. N.; Schep, T. J.
2016-05-15
The properties of two-dimensional turbulence in a circular domain are investigated within the framework of the punctuated point-vortex model. Vortex dynamics is governed by Hamiltonian equations, and it is interrupted by instantaneous events resulting in vortex merging. Motion of about 100 point vortices is simulated using an accurate, symplectic integration method. Ensembles of like-sign vortices relax to a quasi-lattice state. Vortices with zero total vorticity tend to be randomized. Their motion still does not become fully chaotic. We observe emergence of long lived large dipoles (co-propagating pairs of vortices with opposite signs), which affect the evolution of the whole vortex ensemble. The presence of such dipoles accelerate the vortex decay rate. The decay exponent has been estimated as ξ ≃ 1.7, which is much larger than ξ ≃ 0.7, reported in previous studies of decaying turbulence. Since dipole dynamics depends on specific properties of the point vortex system, our findings suggest that a universal decay exponent in such systems does not exist.
Wing tip vortex control by the pulsed MHD actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moralev, I. A.; Biturin, V. A.; Kazansky, P. N.; Zaitsev, M. Yu.; Kopiev, Vl. A.
2016-10-01
The paper presents the experimental results and the analysis of the wingtip vortex control by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma actuator [1]. The actuator is installed on the surface of the asymmetric wing of a finite span. In a single cycle of actuator operation, the pulsed discharge is created between two electrodes and then driven by the Lorentz force in the spanwise direction. The evolution of the vortex after the actuator pulse is studied directly downstream of the wing trailing edge. The shift of the vortex position, without a significant change in the vortex circulation is the main effect obtained after the discharge pulse. The effect of the external flow velocity and the position of the actuator on the shift amplitude were studied. The authority of the flow control by the actuator is shown to reduce at higher velocity values; the position on the suction side of the airfoil is shown to be crucial for the effective actuator operation.
The magnetic penetration depth and the vortex core radius in type-II superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonier, Jeffrey Edward
1998-11-01
interpretation is that the quantum limit is realized at much higher temperatures in the high-Tc compound. The measured temperature dependence of r0 in both superconductors is weaker than current theoretical predictions for an isolated vortex. Finally, the effects of vortex pinning and thermal fluctuations of the vortex lines are considered. It is found that the vortex lattice is strongly pinned in YBa2Cu3O7-δ. The vortex lattice in the underdoped compound YBa2Cu3O6.60 is found to exhibit quasi-2D behaviour. In particular, a field-induced transition of the 3D-vortex lattice to a 2D-vortex lattice is observed-which appears to be due to the small / c-axis coherence length and vortex pinning in the CuO2 layers of this material. Also, the 3D- solid vortex lattice in YBa2Cu3O6.60 at low temperatures is found to melt and/or undergo a transition to a 2D-vortex lattice as the temperature is increased.
Critical behavior at a dynamic vortex insulator-to-metal transition
Poccia, Nicola; Baturina, Tatyana I.; Coneri, Francesco; Molenaar, Cor G.; Wang, X. Renshaw; Bianconi, Ginestra; Brinkman, Alexander; Hilgenkamp, Hans; Golubov, Alexander A.; Vinokur, Valerii M.
2015-09-10
An array of superconducting islands placed on a normal metal film offers a tunable realization of nanopatterned superconductivity. This system enables elucidating open questions concerning the nature of competing vortex states and phase transitions between them. A square array creates the egg crate potential in which magnetic field-induced vortices are frozen into a vortex insulator. We observe a vortex insulator-to-vortex metal transition driven by the applied electric current and determine critical exponents strikingly coinciding with those for thermodynamic liquid-gas transition. Lastly, our findings offer a comprehensive description of dynamic critical behavior and establish a deep connection between equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase transitions.
Computer simulation of vortex pinning in type II superconductors. II. Random point pins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, E. H.
1983-10-01
Pinning of vortices in a type II superconductor by randomly positioned identical point pins is simulated using the two-dimensional method described in a previous paper (Part I). The system is characterized by the vortex and pin numbers ( N v , N p ), the vortex and pin interaction ranges ( R v , R p ), and the amplitude of the pin potential A p . The computation is performed for many cases: dilute or dense, sharp or soft, attractive or repulsive, weak or strong pins, and ideal or amorphous vortex lattice. The total pinning force F as a function of the mean vortex displacement X increases first linearly (over a distance usually much smaller than the vortex spacing and than R p ) and then saturates, fluctuating about its averagebar F. We interpretbar F as the maximum pinning force j c B of a large specimen. For weak pins the prediction of Larkin and Ovchinnikov for two-dimensional collective pinning is confirmed:bar F=const·bar W/ R p c 66, wherebar W is the mean square pinning force and c 66 is the shear modulus of the vortex lattice. If the initial vortex lattice is chosen highly defective (“amorphous”) the constant is 1.3 3 times larger than for the ideal triangular lattice. This finding may explain the often observed “history effect”. The functionbar F( A p ) exhibits a jump, which for dilute, sharp, attractive pins occurs close to the “threshold value” predicted for isolated pins by Labusch. This jump reflects the onset of plastic deformation of the vortex lattice, and in some cases of vortex trapping, but is not a genuine threshold. For strong pinsbar F˜( N p bar W)1/2 approaches the direct summation limit. For both weak and strong pinning j c B is related to the mean square actual (not maximum) force of each pin. This mean square in general is not proportional to A {/p 2} but, due to relaxation of the vortex lattice, may be smaller or larger than its rigid-lattice limit. Therefore, simple power laws j c ˜ n p A {/p 2} or j c ˜ n p A p in
Vortex states of a superconducting film from a magnetic dot array.
Priour, D J; Fertig, H A
2004-07-30
Using Ginzburg-Landau theory, we find novel configurations of vortices in superconducting thin films subject to the magnetic field of a magnetic dot array, with dipole moments oriented perpendicular to the film. Sufficiently strong magnets cause the formation of vortex-antivortex pairs. In most cases, the vortices are confined to dot regions, while the antivortices can form a rich variety of lattice states. We propose an experiment in which the perpendicular component of the dot dipole moments can be tuned using an in-plane magnetic field. We show that in such an experiment the vortex-antivortex pair density shows broad plateaus as a function of the dipole strength. Many of the plateaus correspond to vortex configurations that break dot lattice symmetries. In some of these states, the vortex cores are strongly distorted. Possible experimental consequences are mentioned.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.
1975-01-01
The close-approach problem associated with flow calculation methods based on vortex-lattice theory was examined numerically using two-dimensional discretized vortex sheets. The analysis first yields a near-field radius of approximately the distance apart of the vortices in the lattice; only within this distance from the sheet are the errors arising from the discretization significant. Various modifications to the discrete vortices are then considered with the objective of reducing the errors. This leads to a near-field model in which a vortex splits into an increasing number of subvortices as it is approached. The subvortices, whose strengths vary linearly from the vortex position, are evenly distributed along an interpolated curve passing through the basic vortices. This subvortex technique can be extended to the three-dimensional case and is efficient because the number of vortices is effectively increased, but only where and when needed.
Nanostructure of vortex during explosion welding.
Rybin, V V; Greenberg, B A; Ivanov, M A; Patselov, A M; Antonova, O V; Elkina, O A; Inozemtsev, A V; Salishchev, G A
2011-10-01
The microstructure of a bimetallic joint made by explosion welding of orthorhombic titanium aluminide (Ti-30Al-16Nb-1Zr-1Mo) with commercially pure titanium is studied. It is found that the welded joint has a multilayered structure including a severely deformed zone observed in both materials, a recrystallized zone of titanium, and a transition zone near the interface. Typical elements of the transition zone-a wavy interface, macrorotations of the lattice, vortices and tracks of fragments of the initial materials-are determined. It is shown that the observed vortices are formed most probably due to local melting of the material near the contact surface. Evidence for this assumption is deduced from the presence of dipoles, which consist of two vortices of different helicity and an ultrafine duplex structure of the vortex. Also, high mixing of the material near the vortex is only possible by the turbulent transport whose coefficient is several orders of magnitude larger than the coefficient of atomic diffusion in liquids. The role played by fragmentation in both the formation of lattice macrorotations and the passage of coarse particles of one material through the bulk of the other is determined.
Wave-induced vortex recoil and nonlinear refraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humbert, Thomas; AumaÃ®tre, Sébastien; Gallet, Basile
2017-09-01
When a vortex refracts surface waves, the momentum flux carried by the waves changes direction and the waves induce a reaction force on the vortex. We study experimentally the resulting vortex distortion. Incoming surface gravity waves impinge on a steady vortex of velocity U0 driven magnetohydrodynamically at the bottom of a fluid layer. The waves induce a shift of the vortex center in the direction transverse to wave propagation, together with a decrease in surface vorticity. We interpret these two phenomena in the framework introduced by Craik and Leibovich [A. D. D. Craik and S. Leibovich, J. Fluid Mech. 73, 401 (1976), 10.1017/S0022112076001420]: We identify the dimensionless Stokes drift S =Us/U0 as the relevant control parameter, Us being the Stokes drift velocity of the waves. We propose a simple vortex line model that indicates that the shift of the vortex center originates from a balance between vorticity advection by the Stokes drift and self-advection of the vortex. The decrease in surface vorticity is interpreted as a consequence of vorticity expulsion by the fast Stokes drift, which confines it at depth. This purely hydrodynamic process is analogous to the magnetohydrodynamic expulsion of a magnetic field by a rapidly moving conductor through the electromagnetic skin effect. We study vorticity expulsion in the limit of fast Stokes drift and deduce that the surface vorticity decreases as 1 /S , a prediction that is compatible with the experimental data. Such wave-induced vortex distortions have important consequences for the nonlinear regime of wave refraction: The refraction angle rapidly decreases with wave intensity.
A mesoscale vortex over Halley Station, Antarctica
Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T.A.; Warren, D.E. ); Duncan, C.N. )
1993-05-01
A detailed analysis of the evolution and structure of a mesoscale vortex and associated cloud comma that developed at the eastern edge of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the early part of January 1986 is presented. The system remained quasi-stationary for over three days close to the British research station Halley (75[degrees]36'S, 26'42[degrees]W) and gave severe weather with gale-force winds and prolonged snow. The formation and development of the system were investigated using conventional surface and upper-air meteorological observations taken at Halley, analyses from the U.K. Meteorological Office 15-level model, and satellite imagery and sounder data from the TIROS-N-NOAA series of polar orbiting satellites. The thermal structure of the vortex was examined using atmospheric profiles derived from radiance measurements from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder. Details of the wind field were examined using cloud motion vectors derived from a sequence of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer images. The vortex developed inland of the Brunt Ice Shelf in a strong baroclinic zone separating warm air, which had been advected polewards down the eastern Weddell Sea, and cold air descending from the Antarctic Plateau. The system intensified when cold, continental air associated with an upper-level short-wave trough was advected into the vortex. A frontal cloud band developed when slantwise ascent of warm air took place at the leading edge of the cold-air outbreak. Most of the precipitation associated with the low occurred on this cloud band. The small sea surface-atmospheric temperature differences gave only limited heat fluxes and there was no indication of deep convection associated with the system. The vortex was driven by baroclinic forcing and had some features in common with the baroclinic type of polar lows that occur in the Northern Hemisphere. 25 refs., 14 figs.
Vortex Characterization for Engineering Applications
Jankun-Kelly, M; Thompson, D S; Jiang, M; Shannahan, B; Machiraju, R
2008-01-30
Realistic engineering simulation data often have features that are not optimally resolved due to practical limitations on mesh resolution. To be useful to application engineers, vortex characterization techniques must be sufficiently robust to handle realistic data with complex vortex topologies. In this paper, we present enhancements to the vortex topology identification component of an existing vortex characterization algorithm. The modified techniques are demonstrated by application to three realistic data sets that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.
Aircraft vortex marking program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pompa, M. F.
1979-01-01
A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.
Vortex attenuation flight experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barber, M. R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Champine, R. A.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.
1977-01-01
Flight tests evaluating the effects of altered span loading, turbulence ingestion, combinations of mass and turbulence ingestion, and combinations of altered span loading turbulance ingestion on trailed wake vortex attenuation were conducted. Span loadings were altered in flight by varying the deflections of the inboard and outboard flaps on a B-747 aircraft. Turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by mounting splines on a C-54G aircraft. Mass and turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by varying the thrust on the B-747 aircraft. Combinations of altered span loading and turbulence ingestion were achieved in flight by installing a spoiler on a CV-990 aircraft and by deflecting the existing spoilers on a B-747 aircraft. The characteristics of the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes were determined by probing them with smaller aircraft. Acceptable separation distances for encounters with the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes are presented.
Magnetic vortex racetrack memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.
2017-02-01
We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.
Low Temperature Limit of the Vortex Core Radius and the Kramer-Pesch Effect in NbSe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, R. I.; Kiefl, R. F.; Brewer, J. H.; Chakhalian, J.; Dunsiger, S.; Morris, G. D.; Sonier, J. E.; Macfarlane, W. A.
2000-08-01
Muon spin rotation ( μSR) has been used to measure the magnetic field distribution in the vortex state of the type-II superconductor NbSe2 ( Tc = 7.0 K) below T = 2 K. The distribution is consistent with a highly ordered hexagonal vortex lattice with a well resolved high-field cutoff associated with the finite size of the vortex cores. The temperature dependence of the core radius is much weaker than the temperature dependence predicted from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Furthermore, the vortex radius measured by μSR near the low temperature quantum limit is about an order of magnitude larger than predicted.
Garcia, M.
1995-05-01
An electric vortex is the circulation of electron space charge about a magnetic field line that is transported by ion momentum. In cold, or low {beta} flow the vortex diameter is the minimum length scale of charge neutrality. The distinctive feature of the vortex is its radial electric field which manifests the interplay of electrostatics, magnetism, and motion.
Composite vortex model of the electrodynamics of type-II superconductors
Lihn, H.S.; Drew, H.D. |
1997-09-01
A phenomenological model of vortex dynamics is presented in which the vortex is taken as a composite object with two components: the vortex current pattern, which is massless and driven by the Lorentz force, and the vortex core, which is massive and driven by the Magnus force. By combining the characteristics of the Gittleman-Rosenblum model [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 16}, 734 (1996)] and Hsu`s theory of vortex dynamics [Physica C {bold 213}, 305 (1993)], the model provides a good description of the magnetoconductivity tensor of superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} films measured over the frequency range from the microwave to 200 cm{sup {minus}1}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Wu, Hao; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng
2015-02-05
Manganese-substitution-doped iron nitride MnFe_{3}N holds great promise for applications in high-density magnetic recording and spintronic devices. However, existing theory contradicts experimental results on the structural and magnetic stability of MnFe_{3}N, and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that the ferromagnetic state with enhanced magnetization in MnFe_{3}N is driven by the electron correlation effect not previously considered. We further reveal a large nonlinear shear plasticity, which produces an unexpectedly high shear strength in MnFe_{3}N despite its initial ductile nature near the equilibrium structure. Moreover, we identify strong lattice anharmonicity that plays a pivotal role in stabilizing MnFe_{3}N under high pressures at room temperature. These remarkable properties stem from the intriguing bonding nature of the parent compound Fe_{4}N. Lastly, our results explain experimental results and offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms for the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of MnFe_{3}N.
Calculation of wing response to gusts and blast waves with vortex lift effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, D. C.; Lan, C. E.
1983-01-01
A numerical study of the response of aircraft wings to atmospheric gusts and to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds is presented. The method is based upon unsteady quasi-vortex-lattice method, unsteady suction analogy, and Pade approximate. The calculated results, showing vortex lag effect, yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for incremental lift on wings in gust penetration and due to nuclear blast waves.
Calculation of wing response to gusts and blast waves with vortex lift effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, D. C.; Lan, C. E.
1983-01-01
A numerical study of the response of aircraft wings to atmospheric gusts and to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds is presented. The method is based upon unsteady quasi-vortex lattice method, unsteady suction analogy and Pade approximant. The calculated results, showing vortex lag effect, yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for incremental lift on wings in gust penetration and due to nuclear blast waves.
Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle.
Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige
2016-02-24
The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems.
Rolling moments in a trailing vortex flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmillan, O. J.; Schwind, R. G.; Nielsen, J. N.; Dillenius, M. F. E.
1977-01-01
Pressure distributions are presented which were measured on a wing in close proximity to a tip vortex of known structure generated by a larger, upstream semispan wing. Overall loads calculated by integration of these pressures are checked by independent measurements made with an identical model mounted on a force balance. Several conventional methods of wing analysis are used to predict the loads on the following wing. Strip theory is shown to give uniformly poor results for loading distribution, although predictions of overall lift and rolling moment are sometimes acceptable. Good results are obtained for overall coefficients and loading distribution by using linearized pressures in vortex-lattice theory in conjunction with a rectilinear vortex. The equivalent relation from reverse-flow theory that can be used to give economic predictions for overall loads is presented.
Asymmetric Gaussian optical vortex.
Kotlyar, Victor V; Kovalev, Alexey A; Porfirev, Alexey P
2017-01-01
We theoretically study a Gaussian optical beam with an embedded off-axis optical vortex. We also experimentally generate such an asymmetric Gaussian optical vortex by using an off-axis spiral phase plate. It is shown that depending on the shift distance the laser beam has the form of a crescent, which is rotated upon propagation. An analytical expression is obtained for the orbital angular momentum of such a beam, which appears to be fractional. When the shift increases, the greater the number of spirality of the phase plate or the "fork" hologram, the slower the momentum decreases. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the theory.
Entangled transverse optical vortex.
Chui, S T; Lin, Zhifang
2014-10-01
We discuss a new kind of optical vortex with the angular momentum perpendicular to the flow direction and entangled in that it is a coherent combination of different orbital angular momentum states of the same sign. This entangled state exhibits many unexpected physical properties. The transverse optical vortex can be generated from the reflection of an electromagnetic wave off an array of ferrite rods. Its vorticity can be reversed by switching the direction of the magnetization of the rods, which usually takes only a nanosecond.
Koiller, Jair
2009-05-06
A pair of infinitesimally close opposite vortices moving on a curved surface moves along a geodesic, according to a conjecture by Kimura. We outline a proof. Numerical simulations are presented for a pair of opposite vortices at a close but nonzero distance on a surface of revolution, the catenoid. We conjecture that the vortex pair system on a triaxial ellipsoid is a KAM perturbation of Jacobi's geodesic problem. We outline some preliminary calculations required for this study. Finding the surfaces for which the vortex pair system is integrable is in order.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A status report is presented on research directed at reducing the vortex disturbances of aircraft wakes. The objective of such a reduction is to minimize the hazard to smaller aircraft that might encounter these wakes. Inviscid modeling was used to study trailing vortices and viscous effects were investigated. Laser velocimeters were utilized in the measurement of aircraft wakes. Flight and wind tunnel tests were performed on scale and full model scale aircraft of various design. Parameters investigated included the effect of wing span, wing flaps, spoilers, splines and engine thrust on vortex attenuation. Results indicate that vortives may be alleviated through aerodynamic means.
Creutz, M.
1984-01-01
After reviewing some recent developments in supercomputer access, the author discusses a few areas where perturbation theory and lattice gauge simulations make contact. The author concludes with a brief discussion of a deterministic dynamics for the Ising model. This may be useful for numerical studies of nonequilibrium phenomena. 13 references.
Vortex Crystals with Chiral Stripes in Itinerant Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozawa, Ryo; Hayami, Satoru; Barros, Kipton; Chern, Gia-Wei; Motome, Yukitoshi; Batista, Cristian D.
2016-10-01
We study noncoplanar magnetic ordering in frustrated itinerant magnets. For a family of Kondo square lattice models with classical local moments, we find that a double-Q noncoplanar vortex crystal has lower energy than the single-Q helical order expected from the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction when the lattice symmetry dictates four global maxima in the bare magnetic susceptibility. By expanding in the small Kondo exchange and the degree of noncoplanarity, we demonstrate that this noncoplanar state arises from a Fermi surface instability occurring in independent sections connected by two ordering wave vectors.
Model Validation of Wake-Vortex/Aircraft Encounters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pete, Kimberly R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Smith, Sonya T.
2000-01-01
Wake-vortex effects on an 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are calculated using both strip theory and vortex-lattice methods. The results are then compared to data taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The accuracy of the models for a reduced geometry, such with the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail removed, is also investigated. Using a 10% error in the circulation strength and comparing the model's results with the experiment illustrates the sensitivity of the models to the vortex circulation strength. It was determined that both strip theory and the vortex lattice method give accurate results when all the geometrical information is used. When the horizontal stabilizer and vertical tail were removed there were difficulties modeling the sideforce coefficient and pitching moment. With the removal of only the vertical tail unacceptable errors occurred when modeling the sideforce coefficient and yawing moment. Lift could not be accurately modeled with either the full geometry or the reduced geometry.
Experimental study of vortex diffusers
Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.
1995-11-01
This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.
Double-branched vortex generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantwell, E. R.; Westphal, R. V.; Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
In order to assess the suitability of using a double branched vortex generator in parametric studies involving vortex interactions, an experimental study of the main vortex and secondary flows produced by a double branched vortex generator was conducted in a 20-by-40 cm indraft wind tunnel. Measurements of the cross flow velocities were made with a five hole pressure probe from which vorticity contours and vortex parameters were derived. The results showed that the optimum configuration consisted of chord extensions with the absence of a centerbody.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escudier, M. P.
Instability, stagnation, and wave phenomena in vortex breakdown are reviewed. Axisymmetric disturbances; spiral disturbances; nonlinear interactions; the separation analogy; failure of slender core/quasi-cylindrical approximation; numerical failure; solitary waves; inertia waves; transition between conjugate-flow states; and the shock/hydraulic-jump analogy are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
An in house video made to show how NASA Langley scientists have found ways to improve airplane performance. Micro Vortex Generators placed on airplane wings can reduce drag, increase lift, and reduce fuel consumption. Nice animation and real footage of planes with this technology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betz, A.
1979-01-01
Application of the Kutta-Joukowski theorem to the relationship between airfoil lift and circulation is described. A number of formulas concerning the conduct of vortex systems derived from the theorem are presented. The application of this line of reasoning to several problems of airfoil theory and the observed relations are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weston, R. P.; Chamberlain, J. P.; Liu, C. H.; Hartwich, Peter-Michael
1986-01-01
Several computational studies are currently being pursued that focus on various aspects of representing the entire lifetime of the viscous trailing vortex wakes generated by an aircraft. The formulation and subsequent near-wing development of the leading-edge vortices formed by a delta wing are being calculated at modest Reynolds numbers using a three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes code. Another computational code was developed to focus on the roll-up, trajectory, and mutual interaction of trailing vortices further downstream from the wing using a two-dimensional, time-dependent, Navier-Stokes algorithm. To investigate the effect of a cross-wind ground shear flow on the drift and decay of the far-field trailing vortices, a code was developed that employs Euler equations along with matched asymptotic solutions for the decaying vortex filaments. And finally, to simulate the conditions far down stream after the onset of the Crow instability in the vortex wake, a full three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes code was developed to study the behavior of interacting vortex rings.
Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakerin, Said
2010-01-01
Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…
Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakerin, Said
2010-01-01
Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…
Control of submersible vortex flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Donaldson, C. D.
1990-01-01
Vortex flows produced by submersibles typically unfavorably influence key figures of merit such as acoustic and nonacoustic stealth, control effectiveness/maneuverability, and propulsor efficiency/body drag. Sources of such organized, primarily longitudinal, vorticity include the basic body (nose and sides) and appendages (both base/intersection and tip regions) such as the fairwater, dive planes, rear control surfaces, and propulsor stators/tips. Two fundamentally different vortex control approaches are available: (1) deintensification of the amplitude and/or organization of the vortex during its initiation process; and (2) downstream vortex disablement. Vortex control techniques applicable to the initiation region (deintensification approach) include transverse pressure gradient minimization via altered body cross section, appendage dillets, fillets, and sweep, and various appendage tip and spanload treatment along with the use of active controls to minimize control surface size and motions. Vortex disablement can be accomplished either via use of control vortices (which can also be used to steer the vortices off-board), direct unwinding, inducement of vortex bursting, or segmentation/tailoring for enhanced dissipation. Submersible-applicable vortex control technology is also included derived from various aeronautical applications such as mitigation of the wing wake vortex hazard and flight aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack as well as the status of vortex effects upon, and mitigation of, nonlinear control forces on submersibles. Specific suggestions for submersible-applicable vortex control techniques are presented.
Ortega, J M
2001-10-18
The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.
2008-01-01
Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not
Rotor-vortex interaction noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.
1983-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to develop a validated first principles analysis for predicting noise generated by helicopter main-rotor shed vortices interacting with the tail rotor. The generalized prediction procedure requires a knowledge of the incident vortex velocity field, rotor geometry, and rotor operating conditions. The analysis includes compressibility effects, chordwise and spanwise noncompactness, and treats oblique intersections with the blade planform. Assessment of the theory involved conducting a model rotor experiment which isolated the blade-vortex interaction noise from other rotor noise mechanisms. An isolated tip vortex, generated by an upstream semispan airfoil, was convected into the model tail rotor. Acoustic spectra, pressure signatures, and directivity were measured. Since assessment of the acoustic prediction required a knowledge of the vortex properties, blade-vortes intersection angle, intersection station, vortex stength, and vortex core radius were documented. Ingestion of the vortex by the rotor was experimentally observed to generate harmonic noise and impulsive waveforms.
Skyrmion Flux Lattices in p,-wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Toner, John; Belitz, Dietrich
2007-03-01
In p,-wave superconductors, topological excitations known as skyrmions are allowed, in addition to the usual vortices. In strongly type-II materials in an external magnetic field, a skyrmion flux lattice is expected to be energetically favored compared to a vortex flux lattice [1]. We analytically calculate the energy, magnetization curves (B(H)), and elasticity of skyrmion flux lattices in p,-wave superconductors near the lower critical field Hc1, and use these results with the Lindemann criterion to predict their melting curve [2]. In striking contrast to vortex flux lattices, which always melt at an external field H > Hc1, skyrmion flux lattices never melt near Hc1. This provides a simple and unambiguous test for the presence of skyrmions. In addition, the internal magnetic field distributions (which are measurable by muon spin rotation techniques [3]) of skyrmion and vortex lattices are very different. [1] A. Knigavko, B. Rosenstein, and Y.F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 60, 550 (1999). [2] Qi Li, John Toner, and D. Belitz, cond-mat/0607391 [3] J.E. Sonier, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, S4499 (2004)
Electrical switching of the vortex core in a magnetic disk.
Yamada, Keisuke; Kasai, Shinya; Nakatani, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kohno, Hiroshi; Thiaville, André; Ono, Teruo
2007-04-01
A magnetic vortex is a curling magnetic structure realized in a ferromagnetic disk, which is a promising candidate for a memory cell for future non-volatile data-storage devices. Thus, an understanding of the stability and dynamical behaviour of the magnetic vortex is a major requirement for developing magnetic data-storage technology. Since the publication of experimental proof for the existence of a nanometre-scale core with out-of-plane magnetization in a magnetic vortex, the dynamics of vortices have been investigated intensively. However, a way to electrically control the core magnetization, which is a key for constructing a vortex-core memory, has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate the electrical switching of the core magnetization by using the current-driven resonant dynamics of the vortex; the core switching is triggered by a strong dynamic field that is produced locally by a rotational core motion at a high speed of several hundred metres per second. Efficient switching of the vortex core without magnetic-field application is achieved owing to resonance. This opens up the potentiality of a simple magnetic disk as a building block for spintronic devices such as a memory cell where the bit data is stored as the direction of the nanometre-scale core magnetization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, G.; Grissonnanche, G.; Conner, B. S.; Wolff-Fabris, F.; Putzke, C.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Balicas, L.
2013-03-01
We report an angle-dependent study of the magnetic torque τ(θ) within the vortex state of single-crystalline LaO0.9F0.1FeAs and SmO0.9F0.1FeAs as a function of both temperature T and magnetic field H. Sharp peaks are observed at a critical angle θc at either side of θ=90∘, where θ is the angle between H and the interplanar c axis. θc is interpreted as the critical depinning angle where the vortex lattice, pinned and locked by the intrinsic planar structure, unlocks and acquires a component perpendicular to the planes. We observe a series of smaller replica peaks as a function of θ and as θ is swept away from the planar direction. These suggest commensurability effects between the period of the vortex lattice and the interplanar distance leading to additional kinked vortex configurations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, Frank
1987-01-01
A simple heuristic proof of the Nielsen-Ninomaya theorem is given. A method is proposed whereby the multiplication of fermion species on a lattice is reduced to the minimal doubling, in any dimension, with retention of appropriate chiral symmetries. Also, it is suggested that use of spatially thinned fermion fields is likely to be a useful and appropriate approximation in QCD - in any case, it is a self-checking one.
The shock-vortex interaction patterns affected by vortex flow regime and vortex models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Keun-Shik; Barik, Hrushikesh; Chang, Se-Myong
2009-08-01
We have used a third-order essentially non-oscillatory method to obtain numerical shadowgraphs for investigation of shock-vortex interaction patterns. To search different interaction patterns, we have tested two vortex models (the composite vortex model and the Taylor vortex model) and as many as 47 parametric data sets. By shock-vortex interaction, the impinging shock is deformed to a S-shape with leading and lagging parts of the shock. The vortex flow is locally accelerated by the leading shock and locally decelerated by the lagging shock, having a severely elongated vortex core with two vertices. When the leading shock escapes the vortex, implosion effect creates a high pressure in the vertex area where the flow had been most expanded. This compressed region spreads in time with two frontal waves, an induced expansion wave and an induced compression wave. They are subsonic waves when the shock-vortex interaction is weak but become supersonic waves for strong interactions. Under a intermediate interaction, however, an induced shock wave is first developed where flow speed is supersonic but is dissipated where the incoming flow is subsonic. We have identified three different interaction patterns that depend on the vortex flow regime characterized by the shock-vortex interaction.
Tricritical spiral vortex instability in cross-slot flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haward, Simon J.; Poole, Robert J.; Alves, Manuel A.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Shen, Amy Q.
2016-03-01
We examine fluid flow through cross-slot devices with various depth to width ratios α . At low Reynolds number, Re, flow is symmetric and a sharp boundary exists between the two incoming fluid streams. Above an α -dependent critical value, R ec(α ) , a steady symmetry-breaking bifurcation occurs and a spiral vortex structure develops. Order parameters characterizing the instability grow according to a sixth-order Landau potential, and show a progression from second- to first-order transitions as α increases beyond a tricritical value of α ≈0.55 . Flow simulations indicate the instability is driven by vortex stretching at the stagnation point.
Tricritical spiral vortex instability in cross-slot flow.
Haward, Simon J; Poole, Robert J; Alves, Manuel A; Oliveira, Paulo J; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Shen, Amy Q
2016-03-01
We examine fluid flow through cross-slot devices with various depth to width ratios α. At low Reynolds number, Re, flow is symmetric and a sharp boundary exists between the two incoming fluid streams. Above an α-dependent critical value, Re(c)(α), a steady symmetry-breaking bifurcation occurs and a spiral vortex structure develops. Order parameters characterizing the instability grow according to a sixth-order Landau potential, and show a progression from second- to first-order transitions as α increases beyond a tricritical value of α ≈ 0.55. Flow simulations indicate the instability is driven by vortex stretching at the stagnation point.
Exchange-Based Magneto-Electric Effect in Magnetic Vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udalov, O. G.
Inhomogeneous magneto-electric effect (IMEE) driven by exchange forces is studied. A phenomenological theory of the effect is proposed. The theory predicts the existence of the radial electric polarization in the systems with the magnetic structures of vortex type. Polarization does not depend on the sign of the winding number and appears even in a magnetic “hedgehog”. A microscopic theory of the exchange IMEE in a medium with the vortex magnetization distribution is developed. Electric polarization is caused by the exchange interaction of free charge carriers with the localized ones. On the basis of the microscopic theory, the electrical polarization is estimated for vortices in magnetic semiconductors and metals.
Tunability versus deviation sensitivity in a nonlinear vortex oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, S. Y.; Thirion, C.; Hoarau, C.; Baraduc, C.; Diény, B.
2013-07-01
Frequency modulation experiments were performed on a spin torque vortex oscillator for a wide range of modulation frequencies, up to 10% of the oscillator frequency. A thorough analysis of the intermodulation products shows that the key parameter that describes these experiments is the deviation sensitivity, which is the dynamical frequency-current dependence. It differs significantly from the oscillator tunability discussed so far in the context of spin-transfer oscillators. The essential difference between these two concepts is related to the response time of the vortex oscillator, driven either in quasisteady state or in a transient regime.
Vortex lenses for optical micromanipulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skidanov, Roman V.; Ganchevskaya, Sofiya V.
2017-04-01
Vortex beams are currently used in areas such as optical communication, optical measurement optical micromanipulation and many other applications. There are several prospective ways to generate vortex beams such as: by using special gratings [1,2], spiral phase plates[3], vortex zone plate [4]. Bessel and Gauss-Laguerre beams [5,6] are also considered as Vortex beams. Generation of Bessel beams by vortex axicons were considered in [6]. Possibility of combining the structures and zones topological charge of axicon in the same element was shown. Desired order of Bessel beams can be generated by a large variability of phase diffractive optical elements. In [7] method of forming a simple vortex beams by using a new type of diffractive optical elements, was presented. Diffractive optical element is a lens vortex with a topological charge zones, like the vortex in axicon [8]. In this paper, we have generated vortex beams by the method described in [7], but in addition the lens partitioned into two areas. Each area has different focal length. The proposed element structure can significantly extend focal region with the generated vortex beam that allows rotating microscopic objects in the threedimensional layer.
Vortex unwinding in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcginley, Catherine B.; Beeler, George B.
1987-01-01
The vortex unwinding method is used as a tool in performing vortex cancellation in a turbulent boundary layer. Sufficient reduction in the isotach variation was achieved to verify the usefulness of this technique, for the cases of both wall turbulence control and horseshoe vortex alleviation. More detailed measurements of vortex strength and position improve the optimization process and increase the amount of vortex unwinding.
Vortex degeneracy lifting and Aharonov-Bohm-like interference in deformed photonic graphene.
Zhang, Peng; Gallardo, Daniel; Liu, Sheng; Gao, Yuanmei; Li, Tongcang; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiang
2017-03-01
Photonic graphene, a honeycomb lattice of evanescently coupled waveguides, has provided a superior platform for investigating a host of fundamental phenomena such as unconventional edge states, synthetic magnetic fields, photonic Landau levels, Floquet topological insulators, and pseudospin effects. Here, we demonstrate both experimentally and numerically, topological vortex degeneracy lifting and Aharonov-Bohm-like interference from local deformation in a photonic honeycomb lattice. When a single valley is excited, lattice deformation leads to the generation of a vortex pair due to the lifting of degeneracy associated with pseudospin states. In the case of double-valley excitation, we observe the Aharonov-Bohm-like interference merely due to the deformation of the graphene lattice, which gives rise to an artificial gauge field. Our results may provide insight into the understanding of similar phenomena in other graphene-like materials and structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Xuebing; Zhou, Kezhao; Zhang, Zhidong
2016-11-01
We use the path-integral formalism to investigate the vortex properties of a quasi-two dimensional (2D) Fermi superfluid system trapped in an optical lattice potential. Within the framework of mean-field theory, the cooper pair density, the atom number density, and the vortex core size are calculated from weakly interacting BCS regime to strongly coupled while weakly interacting BEC regime. Numerical results show that the atoms gradually penetrate into the vortex core as the system evolves from BEC to BCS regime. Meanwhile, the presence of the optical lattice allows us to analyze the vortex properties in the crossover from three-dimensional (3D) to 2D case. Furthermore, using a simple re-normalization procedure, we find that the two-body bound state exists only when the interaction is stronger than a critical one denoted by G c which is obtained as a function of the lattice potential’s parameter. Finally, we investigate the vortex core size and find that it grows with increasing interaction strength. In particular, by analyzing the behavior of the vortex core size in both BCS and BEC regimes, we find that the vortex core size behaves quite differently for positive and negative chemical potentials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51331006, 51590883, and 11204321) and the Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJZD-EW-M05-3).
Segmented trapped vortex cavity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnelly, Russell; Bolster, Diogo; Hershberger, Robert
2008-11-01
We have investigated the slowing of vortex rings in water which are created with very thin cores. We find that these rings propagate with no measurable change in diameter or core size. The drag appears to be the result of viscous forces on the core. A simple model for this drag describes experimental data in terms of a drag coefficient, which depends only on Reynolds number. Barenghi's group at Newcastle found that the translational velocity of a ring in an inviscid fluid perturbed by Kelvin waves decreases with increasing amplitude of Kelvin waves. This suggests that the velocity of vortex rings in a viscous fluid may well depend on the amplitude of Kelvin waves at the time of formation. Rings with substantial amplitude of Kelvin waves will be expected to move more slowly than rings with little or no Kelvin wave amplitude. We present experimental data confirming this suggestion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Criminale, W. O.; Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.
1995-01-01
An initial value approach is used to examine the dynamics of perturbations introduced into a vortex under strain. Both the basic vortex considered and the perturbations are taken as fully three-dimensional. An explicit solution for the time evolution of the vorticity perturbations is given for arbitrary initial vorticity. Analytical solutions for the resulting velocity components are found when the initial vorticity is assumed to be localized. For more general initial vorticity distributions, the velocity components are determined numerically. It is found that the variation in the radial direction of the initial vorticity disturbance is the most important factor influencing the qualitative behavior of the solutions. Transient growth in the magnitude of the velocity components is found to be directly attributable to the compactness of the initial vorticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Philip W.
2007-03-01
In 1967, Reatto and Chester proposed that solid helium-4 might exhibit superfluidity, and in 1970, Leggett suggested what was thought to be a definitive experimental test: to find non-classical rotational inertia in a toroidal sample. More than three decades later, the observation by Kim and Chan of exactly that effect generated great interest and has been repeated and confirmed by a number of groups. However, many attempts to find actual superflow in truly solid samples have failed. Here, I draw an analogy with a second example of anomalous response to vorticity in a dissipative fluid, the vortex liquid phase in the pseudogap region of high-temperature superconductors, and propose that the solid helium experiments have been mischaracterized: what is observed is not supersolidity but an incompressible vortex liquid. This state is distinct from a conventional liquid in that its properties are dominated by conserved supercurrents flowing around a thermally fluctuating tangle of vortices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)
1992-01-01
The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.