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Sample records for driver assistance based

  1. Camera-based driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, camera-based driver assistance systems have taken an important step: from laboratory setup to series production. This tutorial gives a brief overview on the technology behind driver assistance systems, presents the most significant functionalities and focuses on the processes of developing camera-based systems for series production. We highlight the critical points which need to be addressed when camera-based driver assistance systems are sold in their thousands, worldwide - and the benefit in terms of safety which results from it.

  2. 78 FR 68475 - Certain Vision-Based Driver Assistance System Cameras and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Certain Vision-Based Driver Assistance System Cameras and Components Thereof; Institution of...-based driver assistance system cameras and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain... assistance system cameras and components thereof by reason of infringement of one or more of claims 1, 2,...

  3. Employing range imagery for vision-based driver assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobottka, Karin; Bunke, Horst

    1998-07-01

    Most research in vision-based driver assistance has utilized graylevel or color image sequences. Since the spatial arrangement of scene objects is often more relevant than the reflected brightness information, there has been an increasing interest in range sensors for collision avoidance systems recently. In our approach for obstacle detection and tracking, obstacles are defined as non-traversable objects. Thus obstacle detection is done by checking the traversability of the environment in the sensor's field of view. Once an obstacle is detected, it is tracked along the time axis. Robust long-term tracking is performed by the analysis of the spatial arrangement of obstacles. Our tracking scheme handles problems as occlusion, new appearance or disappearance of scene objects. To be robust against segmentation errors and poor reflection properties of scene objects, splitting of obstacles is taken into account. Our approach was tested on 11 range image sequences consisting of 447 frames. Different scenarios such as driving along a curve, oncoming traffic, high relative velocity between vehicles, and heavy traffic were investigated.

  4. Ego-Vehicle Corridors for Vision-Based Driver Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruyi; Klette, Reinhard; Vaudrey, Tobi; Wang, Shigang

    Improving or generalizing lane detection solutions on curved roads with possibly broken lane marks is still a challenging task. This paper proposes a concept of a (virtual) corridor for modeling the space an ego-vehicle is able to drive through, using available (but often incomplete, e.g., due to occlusion, road conditions, or road intersections) information about the lane marks but also about the motion and relative position (with respect to the road) of the ego-vehicle. A corridor is defined in this paper by special features, such as two fixed starting points, a constant width, and a unique relationship with visible lane marks. Robust corridor detection is possible by hypothesis testing based on maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation, followed by boundary selection, and road patch extension. Obstacles are explicitly considered. A corridor tracking method is also discussed. Experimental results are provided.

  5. A Vision-Based Driver Nighttime Assistance and Surveillance System Based on Intelligent Image Sensing Techniques and a Heterogamous Dual-Core Embedded System Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system. PMID:22736956

  6. A novel active heads-up display for driver assistance.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Anup; Cheng, Shinko Yuanhsien; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel laser-based wide-area heads-up windshield display which is capable of actively interfacing with a human as part of a driver assistance system. The dynamic active display (DAD) is a unique prototype interface that presents safety-critical visual icons to the driver in a manner that minimizes the deviation of his or her gaze direction without adding to unnecessary visual clutter. As part of an automotive safety system, the DAD presents alerts in the field of view of the driver only if necessary, which is based upon the state and pose of the driver, vehicle, and environment. This paper examines the effectiveness of DAD through a comprehensive comparative experimental evaluation of a speed compliance driver assistance system, which is implemented on a vehicular test bed. Three different types of display protocols for assisting a driver to comply with speed limits are tested on actual roadways, and these are compared with a conventional dashboard display. Given the inclination, drivers who are given an overspeed warning alert reduced the time required to slow down to the speed limit by 38% (p < 0.01) as compared with the drivers not given the alert. Additionally, certain alerts decreased distraction levels by reducing the time spent looking away from the road by 63% (p < 0.01). Ultimately, these alerts demonstrate the utility and promise of the DAD system.

  7. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  8. Vision-based multi-scaled vehicle detection and distance relevant mix tracking for driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qin; Yang, Jianyu; Zhai, Yuqiang; Kong, Lingjiang

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to improve the robustness of vision-based multi-scaled vehicle detection and tracking for an actual driver assistance system. Considering the problem of discontinuity of detection and tracking for multi-scaled vehicles especially in an ultra-close area, we propose a novel detection framework which concludes short-range local feature (license plate) detection and long-range skeleton detection. Specially, the rear license plate can be located accurately by introducing a multi-scaled morphological operator and analyzing the color information. Then, vehicles in a long supervising range can be detected with a Look-up Table-based AdaBoost classifier synchronically. Finally, an inverse perspective mapping-based tracking strategy is proposed to unite the location results in the framework. It is proved to make up the leak vehicle detection in the near supervising area and improve the robustness of tracking. The accuracy of license-based detection and the robust mix tracking have both been testified in several groups of experiments.

  9. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  10. Computer vision for driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handmann, Uwe; Kalinke, Thomas; Tzomakas, Christos; Werner, Martin; von Seelen, Werner

    1998-07-01

    Systems for automated image analysis are useful for a variety of tasks and their importance is still increasing due to technological advances and an increase of social acceptance. Especially in the field of driver assistance systems the progress in science has reached a level of high performance. Fully or partly autonomously guided vehicles, particularly for road-based traffic, pose high demands on the development of reliable algorithms due to the conditions imposed by natural environments. At the Institut fur Neuroinformatik, methods for analyzing driving relevant scenes by computer vision are developed in cooperation with several partners from the automobile industry. We introduce a system which extracts the important information from an image taken by a CCD camera installed at the rear view mirror in a car. The approach consists of a sequential and a parallel sensor and information processing. Three main tasks namely the initial segmentation (object detection), the object tracking and the object classification are realized by integration in the sequential branch and by fusion in the parallel branch. The main gain of this approach is given by the integrative coupling of different algorithms providing partly redundant information.

  11. Far-Infrared Based Pedestrian Detection for Driver-Assistance Systems Based on Candidate Filters, Gradient-Based Feature and Multi-Frame Approval Matching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Far-infrared pedestrian detection approaches for advanced driver-assistance systems based on high-dimensional features fail to simultaneously achieve robust and real-time detection. We propose a robust and real-time pedestrian detection system characterized by novel candidate filters, novel pedestrian features and multi-frame approval matching in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Firstly, we design two filters based on the pedestrians’ head and the road to select the candidates after applying a pedestrian segmentation algorithm to reduce false alarms. Secondly, we propose a novel feature encapsulating both the relationship of oriented gradient distribution and the code of oriented gradient to deal with the enormous variance in pedestrians’ size and appearance. Thirdly, we introduce a multi-frame approval matching approach utilizing the spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians to increase the detection rate. Large-scale experiments indicate that the system works in real time and the accuracy has improved about 9% compared with approaches based on high-dimensional features only. PMID:26703611

  12. Far-Infrared Based Pedestrian Detection for Driver-Assistance Systems Based on Candidate Filters, Gradient-Based Feature and Multi-Frame Approval Matching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Far-infrared pedestrian detection approaches for advanced driver-assistance systems based on high-dimensional features fail to simultaneously achieve robust and real-time detection. We propose a robust and real-time pedestrian detection system characterized by novel candidate filters, novel pedestrian features and multi-frame approval matching in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Firstly, we design two filters based on the pedestrians' head and the road to select the candidates after applying a pedestrian segmentation algorithm to reduce false alarms. Secondly, we propose a novel feature encapsulating both the relationship of oriented gradient distribution and the code of oriented gradient to deal with the enormous variance in pedestrians' size and appearance. Thirdly, we introduce a multi-frame approval matching approach utilizing the spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians to increase the detection rate. Large-scale experiments indicate that the system works in real time and the accuracy has improved about 9% compared with approaches based on high-dimensional features only.

  13. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Iván G.; Bergasa, Luis M.; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, J. Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study. PMID:24412904

  14. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection.

    PubMed

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-09

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  15. Intersection assistance: a safe solution for older drivers?

    PubMed

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2013-10-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations that require divided attention and decision making under time pressure as reflected by their overrepresentation in at-fault crashes on intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) especially designed to support older drivers crossing intersections might counteract these difficulties. In a longer-term driving simulator study, the effects of an intersection assistant on driving were evaluated. 18 older drivers (M=71.44 years) returned repeatedly completing a ride either with or without a support system in a driving simulator. In order to test the intersection assistance, eight intersections were depicted for further analyses. Results show that ADAS affects driving. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the road center rather than the left and right, crossed intersections in shorter time, engaged in higher speeds, and crossed more often with a critical time-to-collision (TTC) value. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety.

  16. Augmented reality cues to assist older drivers with gap estimation for left-turns.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Michelle L; Schall, Mark C; Lee, John D; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to assist middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairments, judging when to make left-turns across oncoming traffic. Previous studies have shown that AR cues can help middle-aged and older drivers respond to potential roadside hazards by increasing hazard detection without interfering with other driving tasks. Intersections pose a critical challenge for cognitively impaired drivers, prone to misjudge time-to-contact with oncoming traffic. We investigated whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in left-turns across oncoming traffic for drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Sixty-four middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairment judged when it would be safe to turn left across oncoming traffic approaching the driver from the opposite direction in a rural stop-sign controlled intersection scenario implemented in a static base driving simulator. Outcome measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of AR cueing included: Time-to-Contact (TTC), Gap Time Variation (GTV), Response Rate, and Gap Response Variation (GRV). All drivers estimated TTCs were shorter in cued than in uncued conditions. In addition, drivers responded more often in cued conditions than in uncued conditions and GRV decreased for all drivers in scenarios that contained AR cues. For both TTC and response rate, drivers also appeared to adjust their behavior to be consistent with the cues, especially drivers with the poorest UFOV scores (matching their behavior to be close to middle-aged drivers). Driver ratings indicated that cueing was not considered to be distracting. Further, various conditions of reliability (e.g., 15% miss rate) did not appear to affect performance or driver ratings.

  17. AUGMENTED REALITY CUES TO ASSIST OLDER DRIVERS WITH GAP ESTIMATION FOR LEFT-TURNS

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to assist middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairments, judging when to make left-turns across oncoming traffic. Previous studies have shown that AR cues can help middle-aged and older drivers respond to potential roadside hazards by increasing hazard detection without interfering with other driving tasks. Intersections pose a critical challenge for cognitively impaired drivers, prone to misjudge time-to-contact with oncoming traffic. We investigated whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in left-turns across oncoming traffic for drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Sixty-four middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairment judged when it would be safe to turn left across oncoming traffic approaching the driver from the opposite direction in a rural stop-sign controlled intersection scenario implemented in a static base driving simulator. Outcome measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of AR cueing included: Time-to-Contact (TTC), Gap Time Variation (GTV), Response Rate, and Gap Response Variation (GRV). All drivers estimated TTCs were shorter in cued than in uncued conditions. In addition, drivers responded more often in cued conditions than in uncued conditions and GRV decreased for all drivers in scenarios that contained AR cues. For both TTC and response rate, drivers also appeared to adjust their behavior to be consistent with the cues, especially drivers with the poorest UFOV scores (matching their behavior to be close to middle-aged drivers). Driver ratings indicated that cueing was not considered to be distracting. Further, various conditions of reliability (e.g., 15% miss rate) did not appear to affect performance or driver ratings. PMID:24950128

  18. An innovative nonintrusive driver assistance system for vital signal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Yu, Xiong Bill

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes an in-vehicle nonintrusive biopotential measurement system for driver health monitoring and fatigue detection. Previous research has found that the physiological signals including eye features, electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG) and their secondary parameters such as heart rate and HR variability are good indicators of health state as well as driver fatigue. A conventional biopotential measurement system requires the electrodes to be in contact with human body. This not only interferes with the driver operation, but also is not feasible for long-term monitoring purpose. The driver assistance system in this paper can remotely detect the biopotential signals with no physical contact with human skin. With delicate sensor and electronic design, ECG, EEG, and eye blinking can be measured. Experiments were conducted on a high fidelity driving simulator to validate the system performance. The system was found to be able to detect the ECG/EEG signals through cloth or hair with no contact with skin. Eye blinking activities can also be detected at a distance of 10 cm. Digital signal processing algorithms were developed to decimate the signal noise and extract the physiological features. The extracted features from the vital signals were further analyzed to assess the potential criterion for alertness and drowsiness determination. PMID:25375690

  19. Does assisted driving behavior lead to safety-critical encounters with unequipped vehicles' drivers?

    PubMed

    Preuk, Katharina; Stemmler, Eric; Schießl, Caroline; Jipp, Meike

    2016-10-01

    With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers. This is why we tested how unequipped vehicles' drivers (N=60) interpreted and reacted to the driving behavior of an assisted driver. We used a multi-driver simulator with three drivers. The three drivers were driving in a line. The lead driver in the line was a confederate who was followed by two unequipped vehicles' drivers. We varied the equipment of the confederate with an Intelligent Transport System: The confederate was equipped either with or without a traffic light assistance system. The traffic light assistance system provided a start-up maneuver before a light turned green. Therefore, the assisted confederate seemed to show unusual deceleration behavior by coming to a halt at an unusual distance from the stop line at the red traffic light. The unusual distance was varied as we tested a moderate (4m distance from the stop line) and an extreme (10m distance from the stop line) parameterization of the system. Our results showed that the extreme parametrization resulted in shorter minimal time-to-collision of the unequipped vehicles' drivers. One rear-end crash was observed. These results provided initial evidence that safety issues can arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter assisted driving behavior. We recommend that future research identifies counteractions to prevent these safety issues. Moreover, we recommend that system developers

  20. Driver assist behaviors for high-speed small UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian

    2011-05-01

    Currently deployed small UGVs operate at speeds up to around 6 mph and have proven their usefulness in explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) missions. As part of the TARDEC-funded Stingray Project, iRobot is investigating techniques to increase the speed of small UGVs so they can be useful in a wider range of missions, such as high-speed reconnaissance and infantry assault missions. We have developed a prototype Stingray PackBot, using wheels rather than tracks, that is capable of traveling at speeds up to 18 mph. A key issue when traveling at such speeds is how to maintain stability during sharp turns and over rough terrain. We are developing driver assist behaviors that will provide dynamic stability control for high-speed small UGVs using techniques such as dynamic weight shifting to limit oversteer and understeer. These driver assist behaviors will enable operators to use future high-speed small UGVs in high optempo infantry missions and keep warfighters out of harm's way.

  1. Integrated driver modelling considering state transition feature for individual adaptation of driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Khaisongkram, Wathanyoo; Nagai, Masao; Shimosaka, Masamichi; Mori, Taketoshi; Sato, Tomomasa

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the modelling of naturalistic driving behaviour in real-world traffic scenarios, based on driving data collected via an experimental automobile equipped with a continuous sensing drive recorder. This paper focuses on the longitudinal driving situations which are classified into five categories - car following, braking, free following, decelerating and stopping - and are referred to as driving states. Here, the model is assumed to be represented by a state flow diagram. Statistical machine learning of driver-vehicle-environment system model based on driving database is conducted by a discriminative modelling approach called boosting sequential labelling method.

  2. Stereo sequences analysis for dynamic scene understanding in a driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, Boris V.; Vizilter, Yuri V.; Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Malin, Ivan K.; Vygolov, Oleg V.; Zheltov, Sergey Y.

    2015-05-01

    The improved stereo-based approach for dynamic road scene understanding in a Driver Assistance System (DAS) is presented. System calibration is addressed. Algorithms for road lane detection, road 3D model generation, obstacle predetection and object (vehicle) detection are described. Lane detection is based on the evidence analysis. Obstacle predetection procedure performs the comparison of radial ortophotos, obtained by left and right stereo images. Object detection algorithm is based on recognition of back part of cars by histograms of oriented gradients. Car Stereo Sequences (CSS) Dataset captured by vehicle-based laboratory and published for DAS algorithms testing.

  3. Driver fatigue alarm based on eye detection and gaze estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xinghua; Xu, Lu; Yang, Jingyu

    2007-11-01

    The driver assistant system has attracted much attention as an essential component of intelligent transportation systems. One task of driver assistant system is to prevent the drivers from fatigue. For the fatigue detection it is natural that the information about eyes should be utilized. The driver fatigue can be divided into two types, one is the sleep with eyes close and another is the sleep with eyes open. Considering that the fatigue detection is related with the prior knowledge and probabilistic statistics, the dynamic Bayesian network is used as the analysis tool to perform the reasoning of fatigue. Two kinds of experiments are performed to verify the system effectiveness, one is based on the video got from the laboratory and another is based on the video got from the real driving situation. Ten persons participate in the test and the experimental result is that, in the laboratory all the fatigue events can be detected, and in the practical vehicle the detection ratio is about 85%. Experiments show that in most of situations the proposed system works and the corresponding performance is satisfying.

  4. Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems.

    PubMed

    Gerónimo, David; López, Antonio M; Sappa, Angel D; Graf, Thorsten

    2010-07-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs), and particularly pedestrian protection systems (PPSs), have become an active research area aimed at improving traffic safety. The major challenge of PPSs is the development of reliable on-board pedestrian detection systems. Due to the varying appearance of pedestrians (e.g., different clothes, changing size, aspect ratio, and dynamic shape) and the unstructured environment, it is very difficult to cope with the demanded robustness of this kind of system. Two problems arising in this research area are the lack of public benchmarks and the difficulty in reproducing many of the proposed methods, which makes it difficult to compare the approaches. As a result, surveying the literature by enumerating the proposals one--after-another is not the most useful way to provide a comparative point of view. Accordingly, we present a more convenient strategy to survey the different approaches. We divide the problem of detecting pedestrians from images into different processing steps, each with attached responsibilities. Then, the different proposed methods are analyzed and classified with respect to each processing stage, favoring a comparative viewpoint. Finally, discussion of the important topics is presented, putting special emphasis on the future needs and challenges. PMID:20489227

  5. Survey of pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems.

    PubMed

    Gerónimo, David; López, Antonio M; Sappa, Angel D; Graf, Thorsten

    2010-07-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs), and particularly pedestrian protection systems (PPSs), have become an active research area aimed at improving traffic safety. The major challenge of PPSs is the development of reliable on-board pedestrian detection systems. Due to the varying appearance of pedestrians (e.g., different clothes, changing size, aspect ratio, and dynamic shape) and the unstructured environment, it is very difficult to cope with the demanded robustness of this kind of system. Two problems arising in this research area are the lack of public benchmarks and the difficulty in reproducing many of the proposed methods, which makes it difficult to compare the approaches. As a result, surveying the literature by enumerating the proposals one--after-another is not the most useful way to provide a comparative point of view. Accordingly, we present a more convenient strategy to survey the different approaches. We divide the problem of detecting pedestrians from images into different processing steps, each with attached responsibilities. Then, the different proposed methods are analyzed and classified with respect to each processing stage, favoring a comparative viewpoint. Finally, discussion of the important topics is presented, putting special emphasis on the future needs and challenges.

  6. Far-infrared pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems using scene context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Qingyao

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is one of the most critical but challenging components in advanced driver assistance systems. Far-infrared (FIR) images are well-suited for pedestrian detection even in a dark environment. However, most current detection approaches just focus on pedestrian patterns themselves, where robust and real-time detection cannot be well achieved. We propose a fast FIR pedestrian detection approach, called MAP-HOGLBP-T, to explicitly exploit the scene context for the driver assistance system. In MAP-HOGLBP-T, three algorithms are developed to exploit the scene contextual information from roads, vehicles, and background objects of high homogeneity, and we employ the Bayesian approach to build a classifier learner which respects the scene contextual information. We also develop a multiframe approval scheme to enhance the detection performance based on spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians. Our empirical study on real-world datasets has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance is shown to be better than that of state-of-the-art low-level feature-based approaches.

  7. Haptic Feedback to Assist Bus Drivers for Pedestrian Safety at Low Speed.

    PubMed

    Girbes, Vicent; Armesto, Leopoldo; Dols, Juan; Tornero, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Buses and coaches are massive Passenger Transportation Systems (PTS), because they represent more than half of land PTS in the European Union. Despite that, bus accident figures are lower than other means of transport, but its size and weight increase the severity of accidents in which buses are involved, even at low speed. In urban scenarios, turnings and maneuvers around bus stops are the main causes of accidents, mostly due to low visibility, blind spots, or driver's distractions. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in developing driving assistance systems to avoid these situations, among others. However, even though there are some solutions on the market, they are not meant to work in urban areas at low speed and with the sole purpose of preventing collisions with pedestrians. In this sense, the paper proposes an active safety system for buses in maneuvers at low speed. The safety system consists of haptic feedback devices together with collision avoidance and risk evaluation systems based on detected people nearby the bus. The performance of the active safety system has been validated in a simulated urban scenario. Our results show that driver's reaction time is reduced and time to collision increased due to the proposed low-speed active safety system. In particular, it is shown that there is a reduction in the number of high risk cases and collisions, which implies a considerable improvement in safety terms. In addition to this, a brief discussion about current regulations for innovative safety systems on real vehicles is carried out.

  8. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don; Allen-Flowers, Jordan

    2012-12-15

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  9. Smart roadside system for driver assistance and safety warnings: framework and applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use.

  10. Smart roadside system for driver assistance and safety warnings: framework and applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use. PMID:22164025

  11. Factors correlated with traffic accidents as a basis for evaluating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

    PubMed

    Staubach, Maria

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to identify factors which influence and cause errors in traffic accidents and to use these as a basis for information to guide the application and design of driver assistance systems. A total of 474 accidents were examined in depth for this study by means of a psychological survey, data from accident reports, and technical reconstruction information. An error analysis was subsequently carried out, taking into account the driver, environment, and vehicle sub-systems. Results showed that all accidents were influenced by errors as a consequence of distraction and reduced activity. For crossroad accidents, there were further errors resulting from sight obstruction, masked stimuli, focus errors, and law infringements. Lane departure crashes were additionally caused by errors as a result of masked stimuli, law infringements, expectation errors as well as objective and action slips, while same direction accidents occurred additionally because of focus errors, expectation errors, and objective and action slips. Most accidents were influenced by multiple factors. There is a safety potential for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which support the driver in information assimilation and help to avoid distraction and reduced activity. The design of the ADAS is dependent on the specific influencing factors of the accident type. PMID:19664441

  12. Factors correlated with traffic accidents as a basis for evaluating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

    PubMed

    Staubach, Maria

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to identify factors which influence and cause errors in traffic accidents and to use these as a basis for information to guide the application and design of driver assistance systems. A total of 474 accidents were examined in depth for this study by means of a psychological survey, data from accident reports, and technical reconstruction information. An error analysis was subsequently carried out, taking into account the driver, environment, and vehicle sub-systems. Results showed that all accidents were influenced by errors as a consequence of distraction and reduced activity. For crossroad accidents, there were further errors resulting from sight obstruction, masked stimuli, focus errors, and law infringements. Lane departure crashes were additionally caused by errors as a result of masked stimuli, law infringements, expectation errors as well as objective and action slips, while same direction accidents occurred additionally because of focus errors, expectation errors, and objective and action slips. Most accidents were influenced by multiple factors. There is a safety potential for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which support the driver in information assimilation and help to avoid distraction and reduced activity. The design of the ADAS is dependent on the specific influencing factors of the accident type.

  13. Advanced driver assistance system for AHS over communication links with random packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Seshadhri; Ayyagari, Ramakalyan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced driver assist system (ADAS) for platoon based automated highway system (AHS) with packet loss in inter-vehicle communication. Using the concept of rigidity, we first show that vehicles in a platoon tend to fall apart in the event of a packet loss among vehicles. To overcome this, we propose an estimation based dynamic platooning algorithm which employs the state estimate to maintain the platoon. Communication among the vehicle is reduced by using minimum spanning tree (MST) in state estimation algorithm. Effectiveness of the proposed ADAS scheme is illustrated by simulation wherein, dynamic platoons of holonomic vehicles with integrator dynamics are considered. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm maintains the platoon up to a packet loss rate of 48%. State transmission scheme proposed in our algorithm has three significant advantages, they are: (1) it handles packet loss in inter-vehicle communication, (2) reduces the effect of error in measured output, and (3) reduces the inter-vehicle communication. These advantages significantly increase the reliability and safety of the AHS.

  14. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  15. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (< 30miles/h) car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  16. Vision-based method for detecting driver drowsiness and distraction in driver monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jaeik; Lee, Sung Joo; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2011-12-01

    Most driver-monitoring systems have attempted to detect either driver drowsiness or distraction, although both factors should be considered for accident prevention. Therefore, we propose a new driver-monitoring method considering both factors. We make the following contributions. First, if the driver is looking ahead, drowsiness detection is performed; otherwise, distraction detection is performed. Thus, the computational cost and eye-detection error can be reduced. Second, we propose a new eye-detection algorithm that combines adaptive boosting, adaptive template matching, and blob detection with eye validation, thereby reducing the eye-detection error and processing time significantly, which is hardly achievable using a single method. Third, to enhance eye-detection accuracy, eye validation is applied after initial eye detection, using a support vector machine based on appearance features obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Fourth, we propose a novel eye state-detection algorithm that combines appearance features obtained using PCA and LDA, with statistical features such as the sparseness and kurtosis of the histogram from the horizontal edge image of the eye. Experimental results showed that the detection accuracies of the eye region and eye states were 99 and 97%, respectively. Both driver drowsiness and distraction were detected with a success rate of 98%.

  17. Design and Implementation of Real-Time Vehicular Camera for Driver Assistance and Traffic Congestion Estimation.

    PubMed

    Son, Sanghyun; Baek, Yunju

    2015-01-01

    As society has developed, the number of vehicles has increased and road conditions have become complicated, increasing the risk of crashes. Therefore, a service that provides safe vehicle control and various types of information to the driver is urgently needed. In this study, we designed and implemented a real-time traffic information system and a smart camera device for smart driver assistance systems. We selected a commercial device for the smart driver assistance systems, and applied a computer vision algorithm to perform image recognition. For application to the dynamic region of interest, dynamic frame skip methods were implemented to perform parallel processing in order to enable real-time operation. In addition, we designed and implemented a model to estimate congestion by analyzing traffic information. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using images of a real road environment. We found that the processing time improved by 15.4 times when all the proposed methods were applied in the application. Further, we found experimentally that there was little or no change in the recognition accuracy when the proposed method was applied. Using the traffic congestion estimation model, we also found that the average error rate of the proposed model was 5.3%.

  18. Design and Implementation of Real-Time Vehicular Camera for Driver Assistance and Traffic Congestion Estimation.

    PubMed

    Son, Sanghyun; Baek, Yunju

    2015-01-01

    As society has developed, the number of vehicles has increased and road conditions have become complicated, increasing the risk of crashes. Therefore, a service that provides safe vehicle control and various types of information to the driver is urgently needed. In this study, we designed and implemented a real-time traffic information system and a smart camera device for smart driver assistance systems. We selected a commercial device for the smart driver assistance systems, and applied a computer vision algorithm to perform image recognition. For application to the dynamic region of interest, dynamic frame skip methods were implemented to perform parallel processing in order to enable real-time operation. In addition, we designed and implemented a model to estimate congestion by analyzing traffic information. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using images of a real road environment. We found that the processing time improved by 15.4 times when all the proposed methods were applied in the application. Further, we found experimentally that there was little or no change in the recognition accuracy when the proposed method was applied. Using the traffic congestion estimation model, we also found that the average error rate of the proposed model was 5.3%. PMID:26295230

  19. Design and Implementation of Real-Time Vehicular Camera for Driver Assistance and Traffic Congestion Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sanghyun; Baek, Yunju

    2015-01-01

    As society has developed, the number of vehicles has increased and road conditions have become complicated, increasing the risk of crashes. Therefore, a service that provides safe vehicle control and various types of information to the driver is urgently needed. In this study, we designed and implemented a real-time traffic information system and a smart camera device for smart driver assistance systems. We selected a commercial device for the smart driver assistance systems, and applied a computer vision algorithm to perform image recognition. For application to the dynamic region of interest, dynamic frame skip methods were implemented to perform parallel processing in order to enable real-time operation. In addition, we designed and implemented a model to estimate congestion by analyzing traffic information. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using images of a real road environment. We found that the processing time improved by 15.4 times when all the proposed methods were applied in the application. Further, we found experimentally that there was little or no change in the recognition accuracy when the proposed method was applied. Using the traffic congestion estimation model, we also found that the average error rate of the proposed model was 5.3%. PMID:26295230

  20. Advanced driver assistance systems: Using multimodal redundant warnings to enhance road safety.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Francesco; Strayer, David L; Rossi, Riccardo; Gastaldi, Massimiliano; Mulatti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether multimodal redundant warnings presented by advanced assistance systems reduce brake response times. Warnings presented by assistance systems are designed to assist drivers by informing them that evasive driving maneuvers are needed in order to avoid a potential accident. If these warnings are poorly designed, they may distract drivers, slow their responses, and reduce road safety. In two experiments, participants drove a simulated vehicle equipped with a forward collision avoidance system. Auditory, vibrotactile, and multimodal warnings were presented when the time to collision was shorter than five seconds. The effects of these warnings were investigated with participants performing a concurrent cell phone conversation (Exp. 1) or driving in high-density traffic (Exp. 2). Braking times and subjective workload were measured. Multimodal redundant warnings elicited faster braking reaction times. These warnings were found to be effective even when talking on a cell phone (Exp. 1) or driving in dense traffic (Exp. 2). Multimodal warnings produced higher ratings of urgency, but ratings of frustration did not increase compared to other warnings. Findings obtained in these two experiments are important given that faster braking responses may reduce the potential for a collision.

  1. Advanced driver assistance systems: Using multimodal redundant warnings to enhance road safety.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Francesco; Strayer, David L; Rossi, Riccardo; Gastaldi, Massimiliano; Mulatti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether multimodal redundant warnings presented by advanced assistance systems reduce brake response times. Warnings presented by assistance systems are designed to assist drivers by informing them that evasive driving maneuvers are needed in order to avoid a potential accident. If these warnings are poorly designed, they may distract drivers, slow their responses, and reduce road safety. In two experiments, participants drove a simulated vehicle equipped with a forward collision avoidance system. Auditory, vibrotactile, and multimodal warnings were presented when the time to collision was shorter than five seconds. The effects of these warnings were investigated with participants performing a concurrent cell phone conversation (Exp. 1) or driving in high-density traffic (Exp. 2). Braking times and subjective workload were measured. Multimodal redundant warnings elicited faster braking reaction times. These warnings were found to be effective even when talking on a cell phone (Exp. 1) or driving in dense traffic (Exp. 2). Multimodal warnings produced higher ratings of urgency, but ratings of frustration did not increase compared to other warnings. Findings obtained in these two experiments are important given that faster braking responses may reduce the potential for a collision. PMID:27633218

  2. Prospect theory based estimation of drivers' risk attitudes in route choice behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lizhen; Zhong, Shiquan; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning

    2014-12-01

    This paper applied prospect theory (PT) to describe drivers' route choice behavior under Variable Message Sign (VMS), which presented visual traffic information to assist them to make route choice decisions. A quite rich empirical data from questionnaire and field spot was used to estimate parameters of PT. In order to make the parameters more realistic with drivers' attitudes, they were classified into different types by significant factors influencing their behaviors. Based on the travel time distribution of alternative routes and route choice results from questionnaire, the parameterized value function of each category was figured out, which represented drivers' risk attitudes and choice characteristics. The empirical verification showed that the estimates were acceptable and effective. The result showed drivers' risk attitudes and route choice characteristics could be captured by PT under real-time information shown on VMS. For practical application, once drivers' route choice characteristics and parameters were identified, their route choice behavior under different road conditions could be predicted accurately, which was the basis of traffic guidance measures formulation and implementation for targeted traffic management. Moreover, the heterogeneous risk attitudes among drivers should be considered when releasing traffic information and regulating traffic flow.

  3. Designing Driver Assistance Systems with Crossmodal Signals: Multisensory Integration Rules for Saccadic Reaction Times Apply

    PubMed Central

    Steenken, Rike; Weber, Lars; Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

    2014-01-01

    Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror), presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel) was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic “time window of integration” model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on target–nontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed. PMID:24800823

  4. Detecting Driver Drowsiness Based on Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sahayadhas, Arun; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Murugappan, Murugappan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, driver drowsiness has been one of the major causes of road accidents and can lead to severe physical injuries, deaths and significant economic losses. Statistics indicate the need of a reliable driver drowsiness detection system which could alert the driver before a mishap happens. Researchers have attempted to determine driver drowsiness using the following measures: (1) vehicle-based measures; (2) behavioral measures and (3) physiological measures. A detailed review on these measures will provide insight on the present systems, issues associated with them and the enhancements that need to be done to make a robust system. In this paper, we review these three measures as to the sensors used and discuss the advantages and limitations of each. The various ways through which drowsiness has been experimentally manipulated is also discussed. We conclude that by designing a hybrid drowsiness detection system that combines non-intusive physiological measures with other measures one would accurately determine the drowsiness level of a driver. A number of road accidents might then be avoided if an alert is sent to a driver that is deemed drowsy. PMID:23223151

  5. A preliminary study of MR sickness evaluation using visual motion aftereffect for advanced driver assistance systems.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sawako; Ino, Shuichi; Ifukube, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    Mixed Reality (MR) technologies have recently been explored in many areas of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) such as medicine, manufacturing, entertainment and education. However MR sickness, a kind of motion sickness is caused by sensory conflicts between the real world and virtual world. The purpose of this paper is to find out a new evaluation method of motion and MR sickness. This paper investigates a relationship between the whole-body vibration related to MR technologies and the motion aftereffect (MAE) phenomenon in the human visual system. This MR environment is modeled after advanced driver assistance systems in near-future vehicles. The seated subjects in the MR simulator were shaken in the pitch direction ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 Hz. Results show that MAE is useful for evaluation of MR sickness incidence. In addition, a method to reduce the MR sickness by auditory stimulation is proposed.

  6. Driver performance-based assessment of thermal display degradation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Massimi, Michael S.; Choi, Yoon S.; Ferrett, Donald A.

    1998-07-01

    The Driver's Vision Enhancer (DVE) is a thermal sensor and display combination currently being procured for use in U.S. Army combat and tactical wheeled vehicles. During the DVE production process, a given number of sensor or display pixels may either vary from the desired luminance values (nonuniform) or be inactive (nonresponsive). The amount and distribution of pixel luminance nonuniformity (NU) and nonresponsivity (NR) allowable in production DVEs is a significant cost factor. No driver performance-based criteria exist for determining the maximum amount of allowable NU and NR. For safety reasons, these characteristics are specified conservatively. This paper describes an experiment to assess the effects of different levels of display NU and NR on Army drivers' ability to identify scene features and obstacles using a simulated DVE display and videotaped driving scenarios. Baseline, NU, and NR display conditions were simulated using real-time image processing techniques and a computer graphics workstation. The results indicate that there is a small, but statistically insignificant decrease in identification performance with the NU conditions tested. The pattern of the performance-based results is consistent with drivers' subjective assessments of display adequacy. The implications of the results for specifying NU and NR criteria for the DVE display are discussed.

  7. Justice-based social assistance

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries.

  8. Justice-based social assistance

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries. PMID:27708544

  9. Healthcare quality maturity assessment model based on quality drivers.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Nadia; Arafeh, Mazen

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare providers differ in their readiness and maturity levels regarding quality and quality management systems applications. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a useful quantitative quality maturity-level assessment tool for healthcare organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The model proposes five quality maturity levels (chaotic, primitive, structured, mature and proficient) based on six quality drivers: top management, people, operations, culture, quality focus and accreditation. Findings - Healthcare managers can apply the model to identify the status quo, quality shortcomings and evaluating ongoing progress. Practical implications - The model has been incorporated in an interactive Excel worksheet that visually displays the quality maturity-level risk meter. The tool has been applied successfully to local hospitals. Originality/value - The proposed six quality driver scales appear to measure healthcare provider maturity levels on a single quality meter. PMID:27120510

  10. From advanced driver assistance to autonomous driving: perspectives for photonics sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochard, Jacques; Bouyé, Clémentine

    2016-03-01

    Optics components entered in the automotive vehicle one century ago with headlamps and since then move towards even more sophisticated designs in lighting functions. Photonics sensors are just entering now in this market through driver assistance, in complement of incumbent ultrasonic and radar technologies. Gain of market shares is expected for this components with autonomous driving, that was few years ago a nice dream and whose early results exceed surprisingly expectations of roadmaps and historic OEM have quickly joined the course launched by Google Company 5 years ago. Technological components, among them CMOS camera followed by Laser Scanners, cost-effective flash LIDAR are already experimenting their first miles in real condition and new consumers in South Asia plebiscite this new way to drive cars .The issue is still for photonics companies to move from well suited technological solution to mass-production components with corresponding cost reduction. MEMS components that follow the same curve 15 years ago (with market entries in airbags, tire pressure monitoring systems…) experimented the hard pressure on price for wide market adoption. Besides price, which is a CFO issue, photonic technologies will keep in place if they can both reassure OEM CEO and let CTO and designers dream. Reassurance will be through higher level of standardization and reliability of these components whereas dream will be linked to innovative sensing application, e.g spectroscopy.

  11. Automotive Radar and Lidar Systems for Next Generation Driver Assistance Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Gresser, K.

    2005-05-01

    Automotive radar and lidar sensors represent key components for next generation driver assistance functions (Jones, 2001). Today, their use is limited to comfort applications in premium segment vehicles although an evolution process towards more safety-oriented functions is taking place. Radar sensors available on the market today suffer from low angular resolution and poor target detection in medium ranges (30 to 60m) over azimuth angles larger than ±30°. In contrast, Lidar sensors show large sensitivity towards environmental influences (e.g. snow, fog, dirt). Both sensor technologies today have a rather high cost level, forbidding their wide-spread usage on mass markets. A common approach to overcome individual sensor drawbacks is the employment of data fusion techniques (Bar-Shalom, 2001). Raw data fusion requires a common, standardized data interface to easily integrate a variety of asynchronous sensor data into a fusion network. Moreover, next generation sensors should be able to dynamically adopt to new situations and should have the ability to work in cooperative sensor environments. As vehicular function development today is being shifted more and more towards virtual prototyping, mathematical sensor models should be available. These models should take into account the sensor's functional principle as well as all typical measurement errors generated by the sensor.

  12. Subtractive fuzzy classifier based driver distraction levels classification using EEG.

    PubMed

    Wali, Mousa Kadhim; Murugappan, Murugappan; Ahmad, Badlishah

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20-35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction.

  13. Comparative loss analysis and efficiency performance of resonance-based PDP sustain drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, S.-S.; Kim, I.-G.; Lee, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sustain drivers based on the LC resonant operation have a significant influence on the entire circuit efficiency and cost of plasma display panels (PDPs). Although circuit efficiency of PDP drivers is extremely important, theoretical loss analysis and comparative studies of the sustain drivers have been missed in the literature, despite a variety of developed PDP sustain drivers. This paper presents in detail theoretical analyses and systematic comparisons of semiconductor losses in the PDP sustain drivers, including the inevitable conduction losses by the displacement currents, the undesirable extra conduction losses, the switching losses by the forced current commutations and the switching losses by the step voltage changes. Based on derived theoretical analysis and comparative features, sustain drivers are evaluated in terms of PDP operating speed as well as circuits' efficiency.

  14. Driver assistance system for passive multi-trailer vehicles with haptic steering limitations on the leading unit.

    PubMed

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L; Reina, Antonio J; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

  15. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L.; Reina, Antonio J.; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

  16. Driver assistance system for passive multi-trailer vehicles with haptic steering limitations on the leading unit.

    PubMed

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L; Reina, Antonio J; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  17. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  18. Driver fatigue recognition based on supervised LPP and MKSVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Driver fatigue is a significant factor in many traffic accidents. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to recognize driver fatigue. First of all, in order to extract effective feature of fatigue expression from face images, supervised locality preserving projections (SLPP) is adopted, which can solve the problem that LPP ignores the within-class local structure by adopting prior class label information. And then multiple kernels support vector machines (MKSVM) is employed to recognizing fatigue expression, Compared to SVM, which can improve the interpretability of decision function and performance of fatigue recognition. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Sparse expression bases in cancer reveal tumor drivers.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, Benjamin A; Gentles, Andrew J; Miller, Chris P; Blau, C Anthony; Becker, Pamela S; Lee, Su-In

    2015-02-18

    We define a new category of candidate tumor drivers in cancer genome evolution: 'selected expression regulators' (SERs)-genes driving dysregulated transcriptional programs in cancer evolution. The SERs are identified from genome-wide tumor expression data with a novel method, namely SPARROW ( SPAR: se selected exp R: essi O: n regulators identified W: ith penalized regression). SPARROW uncovers a previously unknown connection between cancer expression variation and driver events, by using a novel sparse regression technique. Our results indicate that SPARROW is a powerful complementary approach to identify candidate genes containing driver events that are hard to detect from sequence data, due to a large number of passenger mutations and lack of comprehensive sequence information from a sufficiently large number of samples. SERs identified by SPARROW reveal known driver mutations in multiple human cancers, along with known cancer-associated processes and survival-associated genes, better than popular methods for inferring gene expression networks. We demonstrate that when applied to acute myeloid leukemia expression data, SPARROW identifies an apoptotic biomarker (PYCARD) for an investigational drug obatoclax. The PYCARD and obatoclax association is validated in 30 AML patient samples.

  20. Sparse expression bases in cancer reveal tumor drivers

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Miller, Chris P.; Blau, C. Anthony; Becker, Pamela S.; Lee, Su-In

    2015-01-01

    We define a new category of candidate tumor drivers in cancer genome evolution: ‘selected expression regulators’ (SERs)—genes driving dysregulated transcriptional programs in cancer evolution. The SERs are identified from genome-wide tumor expression data with a novel method, namely SPARROW (SPARse selected expRessiOn regulators identified With penalized regression). SPARROW uncovers a previously unknown connection between cancer expression variation and driver events, by using a novel sparse regression technique. Our results indicate that SPARROW is a powerful complementary approach to identify candidate genes containing driver events that are hard to detect from sequence data, due to a large number of passenger mutations and lack of comprehensive sequence information from a sufficiently large number of samples. SERs identified by SPARROW reveal known driver mutations in multiple human cancers, along with known cancer-associated processes and survival-associated genes, better than popular methods for inferring gene expression networks. We demonstrate that when applied to acute myeloid leukemia expression data, SPARROW identifies an apoptotic biomarker (PYCARD) for an investigational drug obatoclax. The PYCARD and obatoclax association is validated in 30 AML patient samples. PMID:25583238

  1. Steering disturbance rejection using a physics-based neuromusculoskeletal driver model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, Naser; Sharif Razavian, Reza; McPhee, John

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive yet practical driver model to be used in studying driver-vehicle interactions. Drivers interact with their vehicle and the road through the steering wheel. This interaction forms a closed-loop coupled human-machine system, which influences the driver's steering feel and control performance. A hierarchical approach is proposed here to capture the complexity of the driver's neuromuscular dynamics and the central nervous system in the coordination of the driver's upper extremity activities, especially in the presence of external disturbance. The proposed motor control framework has three layers: the first (or the path planning) plans a desired vehicle trajectory and the required steering angles to perform the desired trajectory; the second (or the musculoskeletal controller) actuates the musculoskeletal arm to rotate the steering wheel accordingly; and the final layer ensures the precision control and disturbance rejection of the motor control units. The physics-based driver model presented here can also provide insights into vehicle control in relaxed and tensed driving conditions, which are simulated by adjusting the driver model parameters such as cognition delay and muscle co-contraction dynamics.

  2. Network-Based Analysis of eQTL Data to Prioritize Driver Mutations

    PubMed Central

    De Maeyer, Dries; Weytjens, Bram; De Raedt, Luc; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In clonal systems, interpreting driver genes in terms of molecular networks helps understanding how these drivers elicit an adaptive phenotype. Obtaining such a network-based understanding depends on the correct identification of driver genes. In clonal systems, independent evolved lines can acquire a similar adaptive phenotype by affecting the same molecular pathways, a phenomenon referred to as parallelism at the molecular pathway level. This implies that successful driver identification depends on interpreting mutated genes in terms of molecular networks. Driver identification and obtaining a network-based understanding of the adaptive phenotype are thus confounded problems that ideally should be solved simultaneously. In this study, a network-based eQTL method is presented that solves both the driver identification and the network-based interpretation problem. As input the method uses coupled genotype-expression phenotype data (eQTL data) of independently evolved lines with similar adaptive phenotypes and an organism-specific genome-wide interaction network. The search for mutational consistency at pathway level is defined as a subnetwork inference problem, which consists of inferring a subnetwork from the genome-wide interaction network that best connects the genes containing mutations to differentially expressed genes. Based on their connectivity with the differentially expressed genes, mutated genes are prioritized as driver genes. Based on semisynthetic data and two publicly available data sets, we illustrate the potential of the network-based eQTL method to prioritize driver genes and to gain insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying an adaptive phenotype. The method is available at http://bioinformatics.intec.ugent.be/phenetic_eqtl/index.html PMID:26802430

  3. Impact of road environment on drivers' behaviors in dilemma zone: Application of agent-based simulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sojung; Son, Young-Jun; Chiu, Yi-Chang; Jeffers, Mary Anne B; Yang, C Y David

    2016-11-01

    At a signalized intersection, there exists an area where drivers become indecisive as to either stop their car or proceed through when the traffic signal turns yellow. This point, called a dilemma zone, has remained a safety concern for drivers due to the great possibility of a rear-end or right-angle crash occurring. In order to reduce the risk of car crashes at the dilemma zone, Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) recommended a dilemma zone model. The model, however, fails to provide precise calculations on the decision of drivers because it disregards the supplemental roadway information, such as whether a red light camera is present. Hence, the goal of this study was to incorporate such roadway environmental factors into a more realistic driver decision-making model for the dilemma zone. A driving simulator was used to determine the influence of roadway conditions on decision-making of real drivers. Following data collection, each driver's decision outcomes were implemented in an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) so as to analyze behaviors under realistic road environments. The experimental results revealed that the proposed dilemma zone model was able to accurately predict the decisions of drivers. Specifically, the model confirmed the findings from the driving simulator study that the changes in the roadway environment reduced the number of red light violations at an intersection.

  4. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury: a single-case field experiment.

    PubMed

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry; NielsAgerholm; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the "Pay as You Speed" project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers with ABI were recruited as subjects and had ISA equipment installed in their private vehicle. Their speed was logged with ISA equipment for a total of 30 weeks of which 12 weeks were with an active ISA user interface (6 weeks=Baseline 1; 12 weeks=ISA period; 12 weeks=Baseline 2). The subjects participated in two semi-structured interviews concerning their strategies for driving with ABI and for driving with ISA. Furthermore, they gave consent to have data from their clinical journals and be a part of the study. The two subjects did not report any instances of being distracted or confused by ISA, and in general they described driving with ISA as relaxed. ISA reduced the percentage of the total distance that was driven with a speed above the speed limit (PDA), but the subjects relapsed to their previous PDA level in Baseline 2. This suggests that ISA is more suited as a permanent assistive device (i.e. cognitive prosthesis) than as a temporary training device. As ABI is associated with a multitude of cognitive deficits, we developed a conceptual framework, which focused on the cognitive parameters that have been shown to relate to speeding behaviour, namely "intention to speed" and "inattention to speeding". The subjects' combined status on the two independent parameters made up their "speeding profile". A comparison of the speeding profiles and the speed logs indicated that ISA in the present study was more efficient in reducing inattention to speeding than affecting intention to speed. This finding suggests that ISA might be more suited for some neuropsychological profiles than for others, and that customisation of ISA for different neuropsychological profiles may be required

  5. The design and implementation of application level transparent firewall system based on NIC driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xin; Xu, Yong

    2013-03-01

    On the analysis of the Intel 100 Mbps NIC driver, a scheme of implementing application level transparent firewall system using Intel 100 Mbps NIC driver was presented. Base on this scheme, the program can capture all network data packets through the NIC, analyze and process data according to the loaded rules and transmit packets. At the same time, this method can greatly improve the efficiency on depth analyzing network data in application-layer and rule matching.

  6. Yb:YAG ceramic-based laser driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrovec, John; Copeland, Drew A.; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a new class of laser amplifiers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers based on a Yb:YAG ceramic disk in an edge-pumped configuration and cooled by a high-velocity gas flow. The Yb lasant offers very high efficiency and low waste heat. The ceramic host material has a thermal conductivity nearly 15-times higher than the traditionally used glass and it is producible in sizes suitable for a typical 10- to 20-kJ driver beam line. The combination of high lasant efficiency, low waste heat, edge-pumping, and excellent thermal conductivity of the host, enable operation at 10 to 20 Hz at over 20% wall plug efficiency while being comparably smaller and less costly than recently considered face-pumped alternative drivers using Nd:glass, Yb:S-FAP, and cryogenic Yb:YAG. Scalability of the laser driver over a broad range of sizes is presented.

  7. Development of a flow rate monitoring method for the wearable ventricular assist device driver.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Kentaro; Homma, Akihiko; Sumikura, Hirohito; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Koichi; Katano, Kazuo; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-06-01

    Our research institute has been working on the development of a compact wearable drive unit for an extracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) with a pneumatically driven pump. A method for checking the pump blood flow on the side of the drive unit without modifying the existing blood pump and impairing the portability of it will be useful. In this study, to calculate the pump flow rate indirectly from measuring the flow rate of the driving air of the VAD air chamber, we conducted experiments using a mock circuit to investigate the correlation between the air flow rate and the pump flow rate as well as its accuracy and error factors. The pump flow rate was measured using an ultrasonic flow meter at the inflow and outflow tube, and the air flow was measured using a thermal mass flow meter at the driveline. Similarity in the instantaneous waveform was confirmed between the air flow rate in the driveline and the pump flow rate. Some limitations of this technique were indicated by consideration of the error factors. A significant correlation was found between the average pump flow rate in the ejecting direction and the average air flow rate in the ejecting direction (R2 = 0.704-0.856), and the air flow rate in the filling direction (R2 = 0.947-0.971). It was demonstrated that the average pump flow rate was estimated exactly in a wide range of drive conditions using the air flow of the filling phase. PMID:25500948

  8. Attenuated ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in assisted breath-hold drivers (Funado).

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Yoshida, A; Hayashi, F; Sasaki, K; Honda, Y

    1982-01-01

    The steady-state ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in 7 assisted breath-hold divers (Funado) were compared with those in 7 normal sedentary controls. Ventilatory response to hypercapnia was measured from the slope of the hyperoxic VN-PETCO2 line, where VN was normalized minute ventilation using the allometric coefficient and PETCO2 end-Tidal PCO2. The slope of this line in the Funado (1.48 +/- 0.54 liters . min-1 . Torr-1) was significantly less than in the control (2.70 +/- 1.08 liters . min-1 . Torr-1) (p less than 0.025). On the other hand, hypoxic sensitivity estimated by hyperbolic and exponential mathematical equations was not found to be significantly different between the two groups, although estimated increments in ventilation using the hyperbolic equation exhibited significantly lower response in the Funado than in the control only when PETO2 decreased lower than 50 Torr (p less than 0.05). These findings in the Funado were different from our previous observations obtained in unassisted breath-hold divers (Kachido), in whom no obvious attenuations in CO2 sensitivity were seen. This difference was assumed to be derived from more hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions produced in the Funado than in the Kachido during diving activities.

  9. Assisted entry mitigates text messaging-based driving detriment.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using cell phones indicates that manual manipulation is not a principal component of text messaging relating driving detriment. This paper suggests that manipulation of a phone in conjunction with the cognitive need to compose the message itself co-act to contribute to driving degradation. This being so, drivers sending text messages might experience reduced interference to the driving task if the text messaging itself were assisted through the predictive T9 system. We evaluated undergraduate drivers in a simulator who drove and texted using either Assisted Text entry, via Nokia's T9 system, or unassisted entry via the multitap interface. Results supported the superiority of the T9 system over the multitap system implying that specific assistive technologies can modulate the degradation of capacity which texting tragically induces.

  10. Transnasal endoscopy-assisted skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Aldo M

    2006-09-01

    Skull base surgery (SBS), which originated in the 19th century, became refined in the 20th century in parallel with technological advancements and is now in the midst of further refinements largely driven by advances in endoscopic sinus surgery. With the development of modern SBS, lesions that were once inoperable and potentially fatal can now be eradicated successfully by means of endoscopy-assisted procedures that reduce or completely eliminate intracranial trauma, minimize postsurgical morbidity, and make full recovery possible. It is absolutely mandatory to have the appropriate instrumentation for endoscopy-assisted SBS. Among the new technologies available are advanced endoscopes, high-speed suction irrigation drills, digital video cameras, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and systems for 3-dimensional computer-assisted image-guided surgical navigation. An experienced endoscopic surgeon working with multidisciplinary teams, and using new instrumentation and techniques, can bring SBS to new levels of success in the 21st century. PMID:17040018

  11. Objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yiyong; Liu, Yahui; Wang, Man; Ji, Run; Ji, Xuewu

    2014-09-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  12. Smartwatch-based driver alertness monitoring with wearable motion and physiological sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Lee, Boon-Leng; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that a high precision driver alertness monitoring system is an essential and a monetary countermeasure to reduce the road accidents. This paper presents a novel approach to measure the driver alertness, evaluated by a smartwatch device based on fusion of direct and indirect method. The driver chronic physiological state is monitor by adopting a photoplethysmography sensor on the driver finger that is connected to a wrist-type wearable device. A Bluetooth Low Energy module connected to the wearable device transmits the PPG data to the smartwatch in real-time. Meanwhile, the indirect method, driver steering wheel movement can be derived by utilizing the motion sensors integrated in the smartwatch which include a tri-axis accelerometer and a gyroscope sensors. The respiration signals can be derived from the PPG time- and frequency-domains attributes. The data obtained from both methods aforementioned are subsequently decomposed into relevant features in time, spectral context and phase space domain, and thus computes the alertness index. Here, the correlations between the extracted features and the subjective Koralinska Sleepiness Scale are studied as well along with the recorded experimental videos. This study reveals that the alertness index prediction accuracy can be reached up to 96.3% based on the descriptive extracted features. PMID:26737690

  13. Smartwatch-based driver alertness monitoring with wearable motion and physiological sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Lee, Boon-Leng; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that a high precision driver alertness monitoring system is an essential and a monetary countermeasure to reduce the road accidents. This paper presents a novel approach to measure the driver alertness, evaluated by a smartwatch device based on fusion of direct and indirect method. The driver chronic physiological state is monitor by adopting a photoplethysmography sensor on the driver finger that is connected to a wrist-type wearable device. A Bluetooth Low Energy module connected to the wearable device transmits the PPG data to the smartwatch in real-time. Meanwhile, the indirect method, driver steering wheel movement can be derived by utilizing the motion sensors integrated in the smartwatch which include a tri-axis accelerometer and a gyroscope sensors. The respiration signals can be derived from the PPG time- and frequency-domains attributes. The data obtained from both methods aforementioned are subsequently decomposed into relevant features in time, spectral context and phase space domain, and thus computes the alertness index. Here, the correlations between the extracted features and the subjective Koralinska Sleepiness Scale are studied as well along with the recorded experimental videos. This study reveals that the alertness index prediction accuracy can be reached up to 96.3% based on the descriptive extracted features.

  14. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  15. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  16. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  17. Development of a read out driver for ATLAS micromegas based on the Scalable Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibell, A.

    2014-01-01

    With future LHC luminosity upgrades, part of the ATLAS muon spectrometer has to be changed, to cope with the increased flux of uncorrelated neutron and gamma particles. Micromegas detectors were chosen as precision tracker for the New Small Wheels, that will replace the current Small Wheel muon detector stations during the LHC shutdown foreseen for 2018. To read out these detectors together with all other ATLAS subsystems, a readout driver was developed to integrate these micromegas detectors into the ATLAS data acquisition infrastructure. The readout driver is based on the Scalable Readout System, and its tasks include trigger handling, slow control, event building and data transmission to the high-level readout systems. This article describes the layout and functionalities of this readout driver and its components, as well as a test of its functionalities in the cosmic ray facility of Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich.

  18. Safe mobility for elderly drivers--considerations based on expert and self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Thomas; Dukic Willstrand, Tania

    2014-05-01

    To further understand the needs of the growing population of elderly drivers and create solutions for safe mobility it is important to understand the driving scenarios and aspects in day to day traffic that may be of challenge for this group. More so, individual differences in how drivers perceive their own driving ability may have an effect on how individuals limit their mobility and/or increase their exposure to risk situations, with a potential negative effect on safety. In this study two sets of assessments have been used in order to identify scenarios and aspects needing consideration in creating safe mobility for elderly drivers; an expert assessment using on-road driving together with assessments through semi structured in-depth interviews. This combination also enables categorisation of the drivers, comparing their own perception of their driving performance with the expert assessment based on actual on-road driving. Four different categories of drivers were identified: adequate (positive), over, under and adequate (negative) estimators. A number of important aspects were identified in the study. Adapting speed to the situation and driving too fast, especially on straight roads in the city, is one aspect. Seeking the attention of other road users at intersections and roundabouts is another important consideration identified. Awareness of difficulties related to speed adaptation and attention was low amongst all the driver categories. However, a difference in attitude was seen in the categories with a more humble and acceptant attitude amongst the adequate and under estimator groups, as compared to the over estimators suggesting that the aspect of attitudes is another important factor for consideration.

  19. Safe mobility for elderly drivers--considerations based on expert and self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Thomas; Dukic Willstrand, Tania

    2014-05-01

    To further understand the needs of the growing population of elderly drivers and create solutions for safe mobility it is important to understand the driving scenarios and aspects in day to day traffic that may be of challenge for this group. More so, individual differences in how drivers perceive their own driving ability may have an effect on how individuals limit their mobility and/or increase their exposure to risk situations, with a potential negative effect on safety. In this study two sets of assessments have been used in order to identify scenarios and aspects needing consideration in creating safe mobility for elderly drivers; an expert assessment using on-road driving together with assessments through semi structured in-depth interviews. This combination also enables categorisation of the drivers, comparing their own perception of their driving performance with the expert assessment based on actual on-road driving. Four different categories of drivers were identified: adequate (positive), over, under and adequate (negative) estimators. A number of important aspects were identified in the study. Adapting speed to the situation and driving too fast, especially on straight roads in the city, is one aspect. Seeking the attention of other road users at intersections and roundabouts is another important consideration identified. Awareness of difficulties related to speed adaptation and attention was low amongst all the driver categories. However, a difference in attitude was seen in the categories with a more humble and acceptant attitude amongst the adequate and under estimator groups, as compared to the over estimators suggesting that the aspect of attitudes is another important factor for consideration. PMID:24531112

  20. Can a video-based hazard perception test used for driver licensing predict crash involvement?

    PubMed

    Horswill, Mark S; Hill, Andrew; Wetton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, the state of Queensland in Australia introduced a video-based hazard perception test as part of the licensing process for new drivers. A key validity check for such a test is whether scores are associated with crash involvement. We present data demonstrating that drivers who failed the hazard perception test (based on a ROC curve-derived pass mark) were 25% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6%, 48%] more likely to be involved in an active crash (defined as a crash occurring while the driver's vehicle was moving but they were not engaged in parking or reversing) during a one year period following the test (controlling for driving exposure, age, and sex). Failing drivers were also 17% (95% CI 6%, 29%) more likely to have been involved in active crashes prior to the test, in the period since obtaining their provisional license. These data support the proposal that the hazard perception test is a valid measure of crash-related driving performance. PMID:26093097

  1. Can a video-based hazard perception test used for driver licensing predict crash involvement?

    PubMed

    Horswill, Mark S; Hill, Andrew; Wetton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, the state of Queensland in Australia introduced a video-based hazard perception test as part of the licensing process for new drivers. A key validity check for such a test is whether scores are associated with crash involvement. We present data demonstrating that drivers who failed the hazard perception test (based on a ROC curve-derived pass mark) were 25% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6%, 48%] more likely to be involved in an active crash (defined as a crash occurring while the driver's vehicle was moving but they were not engaged in parking or reversing) during a one year period following the test (controlling for driving exposure, age, and sex). Failing drivers were also 17% (95% CI 6%, 29%) more likely to have been involved in active crashes prior to the test, in the period since obtaining their provisional license. These data support the proposal that the hazard perception test is a valid measure of crash-related driving performance.

  2. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  3. Remarks to SBS PCM based self-navigation of laser drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalal, M.; Matena, L.; Kong, HJ; Martinkova, M.; Cha, S.

    2016-03-01

    A novel technology of self-navigation of laser drivers on injected inertial fusion energy pellets employing phase conjugating mirrors based on stimulating Brillouin scattering was recently proposed. Its feasibility as well as various implications were gradually studied and working solutions to potential problems were always suggested. As this technology could help to overcome several burning key issues of inertial fusion (e.g., a sufficiently precise navigation of laser drivers on injected pellets in the case of a direct drive scheme and decreased requirements on high-repetition high-power lasers) it gradually started to attract a carefully measured tentative interest among the major inertial fusion oriented laboratories and projects. In this paper the next step in this research path will be reported. It concerns the resulting phase and amplitude structures created by multiple low energy drivers (glints) illuminating the pellet during the first stage of the process after their reflection and a subsequent superposition on the collecting/focusing final optics. It was demonstrated that with a large number of such drivers acting simultaneously from many angles the situation gets somewhat complicated and requires more detailed studies/suggestions of suitable configurations.

  4. JLAMP: AN AMPLIFIER-BASED FEL IN THE JLAB SRF ERL DRIVER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jordan; Stephen V. Benson; David Douglas; Pavel Evtushenko; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; George R. Neil

    2007-06-13

    Notional designs for energy-recovering linac (“ERL”) -driven high average power free electron lasers (“FEL”s) often invoke amplifier-based architectures. To date, however, amplifier FELs have been limited in average power output to values several orders of magnitude lower than those demonstrated in optical-resonator based systems; this is due at least in part to the limited electron beam powers available from their driver accelerators. In order to directly contrast the performance available from amplifiers to that provided by high-power cavity-based resonators, we have developed a scheme to test an amplifier FEL in the JLab SRF ERL driver. We describe an accelerator system design that can seamlessly and non-invasively integrate a 10 m wiggler into the existing system and which provides, at least in principle, performance that would support high-efficiency lasing in an amplifier configuration. Details of the design and an accelerator performance analysis will be presented

  5. SOI-Based High-Voltage, High-Temperature Integrated Circuit Gate Driver for SiC-Based Power FETs

    SciTech Connect

    Huque, Mohammad A; Tolbert, Leon M; Blalock, Benjamin; Islam, Syed K

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-based field effect transistors (FETs) are gaining popularity as switching elements in power electronic circuits designed for high-temperature environments like hybrid electric vehicle, aircraft, well logging, geothermal power generation etc. Like any other power switches, SiC-based power devices also need gate driver circuits to interface them with the logic units. The placement of the gate driver circuit next to the power switch is optimal for minimizing system complexity. Successful operation of the gate driver circuit in a harsh environment, especially with minimal or no heat sink and without liquid cooling, can increase the power-to-volume ratio as well as the power-to-weight ratio for power conversion modules such as a DC-DC converter, inverter etc. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based high-voltage, high-temperature integrated circuit (IC) gate driver for SiC power FETs has been designed and fabricated using a commercially available 0.8-m, 2-poly and 3-metal bipolar-complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-double diffused metal oxide semiconductor (DMOS) process. The prototype circuit-s maximum gate drive supply can be 40-V with peak 2.3-A sourcing/sinking current driving capability. Owing to the wide driving range, this gate driver IC can be used to drive a wide variety of SiC FET switches (both normally OFF metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and normally ON junction field effect transistor (JFET)). The switching frequency is 20-kHz and the duty cycle can be varied from 0 to 100-. The circuit has been successfully tested with SiC power MOSFETs and JFETs without any heat sink and cooling mechanism. During these tests, SiC switches were kept at room temperature and ambient temperature of the driver circuit was increased to 200-C. The circuit underwent numerous temperature cycles with negligible performance degradation.

  6. Design of CCD driver for quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter based on CPLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Weiwei; Lu, Haiyan; Cai, Li; Wang, Xiu; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-02-01

    In order to improve the resolution and conversion speed of photoelectric transducer, a high sensitive and low dark current CCD image sensor TCD1711DG was used in SQ-70D digital quartz horizontal pendulum tiltmeter. The timing chart of CCD has fixed state transition and rigorous timing requirements at typical pulse frequency. Then, a method of controlling the pulse state transition was developed by synchronous counting. The driver was carried out by using Verilog HDL based on CPLD. Simulation and experimental results indicated that the driver designed by this method was simple and stable enough to meet the timing requirements of TCD1711DG. Furthermore, integration time of the CCD could be revised flexibly by setting controlled variable QINT which improved the adaptability of the tiltmeter to different lighting levels.

  7. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Young, J.R.; Lu, An

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  8. Quantifying Global Drivers of Zoonotic Bat Viruses: A Process-Based Perspective.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Liam; Vonhof, Maarten J; Olival, Kevin J; Daszak, Peter; Jones, Kate E

    2016-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), particularly zoonoses, represent a significant threat to global health. Emergence is often driven by anthropogenic activity (e.g., travel, land use change). Although disease emergence frameworks suggest multiple steps from initial zoonotic transmission to human-to-human spread, there have been few attempts to empirically model specific steps. We create a process-based framework to separate out components of individual emergence steps. We focus on early emergence and expand the first step, zoonotic transmission, into processes of generation of pathogen richness, transmission opportunity, and establishment, each with its own hypothesized drivers. Using this structure, we build a spatial empirical model of these drivers, taking bat viruses shared with humans as a case study. We show that drivers of both viral richness (host diversity and climatic variability) and transmission opportunity (human population density, bushmeat hunting, and livestock production) are associated with virus sharing between humans and bats. We also show spatial heterogeneity between the global patterns of these two processes, suggesting that high-priority locations for pathogen discovery and surveillance in wildlife may not necessarily coincide with those for public health intervention. Finally, we offer direction for future studies of zoonotic EIDs by highlighting the importance of the processes underlying their emergence.

  9. Compact, Intelligent, Digitally Controlled IGBT Gate Drivers for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Olsen, J.J.; Macken, K.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has built and is currently operating a first generation prototype Marx klystron modulator to meet ILC specifications. Under development is a second generation prototype, aimed at improving overall performance, serviceability, and manufacturability as compared to its predecessor. It is designed around 32 cells, each operating at 3.75 kV and correcting for its own capacitor droop. Due to the uniqueness of this application, high voltage gate drivers needed to be developed for the main 6.5 kV and droop correction 1.7 kV IGBTs. The gate driver provides vital functions such as protection of the IGBT from over-voltage and over-current, detection of gate-emitter open and short circuit conditions, and monitoring of IGBT degradation (based on collector-emitter saturation voltage). Gate drive control, diagnostic processing capabilities, and communication are digitally implemented using an FPGA. This paper details the design of the gate driver circuitry, component selection, and construction layout. In addition, experimental results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the protection circuit.

  10. Quantifying Global Drivers of Zoonotic Bat Viruses: A Process-Based Perspective.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Liam; Vonhof, Maarten J; Olival, Kevin J; Daszak, Peter; Jones, Kate E

    2016-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), particularly zoonoses, represent a significant threat to global health. Emergence is often driven by anthropogenic activity (e.g., travel, land use change). Although disease emergence frameworks suggest multiple steps from initial zoonotic transmission to human-to-human spread, there have been few attempts to empirically model specific steps. We create a process-based framework to separate out components of individual emergence steps. We focus on early emergence and expand the first step, zoonotic transmission, into processes of generation of pathogen richness, transmission opportunity, and establishment, each with its own hypothesized drivers. Using this structure, we build a spatial empirical model of these drivers, taking bat viruses shared with humans as a case study. We show that drivers of both viral richness (host diversity and climatic variability) and transmission opportunity (human population density, bushmeat hunting, and livestock production) are associated with virus sharing between humans and bats. We also show spatial heterogeneity between the global patterns of these two processes, suggesting that high-priority locations for pathogen discovery and surveillance in wildlife may not necessarily coincide with those for public health intervention. Finally, we offer direction for future studies of zoonotic EIDs by highlighting the importance of the processes underlying their emergence. PMID:26807755

  11. An on-road network analysis-based approach to studying driver situation awareness at rail level crossings.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Young, Kristie L; Walker, Guy H

    2013-09-01

    Crashes between cars and trains at rail level crossings are problematic worldwide. Despite this, key facets of driver behaviour at rail level crossings, such as situation awareness and decision making, remain ambiguous. This is largely down to the inability of existing methodologies to describe or evaluate the cognitive aspects of driver behaviour when negotiating rail level crossings. This paper showcases an on-road approach for examining driver situation awareness at rail level crossings. The study presented involved participants, classified either as novice or experienced drivers, providing concurrent verbal protocols as they drove a pre-determined urban route incorporating four rail level crossings. Driver situation awareness was modelled using a network analysis-based approach and the structure and content of the networks was assessed. The analysis revealed key differences between novice and experienced drivers situation awareness at rail level crossings. In closing, the benefits of the on-road approach are discussed and a series of wider driver behaviour applications are proposed. PMID:23062799

  12. Linear beam raster magnet driver based on H-bridge technique

    DOEpatents

    Sinkine, Nikolai I.; Yan, Chen; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Dail, Jeffrey Glenn; Wojcik, Randolph Frank; Gunning, William

    2006-06-06

    An improved raster magnet driver for a linear particle beam is based on an H-bridge technique. Four branches of power HEXFETs form a two-by-two switch. Switching the HEXFETs in a predetermined order and at the right frequency produces a triangular current waveform. An H-bridge controller controls switching sequence and timing. The magnetic field of the coil follows the shape of the waveform and thus steers the beam using a triangular rather than a sinusoidal waveform. The system produces a raster pattern having a highly uniform raster density distribution, eliminates target heating from non-uniform raster density distributions, and produces higher levels of beam current.

  13. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part Q. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #91--Meat Cutter; #92--Shipping Clerk; #93--Long Haul Truck Driver; #94--Truck Driver--Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fourteenth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Meat Cutter, Shipping Clerk, Long Haul Truck Driver, and Truck Driver--Light. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE number, career ladder, D.O.T.…

  14. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  15. Disentangling the spatio-environmental drivers of human settlement: an eigenvector based variation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Vandam, Ralf; Kaptijn, Eva; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes driving patterns of human settlement remains controversial. A main reason for this is that disentangling the drivers of distributions and geographic clustering at different spatial scales is not straightforward and powerful analytical toolboxes able to deal with this type of data are largely deficient. Here we use a multivariate statistical framework originally developed in community ecology, to infer the relative importance of spatial and environmental drivers of human settlement. Using Moran's eigenvector maps and a dataset of spatial variation in a set of relevant environmental variables we applied a variation partitioning procedure based on redundancy analysis models to assess the relative importance of spatial and environmental processes explaining settlement patterns. We applied this method on an archaeological dataset covering a 15 km(2) area in SW Turkey spanning a time period of 8000 years from the Late Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic up to the Byzantine period. Variation partitioning revealed both significant unique and commonly explained effects of environmental and spatial variables. Land cover and water availability were the dominant environmental determinants of human settlement throughout the study period, supporting the theory of the presence of farming communities. Spatial clustering was mainly restricted to small spatial scales. Significant spatial clustering independent of environmental gradients was also detected which can be indicative of expansion into unsuitable areas or an unexpected absence in suitable areas which could be caused by dispersal limitation. Integrating historic settlement patterns as additional predictor variables resulted in more explained variation reflecting temporal autocorrelation in settlement locations.

  16. Projection-Based Assistance for Ultrasonic Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Prayitono, Agus; Kohyama, Kazuhiro; Imura, Masataka; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    This research focuses on developing visual assistance for ultrasound echographic measurement. Proposed system performs a direct projection of the intersectional imagery onto the patient's body by an optical projector. The surface shape of the patient is taken into consideration for image projection. Optical shape measurement and graphical synthesis techniques are combined for producing distortion-free images so that the physician can intuitively manipulate the ultrasonic probe and observe the echography in the identical physical space.

  17. Sleep Quality, Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Human Errors in Train Drivers: A Population-Based Nationwide Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Kim, Bin-Na; Park, Seung Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Choi, Hong; Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Dongsoo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Human error is defined as an unintended error that is attributable to humans rather than machines, and that is important to avoid to prevent accidents. We aimed to investigate the association between sleep quality and human errors among train drivers. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Population-based. Participants: A sample of 5,480 subjects who were actively working as train drivers were recruited in South Korea. The participants were 4,634 drivers who completed all questionnaires (response rate 84.6%). Interventions: None Measurements: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS). Results: Of 4,634 train drivers, 349 (7.5%) showed more than one human error per 5 y. Human errors were associated with poor sleep quality, higher PSQI total scores, short sleep duration at night, and longer sleep latency. Among train drivers with poor sleep quality, those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress showed a significantly higher number of human errors than those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that human errors were significantly associated with poor sleep quality and posttraumatic stress, whereas there were no significant associations with depression, trait and state anxiety, and work stress after adjusting for age, sex, education years, marital status, and career duration. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality was found to be associated with more human errors in train drivers, especially in those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress. Citation: Jeon HJ, Kim JH, Kim BN, Park SJ, Fava M, Mischoulon D, Choi H, Roh S, Lee D. Sleep quality, posttraumatic stress, depression, and human errors in train drivers: a population-based nationwide study in South Korea. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1969-1975. PMID:25325495

  18. Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

  19. Multi-scale Drivers of Variations in Atmospheric Evaporative Demand Based on Observations and Physically-based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, L.; Sheffield, J.; Li, D.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key link between the availability of water resources and climate change and climate variability. Variability of ET has important environmental and socioeconomic implications for managing hydrological hazards, food and energy production. Although there have been many observational and modeling studies of ET, how ET has varied and the drivers of the variations at different temporal scales remain elusive. Much of the uncertainty comes from the atmospheric evaporative demand (AED), which is the combined effect of radiative and aerodynamic controls. The inconsistencies among modeled AED estimates and the limited observational data may originate from multiple sources including the limited time span and uncertainties in the data. To fully investigate and untangle the intertwined drivers of AED, we present a spectrum analysis to identify key controls of AED across multiple temporal scales. We use long-term records of observed pan evaporation for 1961-2006 from 317 weather stations across China and physically-based model estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET). The model estimates are based on surface meteorology and radiation derived from reanalysis, satellite retrievals and station data. Our analyses show that temperature plays a dominant role in regulating variability of AED at the inter-annual scale. At the monthly and seasonal scales, the primary control of AED shifts from radiation in humid regions to humidity in dry regions. Unlike many studies focusing on the spatial pattern of ET drivers based on a traditional supply and demand framework, this study underlines the importance of temporal scales when discussing controls of ET variations.

  20. Improving School Bus Driver Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    This reference source is intended to assist the school bus driver training instructor in course preparation. Instructional units for program planning each contain pertinent course questions, a summary, and evaluation questions. Unit 1, "Introduction to the School Bus Driver Training Program," focuses on basic course objectives and requirements and…

  1. Supervised machine learning algorithms to diagnose stress for vehicle drivers based on physiological sensor signals.

    PubMed

    Barua, Shaibal; Begum, Shahina; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms play an important role in computer science research. Recent advancement in sensor data collection in clinical sciences lead to a complex, heterogeneous data processing, and analysis for patient diagnosis and prognosis. Diagnosis and treatment of patients based on manual analysis of these sensor data are difficult and time consuming. Therefore, development of Knowledge-based systems to support clinicians in decision-making is important. However, it is necessary to perform experimental work to compare performances of different machine learning methods to help to select appropriate method for a specific characteristic of data sets. This paper compares classification performance of three popular machine learning methods i.e., case-based reasoning, neutral networks and support vector machine to diagnose stress of vehicle drivers using finger temperature and heart rate variability. The experimental results show that case-based reasoning outperforms other two methods in terms of classification accuracy. Case-based reasoning has achieved 80% and 86% accuracy to classify stress using finger temperature and heart rate variability. On contrary, both neural network and support vector machine have achieved less than 80% accuracy by using both physiological signals.

  2. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver's EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver's vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model. PMID:26907278

  3. Diagnosis of Magnetotail Drivers for Ionospheric Electrodynamics Using Networks of Ground-based Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I. R.; Rae, I. J.; Murphy, K.; Milling, D. K.; Russell, C. T.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important problems in solar-terrestrial physics concerns understanding the response of the ionosphere to a variety of physical drivers from the magnetotail. In particular, determining the ionospheric response to magnetotail disturbances such as current disruptions and Earthward-directed bursty bulk flows is key to understanding the causal sequence of events during substorms. We present a series of case studies using data from combined networks of magnetometers in the Canadian sector, including those from CARISMA (www.carisma.ca) and the THEMIS ground-based observatory (GBO) network and supporting arrays, to examine the current response in the ionosphere to substorm expansion phase onset. These analyses highlight the importance of extensive magnetometer coverage in order to correctly identify and characterise the initiation and temporal dynamics of substorm-time ionospheric electrodynamics and current systems. We show how magnetometer data can be used to locate and time the onset of substorms using Pi1 data, and further develop a magnetic disturbance diagnostic which may distinguish between tail drivers. We suggest that the structure of the resulting current systems may enable these processes to be distinguished using a new set of local magnetometer derived disturbance indices. We suggest forms for these new ionospheric disturbance indices, as an extension to the traditional AE, AL and AU indices. We show how these diagnostics can provide important input into substorm studies, especially in partnership with in-situ measurements from the THEMIS probes, and contribute towards resolving the causal sequence of energy release in the substorm cycle.

  4. Assessing effectiveness of various auditory warning signals in maintaining drivers' attention in virtual reality-based driving environments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Chiu, Tien-Ting; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chao, Chih-Feng; Liang, Wen-Chieh; Hsu, Shang-Hwa; Ko, Li-Wei

    2009-06-01

    Drivers' fatigue contributes to traffic accidents, so drivers must maintain adequate alertness. The effectiveness of audio alarms in maintaining driving performance and characteristics of alarms was studied in a virtural reality-based driving environment. Response time to the car's drifting was measured under seven conditions: with no warnings and with continuous warning tones (500 Hz, 1750 Hz, and 3000 Hz), and with tone bursts at 500 Hz, 1750 Hz, and 3000 Hz. Analyses showed the audio warning signals significantly improved driving. Further, the tones' spectral characteristics significantly influenced the effectiveness of the warning.

  5. A gene signature based method for identifying subtypes and subtype-specific drivers in cancer with an application to medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subtypes are widely found in cancer. They are characterized with different behaviors in clinical and molecular profiles, such as survival rates, gene signature and copy number aberrations (CNAs). While cancer is generally believed to have been caused by genetic aberrations, the number of such events is tremendous in the cancer tissue and only a small subset of them may be tumorigenic. On the other hand, gene expression signature of a subtype represents residuals of the subtype-specific cancer mechanisms. Using high-throughput data to link these factors to define subtype boundaries and identify subtype-specific drivers, is a promising yet largely unexplored topic. Results We report a systematic method to automate the identification of cancer subtypes and candidate drivers. Specifically, we propose an iterative algorithm that alternates between gene expression clustering and gene signature selection. We applied the method to datasets of the pediatric cerebellar tumor medulloblastoma (MB). The subtyping algorithm consistently converges on multiple datasets of medulloblastoma, and the converged signatures and copy number landscapes are also found to be highly reproducible across the datasets. Based on the identified subtypes, we developed a PCA-based approach for subtype-specific identification of cancer drivers. The top-ranked driver candidates are found to be enriched with known pathways in certain subtypes of MB. This might reveal new understandings for these subtypes. This article is an extended abstract of our ICCABS '12 paper (Chen et al. 2012), with revised methods in iterative subtyping, the use of canonical correlation analysis for driver-identification, and an extra dataset (Northcott90 dataset) for cross-validations. Discussions of the algorithm performance and of the slightly different gene lists identified are also added. Conclusions Our study indicates that subtype-signature defines the subtype boundaries, characterizes the subtype

  6. Evaluating the Impact of a School-Based Helmet Promotion Program on Eligible Adolescent Drivers: Different Audiences, Different Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germeni, Evi; Lionis, Christos; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Davou, Bettina; Belechri, Maria; Petridou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    The school environment has been often identified as a prosperous venue for public health improvement. This study is a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of a school-based helmet promotion program on knowledge, attitudes and practices of eligible adolescent drivers. Four public, four private and four vocational high schools…

  7. Integration of Computer-Based Virtual Check Ride System--Pre-Trip Inspection in Commercial Driver License Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makwana, Alpesh P.

    2009-01-01

    "Pre-Trip Inspection" of the truck and trailer is one of the components of the current Commercial Driver's License (CDL) test. This part of the CDL test checks the ability of the student to identify the important parts of the commercial vehicle and their potential defects. The "Virtual Check Ride System" (VCRS), a computer-based application, is an…

  8. A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective.

  9. A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective. PMID:27490901

  10. Pulse generators based on air-insulated linear-transformer-driver stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the design and test results of pulse generators based on air-insulated linear-transformer-driver stages that drive a vacuum transmission line. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. It incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and a multichannel multigap gas switch. Two types of stages were developed: (1) stage LTD-20 with four modules in parallel and five capacitor blocks in each module (in tests of this stage current amplitude up to 850 kA with ˜140ns rise time was obtained on a 0.05Ω load at 100 kV charging voltage); (2) stage LTD-4 with two modules in parallel and two capacitor blocks in each module. Several installations were built on the base of these stages, including a linear transformer, consisting of two identical LTD-20 stages in series, and a high power electron accelerator on the base of LTD-4 stages. The design, tests results, and main problems are presented and discussed in this paper for these installations.

  11. A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective. PMID:27490901

  12. A population based estimation of the driver protection provided by passenger cars: France 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Lenguerrand, Erik

    2008-11-01

    The technology used in cars to protect occupants is constantly developing. Demonstrating the beneficial effects in the field is complex as the most recent vehicles are generally used by drivers who differ from other drivers and who drive in different traffic conditions. This paper presents an overall estimation of the consequences of changes in the secondary safety of cars, taking account of most of these factors. The data come from information collected about injury road traffic crashes by the police in France between 1996 and 2005. The risk of the driver being killed has been evaluated for the 144,034 drivers involved in two-car crashes and for the 63,621 drivers involved in single-car crashes. The study shows that when a recent car is in collision with an older car the driver of the former is better protected than the driver of the latter. These improvements in secondary safety are not observed in the case of single-car crashes, very probably because of higher impact speeds. Our findings also confirm the need for protection systems to be better adapted to the specific characteristics of users and for an improvement in the crash compatibility of vehicles, in particular to overcome the consequences of differences between the masses of vehicles.

  13. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, MarcoJavier; Armingol, JoséMaría; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-12-01

    Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving). Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  14. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K

    2014-12-01

    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance.

  15. Evaluation of Candidate Measures for Home-Based Screening of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Taiwanese Bus Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Hua; Huang, Ren-Jing; Lai, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Shen-Wen; Chung, Ai-Hui; Kuo, Teng-Yao; Chang, Ching-Haur; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleepiness-at-the-wheel has been identified as a major cause of highway accidents. The aim of our study is identifying the candidate measures for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing in Taiwanese bus drivers, instead of polysomnography. Methods: Overnight polysomnography accompanied with simultaneous measurements of alternative screening devices (pulse oximetry, ApneaLink, and Actigraphy), heart rate variability, wake-up systolic blood pressure and questionnaires were completed by 151 eligible participants who were long-haul bus drivers with a duty period of more than 12 h a day and duty shifting. Results: 63.6% of professional bus drivers were diagnosed as having sleep disordered breathing and had a higher body mass index, neck circumference, systolic blood pressure, arousal index and desaturation index than those professional bus drivers without evidence of sleep disordered breathing. Simple home-based candidate measures: (1) Pulse oximetry, oxygen-desaturation indices by ≥3% and 4% (r = 0.87∼0.92); (2) Pulse oximetry, pulse-rising indices by ≥7% and 8% from a baseline (r = 0.61∼0.89); and (3) ApneaLink airflow detection, apnea-hypopnea indices (r = 0.70∼0.70), based on recording-time or Actigraphy-corrected total sleep time were all significantly correlated with, and had high agreement with, corresponding polysomnographic apnea-hypopnea indices [(1) 94.5%∼96.6%, (2) 93.8%∼97.2%, (3) 91.1%∼91.3%, respectively]. Conversely, no validities of SDB screening were found in the multi-variables apnea prediction questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, night-sleep heart rate variability, wake-up systolic blood pressure and anthropometric variables. Conclusions: The indices of pulse oximetry and apnea flow detection are eligible criteria for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing, specifically for professional drivers. PMID:24803198

  16. Wide-bandwidth Tm-based amplifier for laser acceleration driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Drew A.; Vetrovec, John; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on an investigation of novel 2 μm thulium (Tm)-based laser accelerator driver (LAD) offering efficient generation of high-energy pulses with high-peak power at high pulse repetition rate (PRF), high efficiency, and with near-diffraction-limited beam quality (BQ). Laser acceleration of electrons by ultrashortpulse laser-generated plasmas offers accelerators of much reduced size and cost compared to conventional accelerators of the same energy, thus replacing the traditional mammoth-size and costly accelerator research facilities with room-size systems1. A LAD operating at 2 μm wavelength offers ponderomotive forces four times that of 1 μm wavelength and six times that of a traditional 0.8 μm wavelength LAD. In addition, the Tm bandwidth of nearly 400 nm offers > 15% tunability and generation of ultrashort pulses down to <30 fs. The "2-for- 1" pump quantum efficiency of the Tm ion enables > 20% wall-plug efficiency. This work presents a preliminary analysis of Tm-based LAD configurations.

  17. Gyro Drift Correction for An Indirect Kalman Filter Based Sensor Fusion Driver.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan-Gun; Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Jang, Seonmin; Kim, Deokhwan; Kim, Yonghun; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    Sensor fusion techniques have made a significant contribution to the success of the recently emerging mobile applications era because a variety of mobile applications operate based on multi-sensing information from the surrounding environment, such as navigation systems, fitness trackers, interactive virtual reality games, etc. For these applications, the accuracy of sensing information plays an important role to improve the user experience (UX) quality, especially with gyroscopes and accelerometers. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a novel mechanism to resolve the gyro drift problem, which negatively affects the accuracy of orientation computations in the indirect Kalman filter based sensor fusion. Our mechanism focuses on addressing the issues of external feedback loops and non-gyro error elements contained in the state vectors of an indirect Kalman filter. Moreover, the mechanism is implemented in the device-driver layer, providing lower process latency and transparency capabilities for the upper applications. These advances are relevant to millions of legacy applications since utilizing our mechanism does not require the existing applications to be re-programmed. The experimental results show that the root mean square errors (RMSE) before and after applying our mechanism are significantly reduced from 6.3 × 10(-1) to 5.3 × 10(-7), respectively. PMID:27294941

  18. A repetitive long-pulse power generator based on pulse forming network and linear transformer driver.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingjia; Kang, Qiang; Tan, Jie; Zhang, Faqiang; Luo, Min; Xiang, Fei

    2016-06-01

    A compact module for long-pulse power generator, based on Blumlein pulse forming network (PFN), was designed. Two Blumlein PFNs with L-type configuration and 20 Ω characteristic impedance were connected symmetrically to the primary coil of the linear transformer driver (LTD) and driven by an identical high voltage spark switch to ensure two Blumlein PFNs synchronizing operation. The output pulse of the module connected with 10 Ω water load is about 135 kV in amplitude and 200 ns in duration with a rise time of ∼50 ns and a flat top of ∼100 ns. On this basis, a repetitive long-pulse power generator based on PFN-LTD has been developed, which was composed of four modules. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved on planar diode: output voltage amplitude of ∼560 kV, output current amplitude of ∼10 kA at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The generator operates stable and outputs more than 10(4) pulses. Meanwhile, the continuous operating time of the generator is up to 60 s. PMID:27370479

  19. Gyro Drift Correction for An Indirect Kalman Filter Based Sensor Fusion Driver

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan-Gun; Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Jang, Seonmin; Kim, Deokhwan; Kim, Yonghun; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    Sensor fusion techniques have made a significant contribution to the success of the recently emerging mobile applications era because a variety of mobile applications operate based on multi-sensing information from the surrounding environment, such as navigation systems, fitness trackers, interactive virtual reality games, etc. For these applications, the accuracy of sensing information plays an important role to improve the user experience (UX) quality, especially with gyroscopes and accelerometers. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a novel mechanism to resolve the gyro drift problem, which negatively affects the accuracy of orientation computations in the indirect Kalman filter based sensor fusion. Our mechanism focuses on addressing the issues of external feedback loops and non-gyro error elements contained in the state vectors of an indirect Kalman filter. Moreover, the mechanism is implemented in the device-driver layer, providing lower process latency and transparency capabilities for the upper applications. These advances are relevant to millions of legacy applications since utilizing our mechanism does not require the existing applications to be re-programmed. The experimental results show that the root mean square errors (RMSE) before and after applying our mechanism are significantly reduced from 6.3×10-1 to 5.3×10-7, respectively. PMID:27294941

  20. Gyro Drift Correction for An Indirect Kalman Filter Based Sensor Fusion Driver.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan-Gun; Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Jang, Seonmin; Kim, Deokhwan; Kim, Yonghun; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-06-11

    Sensor fusion techniques have made a significant contribution to the success of the recently emerging mobile applications era because a variety of mobile applications operate based on multi-sensing information from the surrounding environment, such as navigation systems, fitness trackers, interactive virtual reality games, etc. For these applications, the accuracy of sensing information plays an important role to improve the user experience (UX) quality, especially with gyroscopes and accelerometers. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a novel mechanism to resolve the gyro drift problem, which negatively affects the accuracy of orientation computations in the indirect Kalman filter based sensor fusion. Our mechanism focuses on addressing the issues of external feedback loops and non-gyro error elements contained in the state vectors of an indirect Kalman filter. Moreover, the mechanism is implemented in the device-driver layer, providing lower process latency and transparency capabilities for the upper applications. These advances are relevant to millions of legacy applications since utilizing our mechanism does not require the existing applications to be re-programmed. The experimental results show that the root mean square errors (RMSE) before and after applying our mechanism are significantly reduced from 6.3 × 10(-1) to 5.3 × 10(-7), respectively.

  1. A repetitive long-pulse power generator based on pulse forming network and linear transformer driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingjia; Kang, Qiang; Tan, Jie; Zhang, Faqiang; Luo, Min; Xiang, Fei

    2016-06-01

    A compact module for long-pulse power generator, based on Blumlein pulse forming network (PFN), was designed. Two Blumlein PFNs with L-type configuration and 20 Ω characteristic impedance were connected symmetrically to the primary coil of the linear transformer driver (LTD) and driven by an identical high voltage spark switch to ensure two Blumlein PFNs synchronizing operation. The output pulse of the module connected with 10 Ω water load is about 135 kV in amplitude and 200 ns in duration with a rise time of ˜50 ns and a flat top of ˜100 ns. On this basis, a repetitive long-pulse power generator based on PFN-LTD has been developed, which was composed of four modules. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved on planar diode: output voltage amplitude of ˜560 kV, output current amplitude of ˜10 kA at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The generator operates stable and outputs more than 104 pulses. Meanwhile, the continuous operating time of the generator is up to 60 s.

  2. A repetitive long-pulse power generator based on pulse forming network and linear transformer driver.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingjia; Kang, Qiang; Tan, Jie; Zhang, Faqiang; Luo, Min; Xiang, Fei

    2016-06-01

    A compact module for long-pulse power generator, based on Blumlein pulse forming network (PFN), was designed. Two Blumlein PFNs with L-type configuration and 20 Ω characteristic impedance were connected symmetrically to the primary coil of the linear transformer driver (LTD) and driven by an identical high voltage spark switch to ensure two Blumlein PFNs synchronizing operation. The output pulse of the module connected with 10 Ω water load is about 135 kV in amplitude and 200 ns in duration with a rise time of ∼50 ns and a flat top of ∼100 ns. On this basis, a repetitive long-pulse power generator based on PFN-LTD has been developed, which was composed of four modules. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved on planar diode: output voltage amplitude of ∼560 kV, output current amplitude of ∼10 kA at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The generator operates stable and outputs more than 10(4) pulses. Meanwhile, the continuous operating time of the generator is up to 60 s.

  3. Computer-assisted engineering data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dube, R. P.; Johnson, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    General capabilities of data base management technology are described. Information requirements posed by the space station life cycle are discussed, and it is asserted that data base management technology supporting engineering/manufacturing in a heterogeneous hardware/data base management system environment should be applied to meeting these requirements. Today's commercial systems do not satisfy all of these requirements. The features of an R&D data base management system being developed to investigate data base management in the engineering/manufacturing environment are discussed. Features of this system represent only a partial solution to space station requirements. Areas where this system should be extended to meet full space station information management requirements are discussed.

  4. ISG hybrid powertrain: a rule-based driver model incorporating look-ahead information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shuiwen; Zhang, Junzhi; Chen, Xiaojiang; Zhong, Qing-Chang; Thornton, Roger

    2010-03-01

    According to European regulations, if the amount of regenerative braking is determined by the travel of the brake pedal, more stringent standards must be applied, otherwise it may adversely affect the existing vehicle safety system. The use of engine or vehicle speed to derive regenerative braking is one way to avoid strict design standards, but this introduces discontinuity in powertrain torque when the driver releases the acceleration pedal or applies the brake pedal. This is shown to cause oscillations in the pedal input and powertrain torque when a conventional driver model is adopted. Look-ahead information, together with other predicted vehicle states, are adopted to control the vehicle speed, in particular, during deceleration, and to improve the driver model so that oscillations can be avoided. The improved driver model makes analysis and validation of the control strategy for an integrated starter generator (ISG) hybrid powertrain possible.

  5. School-Based Health Centers. Technical Assistance Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    The rapid growth in the number of school-based health centers reflects the interest schools and communities have for this approach to the delivery of health care to children and adolescents. This technical assistance sampler contains information about resources for those developing or operating school-based health centers. The first section…

  6. Computer-Assisted, Outcomes-Based Evaluation for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; Roegge, Chris A.

    1991-01-01

    An outcomes-based model was developed to evaluate vocational education programs in Illinois. The model, which evaluates programs based on six vital signs of program quality, uses a series of computer technology expert systems to give local personnel assistance in exploring program problems and improvement. (SLD)

  7. Robonaut: a telepresence-based astronaut assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diftler, Myron; Jenks, Kenneth C.; Williams, Lorraine E. P.

    2002-02-01

    Robonaut, NASA's latest anthropomorphic robot, is designed to work in the hazards of the space environment as both an astronaut assistant and, in certain situations, an astronaut surrogate. This highly dexterous robot is now performing complex tasks under telepresence control in the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center that could previously only be carried out directly by humans. With 43 degrees of freedom (DOF), Robonaut is a state-of-the-art human size telemanipulator system. It has a three-DOF articulated waist and two seven-DOF arms, giving it an impressive work space for interacting with its environment. Its two five-fingered hands allow manipulation of a wide range of common tools. A pan/tilt head with multiple stereo camera systems provides data for both teleoperators and computer vision systems. Telepresence control is the main mode of operation for Robonaut. The teleoperator dons a variety of sensors to map hand, head, arm and body motions to control the robot. A distributed object-oriented network architecture links the various computers used to gather posture and joint angle data from the human operator, to control the robot, to generate video displays for the human operator and to recognize and generate human voice inputs and outputs. Distributed object-oriented software allows the same telepresence gear to be used on different robots and allows interchangable telepresence gear in the laboratory environment. New telepresence gear and new robots only need to implement a standard software interface. The Robonaut implementation is a two-tiered system using Java/Jini for distributed commands and a commercial-off-the-shelf data sharing protocol for high-speed data transmission. Experimental telepresence gear is being developed and evaluated. Force feedback devices and techniques are a focus, and their efforts on teleoperator performance of typical space operations tasks is being measured. Particularly, the augmentation of baseline

  8. Electroencephalography (EEG) Based Control in Assistive Mobile Robots: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, N. Murali; Mariappan, Muralindran; Muthukaruppan, Karthigayan; Hijazi, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad; Kitt, Wong Wei

    2016-03-01

    Recently, EEG based control in assistive robot usage has been gradually increasing in the area of biomedical field for giving quality and stress free life for disabled and elderly people. This study reviews the deployment of EGG based control in assistive robots, especially for those who in need and neurologically disabled. The main objective of this paper is to describe the methods used for (i) EEG data acquisition and signal preprocessing, (ii) feature extraction and (iii) signal classification methods. Besides that, this study presents the specific research challenges in the designing of these control systems and future research directions.

  9. Vision-based vehicle detection and inter-vehicle distance estimation for driver alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Giseok; Cho, Jae-Soo

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust real-time vehicle detection and inter-vehicle distance estimation algorithm for vision-based driving assistance system. The proposed vehicle detection method uses the combination of multiple vehicle features, which are the usual Harr-like intensity features of car-rear shadows and additional Haar-like edge features. The combination of two distinctive Haar-like intensity and edge features greatly reduces the false-positive vehicle detection errors in real-time. And, after analyzing two inter-vehicle distance estimation methods: the vehicle position-based and the vehicle width-based, we present a novel improved inter-vehicle distance estimation algorithm that uses the advantage of both methods. Various experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Complexity of spatiotemporal traffic phenomena in flow of identical drivers: Explanation based on fundamental hypothesis of three-phase theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2012-03-01

    Based on numerical simulations of a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal the physics of the fundamental hypothesis of three-phase theory that, in contrast with a fundamental diagram of classical traffic flow theories, postulates the existence of a two-dimensional (2D) region of steady states of synchronized flow where a driver makes an arbitrary choice of a space gap (time headway) to the preceding vehicle. We find that macroscopic and microscopic spatiotemporal effects of the entire complexity of traffic congestion observed up to now in real measured traffic data can be explained by simulations of traffic flow consisting of identical drivers and vehicles, if a microscopic model used in these simulations incorporates the fundamental hypothesis of three-phase theory. It is shown that the driver's choice of space gaps within the 2D region of synchronized flow associated with the fundamental hypothesis of three-phase theory can qualitatively change types of congested patterns that can emerge at a highway bottleneck. In particular, if drivers choose long enough spaces gaps associated with the fundamental hypothesis, then general patterns, which consist of synchronized flow and wide moving jams, do not emerge independent of the flow rates and bottleneck characteristics: Even at a heavy bottleneck leading to a very low speed within congested patterns, only synchronized flow patterns occur in which no wide moving jams emerge spontaneously.

  11. Behavior-Based Assists for Telerobotic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W; Hamel, Dr. William R.

    2008-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulation has been a critical tool in hazardous operations where the presence of humans has been precluded since the early days of nuclear material handling. Performance levels and limitations were understood and accepted. However, in the current era of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, there has been criticism that traditional remote systems are too expensive, too slow, and too difficult to use by cost-driven demolition companies. Previous research in telerobotics has attempted to alleviate some of these issues; however, it has been difficult to get capabilities generated in the research lab into the field. One major difficulty is the severely unstructured environments found in real D&D type environments. Behavior-based robotics (BBR) is based on concepts specifically designed to permit autonomous robots to function in unstructured environments. BBR schemes use sensor data to interact with the world directly rather than to generate models that are manipulated. Because the robot is immersed in its environment and since sensors are mounted on the robot, sensing and motion are inherently calibrated with respect to the robot. This paper presents a behavior-based approach and architecture for executing telerobotic D&D type tooling tasks.

  12. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  13. A Study of Driver's Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent. PMID:25610455

  14. Task Listing for Respiratory Therapy Assistant. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This instructional task listing is designed to be used in combination with the "Health Occupations Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the respiratory therapy assistant program in Virginia. The task listing contains three major sections: (1) duty areas; (2) a program description; and (3) a content…

  15. Place Based Assistance Tools: Networking and Resident Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    "Place-based assistance" is not a new concept. Asking what people want and finding ways to give it to them sounds simplistic, but it can result in "win-win" solutions in which everyone involved benefits. This document is a guide to using networking and surveys of residents to determine community needs. Some case studies show networking and surveys…

  16. Designer: A Knowledge-Based Graphic Design Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Louis

    This report describes Designer, an interactive tool for assisting with the design of two-dimensional graphic interfaces for instructional systems. The system, which consists of a color graphics interface to a mathematical simulation, provides enhancements to the Graphics Editor component of Steamer (a computer-based training system designed to aid…

  17. A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

  18. Model-based exploration of the drivers of mountain cold-trapping in soil.

    PubMed

    Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank

    2013-12-01

    A pollutant is said to undergo mountain cold-trapping if it is found at higher concentrations in a surface medium (soil, snow, foliage) high on a mountain, where it is colder, than in the same medium lower on the mountain. The processes that lead to mountain cold-trapping in soil were explored for a set of hypothetical Perfectly Persistent Pollutants (PPPs) by varying several environmental parameters in a fugacity based fate and transport box model. These parameters were: the spatial scale of the mountain; the rate and location of rain; the amount of particles in the atmosphere; the presence and magnitude of the upslope temperature gradient. The relative potential of each hypothetical PPP to exhibit mountain cold-trapping was expressed in terms of its Mountaintop Contamination Potential (MCP). The PPPs with the highest MCPs were those that neither were deposited from the atmosphere to the surface in the lower zones in the model nor left the model domain without being deposited at all. The simulations revealed that under most conditions wet-gaseous deposition is the biggest driver of mountain cold-trapping in soils, and its effects are greatly enhanced by large negative temperature gradients and increased precipitation upslope. Dry-gaseous and wet-and-dry-particle deposition processes cause similar PPPs to exhibit mountain cold-trapping, and the contributions to MCP by the dry processes are of the same magnitude as wet-particle deposition. Dry gaseous deposition alone is insufficient to cause mountain cold-trapping in soils under any conditions modelled here. Those measuring organic contaminants in mountains should expect to find that mountains with different climates cold-trap different pollutants, and that some mountains may not exhibit upslope enrichment of any species.

  19. Stop the Drinking Driver: A Behavioral School-Based Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bruce A.; Dowrick, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    Presents drinking and driving project focusing on friends and peers of high risk teenage drivers using modeling, positive peer pressure, and assertive skills training. Program includes schoolwide assembly and classroom development of strategies to prevent friends from drinking and driving. Evaluation survey results indicated that majority of…

  20. Developing an inverse time-to-collision crash alert timing approach based on drivers' last-second braking and steering judgments.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Raymond J; LeBlanc, David J; Flannagan, Carol A

    2005-03-01

    Drivers were asked to execute last-second braking and steering maneuvers while approaching a surrogate target lead vehicle. This surrogate target was designed to allow safely placing naive drivers in controlled, realistic rear-end crash scenarios under test track conditions. Maneuver intensity instructions were varied so that drivers' perceptions of normal and non-normal braking envelopes could be properly identified and modeled for forward collision warning timing purposes. The database modeled includes 3536 last-second braking judgment trials. A promising inverse time-to-collision model was developed, which assumes that the driver deceleration response in response to a crash alert is based on an inverse time-to-collision threshold that decreases linearly with driver speed.

  1. Detecting Driver Mental Fatigue Based on EEG Alpha Power Changes during Simulated Driving

    PubMed Central

    GHARAGOZLOU, Faramarz; NASL SARAJI, Gebraeil; MAZLOUMI, Adel; NAHVI, Ali; MOTIE NASRABADI, Ali; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; ARAB KHERADMAND, Ali; ASHOURI, Mohammadreza; SAMAVATI, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Driver fatigue is one of the major implications in transportation safety and accounted for up to 40% of road accidents. This study aimed to analyze the EEG alpha power changes in partially sleep-deprived drivers while performing a simulated driving task. Methods: Twelve healthy male car drivers participated in an overnight study. Continuous EEG and EOG records were taken during driving on a virtual reality simulator on a monotonous road. Simultaneously, video recordings from the driver face and behavior were performed in lateral and front views and rated by two trained observers. Moreover, the subjective self-assessment of fatigue was implemented in every 10-min interval during the driving using Fatigue Visual Analog Scale (F-VAS). Power spectrum density and fast Fourier transform (FFT) were used to determine the absolute and relative alpha powers in the initial and final 10 minutes of driving. Results: The findings showed a significant increase in the absolute alpha power (P = 0.006) as well as F-VAS scores during the final section of driving (P = 0.001). Meanwhile, video ratings were consistent with subjective self-assessment of fatigue. Conclusion: The increase in alpha power in the final section of driving indicates the decrease in the level of alertness and attention and the onset of fatigue, which was consistent with F-VAS and video ratings. The study suggested that variations in alpha power could be a good indicator for driver mental fatigue, but for using as a countermeasure device needed further investigations. PMID:26811821

  2. Driver circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Raymond T. (Inventor); Higashi, Stanley T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A driver circuit which has low power requirements, a relatively small number of components and provides flexibility in output voltage setting. The driver circuit comprises, essentially, two portions which are selectively activated by the application of input signals. The output signal is determined by which of the two circuit portions is activated. While each of the two circuit portions operates in a manner similar to silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), the circuit portions are on only when an input signal is supplied thereto.

  3. Configuration assistant for versatile vision-based inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesser, Olivier; Huegli, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, vision-based inspection systems are present in many stages of the industrial manufacturing process. Their versatility, which permits us to accommodate a broad range of inspection requirements, is, however, limited by the time consuming system setup performed at each production change. This work aims at providing a configuration assistant that helps to speed up this system setup, considering the peculiarities of industrial vision systems. The pursued principle, which is to maximize the discriminating power of the features involved in the inspection decision, leads to an optimization problem based on a high-dimensional objective function. Several objective functions based on various metrics are proposed, their optimization being performed with the help of various search heuristics such as genetic methods and simulated annealing methods. The experimental results obtained with an industrial inspection system are presented. They show the effectiveness of the presented approach, and validate the configuration assistant as well.

  4. Silicon-on-insulator-based high-voltage, high-temperature integrated circuit gate driver for silicon carbide-based power field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Leon M; Huque, Mohammad A; Blalock, Benjamin J; Islam, Syed K

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-based field effect transistors (FETs) are gaining popularity as switching elements in power electronic circuits designed for high-temperature environments like hybrid electric vehicle, aircraft, well logging, geothermal power generation etc. Like any other power switches, SiC-based power devices also need gate driver circuits to interface them with the logic units. The placement of the gate driver circuit next to the power switch is optimal for minimising system complexity. Successful operation of the gate driver circuit in a harsh environment, especially with minimal or no heat sink and without liquid cooling, can increase the power-to-volume ratio as well as the power-to-weight ratio for power conversion modules such as a DC-DC converter, inverter etc. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based high-voltage, high-temperature integrated circuit (IC) gate driver for SiC power FETs has been designed and fabricated using a commercially available 0.8--m, 2-poly and 3-metal bipolar-complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-double diffused metal oxide semiconductor (DMOS) process. The prototype circuit-s maximum gate drive supply can be 40-V with peak 2.3-A sourcing/sinking current driving capability. Owing to the wide driving range, this gate driver IC can be used to drive a wide variety of SiC FET switches (both normally OFF metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and normally ON junction field effect transistor (JFET)). The switching frequency is 20-kHz and the duty cycle can be varied from 0 to 100-. The circuit has been successfully tested with SiC power MOSFETs and JFETs without any heat sink and cooling mechanism. During these tests, SiC switches were kept at room temperature and ambient temperature of the driver circuit was increased to 200-C. The circuit underwent numerous temperature cycles with negligible performance degradation.

  5. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests in... an LCV driver-training program as specified in subpart B of this part. The written knowledge test may be administered by any qualified driver-instructor. The skills tests, based on actual operation of...

  6. Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

  7. Safety reliability evaluation when vehicles turn right from urban major roads onto minor ones based on driver's visual perception.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Yuren; Wang, Ruiyun; Dong, Yongjie

    2016-10-01

    Turning right has a significant impact on urban road traffic safety. Driving into the curve inappropriately or with improper turning speed often leads to a series of potential accidents and hidden dangers. For a long time, the design speed at intersections has been used to determine the physical radius of curbs and channelization, and drivers are expected to drive in accordance with the design speed. However, a large number of real vehicle tests show that for the road without an exclusive right-turn lane, there is not a good correlation between the physical radius of curbs and the turning right speeds. In this paper, shape parameters of the driver's visual lane model are put forward and they have relatively high correlations with right-turn speeds. Hence, an evaluation method about safety reliability of turning right from urban major roads onto minor ones based on driver's visual perception is proposed. For existing roads, the evaluation object could be real driving videos; for those under construction roads, the evaluation object could be visual scenes obtained from a driving simulation device. Findings in this research will make a contribution to the optimization of right-turn design at intersections and lead to the development of auxiliary driving technology.

  8. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver’s EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver’s vigilance level . Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model. PMID:26907278

  9. Knowledge-based assistance in costing the space station DMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Troy; Rone, Kyle

    1988-01-01

    The Software Cost Engineering (SCE) methodology developed over the last two decades at IBM Systems Integration Division (SID) in Houston is utilized to cost the NASA Space Station Data Management System (DMS). An ongoing project to capture this methodology, which is built on a foundation of experiences and lessons learned, has resulted in the development of an internal-use-only, PC-based prototype that integrates algorithmic tools with knowledge-based decision support assistants. This prototype Software Cost Engineering Automation Tool (SCEAT) is being employed to assist in the DMS costing exercises. At the same time, DMS costing serves as a forcing function and provides a platform for the continuing, iterative development, calibration, and validation and verification of SCEAT. The data that forms the cost engineering database is derived from more than 15 years of development of NASA Space Shuttle software, ranging from low criticality, low complexity support tools to highly complex and highly critical onboard software.

  10. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lyndel J; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-08-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  11. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  12. The National Nursing Assistant Survey: Improving the Evidence Base for Policy Initiatives to Strengthen the Certified Nursing Assistant Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squillace, Marie R.; Remsburg, Robin E.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita; Rosenoff, Emily; Han, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces the first National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a major advance in the data available about certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and a rich resource for evidence-based policy, practice, and applied research initiatives. We highlight potential uses of this new survey using select population estimates as examples of…

  13. A case-based assistant for clinical psychiatry expertise.

    PubMed

    Bichindaritz, I

    1994-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is an artificial intelligence methodology for the processing of empirical knowledge. Recent case-based reasoning systems also use theoretic knowledge about the domain to constrain the case-based reasoning. The organization of the memory is the key issue in case-based reasoning. The case-based assistant presented here has two structures in memory: cases and concepts. These memory structures permit it to be as skilled in problem-solving tasks, such as diagnosis and treatment planning, as in interpretive tasks, such as clinical research. A prototype applied to clinical work about eating disorders in psychiatry, reasoning from the alimentary questionnaires of these patients, is presented as an example of the system abilities.

  14. A case-based assistant for clinical psychiatry expertise.

    PubMed Central

    Bichindaritz, I.

    1994-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is an artificial intelligence methodology for the processing of empirical knowledge. Recent case-based reasoning systems also use theoretic knowledge about the domain to constrain the case-based reasoning. The organization of the memory is the key issue in case-based reasoning. The case-based assistant presented here has two structures in memory: cases and concepts. These memory structures permit it to be as skilled in problem-solving tasks, such as diagnosis and treatment planning, as in interpretive tasks, such as clinical research. A prototype applied to clinical work about eating disorders in psychiatry, reasoning from the alimentary questionnaires of these patients, is presented as an example of the system abilities. PMID:7950011

  15. Occupational driver safety: conceptualising a leadership-based intervention to improve safe driving performance.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry

    2012-03-01

    Occupational driving crashes are the most common cause of death and injury in the workplace. The physical and psychological outcomes following injury are also very costly to organizations. Thus, safe driving poses a managerial challenge. Some research has attempted to address this issue through modifying discrete and often simple target behaviours (e.g., driver training programs). However, current intervention approaches in the occupational driving field generally consider the role of organizational factors in workplace safety. This study adopts the A-B-C framework to identify the contingencies associated with an effective exchange of safety information within the occupational driving context. Utilizing a sample of occupational drivers and their supervisors, this multi-level study examines the contingencies associated with the exchange of safety information within the supervisor-driver relationship. Safety values are identified as an antecedent of the safety information exchange, and the quality of the leader-member exchange relationship and safe driving performance is identified as the behavioural consequences. We also examine the function of role overload as a factor influencing the relationship between safety values and the safety information exchange. Hierarchical linear modelling found that role overload moderated the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of the value given to safety and the safety information exchange. A significant relationship was also found between the safety information exchange and the subsequent quality of the leader-member exchange relationship. Finally, the quality of the leader-member exchange relationship was found to be significantly associated with safe driving performance. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua: identifying critical areas and exploring drivers for evidence-based planning.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Nájera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Bacallao, Jorge; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Altamirano, Lesbia; Saenz, Carlos; Marin, Jesus; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moynihan, Matthew; Espinal, Marcos

    2012-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. In Central America, leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported in almost all countries; Nicaragua in particular has faced several outbreaks. The objective of this study was to stratify the risk and identify "critical areas" for leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua, and to perform an exploratory analysis of potential "drivers". This ecological study includes the entire country (153 municipalities). Cases from 2004 to 2010 were obtained from the country's health information system, demographic and socioeconomic variables from its Census, and environmental data from external sources. Criteria for risk stratification of leptospirosis were defined. Nicaragua reported 1,980 cases of leptospirosis during this period, with the highest percentage of cases (26.36%) in León, followed by Chinandega (15.35%). Among the 153 municipalities, 48 were considered critical areas, 85 were endemic and 20 silent. Using spatial and statistical analysis, the variable presenting the most evident pattern of association with critical areas defined by top quintile of incidence rate is the percentage of municipal surface occupied by the soil combination of cambisol (over pyroclastic and lava bedrock) and andosol (over a volcanic ashes foundation). Precipitation and percentage of rural population are also associated with critical areas. This methodology and findings could be used for Nicaragua's Leptospirosis Intersectoral Plan, and to identify possible risk areas in other countries with similar drivers.

  17. Design of Accumulator and Compressor Rings for the Project-X Based Proton Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    A Muon Collider (MC) and a Neutrino Factory (NF) - which may be considered as a step towards a MC - both require a high-power ({approx}4 MW) proton driver providing short (<1 m r.m.s. length) bunches for muon production. However, the driver repetition rates required for these two machines are different: {approx}15 Hz for MC and {approx}60 Hz for NF. This difference suggests employing two separate rings: one for accumulation of the proton beam from the Project-X linac in a few (e.g. 4) long bunches, the other for bunch compression - one by one for NF or all at a time for MC with simultaneous delivery to the target. The lattice requirements for these two rings are different: the momentum compaction factor in the accumulator ring should be large (and possibly negative) to avoid the microwave instability, while the compressor ring can be nearly isochronous in order to limit the required RF voltage and reduce the dispersion contribution to the beam size. In the present report we consider ring lattice designs which achieve these goals.

  18. An analysis on driver drowsiness based on reaction time and EEG band power.

    PubMed

    Ruyi Foong; Kai Keng Ang; Chai Quek; Cuntai Guan; Aung Aung Phyo Wai

    2015-08-01

    Falling asleep during driving is a serious problem that has resulted in fatal accidents worldwide. Thus, there is a need to detect driver drowsiness to counter it. This study analyzes the changes in the electroencephalography (EEG) collected from 4 subjects driving under monotonous road conditions using a driving simulator. The drowsiness level of the subjects is inferred from the time taken to react to events. The results from the analysis of the reaction time shows that drowsiness occurs in cycles, which correspond to short sleep cycles known as `microsleeps'. The results from a time-frequency analysis of the four frequency bands' power reveals differences between trials with fast and slow reaction times; greater beta band power is present in all subjects, greater alpha power in 2 subjects, greater theta power in 2 subjects, and greater delta power in 3 subjects, for fast reaction trials. Overall, this study shows that reaction time can be used to infer the drowsiness, and subject-specific changes in the EEG band power may be used to infer drowsiness. Thus the study shows a promising prospect of developing Brain-Computer Interface to detect driver drowsiness. PMID:26738144

  19. Configuration assistant for versatile vision-based inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesser, Olivier; Hugli, Heinz

    2000-03-01

    Nowadays, vision-based inspection systems are present in many stages of the industrial manufacturing process. Their versatility, which permits to accommodate a broad range of inspection requirements, is however limited by the time consuming system setup performed at each production change. This work aims at providing a configuration assistant that helps to speed up this system setup, considering the peculiarities of industrial vision systems. The pursued principle, which is to maximize the discriminating power of the features involved in the inspection decision, leads to an optimization problem based on a high dimensional objective function. Several objective functions based on various metrics are proposed, their optimization being performed with the help of various search heuristics such as genetic methods and simulated annealing methods. The experimental results obtained with an industrial inspection system are presented, considering the particular case of the visual inspection of markings found on top of molded integrated circuits. These results show the effectiveness of the presented objective functions and search methods, and validate the configuration assistant as well.

  20. Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy eating in Australian truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Vayro, Caitlin; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N = 30, Mage = 39.53, SDage = 10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N = 148, Mage = 44.23, SDage = 12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N = 20, Mage = 46.9, SDage = 12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors.

  1. Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy eating in Australian truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Vayro, Caitlin; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N = 30, Mage = 39.53, SDage = 10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N = 148, Mage = 44.23, SDage = 12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N = 20, Mage = 46.9, SDage = 12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors. PMID:26710674

  2. The Knowledge-Based Software Assistant: Beyond CASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carozzoni, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will outline the similarities and differences between two paradigms of software development. Both support the whole software life cycle and provide automation for most of the software development process, but have different approaches. The CASE approach is based on a set of tools linked by a central data repository. This tool-based approach is data driven and views software development as a series of sequential steps, each resulting in a product. The Knowledge-Based Software Assistant (KBSA) approach, a radical departure from existing software development practices, is knowledge driven and centers around a formalized software development process. KBSA views software development as an incremental, iterative, and evolutionary process with development occurring at the specification level.

  3. Informatics-based Medical Procedure Assistance during Space Missions

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-01-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

  4. Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-08-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station.

  5. Hallways to Highways. Driver Education 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide direction and assistance to driver education instructors and school administrators as they plan and implement quality programs of traffic safety instruction. Materials are divided into seven chapters conveying: (1) the organization and administration of driver and traffic safety education, (2) the driving…

  6. Constraints on drivers for visible light communications emitters based on energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Del Campo-Jimenez, Guillermo; Perez-Jimenez, Rafael; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco Jose

    2016-05-01

    In this work we analyze the energy efficiency constraints on drivers for Visible light communication (VLC) emitters. This is the main reason why LED is becoming the main source of illumination. We study the effect of the waveform shape and the modulation techniques on the overall energy efficiency of an LED lamp. For a similar level of illumination, we calculate the emitter energy efficiency ratio η (PLED/PTOTAL) for different signals. We compare switched and sinusoidal signals and analyze the effect of both OOK and OFDM modulation techniques depending on the power supply adjustment, level of illumination and signal amplitude distortion. Switched and OOK signals present higher energy efficiency behaviors (0.86≤η≤0.95) than sinusoidal and OFDM signals (0.53≤η≤0.79). PMID:27137609

  7. Constraints on drivers for visible light communications emitters based on energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Del Campo-Jimenez, Guillermo; Perez-Jimenez, Rafael; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco Jose

    2016-05-01

    In this work we analyze the energy efficiency constraints on drivers for Visible light communication (VLC) emitters. This is the main reason why LED is becoming the main source of illumination. We study the effect of the waveform shape and the modulation techniques on the overall energy efficiency of an LED lamp. For a similar level of illumination, we calculate the emitter energy efficiency ratio η (PLED/PTOTAL) for different signals. We compare switched and sinusoidal signals and analyze the effect of both OOK and OFDM modulation techniques depending on the power supply adjustment, level of illumination and signal amplitude distortion. Switched and OOK signals present higher energy efficiency behaviors (0.86≤η≤0.95) than sinusoidal and OFDM signals (0.53≤η≤0.79).

  8. Leptospirosis Outbreaks in Nicaragua: Identifying Critical Areas and Exploring Drivers for Evidence-Based Planning

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Nájera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Bacallao, Jorge; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Altamirano, Lesbia; Saenz, Carlos; Marin, Jesus; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moynihan, Matthew; Espinal, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. In Central America, leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported in almost all countries; Nicaragua in particular has faced several outbreaks. The objective of this study was to stratify the risk and identify “critical areas” for leptospirosis outbreaks in Nicaragua, and to perform an exploratory analysis of potential “drivers”. This ecological study includes the entire country (153 municipalities). Cases from 2004 to 2010 were obtained from the country’s health information system, demographic and socioeconomic variables from its Census, and environmental data from external sources. Criteria for risk stratification of leptospirosis were defined. Nicaragua reported 1,980 cases of leptospirosis during this period, with the highest percentage of cases (26.36%) in León, followed by Chinandega (15.35%). Among the 153 municipalities, 48 were considered critical areas, 85 were endemic and 20 silent. Using spatial and statistical analysis, the variable presenting the most evident pattern of association with critical areas defined by top quintile of incidence rate is the percentage of municipal surface occupied by the soil combination of cambisol (over pyroclastic and lava bedrock) and andosol (over a volcanic ashes foundation). Precipitation and percentage of rural population are also associated with critical areas. This methodology and findings could be used for Nicaragua’s Leptospirosis Intersectoral Plan, and to identify possible risk areas in other countries with similar drivers. PMID:23202822

  9. A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre

    PubMed Central

    Balciunas, T.; Fourcade-Dutin, C.; Fan, G.; Witting, T.; Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Gerome, F.; Paulus, G. G.; Baltuska, A.; Benabid, F.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade intense laser fields with a single-cycle duration and even shorter, subcycle multicolour field transients have been generated and applied to drive attosecond phenomena in strong-field physics. Because of their extensive bandwidth, single-cycle fields cannot be emitted or amplified by laser sources directly and, as a rule, are produced by external pulse compression—a combination of nonlinear optical spectral broadening followed up by dispersion compensation. Here we demonstrate a simple robust driver for high-field applications based on this Kagome fibre approach that ensures pulse self-compression down to the ultimate single-cycle limit and provides phase-controlled pulses with up to a 100 μJ energy level, depending on the filling gas, pressure and the waveguide length. PMID:25625549

  10. Assisting control for attendant propelled wheelchair based on force velocity relationship.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuto; Uchiyama, Hironobu; Holloway, Catherine; Tyler, Nick

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to develop an assisting device which can be adapted to the individual capabilities of elderly attendants, which would allow them to maintain a level of fitness when pushing a wheelchair, while minimising the risk of injury to them. Furthermore there is a need to reduce the overall energy consumption of the device in keeping with the current trends of reducing carbon emissions. The control system for attendants pushing wheelchairs that reduces the energy needed by the assisting device is an increasing trend of optimisation of assistive technology devices to individual capabilities to ensure less energy expenditure of the attendant. The control parameters for existing assisting systems for attendant wheelchair propulsion are difficult to optimise for individual capabilities. We focus on the individual propelling performance, and propose an assisting control method based on the force velocity relationship of the individual. Our proposed assisting controller generates an assisting force when the attendant's propelling force exceeds an assisting boundary defined by the force velocity relationship. In this paper, we tested the performance of the assisting controller based on force velocity (FV) relationship using simulation. The simulation used an attendant wheelchair model with parameters determined from experiments. From the simulated results of the assisting force trajectories, the FV assisting system worked as we defined. The FV assisting system used less energy consumption than the existing proportional assisting systems. Also the FV assisting system would have a limit of maximum attendant propelling power, so the distribution between the attendant force and the assisting force can be easily adjusted to the individual's force velocity relationship. Our proposed FV assisting system would be useful as it would allow an optimised system based on individual capabilities to be created for rehabilitation/training systems, which would allow optimum energy

  11. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  12. An egocentric vision based assistive co-robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingzhe; Zhuang, Lishuo; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Yameng; Meng, Yan; Hua, Gang

    2013-06-01

    We present the prototype of an egocentric vision based assistive co-robot system. In this co-robot system, the user is wearing a pair of glasses with a forward looking camera, and is actively engaged in the control loop of the robot in navigational tasks. The egocentric vision glasses serve for two purposes. First, it serves as a source of visual input to request the robot to find a certain object in the environment. Second, the motion patterns computed from the egocentric video associated with a specific set of head movements are exploited to guide the robot to find the object. These are especially helpful for quadriplegic individuals who do not have needed hand functionality for interaction and control with other modalities (e.g., joystick). In our co-robot system, when the robot does not fulfill the object finding task in a pre-specified time window, it would actively solicit user controls for guidance. Then the users can use the egocentric vision based gesture interface to orient the robot towards the direction of the object. After that the robot will automatically navigate towards the object until it finds it. Our experiments validated the efficacy of the closed-loop design to engage the human in the loop.

  13. An egocentric vision based assistive co-robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingzhe; Zhuang, Lishuo; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Yameng; Meng, Yan; Hua, Gang

    2013-06-01

    We present the prototype of an egocentric vision based assistive co-robot system. In this co-robot system, the user is wearing a pair of glasses with a forward looking camera, and is actively engaged in the control loop of the robot in navigational tasks. The egocentric vision glasses serve for two purposes. First, it serves as a source of visual input to request the robot to find a certain object in the environment. Second, the motion patterns computed from the egocentric video associated with a specific set of head movements are exploited to guide the robot to find the object. These are especially helpful for quadriplegic individuals who do not have needed hand functionality for interaction and control with other modalities (e.g., joystick). In our co-robot system, when the robot does not fulfill the object finding task in a pre-specified time window, it would actively solicit user controls for guidance. Then the users can use the egocentric vision based gesture interface to orient the robot towards the direction of the object. After that the robot will automatically navigate towards the object until it finds it. Our experiments validated the efficacy of the closed-loop design to engage the human in the loop. PMID:24187290

  14. Best practices for team-based assistive technology design courses.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Mary R; Pearlman, Jonathan L

    2013-09-01

    Team-based design courses focused on products for people with disabilities have become relatively common, in part because of training grants such as the NSF Research to Aid Persons with Disabilities course grants. An output from these courses is an annual description of courses and projects but has yet to be complied into a "best practices guide," though it could be helpful for instructors. To meet this need, we conducted a study to generate best practices for assistive technology product development courses and how to use these courses to teach students the fundamentals of innovation. A full list of recommendations is comprised in the manuscript and include identifying a client through a reliable clinical partner; allowing for transparency between the instructors, the client, and the team(s); establishing multi-disciplinary teams; using a process-oriented vs. solution-oriented product development model; using a project management software to facilitate and archive communication and outputs; facilitating client interaction through frequent communication; seeking to develop professional role confidence to inspire students' commitment to engineering and (where applicable) rehabilitation field; publishing student designs on repositories; incorporating both formal and informal education opportunities related to design; and encouraging students to submit their designs to local or national entrepreneurship competitions.

  15. Movement stability analysis of surface electromyography-based elbow power assistance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Suncheol; Kim, Yunjoo; Kim, Jung

    2014-04-01

    The use of power assistive devices that use surface electromyography (SEMG) signals may be limited by the noisy nature of SEMG signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in human movement stability while the amount of SEMG-based assistive power was changed. A robotic device provided a torque that was proportional to the torque estimated by SEMG for assisting human movements, and 12 volunteers participated in the elbow flexion experiments. The maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponent (MFTLE), the average logarithmic rate of the divergence of neighboring trajectories, and the variability of the kinematic data were used to quantify the stability of the assisted elbow movements. The stability provided by the MFTLE decreased as the amount of assistive torque increased with respect to the amount of human torque. The kinematic variability increased with the increase in assistive torque. Therefore, by ensuring that the amount of SEMG-based assistive torque is less than the amount of human torque, the assistance may provide relatively natural movements. This study is the first to quantify movement stability as SEMG-based assistive power is applied. This study can provide a foundation for determining the appropriate amount of SEMG-based assistive power.

  16. Teaching Driver Education Technology to Novice Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anthony

    A cybernetic unit in driver education was developed to help grade 10 students develop the skills needed to acquire and process driver education information and prepare for the driving phase of driver education in grade 11. Students used a simulator to engage in a series of scenarios designed to promote development of social, behavioral, and mental…

  17. A method to investigate drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Detection System®.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Giuliofrancesco; Simões, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lately, with the goal of improving road safety, car makers developed and commercialised some Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) which, through the detection of blind spot areas on the vehicle's sides, could help the drivers during the overtaking and the change lane task. Despite the possible benefits to reduce lateral crashes, the overall impact on road safety of such systems have not been deeply studied yet; notably, despite some researches have been carried out, there is a lack of studies regarding the long-term usage and drivers' acceptance of those systems. In order to fill the research gap, a methodology, based on the combination of focus groups interviews, questionnaires and a small-scale field operational test (FOT), has been designed in this study; such a methodology aims at evaluating drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Information System® and at proposing some ideas to improve the usability and user-friendliness of this (or similar) device in their future development.

  18. Drivers of nitrogen dynamics in ecologically based agriculture revealed by long-term, high-frequency field measurements.

    PubMed

    Finney, Denise M; Eckert, Sara E; Kaye, Jason P

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture impacts ecosystems worldwide. One strategy to mitigate these losses, ecologically based nutrient management (ENM), seeks to recouple carbon (C) and N cycles to reduce environmental losses and supply N to cash crops. However, our capacity to apply ENM is limited by a lack of field-based high-resolution data on N dynamics in actual production contexts. We used data from a five-year study of organic cropping systems to investigate soil inorganic N (SIN) variability and nitrate (NO3-) leaching in ENM. Four production systems initiated in 2007 and 2008 in central Pennsylvania varied in crop rotation, timing and intensity of tillage, inclusion of fallow periods, and N inputs. Extractable SIN was measured fortnightly from March through November throughout the experiment, and NO3- N concentration below the rooting zone was sampled with lysimeters during the first year of the 2008 start. We used recursive partitioning models to assess the importance of management and environmental factors to SIN variability and NO3- leaching and identify interactions between influential variables. Air temperature and tillage were the most important drivers of SIN across systems. The highest SIN concentrations occurred when the average air temperature three weeks prior to measurement was above 21 degrees C. Above this temperature and within 109 days of moldboard plowing, average SIN concentrations were 22.1 mg N/kg soil; 109 days or more past plowing average SIN dropped to 7.7 mg N/kg soil. Other drivers of SIN dynamics were N available from manure and cover crops. Highest average leachate NO3- N concentrations (15.2 ppm) occurred in fall and winter when SIN was above 4.9 mg/kg six weeks prior to leachate collection. Late season tillage operations leading to elevated SIN and leachate NO3- N concentrations were a strategy to reduce weeds while meeting consumer demand for organic products. Thus, while tillage that incorporates organic N inputs preceding cash

  19. Drivers of nitrogen dynamics in ecologically based agriculture revealed by long-term, high-frequency field measurements.

    PubMed

    Finney, Denise M; Eckert, Sara E; Kaye, Jason P

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture impacts ecosystems worldwide. One strategy to mitigate these losses, ecologically based nutrient management (ENM), seeks to recouple carbon (C) and N cycles to reduce environmental losses and supply N to cash crops. However, our capacity to apply ENM is limited by a lack of field-based high-resolution data on N dynamics in actual production contexts. We used data from a five-year study of organic cropping systems to investigate soil inorganic N (SIN) variability and nitrate (NO3-) leaching in ENM. Four production systems initiated in 2007 and 2008 in central Pennsylvania varied in crop rotation, timing and intensity of tillage, inclusion of fallow periods, and N inputs. Extractable SIN was measured fortnightly from March through November throughout the experiment, and NO3- N concentration below the rooting zone was sampled with lysimeters during the first year of the 2008 start. We used recursive partitioning models to assess the importance of management and environmental factors to SIN variability and NO3- leaching and identify interactions between influential variables. Air temperature and tillage were the most important drivers of SIN across systems. The highest SIN concentrations occurred when the average air temperature three weeks prior to measurement was above 21 degrees C. Above this temperature and within 109 days of moldboard plowing, average SIN concentrations were 22.1 mg N/kg soil; 109 days or more past plowing average SIN dropped to 7.7 mg N/kg soil. Other drivers of SIN dynamics were N available from manure and cover crops. Highest average leachate NO3- N concentrations (15.2 ppm) occurred in fall and winter when SIN was above 4.9 mg/kg six weeks prior to leachate collection. Late season tillage operations leading to elevated SIN and leachate NO3- N concentrations were a strategy to reduce weeds while meeting consumer demand for organic products. Thus, while tillage that incorporates organic N inputs preceding cash

  20. Development of an Interactive Computer-Based Learning Strategy to Assist in Teaching Water Quality Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigic, Sasha; Lemckert, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    The following paper presents a computer-based learning strategy to assist in introducing and teaching water quality modelling to undergraduate civil engineering students. As part of the learning strategy, an interactive computer-based instructional (CBI) aid was specifically developed to assist students to set up, run and analyse the output from a…

  1. Teacher's Guide for Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Nursing Assistant. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Educational Consultants, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the Nursing Assistant Competency-Based Education (CBE) Curriculum which is based on a survey of current practices in West Virginia and a neighboring labor market determining the tasks actually performed by people employed as nursing assistants. The guide is divided into eight major sections. Section 1…

  2. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Aliens eligible for assistance based on immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aliens eligible for assistance based on immigration status. 1626.5 Section 1626.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... assistance based on immigration status. Subject to all other eligibility requirements and restrictions of...

  3. Competency-Based Performance Appraisals: Improving Performance Evaluations of School Nutrition Managers and Assistants/Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Evelina W.; Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research was to develop a competency-based performance appraisal resource for evaluating school nutrition (SN) managers and assistants/technicians. Methods: A two-phased process was used to develop the competency-based performance appraisal resource for SN managers and assistants/technicians. In Phase I, draft…

  4. Advanced laser-based tracking device for motor vehicle lane position monitoring and steering assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachalo, William D.; Inenaga, Andrew; Schuler, Carlos A.

    1995-12-01

    Aerometrics is developing an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. No additional markings are required. A warning is used to alert the driver of excessive weaving or unanticipated departure from the center of the lane. The laser beams are at invisible wavelengths to that operation of the device does not pose a distraction to the driver or other motorists: When appropriate markers are not present on the road, the device is capable of detecting this condition and warn the driver. The sensor system is expected to work well irrespective of ambient light levels, fog and rain. This sensor has enormous commercial potential. It could be marketed as an instrument to warn drivers that they are weaving, used as a research tool to monitor driving patterns, be required equipment for those previously convicted of driving under the influence, or used as a backup sensor for vehicle lateral position control. It can also be used in storage plants to guide robotic delivery vehicles. In this paper, the principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics ongoing testing will be presented.

  5. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time.

  6. The Application of Web-based Computer-assisted Instruction Courseware within Health Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuyan, Guo

    Health assessment is a clinical nursing course and places emphasis on clinical skills. The application of computer-assisted instruction in the field of nursing teaching solved the problems in the traditional lecture class. This article stated teaching experience of web-based computer-assisted instruction, based upon a two-year study of computer-assisted instruction courseware use within the course health assessment. The computer-assisted instruction courseware could develop teaching structure, simulate clinical situations, create teaching situations and facilitate students study.

  7. Limitations of Levels, Learning Outcomes and Qualifications as Drivers Towards a More Knowledge-Based Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan

    2008-01-01

    National (and European) qualifications frameworks, the specification of learning outcomes and grand targets like the Lisbon goals of increasing the supply of graduates in Europe in order to achieve a more knowledge-based society are all predicated upon the idea of moving people through to higher and well-defined levels of skills, knowledge and…

  8. Autonomous Vision-Based Tethered-Assisted Rover Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Dorian; Nesnas, Issa A.D.; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    Many intriguing science discoveries on planetary surfaces, such as the seasonal flows on crater walls and skylight entrances to lava tubes, are at sites that are currently inaccessible to state-of-the-art rovers. The in situ exploration of such sites is likely to require a tethered platform both for mechanical support and for providing power and communication. Mother/daughter architectures have been investigated where a mother deploys a tethered daughter into extreme terrains. Deploying and retracting a tethered daughter requires undocking and re-docking of the daughter to the mother, with the latter being the challenging part. In this paper, we describe a vision-based tether-assisted algorithm for the autonomous re-docking of a daughter to its mother following an extreme terrain excursion. The algorithm uses fiducials mounted on the mother to improve the reliability and accuracy of estimating the pose of the mother relative to the daughter. The tether that is anchored by the mother helps the docking process and increases the system's tolerance to pose uncertainties by mechanically aligning the mating parts in the final docking phase. A preliminary version of the algorithm was developed and field-tested on the Axel rover in the JPL Mars Yard. The algorithm achieved an 80% success rate in 40 experiments in both firm and loose soils and starting from up to 6 m away at up to 40 deg radial angle and 20 deg relative heading. The algorithm does not rely on an initial estimate of the relative pose. The preliminary results are promising and help retire the risk associated with the autonomous docking process enabling consideration in future martian and lunar missions.

  9. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  10. A compact ion source and accelerator based on a piezoelectric driver

    SciTech Connect

    Norgard, P.; Kovaleski, S. D.; VanGordon, J. A.; Baxter, E. A.; Gall, B. B.; Kwon, Jae Wan; Kim, Baek Hyun; Dale, G. E.

    2013-04-19

    Compact ion sources and accelerators using piezoelectric devices for the production of energetic ion beams are being evaluated. A coupled source-accelerator is being tested as a neutron source to be incorporated into oil-well logging diagnostics. Two different ion sources are being investigated, including a piezoelectric transformer-based plasma source and a silicon-based field ion source. The piezoelectric transformer plasma ion source uses a cylindrical, resonantly driven piezoelectric crystal to produce high voltage inside a confined volume filled with low pressure deuterium gas. The plasma generated in the confined chamber is ejected through a small aperture into an evacuated drift region. The silicon field ion source uses localized electric field enhancement produced by an array of sharp emitters etched into a silicon blank to produce ions through field desorption ionization. A second piezoelectric device of a different design is used to generate an accelerating potential on the order of 130 kV; this potential is applied to a deuterated target plate positioned perpendicular to the ion stream produced by either plasma source. This paper discusses the results obtained by the individual components as they relate to the final neutron source.

  11. Community health workers as drivers of a successful community-based disease management initiative.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Patricia J; Matiz, Luz Adriana; Findley, Sally; Lizardo, Maria; Evans, David; McCord, Mary

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, local leaders in New York City developed the Washington Heights/Inwood Network for Asthma Program to address the burden of asthma in their community. Bilingual community health workers based in community organizations and the local hospital provided culturally appropriate education and support to families who needed help managing asthma. Families participating in the yearlong care coordination program received comprehensive asthma education, home environmental assessments, trigger reduction strategies, and clinical and social referrals. Since 2006, 472 families have enrolled in the yearlong program. After 12 months, hospitalizations and emergency department visits decreased by more than 50%, and caregiver confidence in controlling the child's asthma increased to nearly 100%. Key to the program's success was the commitment and involvement of community partners from program inception to date.

  12. User-controlled photographic animations, photograph-based questions, and questionnaires: three Internet-based instruments for measuring drivers' risk-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Horswill, M S; Coster, M E

    2001-02-01

    The Internet has been exploited successfully in the past as a medium for behavioral research. This paper presents a series of studies designed to assess Internet-based measures of drivers' risk-taking behavior. First, we compared responses from an Internet sample with a traditional pencil-and-paper sample using established questionnaire measures of risk taking. No significant differences were found. Second, we assessed the validity of new Internet-based instruments, involving photographs and photographic animations, that measured speed, gap acceptance, and passing. Responses were found to reflect known demographic patterns of actual behavior to some degree. Also, a roadside survey of speeds was carried out at the locations depicted in the photographic measure of speeding and, with certain exceptions, differences between the two appeared to be constant. Third, a between-subject experimental manipulation involving the photographic animation measure of gap acceptance was used to demonstrate one application of these techniques.

  13. Mammary Stem Cell Based Somatic Mouse Models Reveal Breast Cancer Drivers Causing Cell Fate Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Christin, John R.; Wang, Chunhui; Ge, Kai; Oktay, Maja H.; Guo, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Cancer genomics have provided an unprecedented opportunity for understanding genetic causes of human cancer. However, distinguishing which mutations are functionally relevant to cancer pathogenesis remains a major challenge. We describe here a mammary stem cell (MaSC) organoid-based approach for rapid generation of somatic GEMMs (genetically engineered mouse models). By using RNAi and CRISPR-mediated genome engineering in MaSC-GEMMs, we have discovered that inactivation of Ptpn22 or Mll3, two genes mutated in human breast cancer, greatly accelerated PI3K-driven mammary tumorigenesis. Using these tumor models, we have also identified genetic alterations promoting tumor metastasis and causing resistance to PI3K-targeted therapy. Both Ptpn22 and Mll3 inactivation resulted in disruption of mammary gland differentiation and an increase in stem cell activity. Mechanistically, Mll3 deletion enhanced stem cell activity through activation of the HIF pathway. Thus, our study established a robust in vivo platform for functional cancer genomics and discovered functional breast cancer mutations. PMID:27653681

  14. Mammary-Stem-Cell-Based Somatic Mouse Models Reveal Breast Cancer Drivers Causing Cell Fate Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Christin, John R; Wang, Chunhui; Ge, Kai; Oktay, Maja H; Guo, Wenjun

    2016-09-20

    Cancer genomics has provided an unprecedented opportunity for understanding genetic causes of human cancer. However, distinguishing which mutations are functionally relevant to cancer pathogenesis remains a major challenge. We describe here a mammary stem cell (MaSC) organoid-based approach for rapid generation of somatic genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). By using RNAi and CRISPR-mediated genome engineering in MaSC-GEMMs, we have discovered that inactivation of Ptpn22 or Mll3, two genes mutated in human breast cancer, greatly accelerated PI3K-driven mammary tumorigenesis. Using these tumor models, we have also identified genetic alterations promoting tumor metastasis and causing resistance to PI3K-targeted therapy. Both Ptpn22 and Mll3 inactivation resulted in disruption of mammary gland differentiation and an increase in stem cell activity. Mechanistically, Mll3 deletion enhanced stem cell activity through activation of the HIF pathway. Thus, our study has established a robust in vivo platform for functional cancer genomics and has discovered functional breast cancer mutations. PMID:27653681

  15. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  16. An Infrastructure for Web-Based Computer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Mike; Muzykantskii, Boris; Rawles, Simon; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We describe an initiative under way at Warwick to provide a technical foundation for computer aided learning and computer-assisted assessment tools, which allows a rich dialogue sensitive to individual students' response patterns. The system distinguishes between dialogues for individual problems and the linking of problems. This enables a subject…

  17. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an individual, education-based safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are concerns over safety of older drivers due to increased crash involvement and vulnerability to injury. However, loss of driving privileges can dramatically reduce independence and quality of life for older members of the community. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older at reducing driving exposure but maintaining mobility. Methods and design A randomised trial will be conducted, involving 380 drivers aged 75 years and older, resident in urban and semi-rural areas of North-West Sydney. The intervention is an education program based on the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS) program, adapted for the Australian context. Driving experience will be measured objectively using an in-vehicle monitoring device which includes a global positioning system (GPS) to assess driving exposure and an accelerometer to detect rapid deceleration events. Participation will be assessed using the Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP). Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary outcomes include driving exposure, rapid deceleration events and scores for KAP. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of driving, socialisation, uptake of alternative forms of transport, depressive symptoms and mood. A detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of the delivery of the program and uptake of alternative forms of transport. A subgroup analysis is planned for drivers with reduced function as characterized by established cut-off scores on the Drivesafe assessment tool. Discussion This randomised trial is powered to provide an objective assessment of the efficacy of an individually tailored education and alternative transportation program to promote safety of older drivers but maintain mobility. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000543886. PMID:23379593

  18. Driving Control for Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Regenerative Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel safety driving control scheme for electric power assisted wheelchairs based on the regenerative braking system. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the safe and secure driving performance especially on downhill roads must be further improved because electric power assisted wheelchairs have no braking devices. The proposed control system automatically switches the driving mode, from “assisting mode” to “braking mode”, based on the wheelchair's velocity and the declined angle and smoothly suppresses the wheelchair's acceleration based on variable duty ratio control in order to realize the safety driving and to improve the ride quality. Some experiments on the practical roads and subjective evaluation show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  19. Raising Awareness of Assistive Technology in Older Adults through a Community-Based, Cooperative Extension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Debra M.; Markham, Melinda Stafford

    2012-01-01

    The Fashion an Easier Lifestyle with Assistive Technology (FELAT) curriculum was developed as a needs-based, community educational program provided through a state Cooperative Extension Service. The overall goal for participants was to raise awareness of assistive technology. Program evaluation included a postassessment and subsequent interview to…

  20. 24 CFR 982.353 - Where family can lease a unit with tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where family can lease a unit with tenant-based assistance. 982.353 Section 982.353 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  1. Changing the Marks-Based Culture of Learning through Peer-Assisted Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, E.; Cutler, P. S.; Eisenbach, S.; Field, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe and evaluate an approach to student learning that aims to instil a culture of formative assessment based on peer-assisted learning. The idea is for suitably qualified undergraduates to assist in the running of weekly first-year tutorials. They mark submitted work, provide written and verbal feedback and lead problem-solving discussions…

  2. Microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of zirconium oxide based metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weibin; D'Alessandro, Deanna M

    2013-05-01

    Zirconium oxide based Metal-Organic Frameworks were synthesised using a rapid and efficient microwave-assisted solvothermal method that produced purer phases and higher quality crystalline products in significantly (>95%) less time than the conventional heating method. A new amino-functionalised analogue has been synthesised exclusively using this microwave-assisted methodology.

  3. An Empirical Typology of Residential Care/Assisted Living Based on a Four-State Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nan Sook; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Eckert, J. Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Residential care/assisted living describes diverse facilities providing non-nursing home care to a heterogeneous group of primarily elderly residents. This article derives typologies of assisted living based on theoretically and practically grounded evidence. Design and Methods: We obtained data from the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term…

  4. Towards a knowledge-based system to assist the Brazilian data-collecting system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Valter; Simoni, P. O.; Oliveira, P. P. B.; Oliveira, C. A.; Nogueira, C. A. M.

    1988-01-01

    A study is reported which was carried out to show how a knowledge-based approach would lead to a flexible tool to assist the operation task in a satellite-based environmental data collection system. Some characteristics of a hypothesized system comprised of a satellite and a network of Interrogable Data Collecting Platforms (IDCPs) are pointed out. The Knowledge-Based Planning Assistant System (KBPAS) and some aspects about how knowledge is organized in the IDCP's domain are briefly described.

  5. Control of a Glove-Based Grasp Assist Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergelin, Bryan J (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor); Laske, Evan (Inventor); Ensley, Kody (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A grasp assist system includes a glove and sleeve. The glove includes a digit, i.e., a finger or thumb, and a force sensor. The sensor measures a grasping force applied to an object by an operator wearing the glove. The glove contains a tendon connected at a first end to the digit. The sleeve has an actuator assembly connected to a second end of the tendon and a controller in communication with the sensor. The controller includes a configuration module having selectable operating modes and a processor that calculates a tensile force to apply to the tendon for each of the selectable operating modes to assist the grasping force in a manner that differs for each of the operating modes. A method includes measuring the grasping force, selecting the mode, calculating the tensile force, and applying the tensile force to the tendon using the actuator assembly.

  6. Dakota Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Peter

    2013-02-14

    This code connects the SANDIA’a C++-based DAKOTA optimization and analyis tool with NASA’s python-based openMDAO systems engineering framework. It allows DAKOTA to be used as an openMDAO “Driver”. DAKOTA contains a wide array of advanced sensitivity, uncertainty quantification, and optimization methods. These are now available in a “pluggable” way to any openMDAO based workflow.

  7. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  8. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  9. Ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of fangchinoline and tetrandrine from Stephaniae tetrandrae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijin; Geng, Yanling; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Daijie; Fu, Maorun; Wang, Xiao

    2009-10-01

    An ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction method has been developed for the effective extraction of fangchinoline and tetrandrine from Stephaniae tetrandrae. The effects of some ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters including the concentration of [BMIM][BF(4)], pH, ultrasonic power and time were investigated to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions. Compared to the regular ultrasound-assisted extraction and traditional refluent extraction, the proposed [BMIM][BF(4)]-based ultrasound-assisted extraction offered shorter extraction times (from 6 h to 40 min) and remarkable higher efficiencies (approximately 30% improved), which supported the suitability of the proposed approach. In addition, the proposed approach was confirmed by the good correlation coefficient (R(2)), recovery and reproducibility (RSD, n = 5), which were in the range of 0.9992-0.9995, 85.5-101.1%, and 1.87-4.33%, respectively. PMID:19764054

  10. Mobility and safety issues in drivers with dementia.

    PubMed

    Carr, David B; O'Neill, Desmond

    2015-10-01

    Although automobiles remain the mobility method of choice for older adults, late-life cognitive impairment and progressive dementia will eventually impair the ability to meet transport needs of many. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the specific types of assessments that should be applied to older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness or approaching loss of mobility and subsequent counseling. Yet, clinicians are often called upon by patients, their families, health professionals, and driver licensing authorities to assess their patients' fitness-to-drive and to make recommendations about driving privileges. We summarize the literature on dementia and driving, discuss evidenced-based assessments of fitness-to-drive, and outline the important ethical and legal concerns. We address the role of physician assessment, referral to neuropsychology, functional screens, dementia severity tools, driving evaluation clinics, and driver licensing authority referrals that may assist clinicians with an evaluation. Finally, we discuss mobility counseling (e.g. exploration of transportation alternatives) since health professionals need to address this important issue for older adults who lose the ability to drive. The application of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the older driver with cognitive impairment will have the best opportunity to enhance our patients' social connectedness and quality of life, while meeting their psychological and medical needs and maintaining personal and public safety. PMID:26111454

  11. 6 CFR 37.27 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued during the age-based enrollment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum... described in § 37.5. Effective December 1, 2014, Federal agencies will only accept REAL ID cards for... 1, 2014, must obtain and present REAL ID cards for official purposes by December 1, 2017....

  12. 6 CFR 37.27 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued during the age-based enrollment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum... described in § 37.5. Effective December 1, 2014, Federal agencies will only accept REAL ID cards for... 1, 2014, must obtain and present REAL ID cards for official purposes by December 1, 2017....

  13. Conceptual design for a linear-transformer driver (LTD)-based refurbishment and upgrade of the Saturn accelerator pulse-power system.

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Struve, Kenneth William

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a conceptual design for the Saturn accelerator using the modular Liner-Transformer Driver (LTD) technology to identify risks and to focus development and research for this new technology. We present a reference design for a Saturn class driver based on a number of linear inductive voltage adders connected in parallel. This design is very similar to a design reported five years ago [1]. However, with the design reported here we use 1-MA, 100-kV LTD cavities as building blocks. These cavities have already been built and are currently in operation at the HCEI in Tomsk, Russia [2]. Therefore, this new design integrates already-proven individual components into a full system design.

  14. Competency-Based Education: Maximize the Performance of Your Unlicensed Assistive Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barczak, Nancy; Spunt, Debra

    1999-01-01

    A competency-based education program trained 217 unlicensed assistive health care personnel. Participants gained knowledge and skills and expressed eagerness to learn more and work on teams. The job description was revised into the position of nurse extenders. (SK)

  15. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Beretvas, Andy; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    This document is on Geant4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They are OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output without an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple.

  16. THE OLDER ADULT DRIVER WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David B.; Ott, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Although automobiles remain the transportation of choice for older adults, late life cognitive impairment and dementia often impair the ability to drive safely. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the assessment of older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness. Yet, clinicians are called upon by patients, their families, other health professionals, and often the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to assess their patients' fitness-to-drive and to make recommendations about driving privileges. Using the case of Mr W, we describe the challenges of driving with cognitive impairment for both the patient and caregiver, summarize the literature on dementia and driving, discuss evidenced-based assessment of fitness-to-drive, and address important ethical and legal issues. We describe the role of physician assessment, referral to neuropsychology, functional screens, dementia severity tools, driving evaluation clinics, and DMV referrals that may assist with evaluation. Finally, we discuss mobility counseling (eg, exploration of transportation alternatives) since health professionals need to address this important issue for older adults who lose the ability to drive. The application of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the older driver with cognitive impairment will have the best opportunity to enhance our patients' social connectedness and quality of life, while meeting their psychological and medical needs and maintaining personal and public safety. PMID:20424254

  17. LANL GPIB Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-15

    This driver code adds a GPIB infrastructure and API features to 2.6 series Linux kernels. Currently supported hardware is National Instruments PCI-GPIB cards built on either the TNT4882 controller chip, or the TNT5004 controller chip. This driver is an improvement over previous GPIB drivers in Linux because it has all the features of the GPL, high performance DMA, supports Linux 2.6 and the new driver model, and has a cleaner API than the previous drivers. GPIB is the "general purpose interface bus", commonly used to control oscilloscopes, digital multimeters, function generators, and other electronic test equipment.

  18. LANL GPIB Driver

    2004-04-15

    This driver code adds a GPIB infrastructure and API features to 2.6 series Linux kernels. Currently supported hardware is National Instruments PCI-GPIB cards built on either the TNT4882 controller chip, or the TNT5004 controller chip. This driver is an improvement over previous GPIB drivers in Linux because it has all the features of the GPL, high performance DMA, supports Linux 2.6 and the new driver model, and has a cleaner API than the previous drivers.more » GPIB is the "general purpose interface bus", commonly used to control oscilloscopes, digital multimeters, function generators, and other electronic test equipment.« less

  19. Novel Straight and Circular Road Driving Control of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Fuzzy Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel straight and circular road driving control scheme for electric power assisted wheelchairs. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the performance of the straight and circular road driving must be further improved because the two wheels drive independently. This paper proposes a novel driving control scheme based on fuzzy algorithm to realize the stable and reliable driving on straight and circular roads. The suitable assisted torque of the right and left wheels is determined by fuzzy algorithm based on the posture angular velocity of the wheelchair and the human input torque proportion of the right and left wheels. Some experiments on the practical roads show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  20. Predictions of Geospace Drivers By the Probability Distribution Function Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussy-Virat, C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Geospace drivers like the solar wind speed, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and solar irradiance have a strong influence on the density of the thermosphere and the near-Earth space environment. This has important consequences on the drag on satellites that are in low orbit and therefore on their position. One of the basic problems with space weather prediction is that these drivers can only be measured about one hour before they affect the environment. In order to allow for adequate planning for some members of the commercial, military, or civilian communities, reliable long-term space weather forecasts are needed. The study presents a model for predicting geospace drivers up to five days in advance. This model uses the same general technique to predict the solar wind speed, the three components of the IMF, and the solar irradiance F10.7. For instance, it uses Probability distribution functions (PDFs) to relate the current solar wind speed and slope to the future solar wind speed, as well as the solar wind speed to the solar wind speed one solar rotation in the future. The PDF Model has been compared to other models for predictions of the speed. It has been found that it is better than using the current solar wind speed (i.e., persistence), and better than the Wang-Sheeley-Arge Model for prediction horizons of 24 hours. Once the drivers are predicted, and the uncertainty on the drivers are specified, the density in the thermosphere can be derived using various models of the thermosphere, such as the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model. In addition, uncertainties on the densities can be estimated, based on ensembles of simulations. From the density and uncertainty predictions, satellite positions, as well as the uncertainty in those positions can be estimated. These can assist operators in determining the probability of collisions between objects in low Earth orbit.

  1. Space Propulsion Based on Dipole Assisted IEC System

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, George H.; Thomas, Robert; Takeyama, Yoshikazu; Momota, Hiromu; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    2006-01-20

    A potential opportunity to enhance Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion exists by introducing a magnetic dipole into the IEC chamber. The dipole fields should increase the plasma density, hence fusion rate, in the center region of the IEC and the combined IEC and dipole confinement properties will reduce plasma losses. To demonstrate that a hybrid Dipole-IEC (DaIEC) configuration can provide improved confinement vs. a stand alone IEC, a first model DaIEC experiment has been benchmarked against a reference IEC. A triple Langmuir probe was used to measure the electron temperature and density. It was confirmed that the magnetic field increases the electron density by an order of magnitude and the addition of a controlled electrical potential to the dipole structure allows control of space charge buildup in the dense core region. This paper describes the dipole assisted IEC concept, its advantages, and soon missions it is well suited for. Here the present status of DaIEC experiments are described, the issues for scale up are discussed, and a conceptual plan for a power unit development is presented.

  2. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  3. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  4. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200

  5. Polarization shift keying based relay-assisted free space optical communication over strong turbulence with misalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, K.; Sriram Kumar, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the outage performance of polarization shift keying (PolSK) based multihop parallel relay assisted free space optics (FSO) system over a strong atmospheric turbulence channel with misalignment fading. An exact closed form expression is derived for the end-to-end outage probability of the system. The results are compared with the direct transmission and on-off keying (OOK) based FSO systems. The results indicate that the performance of the PolSK based relay-assisted FSO system is much better than the direct transmission and OOK systems. The outage performance is enhanced by increasing the number of relay path between the transmitter and receiver.

  6. Near Earth Asteroid redirect missions based on gravity assist maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledkov, Anton; Shustov, Boris M.; Eismont, Natan; Boyarsky, Michael; Nazirov, Ravil; Fedyaev, Konstantin

    During last years several events attracted world community attention to the hazards of hitting the Earth by sky objects. One of these objects is Apophis asteroid what was expected with nonzero probability to hit the Earth in 2036. Luckily after more precise measurements this event is considered as practically improbable. But the other object has really reached the Earth, entered the atmosphere in the Chelyabinsk area and caused vast damages. After this the hazardous near Earth objects problem received practical confirmation of the necessity to find the methods of its resolution. The methods to prevent collision of the dangerous sky object with the Earth proposed up to now look not practical enough if one mentions such as gravitational tractor or changing the reflectivity of the asteroid surface. Even the method supposing the targeting of the spacecraft to the hazardous object in order to deflect it from initial trajectory by impact does not work because its low mass as compared with the mass of asteroid to be deflected. For example the mass of the Apophis is estimated to be about 40 million tons but the spacecraft which can be launched to intercept the asteroid using contemporary launchers has the mass not more than 5 tons. So the question arises where to find the heavier projectile which is possible to direct to the dangerous object? The answer proposed in our paper is very simple: to search it among small near Earth asteroids. As small ones we suppose those which have the cross section size not more than 12-15 meters and mass not exceeding 1500 -1700 tons. According to contemporary estimates the number of such asteroids is not less than 100000. The other question is how to redirect such asteroid to the dangerous one. In the paper the possibilities are studied to use for that purpose gravity assist maneuvers near Earth. It is shown that even among asteroids included in contemporary catalogue there are the ones which could be directed to the trajectory of the

  7. Preliminary Design of a Ramjet for Integration with Ground-Based Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayles, Emily L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the preliminary design of a ramjet for integration with a ground based launch assist. The reasons for the use of ground-based launch assist and the proposed mechanism for a system are reviewed. The use of a Optimal Trajectory by Implicit Simulation (OTIS), to model the flight and comparison with an actual rocket trajectory is given. The OTIS system is reviewed, The benefits of a launch assist system are analyzed concluding that a launch assist can provide supersonic speeds thus allowing ignition of ramjet without an onboard compressor. This means a further reduction in total launch weight. The Ramjet study is reviewed next. This included a review of the ONX simulations, the verification of the ONX results with the use of Holloman Sled experiment data as derived from the Feasibility of Ramjet Engine Test Capability on The Holloman AFB Sled Track. The conclusion was that the ONX system was not sufficient to meet the needs for the modeling required. The GECAT (Graphical Engine Cycle Analysis Tool) is examined. The results of the GECAT simulations was verified with data from Stataltex and D21 flights. The Next steps are: to create a GECAT Model of a launch assist ramjet, to adjust the geometry to produce the desired thrust, and to survey the ramjet's performance over a range of Mach numbers. The assumptions and requirements of a launch assist ramjet are given, and the acceptable flight regimes are reviewed.

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Skills-Based Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students with Disabilities: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Pei-Lin; Maeda, Yukiko; Bouck, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for students with disabilities can be categorized into the following categories: visual, auditory, mobile, and cognitive skills-based CAI. Cognitive-skills based CAI differs from other types of CAI largely in terms of an emphasis on instructional design features. We conducted both systematic review of…

  9. Learning Tools for Knowledge Nomads: Using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) in Web-based Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Christian Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    Examines how mobile computers, or personal digital assistants (PDAs), can be used in a Web-based learning environment. Topics include wireless networks on college campuses; online learning; Web-based learning technologies; synchronous and asynchronous communication via the Web; content resources; Web connections; and collaborative learning. (LRW)

  10. Robust driver heartbeat estimation: A q-Hurst exponent based automatic sensor change with interactive multi-model EKF.

    PubMed

    Vrazic, Sacha

    2015-08-01

    Preventing car accidents by monitoring the driver's physiological parameters is of high importance. However, existing measurement methods are not robust to driver's body movements. In this paper, a system that estimates the heartbeat from the seat embedded piezoelectric sensors, and that is robust to strong body movements is presented. Multifractal q-Hurst exponents are used within a classifier to predict the most probable best sensor signal to be used in an Interactive Multi-Model Extended Kalman Filter pulsation estimation procedure. The car vibration noise is reduced using an autoregressive exogenous model to predict the noise on sensors. The performance of the proposed system was evaluated on real driving data up to 100 km/h and with slaloms at high speed. It is shown that this method improves by 36.7% the pulsation estimation under strong body movement compared to static sensor pulsation estimation and appears to provide reliable pulsation variability information for top-level analysis of drowsiness or other conditions.

  11. Robust driver heartbeat estimation: A q-Hurst exponent based automatic sensor change with interactive multi-model EKF.

    PubMed

    Vrazic, Sacha

    2015-08-01

    Preventing car accidents by monitoring the driver's physiological parameters is of high importance. However, existing measurement methods are not robust to driver's body movements. In this paper, a system that estimates the heartbeat from the seat embedded piezoelectric sensors, and that is robust to strong body movements is presented. Multifractal q-Hurst exponents are used within a classifier to predict the most probable best sensor signal to be used in an Interactive Multi-Model Extended Kalman Filter pulsation estimation procedure. The car vibration noise is reduced using an autoregressive exogenous model to predict the noise on sensors. The performance of the proposed system was evaluated on real driving data up to 100 km/h and with slaloms at high speed. It is shown that this method improves by 36.7% the pulsation estimation under strong body movement compared to static sensor pulsation estimation and appears to provide reliable pulsation variability information for top-level analysis of drowsiness or other conditions. PMID:26736864

  12. 49 CFR 383.52 - Disqualification of drivers determined to constitute an imminent hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES... Assistant Administrator's delegate with the Assistant Administrator, Adjudications Counsel (MC-CC),...

  13. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  14. A Navigation Path Planning Assistant for Web-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Ryoichi; Hasegawa, Shinobu; Kashihara, Akihiro; Toyoda, Jun'ichi

    This paper addresses how to help learners navigate in existing Web-based learning resources. In order to resolve this issue, a learner-centered navigation path-planning model is proposed. The main objective is to provide learners with a path planning space in which they can see through hyperspace to plan a navigation path. This paper describes an…

  15. Vision-based control in driving assistance of agricultural vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J.; Debain, C.; Rouveure, R.

    1998-10-01

    This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.

  16. Safety assurance of assistive devices based on a two-level checking scheme.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Chu; Chen, Chiun-Fan; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chiou, Ying-Han; Lai, Jin-Shin; Kuog, T-S

    2005-01-01

    The increasing number of physically challenged individuals has boosted the demand of powered wheelchairs. This paper is on the subject of a DSP (Digital Signal Processors) based assistive system, which is associated with a two-level checking scheme. The assistive system takes on the M3S (Multiple Master Multiple Slave) regulation for the assurance of safety. The CAN (Control Area Networks) embedded module in the DSP provides robust transmission of information within the system. The hardware interfaces based on the two-level checking scheme is implemented in input devices (e.g. joystick, head control apparatus) and in output devices (e.g. manipulator, prime mover motors). PMID:17281868

  17. Fabrication of advanced particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Juan; Han, Jun-Jie

    2011-07-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication of complex particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics are reviewed. Monodisperse particles with expected internal structures, morphologies, and sizes in the range of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers have received a good deal of attention in recent years. Due to the capability of generating monodisperse emulsions and of executing precise control and operations on the suspended droplets inside the microchannels, droplet-based microfluidic devices have become powerful tools for fabricating complex particles with desired properties. Emulsions and multiple-emulsions generated in the microfluidic devices can be composed of a variety of materials including aqueous solutions, gels, polymers and solutions containing functional nanoparticles. They are ideal microreactors or fine templates for synthesizing advanced particles, such as polymer particles, microcapsules, nanocrystals, and photonic crystal clusters or beads by further chemical or physical operations. These particles are promising materials that may be applicable for many fields, such as photonic materials, drug delivery systems, and bio-analysis. From simple to complex, from spherical to nonspherical, from polymerization and reaction crystallization to self-assembly, this review aims to help readers be aware of the many aspects of this field.

  18. Scattering assisted injection based injectorless mid infrared quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Siddharth Kamoua, Ridha

    2014-06-07

    An injectorless five-well mid infrared quantum cascade laser is analyzed which relies on phonon scattering injection in contrast to resonant tunneling injection, which has been previously used for injectorless designs. A Monte Carlo based self-consistent electron and photon transport simulator is used to analyze the performance of the analyzed design and compare it to existing injectorless designs. The simulation results show that the analyzed design could greatly enhance the optical gain and the characteristic temperatures of injectorless quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) which have typically been hindered by low characteristic temperatures and significant temperature related performance degradation. Simulations of the analyzed device predict threshold current densities of 0.85 kA/cm{sup 2} and 1.95 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and 300 K, respectively, which are comparable to the threshold current densities of conventional injector based QCLs.

  19. Gradient-based model calibration with proxy-model assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Wesley; Doherty, John

    2016-02-01

    Use of a proxy model in gradient-based calibration and uncertainty analysis of a complex groundwater model with large run times and problematic numerical behaviour is described. The methodology is general, and can be used with models of all types. The proxy model is based on a series of analytical functions that link all model outputs used in the calibration process to all parameters requiring estimation. In enforcing history-matching constraints during the calibration and post-calibration uncertainty analysis processes, the proxy model is run for the purposes of populating the Jacobian matrix, while the original model is run when testing parameter upgrades; the latter process is readily parallelized. Use of a proxy model in this fashion dramatically reduces the computational burden of complex model calibration and uncertainty analysis. At the same time, the effect of model numerical misbehaviour on calculation of local gradients is mitigated, this allowing access to the benefits of gradient-based analysis where lack of integrity in finite-difference derivatives calculation would otherwise have impeded such access. Construction of a proxy model, and its subsequent use in calibration of a complex model, and in analysing the uncertainties of predictions made by that model, is implemented in the PEST suite.

  20. Magnetic-Assisted, Self-Healable, Yarn-Based Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Meng, Wenjun; Pei, Zengxia; Liu, Chang; Hu, Hong; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-06-23

    Yarn-based supercapacitors have received considerable attention recently, offering unprecedented opportunities for future wearable electronic devices (e.g., smart clothes). However, the reliability and lifespan of yarn-based supercapacitors can be seriously limited by accidental mechanical damage during practical applications. Therefore, a supercapacitor endowed with mechanically and electrically self-healing properties is a brilliant solution to the challenge. Compared with the conventional planar-like or large wire-like structure, the reconnection of the broken yarn electrode composed of multiple tiny fibers (diameter <20 μm) is much more difficult and challenging, which directly affects the restoration of electrical conductivity after damage. Herein, a self-healable yarn-based supercapacitor that ensures the reconnection of broken electrodes has been successfully developed by wrapping magnetic electrodes around a self-healing polymer shell. The strong force from magnetic attraction between the broken yarn electrodes benefits reconnection of fibers in the yarn electrodes during self-healing and thus offers an effective strategy for the restoration of electric conductivity, whereas the polymer shell recovers the configuration integrity and mechanical strength. With the design, the specific capacitance of our prototype can be restored up to 71.8% even after four breaking/healing cycles with great maintenance of the whole device's mechanical properties. This work may inspire the design and fabrication of other distinctive self-healable and wearable electronic devices. PMID:26029976

  1. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers.

  2. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers. PMID:19540960

  3. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  4. Entanglement-assisted electron microscopy based on a flux qubit

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Nagatani, Yukinori

    2014-02-10

    A notorious problem in high-resolution biological electron microscopy is radiation damage caused by probe electrons. Hence, acquisition of data with minimal number of electrons is of critical importance. Quantum approaches may represent the only way to improve the resolution in this context, but all proposed schemes to date demand delicate control of the electron beam in highly unconventional electron optics. Here we propose a scheme that involves a flux qubit based on a radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device, inserted in a transmission electron microscope. The scheme significantly improves the prospect of realizing a quantum-enhanced electron microscope for radiation-sensitive specimens.

  5. Computer-Assisted Search Of Large Textual Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, James R.

    1995-01-01

    "QA" denotes high-speed computer system for searching diverse collections of documents including (but not limited to) technical reference manuals, legal documents, medical documents, news releases, and patents. Incorporates previously available and emerging information-retrieval technology to help user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual data bases. Technology includes provision for inquiries in natural language; statistical ranking of retrieved information; artificial-intelligence implementation of semantics, in which "surface level" knowledge found in text used to improve ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, in which user's judgements of relevance of some retrieved documents used automatically to modify search for further information.

  6. Satellite Imagery Assisted Road-Based Visual Navigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, A.; Gibbens, P. W.

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing demand for unmanned aerial systems as autonomous surveillance, exploration and remote sensing solutions. Among the key concerns for robust operation of these systems is the need to reliably navigate the environment without reliance on global navigation satellite system (GNSS). This is of particular concern in Defence circles, but is also a major safety issue for commercial operations. In these circumstances, the aircraft needs to navigate relying only on information from on-board passive sensors such as digital cameras. An autonomous feature-based visual system presented in this work offers a novel integral approach to the modelling and registration of visual features that responds to the specific needs of the navigation system. It detects visual features from Google Earth* build a feature database. The same algorithm then detects features in an on-board cameras video stream. On one level this serves to localise the vehicle relative to the environment using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM). On a second level it correlates them with the database to localise the vehicle with respect to the inertial frame. The performance of the presented visual navigation system was compared using the satellite imagery from different years. Based on comparison results, an analysis of the effects of seasonal, structural and qualitative changes of the imagery source on the performance of the navigation algorithm is presented. * The algorithm is independent of the source of satellite imagery and another provider can be used

  7. Plasmon-Assisted Nd(3+)-Based Solid-State Nanolaser.

    PubMed

    Molina, Pablo; Yraola, Eduardo; Ramírez, Mariola O; Tserkezis, Christos; Plaza, José L; Aizpurua, Javier; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Bausá, Luisa E

    2016-02-10

    Solid-state lasers constitute essential tools in a variety of scientific and technological areas, being available in many different designs. However, although nanolasing has been successfully achieved for dyes and semiconductor gain media associated with plasmonic structures, the operation of solid-state lasers beyond the diffraction limit has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate room temperature laser action with subwavelength confinement in a Nd(3+)-based solid-state laser by means of the localized surface plasmon resonances supported by chains of metallic nanoparticles. We show a 50% reduction of the pump power at threshold and a remarkable 15-fold improvement of the slope efficiency with respect to the bulk laser operation. The results can be extended to the large diversity of solid-state lasers with the subsequent impact on their applications. PMID:26751848

  8. Assisting students for lecture preparation: A Web-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, Brad Jay

    Students continue to arrive at universities with poor study and time management skills: they are not proactive in their studies while professors are not willing to hold them accountable for their shortcomings. The result is a 'dumbing down' of the course. This can be defeated by student preparation prior to attending lecture, especially in very large-lecture classrooms (N>400). In fact, it provides a process to 'dumb up' the course. A Web-based system for providing content specific lecture preparations (termed 'Previews') was developed and tested in three courses in a large southwestern research institution. Significance was found in final course achievement by treatment levels, including variations by the total number of participations in the lecture preparations. Method of implementation and results are discussed, including future considerations.

  9. Plasmon-Assisted Nd(3+)-Based Solid-State Nanolaser.

    PubMed

    Molina, Pablo; Yraola, Eduardo; Ramírez, Mariola O; Tserkezis, Christos; Plaza, José L; Aizpurua, Javier; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Bausá, Luisa E

    2016-02-10

    Solid-state lasers constitute essential tools in a variety of scientific and technological areas, being available in many different designs. However, although nanolasing has been successfully achieved for dyes and semiconductor gain media associated with plasmonic structures, the operation of solid-state lasers beyond the diffraction limit has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate room temperature laser action with subwavelength confinement in a Nd(3+)-based solid-state laser by means of the localized surface plasmon resonances supported by chains of metallic nanoparticles. We show a 50% reduction of the pump power at threshold and a remarkable 15-fold improvement of the slope efficiency with respect to the bulk laser operation. The results can be extended to the large diversity of solid-state lasers with the subsequent impact on their applications.

  10. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  11. Help Wanted: Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoober, Scott

    1999-01-01

    A booming economy and low unemployment make it harder than ever before to lure and retain good school-bus drivers. Lack of money for good wages has prompted some innovative recruitment and retention tactics. Chicago has turned to the rolls of people going off welfare as a source of bus-driver candidates. The Trans Group, headquartered in Chestnut…

  12. Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Improve Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Pointing Assistive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two children with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (APAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to intercept mouse click action). Initially, both participants…

  13. Human Functioning, Supports, Assistive Technology, and Evidence-Based Practices in the Field of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of assistive technology (AT) in the context of three current international trends in the field of intellectual disability (ID) that are significantly impacting the delivery of services and supports to persons with ID: the provision of systems of supports based on the individual's assessed support needs, the increased…

  14. Coming Home: A Group-Based Approach for Assisting Military Veterans in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Marvin J.; McLean, Holly; Cave, Douglas; Borgen, William; Slakov, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the Veterans Transition Program, a residential, group-based program designed to assist the transition of military personnel back into Canadian society by aiding with their personal and career readjustment. Participants in the program included 18 male soldiers who experienced varying degrees of combat-related trauma.…

  15. Introducing Case-Based Peer-Assisted Learning in a Professional Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Brack, Charlotte; Benson, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes students' experience of participating in a case-based peer-assisted learning (PAL) program in order to examine whether the approach is pedagogically effective and likely to contribute to students' professional development. It presents the findings of a study which examined the integration of PAL and case-based…

  16. Student Material for Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Nursing Assistant. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Educational Consultants, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA.

    This second edition of the Nursing Assistant Competency-Based Education (CBE) Curriculum contains the curriculum units and related student guidelines and instructional materials. A discussion of how to use this curriculum precedes the table of contents. The curriculum is divided into twenty-eight units. The first three units include instructional…

  17. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  18. Listening Strategy Use and Influential Factors in Web-Based Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, L.; Zhang, R.; Liu, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates second and foreign language (L2) learners' listening strategy use and factors that influence their strategy use in a Web-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) system. A strategy inventory, a factor questionnaire and a standardized listening test were used to collect data from a group of 82 Chinese students…

  19. Can Graduate Teaching Assistants Teach Inquiry-Based Geology Labs Effectively?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryker, Katherine; McConnell, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of teaching strategies by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in inquiry-based introductory geology labs at a large research university. We assess the degree of inquiry present in each Physical Geology lab and compare and contrast the instructional practices of new and experienced GTAs teaching these labs. We…

  20. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  1. Re-Exploring Game-Assisted Learning Research: The Perspective of Learning Theoretical Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chiou, Wen-Bin; Kao, Hao-Yun; Hu, Chung-Hsing Alex; Huang, Sih-Han

    2012-01-01

    Previous literature reviews or meta-analysis based studies on game-assisted learning have provided important results, but few studies have considered the importance of learning theory, and coverage of papers after 2007 is scant. This study presents a systematic review of the literature using a meta-analysis approach to provide a more comprehensive…

  2. Learning Achievement in Solving Word-Based Mathematical Questions through a Computer-Assisted Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a computer-assisted mathematical problem-solving system in the form of a network instruction website to help low-achieving second- and third-graders in mathematics with word-based addition and subtraction questions in Taiwan. According to Polya's problem-solving model, the system is designed to guide these low-achievers…

  3. Assistive Technology in Medicaid Home- and Community-Based Waiver Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchener, Martin; Ng, Terence; Lee, Hyang Yuol; Harrington, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: As consensus emerges concerning the need to extend publicly funded home- and community-based services that support the independence of seniors, studies have reported the efficacy and cost effectiveness of assistive technology (AT). This article presents the latest available national AT expenditure and participation trends (1999-2002) for…

  4. Current Telephone-Based Schoolwork Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Their Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Alan

    This paper reviews the literature on telephone-based schoolwork assistance programs and describes the activities of several such programs. Research literature indicates that properly organized lessons and assignments result in greater student achievement. Research on characteristics of students who procrastinate in doing their schoolwork is…

  5. Does advanced driver training improve situational awareness?

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Kazi, Tara A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P

    2009-07-01

    Over 70 years of experiential evidence suggests that a specific form of advanced driver training, one based on an explicit system of car control, improves driver situation awareness (SA). Five experimental hypotheses are developed. They propose that advanced driving should increase the number of information elements in the driver's working memory, increase the interconnection between those elements, increase the amount of 'new' information in memory as well as the prominence of existing information, and that finally, it should stimulate behaviours that help drivers evolve better situations to be aware of. An approach to SA based on Neisser's perceptual cycle theory is anchored to a network based methodology. This is applied within the context of a longitudinal on-road study involving three groups of 25 drivers, all of whom were measured pre- and post-intervention. One experimental group was subject to advanced driver training and two further groups provided control for time and for being accompanied whilst driving. Empirical support is found for all five hypotheses. Advanced driving does improve driver SA but not necessarily in the way that existing situation focused, closed loop models of the concept might predict. PMID:18675387

  6. Land-use transition for bioenergy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts and interactions with other land use based mitigation options

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, Alexander; Rose, Steven K.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Dietrich, Jan P.; Wise, Marshall A.; Stehfest, Eike; Humpenoder, Florian; Kyle, G. Page; Van Vliet, Jasper; Bauer, Nico; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This study is a model comparison assessing the drivers and impacts of bioenergy production on the global land system and the interaction with other land use based mitigation options in the context of the EMF 27 project. We compare and evaluate results from three integrated assessment models (GCAM, IMAGE, and ReMIND/MAgPIE). All three models project that dedicated bioenergy crops and biomass residues are a potentially important and cost-effective component of the energy system. But bioenergy deployment levels and feedstock composition vary notably across models as do the implications for land-use and greenhouse gas emissions and the interaction with other land use based mitigation measures. Despite numerous model differences, we identify a few that are likely contributing to differences in land-use and emissions attributable to energy crop deployment.

  7. [A brain tumor automatic assisted-diagnostic system based on medical image shape analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Yang, Jie

    2005-03-01

    This paper covers a brain tumor assisted diagnosis system based on medical image analysis. The system supplements the PACS functions such as display of medical images and database inquiry, segments slice in real-time using the algorithm of fuzzy region competition, extracts shape feature factors such as contour label, compactness, moment, Fourier Descriptor, chord length, radius and other medical data on the brain tumor image with irregular contour feature after segmentation and then feeds to Bayesian network in order to sort the brain tumor for the implementation of automatic assisted diagnosis. PMID:16011110

  8. A concept of needs-oriented design and evaluation of assistive robots based on ICF.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshio; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Okawa, Yayoi

    2011-01-01

    In the robotics community, a great number of assistive robots for elderly and handicapped people have been developed in the past few decades. However, very few of them became commercially available. It is often claimed that the major problems for the commercialization of robotic technologies are the "cost" and the "safety." However we believe that the mismatch of "needs in daily lives" and "seeds in the technologies" is also a major problem. In this paper, we describe our novel ideas on the development of assistive robots which fit the real needs of users based on ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), which is a part of the WHO Family of International Classifications for describing whole activities of a person in daily lives. By utilizing ICF, the development process of assistive robots - analyzing and discovering needs in daily lives, designing robots and evaluating the products - will be achieved in an objective manner.

  9. A concept of needs-oriented design and evaluation of assistive robots based on ICF.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshio; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Okawa, Yayoi

    2011-01-01

    In the robotics community, a great number of assistive robots for elderly and handicapped people have been developed in the past few decades. However, very few of them became commercially available. It is often claimed that the major problems for the commercialization of robotic technologies are the "cost" and the "safety." However we believe that the mismatch of "needs in daily lives" and "seeds in the technologies" is also a major problem. In this paper, we describe our novel ideas on the development of assistive robots which fit the real needs of users based on ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), which is a part of the WHO Family of International Classifications for describing whole activities of a person in daily lives. By utilizing ICF, the development process of assistive robots - analyzing and discovering needs in daily lives, designing robots and evaluating the products - will be achieved in an objective manner. PMID:22275637

  10. Looking beyond stratification: a model-based analysis of the biological drivers of oxygen deficiency in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Große, Fabian; Greenwood, Naomi; Kreus, Markus; Lenhart, Hermann-Josef; Machoczek, Detlev; Pätsch, Johannes; Salt, Lesley; Thomas, Helmuth

    2016-04-01

    which protects this area from the evolution of low oxygen conditions. In contrast, the southern central North Sea is highly susceptible to low oxygen conditions (type 2). We furthermore show that benthic diagenetic processes represent the main oxygen consumers in the bottom layer, consistently accounting for more than 50 % of the overall consumption. Thus, primary production followed by remineralisation of organic matter under stratified conditions constitutes the main driver for the evolution of oxygen deficiency in the southern central North Sea. By providing these valuable insights, we show that ecosystem models can be a useful tool for the interpretation of observations and the estimation of the impact of anthropogenic drivers on the North Sea oxygen conditions.

  11. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    PubMed

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations. PMID:27302852

  12. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    PubMed

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations.

  13. Effectiveness evaluation of simulative workshops for newly licensed drivers.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud

    2014-02-01

    The current study set to examine the effects of simulator use in driving instruction on newly licensed drivers, comparing the road safety knowledge and reported intended behavior, as well as the actual driving performance of new drivers. Participants consisted of 280 newly licensed driver, of which 140 whose drivers license training included additional simulator-based lessons, and 140 drivers whose training precluded simulator-based lessons. All drivers answered questionnaires pertaining to their intended safe driving behaviors (according to Ajzen's (2000) theory of planned behavior), and to their traffic safety knowledge. Of the initial sample, 40 drivers received actual driving performance evaluation by an expert driving instructor, as well as by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs). We assumed that safer drivers report safer driving intentions, demonstrate greater traffic safety knowledge, evaluated as safer drivers by the driving instructor, and display lower and stable driving parameters on the IVDRs. We hypothesized that theoretical driving studies combined with practical training on simulators will elevate the safety level of novices driving. Hierarchical regression analyses on driving intentions indicated that drivers who did not receive simulator-based lessons demonstrated safer driving intentions compared to drivers who received simulator-based lessons. This pattern possibly indicating the drivers who received simulator-based lessons felt more confident in their driving abilities compared to drivers who did not receive simulated training. No significant difference was found in traffic safety knowledge, or in the evaluation of the expert driving instructor. IDVR data comparisons indicated drivers who received simulator-based lessons braked more often and were less prone to headway events, suggesting a more responsive driving style. These findings do not point to any significant advantage or disadvantage of the current simulator-based driving training over

  14. Counting-Based Digital-to-Analog Converter Scheme for Compact Column Driver with Low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byong-Deok; Kim, Eui-Sik

    2008-03-01

    The concept of a counting-based digital-to-analog converter (CNT-DAC) is proposed to realize a compact column driver circuit for system-on-panel (SoP) applications. The traditional ramp DAC is very promising in the circuit-area respect, because it replaces the area-consuming read only memory (ROM)-type decoder with a counter; however, it is not widely used for display column drivers because it has several problems such as ramp signal distortion, charge sharing between column lines and pixel electrode and ramp signal generation. The CNT-DAC was inspired by the ramp DAC, which uses a counter instead of an area-consuming ROM-type decoder but can avoid the problems mentioned above by using a resistor string at each channel and a global shift register. Instead of designing an 8-bit DAC with the counting-based DAC alone, we combine the 3-bit traditional decoder-based DAC and the 5-bit CNT-DAC, because the 8-bit CNT-DAC needs a clock frequency of about 20 MHz for a portrait qVGA format (H: 240, V: 320), which is a fairy difficult requirement to meet. For a 2-in. diagonal portrait qVGA AMOLED panel, the circuit area of one channel DAC is 73×1,010 µm2 with the design rule of 2 µm and a TFT channel length of 4 µm. The total power consumption of the CNT-DAC is about 3.2 mW; the static power consumption due to the resistor string at each channel is 1.7 mW, the dynamic power consumption for driving the column lines is about 1.0 mW, and the global shift register consumes about 0.5 mW.

  15. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    PubMed Central

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; van Wijk, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  16. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    PubMed

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  17. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    PubMed

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security.

  18. A Knowledge-Based System for the Computer Assisted Diagnosis of Endoscopic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kage, Andreas; Münzenmayer, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas

    Due to the actual demographic development the use of Computer-Assisted Diagnosis (CAD) systems becomes a more important part of clinical workflows and clinical decision making. Because changes on the mucosa of the esophagus can indicate the first stage of cancerous developments, there is a large interest to detect and correctly diagnose any such lesion. We present a knowledge-based system which is able to support a physician with the interpretation and diagnosis of endoscopic images of the esophagus. Our system is designed to support the physician directly during the examination of the patient, thus prodving diagnostic assistence at the point of care (POC). Based on an interactively marked region in an endoscopic image of interest, the system provides a diagnostic suggestion, based on an annotated reference image database. Furthermore, using relevant feedback mechanisms, the results can be enhanced interactively.

  19. An asynchronous metamodel-assisted memetic algorithm for CFD-based shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoleontos, Evgenia A.; Asouti, Varvara G.; Giannakoglou, Kyriakos C.

    2012-02-01

    This article presents an asynchronous metamodel-assisted memetic algorithm for the solution of CFD-based optimization problems. This algorithm is appropriate for use on multiprocessor platforms and may solve computationally expensive optimization problems in reduced wall-clock time, compared to conventional evolutionary or memetic algorithms. It is, in fact, a hybridization of non-generation-based (asynchronous) evolutionary algorithms, assisted by surrogate evaluation models, a local search method and the Lamarckian learning process. For the objective function gradient computation, in CFD applications, the adjoint method is used. Issues concerning the 'smart' implementation of local search in multi-objective problems are discussed. In this respect, an algorithmic scheme for reducing the number of calls to the adjoint equations to just one, irrespective of the number of objectives, is proposed. The algorithm is applied to the CFD-based shape optimization of the tubes of a heat exchanger and of a turbomachinery cascade.

  20. Control of phytoplankton in a shelf sea: Determination of the main drivers based on the Helgoland Roads Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, Karen H.; Boersma, Maarten; Carstens, Kristine; Kraberg, Alexandra C.; Peters, Silvia; Scharfe, Mirco

    2015-11-01

    Studies on what controls phytoplankton in shallow coastal seas are increasingly important in the context of current climate change. We analysed the daily long term data for Helgoland Roads, since 1962, to determine the main drivers of phytoplankton growth. Helgoland Roads is one of the few marine time series with an unbroken, highly resolved (work-daily) record of abiotic, biotic and hydrological parameters. All data for 50 years (1962-2011) of phytoplankton, diatoms, flagellates, zooplankton, nutrients, temperature and salinity, as well as light were analysed. The dominating factors, both with regard to timing and diatom numbers were light availability (Secchi depth), temperature and zooplankton. Annual patterns of temperature, Secchi, radiation and sunshine hours were found to be related. Salinity reduction in spring was attributed to riverine input in late winter. Secchi depth is driven mainly by meteorological and hydrographic conditions. We found that with a shift from low to high Secchi between weeks 12-18, the diatom spring bloom usually starts. The timing of phytoplankton occurrence was significantly correlated to Secchi values. Cumulative abundance growth patterns of microalgae are low/high with low/high temperatures and Secchi. In the early weeks of the year high temperatures lead to lower phytoplankton abundance. Zooplankton growth was found to follow diatom growth. Cumulative algal abundance growth patterns were low/high with high/low zooplankton. In the early and late weeks of the year, low zooplankton leads to longer algal growing periods. High zooplankton in spring results in a later start of algal growth. Nutrients were taken up from the water column in the following order: Silicate, phosphate, and nitrate, and this uptake follows the algal growth curves. Different algal species show different growth requirements for underwater light and temperature. The overall phytoplankton growth has shifted in 2001-2011 to longer growing periods with a less

  1. A Superconducting Linac Proton Driver at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, G. William

    2004-05-01

    A proton driver has emerged as the leading candidate for Fermilab's next near-term accelerator project. The preferred technical solution is an 8 GeV superconducting linac based on technology developed for TESLA and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Its primary mission is to serve as a single-stage H- injector to prepare 2 MW "Super-Beams" for Neutrino experiments using the Fermilab Main Injector. The linac can also accelerate electrons, protons, and relativistic muons, permitting future applications such as a driver for an FEL, a long-pulse spallation source, the driver for an intense 8 GeV neutrino or kaon program, and potential applications to a neutrino factory or muon collider. The technical design of the 8 GeV linac, as well as the design of an alternative synchrotron based proton driver, will be described along with plans for project proposal and construction.

  2. Mass drivers. 3: Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Cohen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    The last of a series of three papers by the Mass-Driver Group of the 1977 Ames Summer Study is presented. It develops the engineering principles required to implement the basic mass-driver. Optimum component mass trade-offs are derived from a set of four input parameters, and the program used to design a lunar launcher. The mass optimization procedures is then incorporated into a more comprehensive mission optimization program called OPT-4, which evaluates an optimized mass-driver reaction engine and its performance in a range of specified missions. Finally, this paper discusses, to the extent that time permitted, certain peripheral problems: heating effects in buckets due to magnetic field ripple; an approximate derivation of guide force profiles; the mechanics of inserting and releasing payloads; the reaction mass orbits; and a proposed research and development plan for implementing mass drivers.

  3. Electron cloud considerations for HIF drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    We review some previous results on electron-cloud dynamics and accumulation and the impact of electron clouds on ion beam dynamics, and assess these in the context of a magnetic-quadrupole-based heavy-ion fusion driver. We present a new analysis which exploits analytic solution of linearized envelope equations between accelerating gaps to derive a set of mapping equations which we use to extrapolate from previously obtained particle-simulation results for a beam transport system to an HIF driver.

  4. Drivers license display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  5. Graduated Driver Licensing

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  6. Commercial Driver Medical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Gary; Hanowski, Richard J.; Kales, Stefanos N.; Porter, Richard J.; Hegmann, Kurt T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between body mass index (BMI) and comorbid conditions within a large sample of truck drivers. Methods: Commercial driver medical examination data from 88,246 commercial drivers between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed for associations between BMI, medical disorders, and driver certification. Results: Most drivers were obese (53.3%, BMI >30.0 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (26.6%, BMI >35.0 kg/m2), higher than prior reports. Obese drivers were less likely to be certified for 2 years and more likely to report heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, sleep disorders, and chronic low back pain (all P < 0.0001). There are relationships between multiple potentially disqualifying conditions and increasing obesity (P < 0.0001). Morbid obesity prevalence increased 8.9% and prevalence of three or more multiple conditions increased fourfold between 2005 and 2012. Conclusions: Obesity is related to multiple medical factors as well as increasing numbers of conditions that limit driving certification. PMID:25710607

  7. Provision of assistive technology services method (ATSM) according to evidence-based information and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Elsaesser, Linda-Jeanne; Bauer, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This article develops a standardised method for assistive technology service (ATS) provision and a logical basis for research to improve health care quality. The method is 'interoperable' across disabilities, disciplines, assistive technology devices and ATSs. BACKGROUND. Absence of a standardised and interoperable method for ATS provision results in ineffective communication between providers, manufacturers, researchers, policy-makers and individuals with disabilities (IWD), a fragmented service delivery system, inefficient resource allocation and sub-optimal outcomes. OBJECTIVES. Synthesise a standardised, interoperable AT service method (ATSM) fully consistent with key guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation. Express the ATSM using common and unambiguous language. RESULTS. Guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation relevant to ATS provision are reviewed. These include the RESNA Guidelines for Knowledge and Skills for Provision of Assistive Technology Products and Services (RESNA Guidelines), IMPACT2 model, international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and AT device classification (ATDC). Federal legislation includes the Assistive Technology Act of 2004, Americans with Disabilities Act of 2008 and Social Security Act. Based on these findings, the ATSM is synthesised and translated into common and accessible language. CONCLUSION. ATSM usage will improve communication between stakeholders, service delivery coherence, resource allocation and intervention outcomes.

  8. Simple Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Assisted Sample Preparation Method for LC-MS-based Proteomic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Shi, Tujin; Wang, Lu; Gao, Xiaoli; Su, Dian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-03-10

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for highly efficient biological sample extraction; however, SDS presents a significant challenge to LC-MS-based proteomic analyses due to its severe interference with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization interfaces. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomic sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal protocol. After SDS-assisted protein extraction and digestion, SDS was effectively (>99.9%) removed from peptides through ion substitution-mediated DS- precipitation with potassium chloride (KCl) followed by {approx}10 min centrifugation. Excellent peptide recovery (>95%) was observed for less than 20 {mu}g of peptides. Further experiments demonstrated the compatibility of this protocol with LC-MS/MS analyses. The resulting proteome coverage from this SDS-assisted protocol was comparable to or better than those obtained from other standard proteomic preparation methods in both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples. These results suggest that this SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomic sample processing method, which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods.

  9. Provision of assistive technology services method (ATSM) according to evidence-based information and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Elsaesser, Linda-Jeanne; Bauer, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This article develops a standardised method for assistive technology service (ATS) provision and a logical basis for research to improve health care quality. The method is 'interoperable' across disabilities, disciplines, assistive technology devices and ATSs. BACKGROUND. Absence of a standardised and interoperable method for ATS provision results in ineffective communication between providers, manufacturers, researchers, policy-makers and individuals with disabilities (IWD), a fragmented service delivery system, inefficient resource allocation and sub-optimal outcomes. OBJECTIVES. Synthesise a standardised, interoperable AT service method (ATSM) fully consistent with key guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation. Express the ATSM using common and unambiguous language. RESULTS. Guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation relevant to ATS provision are reviewed. These include the RESNA Guidelines for Knowledge and Skills for Provision of Assistive Technology Products and Services (RESNA Guidelines), IMPACT2 model, international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and AT device classification (ATDC). Federal legislation includes the Assistive Technology Act of 2004, Americans with Disabilities Act of 2008 and Social Security Act. Based on these findings, the ATSM is synthesised and translated into common and accessible language. CONCLUSION. ATSM usage will improve communication between stakeholders, service delivery coherence, resource allocation and intervention outcomes. PMID:21345000

  10. Increasing levels of assistance in refinement of knowledge-based retrieval systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baudin, Catherine; Kedar, Smadar; Pell, Barney

    1994-01-01

    The task of incrementally acquiring and refining the knowledge and algorithms of a knowledge-based system in order to improve its performance over time is discussed. In particular, the design of DE-KART, a tool whose goal is to provide increasing levels of assistance in acquiring and refining indexing and retrieval knowledge for a knowledge-based retrieval system, is presented. DE-KART starts with knowledge that was entered manually, and increases its level of assistance in acquiring and refining that knowledge, both in terms of the increased level of automation in interacting with users, and in terms of the increased generality of the knowledge. DE-KART is at the intersection of machine learning and knowledge acquisition: it is a first step towards a system which moves along a continuum from interactive knowledge acquisition to increasingly automated machine learning as it acquires more knowledge and experience.

  11. Driver Improvement Training and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittenburg, John A.; And Others

    The last phase of the NHTSA-U.S. Coast Guard Driver Improvement Training and Evaluation Project is described. Begun in July 1970, the project had two basic objectives. The first was to determine whether or not driver training programs do, in fact, significantly reduce driver errors and accidents and improve overall driver efficiency. The second…

  12. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  13. An Experimental Trial of Shopping Assistance Service Based on Ubiquitous Personalize Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Masanori; Ohsuga, Akihiko; Seki, Toshibumi; Isshiki, Masao; Honiden, Shinichi

    This paper describes a “Ubiquitous Personalize Agent” and it’s application: “Shopping assistance service” for ubiquitous environments. Ubiquitous personalize agent is realized based on context reasoning technology. It can determine contexts of users by referring a lot of data which can be retrieved from devices in ubiquitous environments. We also have had an experimental trial of this service. In this paper, we state the technology, service, and evaluation on the experimental trial.

  14. The use of a mobile assistant learning system for health education based on project-based learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ting

    2014-10-01

    With the development of mobile devices and wireless technology, mobile technology has gradually infiltrated nursing practice courses to facilitate instruction. Mobile devices save manpower and reduce errors while enhancing nursing students' professional knowledge and skills. To achieve teaching objectives and address the drawbacks of traditional education, this study presents a mobile assistant learning system to help nursing students prepare health education materials. The proposed system is based on a project-based learning strategy to assist nursing students with internalizing professional knowledge and developing critical thinking skills. Experimental results show that the proposed mobile system and project-based learning strategy can promote learning effectiveness and efficiency. Most nursing students and nursing educators showed positive attitudes toward this mobile learning system and looked forward to using it again in related courses in the future. PMID:25140444

  15. The use of a mobile assistant learning system for health education based on project-based learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ting

    2014-10-01

    With the development of mobile devices and wireless technology, mobile technology has gradually infiltrated nursing practice courses to facilitate instruction. Mobile devices save manpower and reduce errors while enhancing nursing students' professional knowledge and skills. To achieve teaching objectives and address the drawbacks of traditional education, this study presents a mobile assistant learning system to help nursing students prepare health education materials. The proposed system is based on a project-based learning strategy to assist nursing students with internalizing professional knowledge and developing critical thinking skills. Experimental results show that the proposed mobile system and project-based learning strategy can promote learning effectiveness and efficiency. Most nursing students and nursing educators showed positive attitudes toward this mobile learning system and looked forward to using it again in related courses in the future.

  16. Uavrc, a Generic Mav Flight Assistance Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, M.; Mende, M.; Keim, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present our multicopter flight assistance software uavRC, which bears on a distributed system with interchangeable MAV-drivers and a browser-based user interface that can be used on any computer, tablet or smartphone. The software components can be distributed on different computers and are even executable on a Raspberry Pi. The components communicate over a well-defined interface. One module is the browser based user interface, another module is the MAV driver. There are additional modules like a task-scheduler, a path-planer and many more. Currently the software is in beta stage, so there is still a lot of work in progress. With this paper we focus on the software architecture.

  17. Community-based shared values as a 'Heart-ware' driver for integrated watershed management: Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Zeeda Fatimah; Nasaruddin, Affan; Abd Kadir, Siti Norasiah; Musa, Mohd Noor; Ong, Benjamin; Sakai, Nobumitsu

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the case for using "community-based shared values" as a potential driver for the "Heartware" aspects of governance in Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) - from a Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective. This policy approach was originally inspired by the Japanese experience, and the paper investigates whether a similar strategy can be adapted in the Malaysian context-based on a qualitative exploratory case study of a local downstream watershed community. The community-based shared values are categorized into six functional values that can be placed on a watershed: industry, ecosystem, lifestyle, landscape, water resource and spirituality. The study confirmed the availability of a range of community-based shared values in each category that are promising to drive the heartware for integrated watershed management in the local Malaysian context. However, most of these shared values are either declining in its appreciation or nostalgic in nature. The paper ends with findings on key differences and similarities between the Malaysian and Japanese contexts, and concludes with lessons for international transfer of IWM heartware policy strategies between the two countries.

  18. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Anund, Anna; Ihlström, Jonas; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  19. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    ANUND, Anna; IHLSTRÖM, Jonas; FORS, Carina; KECKLUND, Göran; FILTNESS, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15–30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2–3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2–4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes. PMID:27098307

  20. A gait stability investigation into FES-assisted paraplegic walking based on the walker tipping index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Dong; Bai, Yanru; Liu, Xiuyun; Qi, Hongzhi; Cheng, Longlong; Wan, Baikun; Hu, Yong; Wong, Yatwa; Luk, Keith D. K.; Leong, John C. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The gait outcome measures used in clinical trials of paraplegic locomotor training determine the effectiveness of improved walking function assisted by the functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. Focused on kinematic, kinetic or physiological changes of paraplegic patients, traditional methods cannot quantify the walking stability or identify the unstable factors of gait in real time. Up until now, the published studies on dynamic gait stability for the effective use of FES have been limited. In this paper, the walker tipping index (WTI) was used to analyze and process gait stability in FES-assisted paraplegic walking. The main instrument was a specialized walker dynamometer system based on a multi-channel strain-gauge bridge network fixed on the frame of the walker. This system collected force information for the handle reaction vector between the patient's upper extremities and the walker during the walking process; the information was then converted into walker tipping index data, which is an evaluation indicator of the patient's walking stability. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of WTI in gait analysis, a preliminary clinical trial was conducted with seven paraplegic patients who were undergoing FES-assisted walking training and seven normal control subjects. The gait stability levels were quantified for these patients under different stimulation patterns and controls under normal walking with knee-immobilization through WTI analysis. The results showed that the walking stability in the FES-assisted paraplegic group was worse than that in the control subject group, with the primary concern being in the anterior-posterior plane. This new technique is practical for distinguishing useful gait information from the viewpoint of stability, and may be further applied in FES-assisted paraplegic walking rehabilitation.

  1. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part R. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #95--Bus Driver; #98--General Loader; #99--Forklift Operator; #100--Material Handler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fifteenth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Bus Driver, General Loader, Forklift Operator, and Material Handler. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE number, career ladder, D.O.T.…

  2. Physics at a new Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    In 2004, motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics, the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future. At the end of 2004 the APS ''Study on the Physics of Neutrinos'' concluded that the future US neutrino program should have, as one of its components, ''A proton driver in the megawatt class or above and neutrino superbeam with an appropriate very large detector capable of observing Cp violation and measuring the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing parameters with high precision''. The presently proposed Fermilab Proton Driver is designed to accomplish these goals, and is based on, and would help develop, Linear Collider technology. In this paper the Proton Driver parameters are summarized, and the potential physics program is described.

  3. 24 CFR 5.615 - Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public housing program and Section... Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Section 8 and Public Housing, and Other HUD Assisted... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.615 Public housing program and Section 8...

  4. Case Studies of Successful Assistance in Urban School Improvement Programs. II. Constituency-Based School Renewal Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vernay

    As part of a research project on "Patterns of Successful Assistance in Urban School Improvement Programs," this paper presents a case study of an assister's work in the Constituency-Based School Renewal Program (CSR), implemented in an elementary school in Brooklyn, New York. CSR is a program aiming to institute a process by which a school will…

  5. Older drivers' risks of at-fault motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Taniguchi, Ayako

    2015-08-01

    In aging societies, increasing numbers of older drivers are involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), and preserving their safety is a growing concern. In this study, we focused on whether older drivers were more likely to cause MVCs and injuries than drivers in other age groups. To do so we compared at-fault MVC incidence and resulting injury risks by drivers' ages, using data from Japan, a country with a rapidly aging population. The at-fault MVC incidence was calculated based on distance traveled made for non-commercial purposes, and the injury risks posed to at-fault drivers and other road users per at-fault MVCs. We used MVC data for 2010 from the National Police Agency of Japan and driving exposure data from the Nationwide Person Trip Survey conducted by a Japanese governmental ministry in 2010. The at-fault MVC incidence showed a U-shaped curve across the drivers' ages, where teenage and the oldest drivers appeared to be the highest risk groups in terms of causing MVCs, and the incidence was higher for female drivers after age 25. The injury risk older drivers posed to other vehicle occupants because of their at-fault MVCs was lower than for drivers in other age groups, while their own injury risk appeared much higher. As the number of older drivers is increasing, efforts to reduce their at-fault MVCs appear justified.

  6. Hand gesture guided robot-assisted surgery based on a direct augmented reality interface.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Tay, Wei-Liang; Nguyen, Binh P; Chng, Chin-Boon; Chui, Chee-Kong

    2014-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a good alternative to hepatic resection for treatment of liver tumors. However, accurate needle insertion requires precise hand-eye coordination and is also affected by the difficulty of RF needle navigation. This paper proposes a cooperative surgical robot system, guided by hand gestures and supported by an augmented reality (AR)-based surgical field, for robot-assisted percutaneous treatment. It establishes a robot-assisted natural AR guidance mechanism that incorporates the advantages of the following three aspects: AR visual guidance information, surgeon's experiences and accuracy of robotic surgery. A projector-based AR environment is directly overlaid on a patient to display preoperative and intraoperative information, while a mobile surgical robot system implements specified RF needle insertion plans. Natural hand gestures are used as an intuitive and robust method to interact with both the AR system and surgical robot. The proposed system was evaluated on a mannequin model. Experimental results demonstrated that hand gesture guidance was able to effectively guide the surgical robot, and the robot-assisted implementation was found to improve the accuracy of needle insertion. This human-robot cooperative mechanism is a promising approach for precise transcutaneous ablation therapy. PMID:24438993

  7. Hand gesture guided robot-assisted surgery based on a direct augmented reality interface.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Tay, Wei-Liang; Nguyen, Binh P; Chng, Chin-Boon; Chui, Chee-Kong

    2014-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a good alternative to hepatic resection for treatment of liver tumors. However, accurate needle insertion requires precise hand-eye coordination and is also affected by the difficulty of RF needle navigation. This paper proposes a cooperative surgical robot system, guided by hand gestures and supported by an augmented reality (AR)-based surgical field, for robot-assisted percutaneous treatment. It establishes a robot-assisted natural AR guidance mechanism that incorporates the advantages of the following three aspects: AR visual guidance information, surgeon's experiences and accuracy of robotic surgery. A projector-based AR environment is directly overlaid on a patient to display preoperative and intraoperative information, while a mobile surgical robot system implements specified RF needle insertion plans. Natural hand gestures are used as an intuitive and robust method to interact with both the AR system and surgical robot. The proposed system was evaluated on a mannequin model. Experimental results demonstrated that hand gesture guidance was able to effectively guide the surgical robot, and the robot-assisted implementation was found to improve the accuracy of needle insertion. This human-robot cooperative mechanism is a promising approach for precise transcutaneous ablation therapy.

  8. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  9. Personalized, relevance-based Multimodal Robotic Imaging and augmented reality for Computer Assisted Interventions.

    PubMed

    Navab, Nassir; Fellow, Miccai; Hennersperger, Christoph; Frisch, Benjamin; Fürst, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, many researchers in medical image computing and computer assisted interventions across the world focused on the development of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), aiming at changing the practice of medicine from classification and treatment of diseases to that of modeling and treating patients. These projects resulted in major advancements in segmentation, registration, morphological, physiological and biomechanical modeling based on state of art medical imaging as well as other sensory data. However, a major issue which has not yet come into the focus is personalizing intra-operative imaging, allowing for optimal treatment. In this paper, we discuss the personalization of imaging and visualization process with particular focus on satisfying the challenging requirements of computer assisted interventions. We discuss such requirements and review a series of scientific contributions made by our research team to tackle some of these major challenges.

  10. 3D force control for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery based on viscoelastic tissue model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Moreira, Pedro; Zemiti, Nabil; Poignet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Current cardiac surgery faces the challenging problem of heart beating motion even with the help of mechanical stabilizer which makes delicate operation on the heart surface difficult. Motion compensation methods for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery have been proposed recently in literature, but research on force control for such kind of surgery has hardly been reported. Moreover, the viscoelasticity property of the interaction between organ tissue and robotic instrument further complicates the force control design which is much easier in other applications by assuming the interaction model to be elastic (industry, stiff object manipulation, etc.). In this work, we present a three-dimensional force control method for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery taking into consideration of the viscoelastic interaction property. Performance studies based on our D2M2 robot and 3D heart beating motion information obtained through Da Vinci™ system are provided.

  11. Personalized, relevance-based Multimodal Robotic Imaging and augmented reality for Computer Assisted Interventions.

    PubMed

    Navab, Nassir; Fellow, Miccai; Hennersperger, Christoph; Frisch, Benjamin; Fürst, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, many researchers in medical image computing and computer assisted interventions across the world focused on the development of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), aiming at changing the practice of medicine from classification and treatment of diseases to that of modeling and treating patients. These projects resulted in major advancements in segmentation, registration, morphological, physiological and biomechanical modeling based on state of art medical imaging as well as other sensory data. However, a major issue which has not yet come into the focus is personalizing intra-operative imaging, allowing for optimal treatment. In this paper, we discuss the personalization of imaging and visualization process with particular focus on satisfying the challenging requirements of computer assisted interventions. We discuss such requirements and review a series of scientific contributions made by our research team to tackle some of these major challenges. PMID:27475417

  12. Development of a Mobile Language Learning Assistant System Based on Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Il; Lee, Young-Hun; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    One of the most important issues of the school education today is that learners are not able to apply their knowledge that they've learned from the classroom to their real life. Situated Learning Theory would be one of the best solutions to solve these problems. However, current methods which have been developed for instructional purpose until now don't seem to reflect Situated Learning Theory enough. It is vital to investigate better applicable methods that can be practiced in education field based on Situated Learning Theory. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to design and implement a Mobile Language Learning Assistant System using location awareness technology. This study has found that Mobile Language Learning Assistant System can be effectively utilized in providing authentic learning environment and also its future prospect is very bright according to the learner evaluation.

  13. Study on compactness of planar waveguide based integrated optic couplers using tooth shaped grating assisted geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bidyut; Dutta, Aradhana; Sahu, Partha P.

    2013-11-01

    The introduction of Photonic Integrated Devices (PID) for applications in high speed optical networks providing multiple services to more number of users is indispensable as this requires large scale integration (LSI) and the miniaturization of PID device components to microscale platform has attracted immense attention from the researchers and entrepreneurs. In this paper, we present a comparative study on compactness of basic PID components using tooth shaped grating assisted (TSGA) geometry. The basic PID components such as Directional Coupler (DC), two mode interference (TMI) coupler and multimode interference (MMI) coupler have been designed using TSGA geometry in the coupling region and the coupling characteristics for the same have been estimated using a mathematical model based on sinusoidal mode simple effective index method (SM-SEIM). The dependence of modal power in the coupling region on the waveguide separation gap and coupling gap refractive index has been studied. From the estimated dependences of beat length and access waveguide length on waveguide separation gap with permissible propagation loss ~0.15 dB/cm, it has been found that the grating assisted TMI coupler (GA-TMI) is ~0.5 times lower than that of grating assisted DC (GA-DC) and ~0.44 times lower than grating assisted MMI (GA-MMI) coupler. Further, it is seen that the device length including access waveguide length of GA-MMI coupler is less than that of GA-TMI coupler and GA-DC. The SM-SEIM based numerical results are then compared with beam propagation method (BPM) results obtained by using commercially available optiBPM software.

  14. Driver anger on the information superhighway: A content analysis of online complaints of offensive driver behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Hall, Ashley; Roseborough, James E W

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, several websites have been developed allowing drivers to post their complaints about other motorists online. These websites allow drivers to describe the nature of the offensive behaviour and to identify the offending motorist by vehicle type, colour, and license plate number. Some websites also ask drivers to list the location where the event took place and the exact date and time of the offence. The current study was a content analysis of complaints posted to RoadRagers.com between 1999 and 2007 (N=5624). The purpose of the study was to: (1) assess the research value of this novel data source; (2) demonstrate the value of content analysis to the study of driver behaviour; (3) further validate an existing coding scheme; (4) determine whether this new data source would replicate previous research findings regarding the most frequent types of driver complaints and temporal distribution of these reports; (5) provide recommendations for improved driver training and public safety initiatives based on these data. A coding scheme that was originally developed for an assessment of complaints submitted to the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) (Wickens et al., 2005) was revised to accommodate the new dataset. The inter-rater reliability of the revised coding scheme as applied to the website complaints was very good (kappa=.85). The most frequently reported improper driver behaviours were cutting/weaving, speeding, perceived displays of hostility, and tailgating. Reports were most frequent on weekdays and during the morning and afternoon rush hour. The current study replicated several findings from the analysis of reports to the OPP, but possible differences in the sample and data collection method also produced some differences in findings. The value of content analysis to driver behaviour research and of driver complaint websites as a data source was demonstrated. Implications for driver safety initiatives and future research will be discussed. PMID:23201756

  15. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. PMID:26709302

  16. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions.

  17. A Physiological Controller for Turbodynamic Ventricular Assist Devices Based on Left Ventricular Systolic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Anastasios; Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Pergantis, Panagiotis; Rebholz, Mathias; Meboldt, Mirko; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2016-09-01

    The current article presents a novel physiological feedback controller for turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (tVADs). This controller is based on the recording of the left ventricular (LV) pressure measured at the inlet cannula of a tVAD thus requiring only one pressure sensor. The LV systolic pressure (SP) is proposed as an indicator to determine the varying perfusion requirements. The algorithm to extract the SP from the pump inlet pressure signal used for the controller to adjust the speed of the tVAD shows robust behavior. Its performance was evaluated on a hybrid mock circulation. The experiments with changing perfusion requirements were compared with a physiological circulation and a pathological one assisted with a tVAD operated at constant speed. A sensitivity analysis of the controller parameters was conducted to identify their limits and their influence on a circulation. The performance of the proposed SP controller was evaluated for various values of LV contractility, as well as for a simulated pressure sensor drift. The response of a pathological circulation assisted by a tVAD controlled by the introduced SP controller matched the physiological circulation well, while over- and underpumping events were eliminated. The controller presented a robust performance during experiments with simulated pressure sensor drift. PMID:27645395

  18. 75 FR 26791 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Evaluation of Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Evaluation of Technical Assistance for Evidence-Based Decisionmaking in Local Criminal Justice Systems Funding Opportunity...

  19. An enzyme-assisted nanoparticle crosslinking approach to enhance the mechanical strength of peptide-based supramolecular hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Ding, Yin; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2013-10-01

    In this work we reported an enzyme-assisted nanoparticle crosslinking (EANC) strategy to enhance the mechanical stability of peptide-based supramolecular hydrogels by more than 3000 times. PMID:23948779

  20. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation.

  1. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation. PMID:26273933

  2. Intelligent remote health monitoring using evident-based DSS for automated assistance.

    PubMed

    Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Benharref, Abdelghani; Nujum, Al Ramzana

    2014-01-01

    The shift from common diagnosis practices to continuous monitoring based on body sensors has transformed healthcare from hospital-centric to patient-centric. Continuous monitoring generates huge and continuous amount of data revealing changing insights. Existing approaches to analyze streams of data in order to produce validated decisions relied mostly on static learning and analytics techniques. In this paper, we propose an incremental learning and adaptive analytics scheme relying on evident data and rule-based Decision Support System (DSS). The later continuously enriches its knowledge base with incremental learning information impacting the decision and proposing up-to-date recommendations. Some intelligent features augmented the monitoring scheme with data pre-processing and cleansing support, which helped empowering data analytics efficiency. Generated assistances are viewable to users on their mobile devices and to physician via a portal. We evaluate our incremental learning and analytics scheme using seven well-known learning techniques. The set of experimental scenarios of continuous heart rate and ECG monitoring demonstrated that the incremental learning combined with rule-based DSS afforded high classification accuracy, evidenced decision, and validated assistance.

  3. Driver distraction and driver inattention: definition, relationship and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Michael A; Hallett, Charlene; Gordon, Craig P

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that driver distraction and driver inattention are leading causes of vehicle crashes and incidents. However, as applied psychological constructs, they have been inconsistently defined and the relationship between them remains unclear. In this paper, driver distraction and driver inattention are defined and a taxonomy is presented in which driver distraction is distinguished from other forms of driver inattention. The taxonomy and the definitions provided are intended (a) to provide a common framework for coding different forms of driver inattention as contributing factors in crashes and incidents, so that comparable estimates of their role as contributing factors can be made across different studies, and (b) to make it possible to more accurately interpret and compare, across studies, the research findings for a given form of driver inattention.

  4. Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities Improve Their Collaborative Pointing Efficiency with a Multiple Cursor Automatic Pointing Assistive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Cheng, Hsiao-Fen; Li, Chia-Chun; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated whether four persons (two groups) with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their collaborative pointing performance through a Multiple Cursor Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (MCAPAP) with a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to…

  5. Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Improve Pointing Efficiency with a Dual Cursor Automatic Pointing Assistive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Chiang, Ming-Shan; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two persons with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through a Dual Cursor Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (DCAPAP) with a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to intercept/detect mouse movement action). First,…

  6. Quantifying driver's field-of-view in tractors: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Issachar; Byran, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    When driving a car, the visual awareness is important for operating and controlling the vehicle. When operating a tractor, it is even more complex. This is because the driving is always accompanied with another task (e.g., plough) that demands constant changes of body postures, to achieve the needed Field-of-View (FoV). Therefore, the cockpit must be well designed to provide best FoV. Today, the driver's FoV is analyzed mostly by computer simulations of a cockpit model and a Digital Human Model (DHM) positioned inside. The outcome is an 'Eye view' that displays what the DHM 'sees'. This paper suggests a new approach that adds quantitative information to the current display; presented on three tractor models as case studies. Based on the results, the design can be modified. This may assist the engineer, to analyze, compare and improve the design, for better addressing the driver needs. PMID:26327259

  7. Seven Performance Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  8. Assessment of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Reuben, D B

    1993-05-01

    As concern increases about the safety of the aging driver, it is clear that the principal goal of assessment is to identify the unsafe driver and provide effective medical and rehabilitative services to enable the resumption of safe driving. When adequate restorative therapy is not possible, it is necessary to restrict or revoke the privilege of driving. Assessment also can reassure the safe older driver that he or she can continue operating a motor vehicle without restrictions. The process of assessing the older driver is best accomplished through the collaboration of health professionals and governmental agencies. The former identify and treat, if possible, medical conditions that may pose threats to safe driving; the latter establish guidelines of competency for driving tasks. These roles are complementary, although the settings and methods for these assessments are different. Moreover, the responsibilities of the physician and other health care professionals extend beyond the decision regarding driving and must consider the individual needs for driving, as well as the ramifications associated with its cessation. PMID:8504391

  9. The Bicycle Driver's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    Designed to emphasize the concept of the bicycle driver vs. the popular term, bicycle rider, this manual contains guidelines on bicycle safety, addressing itself both to parents and children. The main section topics are: (1) parent responsibility; (2) choosing a bicycle, fitting it to the child, and learning to drive; (3) bicycle equipment,…

  10. Florida Driver Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Susan H.

    This student edition contains the same basic information as the official Florida Driver Handbook, but the reading difficulty of the material has been sharply reduced. It also provides activity-oriented exercises and review tests on this material. Introductory materials include a complete listing of all activities given, some vocabulary exercises…

  11. Estimating the value of volunteer-assisted community-based aging services: a case example.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a social return on investment (SROI) approach in estimating the financial and social value created by volunteer-assisted community-based aging services. An expanded value added statement (EVAS) analysis found that the total value of outputs produced by the Concierge Club of San Diego substantially exceeded the cost of the program, after considering likely secondary and tertiary benefits for a range of affected stakeholders-including elderly service recipients, family members, volunteers, and societal institutions. Additional research is needed regarding the direct and indirect costs and benefits of volunteer support services for vulnerable older adults and their families.

  12. Estimating the value of volunteer-assisted community-based aging services: a case example.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a social return on investment (SROI) approach in estimating the financial and social value created by volunteer-assisted community-based aging services. An expanded value added statement (EVAS) analysis found that the total value of outputs produced by the Concierge Club of San Diego substantially exceeded the cost of the program, after considering likely secondary and tertiary benefits for a range of affected stakeholders-including elderly service recipients, family members, volunteers, and societal institutions. Additional research is needed regarding the direct and indirect costs and benefits of volunteer support services for vulnerable older adults and their families. PMID:25551169

  13. A dynamic control algorithm based on physiological parameters and wearable interfaces for adaptive ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Tortora, G; Fontana, R; Argiolas, S; Vatteroni, M; Dario, P; Trivella, M G

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the dynamic control of ventricular assist devices (VADs), based on the acquisition of continuous physiological and functional parameters such as heart rate, blood oxygenation, temperature, and patient movements. Such parameters are acquired by wearable devices (MagIC & Winpack) and sensors implanted close to the VAD. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to dynamically control the hydraulic power of the VAD as a function of the detected parameters, patient's activity and emotional status. In this way, the cardiac dynamics regulated by the proposed autoregulation control algorithm for sensorized VADs, thus providing new therapy approaches for heart failure. PMID:26737403

  14. A dynamic control algorithm based on physiological parameters and wearable interfaces for adaptive ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Tortora, G; Fontana, R; Argiolas, S; Vatteroni, M; Dario, P; Trivella, M G

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the dynamic control of ventricular assist devices (VADs), based on the acquisition of continuous physiological and functional parameters such as heart rate, blood oxygenation, temperature, and patient movements. Such parameters are acquired by wearable devices (MagIC & Winpack) and sensors implanted close to the VAD. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to dynamically control the hydraulic power of the VAD as a function of the detected parameters, patient's activity and emotional status. In this way, the cardiac dynamics regulated by the proposed autoregulation control algorithm for sensorized VADs, thus providing new therapy approaches for heart failure.

  15. Recent developments in mass drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the past eight months a new mass driver concept has been explored through calculation and inductance model verification. It retains the linear synchronous principle and freedom from arcs, plasmas or physical contact between the accelerated bucket and accelerator. However, it discards passive magnetic flight and obtains transverse focussing from strong off-axis restoring forces produced by drive coils operating in a pull-only mode. This paper gives the reasoning on which the new concept is based, and applies the concept to a lunar catapult design.

  16. An exonuclease-assisted amplification electrochemical aptasensor for Hg(2+) detection based on hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ting; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Xia, Qinghua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-08-15

    In this work, a novel electrochemical aptasensor was developed for Hg(2+) detection based on exonuclease-assisted target recycling and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) dual signal amplification strategy. The presence of Hg(2+) induced the T-rich DNA partly folded into duplex-like structure via the Hg(2+) mediated T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs, which triggered the activity of exonuclease III (Exo III). Exo III selectively digested the double-strand DNA containing multiple T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs from its 3'-end, the released Hg(2+) participated analyte recycle. With each digestion cycle, a digestion product named as help DNA was obtained, which acted as a linkage between the capture DNA and auxiliary DNA. The presence of help DNA and two auxiliary DNA collectively facilitated successful HCR process and formed long double-stranded DNA. [Ru(NH3)6](3+) was used as redox indicator, which electrostatically bound to the double strands and produced an electrochemical signal. Exo III-assisted target recycling and HCR dual amplification significantly improved the sensitivity for Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 0.12 pM (S/N=3). Furthermore, the proposed aptasensor had a promising potential for the application of Hg(2+) detection in real aquatic sample analysis. PMID:25840017

  17. Modified transcorporeal anterior cervical microforaminotomy assisted by O-arm-based navigation: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Sung; Eun, Sang Soo; Prada, Nicolas; Choi, Gun; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-07-01

    This study was done to present our surgical experience of modified transcorporeal anterior cervical microforaminotomy (MTACM) assisted by the O-arm-based navigation system for the treatment of cervical disc herniation. We present eight patients with foraminal disc herniations at the C5-C6, C6-C7, and C7-T1 levels. All patients had unilateral radicular arm pain and motor weakness. The inclusion criteria for the patients were the presence of single-level unilateral foraminal cervical disc herniation manifesting persistent radiculopathy despite conservative treatment. Hard disc herniation, down-migrated disc herniation, concomitant moderate to severe bony spur and foraminal stenosis were excluded. We performed MTACM to expose the foraminal area of the cervical disc and removed the herniated disc fragments successfully using O-arm-based navigation. Postoperatively, the patients' symptoms improved and there was no instability during the follow-up period. MTACM assisted by O-arm-based navigation is an effective, safe, and precise minimally invasive procedure that tends to preserve non-degenerated structures as much as possible while providing a complete removal of ruptured disc fragments in the cervical spine.

  18. Using Shadow Page Cache to Improve Isolated Drivers Performance

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoshe; Wang, Endong; Chen, Baoke; Zhu, Zhengdong; Liu, Chengzhe

    2015-01-01

    With the advantage of the reusability property of the virtualization technology, users can reuse various types and versions of existing operating systems and drivers in a virtual machine, so as to customize their application environment. In order to prevent users' virtualization environments being impacted by driver faults in virtual machine, Chariot examines the correctness of driver's write operations by the method of combining a driver's write operation capture and a driver's private access control table. However, this method needs to keep the write permission of shadow page table as read-only, so as to capture isolated driver's write operations through page faults, which adversely affect the performance of the driver. Based on delaying setting frequently used shadow pages' write permissions to read-only, this paper proposes an algorithm using shadow page cache to improve the performance of isolated drivers and carefully study the relationship between the performance of drivers and the size of shadow page cache. Experimental results show that, through the shadow page cache, the performance of isolated drivers can be greatly improved without impacting Chariot's reliability too much. PMID:25815373

  19. Using shadow page cache to improve isolated drivers performance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Dong, Xiaoshe; Wang, Endong; Chen, Baoke; Zhu, Zhengdong; Liu, Chengzhe

    2015-01-01

    With the advantage of the reusability property of the virtualization technology, users can reuse various types and versions of existing operating systems and drivers in a virtual machine, so as to customize their application environment. In order to prevent users' virtualization environments being impacted by driver faults in virtual machine, Chariot examines the correctness of driver's write operations by the method of combining a driver's write operation capture and a driver's private access control table. However, this method needs to keep the write permission of shadow page table as read-only, so as to capture isolated driver's write operations through page faults, which adversely affect the performance of the driver. Based on delaying setting frequently used shadow pages' write permissions to read-only, this paper proposes an algorithm using shadow page cache to improve the performance of isolated drivers and carefully study the relationship between the performance of drivers and the size of shadow page cache. Experimental results show that, through the shadow page cache, the performance of isolated drivers can be greatly improved without impacting Chariot's reliability too much. PMID:25815373

  20. [Force-based local navigation in robot-assisted implantation bed anlage in the lateral skull base. An experimental study].

    PubMed

    Plinkert, P K; Federspil, P A; Plinkert, B; Henrich, D

    2002-03-01

    Excellent precision, miss of retiring, reproducibility are main characteristics of robots in the operating theatre. Because of these facts their use for surgery in the lateral scull base is of great interest. In recent experiments we determined process parameters for robot assisted reaming of a cochlea implant bed and for a mastoidectomy. These results suggested that optimizing parameters for thrilling with the robot is needed. Therefore we implemented a suitable reaming curve from the geometrical data of the implant and a force controlled process control for robot assisted reaming at the lateral scull base. Experiments were performed with an industrial robot on animal and human scull base specimen. Because of online force detection and feedback of sensory data the reaming with the robot was controlled. With increasing force values above a defined limit feed rates were automatically regulated. Furthermore we were able to detect contact of the thrill to dura mater by analyzing the force values. With the new computer program the desired implant bed was exactly prepared. Our examinations showed a successful reaming of an implant bed in the lateral scull base with a robot. Because of a force controlled reaming process locale navigation is possible and enables careful thrilling with a robot.

  1. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples.

  2. Evaluation and community prevention coalitions: validation of an integrated Web-based/technical assistance consultant model.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Gomez, Brendan J; Puddy, Richard W; Greenberg, Mark T

    2008-02-01

    Community coalitions (CCs) have labored with some difficulty to demonstrate empirical evidence of effectiveness in preventing a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors. Training and technical assistance (TA) have been identified as important elements in promoting improved functioning of CCs. A reliable, valid, and inexpensive method to assess functioning of CCs has been developed and is tested in this article in the context of Pennsylvania's Communities That Care (CTC) model. A CC Web-based questionnaire was developed and administered to more than 79 communities (867 participants) and the validity and reliability were assessed through multiple means, including the use of a companion TA implementation feedback questionnaire completed by TAs assigned to each of the sites. Results indicated adequate to good psychometric properties on internal reliability of the Web-based questionnaire, moderate construct validity across different reports of functioning, and relative stability throughout the course of 1 year. Implications for a variety of community prevention coalitions interested in a relatively low-cost, user friendly, and suitable methodology for evaluating coalition functioning are discussed. In addition, areas of application for future research including linking coalition functioning with the quality and nature of technical assistance, levels of risk and protective factors, and large data sets of youth risk factor and problem behavior data are highlighted.

  3. Image-based computer-assisted diagnosis system for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohigashi, Satoru; Nakamae, Koji; Fujioka, Hiromu

    2005-04-01

    We develop the image based computer assisted diagnosis system for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) that consists of the balance control system simulator, the 3D eye movement simulator, and the extraction method of nystagmus response directly from an eye movement image sequence. In the system, the causes and conditions of BPPV are estimated by searching the database for record matching with the nystagmus response for the observed eye image sequence of the patient with BPPV. The database includes the nystagmus responses for simulated eye movement sequences. The eye movement velocity is obtained by using the balance control system simulator that allows us to simulate BPPV under various conditions such as canalithiasis, cupulolithiasis, number of otoconia, otoconium size, and so on. Then the eye movement image sequence is displayed on the CRT by the 3D eye movement simulator. The nystagmus responses are extracted from the image sequence by the proposed method and are stored in the database. In order to enhance the diagnosis accuracy, the nystagmus response for a newly simulated sequence is matched with that for the observed sequence. From the matched simulation conditions, the causes and conditions of BPPV are estimated. We apply our image based computer assisted diagnosis system to two real eye movement image sequences for patients with BPPV to show its validity.

  4. Spatial sparsity based indoor localization in wireless sensor network for assistive healthcare.

    PubMed

    Pourhomayoun, Mohammad; Jin, Zhanpeng; Fowler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Indoor localization is one of the key topics in the area of wireless networks with increasing applications in assistive healthcare, where tracking the position and actions of the patient or elderly are required for medical observation or accident prevention. Most of the common indoor localization methods are based on estimating one or more location-dependent signal parameters like TOA, AOA or RSS. However, some difficulties and challenges caused by the complex scenarios within a closed space significantly limit the applicability of those existing approaches in an indoor assistive environment, such as the well-known multipath effect. In this paper, we develop a new one-stage localization method based on spatial sparsity of the x-y plane. In this method, we directly estimate the location of the emitter without going through the intermediate stage of TOA or signal strength estimation. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method using Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the proposed method is (i) very accurate even with a small number of sensors and (ii) very effective in addressing the multi-path issues.

  5. Endoscopic vision-based tracking of multiple surgical instruments during robot-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jiwon; Choi, Jaesoon; Kim, Hee Chan

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery is effective for operations in limited space. Enhancing safety based on automatic tracking of surgical instrument position to prevent inadvertent harmful events such as tissue perforation or instrument collisions could be a meaningful augmentation to current robotic surgical systems. A vision-based instrument tracking scheme as a core algorithm to implement such functions was developed in this study. An automatic tracking scheme is proposed as a chain of computer vision techniques, including classification of metallic properties using k-means clustering and instrument movement tracking using similarity measures, Euclidean distance calculations, and a Kalman filter algorithm. The implemented system showed satisfactory performance in tests using actual robot-assisted surgery videos. Trajectory comparisons of automatically detected data and ground truth data obtained by manually locating the center of mass of each instrument were used to quantitatively validate the system. Instruments and collisions could be well tracked through the proposed methods. The developed collision warning system could provide valuable information to clinicians for safer procedures.

  6. A novel spatio-temporal scale based on ocean currents unravels environmental drivers of reproductive timing in a marine predator.

    PubMed

    Afán, Isabel; Chiaradia, André; Forero, Manuela G; Dann, Peter; Ramírez, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Life-history strategies have evolved in response to predictable patterns of environmental features. In practice, linking life-history strategies and changes in environmental conditions requires comparable space-time scales between both processes, a difficult match in most marine system studies. We propose a novel spatio-temporal and dynamic scale to explore marine productivity patterns probably driving reproductive timing in the inshore little penguin (Eudyptula minor), based on monthly data on ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean, Australia. In contrast to what occurred when considering any other fixed scales, little penguin's highly variable laying date always occurred within the annual peak of ocean productivity that emerged from our newly defined dynamic scale. Additionally, local sea surface temperature seems to have triggered the onset of reproduction, acting as an environmental cue informing on marine productivity patterns at our dynamic scale. Chlorophyll-a patterns extracted from this scale revealed that environment factors in marine ecosystems affecting breeding decisions are related to a much wider region than foraging areas that are commonly used in current studies investigating the link between animals' life history and their environment. We suggest that marine productivity patterns may be more predictable than previously thought when environmental and biological data are examined at appropriate scales.

  7. A novel spatio-temporal scale based on ocean currents unravels environmental drivers of reproductive timing in a marine predator

    PubMed Central

    Afán, Isabel; Chiaradia, André; Forero, Manuela G.; Dann, Peter; Ramírez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Life-history strategies have evolved in response to predictable patterns of environmental features. In practice, linking life-history strategies and changes in environmental conditions requires comparable space–time scales between both processes, a difficult match in most marine system studies. We propose a novel spatio-temporal and dynamic scale to explore marine productivity patterns probably driving reproductive timing in the inshore little penguin (Eudyptula minor), based on monthly data on ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean, Australia. In contrast to what occurred when considering any other fixed scales, little penguin's highly variable laying date always occurred within the annual peak of ocean productivity that emerged from our newly defined dynamic scale. Additionally, local sea surface temperature seems to have triggered the onset of reproduction, acting as an environmental cue informing on marine productivity patterns at our dynamic scale. Chlorophyll-a patterns extracted from this scale revealed that environment factors in marine ecosystems affecting breeding decisions are related to a much wider region than foraging areas that are commonly used in current studies investigating the link between animals' life history and their environment. We suggest that marine productivity patterns may be more predictable than previously thought when environmental and biological data are examined at appropriate scales. PMID:26063848

  8. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education.

  9. Prototype case-based reasoning human assistant for space crew assessment and mission management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Robert B.; Holland, Albert W.; Wood, JoAnna

    1993-03-01

    We present a prototype human assistant system for space crew assessment and mission management. Our system is based on case episodes from American and Russian space missions and analog environments such as polar stations and undersea habitats. The general domain of small groups in isolated and confined environments represents a near ideal application area for case-based reasoning (CBR) -- there are few reliable rules to follow, and most domain knowledge is in the form of cases. We define the problem domain and outline a unique knowledge representation system driven by conflict and communication triggers. The prototype system is able to represent, index, and retrieve case studies of human performance. We index by social, behavioral, and environmental factors. We present the problem domain, our current implementation, our research approach for an operational system, and prototype performance and results.

  10. Surfactant-assisted porphyrin based hierarchical nano/micro assemblies and their efficient photocatalytic behavior.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sadananda; Nayak, Sandip K; Mallampalli, Sivaramakrishna; Patra, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we have demonstrated the synthesis of surfactant-assisted different morphologies of meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin assemblies (spherical to flower shaped). These nano/micro assemblies are well characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The formation of assemblies is driven by noncovalent interactions such as hydrophobic-hydrophobic and aromatic π-π stacking between the molecules. The steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic investigation reveal that different assemblies are formed by virtue of special supramolecular organizations. The photocatalytic activities of different assemblies have been demonstrated with an organic pollutant Rhodamine B dye under the visible light irradiation. Such porphyrin based assemblies could pave the way for designing new optical based materials for the applications in photocatalytic, photovoltaic, and light harvesting system. PMID:24344739

  11. Deformation grating fabrication technique based on the solvent-assisted microcontact molding.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Huaixi

    2014-10-20

    A deformation grating fabrication technique based on solvent-assisted microcontact molding (SAMIM) is reported in this paper. The fabrication process can be divided into three steps: imprinting a grating on a medium polymer substrate (MPS) by SAMIM, coating a thin metal film on the MPS, and transferring the film to the measured surface. In order to increase the stiffness of the elastic mold without decreasing its conformal contact formation ability, a re-useable, glass-embedded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold is used. In addition, a characterization method based on the Fourier transform and phase analysis is proposed to check the quality of the fabricated grating. Verified by experiment, the proposed fabrication technique can fabricate a high-frequency large-area grating on different specimens, which can be a qualified deformation sensor for the moiré method. PMID:25402792

  12. Issues in nursing: strategies for an Internet-based, computer-assisted telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Bott, Marjorie J; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2006-08-01

    The study describes the design and implementation of an Internet-based, computed-assisted telephone survey about the care-planning process in 107 long-term care facilities in the Midwest. Two structured telephone surveys were developed to interview the care planning coordinators and their team members. Questionmark Perception Software Version 3 was used to develop the surveys in a wide range of formats. The responses were drawn into a database that was exported to a spreadsheet format and converted to a statistical format by the Information Technology team. Security of the database was protected. Training sessions were provided to project staff. The interviews were tape-recorded for the quality checks. The inter-rater reliabilities were above 95% to 100% agreement. Investigators should consider using Internet-based survey tools, especially for multisite studies that allow access to larger samples at less cost. Exploring multiple software systems for the best fit to the study requirements is essential.

  13. A prototype case-based reasoning human assistant for space crew assessment and mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Robert B.; Holland, Albert W.; Wood, Joanna

    1993-01-01

    We present a prototype human assistant system for space crew assessment and mission management. Our system is based on case episodes from American and Russian space missions and analog environments such as polar stations and undersea habitats. The general domain of small groups in isolated and confined environments represents a near ideal application area for case-based reasoning (CBR) - there are few reliable rules to follow, and most domain knowledge is in the form of cases. We define the problem domain and outline a unique knowledge representation system driven by conflict and communication triggers. The prototype system is able to represent, index, and retrieve case studies of human performance. We index by social, behavioral, and environmental factors. We present the problem domain, our current implementation, our research approach for an operational system, and prototype performance and results.

  14. Inquiry-based training improves teaching effectiveness of biology teaching assistants

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, P. William; Ellefson, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are used extensively as undergraduate science lab instructors at universities, yet they often have having minimal instructional training and little is known about effective training methods. This blind randomized control trial study assessed the impact of two training regimens on GTA teaching effectiveness. GTAs teaching undergraduate biology labs (n = 52) completed five hours of training in either inquiry-based learning pedagogy or general instructional “best practices”. GTA teaching effectiveness was evaluated using: (1) a nine-factor student evaluation of educational quality; (2) a six-factor questionnaire for student learning; and (3) course grades. Ratings from both GTAs and undergraduates indicated that indicated that the inquiry-based learning pedagogy training has a positive effect on GTA teaching effectiveness. PMID:24147138

  15. Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively.

  16. Prevalence of HIV-1 in east African lorry drivers.

    PubMed

    Carswell, J W; Lloyd, G; Howells, J

    1989-11-01

    Sixty-eight lorry drivers and their assistants were examined for evidence of infection with HIV-1 because of their association and regular contact with prostitutes. Out of a total of 68 drivers, 24 (35.2%) were serologically found to be HIV-1 positive. Epidemiological evidence demonstrated a wide travel history involving seven different countries served by the port of Mombasa. History of other sexually transmitted disorders were significantly higher in HIV-seropositive individuals. The data presented here further support the hypothesis that a major route of heterosexual transmission of HIV in Africa is dissemination through a group such as lorry drivers and their assistants, whose behaviour puts them at risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:2515882

  17. Metaevaluation of National Weatherization Assistance Program Based on State Studies, 1993-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L

    2003-04-02

    The National Weatherization Assistance Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by state and local agencies throughout the United States, weatherizes homes for low-income residents in order to increase their energy efficiency and lower utility bills. Research staff members at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have performed two previous metaevaluations of this program (Berry, 1997; Schweitzer and Berry, 1999). Both of these earlier metaevaluations involved synthesizing the results from individual studies of state weatherization efforts completed during a several year period. This report is the third in a series of metaevaluations of state-level studies. It is built on the foundation developed by the previous two metaevaluations. The purpose of this report, like that of the two earlier ORNL metaevaluations, is to provide a current estimate of the average national energy savings per home weatherized for the Weatherization Assistance Program based on the relevant state-level studies. All three of the metaevaluations, including this one, were designed to be updates to the findings of a national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program, which examined a representative national sample of several thousand structures weatherized in 1989 (Brown, Berry, Balzer, and Faby 1993). Although the first and second metaevaluations used separate sets of state-level studies, completed during different time periods, there was little difference in their findings about the typical national energy savings per weatherized home for homes that heat with natural gas. Our initial analysis efforts for this report involved repeating the same procedures that had been used in the previous two reports. In particular, we collected and examined only the state-level evaluations that had become available between September of 1998 and August of 2002. Once again, we found little difference in the average energy savings estimates per weatherized home that were

  18. Earning a driver's license.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F

    1997-01-01

    Teenage drivers in the United States have greatly elevated crash rates, primarily a result of qualities associated with immaturity and lack of driving experience. State licensing systems vary substantially, but most have allowed quick and easy access to driving with full privileges at a young age, contributing to the crash problem. Formal driver education has not been an effective crash prevention measure. Following the introduction of graduated licensing in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada, this system has been considered in many states and has been implemented in some. Graduated systems phase in full privilege driving, requiring initial experience to be gained under conditions of lower risk. The author describes the first five multistage graduated systems enacted in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Factors that will influence the acceptability and effectiveness of these new licensing systems are discussed. Images p[452]-a p454-a p456-a p457-a p460-a PMID:10822470

  19. Earning a driver's license.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F

    1997-01-01

    Teenage drivers in the United States have greatly elevated crash rates, primarily a result of qualities associated with immaturity and lack of driving experience. State licensing systems vary substantially, but most have allowed quick and easy access to driving with full privileges at a young age, contributing to the crash problem. Formal driver education has not been an effective crash prevention measure. Following the introduction of graduated licensing in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada, this system has been considered in many states and has been implemented in some. Graduated systems phase in full privilege driving, requiring initial experience to be gained under conditions of lower risk. The author describes the first five multistage graduated systems enacted in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Factors that will influence the acceptability and effectiveness of these new licensing systems are discussed.

  20. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  1. Intent and error recognition as part of a knowledge-based cockpit assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohal, Michael; Onken, Reiner

    1998-03-01

    With the Crew Assistant Military Aircraft (CAMA) a knowledge- based cockpit assistant system for future military transport aircraft is developed and tested to enhance situation awareness. Human-centered automation was the central principal for the development of CAMA, an approach to achieve advanced man-machine interaction, mainly by enhancing situation awareness. The CAMA-module Pilot Intent and Error Recognition (PIER) evaluates the pilot's activities and mission events in order to interpret and understand the pilot's actions in the context of the flight situation. Expected crew actions based on the flight plan are compared with the actual behavior shown by the crew. If discrepancies are detected the PIER module tries to figure out, whether the deviation was caused erroneously or by a sensible intent. By monitoring pilot actions as well as the mission context, the system is able to compare the pilot's action with a set of behavioral hypotheses. In case of an intentional deviation from the flight plan, the module checks, whether the behavior matches to the given set of behavior patterns of the pilot. Intent recognition can increase man-machine synergy by anticipating a need for assistance pertinent to the pilot's intent without having a pilot request. The interpretation of all possible situations with respect to intent recognition in terms of a reasoning process is based on a set of decision rules. To cope with the need of inferencing under uncertainty a fuzzy-logic approach is used. A weakness of the fuzzy-logic approach lies in the possibly ill-defined boundaries of the fuzzy sets. Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) as introduced and elaborated on by T. Kohonen are applied to improve the fuzzy set data and rule base complying with observed pilot behavior. Hierarchical cluster analysis is used to locate clusters of similar patterns in the maps. As introduced by Pedrycz, every feature is evaluated using fuzzy sets for each designated cluster. This approach allows to

  2. Manual of First Aid Practices for School Bus Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William R.

    This manual is intended to assist local school authorities in California in providing the required course in instruction in first aid practices for school bus drivers. While it deals with basic principles of handling serious medical emergencies, major emphasis is on minor injuries or illnesses that are most likely to occur while students are…

  3. Nursing Assistants for Long-Term Care. Performance-Based Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Vocational Education Services.

    This guide is intended to assist students enrolled in programs to train nursing assistants for employment in an Indiana long-term health care facility. The first part discusses human development (growth, aging, and dying); communication with residents; sexuality; legal, ethical, and professional responsibilities of nursing assistants in long-term…

  4. Improvement of Hand Movement on Visual Target Tracking by Assistant Force of Model-Based Compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Junko; Sugi, Takenao; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    Human motor control is achieved by the appropriate motor commands generating from the central nerve system. A test of visual target tracking is one of the effective methods for analyzing the human motor functions. We have previously examined a possibility for improving the hand movement on visual target tracking by additional assistant force through a simulation study. In this study, a method for compensating the human hand movement on visual target tracking by adding an assistant force was proposed. Effectiveness of the compensation method was investigated through the experiment for four healthy adults. The proposed compensator precisely improved the reaction time, the position error and the variability of the velocity of the human hand. The model-based compensator proposed in this study is constructed by using the measurement data on visual target tracking for each subject. The properties of the hand movement for different subjects can be reflected in the structure of the compensator. Therefore, the proposed method has possibility to adjust the individual properties of patients with various movement disorders caused from brain dysfunctions.

  5. NiO-silica based nanostructured materials obtained by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaly, M.; Comanescu, A.F.; Rogozea, A.E.; Vasile, E.; Meghea, A.

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of NiO/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Highlights: {yields} Microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure for NiO silica nanomaterials synthesis. {yields} Controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles and avoiding their aggregation. {yields} Narrow band-gap semiconductors (energies <3 eV) absorbing VIS or near-UV light biologically and chemically inert semiconductors entrapping/coating in silica network. {yields} Low cost as the microemulsion is firstly used in water metallic cation extraction. -- Abstract: NiO-silica based materials have been synthesized by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure. The versatility of these soft nanotechnology techniques has been exploited in order to obtain different types of nanostructures, such as NiO nanoparticles, NiO silica coated nanoparticles and NiO embedded in silica matrix. These materials have been characterized by adequate structural and morphology techniques: DLS, HR-TEM/SAED, BET, AFM. Optical and semiconducting properties (band-gap values) of the synthesized materials have been quantified by means of VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra, thus demonstrating their applicative potential in various electron transfer phenomena such as photocatalysis, electrochromic thin films, solid oxide fuel cells.

  6. 3D Numerical study on the hollow profile polymer extrusion forming based on the gas-assisted technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Z.; Huang, X. Y.; Liu, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, gas-assisted extrusion method was introduced into the extrusion of the hollow profiles. To validate the feasibility of the new extrusion method, 3D numerical simulation of the hollow profiles based on gas-assisted technique was carried out by using the finite element method. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) mode was selected as the construction equation. In the simulations, the physical field distributions of four different extrusion modes were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the extrudate effect of traditional no gas- assisted mode was poor because the extrudate swell phenomenon is obvious and the physical field values are larger. For the gas-assisted of the inner wall, the extrudate swell of the melt was more obvious than that of the traditional no gas-assisted mode on account of the no-slip boundary condition on the outer wall. For the gas-assisted of the outer wall, the dimple effect of the inner wall is more obvious owing to the no-slip boundary condition on the inner wall. However, the extrusion effect of the double walls gas-assisted mode is very good because of the full-slip effect on the both walls.

  7. Directing driver attention with augmented reality cues

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Gavin, Patrick; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Vecera, Shaun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This simulator study evaluated the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to direct the attention of experienced drivers to roadside hazards. Twenty-seven healthy middle-aged licensed drivers with a range of attention capacity participated in a 54 mile (1.5 hour) drive in an interactive fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant received AR cues to potential roadside hazards in six simulated straight (9 mile long) rural roadway segments. Drivers were evaluated on response time for detecting a potentially hazardous event, detection accuracy for target (hazard) and non-target objects, and headway with respect to the hazards. Results showed no negative outcomes associated with interference. AR cues did not impair perception of non-target objects, including for drivers with lower attentional capacity. Results showed near significant response time benefits for AR cued hazards. AR cueing increased response rate for detecting pedestrians and warning signs but not vehicles. AR system false alarms and misses did not impair driver responses to potential hazards. PMID:24436635

  8. A performance investigation of correlation-based and pilot-tone-assisted frequency offset compensation method for CO-OFDM.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shengjiao; Yu, Changyuan; Kam, Pooi-Yuen

    2013-09-23

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis to examine the performance of our recently proposed correlation-based and pilot-tone-assisted frequency offset compensation method in coherent optical OFDM system. The frequency offset is divided into two parts: fraction part and integer part relative to the channel spacing. Our frequency offset scheme includes the correlation-based Schmidl algorithm for fraction part estimation as well as pilot-tone-assisted method for integer part estimation. In this paper, we analytically derive the error variance of fraction part estimation methods in the presence of laser phase noise using different correlation-based algorithms: Schmidl, Cox and Cyclic Prefix based. This analytical expression is given for the first time in the literature. Furthermore, we give a full derivation for the pilot-tone-assisted integer part estimation method using the OFDM model. PMID:24104171

  9. Comorbidities and Crash Involvement among Younger and Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Michela; Boccardi, Virginia; Prestano, Raffaele; Angellotti, Edith; Desiderio, Manuela; Marano, Luigi; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies identified comorbidities as predictors of older driver performance and driving pattern, while the direct impact of comorbidities on road crash risk in elderly drivers is still unknown. The present study is a cross-sectional aimed at investigating the association between levels of comorbidity and crash involvement in adult and elderly drivers. 327 drivers were stratified according to age range in two groups: elderly drivers (age ≥70 years old, referred as older) and adult drivers (age <70 years old, referred as younger). Driving information was obtained through a driving questionnaire. Distance traveled was categorized into low, medium and high on the basis of kilometers driven in a year. CIRS-illness severity (IS) and CIRS-comorbidity indices (CI) in all populations were calculated. Older drivers had a significantly higher crash involvements rate (p = .045) compared with the younger group based on the number of licensed drivers. Dividing comorbidity indices into tertiles among all licensed subjects, the number of current drivers significantly decreased (p<.0001) with increasing level of comorbidity. The number of current drivers among older subjects significantly decreased with increasing comorbidity level (p = .026) while no difference among younger group was found (p = .462). Among younger drivers with increasing comorbidity level, the number of road accidents significantly increased (p = .048) and the logistic regression analysis showed that comorbidity level significantly associated with crash involvement independent of gender and driving exposure. Older subjects with high level of comorbidity are able to self-regulate driving while comorbidity burden represents a significant risk factor for crash involvements among younger drivers. PMID:24722619

  10. A multinomial choice model approach for dynamic driver vision transitions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Wong, Jinn-Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Exploring the continual process of drivers allocating their attention under varying conditions could be vital for preventing motor vehicle crashes. This study aims to model visual behaviors and to estimate the effects of various contributing factors on driver's vision transitions. A visual attention allocation framework, based on certain contributing attributes related to driving tasks and environmental conditions, has been developed. The associated logit type models for determining driver choices for focal points were successfully formulated and estimated by using naturalistic glance data from the 100-car event database. The results offer insights into driver visual behavior and patterns of visual attention allocation. The three focal points that drivers most frequently rely on and glance at are the forward, left and rear view mirror. The sample drivers were less likely to demonstrate troublesome transition patterns, particularly in mentally demanding situations. Additionally, instead of shifting vision directly between two non-forward focal points, the sample drivers frequently had an intermediate forward glance. Thus, seemingly unrelated paths could be grouped into explanatory patterns of driver attention allocation. Finally, in addition to the vision-transition patterns, the potential pitfalls of such patterns and possible countermeasures to improving safety are illustrated, focusing on situations when drivers are distracted, traveling at high speeds and approaching intersections.

  11. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  12. Statistical implications of using moving violations to determine crash responsibility in young driver crashes.

    PubMed

    Curry, Allison E; Pfeiffer, Melissa R; Myers, Rachel K; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Traditional methods for determining crash responsibility - most commonly moving violation citations - may not accurately characterize at-fault status among crash-involved drivers given that: (1) issuance may vary by factors that are independent of fault (e.g., driver age, gender), and (2) these methods do not capture driver behaviors that are not illegal but still indicative of fault. We examined the statistical implications of using moving violations to determine crash responsibility in young driver crashes by comparing it with a method based on crash-contributing driver actions. We selected all drivers in police-reported passenger-vehicle crashes (2010-2011) that involved a New Jersey driver <21 years old (79,485 driversdrivers ≥age 21). For each driver, crash responsibility was determined from the crash report using two alternative methods: (1) issuance of a moving violation citation; and (2) presence of a driver action (e.g., failure to yield, inattention). Overall, 18% of crash-involved drivers were issued a moving violation while 50% had a driver action. Only 32.2% of drivers with a driver action were cited for a moving violation. Further, the likelihood of being cited given the presence of a driver action was higher among certain driver subgroups-younger drivers, male drivers, and drivers in single-vehicle and more severe crashes. Specifically among young drivers, those driving at night, carrying peer passengers, and having a suspended or no license were more often cited. Conversely, fatally-injured drivers were almost never cited. We also demonstrated that using citation data may lead to statistical bias in the characterization of at-fault drivers and of quasi-induced exposure measures. Studies seeking to accurately determine crash responsibility should thoughtfully consider the potential sources of bias that may result from using legal culpability methods. For many studies, determining driver responsibility via the identification of

  13. Statistical implications of using moving violations to determine crash responsibility in young driver crashes

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Allison E.; Pfeiffer, Melissa R.; Myers, Rachel K.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Elliott, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for determining crash responsibility—most commonly moving violation citations—may not accurately characterize at-fault status among crash-involved drivers given that: (1) issuance may vary by factors that are independent of fault (e.g., driver age, gender), and (2) these methods do not capture driver behaviors that are not illegal but still indicative of fault. We examined the statistical implications of using moving violations to determine crash responsibility in young driver crashes by comparing it with a method based on crash-contributing driver actions. We selected all drivers in police-reported passenger-vehicle crashes (2010–2011) that involved a New Jersey driver <21 years old (79,485 drivers < age 21, 61,355 drivers ≥ age 21.) For each driver, crash responsibility was determined from the crash report using two alternative methods: (1) issuance of a moving violation citation; and (2) presence of a driver action (e.g., failure to yield, inattention). Overall, 18% of crash-involved drivers were issued a moving violation while 50% had a driver action. Only 32.2% of drivers with a driver action were cited for a moving violation. Further, the likelihood of being cited given the presence of a driver action was higher among certain driver subgroups—younger drivers, male drivers, and drivers in single-vehicle and more severe crashes. Specifically among young drivers, those driving at night, carrying peer passengers, and having a suspended or no license were more often cited. Conversely, fatally-injured drivers were almost never cited. We also demonstrated that using citation data may lead to statistical bias in the characterization of at-fault drivers and of quasi-induced exposure measures. Studies seeking to accurately determine crash responsibility should thoughtfully consider the potential sources of bias that may result from using legal culpability methods. For many studies, determining driver responsibility via the identification

  14. Exergames-based intervention for assisted living residents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ying-Yu; Scherer, Yvonne K; Montgomery, Carolyn A; Lucke, Kathleen T; Wu, Yow-Wu

    2014-11-01

    The physical and psychosocial benefits of exergames have been reported in various literature. A pre-posttest, single-group design was used to test the effects of an exergames-based intervention on cognition, depression, and health-related quality of life (QOL) in assisted living residents. Bandura's self-efficacy theory was applied. Seven residents (mean age = 86, SD = 5 years) participated in the program two times per week for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included cognition, depression, and health-related QOL. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the outcomes after the intervention. A tendency toward improved cognition occurred, but the outcomes of depression and health-related QOL did not follow a similar trend. However, improved socialization and motivation to exercise were reported. Continued research is needed to investigate the cognitive and psychosocial effects of exergames on this population. Nurses can collaborate with other health care professionals to engage residents in exercise and thus improve residents' QOL.

  15. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV. PMID:26729120

  16. Cell-phone based assistance for waterworks/sewage plant maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kawada, T; Nakamichi, K; Hisano, N; Kitamura, M; Miyahara, K

    2006-01-01

    Cell-phones are now incorporating the functions necessary for them to be used as mobile IT devices. In this paper, we present our results of the evaluation of cell-phones as the mobile IT device to assist workers in industrial plants. We use waterworks and sewage plants as examples. By employing techniques to squeeze the SCADA screen on CRT into a small cell-phone LCD, we have made it easier for a plant's field workers to access the information needed for effective maintenance, regardless of location. An idea to link SCADA information and the plant facility information on the cell-phone is also presented. Should an accident or emergency situation arise, these cell-phone-based IT systems can efficiently deliver the latest plant information, thus the worker out in the field can respond to and resolve the emergency. PMID:16722075

  17. Robust human machine interface based on head movements applied to assistive robotics.

    PubMed

    Perez, Elisa; López, Natalia; Orosco, Eugenio; Soria, Carlos; Mut, Vicente; Freire-Bastos, Teodiano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user's head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user's head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair. PMID:24453877

  18. Robust human machine interface based on head movements applied to assistive robotics.

    PubMed

    Perez, Elisa; López, Natalia; Orosco, Eugenio; Soria, Carlos; Mut, Vicente; Freire-Bastos, Teodiano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user's head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user's head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair.

  19. Fast ultrasound assisted synthesis of chitosan-based magnetite nanocomposites as a modified electrode sensor.

    PubMed

    Freire, T M; Dutra, L M U; Queiroz, D C; Ricardo, N M P S; Barreto, K; Denardin, J C; Wurm, Frederik R; Sousa, C P; Correia, A N; de Lima-Neto, P; Fechine, P B A

    2016-10-20

    Chitosan-based magnetite nanocomposites were synthesized using a versatile ultrasound assisted in situ method involving one quick step. This synthetic route approach results in the formation of spheroidal nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with average diameter between 10 and 24nm, which were found to be superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization (Ms) ranges from 32-57emug(-1), depending on the concentration. The incorporation of Fe3O4 into chitosan matrix was also confirmed by FTIR and TG techniques. This hybrid nanocomposite has the potential application as electrochemical sensors, since the electrochemical signal was excepitionally stable. In addition, the in situ strategy proposed in this work allowed us to synthesize the nanocomposite system in a short time, around 2min of time-consuming, showing great potential to replace convencional methods. Herein, the procedure will permit a further diversity of applications into nanocomposite materials engineering.

  20. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV. PMID:26729120

  1. Fast ultrasound assisted synthesis of chitosan-based magnetite nanocomposites as a modified electrode sensor.

    PubMed

    Freire, T M; Dutra, L M U; Queiroz, D C; Ricardo, N M P S; Barreto, K; Denardin, J C; Wurm, Frederik R; Sousa, C P; Correia, A N; de Lima-Neto, P; Fechine, P B A

    2016-10-20

    Chitosan-based magnetite nanocomposites were synthesized using a versatile ultrasound assisted in situ method involving one quick step. This synthetic route approach results in the formation of spheroidal nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with average diameter between 10 and 24nm, which were found to be superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization (Ms) ranges from 32-57emug(-1), depending on the concentration. The incorporation of Fe3O4 into chitosan matrix was also confirmed by FTIR and TG techniques. This hybrid nanocomposite has the potential application as electrochemical sensors, since the electrochemical signal was excepitionally stable. In addition, the in situ strategy proposed in this work allowed us to synthesize the nanocomposite system in a short time, around 2min of time-consuming, showing great potential to replace convencional methods. Herein, the procedure will permit a further diversity of applications into nanocomposite materials engineering. PMID:27474623

  2. Chemicals loading in acetylated bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silviana, Petermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has a large tropical forest. However, the deforestation still appears annually and vastly. This reason drives a use of bamboo as wood alternative. Recently, there are many modifications of bamboo in order to prolong the shelf life. Unfortunately, the processes need more chemicals and time. Based on wood modification, esterifying of bamboo was undertaken in present of a dense gas, i.e. supercritical CO2. Calculation of chemicals loading referred to ASTM D1413-99 by using the phase equilibrium data at optimum condition by a statistical design. The results showed that the acetylation of bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 required 14.73 kg acetic anhydride/m3 of bamboo for a treatment of one hour.

  3. A phone-assistive device based on Bluetooth technology for cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Loizou, Philipos C; Dorman, Michael F

    2003-09-01

    Hearing-impaired people, and particularly hearing-aid and cochlear-implant users, often have difficulty communicating over the telephone. The intelligibility of telephone speech is considerably lower than the intelligibility of face-to-face speech. This is partly because of lack of visual cues, limited telephone bandwidth, and background noise. In addition, cellphones may cause interference with the hearing aid or cochlear implant. To address these problems that hearing-impaired people experience with telephones, this paper proposes a wireless phone adapter that can be used to route the audio signal directly to the hearing aid or cochlear implant processor. This adapter is based on Bluetooth technology. The favorable features of this new wireless technology make the adapter superior to traditional assistive listening devices. A hardware prototype was built and software programs were written to implement the headset profile in the Bluetooth specification. Three cochlear implant users were tested with the proposed phone-adapter and reported good speech quality.

  4. Robust Human Machine Interface Based on Head Movements Applied to Assistive Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Elisa; López, Natalia; Orosco, Eugenio; Soria, Carlos; Mut, Vicente; Freire-Bastos, Teodiano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user's head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user's head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair. PMID:24453877

  5. Design and Evaluation of a Personal Digital Assistant-based Research Platform for Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hussnain; Lobo, Arthur P.; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, features, and clinical evaluation of a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based platform for cochlear implant research. This highly versatile and portable research platform allows researchers to design and perform complex experiments with cochlear implants manufactured by Cochlear Corporation with great ease and flexibility. The research platform includes a portable processor for implementing and evaluating novel speech processing algorithms, a stimulator unit which can be used for electrical stimulation and neurophysio-logic studies with animals, and a recording unit for collecting electroencephalogram/evoked potentials from human subjects. The design of the platform for real time and offline stimulation modes is discussed for electric-only and electric plus acoustic stimulation followed by results from an acute study with implant users for speech intelligibility in quiet and noisy conditions. The results are comparable with users’ clinical processor and very promising for undertaking chronic studies. PMID:23674422

  6. Research on the electro-optical assistant landing system based on the dual camera photogrammetry algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Yuhe; Huang, Yifan; Li, Lin

    2015-08-01

    Based on the location technique of beacon photogrammetry, Dual Camera Photogrammetry (DCP) algorithm was used to assist helicopters landing on the ship. In this paper, ZEMAX was used to simulate the two Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras imaging four beacons on both sides of the helicopter and output the image to MATLAB. Target coordinate systems, image pixel coordinate systems, world coordinate systems and camera coordinate systems were established respectively. According to the ideal pin-hole imaging model, the rotation matrix and translation vector of the target coordinate systems and the camera coordinate systems could be obtained by using MATLAB to process the image information and calculate the linear equations. On the basis mentioned above, ambient temperature and the positions of the beacons and cameras were changed in ZEMAX to test the accuracy of the DCP algorithm in complex sea status. The numerical simulation shows that in complex sea status, the position measurement accuracy can meet the requirements of the project.

  7. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-12-30

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV.

  8. Force-Based Puncture Detection and Active Position Holding for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation*

    PubMed Central

    Gonenc, Berk; Tran, Nhat; Riviere, Cameron N.; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure proposed to treat retinal vein occlusion by direct therapeutic agent delivery methods. Challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining cannulation during drug delivery currently limit the feasibility of the procedure. In this study, we respond to these problems with an assistive system combining a handheld micromanipulator, Micron, with a force-sensing microneedle. The integrated system senses the instant of vein puncture based on measured forces and the position of the needle tip. The system actively holds the cannulation device securely in the vein following cannulation and during drug delivery. Preliminary testing of the system in a dry phantom, stretched vinyl membranes, demonstrates a significant improvement in the total time the needle could be maintained stably inside of the vein. This was especially evident in smaller veins and is attributed to decreased movement of the positioned cannula following venous cannulation. PMID:27127804

  9. Fibronectin layers by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation from saline buffer-based cryogenic targets.

    PubMed

    Sima, F; Davidson, P; Pauthe, E; Sima, L E; Gallet, O; Mihailescu, I N; Anselme, K

    2011-10-01

    The deposition of fibronectin (FN) from saline buffer-based cryogenic targets by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto silicon substrates is reported. A uniform distribution of FN was revealed by Ponceau staining after control experiments on nitrocellulose paper. Well-organized particulates with heights from hundreds of nanometers up to more than 1 μm packed in homogeneous layers were evidenced by optical microscopy and profilometry on Si substrates. Atomic force microscopy images showed regions composed of buffer and FN aggregates forming a compact film. Comparison of infrared spectra of drop-cast and MAPLE-deposited FN confirmed the preservation of composition and showed no degradation of the protein. The protein deposition on Si was confirmed by antibody staining. Small aggregates and fluorescent fibrils were visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Superior attachment of human osteoprogenitor cells cultivated for 3 h proved the presence of stable and intact FN molecules after transfer.

  10. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  11. Interactive computer-assisted instruction in acid-base physiology for mobile computer platforms.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ∼20 screens of information, on the subjects of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer system, other body buffer systems, and acid-base disorders. Five clinical case modules were also developed. For the learning modules, the interactive, active learning activities were primarily step-by-step learner control of explanations of complex physiological concepts, usually presented graphically. For the clinical cases, the active learning activities were primarily question-and-answer exercises that related clinical findings to the relevant basic science concepts. The student response was remarkably positive, with the interactive, active learning aspect of the instruction cited as the most important feature. Also, students cited the self-paced instruction, extensive use of interactive graphics, and side-by-side presentation of text and graphics as positive features. Most students reported that it took less time to study the subject matter with this online instruction compared with subject matter presented in the lecture hall. However, the approach to learning was highly examination driven, with most students delaying the study of the subject matter until a few days before the scheduled examination. Wider implementation of active learning computer-assisted instruction will require that instructors present subject matter interactively, that students fully embrace the responsibilities of independent learning, and that institutional administrations measure instructional effort by criteria other than scheduled hours of instruction.

  12. Endovascular navigation based on real/virtual environments cooperation for computer-assisted TEAM procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goksu, Cemil; Haigron, Pascal; Acosta, Oscar; Lucas, Antoine

    2004-05-01

    Transfemoral Endovascular Aneurysm Management, the less invasive treatment of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysms (AAA), is a highly specialized procedure, using advanced devices and requiring a high degree of clinical expertise. There is a great need for a navigation guidance system able to make this procedure safer and more precise. In this context of computer-assisted minimally invasive interventional procedures, we propose a new framework based on the cooperation between the real environment where the intervention takes place and a patient-specific virtual environment, which contains a virtual operating room including a C-arm model as well as the 3D preoperative patient data. This approach aims to deal with the problem of lack of knowledge about soft tissue behavior by better exploiting available information before and during the intervention through a cooperative approach. In order to assist the TEAM procedure in standard interventional conditions, we applied this framework to design a 3D navigation guidance system, which has been successfully used during three TEAM interventions in the operating room. Intra-operatively, anatomical feature-based 2D/3D registration between a single 2D fluoroscopic view, reproduced from the pose planned in the virtual environment, and the preoperative CT volume, is performed by means of a chamfer distance map. The 3D localization of the endovascular devices (sheath, guide wire, prosthesis) tracked either interactively or automatically on 2D sequences, is constrained to either the 3D vascular tree or a 3D device model. Moreover, we propose a first solution to take into account the tissue deformations during this particular intervention and to update the virtual environment with the intraoperative data.

  13. An integrated system for planning, navigation and robotic assistance for skull base surgery

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Baird, Clint; Jallo, George; Hayes, Kathryn; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Hata, Nobuhiko; Kazanzides, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background We developed an image-guided robot system to provide mechanical assistance for skull base drilling, which is performed to gain access for some neurosurgical interventions, such as tumour resection. The motivation for introducing this robot was to improve safety by preventing the surgeon from accidentally damaging critical neurovascular structures during the drilling procedure. Methods We integrated a Stealthstation® navigation system, a NeuroMate® robotic arm with a six-degree-of-freedom force sensor, and the 3D Slicer visualization software to allow the robotic arm to be used in a navigated, cooperatively-controlled fashion by the surgeon. We employed virtual fixtures to constrain the motion of the robot-held cutting tool, so that it remained in the safe zone that was defined on a preoperative CT scan. Results We performed experiments on both foam skull and cadaver heads. The results for foam blocks cut using different registrations yielded an average placement error of 0.6 mm and an average dimensional error of 0.6 mm. We drilled the posterior porus acusticus in three cadaver heads and concluded that the robot-assisted procedure is clinically feasible and provides some ergonomic benefits, such as stabilizing the drill. We obtained postoperative CT scans of the cadaver heads to assess the accuracy and found that some bone outside the virtual fixture boundary was cut. The typical overcut was 1–2 mm, with a maximum overcut of about 3 mm. Conclusions The image-guided cooperatively-controlled robot system can improve the safety and ergonomics of skull base drilling by stabilizing the drill and enforcing virtual fixtures to protect critical neurovascular structures. The next step is to improve the accuracy so that the overcut can be reduced to a more clinically acceptable value of about 1 mm. PMID:18803337

  14. Interactive computer-assisted instruction in acid-base physiology for mobile computer platforms.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ∼20 screens of information, on the subjects of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer system, other body buffer systems, and acid-base disorders. Five clinical case modules were also developed. For the learning modules, the interactive, active learning activities were primarily step-by-step learner control of explanations of complex physiological concepts, usually presented graphically. For the clinical cases, the active learning activities were primarily question-and-answer exercises that related clinical findings to the relevant basic science concepts. The student response was remarkably positive, with the interactive, active learning aspect of the instruction cited as the most important feature. Also, students cited the self-paced instruction, extensive use of interactive graphics, and side-by-side presentation of text and graphics as positive features. Most students reported that it took less time to study the subject matter with this online instruction compared with subject matter presented in the lecture hall. However, the approach to learning was highly examination driven, with most students delaying the study of the subject matter until a few days before the scheduled examination. Wider implementation of active learning computer-assisted instruction will require that instructors present subject matter interactively, that students fully embrace the responsibilities of independent learning, and that institutional administrations measure instructional effort by criteria other than scheduled hours of instruction. PMID:24585467

  15. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huan; Wang, Yuzhi; Kong, Jinhuan; Nie, Chan; Yuan, Ya

    2010-12-15

    An ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method has been developed for the effective extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants including Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Bail. (S. chinensis) and Flos Sophorae. A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anions were investigated. The results indicated that the characteristics of anions have remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of rutin and among the investigated ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) aqueous solution was the best. In addition, the ILMAE procedures for the two kinds of medicinal herbs were also optimized by means of a series of single factor experiments and an L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal design. Compared with the optimal ionic liquid-based heating extraction (ILHE), marinated extraction (ILME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE), the optimized approach of ILMAE gained higher extraction efficiency which is 4.879 mg/g in S. chinensis with RSD 1.33% and 171.82 mg/g in Flos Sophorae with RSD 1.47% within the shortest extraction time. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of rutin in Chinese medicinal plants. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of rutin from S. chinensis and Flos Sophorae were 101.23% and 99.62% with RSD lower than 3%, respectively. The developed approach is linear at concentrations from 42 to 252 mg L(-1) of rutin solution, with the regression coefficient (r) at 0.99917. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILMAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the two researched samples before and after extraction were also investigated. With the help of LC-MS, it was future demonstrated that the two researched herbs do contain active ingredient of rutin and ionic liquids would not influence the structure of rutin.

  16. ZnO-based hollow microspheres: biopolymer-assisted assemblies from ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie; Wang, Xiaomei; Deng, Ruiping; Sun, Dehui; Zheng, Guoli

    2006-08-17

    Many efforts have been made in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) ordered zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures due to their growing applications in separations, sensors, catalysis, bioscience, and photonics. Here, we developed a new synthetic route to 3D ZnO-based hollow microspheres by a facile solution-based method through a water-soluble biopolymer (sodium alginate) assisted assembly from ZnO nanorods. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Raman and photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO-based hollow microspheres were obtained at room temperature to investigate their optical properties. The hollow microspheres exhibit exciting emission features with a wide band covering nearly all the visible region. The calculated CIE (Commission Internationale d'Eclairage) coordinates are 0.24 and 0.31, which fall at the edge of the white region (the 1931 CIE diagram). A possible growth mechanism of the 3D ZnO superstructures based on typical biopolymer-crystal interactions in aqueous solution is tentatively proposed, which might be really interesting because of the participation of the biopolymer. The results show that this biopolymer-directed crystal growth and mediated self-assembly of nanocrystals may provide promising routes to rational synthesis of various ordered inorganic and inorganic-organic hybrid materials with complex form and structural specialization.

  17. Impedance control in a wave-based teleoperator for rehabilitation motor therapies assisted by robots.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Marco; Bonilla, Isela; González-Galván, Emilio; Reyes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an improved wave-based bilateral teleoperation scheme for rehabilitation therapies assisted by robot manipulators. The main feature of this bilateral teleoperator is that both robot manipulators, master and slave, are controlled by impedance. Thus, a pair of motion-based adaptive impedance controllers are integrated into a wave-based configuration, in order to guarantee a stable human-robot interaction and to compensate the position drift, characteristic of the available schemes of bilateral teleoperation. Moreover, the teleoperator stability, in the presence of time delays in the communication channel, is guaranteed because the wave-variable approach is included to encode the force and velocity signals. It should be noted that the proposed structure enables the implementation of several teleoperator schemes, from passive therapies, without the intervention of a human operator on the master side, to fully active therapies where both manipulators interact with humans in a stable manner. The suitable performance of the proposed teleoperator is verified through some results obtained from the simulation of the passive and active-constrained modes, by considering typical tasks in motor-therapy rehabilitation, where an improved behavior is observed when compared to implementations of the classical wave-based approach.

  18. Electrophilic assistance to the cleavage of an RNA model phopshodiester via specific and general base-catalyzed mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Corona-Martínez, David Octavio; Gomez-Tagle, Paola; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2012-10-19

    Kinetics of transesterification of the RNA model substrate 2-hydroxypropyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate promoted by Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), the most common biological metals acting as cofactors for nuclease enzymes and ribozymes, as well as by Co(NH(3))(6)(3+), Co(en)(3)(3+), Li(+), and Na(+) cations, often employed as mechanistic probes, was studied in 80% v/v (50 mol %) aqueous DMSO, a medium that allows one to discriminate easily specific base (OH(-)-catalyzed) and general base (buffer-catalyzed) reaction paths. All cations assist the specific base reaction, but only Mg(2+) and Na(+) assist the general base reaction. For Mg(2+)-assisted reactions, the solvent deuterium isotope effects are 1.23 and 0.25 for general base and specific base mechanisms, respectively. Rate constants for Mg(2+)-assisted general base reactions measured with different bases fit the Brønsted correlation with a slope of 0.38, significantly lower than the slope for the unassisted general base reaction (0.77). Transition state binding constants for catalysts in the specific base reaction (K(‡)(OH)) both in aqueous DMSO and pure water correlate with their binding constants to 4-nitrophenyl phosphate dianion (K(NPP)) used as a minimalist transition state model. It was found that K(‡)(OH) ≈ K(NPP) for "protic" catalysts (Co(NH(3))(6)(3+), Co(en)(3)(3+), guanidinium), but K(‡)(OH) ≫ K(NPP) for Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) acting as Lewis acids. It appears from results of this study that Mg(2+) is unique in its ability to assist efficiently the general base-catalyzed transesterification often occurring in active sites of nuclease enzymes and ribozymes.

  19. Dental Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in dental assistant education programs in Michigan, describes a task-based curriculum that can help a teacher to develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. It is based on task analysis and reflects the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that employers expect entry-level dental…

  20. Sandia Material Model Driver

    2005-09-28

    The Sandia Material Model Driver (MMD) software package allows users to run material models from a variety of different Finite Element Model (FEM) codes in a standalone fashion, independent of the host codes. The MMD software is designed to be run on a variety of different operating system platforms as a console application. Initial development efforts have resulted in a package that has been shown to be fast, convenient, and easy to use, with substantialmore » growth potential.« less

  1. The RIA driver linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K. W.

    2002-09-23

    The driver linac for the U.S. RIA project will be a 1.4 GV superconducting linac capable of accelerating the full mass range of ions from 900 MeV protons to 400 MeV/u uranium, and delivering a cw beam of 400 kW shared by at least two targets simultaneously. Elements of the linac are being developed at several U.S. laboratories. The current status of linac design and development is reviewed with emphasis on changes in the baseline design since the last linac conference.

  2. Graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    We propose graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing. We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. An approach to implementing modulo 4 operations of three-input hybrid addition and subtraction of quaternary base numbers in the optical domain using multiple non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in graphene coated optical fiber device and (differential) quadrature phase-shift keying ((D)QPSK) signals is presented. We demonstrate 10-Gbaud modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B - C, A + C - B, B + C - A) in the experiment. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B - C, A + C - B, B + C - A) are measured to be less than 7 dB at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10-3. The BER performance as a function of the relative time offset between three signals (signal offset) is also evaluated showing favorable performance.

  3. Graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing. We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. An approach to implementing modulo 4 operations of three-input hybrid addition and subtraction of quaternary base numbers in the optical domain using multiple non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in graphene coated optical fiber device and (differential) quadrature phase-shift keying ((D)QPSK) signals is presented. We demonstrate 10-Gbaud modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B - C, A + C - B, B + C - A) in the experiment. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B - C, A + C - B, B + C - A) are measured to be less than 7 dB at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10(-3). The BER performance as a function of the relative time offset between three signals (signal offset) is also evaluated showing favorable performance. PMID:27604866

  4. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients’ psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller’s mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study. PMID:27608023

  5. Graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing. We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. An approach to implementing modulo 4 operations of three-input hybrid addition and subtraction of quaternary base numbers in the optical domain using multiple non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in graphene coated optical fiber device and (differential) quadrature phase-shift keying ((D)QPSK) signals is presented. We demonstrate 10-Gbaud modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B - C, A + C - B, B + C - A) in the experiment. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B - C, A + C - B, B + C - A) are measured to be less than 7 dB at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10(-3). The BER performance as a function of the relative time offset between three signals (signal offset) is also evaluated showing favorable performance.

  6. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients' psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller's mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study.

  7. Technical Assistance to Enhance Prevention Capacity: a Research Synthesis of the Evidence Base.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the availability of many evidence-based prevention interventions (EBIs), gaps exist in bringing these programs into widespread practice. Technical assistance (TA) is a strategy for enhancing the readiness of practitioners to implement EBIs. Although many millions of dollars are spent on TA each year, there is little consensus about what the essential features of TA are and how to provide TA with quality. A broad-based research synthesis methodology was used for analyzing the current evidence base for TA using three frames: (1) applying the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) model for categorizing evidence on TA that specifies tasks for planning, implementing, and evaluating TA; (2) understanding the relevance of a successful relationship between the TA provider and TA recipient; and (3) considering the extent to which TA fits the life cycle needs of the preventive intervention. Results indicated that an explicit model or organizing framework is rarely used to plan, implement, and/or evaluate TA; specific TA tasks performed vary widely across studies; TA is rarely delivered to recipients who are seeking to sustain innovations subsequent to adoption and implementation; however, there is systematic attention to relationships and relationship-building. Overall, this synthesis indicates that the extent to which TA is being delivered systematically is limited. We suggest that funders and other stakeholders develop and implement standards for TA quality in order to ensure that many of these limitations are addressed. PMID:26858179

  8. Graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing. We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. An approach to implementing modulo 4 operations of three-input hybrid addition and subtraction of quaternary base numbers in the optical domain using multiple non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in graphene coated optical fiber device and (differential) quadrature phase-shift keying ((D)QPSK) signals is presented. We demonstrate 10-Gbaud modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B − C, A + C − B, B + C − A) in the experiment. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B − C, A + C − B, B + C − A) are measured to be less than 7 dB at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10−3. The BER performance as a function of the relative time offset between three signals (signal offset) is also evaluated showing favorable performance. PMID:27604866

  9. Graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    We propose graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing. We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. An approach to implementing modulo 4 operations of three-input hybrid addition and subtraction of quaternary base numbers in the optical domain using multiple non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in graphene coated optical fiber device and (differential) quadrature phase-shift keying ((D)QPSK) signals is presented. We demonstrate 10-Gbaud modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B ‑ C, A + C ‑ B, B + C ‑ A) in the experiment. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B ‑ C, A + C ‑ B, B + C ‑ A) are measured to be less than 7 dB at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10‑3. The BER performance as a function of the relative time offset between three signals (signal offset) is also evaluated showing favorable performance.

  10. Coverage planning in computer-assisted ablation based on Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongliang; Guo, Weian; Sam Ge, Shuzhi; Lim, Wancheng

    2014-06-01

    An ablation planning system plays a pivotal role in tumor ablation procedures, as it provides a dry run to guide the surgeons in a complicated anatomical environment. Over-ablation, over-perforation or under-ablation may result in complications during the treatments. An optimal solution is desired to have complete tumor coverage with minimal invasiveness, including minimal number of ablations and minimal number of perforation trajectories. As the planning of tumor ablation is a multi-objective problem, it is challenging to obtain optimal covering solutions based on clinician׳s experiences. Meanwhile, it is effective for computer-assisted systems to decide a set of optimal plans. This paper proposes a novel approach of integrating a computational optimization algorithm into the ablation planning system. The proposed ablation planning system is designed based on the following objectives: to achieve complete tumor coverage and to minimize the number of ablations, number of needle trajectories and over-ablation to the healthy tissue. These objectives are taken into account using a Genetic Algorithm, which is capable of generating feasible solutions within a constrained search space. The candidate ablation plans can be encoded in generations of chromosomes, which subsequently evolve based on a fitness function. In this paper, an exponential weight-criterion fitness function has been designed by incorporating constraint parameters that were reflective of the different objectives. According to the test results, the proposed planner is able to generate the set of optimal solutions for tumor ablation problem, thereby fulfilling the aforementioned multiple objectives.

  11. Technical Assistance to Enhance Prevention Capacity: a Research Synthesis of the Evidence Base.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the availability of many evidence-based prevention interventions (EBIs), gaps exist in bringing these programs into widespread practice. Technical assistance (TA) is a strategy for enhancing the readiness of practitioners to implement EBIs. Although many millions of dollars are spent on TA each year, there is little consensus about what the essential features of TA are and how to provide TA with quality. A broad-based research synthesis methodology was used for analyzing the current evidence base for TA using three frames: (1) applying the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) model for categorizing evidence on TA that specifies tasks for planning, implementing, and evaluating TA; (2) understanding the relevance of a successful relationship between the TA provider and TA recipient; and (3) considering the extent to which TA fits the life cycle needs of the preventive intervention. Results indicated that an explicit model or organizing framework is rarely used to plan, implement, and/or evaluate TA; specific TA tasks performed vary widely across studies; TA is rarely delivered to recipients who are seeking to sustain innovations subsequent to adoption and implementation; however, there is systematic attention to relationships and relationship-building. Overall, this synthesis indicates that the extent to which TA is being delivered systematically is limited. We suggest that funders and other stakeholders develop and implement standards for TA quality in order to ensure that many of these limitations are addressed.

  12. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients' psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller's mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study. PMID:27608023

  13. Estimating the Development Assistance for Health Provided to Faith-Based Organizations, 1990–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haakenstad, Annie; Johnson, Elizabeth; Graves, Casey; Olivier, Jill; Duff, Jean; Dieleman, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have been active in the health sector for decades. Recently, the role of FBOs in global health has been of increased interest. However, little is known about the magnitude and trends in development assistance for health (DAH) channeled through these organizations. Material and Methods Data were collected from the 21 most recent editions of the Report of Voluntary Agencies. These reports provide information on the revenue and expenditure of organizations. Project-level data were also collected and reviewed from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. More than 1,900 non-governmental organizations received funds from at least one of these three organizations. Background information on these organizations was examined by two independent reviewers to identify the amount of funding channeled through FBOs. Results In 2013, total spending by the FBOs identified in the VolAg amounted to US$1.53 billion. In 1990, FB0s spent 34.1% of total DAH provided by private voluntary organizations reported in the VolAg. In 2013, FBOs expended 31.0%. Funds provided by the Global Fund to FBOs have grown since 2002, amounting to $80.9 million in 2011, or 16.7% of the Global Fund’s contributions to NGOs. In 2011, the Gates Foundation’s contributions to FBOs amounted to $7.1 million, or 1.1% of the total provided to NGOs. Conclusion Development assistance partners exhibit a range of preferences with respect to the amount of funds provided to FBOs. Overall, estimates show that FBOS have maintained a substantial and consistent share over time, in line with overall spending in global health on NGOs. These estimates provide the foundation for further research on the spending trends and effectiveness of FBOs in global health. PMID:26042731

  14. Counter-driver shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamba, T.; Nguyen, T. M.; Takeya, K.; Harasaki, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-11-01

    A "counter-driver" shock tube was developed. In this device, two counter drivers are actuated with an appropriate delay time to generate the interaction between a shock wave and a flow in the opposite direction which is induced by another shock wave. The conditions for the counter drivers can be set independently. Each driver is activated by a separate electrically controlled diaphragm rupture device, in which a pneumatic piston drives a rupture needle with a temporal jitter of better than 1.1 ms. Operation demonstrations were conducted to evaluate the practical performance.

  15. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  16. How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

    Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

  17. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes and its drivers during anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge based on microwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Sui, Qianwen; Wang, Rui; Tong, Juan; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    In this study, anaerobic digestion of mono-SS, MW-SS:FW and SS:MW-FW was investigated to understand the fate of ARGs and its drivers. Anaerobic digestion was effective for the reduction of metal resistance genes (MRGs), and could reduce the abundance of blaOXA-1, sulI and tetG, while sulII in co-digestion and blaTEM and ereA only in MW-SS. ARGs reduction could be partly attributed to the reduction of co-selective pressure from heavy metals reflected by MRGs. However, the abundance of mefA/E, ermB, ermF, tetM and tetX increased significantly. Anaerobic co-digestion, especially for MW-SS, could reduce total ARGs abundance compared with mono-SS, and evolution of bacterial community was the main driver for the fate of ARGs.

  18. Implementation of Inquiry-Based Tutorials in AN Introductory Physics Course: the Role of the Graduate Teaching Assistant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoresen, Carol Wiggins

    1994-01-01

    This study determined if the training provided physics teaching assistants was sufficient to accomplish the objectives of inquiry-based tutorials for an introductory physics course. Qualitative research methods were used: (1) to determine if the Physics by Inquiry method was modeled; (2) to describe the process from the teaching assistant perspective; (3) to determine TA opinions on training methods; (4) to develop a frame of reference to better understand the role of TA's as instructional support staff. The study determined that the teaching assistants verbalized appropriate instructional actions, but were observed to use a predominantly didactic teaching style. TA's held a variety of perceptions and beliefs about inquiry -based learning and how science is learned. They felt comfortable in the role of tutorial instructor. They were satisfied with the training methods provided and had few suggestions to change or improve training for future tutorial instructors. A concurrent theme of teacher action dependent on teacher beliefs was sustained throughout the study. The TA's actions, as tutorial instructors, reflected their educational beliefs, student background and learning experiences. TA's performance as tutorial instructors depended on what they think and believe about learning science. Practical implications exist for training teaching assistants to be tutorial instructors. Some recommendations may be appropriate for TA's required to use instructional methods that they have not experienced as students. Interview prospective teaching assistants to determine educational experience and beliefs. Employ inexperienced teaching assistants whose perspectives match the proposed instructional role and who might be more receptive to modeling. Incorporate training into staff meetings. Provide time for TA's to experience the instructional model with simulation or role play as students and as instructors, accompanied by conference discussion. Use strategies known to enhance

  19. The Psychosexual Profile of Sexual Assistants: An Internet-Based Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Limoncin, Erika; Galli, Debora; Ciocca, Giacomo; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assistance may have some aspects that resemble prostitution and others that might lead one to think of sexual assistants as similar to a group of subjects whose sexual object is disability (devotees). In this study, we investigate whether a rigorous selection and training process on the part of specialised organisations may reduce the risk of training subjects with an atypical sexual interest and behaviours resembling prostitution. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 152 subjects defining themselves as sexual assistants. Subjects were initially contacted on websites specifically dedicated to sexual assistants and prostitutes. One hundred and twenty subjects were selected, by propensity score analysis, and studied by means of a modified version of a semi-structured questionnaire previously developed to investigate a population of subjects attracted by disability. Results The study group was composed of 80 trained and 40 untrained sexual assistants, with mean ages of 41.5 (SD +/−12.58) and 44.5 (SD +/−11.62), respectively. A significant number of untrained subjects affirmed that their motivation in carrying out sexual assistance was of a remunerative nature, while this number was lower among the trained assistants (p = 0.001). Nearly all untrained subjects claimed to do one or more of the following activities during sexual assistance: sexual intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation. Among the trained subjects, however, only 47.5% claimed to do one or more of these activities, which means that there is a significant gap between trained and untrained assistants (p<0.0001). The existence of an atypical sexual interest was more evident between untrained rather than between trained subjects (p<0.0001). Conclusions Sexual assistance represents a way through which people affected by disabilities may attain the right to explore their sexuality in a safe setting. This can be guaranteed only if sexual assistants are trained and

  20. Safe Performance Curriculum for Secondary School Driver Education: Program Development, Implementation, and Technical Findings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mary C.; McBride, Robin S.

    To determine the effectiveness of a model driver education curriculum in leading to safe vehicle operation among beginning drivers, the Safe Peformance Curriculum, based on instructional objectives derived from analysis of the driver's tasks, was developed and pilot tested. Students were randomly assigned to one of the following: a Pre-Driver…

  1. Nucleation and growth of epitaxial metal-oxide films based on polymer-assisted deposition.

    PubMed

    McCleskey, T M; Shi, P; Bauer, E; Highland, M J; Eastman, J A; Bi, Z X; Fuoss, P H; Baldo, P M; Ren, W; Scott, B L; Burrell, A K; Jia, Q X

    2014-04-01

    Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) is one of the chemical solution deposition methods which have been successfully used to grow films, form coatings, and synthesize nanostructured materials. In comparison with other conventional solution-based deposition techniques, PAD differs in its use of water-soluble polymers in the solution that prevent the metal ions from unwanted chemical reactions and keep the solution stable. Furthermore, filtration to remove non-coordinated cations and anions in the PAD process ensures well controlled nucleation, which enables the growth of high quality epitaxial films with desired structural and physical properties. The precursor solution is prepared by mixing water-soluble polymer(s) with salt(s). Thermal treatment of the precursor films in a controlled environment leads to the formation of desired materials. Using BaTiO3 grown on SrTiO3 and LaMnO3 on LaAlO3 as model systems, we show the effect of filtration on the nucleation and growth of epitaxial complex metal-oxide films based on the PAD process. PMID:24158602

  2. A user profile ontology based approach for assisting people with dementia in mobile environments.

    PubMed

    Skillen, Kerry-Louise; Chen, Liming; Nugent, Chris D; Donnelly, Mark P; Solheim, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    Personalization and context-aware applications have attracted increasing amounts of attention over recent years due to the emergence of pervasive computing applications. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to meet the needs of users while they are on the move. This paper introduces a novel approach for providing personalized, context-aware assistance services for users in mobile environments. Central to the approach is the use of ontological user profile modeling which captures various characteristics of a user in order to create a unique set of profile information. In addition, user profiles can adapt to changing user behavior, thus enabling services to respond to evolving user needs and preferences. We describe the overall system architecture of the proposed approach with special emphasis being placed on the user profile modelling and its expected utility based on a typical use case scenario, i.e., using a smart-phone to address the problem of the outdoor mobility of a person with Dementia. A prototype based on the Android OS is used to illustrate the application. The use of everyday technology for a real world problem highlights the potential and utility of our approach. PMID:23367391

  3. Development of a powered mobile module for the ArmAssist home-based telerehabilitation platform.

    PubMed

    Jung, Je Hyung; Valencia, David B; Rodríguez-de-Pablo, Cristina; Keller, Thierry; Perry, Joel C

    2013-06-01

    The ArmAssist, developed by Tecnalia, is a system for at-home telerehabilitation of post-stroke arm impairments. It consists of a wireless mobile base module, a global position and orientation detection mat, a PC with display monitor, and a tele-rehabilitation software platform. This paper presents the recent development results on the mobile module augmenting its functionality by adding actuation components. Three DC servo motors were employed to drive the mobile module and a position control algorithm based on the kinematic model and velocity mode control was implemented such that the module tracks a path defined in the training software. Pilot tests of the powered mobile module were performed in experiments with different load conditions and two unimpaired subjects. Both test results show that the module is able to follow the predefined path within an acceptable error range for reach movement training. Further study and testing of the system in realistic conditions following stroke will be a future topic of research. PMID:24187242

  4. Clinical outcomes after assisted reproductive technology in twin pregnancies: chorionicity-based comparison

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Luming; Zou, Gang; Wei, Xing; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Okun, Nanette; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The chorionicity–based evaluation of the perinatal risk in twin pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART) is lacking. A retrospective review was performed of all twin pregnancies monitored prenatally and delivered at our hospital between 2010 and 2014. Chorionicity was diagnosed by ultrasound examination at first trimester and confirmed by postnatal pathology. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were prospectively recorded. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in a logistic regression model. A total of 1153 twin pregnancies were analyzed. The occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) was 3 times as frequent in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after ART as in those spontaneous counterparts (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.1–3.2). The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancies (ICP) was significantly higher in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies following ART compared to spontaneous DCDA pregnancies (aOR 3.3; 95%CI 1.3–5.6). Perinatal outcomes did not differ between two conception methods, either in MCDA or DCDA twin pregnancies. Based on differentiation of chorionicity, ART is associated with the increased risk of PPROM in MCDA twin pregnancies and with a higher rate of ICP in DCDA twin gestations. ART does not increase adversity of perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. PMID:27243373

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of CNT-Based Smart Tips for Synchrotron Assisted STM

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Hui; Cummings, Marvin; Camino, Fernando; Xu, Weihe; Lu, Ming; Tong, Xiao; Shirato, Nozomi; Rosenmann, Daniel; Rose, Volker; Nazaretski, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    Determination of chemical composition along with imaging at the atomic level provides critical information towards fundamental understanding of the surface of materials and, hence, yields the capability to design new materials by tailoring their ultimate functionalities. Synchrotron X-ray assisted scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM) is a promising new technique to achieve real space chemically specific atomic mapping. Chemical sensitivity of SX-STM relies on excitation of core electrons by incident X-rays when their energy is tuned to an absorption edge of a particular element. However, along with core-level electrons, photoelectrons are also excited, which yield additional current and interfere with the tunnelingmore » current. To reduce the background photoelectron current and to improve ultimate resolution of SX-STM, we have developed and fabricated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) based “smart tips” using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and focused ion beam milling. The newly developed CNT-based smart tips, characterized step by step by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) during the fabrication process, demonstrate good performance and provide opportunity for realizing atomic chemical mapping.« less

  6. Ultra-sensitive detection of Ag+ ions based on Ag+-assisted isothermal exponential degradation reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Fan, Qi; Zhu, Sha; Duan, Aiping; Yin, Yongmei; Li, Genxi

    2013-01-15

    Ag(+) ions are greatly toxic to a lot of algae, fungi, viruses and bacteria, which can also induce harmful side-effects to environments and human health. Herein we report an ultra-sensitive method for the selective detection of Ag(+) ions with electrochemical technique based on Ag(+)-assisted isothermal exponential degradation reaction. In the presence of Ag(+), mismatched trigger DNA can transiently bind to template DNA immobilized on an electrode surface through the formation of C-Ag(+)-C base pair, which then initiates the isothermal exponential degradation reaction. As a result, the mismatched trigger DNA may melt off the cleaved template DNA to trigger rounds of elongation and cutting. After the cyclic degradation reactions, removal of the template DNA immobilized on the electrode surface can be efficiently monitored by using electrochemical technique to show the status of the electrode surface, which can be then used to determine the presence of Ag(+). Further studies reveal that the proposed method can be ultra-sensitive to detect Ag(+) at a picomolar level. The selectivity of the detection can also be satisfactory, thus the proposed method for the Ag(+) ions detection may be potentially useful in the future. PMID:22921090

  7. Bio-based products via microwave-assisted maleation of tung oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple “green” and convenient chemical modification of tung oil for maleinized tung oil (TOMA) was developed via microwave-assisted one-step maleation. The mechanism of this microwave-assisted maleation was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). T...

  8. Automatic Fatigue Detection of Drivers through Yawning Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azim, Tayyaba; Jaffar, M. Arfan; Ramzan, M.; Mirza, Anwar M.

    This paper presents a non-intrusive fatigue detection system based on the video analysis of drivers. The focus of the paper is on how to detect yawning which is an important cue for determining driver's fatigue. Initially, the face is located through Viola-Jones face detection method in a video frame. Then, a mouth window is extracted from the face region, in which lips are searched through spatial fuzzy c-means (s-FCM) clustering. The degree of mouth openness is extracted on the basis of mouth features, to determine driver's yawning state. If the yawning state of the driver persists for several consecutive frames, the system concludes that the driver is non-vigilant due to fatigue and is thus warned through an alarm. The system reinitializes when occlusion or misdetection occurs. Experiments were carried out using real data, recorded in day and night lighting conditions, and with users belonging to different race and gender.

  9. Aggregate driver model to enable predictable behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, A.; Chakravarty, T.; Banerjee, T.; Balamuralidhar, P.

    2015-09-01

    The categorization of driving styles, particularly in terms of aggressiveness and skill is an emerging area of interest under the broader theme of intelligent transportation. There are two possible discriminatory techniques that can be applied for such categorization; a microscale (event based) model and a macro-scale (aggregate) model. It is believed that an aggregate model will reveal many interesting aspects of human-machine interaction; for example, we may be able to understand the propensities of individuals to carry out a given task over longer periods of time. A useful driver model may include the adaptive capability of the human driver, aggregated as the individual propensity to control speed/acceleration. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying smartphone based application to be used for data collection by a group of drivers. Data is primarily being collected from GPS measurements including position & speed on a second-by-second basis, for a number of trips over a two months period. Analysing the data set, aggregate models for individual drivers were created and their natural aggressiveness were deduced. In this paper, we present the initial results for 12 drivers. It is shown that the higher order moments of the acceleration profile is an important parameter and identifier of journey quality. It is also observed that the Kurtosis of the acceleration profiles stores major information about the driving styles. Such an observation leads to two different ranking systems based on acceleration data. Such driving behaviour models can be integrated with vehicle and road model and used to generate behavioural model for real traffic scenario.

  10. Idaho Driver Education Instructional Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This driver education instructional safety guide is organized in three sections: Driver Education; Motorcycle Education; and Driver Education for the Handicapped. The driver education section contains 10 units dealing with the following topics: parent orientation; student orientation; basic control skills; driver performance; driving regulations;…

  11. Hazard prediction discriminates between novice and experienced drivers.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David

    2016-01-01

    Typical hazard perception tests often confound multiple processes in their responses. The current study tested hazard prediction in isolation to assess whether this component can discriminate between novice and experienced drivers. A variant of the hazard perception test, based on the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique, found experienced drivers to outperform novices across three experiments suggesting that the act of predicting an imminent hazard is a crucial part of the hazard-perception process. Furthermore three additional hypotheses were tested in these experiments. First, performance was compared across clips of different length. There was marginal evidence that novice drivers' performance suffered with the longest clips, but experienced drivers' performance did not, suggesting that experienced drivers find hazard prediction less effortful. Secondly, predictive accuracy was found to be dependent on the temporal proximity of visual precursors to the hazard. Thirdly the relationship between the hazard and its precursor was found to be important, with less obvious precursors improving the discrimination between novice and experience drivers. These findings demonstrate that a measure of hazard prediction, which is less confounded by the influence of risk appraisal than simple response time measures, can still discriminate between novice and experienced drivers. Application of this methodology under different conditions can produce insights into the underlying processes that may be at work, whilst also providing an alternative test of driver skill in relation to the detection of hazards. PMID:26513336

  12. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  13. Optimization of mask manufacturing rule check constraint for model based assist feature generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Seongbo; Kim, Young-chang; Chun, Yong-jin; Lee, Seong-Woo; Lee, Suk-joo; Choi, Seong-woon; Han, Woo-sung; Chang, Seong-hoon; Yoon, Seok-chan; Kim, Hee-bom; Ki, Won-tai; Woo, Sang-gyun; Cho, Han-gu

    2008-11-01

    SRAF (sub-resolution assist feature) generation technology has been a popular resolution enhancement technique in photo-lithography past sub-65nm node. It helps to increase the process window, and these are some times called ILT(inverse lithography technology). Also, many studies have been presented on how to determine the best positions of SRAFs, and optimize its size. According to these reports, the generation of SRAF can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem. The constraints are the side lobe suppression and allowable minimum feature size or MRC (mask manufacturing rule check). As we know, bigger SRAF gives better contribution to main feature but susceptible to SRAF side lobe issue. Thus, we finally have no choice but to trade-off the advantages of the ideally optimized mask that contains very complicated SRAF patterns to the layout that has been MRC imposed applied to it. The above dilemma can be resolved by simultaneously using lower dose (high threshold) and cleaning up by smaller MRC. This solution makes the room between threshold (side lobe limitation) and MRC constraint (minimum feature limitation) wider. In order to use smaller MRC restriction without considering the mask writing and inspection issue, it is also appropriate to identify the exact mask writing limitation and find the smart mask constraints that well reflect the mask manufacturability and the e-beam lithography characteristics. In this article, we discuss two main topics on mask optimizations with SRAF. The first topic is on the experimental work to find what behavior of the mask writing ability is in term of several MRC parameters, and we propose more effective MRC constraint for aggressive generation of SRAF. The next topic is on finding the optimum MRC condition in practical case, 3X nm node DRAM contact layer. In fact, it is not easy to encompass the mask writing capability for very complicate real SRAF pattern by using the current MRC constraint based on the only width and

  14. Assistance to the states with risk based data management. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report describes activities associated with the risk based data management systems (RBDMS) project. The RBDMS applies to data pertaining to injection well operations. This report describes assistance provided to the states of ALaska, Mississippi, Montana, and Nebraska for the conversion of data from existing data management systems, coding and internal testing of the RBDMS, document preparation, training, technology transfer, and project management.

  15. The Effect of a Graph-Oriented Computer-Assisted Project-Based Learning Environment on Argumentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, P. -S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application. A total of 54 students (three classes) comprised this treatment…

  16. A Knowledge-Based Expert System Which Assists Non-Profit Organizations in Fund-Raising Software Selections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Patricia Anne

    Outcomes of a project designed to develop the knowledge base necessary for creating an expert system that would help nonprofit organizations select fund-raising software are presented in this paper. When the system is completed, its components will ask the user for information that will assist in determining the organization's administrative needs…

  17. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Fabrication and Manipulation of Nonspherical Polymer Particles in Ferrofluid-Based Droplet Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Taotao; Cheng, Rui; Sheppard, Gareth R; Locklin, Jason; Mao, Leidong

    2015-08-11

    We report a novel magnetic-field-assisted method for the fabrication and manipulation of nonspherical polymer particles within a ferrofluid-based droplet microfluidic device. Shape control and chain assembly of droplets with tunable lengths have been achieved. PMID:26212067

  18. GenieTutor: A Computer Assisted Second-Language Learning System Based on Semantic and Grammar Correctness Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer-Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using semantic and grammar correctness evaluations and the results of its experiment. While the system dialogues with English learners about a given topic, it automatically evaluates the grammar and content properness of their English utterances, then…

  19. 24 CFR 972.106 - Procedure for required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for required conversion... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Required...

  20. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 971 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... planned changes in the surrounding neighborhood and security costs. The plan should also show whether... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance Appendix to Part 971 Housing and Urban...

  1. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 971 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methodology of Comparing Cost of... Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance I. Public Housing The costs used for... housing. That per unit monthly cost of public housing must be compared to the per unit monthly Section...

  2. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 971 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methodology of Comparing Cost of... Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance I. Public Housing The costs used for... housing. That per unit monthly cost of public housing must be compared to the per unit monthly Section...

  3. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 971 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methodology of Comparing Cost of... Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance I. Public Housing The costs used for... housing. That per unit monthly cost of public housing must be compared to the per unit monthly Section...

  4. 24 CFR 290.21 - Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or alternative uses. 290.21 Section 290.21 Housing and... Multifamily Projects § 290.21 Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of...

  5. 24 CFR 290.21 - Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or alternative uses. 290.21 Section 290.21 Housing and... Multifamily Projects § 290.21 Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of...

  6. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  7. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  8. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  9. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  10. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  11. Free Computer-Based Assistive Technology to Support Students with High-Incidence Disabilities in the Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Meyer, Nancy K.; Satsangi, Rajiv; Savage, Melissa N.; Hunley, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Written expression is a neglected but critical component of education; yet, the writing process--from prewriting, to writing, and postwriting--is often an area of struggle for students with disabilities. One strategy to assist students with disabilities struggling with the writing process is the use of computer-based technology. This article…

  12. PILOT RESULTS ON FORWARD COLLISION WARNING SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS IN OLDER DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Benjamin D.; Sager, Lauren N.; Dawson, Jeffrey; Hacker, Sarah D.; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Kitazaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have largely been developed with a “one-size-fits-all” approach. This approach neglects the large inter-individual variability in perceptual and cognitive abilities that affect aging ADAS users. We investigated the effectiveness of a forward collision warning (FCW) with fixed response parameters in young and older drivers with differing levels of cognitive functioning. Drivers responded to a pedestrian stepping into the driver’s path on a simulated urban road. Behavioral metrics included response times (RT) for pedal controls and two indices of risk penetration (e.g., maximum deceleration and minimum time-to-collision (TTC)). Older drivers showed significantly slower responses at several time points compared to younger drivers. The FCW facilitated response times (RTs) for older and younger drivers. However, older drivers still showed smaller safety gains compared to younger drivers at accelerator pedal release and initial brake application when the FCW was active. No significant differences in risk metrics were observed within the condition studied. The results demonstrate older drivers likely differ from younger drivers using a FCW with a fixed parameter set. Finally, we briefly discuss how future research should examine predictive relationships between domains of cognitive functioning and ADAS responses to develop parameter sets to fit the individual. PMID:27135061

  13. The older adult driver.

    PubMed

    Carr, D B

    2000-01-01

    More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation. PMID:10643955

  14. The intersection of software and strengths: Using internet technology and case management software to assist Strength-Based Practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Michael D; Brien, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this investigation is the helping professionals working within American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. This article looks at how innovative technology-in the form of automated case management software and Internet connectivity-can assist effective implementation of Strength-based Practice and agency services within tribal courts and the many other helping agencies that serve AI/AN populations. We seek to expand practice knowledge by reviewing the benefits that this software and Internet connectivity can offer to agency operations and exploring how they can assist case management services. PMID:27383086

  15. Multimodal wireless sensor network-based ambient assisted living in real homes with multiple residents.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Can; Alemdar, Hande; Ertan, Halil; Incel, Ozlem Durmaz; Ersoy, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition and behavior monitoring in a home setting using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a great potential for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications, ranging from health and wellbeing monitoring to resource consumption monitoring. However, due to the limitations of the sensor devices, challenges in wireless communication and the challenges in processing large amounts of sensor data in order to recognize complex human activities, WSN-based AAL systems are not effectively integrated in the home environment. Additionally, given the variety of sensor types and activities, selecting the most suitable set of sensors in the deployment is an important task. In order to investigate and propose solutions to such challenges, we introduce a WSN-based multimodal AAL system compatible for homes with multiple residents. Particularly, we focus on the details of the system architecture, including the challenges of sensor selection, deployment, networking and data collection and provide guidelines for the design and deployment of an effective AAL system. We also present the details of the field study we conducted, using the systems deployed in two different real home environments with multiple residents. With these systems, we are able to collect ambient sensor data from multiple homes. This data can be used to assess the wellbeing of the residents and identify deviations from everyday routines, which may be indicators of health problems. Finally, in order to elaborate on the possible applications of the proposed AAL system and to exemplify directions for processing the collected data, we provide the results of several human activity inference experiments, along with examples on how such results could be interpreted. We believe that the experiences shared in this work will contribute towards accelerating the acceptance of WSN-based AAL systems in the home setting. PMID:24887044

  16. Multimodal Wireless Sensor Network-Based Ambient Assisted Living in Real Homes with Multiple Residents

    PubMed Central

    Tunca, Can; Alemdar, Hande; Ertan, Halil; Incel, Ozlem Durmaz; Ersoy, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition and behavior monitoring in a home setting using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a great potential for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications, ranging from health and wellbeing monitoring to resource consumption monitoring. However, due to the limitations of the sensor devices, challenges in wireless communication and the challenges in processing large amounts of sensor data in order to recognize complex human activities, WSN-based AAL systems are not effectively integrated in the home environment. Additionally, given the variety of sensor types and activities, selecting the most suitable set of sensors in the deployment is an important task. In order to investigate and propose solutions to such challenges, we introduce a WSN-based multimodal AAL system compatible for homes with multiple residents. Particularly, we focus on the details of the system architecture, including the challenges of sensor selection, deployment, networking and data collection and provide guidelines for the design and deployment of an effective AAL system. We also present the details of the field study we conducted, using the systems deployed in two different real home environments with multiple residents. With these systems, we are able to collect ambient sensor data from multiple homes. This data can be used to assess the wellbeing of the residents and identify deviations from everyday routines, which may be indicators of health problems. Finally, in order to elaborate on the possible applications of the proposed AAL system and to exemplify directions for processing the collected data, we provide the results of several human activity inference experiments, along with examples on how such results could be interpreted. We believe that the experiences shared in this work will contribute towards accelerating the acceptance of WSN-based AAL systems in the home setting. PMID:24887044

  17. Knowledge-based assistance for science visualization and analysis using large distributed databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Jacobson, Allan S.; Doyle, Richard J.; Collins, Donald J.

    1993-01-01

    Within this decade, the growth in complexity of exploratory data analysis and the sheer volume of space data require new and innovative approaches to support science investigators in achieving their research objectives. To date, there have been numerous efforts addressing the individual issues involved in inter-disciplinary, multi-instrument investigations. However, while successful in small scale, these efforts have not proven to be open and scalable. This proposal addresses four areas of significant need: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded with this proposal is the integration of three automation technologies, namely, knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization and science data management. This integration is based on concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, NASA will be able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computation nodes and interactive nodes will be able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (address, retrieval, update, etc.) with a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This will allow the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis will be on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to publishable scientific results. In addition, the proposed work includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the completed concept.

  18. Knowledge-based assistance for science visualization and analysis using large distributed databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Jacobson, Allan S.; Doyle, Richard J.; Collins, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Within this decade, the growth in complexity of exploratory data analysis and the sheer volume of space data require new and innovative approaches to support science investigators in achieving their research objectives. To date, there have been numerous efforts addressing the individual issues involved in inter-disciplinary, multi-instrument investigations. However, while successful in small scale, these efforts have not proven to be open and scaleable. This proposal addresses four areas of significant need: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within this proposal is the integration of three automation technologies, namely, knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization and science data management. This integration is based on the concept called the Data Hub. With the Data Hub concept, NASA will be able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computation nodes and interactive nodes will be able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc.) with a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This will allow the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis will be on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to publishable scientific results. In addition, the proposed work includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the completed concept.

  19. Use of audio-enhanced personal digital assistants for school-based data collection

    PubMed Central

    Trapl, Erika S.; Borawski, Elaine A.; Stork, Paul P.; Lovegreen, Loren D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Cole, Maurice L.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To review the different data collection options available to school-based researchers and to present the preliminary findings on the use of audio-enhanced personal digital assistants (APDA) for use in school-based data collection. Methods A newly developed APDA system was used to collect baseline data from a sample of 645 seventh grade students enrolled in a school-based intervention study. Evaluative measures included student response, time to completion, and data quality (e.g., missingness, internal consistency of responses). Differences in data administration and data quality were examined among three groups of students: students newer to the United States speaking English as a second language; special education students; and students not newer to the United States receiving regular education. Results The APDA system was well received by students and was shown to offer improvements in data administration (increased portability, time to completion) and reduced missing data. Although time to completion and proportion of missing data were similar across the three groups of students, psychometric properties of the data varied considerably. Conclusions The APDA system offers a promising new method for collecting data in the middle school environment. Students with cognitive deficits and language barriers were able to complete the survey in a similar amount of time without additional help; however, differences in data quality suggest that limitations in comprehension of the questions remained even though the questions were read to the respondents. More research on the use of APDA is necessary to fully understand the effect of data collection mode with special populations. PMID:16182140

  20. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  1. Novel Straight Road Driving Control of Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Disturbance Estimation of Right and Left Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Sugimoto, Takeaki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel straight road driving control scheme of power assisted wheelchair. Power assisted wheelchair which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people. The straight driving can be prevented by the road conditions such as branches, grass and carpets because the right and left wheels drive independently. This paper proposes a straight road driving control system based on the disturbance torque estimation. The proposed system estimates the difference of the driving torque by disturbance torque observer and compensates to one side of the wheels. Some practical driving experiments on various road conditions show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  2. Safe teleoperation based on flexible intraoperative planning for robot-assisted laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new intraoperative planning system created to improve precision and safety in teleoperated laser microsurgeries. It addresses major safety issues related to real-time control of a surgical laser during teleoperated procedures, which are related to the reliability and robustness of the telecommunication channels. Here, a safe solution is presented, consisting in a new planning system architecture that maintains the flexibility and benefits of real-time teleoperation and keeps the surgeon in control of all surgical actions. The developed system is based on our virtual scalpel system for robot-assisted laser microsurgery, and allows the intuitive use of stylus to create surgical plans directly over live video of the surgical field. In this case, surgical plans are defined as graphic objects overlaid on the live video, which can be easily modified or replaced as needed, and which are transmitted to the main surgical system controller for subsequent safe execution. In the process of improving safety, this new planning system also resulted in improved laser aiming precision and improved capability for higher quality laser procedures, both due to the new surgical plan execution module, which allows very fast and precise laser aiming control. Experimental results presented herein show that, in addition to the safety improvements, the new planning system resulted in a 48% improvement in laser aiming precision when compared to the previous virtual scalpel system. PMID:23365860

  3. Application of ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhao, San-Hu; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Li-Wei

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, a rapid ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method was successfully applied to simultaneous extraction of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. A series of 1-alkyl-3-methylirnidazolium ionic liquids with different anions and cations were assessed for extraction efficiency, and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the parameters of ILMAE procedure for the four flavonoids were optimized, and the optimal ILMAE method was validated in the linearity, stability, precision and recovery. Meanwhile, the microstructures of S. baicalensis powders were observed before and after extraction with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to explore the extraction mechanism, and the activity of the crude enzyme solution from S. baicalensis was determined through the hydrolysis of baicalin. Finally, the extraction yields and extraction time of WaterHRE, WaterMAE, ILHRE and Chp were 5.18% (30min), 8.77% (90s), 16.94% (30min) and 18.58% (3h), respectively. The results indicated that compared with the conventional extraction approaches, ILMAE possessed great advantages in extracting flavonoids, such as the highest extraction yield (22.28%), the shortest extraction time (90s), etc. PMID:26367465

  4. Heart Motion Prediction Based on Adaptive Estimation Algorithms for Robotic Assisted Beating Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, E. Erdem; Franke, Timothy J.; Bebek, Özkan; Shiose, Akira; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Robotic assisted beating heart surgery aims to allow surgeons to operate on a beating heart without stabilizers as if the heart is stationary. The robot actively cancels heart motion by closely following a point of interest (POI) on the heart surface—a process called Active Relative Motion Canceling (ARMC). Due to the high bandwidth of the POI motion, it is necessary to supply the controller with an estimate of the immediate future of the POI motion over a prediction horizon in order to achieve sufficient tracking accuracy. In this paper, two least-square based prediction algorithms, using an adaptive filter to generate future position estimates, are implemented and studied. The first method assumes a linear system relation between the consecutive samples in the prediction horizon. On the contrary, the second method performs this parametrization independently for each point over the whole the horizon. The effects of predictor parameters and variations in heart rate on tracking performance are studied with constant and varying heart rate data. The predictors are evaluated using a 3 degrees of freedom test-bed and prerecorded in-vivo motion data. Then, the one-step prediction and tracking performances of the presented approaches are compared with an Extended Kalman Filter predictor. Finally, the essential features of the proposed prediction algorithms are summarized. PMID:23976889

  5. Exergames-based intervention for assisted living residents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ying-Yu; Scherer, Yvonne K; Montgomery, Carolyn A; Lucke, Kathleen T; Wu, Yow-Wu

    2014-11-01

    The physical and psychosocial benefits of exergames have been reported in various literature. A pre-posttest, single-group design was used to test the effects of an exergames-based intervention on cognition, depression, and health-related quality of life (QOL) in assisted living residents. Bandura's self-efficacy theory was applied. Seven residents (mean age = 86, SD = 5 years) participated in the program two times per week for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included cognition, depression, and health-related QOL. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the outcomes after the intervention. A tendency toward improved cognition occurred, but the outcomes of depression and health-related QOL did not follow a similar trend. However, improved socialization and motivation to exercise were reported. Continued research is needed to investigate the cognitive and psychosocial effects of exergames on this population. Nurses can collaborate with other health care professionals to engage residents in exercise and thus improve residents' QOL. PMID:24716646

  6. Aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction of eight ginsenosides from ginseng root.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Yonggang; Han, Mei; Yang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    We developed an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the eight ginsenosides (ginsenoside-Rg1, -Re, -Rf, -Rb1, -Rc, -Rb2, -Rb3 and -Rd) from ginseng root. A series of l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids differing in composition of anions and cations were evaluated for extraction efficiency. The results indicated that the ILUAE method has a remarkable ability to improve the extraction efficiency of ginsenosides. In addition, the ILUAE procedure was also optimized on some ultrasonic parameters, such as the IL concentration, solvent to solid ratio and extraction time. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.3M [C(3)MIM]Br, solvent to solid ratio of 10:1 and extraction time of 20min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of total ginsenosides 17.81±0.47mg/g. Compared with the regular UAE, the proposed approach exhibited 3.16 times higher efficiency and 33% shorter extraction time, which indicated that ILUAE has a broad prospect for sample preparation of medicinal plants.

  7. Refraction-Assisted Solar Thermoelectric Generator based on Phase-Change Lens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Jo, Sung-Eun; Joo, Chulmin; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs), which are used for various applications, (particularly small size electronic devices), have optical concentration systems for high energy conversion efficiency. In this study, a refraction-assisted STEG (R-STEG) is designed based on phase-change materials. As the phase-change material (PCM) changes phase from solid to liquid, its refractive index and transmittance also change, resulting in changes in the refraction of the sunlight transmitted through it, and concentration of solar energy in the phase-change lens. This innovative design facilitates double focusing the solar energy through the optical lens and a phase-change lens. This mechanism resulted in the peak energy conversion efficiencies of the R-STEG being 60% and 86% higher than those of the typical STEG at solar intensities of 1 kW m(-2) and 1.5 kW m(-2), respectively. In addition, the energy stored in PCM can help to generate steady electrical energy when the solar energy was removed. This work presents significant progress regarding the optical characteristic of PCM and optical concentration systems of STEGs. PMID:27283350

  8. Polymer-based disposable microneedle array with insertion assisted by vibrating motion.

    PubMed

    Lee, F-W; Hung, W-H; Ma, C-W; Yang, Y-J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a disposable polymer-based microneedle array that carries out insertions by mimicking the vibrating motion of a mosquito's proboscis. The proposed device, which comprises a 10:1 high-aspect-ratio parylene microneedle array and a chamber structure, was monolithically realized using a novel fabrication process. The vibrating motion of the microneedles was generated using a piezoelectric actuator. This device can be potentially applied to extract and collect blood by puncturing the dermis layer of human skin. The fabricated device is advantageous because of its biocompatibility, simple fabrication process, and low associated costs. Additionally, the graph of the measured extraction flow rate versus the pressure drop that is presented shows an agreement with the results predicted by analytical models. A 40% reduction of insertion force was demonstrated when the microneedle insertion was assisted by actuator-induced vibratory motions. Buckling analyses for estimating the maximum loads that the microneedle can sustain before failure occurs were also evaluated. Finally, the relationship between the insertion force and the vibration frequency was demonstrated in this study. PMID:26858811

  9. Refraction-Assisted Solar Thermoelectric Generator based on Phase-Change Lens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Jo, Sung-Eun; Joo, Chulmin; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs), which are used for various applications, (particularly small size electronic devices), have optical concentration systems for high energy conversion efficiency. In this study, a refraction-assisted STEG (R-STEG) is designed based on phase-change materials. As the phase-change material (PCM) changes phase from solid to liquid, its refractive index and transmittance also change, resulting in changes in the refraction of the sunlight transmitted through it, and concentration of solar energy in the phase-change lens. This innovative design facilitates double focusing the solar energy through the optical lens and a phase-change lens. This mechanism resulted in the peak energy conversion efficiencies of the R-STEG being 60% and 86% higher than those of the typical STEG at solar intensities of 1 kW m−2 and 1.5 kW m−2, respectively. In addition, the energy stored in PCM can help to generate steady electrical energy when the solar energy was removed. This work presents significant progress regarding the optical characteristic of PCM and optical concentration systems of STEGs. PMID:27283350

  10. Refraction-Assisted Solar Thermoelectric Generator based on Phase-Change Lens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Jo, Sung-Eun; Joo, Chulmin; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2016-06-10

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs), which are used for various applications, (particularly small size electronic devices), have optical concentration systems for high energy conversion efficiency. In this study, a refraction-assisted STEG (R-STEG) is designed based on phase-change materials. As the phase-change material (PCM) changes phase from solid to liquid, its refractive index and transmittance also change, resulting in changes in the refraction of the sunlight transmitted through it, and concentration of solar energy in the phase-change lens. This innovative design facilitates double focusing the solar energy through the optical lens and a phase-change lens. This mechanism resulted in the peak energy conversion efficiencies of the R-STEG being 60% and 86% higher than those of the typical STEG at solar intensities of 1 kW m(-2) and 1.5 kW m(-2), respectively. In addition, the energy stored in PCM can help to generate steady electrical energy when the solar energy was removed. This work presents significant progress regarding the optical characteristic of PCM and optical concentration systems of STEGs.

  11. Refraction-Assisted Solar Thermoelectric Generator based on Phase-Change Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Jo, Sung-Eun; Joo, Chulmin; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs), which are used for various applications, (particularly small size electronic devices), have optical concentration systems for high energy conversion efficiency. In this study, a refraction-assisted STEG (R-STEG) is designed based on phase-change materials. As the phase-change material (PCM) changes phase from solid to liquid, its refractive index and transmittance also change, resulting in changes in the refraction of the sunlight transmitted through it, and concentration of solar energy in the phase-change lens. This innovative design facilitates double focusing the solar energy through the optical lens and a phase-change lens. This mechanism resulted in the peak energy conversion efficiencies of the R-STEG being 60% and 86% higher than those of the typical STEG at solar intensities of 1 kW m‑2 and 1.5 kW m‑2, respectively. In addition, the energy stored in PCM can help to generate steady electrical energy when the solar energy was removed. This work presents significant progress regarding the optical characteristic of PCM and optical concentration systems of STEGs.

  12. Modelling of hydrogen assisted cracking of nickel-base Alloy X-750 in water

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, T.; Ballinger, R.G.; Hwang, I.S.

    1992-12-31

    A closed-form, semi-empirical, electrochemical model has been developed to rationalize the intergranular corrosion fatigue behavior of alloy X-750 in aqueous electrolytes. The model is based on the assumption that, in the electrolytes investigated and for the microstructures studied, that hydrogen assisted crack growth is the dominant mechanism. Further, it is assumed that the rate of hydrogen reduction is a controlling factor in the magnitude of the environmental component of crack growth. Electrolyte conductivity, dissolution and passivation kinetics of precipitates, grain boundary coverage of precipitates are identified as important environmental and microstructural variables governing the hydrogen reduction rate at the crack tip. The model is compared with experimental data for fatigue crack growth where hydrogen is supplied by external charging and with data where galvanically-generated local hydrogen is responsible for enhanced crack growth. It is shown that predicted results characterize the observed effects of frequency, microstructure, electrolyte conductivity, and stress intensity factor. The agreement between the hydrogen reduction model and measured crack growth rate is believed to support the proposed galvanic corrosion mechanism for the intergranular cracking of alloy X-750 in low temperature water.

  13. Low-Cost Optical Lifetime Assisted Ratiometric Glutamine Sensor Based on Glutamine Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hung; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind; Tolosa, Leah

    2008-01-01

    Here we report a reagentless fluorescence sensing technique for glutamine in the submicromolar range based on the glutamine binding protein (QBP). The S179C mutant is labeled with the short-lived acrylodan (lifetime<5ns) and the long-lived tris(dibenzoylmethane) mono(5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)europium(III) (lifetime>300µs) at the –SH and the N-terminal positions, respectively. In the presence of glutamine the fluorescence of acrylodan is quenched, while the fluorescence of europium complex remains constant. In this report we describe an innovative technique, the so called lifetime assisted ratiometric sensing to discriminate the two fluorescence signals using minimal optics and power requirements. This method exploits the large difference between the fluorescence lifetimes of the two fluorophores to isolate the individual fluorescence from each other by alternating the modulation frequency of the excitation light between 300 Hz and 10 kHz. The result is a ratiometric optical method that does not require expensive and highly attenuating band pass filters for each of the dyes, but only one long pass filter for both. Thus, the signal to noise ratio is enhanced, and at the same time, the optical setup is simplified. The end product is a simple sensing device suitable for low-cost applications such as point-of-care diagnostics or in-the-field analysis. PMID:18786501

  14. Reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for train axle diagnostics based on model assisted POD curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. S.; Cavuto, A.; Martarelli, M.; Pandarese, G.; Revel, G. M.

    2014-05-01

    High speed train axles are integrated for a lifetime and it is time and resource consuming to conduct in service inspection with high accuracy. Laser ultrasonics is a proposed solution as a subset of non-contact measuring methods effective also for hard to reach areas and even recently proved to be effective using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) or air-coupled probes in reception. A reliability analysis of laser ultrasonics for this specific application is here performed. The research is mainly based on numerical study of the effect of high energy laser pulses on the surface of a steel axle and of the behavior of the ultrasonic waves in detecting possible defects. Probability of Detection (POD) concept is used as an estimated reliability of the inspection method. In particular Model Assisted Probability of Detection (MAPOD), a modified form of POD where models are used to infer results for making a decisive statistical approach of POD curve, is here adopted. This paper implements this approach by taking the inputs from limited experiments conducted on a high speed train axle using laser ultrasonics (source pulsed Nd:Yag, reception by high-frequency LDV) to calibrate a multiphysics FE model and by using the calibrated model to generate data samples statistically representative of damaged train axles. The simulated flaws are in accordance with the real defects present on the axle. A set of flaws of different depth has been modeled in order to assess the laser ultrasonics POD for this specific application.

  15. Application of ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhao, San-Hu; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Li-Wei

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, a rapid ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method was successfully applied to simultaneous extraction of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein and wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. A series of 1-alkyl-3-methylirnidazolium ionic liquids with different anions and cations were assessed for extraction efficiency, and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the parameters of ILMAE procedure for the four flavonoids were optimized, and the optimal ILMAE method was validated in the linearity, stability, precision and recovery. Meanwhile, the microstructures of S. baicalensis powders were observed before and after extraction with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to explore the extraction mechanism, and the activity of the crude enzyme solution from S. baicalensis was determined through the hydrolysis of baicalin. Finally, the extraction yields and extraction time of WaterHRE, WaterMAE, ILHRE and Chp were 5.18% (30min), 8.77% (90s), 16.94% (30min) and 18.58% (3h), respectively. The results indicated that compared with the conventional extraction approaches, ILMAE possessed great advantages in extracting flavonoids, such as the highest extraction yield (22.28%), the shortest extraction time (90s), etc.

  16. Solution-based electric-field-assisted assembly of vertically aligned CNT membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Richard; Akin, Cevat; Shan, Jerry

    2014-11-01

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT) membranes are of interest due to experiments and simulations showing flow through nanotubes to be 3 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than predicted by viscous flow theory. Thus, membranes incorporating vertically aligned CNTs (VACNTs) as through-pores offer promise as highly efficient and permeable membranes for a variety of filter and separation processes. However, current membrane-fabrication techniques utilizing CVD-grown VACNT arrays are costly and difficult to scale up. We are developing a solution-based, electric-field-assisted approach as a cost-effective and scalable method to producing large-area VACNT membranes and composites. Post-growth nanotubes are first dispersed in a polymeric matrix and then aligned with an AC electric field. A DC component induces electrophoresis to the CNTs to significantly increase the VACNT number density. This composite field also introduces complex fluid motion caused by induced-charge electro-osmosis and the electrochemistry of the fluid/electrode interface. We experimentally probe all of these effects and consider factors affecting the number density and spatial uniformity of VACNT membranes. We also consider the basic electrokinetics of nanotube alignment under spatially uniform AC electric fields, making quantitative comparison with classical models of the dynamics of polarizable, 1D particles under the combined effects of electric fields, hydrodynamic drag, and Brownian motion. We conclude by discussing the implications of these fundamental electrohydrodynamic studies for producing large-area membranes containing aligned CNTs.

  17. Data Fusion for Driver Behaviour Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; de la Escalera, Arturo; Armingol, José María

    2015-01-01

    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios. PMID:26473875

  18. Data fusion for driver behaviour analysis.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María

    2015-10-14

    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  19. Data fusion for driver behaviour analysis.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María

    2015-01-01

    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios. PMID:26473875

  20. A lateral driver model for vehicle-driver closed-loop simulation at the limits of handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joa, Eunhyek; Yi, Kyongsu; Kim, Kilsoo

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a lateral driver model for vehicle-driver closed-loop simulation at the limits of handling. An appropriate driver model can be used to evaluate the performance of vehicle chassis control systems via computer simulations before vehicle tests which incurs expenses especially at the limits of handling. The driver model consists of two parts. The first part is an upper-level controller employing force-based approach to reduce the number of unknown vehicle parameters. The feedforward part of the upper controller has been designed by using the centre of percussion. The feedback part aims to minimise 'tangential error', defined as the sum of body slip angle and yaw error, to match vehicle direction and road heading angle. The part is designed to regenerate an appropriate skid motion similar to that of a professional driver at the limits. The second part is a lower-level controller which converts the desired front lateral force to steering wheel angle. The lower-level controller also consists of feedforward and feedback parts. A two-degree-of-freedom bicycle model-based feedforward part provides nominal steering wheel angle, and the feedback part aims to eliminate unmodelled error. The performance of the lateral driver model has been investigated via computer simulations. It has been shown that the steering behaviours of the proposed driver model are quite close to those of a professional driver at the limits. Compared with the previously developed lateral driver models, the proposed lateral driver model shows good tracking performance at the limits of handling.

  1. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D; Edelstein, Paul H; Collman, Ronald G; Bau, Haim H

    2013-11-01

    Often, high-sensitivity, point-of-care (POC) clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low-abundance target molecules. We report on a simple-to-use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 275 ± 33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood within less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3500, and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid testing and was successfully subjected to reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high-efficiency nucleic acid amplification.

  2. A cloud-based Internet of Things platform for ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-08-04

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application.

  3. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D.; Edelstein, Paul H.; Collman, Ronald G.; Bau, Haim H.

    2014-01-01

    Often, high sensitivity, point of care, clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low abundance target molecules. We report on a simple to use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a “blood in-plasma out” capability, consistently extracting 275 ±33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood in less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3,500 and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid Testing And Was Successfully Subjected To Reverse Transcriptase Loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high efficiency nucleic acid amplification. PMID:24099566

  4. A Cloud-Based Internet of Things Platform for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application

  5. A cloud-based Internet of Things platform for ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Javier; Nieto, Adrián; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of ambient intelligence is that many objects are inter-connected and act in unison, which is also a challenge in the Internet of Things. There has been a shift in research towards integrating both concepts, considering the Internet of Things as representing the future of computing and communications. However, the efficient combination and management of heterogeneous things or devices in the ambient intelligence domain is still a tedious task, and it presents crucial challenges. Therefore, to appropriately manage the inter-connection of diverse devices in these systems requires: (1) specifying and efficiently implementing the devices (e.g., as services); (2) handling and verifying their heterogeneity and composition; and (3) standardizing and managing their data, so as to tackle large numbers of systems together, avoiding standalone applications on local servers. To overcome these challenges, this paper proposes a platform to manage the integration and behavior-aware orchestration of heterogeneous devices as services, stored and accessed via the cloud, with the following contributions: (i) we describe a lightweight model to specify the behavior of devices, to determine the order of the sequence of exchanged messages during the composition of devices; (ii) we define a common architecture using a service-oriented standard environment, to integrate heterogeneous devices by means of their interfaces, via a gateway, and to orchestrate them according to their behavior; (iii) we design a framework based on cloud computing technology, connecting the gateway in charge of acquiring the data from the devices with a cloud platform, to remotely access and monitor the data at run-time and react to emergency situations; and (iv) we implement and generate a novel cloud-based IoT platform of behavior-aware devices as services for ambient intelligence systems, validating the whole approach in real scenarios related to a specific ambient assisted living application

  6. Flow processes in electric discharge drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baganoff, D.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an electric discharge shock tube is discussed from the point of view that the conditions at the sonic station are the primary controlling variables (likewise in comparing designs), and that the analysis of the flow on either side of the sonic station should be done separately. The importance of considering mass-flow rate in matching a given driver design to the downstream flow required for a particular shock-wave speed is stressed. It is shown that a driver based on the principle of liquid injection (of H2) is superior to one based on the Ludwieg tube, because of the greater mass-flow rate and the absence of a massive diaphragm.

  7. Exoskeleton control for lower-extremity assistance based on adaptive frequency oscillators: adaptation of muscle activation and movement frequency.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Ollinger, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a novel strategy for assisting the lower extremities based on adaptive frequency oscillators. Our aim is to use the control algorithm presented here as a building block for the control of powered lower-limb exoskeletons. The algorithm assists cyclic movements of the human extremities by synchronizing actuator torques with the estimated net torque exerted by the muscles. Synchronization is produced by a nonlinear dynamical system combining an adaptive frequency oscillator with a form of adaptive Fourier analysis. The system extracts, in real time, the fundamental frequency component of the net muscle torque acting on a specific joint. Said component, nearly sinusoidal in shape, is the basis for the assistive torque waveform delivered by the exoskeleton. The action of the exoskeleton can be interpreted as a virtual reduction in the mechanical impedance of the leg. We studied the ability of human subjects to adapt their muscle activation to the assistive torque. Ten subjects swung their extended leg while coupled to a stationary hip joint exoskeleton. The experiment yielded a significant decrease, with respect to unassisted movement, of the activation levels of an agonist/antagonist pair of muscles controlling the hip joint's motion, which suggests the exoskeleton control has potential for assisting human gait. A moderate increase in swing frequency was observed as well. We theorize that the increase in frequency can be explained by the impedance model of the assisted leg. Per this model, subjects adjust their swing frequency in order to control the amount of reduction in net muscle torque.

  8. Exoskeleton control for lower-extremity assistance based on adaptive frequency oscillators: adaptation of muscle activation and movement frequency.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Ollinger, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a novel strategy for assisting the lower extremities based on adaptive frequency oscillators. Our aim is to use the control algorithm presented here as a building block for the control of powered lower-limb exoskeletons. The algorithm assists cyclic movements of the human extremities by synchronizing actuator torques with the estimated net torque exerted by the muscles. Synchronization is produced by a nonlinear dynamical system combining an adaptive frequency oscillator with a form of adaptive Fourier analysis. The system extracts, in real time, the fundamental frequency component of the net muscle torque acting on a specific joint. Said component, nearly sinusoidal in shape, is the basis for the assistive torque waveform delivered by the exoskeleton. The action of the exoskeleton can be interpreted as a virtual reduction in the mechanical impedance of the leg. We studied the ability of human subjects to adapt their muscle activation to the assistive torque. Ten subjects swung their extended leg while coupled to a stationary hip joint exoskeleton. The experiment yielded a significant decrease, with respect to unassisted movement, of the activation levels of an agonist/antagonist pair of muscles controlling the hip joint's motion, which suggests the exoskeleton control has potential for assisting human gait. A moderate increase in swing frequency was observed as well. We theorize that the increase in frequency can be explained by the impedance model of the assisted leg. Per this model, subjects adjust their swing frequency in order to control the amount of reduction in net muscle torque. PMID:25655955

  9. Mathematics Literacy on Problem Based Learning with Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education Approach Assisted E-Learning Edmodo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardono; Waluya, S. B.; Mariani, Scolastika; Candra D, S.

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to find out that there are differences in mathematical literacy ability in content Change and Relationship class VII Junior High School 19, Semarang by Problem Based Learning (PBL) model with an Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (called Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia or PMRI in Indonesia) approach assisted Elearning Edmodo, PBL with a PMRI approach, and expository; to know whether the group of students with learning PBL models with PMRI approach and assisted E-learning Edmodo can improve mathematics literacy; to know that the quality of learning PBL models with a PMRI approach assisted E-learning Edmodo has a good category; to describe the difficulties of students in working the problems of mathematical literacy ability oriented PISA. This research is a mixed methods study. The population was seventh grade students of Junior High School 19, Semarang Indonesia. Sample selection is done by random sampling so that the selected experimental class 1, class 2 and the control experiment. Data collected by the methods of documentation, tests and interviews. From the results of this study showed average mathematics literacy ability of students in the group PBL models with a PMRI approach assisted E-learning Edmodo better than average mathematics literacy ability of students in the group PBL models with a PMRI approach and better than average mathematics literacy ability of students in the expository models; Mathematics literacy ability in the class using the PBL model with a PMRI approach assisted E-learning Edmodo have increased and the improvement of mathematics literacy ability is higher than the improvement of mathematics literacy ability of class that uses the model of PBL learning with PMRI approach and is higher than the improvement of mathematics literacy ability of class that uses the expository models; The quality of learning using PBL models with a PMRI approach assisted E-learning Edmodo have very good category.

  10. Internet-Based Device-Assisted Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) report was to conduct a systematic review of the available published evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted remote monitoring systems (RMSs) for therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The MAS evidence-based review was performed to support public financing decisions. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of fatalities in developed countries. In the United States almost half a million people die of SCD annually, resulting in more deaths than stroke, lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. In Canada each year more than 40,000 people die from a cardiovascular related cause; approximately half of these deaths are attributable to SCD. Most cases of SCD occur in the general population typically in those without a known history of heart disease. Most SCDs are caused by cardiac arrhythmia, an abnormal heart rhythm caused by malfunctions of the heart’s electrical system. Up to half of patients with significant heart failure (HF) also have advanced conduction abnormalities. Cardiac arrhythmias are managed by a variety of drugs, ablative procedures, and therapeutic CIEDs. The range of CIEDs includes pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Bradycardia is the main indication for PMs and individuals at high risk for SCD are often treated by ICDs. Heart failure (HF) is also a significant health problem and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age. Patients with moderate to severe HF may also have cardiac arrhythmias, although the cause may be related more to heart pump or haemodynamic failure. The presence of HF, however

  11. A rugged 650 V SOI-based high-voltage half-bridge IGBT gate driver IC for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Qing; Li, Zehong; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Weizhong; Huang, Xiangjun; Feng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a rugged high-voltage N-channel insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) gate driver integrated circuit. The device integrates a high-side and a low-side output stages on a single chip, which is designed specifically for motor drive applications. High-voltage level shift technology enables the high-side stage of this device to operate up to 650 V. The logic inputs are complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)/transistor transistor logic compatible down to 3.3 V. Undervoltage protection functionality with hysteresis characteristic has also been integrated to enhance the device reliability. The device is fabricated in a 1.0 μm, 650 V high-voltage bipolar CMOS double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor (BCD) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process. Deep trench dielectric isolation technology is employed to provide complete electrical isolation with advantages such as reduced parasitic effects, excellent noise immunity and low leakage current. Experimental results show that the isolation voltage of this device can be up to approximately 779 V at 25°C, and the leakage current is only 5 nA at 650 V, which is 15% higher and 67% lower than the conventional ones. In addition, it delivers an excellent thermal stability and needs very low quiescent current and offers a high gate driver capability which is needed to adequately drive IGBTs that have large input capacitances.

  12. Quantitative understanding of Forbush decrease drivers based on shock-only and CME-only models using global signature of February 14, 1978 event

    SciTech Connect

    Raghav, Anil; Lotekar, Ajay; Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta; Yadav, Virendra E-mail: ankushbhaskar@gmail.com E-mail: vicharegeeta@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the Forbush decrease (FD) event that occurred on February 14, 1978 using 43 neutron monitor observatories to understand the global signature of FD. We have studied rigidity dependence of shock amplitude and total FD amplitude. We have found almost the same power law index for both shock phase amplitude and total FD amplitude. Local time variation of shock phase amplitude and maximum depression time of FD have been investigated which indicate possible effect of shock/CME orientation. We have analyzed rigidity dependence of time constants of two phase recovery. Time constants of slow component of recovery phase show rigidity dependence and imply possible effect of diffusion. Solar wind speed was observed to be well correlated with slow component of FD recovery phase. This indicates solar wind speed as possible driver of recovery phase. To investigate the contribution of interplanetary drivers, shock and CME in FD, we have used shock-only and CME-only models. We have applied these models separately to shock phase and main phase amplitudes respectively. This confirms presently accepted physical scenario that the first step of FD is due to propagating shock barrier and second step is due to flux rope of CME/magnetic cloud.

  13. First car-to-car crashes involving young adult drivers: main patterns and their relation to car and driver characteristics.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, L; Hasselberg, M; Kullgren, A; Vaez, M

    2006-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to examine the relationship between patterns in car-to-car crashes involving young drivers and car and driver characteristics and the research design was a national register-based prospective cohort study. Individual records in a cohort born 1970-1972 are linked to road-traffic-crash data (1988-2000). Subjects' first police-registered two-car crash leading to severe or fatal injury (n = 4875) are identified. Typical crash patterns are highlighted and associations between pattern and both car and individual socio-demographic characteristics are tested. Four crash patterns are highlighted. Male drivers and those with lower educational attainment are over-represented in all patterns. Pattern-based risk levels vary considerably according to car safety level and driver's age at time of injury and socio-economic status. Crash patterns might be considered in young adult driver education systems, bearing in mind the consistent higher risks of male drivers and of drivers with lower educational attainment. PMID:16943161

  14. Model assisted probability of detection for a guided waves based SHM technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmolo, V.; Ricci, F.; Maio, L.; Boffa, N. D.; Monaco, E.

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave (GW) Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) allows to assess the health of aerostructures thanks to the great sensitivity to delamination and/or debondings appearance. Due to the several complexities affecting wave propagation in composites, an efficient GW SHM system requires its effective quantification associated to a rigorous statistical evaluation procedure. Probability of Detection (POD) approach is a commonly accepted measurement method to quantify NDI results and it can be effectively extended to an SHM context. However, it requires a very complex setup arrangement and many coupons. When a rigorous correlation with measurements is adopted, Model Assisted POD (MAPOD) is an efficient alternative to classic methods. This paper is concerned with the identification of small emerging delaminations in composite structural components. An ultrasonic GW tomography focused to impact damage detection in composite plate-like structures recently developed by authors is investigated, getting the bases for a more complex MAPOD analysis. Experimental tests carried out on a typical wing composite structure demonstrated the effectiveness of modeling approach in order to detect damages with the tomographic algorithm. Environmental disturbances, which affect signal waveforms and consequently damage detection, are considered simulating a mathematical noise in the modeling stage. A statistical method is used for an effective making decision procedure. A Damage Index approach is implemented as metric to interpret the signals collected from a distributed sensor network and a subsequent graphic interpolation is carried out to reconstruct the damage appearance. A model validation and first reliability assessment results are provided, in view of performance system quantification and its optimization as well.

  15. An agent-based simulation-assisted approach to bi-lateral building systems control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhengchun

    Two of the primary objectives of building operations are maximizing occupancy comfort and minimizing energy costs. While research effort has been focused on concept development, design decision support and systems advancement, little attention has been paid to operational decision support. Most commercial buildings are operated under a central control scheme, in which a building operator makes control decisions without in-depth information about individual preference. Widely used set points represent generalized human requirements that do not sufficiently address individual differences. Energy costs, on the other hand, are easier to measure. As a result, operational decisions tend to favor cost savings at the expense of individual occupancy comfort. Personal control systems have enabled individual occupants to customize their local environments. It is argued that individual occupants and building operators have different motivations for environmental controls. They access to different scopes of information and represent partial knowledge for operational solutions. Such a new control environment suggests a bi-lateral control scheme that cannot be offered by existing central control schemes or distributed control schemes. There is a critical need for methods that support the bi-lateral control scheme, in which building operators and individual occupants coordinate to make balanced control decisions. Toward this end, an agent-based simulation-assisted computational framework has been proposed and prototypically implemented in the lighting controls domain. The prototype supports bi-lateral building operations by offering concurrent evaluation of alternative control strategies. The experimental results showed that, by utilizing the proposed framework, the energy use is greatly reduced without undue increase in individual visual discomfort.

  16. Electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing process for PVDF polymer-based piezoelectric device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new additive manufacturing (AM) process to directly and continuously print piezoelectric devices from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric filament rods under a strong electric field. This process, called ‘electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing or EPAM, combines AM and electric poling processes and is able to fabricate free-form shape piezoelectric devices continuously. In this process, the PVDF polymer dipoles remain well-aligned and uniform over a large area in a single design, production and fabrication step. During EPAM process, molten PVDF polymer is simultaneously mechanically stresses in-situ by the leading nozzle and electrically poled by applying high electric field under high temperature. The EPAM system was constructed to directly print piezoelectric structures from PVDF polymeric filament while applying high electric field between nozzle tip and printing bed in AM machine. Piezoelectric devices were successfully fabricated using the EPAM process. The crystalline phase transitions that occurred from the process were identified by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The results indicate that devices printed under a strong electric field become piezoelectric during the EPAM process and that stronger electric fields result in greater piezoelectricity as marked by the electrical response and the formation of sharper peaks at the polar β crystalline wavenumber of the PVDF polymer. Performing this process in the absence of an electric field does not result in dipole alignment of PVDF polymer. The EPAM process is expected to lead to the widespread use of AM to fabricate a variety of piezoelectric PVDF polymer-based devices for sensing, actuation and energy harvesting applications with simple, low cost, single processing and fabrication step.

  17. Simulation based flow distribution network optimization for vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Kuang-Ting; Devillard, Mathieu; Advani, Suresh G.

    2004-05-01

    In the vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) process, using a flow distribution network such as flow channels and high permeability fabrics can accelerate the resin infiltration of the fibre reinforcement during the manufacture of composite parts. The flow distribution network significantly influences the fill time and fill pattern and is essential for the process design. The current practice has been to cover the top surface of the fibre preform with the distribution media with the hope that the resin will flood the top surface immediately and penetrate through the thickness. However, this approach has some drawbacks. One is when the resin finds its way to the vent before it has penetrated the preform entirely, which results in a defective part or resin wastage. Also, if the composite structure contains ribs or inserts, this approach invariably results in dry spots. Instead of this intuitive approach, we propose a science-based approach to design the layout of the distribution network. Our approach uses flow simulation of the resin into the network and the preform and a genetic algorithm to optimize the flow distribution network. An experimental case study of a co-cured rib structure is conducted to demonstrate the design procedure and validate the optimized flow distribution network design. Good agreement between the flow simulations and the experimental results was observed. It was found that the proposed design algorithm effectively optimized the flow distribution network of the part considered in our case study and hence should prove to be a useful tool to extend the VARTM process to manufacture of complex structures with effective use of the distribution network layup.

  18. Driver Training Simulator for Backing Up Commercial Vehicles with Trailers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Uwe; Wojke, Philipp; Zöbel, Dieter

    Backing up tractors with trailers is a difficult task since the kinematic behavior of articulated vehicles is complex and hard to control. Especially unskilled drivers are overstrained with the complicated steering process. To learn and practice the steering behavior of articulated vehicles, we developed a 3D driving simulator. The simulator can handle different types of articulated vehicles like semi-trailers, one- and two-axle trailers, or gigaliners. The use of a driving simulator offers many advantages over the use of real vehicles. One of the main advantages is the possibility to learn the steering behavior of all vehicle types. Drivers can be given more and better driving instructions like collision warnings or steering hints. Furthermore, the driver training costs can be reduced. Moreover, mistakes of the student do not lead to real damages and costly repairs. The hardware of the simulator consists of a low cost commercial driving stand with original truck parts, a projection of the windshield and two flat panel monitors for the left and right exterior mirrors. Standard PC hardware is used for controlling the driving stand and for generating the realtime 3D environment. Each aspect of the simulation like realistic vehicle movements or generation of different views, is handled by a specific software module. This flexible system can be easily extended which offers the opportunity for other uses than just driver training. Therefore, we use the simulator for the development and test of driver assistance systems.

  19. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver/vehicle system performance in discrete maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. H.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1975-01-01

    A series of discrete maneuver tasks were used to evaluate the effects of steering gain and directional mode dynamic parameters on driver/vehicle responses. The importance and ranking of these parameters were evaluated through changes in subjective driver ratings and performance measures obtained from transient maneuvers such as a double lane change, an emergency lane change, and an unexpected obstacle. The unexpected obstacle maneuver proved more sensitive to individual driver differences than to vehicle differences. Results were based on full scale tests with an experienced test driver evaluating many different dynamic configurations plus seventeen ordinary drivers evaluating six key configurations.

  20. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wiese Simonsen, K; Steentoft, A; Bernhoft, I M; Hels, T; Rasmussen, B S; Linnet, K

    2013-01-10

    This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Blood samples were screened for 30 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Danish legal limits were used to evaluate the frequency of drivers violating the Danish legislation while limit of quantification (LOQ) was used for monitoring positive drivers. Tramadol is not included in the Danish legislation therefore the general cut off, as decided in the DRUID project was used. Overall, ethanol (18%) was the most frequently identified compound (alone or in combination with other drugs) exceeding the legal limit, which is 0.53g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected at levels above LOQ, whereas amphetamines (5.4%) (amphetamine [5.2%] and methamphetamine [1.5%]), tetrahydrocannabinol (3.7%), and cocaine (3.3%), including the metabolite benzoylecgonine, were the most frequently detected illegal drugs. A driver could be positive for more than one substance; therefore, percentages are not mutually exclusive. Poly-drug use was observed in 112 (13%) seriously injured drivers. Tramadol was detected above DRUID cutoffs in 2.1% of seriously injured drivers