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Sample records for driveways

  1. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  2. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  3. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  4. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  5. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  6. General view of west perimeter wall, service driveway gate, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of west perimeter wall, service driveway gate, and service buildings, looking northeast from Bosstraat. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  7. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. Mining claims on lands within stock driveway withdrawals, located prior...

  8. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. Mining claims on lands within stock driveway withdrawals, located prior...

  9. 3. View west from Benjamin Carr Farm driveway toward barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View west from Benjamin Carr Farm driveway toward barn, Benjamin Carr house to the south (left), Eldred Avenue to the north (right). - Benjamin Carr Farm, Route 138 (Eldred Avenue) & Helm Street, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  10. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, TWELFTH STREET DRIVEWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, TWELFTH STREET DRIVEWAY ENTRANCE, August 31, 1929, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; and parts of north and south wings of main building; facing east. - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 7. ELEVATION OF STREET (NORTH) FACADE FROM DRIVEWAY OF LOWELL'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ELEVATION OF STREET (NORTH) FACADE FROM DRIVEWAY OF LOWELL'S FORMER RESIDENCE. NOTE BUILDERS VERTICALLY ALIGNED STEM OF BOATS WITH CORNER OF HOUSE BEHIND CAMERA POSITION. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  13. 2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum. The driveway is flanked by granite gateposts surmounted by wrought iron urn lamps. The view includes a manicured hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis) retained by a stone wall at left, and white birch (Betula species) under-planted with ferns at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  14. DRIVEWAYS BETWEEN UNITS WITH UNIT A ON THE LEFT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRIVEWAYS BETWEEN UNITS WITH UNIT A ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements for Parking Lots and Driveways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The latest information for designing full-depth asphalt pavements for parking lots and driveways is covered in relationship to the continued increase in vehicle registration. It is based on The Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual, Series No. 1 (MS-1), Seventh Edition, which covers all aspects of asphalt pavement thickness design in detail,…

  16. 5. View of Clovelley Farm tenant house from driveway area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Clovelley Farm tenant house from driveway area on north side of house, looking northwest to back gable addition (left) and north side wall of main block. - Clovelley Farm Tenant House, 4958 Paris Road (east side), Paris, Bourbon County, KY

  17. LOOKING NORTH ALONG THE DRIVEWAY OF THE SCHEETZ PROPERTY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTH ALONG THE DRIVEWAY OF THE SCHEETZ PROPERTY SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS OF SCHEETZ HOUSE; BUTTONWOOD TREE TO LEFT STOOD AT ONE CORNER OF THE MILL (BURNED 1929). - Scheetz Farm, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  18. FRONT ELEVATION, WITH DRIVEWAY ON LEFT HAND SIDE, AND STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION, WITH DRIVEWAY ON LEFT HAND SIDE, AND STREET IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Four-Bedroom, Single-Family Type 10, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 2. GENERAL VIEW: MAIN DRIVEWAY: CORD CABIN IS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW: MAIN DRIVEWAY: CORD CABIN IS TO THE RIGHT OF KIOSK THE FAGEOL CABIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Camp Richardson Resort, Cord Cabin, U.S. Highway 89, 3 miles west of State Highway 50 & 89, South Lake Tahoe, El Dorado County, CA

  20. The Development and Preliminary Evaluation of an Education Intervention to Prevent Driveway Run-Over Incidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kerry A.; Watling, Hanna; Davey, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While driveway run-over incidents continue to be a cause of serious injury and deaths among young children in Australia, few empirically evaluated educational interventions have been developed which address these incidents. Addressing this gap, this study describes the development and evaluation of a paper-based driveway safety…

  1. The Development and Preliminary Evaluation of an Education Intervention to Prevent Driveway Run-Over Incidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kerry A.; Watling, Hanna; Davey, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While driveway run-over incidents continue to be a cause of serious injury and deaths among young children in Australia, few empirically evaluated educational interventions have been developed which address these incidents. Addressing this gap, this study describes the development and evaluation of a paper-based driveway safety…

  2. Exterior, looking northwest from driveway toward building OvertheHorizon Backscatter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking northwest from driveway toward building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Bangor Air National Guard Base Operations Building, At the end of Maine Road, Bangor, Penobscot County, ME

  3. DRAWING R100132, FIELD OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRAWING R-1001-32, FIELD OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, SOUTH CIRCLE, CASA GRANDE REAL, AND SEQUOIA DRIVES. Ink on linen, signed by H.B. Nurse. Date has been erased, but probably June 15, 1933. Also marked "PWC 104289." - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  4. DRAWING R100131, COMPANY OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRAWING R-1001-31, COMPANY OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, LAS LOMAS AND BUENA VISTA DRIVES. Ink on linen, signed by H.B. Nurse. Date has been erased, but probably June 15, 1933. Also marked "PWC 104288." - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  5. Rollover injuries in residential driveways: age-related patterns of injury.

    PubMed

    Silen, M L; Kokoska, E R; Fendya, D G; Kurkchubasche, A G; Weber, T R; Tracy, T F

    1999-07-01

    The major objective of the present study was to determine the severity of nonfatal injuries sustained by children (<16 years old) when a motor vehicle rolls over them. We also sought to determine whether younger children (<24 months old) demonstrated different patterns of injury and/or a worse outcome, compared with older children (>24 months old). We reviewed the medical records of 3971 consecutive admissions to a single trauma service at an urban children's hospital between March 1990 and October 1994. During this time period, 26 (0.7%) children presented with rollover injuries incurred by motor vehicles in residential driveways. Outcome was measured by length of both intensive care unit admission and hospitalization. Two children died shortly after admission and were excluded from the remainder of the study. Younger children (<24 months old) had significantly higher injury severity scores and lower pediatric trauma scale scores. Both the duration in the intensive care unit and the length of hospitalization were significantly longer in younger children, compared with children >24 months old. One explanation for these observations was that younger children had a significantly higher incidence of both head and neck and extremity injury but a similar incidence and severity of chest and abdominal trauma, compared with older children. Injuries requiring operative intervention were rare. Younger patients sustaining rollover injuries in the residential driveway have a worse outcome, in part, because of the head and neck or extremity injures that they incur. The majority of rollover injuries can be managed conservatively. pediatric trauma, driveway, pedestrian events, rollover injuries, injury severity score, pediatric trauma scale.

  6. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  7. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  8. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  9. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  10. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  11. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  12. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  13. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  14. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section... premises of every inspected plant shall be kept in clean and orderly condition. All catchbasins on the...

  15. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section... premises of every inspected plant shall be kept in clean and orderly condition. All catchbasins on the...

  16. MULTI-SCALE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACES: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALING ISSUES RELATED TO ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL LANDSCAPE ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces are leading contributors to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sideways, and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for...

  17. 36 CFR 261.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used, or designed to be used, in whole or in part, full or part-time, as living or sleeping quarters by... trips, as well as livestock to be trailed over an established driveway when there is no overnight...

  18. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 15 feet of a fire hydrant, 5 feet of a driveway or 30 feet of a stop sign or traffic control device. (4) At any place which would result in the vehicle being double parked. (5) At curbs painted...

  19. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, December 30, 1936 WROUGHT IRON GATE TO DRIVEWAY ON SOUTH SIDE OF HOME, LOOKING EAST - Gibbons-Torry House, Gate & Privy, 60 South Conception Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  20. View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Service Building, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  1. View to northeast showing west and south elevations Portsmouth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to northeast showing west and south elevations - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Service Building, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  2. 18 CFR 1304.205 - Other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concrete boat launching ramp with associated driveway may be located within the access corridor... concrete is allowable; asphalt is not permitted. (b) Tables or benches for cleaning fish are permitted...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.205 - Other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concrete boat launching ramp with associated driveway may be located within the access corridor... concrete is allowable; asphalt is not permitted. (b) Tables or benches for cleaning fish are permitted...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.205 - Other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concrete boat launching ramp with associated driveway may be located within the access corridor... concrete is allowable; asphalt is not permitted. (b) Tables or benches for cleaning fish are permitted...

  5. 24 CFR 5.703 - Physical condition standards for HUD housing that is decent, safe, sanitary and in good repair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../driveways, play areas and equipment, refuse disposal, roads, storm drainage and walkways must be free of... condition, usable in privacy, and adequate for personal hygiene and the disposal of human waste. (4)...

  6. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  7. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  8. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  9. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  10. IMPERVIOUS SURFACES AND STREAMFLOW DISCHARGE: A HISTORICAL REMOTE SENSING PERSPECTIVE IN A NORTHERN VIRGINIA SUBWATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impervious surfaces are a leading contributor to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for determining impervious surface growth a...

  11. IMPERVIOUS SURFACES AND STREAMFLOW DISCHARGE: A HISTORICAL REMOTE SENSING PERSPECTIVE IN A NORTHERN VIRGINIA SUBWATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impervious surfaces are a leading contributor to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for determining impervious surface growth a...

  12. Outdoor Lighting: A Showcase of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Creative, constructive night lighting can, in addition to deterring vandalism, beautify parking lots, recreation fields, entrances, grassy areas, walkways, and driveways of schools; and provide safety for those using the facilities after dark. (Author)

  13. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... yield signs, requirements, when entering stop or yield intersections, emerging from alleys, driveways... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  14. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... yield signs, requirements, when entering stop or yield intersections, emerging from alleys, driveways... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  15. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... yield signs, requirements, when entering stop or yield intersections, emerging from alleys, driveways... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  16. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... yield signs, requirements, when entering stop or yield intersections, emerging from alleys, driveways... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, September 1, 1936 WROUGHT IRON FENCE IN DRIVEWAY, KLING HOME - 254 NORTH JACKSON STREET - Butt-Kling House (Iron Gate), 254 North Jackson Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  18. Outdoor Lighting: A Showcase of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Creative, constructive night lighting can, in addition to deterring vandalism, beautify parking lots, recreation fields, entrances, grassy areas, walkways, and driveways of schools; and provide safety for those using the facilities after dark. (Author)

  19. MULTI-SCALE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACES: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALING ISSUES RELATED TO ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL LANDSCAPE ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces are leading contributors to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sideways, and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.53 - Eligible use of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... used to install streets, a water supply, sewage disposal, heating and cooling systems, electric, gas... development related to a MFH project such as lighting, walks, fences, parking areas, and driveways. (g)...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.53 - Eligible use of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., solar, or other power sources for lighting and other features necessary for the housing. If such... development related to a MFH project such as lighting, walks, fences, parking areas, and driveways. (g)...

  2. 1. May 1960 COURT YARD FROM STREET GATE (SHOWING BELGIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. May 1960 COURT YARD FROM STREET GATE (SHOWING BELGIAN BLOCK DRIVEWAYS AND PILES OF FIREPLACE WOOD) - Farley Blacksmith Shop, 82 Memorial Parkway (moved to Johnson Park, Piscataway), New Brunswick, Middlesex County, NJ

  3. 7 CFR 1980.313 - Site and building requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... direct access from a street, road, or driveway. Streets and roads must be hard surface or all-weather..., stereo sets, and similar items. Items such as wall-to-wall carpeting, refrigerators, ovens,...

  4. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. Designing with Traffic Safety in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John

    1998-01-01

    Provides an example of how one county public school system was able to minimize traffic accidents and increase safety around its schools. Illustrations are provided of safer bus loading zones, pedestrian walkways and sidewalks, staff parking, and acceptable methods for staging buses. A checklist for school driveway design concludes the article.…

  7. Student Drivers Will Find This Defensive Course Difficult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Map and description of 40-acre defensive driving range being built for secondary school driver education programs in the Burke County Public Schools of North Carolina. Features include a beginner course, streets, driveways, expressway, gravel road, a driver education building, and an emergency skid area. (Author/DN)

  8. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage powerlines; clearances above... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  9. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  10. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a street. (2) On a sidewalk. (3) Within an intersection. (4) On a crosswalk. (5) Alongside or... signal located at the side of a roadway. (5) Within 20 feet of a driveway entrance to any fire station... any curb painted yellow or identified, by signs, as a “No Parking” area. (8) Along a roadway...

  11. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... intersection or crosswalk; (4) Within 10 feet of a fire hydrant, 5 feet of a driveway, or 20 feet of a stop sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb painted yellow; (7) On the side of a street facing oncoming traffic; (8) In a position that would...

  12. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... intersection or crosswalk; (4) Within 10 feet of a fire hydrant, 5 feet of a driveway, or 20 feet of a stop sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb painted yellow; (7) On the side of a street facing oncoming traffic; (8) In a position that would...

  13. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  14. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  15. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  16. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  17. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  18. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  19. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  20. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  1. 7 CFR 58.125 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water from plant buildings and driveways, including surface water around the plant and on the premises..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Premises, Buildings...

  2. 43 CFR 2623.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... therefor shall arise, as including Indian and military reservations, naval and petroleum reserves, national parks, national forests, stock driveways, reservations established under the Act of June 25, 1910 (36... reserved for waterpower purposes, or included in any pending suit or proceedings in the courts of the...

  3. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  4. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  5. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  6. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  7. USING GIS AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY TO DETERMINE A HISTORICAL IMPERVIOUS SURFACE/STREAMFLOW RELATIONSHIP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impervious surfaces are a leading contributor to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops and driveways. Arcview GIS and the Image Analysis extension have been utilized to geo-register and map imp...

  8. The Bureau of Fisheries disease service

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1935-01-01

    Picture yourself bending over a trough picking eggs. The clatter of hoofs suddenly rings from the snow-covered hatchery roof—or if you must be technical—from the driveway. The hatchery door opens and in walks a bewhiskered gentleman wearing a brilliant red suit—it's Santa Claus. He walks slowly over to where you are standing—he speaks—

  9. ASPHALT FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS, 3RD EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    THIS PAMPHLET DISCUSSES THE ALTERNATIVE METHODS, APPLICATIONS, AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS. OFF-STREET PAVING INCLUDES--(1) ASPHALT-PAVED PARKING AREAS, (2) ROOF DECK PARKING AREAS, (3) ASPHALT-PAVED DRIVEWAYS, (4) ASPHALT-PAVED SERVICE STATION LOTS, AND (5) SIDEWALKS. THE DISCUSSION OF PLAY AREAS…

  10. Fatal Pedestrian Injuries to Young Children: A Different Pattern of Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brison, Robert J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examination of records from 1979 to 1983 on pedestrian vehicle collision fatalities to children less than five-years-old in Washington state reveals that these incidents tended to occur when the child was backed over in the home driveway by the family van or light truck driven by a parent. (Author/BJV)

  11. DUAL CARPORT AND DETAIL OF CARPORT EAVE AS SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DUAL CARPORT AND DETAIL OF CARPORT EAVE AS SEEN FROM THE DRIVEWAY. UNIT A IS SEEN ON THE LEFT AND STORAGE IN THE MIDDLE - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, M-Shaped Four-Bedroom Duplex Type 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. MAIN VIEW OF DUPLEX FROM THE NORTH SIDE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN VIEW OF DUPLEX FROM THE NORTH SIDE OF THE STREET SHOWING DUAL DRIVEWAYS WITH CENTRAL PLANTING STRIP - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, M-Shaped Four-Bedroom Duplex Type 5, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. USING GIS AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY TO DETERMINE A HISTORICAL IMPERVIOUS SURFACE/STREAMFLOW RELATIONSHIP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impervious surfaces are a leading contributor to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops and driveways. Arcview GIS and the Image Analysis extension have been utilized to geo-register and map imp...

  14. 75 FR 28497 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... CONTACT: Kevin C. Long, Acting Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Mitigation Directorate, Federal... No.: FEMA-B-7737 Anacostia River Approximately at +13 District of Columbia. Anacostia Railroad Bridge... upstream of Driveway Bridge 4. Fenwick Branch Approximately at the +176 District of Columbia....

  15. 3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION AND 19061010 ONESTORY SHED ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION AND 1906-1010 ONE-STORY SHED ADDITION AT LEFT; NORTHWEST ELEVATION AND PARKING AREA AT RIGHT; PARKING AREA WAS SITE OF FORMER STOREHOUSE 'A' AND 'B'; LANE AT LEFT IS NORTH DRIVEWAY, BUILT CA. 1935 - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 7 CFR 58.125 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... water from plant buildings and driveways, including surface water around the plant and on the premises..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Premises,...

  17. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  18. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  19. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  20. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  1. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  2. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  3. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  4. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  5. Detail view to show the bronze gates hanging in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view to show the bronze gates hanging in the driveway portals; the open grille is foliated and crowned with patriotic eagle emblems - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Design Science in Human-Computer Interaction: A Model and Three Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestopnik, Nathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world.…

  7. USEPA EPIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACE RESEARCH IN THE MID-ATLANTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways. The amount of impervious surface area in a ...

  8. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE... entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the...) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit: (1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks, loading...

  9. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE... entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the...) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit: (1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks, loading...

  10. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE... entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the...) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit: (1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks, loading...

  11. 43 CFR 3815.3 - Surface limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface limitation. 3815.3 Section 3815.3... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.3 Surface limitation. While a mining location will be made in... so much of the surface of the claim as may be required for all purposes reasonably incident to the...

  12. 43 CFR 3815.3 - Surface limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface limitation. 3815.3 Section 3815.3... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.3 Surface limitation. While a mining location will be made in... so much of the surface of the claim as may be required for all purposes reasonably incident to the...

  13. 43 CFR 3815.3 - Surface limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface limitation. 3815.3 Section 3815.3... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.3 Surface limitation. While a mining location will be made in... so much of the surface of the claim as may be required for all purposes reasonably incident to the...

  14. 43 CFR 3815.3 - Surface limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface limitation. 3815.3 Section 3815.3... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.3 Surface limitation. While a mining location will be made in... so much of the surface of the claim as may be required for all purposes reasonably incident to the...

  15. View to east showing (from L to R) northwest, west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to east showing (from L to R) northwest, west, southwest, and south elevations, with Service Building at right - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Gardener's Tool Shed, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  16. View to south showing (from L to R) east, northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to south showing (from L to R) east, northeast, north, and northwest elevations, with Service Building (HABS No. VA-1287-D) beyond - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Gardener's Tool Shed, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  17. Design Science in Human-Computer Interaction: A Model and Three Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestopnik, Nathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world.…

  18. 76 FR 2947 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project on a 3.5 mile combined segment of Trunk Highway (TH) 23 and U.S. Highway 71. The proposed project is from the TH 294 and TH 23/71 divergence on the... a relocated County Road 90 and at County State Aid Highway 25, median and driveway closures, and new...

  19. IMPERVIOUS SURFACE RESEARCH IN THE MID-ATLANTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways. The amount of impervious surface area in a ...

  20. USEPA EPIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACE RESEARCH IN THE MID-ATLANTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways. The amount of impervious surface area in a ...

  1. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE... entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the...) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit: (1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks, loading...

  2. 40 CFR 61.141 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., roads, streets, parking areas, and driveways. Strip means to take off RACM from any part of a facility... beams and load supporting walls; or any nonload-supporting member, such as ceilings and nonload-supporting walls. Visible emissions means any emissions, which are visually detectable without the aid...

  3. Crossing Guards: A Safety Patrol Program at a Residential School for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired. Practice Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besden, Cheryl; Crow, Nita; Delgado Greenberg, Maya; Finkelstein, Gerri; Shrieves, Gary; Vickroy, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the California School for the Blind (CSB) was faced with a dilemma. The dropoff point for the day buses had to be changed. The new route to the only logical location for this change sent the buses through a driveway where residential students crossed to travel between the school and the dormitories. Some staff members wanted to eliminate…

  4. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  5. Post Remedial Action Report, Lansdowne Radioactive Residence Complex, Dismantlement/Removal Project. Volume 2. Contractor Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    time for reviein Inatruction. serching ewisting dat swc, gath ,)eriad nmntainn the datal needed, and comleting and r evewng the co action Bf...Management andl lUdgt. Paperwork Reducti/on Prolec (0704401160). Wasingtlon. CC 20503. 1. AGENCY’USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT.DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND...Driveway Replacement R . Jensen, Masonry Contractor GarageFoundations/Stucco J. Cunningham, Pavement Contractor Asphalt PavingWells Fargo Security Systems

  6. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  7. Design and Perception Testing of a Novel 3-D Autostereoscopic Holographic Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    and trucks approaching a driveway with their turn signals on. The video was shown to observers in conventional 2D and in 3-D holographic prototype...system. The observers were tasked with indicating when they thought they saw a vehicle with its turn signal on. Subject response times, hit rates and...subjects were then asked to identify when they visually detected a vehicle turning on its turn signal when making a lane change by depressing the space bar

  8. Final Environmental Assessment for the Military Housing Privatization Initiative at Soundside Manor at Hurlburt Field, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    utility laterals include, but are not limited to, electric, fiber optics, sewer and water . The utility laterals would connect the housing units to the...activities will occur within the floodplain. 2 Therefore, only soi ls and water resources for the driveway and utility upgrades at Soundside Manor are...and wind-caused erosion from exposed and loose, unconsolidated soils. As the Soundside Manor area is located adjacent to a coastal water body, any land

  9. Practical Pest Management Strategies to Reduce Pesticide Runoff for Argentine Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Les; Rust, Michael K; Richards, Jaben; Wu, Xiaoqin; Kabashima, John; Wilen, Cheryl; Gan, Jay; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to involve pest management professionals in the design of application techniques and strategies that would be efficacious and also reduce insecticide runoff. Our study involved measuring both the efficacy of treatments for the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the concurrent runoff of fipronil and pyrethroids. Two collaborating companies used low-impact protocols for controlling ants while minimizing runoff. Protocol 1 involved bimonthly treatments, while Protocol 2 was monthly. Both protocols involved an initial treatment with a fipronil spray around the foundation. At the garage door-driveway interface, the fipronil application was done as a pin stream for Protocol 1, and as a crack and crevice application in the expansion joint near the garage for Protocol 2. Protocol 1 replaced most pyrethroid sprays with bifenthrin granules placed around bushes and away from the driveway. For the next treatment on day 63, Protocol 1 also included cyfluthrin spray treatments around the house foundation and crack and crevice applications around the edge of the driveway. For the first treatment in Protocol 2, the fipronil spray was supplemented with spot treatments of cyfluthrin. For subsequent Protocol 2 treatments, botanical insecticides were applied. For weeks 1 and 2 posttreatment combined, Protocol 1 had significantly higher reductions in ant numbers compared with Protocol 2. Thereafter there were no significant differences between the protocols. Runoff of bifenthrin from the granules used with Protocol 1 was much lower than in previous trials involving bifenthrin sprays. Day 1 fipronil runoff for Protocol 2 was significantly lower than that for Protocol 1. This difference may be because of the crack and crevice application applied in Protocol 2. Cyfluthrin runoff was minimal for Protocol 2, which involved spot treatments to supplement the fipronil on day 1, or the botanical insecticides for subsequent treatments. Protocol 1 had a

  10. 19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIERFREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIER-FREE ACCESS FROM THE DRIVEWAY TO THE ELEVATOR. Wrought iron railings, extended upper step of stoop (indicated by the darker concrete between the two vertical posts), and wooden ramp added by the National Trust to meet modern barrier-free access codes, circa 1980. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  12. Water-Resources Investigations in Wisconsin, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    undeveloped sites on four lakes in Vilas and Forest Counties in northern Wisconsin. Developed sites may include runoff from lawns, driveways, sidewalks...taken and preserved to not only characterize the underlying soil structure but also to determine the bulk density, wilting point, organic content...attempting to preserve the natural hydrology of the site. Low impact practices include the reduction of impervious surfaces and installation of

  13. Crews beat record rains to build Pierre system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This paper reviews the equipment used by Murphy Brothers, Inc. to install a natural gas pipeline system in South Dakota. The equipment and techniques allowed for record-setting rates of installation. The paper describes each piece of trenching and drilling equipment and how they were combined to optimize efficiency. The use of directional boring equipment also allowed for installation below driveways and roadways without disrupting the road surface.

  14. Special equipment needed in Lake Tahoe. [Installation of natural gas lines in Lake Tahoe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This paper discusses the special equipment and techniques use to install natural gas distribution lines in the Lake Tahoe area. Because of the unique scenic value in the area, special equipment was used to minimize surface disturbances. Special equipment is also used to allow the boring of drill holes beneath roads and driveways to prevent disturbance of roadways. The equipment allows for rapid installation with minimum amounts of backfilling and grading. The techniques, costs, and time comparisons are discussed.

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paul Anthikkat, Anne; Page, Andrew; Barker, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems), housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas), and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children) are discussed. PMID:23781251

  16. Major transport mechanisms of pyrethroids in residential settings and effects of mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Paul C; Jones, Russell L; Harbourt, Christopher M; Hendley, Paul; Goodwin, Gregory E; Slizy, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The major pathways for transport of pyrethroids were determined in runoff studies conducted at a full-scale test facility in central California, USA. The 6 replicate house lots were typical of front lawns and house fronts of California residential developments and consisted of stucco walls, garage doors, driveways, and residential lawn irrigation sprinkler systems. Each of the 6 lots also included a rainfall simulator to generate artificial rainfall events. Different pyrethroids were applied to 5 surfaces—driveway, garage door and adjacent walls, lawn, lawn perimeter (grass near the house walls), and house walls above grass. The volume of runoff water from each house lot was measured, sampled, and analyzed to determine the amount of pyrethroid mass lost from each surface. Applications to 3 of the house lots were made using the application practices typically used prior to recent label changes, and applications were made to the other 3 house lots according to the revised application procedures. Results from the house lots using the historic application procedures showed that losses of the compounds applied to the driveway and garage door (including the adjacent walls) were 99.75% of total measured runoff losses. The greatest losses were associated with significant rainfall events rather than lawn irrigation events. However, runoff losses were 40 times less using the revised application procedures recently specified on pyrethroid labels.

  17. Back-over collisions in child pedestrians from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Nhan, Cindy; Rothman, Linda; Slater, Morgan; Howard, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to describe the burden of back-over collisions within the context of other child pedestrian collisions as identified through a pediatric emergency room injury surveillance database. Injury data for child pedestrian motor vehicle collisions from 1994 to 2003 were obtained from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). Back-over collisions involving children under the age of 14 were identified and classified by written narratives. Characteristics of children involved in back-over collisions were described, and for those admitted to hospital, the nature of injury was compared with other types of child pedestrian collisions. There were 4295 child pedestrian motor vehicle collisions reported to CHIRPP during the study time period. Of the 4295 children, 148 (3.4%) were injured in a back-over collision, with 49 (33.1%) of these collisions involving a vehicle backing out of a driveway. Children involved in back-over collisions were significantly younger than those in forward-moving/other collisions; however, almost 50 percent of back-over collisions involved children older than age 4. Children involved in back-over collisions on driveways were significantly younger than those involved in collisions occurring at other locations. Of those admitted to hospital, children in back-over collisions were more likely to sustain injuries to internal organs. Children in back-over collisions were less likely to sustain severe/mild head injuries and hip/leg fractures. Although back-over collisions represent a small proportion of pedestrian motor vehicle collisions, they tend to involve more severe injuries, as indicated by their admission to hospital. It was found that older children are also at risk of back-over collisions and back-over collisions occur in areas other than driveways. In order to lessen the burden of back-over collisions, interventions must address children of different ages and a variety of locations.

  18. Collection and analysis of samples for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust and other solids related to sealed and unsealed pavement from 10 cities across the United States, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    Parking lots and driveways are dominant features of the modern urban landscape, and in the United States, sealcoat is widely used on these surfaces. One of the most widely used types of sealcoat contains refined coal tar; coal-tar-based sealcoat products have a mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration of about 5 percent. A previous study reported that parking lots in Austin, Texas, treated with coal-tar sealcoat were a major source of PAH compounds in streams. This report presents methods for and data from the analysis of concentrations of PAH compounds in dust from sealed and unsealed pavement from nine U.S. cities, and concentrations of PAH compounds in other related solid materials (sealcoat surface scrapings, nearby street dust, and nearby soil) from three of those same cities and a 10th city. Dust samples were collected by sweeping dust from areas of several square meters with a soft nylon brush into a dustpan. Some samples were from individual lots or driveways, and some samples consisted of approximately equal amounts of material from three lots. Samples were sieved to remove coarse sand and gravel and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of PAHs vary greatly among samples with total PAH (sigmaPAH), the sum of 12 unsubstituted parent PAHs, ranging from nondetection for all 12 PAHs (several samples from Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington; sigmaPAH of less than 36,000 micrograms per kilogram) to 19,000,000 micrograms per kilogram for a sealcoat scraping sample (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). The largest PAH concentrations in dust are from a driveway sample from suburban Chicago, Illinois (sigmaPAH of 9,600,000 micrograms per kilogram).

  19. MAJOR TRANSPORT MECHANISMS OF PYRETHROIDS IN RESIDENTIAL SETTINGS AND EFFECTS OF MITIGATION MEASURES

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Paul C; Jones, Russell L; Harbourt, Christopher M; Hendley, Paul; Goodwin, Gregory E; Sliz, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The major pathways for transport of pyrethroids were determined in runoff studies conducted at a full-scale test facility in central California, USA. The 6 replicate house lots were typical of front lawns and house fronts of California residential developments and consisted of stucco walls, garage doors, driveways, and residential lawn irrigation sprinkler systems. Each of the 6 lots also included a rainfall simulator to generate artificial rainfall events. Different pyrethroids were applied to 5 surfaces—driveway, garage door and adjacent walls, lawn, lawn perimeter (grass near the house walls), and house walls above grass. The volume of runoff water from each house lot was measured, sampled, and analyzed to determine the amount of pyrethroid mass lost from each surface. Applications to 3 of the house lots were made using the application practices typically used prior to recent label changes, and applications were made to the other 3 house lots according to the revised application procedures. Results from the house lots using the historic application procedures showed that losses of the compounds applied to the driveway and garage door (including the adjacent walls) were 99.75% of total measured runoff losses. The greatest losses were associated with significant rainfall events rather than lawn irrigation events. However, runoff losses were 40 times less using the revised application procedures recently specified on pyrethroid labels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:52–60. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:24105831

  20. LPT. Plot plan and site layout. Includes shield test pool/EBOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Plot plan and site layout. Includes shield test pool/EBOR facility. (TAN-645 and -646) low power test building (TAN-640 and -641), water storage tanks, guard house (TAN-642), pump house (TAN-644), driveways, well, chlorination building (TAN-643), septic system. Ralph M. Parsons 1229-12 ANP/GE-7-102. November 1956. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 038-0102-00-693-107261 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Vehicle identification by capacitance and infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Yang, W.; Yang, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Currently, large inductance coils buried underground are commonly used to detect passing vehicles at road toll stations. The inductance-based systems are vulnerable to environmental magnetic interference and hence are inaccurate in counting passing vehicles. Also they cannot categorise the vehicles. This paper presents a capacitance sensor array, which has been developed not only for detection of passing vehicles but also for identification of types of the vehicles. Together with infrared sensors, the new system can be used to control a road barrier and to keep a record of passed vehicles through a driveway accurately. Tests have demonstrated that it is more reliable than the inductance-based systems.

  2. Paving materials for heat island mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

  3. Trauma Center-Based Surveillance of Nontraffic Pedestrian Injury among California Children

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas M.; Trent, Roger B.; Bernacki, Kate; Rice, Jennifer K.; Lovette, Bonnie; Hoover, Eileen; Fennell, Janette; Aistrich, Anna Zacher; Wiltsek, Dana; Corman, Ellen; Anderson, Craig L.; Sherck, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Every year in the United States, thousands of young children are injured by passenger vehicles in driveways or parking areas. Little is known about risk factors, and incidence rates are difficult to estimate because ascertainment using police collision reports or media sources is incomplete. This study used surveillance at trauma centers to identify incidents and parent interviews to obtain detailed information on incidents, vehicles, and children. Methods Eight California trauma centers conducted surveillance of nontraffic pedestrian collision injury to children aged 14 years or younger from January 2005 to July 2007. Three of these centers conducted follow-up interviews with family members. Results Ninety-four injured children were identified. Nine children (10%) suffered fatal injury. Seventy children (74%) were 4 years old or younger. Family members of 21 victims from this study (23%) completed an interview. Of these 21 interviewed victims, 17 (81%) were male and 13 (62%) were 1 or 2 years old. In 13 cases (62%), the child was backed over, and the driver was the mother or father in 11 cases (52%). Fifteen cases (71%) involved a sport utility vehicle, pickup truck, or van. Most collisions occurred in a residential driveway. Conclusion Trauma center surveillance can be used for case ascertainment and for collecting information on circumstances of nontraffic pedestrian injuries. Adoption of a specific external cause-of-injury code would allow passive surveillance of these injuries. Research is needed to understand the contributions of family, vehicular, and environmental characteristics and injury risk to inform prevention efforts. PMID:22900102

  4. Radiological assessment and remedial action report for the ''Son of Lansdowne'' property, 186 North Lansdowne Avenue, Lansdowne, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    This document reports the results of a radiological assessment and remedial action program conducted by Argonne National Laboratory personnel at a radioactively contaminated private residence in Lansdowne, Pennsylvania. The program was conducted on the residence at 186 Lansdowne Avenue. The survey conducted by the ANL personnel indicated that several dozen areas or spots of contamination were present on all floors and the basement of the three-story house. Contamination was found on furniture, carpeting, walls, floors, woodwork, and ceilings. Remedial action undertaken to remove the contamination ranged from scrubbing, to scraping, to shaving of wood, to removal and disposal of items and material that could not be adequately decontaminated. Outdoors, contaminated soil was removed from the backyard, and the driveway was dug up so the contaminated subsurface material could be removed. The remedial action generated quantities of radioactive waste, including four 55-gallon drums and one M-III bin (120 ft/sup 3/) containing floor tile, concrete, personal items, furniture, floor scrapings, vermiculite absorbed scrub water, and other items. In addition, there were 24 M-III bins containing approximately 112 tons of contaminated soil and rock from the two contaminated areas in the backyard and from the contaminated subsurface of the driveway. 2 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Assessing the safety effects of multiple roadside treatments using parametric and nonparametric approaches.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the safety effectiveness of multiple roadside elements on roadway segments by estimating crash modification factors (CMFs) using the cross-sectional method. To consider the nonlinearity in crash predictors, the study develops generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models. The MARS is one of the promising data mining techniques due to its ability to consider the interaction impact of more than one variables and nonlinearity of predictors simultaneously. The CMFs were developed for four roadside elements (driveway density, poles density, distance to poles, and distance to trees) and combined safety effects of multiple treatments were interpreted by the interaction terms from the MARS models. Five years of crash data from 2008 to 2012 were collected for rural undivided four-lane roadways in Florida for different crash types and severity levels. The results show that the safety effects decrease as density of driveways and roadside poles increase. The estimated CMFs also indicate that increasing distance to roadside poles and trees reduces crashes. The study demonstrates that the GNMs show slightly better model fitness than negative binomial (NB) models. Moreover, the MARS models outperformed NB and GNM models due to its strength to reflect the nonlinearity of crash predictors and interaction impacts among variables under different ranges. Therefore, it can be recommended that the CMFs are estimated using MARS when there are nonlinear relationships between crash rate and roadway characteristics, and interaction impacts among multiple treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Results of the radiological survey at 7 Pansy Street, Albany, New York (AL162)

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 7 Pansy Street in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 16, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame and stone house and a separate garage located on an irregular shaped lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 6-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/30 m wide by 35 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  8. Emulsion package and method of mixing the emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.G.; Brenneman, S.; Clancy, J.J.

    1984-08-28

    A coal tar emulsion driveway sealer is packaged in a sealed bag. The volume of sealer is less than half the capacity of the bag and the bag is substantially completely evacuated but for the sealer. The separated sealer is mixed by compressing the sides of the bag to induce turbulent flow of the paste and liquid for hydraulic mixing thereof. The sealer may be dispensed at a controlled rate without spattering by cutting a corner from the bag to provide a pour spout. The bag with the sealer may be contained in a carton. The bag membrane comprises an aluminum layer vapor deposited on polyester. Those two layers are sandwiched between layers of EVA copolymer.

  9. Urban storm-water runoff data for a residential area, Pompano Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H.C.; Hardee, Jack; Miller, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    Rainfall, storm-sewer discharge, and water-quality analyses of storm runoff are summarized for a single-family residential area near Pompano Beach, Florida. The area of the drainage basin is 41 acres of which 61 percent is pervious sod lawns and 39 percent is impervious roofs, driveways and streets. The land surface is nearly flat with a gentle, eastward slope. Storm runoff flows eastward along grass swales into a sewer collection system on the eastern boundary of the area that in turn joins a 36-inch diameter storm drain. Runoff loads of 12 or more water-quality constituents were computed for 32 storms between April 1974 and September 1975. Chemical analyses of rainfall for 3 storms are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Results of the radiological survey at 1052 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL208)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1052 Central Avenue in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated August 26, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story block and frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and a 6-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/17.5 m wide by 43.5 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. An examination of the environmental attributes associated with pedestrian-vehicular crashes near public schools.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Kelly J; Kreamer-Fults, Kandice

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines pedestrian-vehicular crashes in the vicinity of public schools, the severity of injuries sustained, and their relationship to the physical and social attributes near the schools. Multivariate models of crash severity and crash risk exposure were estimated as a function of social and physical characteristics of the area immediately surrounding schools in Baltimore City, Maryland. Results show that the presence of a driveway or turning bay on the school entrance decreases both crash occurrence and injury severity. Conversely, the presence of recreational facilities on the school site is positively associated with crash occurrence and injury severity of crashes. Findings related to neighborhood characteristics were mixed but the significant variables - transit access, commercial access, and population density - are generally associated with increased pedestrian demand and should be interpreted with care. The results of this study are relevant for Safe Routes to School projects and point to areas meriting further study.

  12. Identification of reluctant factors in using footpaths based on the pedestrians' perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadiyanto, Wahyu; Handayani, Dewi; Yulianto, Budi

    2017-06-01

    Footpath is a path intended particularly for pedestrians to avoid any conflicts with motor vehicles. However in reality, most of the pedestrians are unwilling to use paths and they prefer to walk on the roads. This research was conducted with the aim to identify the existing condition of pedestrian footpaths based on field observations and to determine the factors that cause the pedestrians are reluctant to walk on the trails. The method used to investigate the pedestrians' perception was by distributing questionnaires to the pedestrians. The results of this study found that the factors that caused the pedestrians did not want to use footpaths were the footpath width, the existence of barriers and obstacles, unstable height (not continuous), damaged surface, non-standard driveway that intersects sidewalk, suboptimal function of ramp, transverse steep slope, and the absence of bollard that could protect footpaths from the access of motorcycles.

  13. Public health assessment for Mattiace Petrochemical Company, Glenwood Landing, Nassau County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD000512459. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-28

    The Mattiace Petrochemical Site, which is on the National Priorities List, is on the north shore of Nassau County, near Hempstead Harbor, in the City of Glen Cove. On-site soils and groundwater are contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Metals are elevated in groundwater. The site is next to several one-story, industrial-commercial buildings. Glen Cove Creek, a tributary to the Hempstead Harbor portion of Long Island Sound, is about 500 feet from the site. The contaminated soil and shallow groundwater may result in contamination of the vapor-phase of soil (soil gas) and may affect indoor-air quality in the industrial-commercial buildings. Runoff from the site may have contaminated the driveway and storm drains. Employees of adjacent businesses may be exposed to contaminated soils from the site.

  14. A synthesis of studies of access point density as a risk factor for road accidents.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2017-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between access point density (number of access points, or driveways, per kilometre of road) and accident frequency or rate (number of accidents per unit of exposure) have consistently found that accident rate increases when access point density increases. This paper presents a formal synthesis of the findings of these studies. It was found that the addition of one access point per kilometre of road is associated with an increase of 4% in the expected number of accidents, controlling for traffic volume. Although studies consistently indicate an increase in accident rate as access point density increases, the size of the increase varies substantially between studies. In addition to reviewing studies of access point density as a risk factor, the paper discusses some issues related to formally synthesising regression coefficients by applying the inverse-variance method of meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Butters, R.A.

    1990-09-30

    Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

  16. Results of the radiological survey at 15 Frost Place, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 15 Frost Place in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 22, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/ 16 m wide by 33 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Ecological systems and the water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1960-01-01

    In ancient Sparta there were two principal classes of society, the citizen and the helot. The citizen was trained principally to be a warrior. The helot, a serf, was the tiller of the land but could be called to military duty. The history of Herodotus makes it amply clear that making war was the biggest business of the times. Because the Spartans were always marching off to war with someone, they found the landbound position of their city, located as its is in a small central basin nearly surrounded by mountains, somewhat of a disadvantage. When they were under attack, of course, this situation was a favorable one inasmuch as a seaborne enemy had to march inland to come to grips with the Lacedaemonians. The relatively small size of the independent states meant that the Spartans had no direct access through their own lands to the sea.There is evidence that the Spartans reached an agreement with surrounding states concerning a free corridor. There would be maintained by all the Grecian states of the Peloponnesus an access route stretching essentially from Sparta to Corinth, through which a marching army could have access to a seaport. As a secondary benefit, this no man's land, which in our western lingo might be called a stock driveway, allowed merchants and their caravans to move freely between the flourishing trading port of Corinth and the inland cities to the south and west.Apparently one portion of the agreement between the states with regard to the use of this access zone was that there should be no permanent agricultural or grazing in the driveway. As a result, through several centuries B.C. during which there was high population density in the Aegean area, one strip of land was exempted from the pressures of grazing, lumbering, and agriculture which characterized most of the rest of the landscape. Today this driveway maintains a forest cover. In contrast, mountainsides nearby with an even larger annual rainfall support hardly a tree.It is not entirely

  18. Coal-Tar-Sealcoated Parking Lots: "Hot spots" of PAHs and N-heterocycles to Urban Streams and Lakes Result in "Hot Moments" of Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar (CT) sealcoat, a potent source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles, is applied to asphalt pavement of parking lots and driveways in many parts of the U.S. and Canada every 1 to 5 years. We measured the chemistry and toxicity of unfiltered runoff resulting from rain events simulated from 5 hours to 111 days after application of CT or asphalt (AS) sealcoat. PAHs and N-heterocycles were measured by GC/EIMS. Toxicity tests were done with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas exposed 48 hours to undiluted and diluted (1 part runoff 9 parts control water) runoff under ambient lighting. Organisms were then transferred to fresh control water and subjected to a 4-hour pulse of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Concentrations of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs and N-heterocycles in CT runoff, initially high (sum of 6 PAHs, 220 μg/L; sum of 7 N-heterocycles, 904 μg/L), decreased rapidly, whereas concentrations of 4-, 5- and 6-ringed PAHs more than doubled by 7 days after application (sum of 9 PAHs, 378 μg/L) and remained elevated 111 days after application (sum of 9 PAHs, 283 μg/L). Concentrations of PAHs and N-heterocycles in AS sealcoated runoff followed a similar pattern, but were ~10 times lower than those in CT runoff; concentrations in a sample of runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement were near or less than the detection limit. Organisms exposed to samples of undiluted CT-runoff collected during the 36 days following CT sealcoat application (no UVR exposure) experienced 100% mortality. Mortality (as much as 100%) of organisms exposed to the 10% dilution of CT runoff or to undiluted AS runoff occurred only with UVR; mortality of organisms exposed to the 10% solution of AS runoff and UVR was minimal. Results demonstrate that freshly CT-sealed parking lots and driveways are "hot spots" of PAH and N-heterocycle contamination and that prolonged "hot moments" of toxicity follow CT sealcoat application.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Thakur, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of driveways, unsignalized approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per center-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles traveled (MVMT), the number of all crashes per center-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalized approaches to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and, facilitating wider right

  20. Object-oriented data model of the municipal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuqing; Sheng, Yehua; Zhang, Guiying

    2008-10-01

    The transportation problem is always one of main questions each big city all over the world faces. Managing the municipal transportation using GIS is becoming the important trend. And the data model is the transportation information system foundation. The organization and storage of the data must consider well in the system design. The data model not only needs to meet the demand that the transportation navigates, but also needs to achieve the good visual effects, also can carry on the management and the maintenance to the traffic information. According to the object-oriented theory and the method, the road is divided into segment, intersection. This paper analyzed the driveway, marking, sign and other transportation facilities and the relationship with the segment, intersection and constructed the municipal transportation data model which is adequate to the demand of vehicles navigation, visual and management. The paper also schemes the the all kinds of transportation data. The practice proves that this data model can satisfy the application demands of traffic management system.

  1. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent research by the USGS has identified coal-tar-based pavement sealants as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the environment. Coal-tar-based sealcoat is commonly used to coat parking lots and driveways and is typically is 20-35 percent coal tar pitch, a known human carcinogen. Several PAHs are suspected mutagens, carcinogens, and (or) teratogens. In the central and eastern U.S. where the coal-tar-based sealants dominate use, sum-PAH concentration in dust particles from sealcoated pavement is about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S. where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent. Source apportionment modeling indicates that particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recent lake sediment in 35 U.S. urban lakes and are the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in many of these lakes. Mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealcoat are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. In a recently completed study, volatilization fluxes of PAHs from sealcoated pavement were estimated to be about 60 times fluxes from unsealed pavement. Using a wide variety of methods, the author and colleagues have shown that coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major source of PAHs to the urban environment and might pose risks to aquatic life and human health.

  2. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  3. Multi-Discipline Collaboration for Sustainability in Heating Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchak, Christiana

    2008-11-01

    It was a dark and stormy night. The storyteller said, ``Let us each tell a story.'' The physicist expounded, ``Capture heat from rain on roofs to melt stored ice. Re-freeze melted ice with heat pumps. My new through-wall, multi-phase, mass-flow meter controls collecting, storing, transferring and pumping heat.'' At dawn, the engineer explained, ``Design a system to collect roof-heat from rain, solar and wind inputs. Heat is stored in freeze-thaw tanks and in soil under buildings and driveways.'' The architect adapted the new designs to beguile builders with plans for zonal heating that offers rapid zonal recovery, on demand. The businessman spun a tale of a new industry to mass produce affordable systems. The storyteller next instructed the team, ``Make it so.'' It was a dark and snowy night five years later. The homeowner said, ``My heat pump uses electricity from wind power to pump two thirds of my heat using stored energy from rain, sun, wind and soil.'' Sustainable heating of buildings will not be mythical if physicists develop new models for fluid motion and collaborate on educating other team members.

  4. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    PubMed

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  6. Assessment of bicycle-car accidents under four different types of collision.

    PubMed

    Raslavičius, Laurencas; Bazaras, Liudas; Keršys, Artūras; Lukoševičius, Vaidas; Makaras, Rolandas; Eidukynas, Valdas

    2017-03-01

    Bicycle riders are among the highest risk group in traffic. A cyclist simulation study captured kinematics and injuries to legs, pelvis, neck, and head for one human body size. We analyzed the number of parameters (forces acting on left and right tibia, head injury criterion, neck tensile force, neck shear force, and pelvic acceleration) for each of the four different cases: bicyclist ride out-residential driveway, motorist overtaking-undetected bicyclist, bicyclist left turn-same direction, and bicyclist right turn-opposite direction. The comparison of simulation outcomes for leg injuries with official hospital records has shown a very good correlation in terms of injury severity prediction. This study concludes that if countermeasures to prevent fatal cyclist injury in car impacts were to be concentrated on mitigating head and neck impact to the windscreen of the car, a dominant share of fatal cyclist crashes and severe traumatic head injury cases at collision speeds exceeding 40 km/h could be prevented.

  7. Metal sources and exposures in the homes of young children living near a mining-impacted Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Schaider, Laurel A; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Wright, Robert O; Shine, James P; Spengler, John D

    2011-01-01

    Children living near hazardous waste sites may be exposed to environmental contaminants, yet few studies have conducted multi-media exposure assessments, including residential environments where children spend most of their time. We sampled yard soil, house dust, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 in 59 homes of young children near an abandoned mining area and analyzed samples for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and manganese (Mn). In over half of the homes, dust concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, and As were higher than those in soil. Proximity to mine waste (chat) piles and the presence of chat in the driveway significantly predicted dust metals levels. Homes with both chat sources had Pb, Zn, Cd, and As dust levels two to three times higher than homes with no known chat sources after controlling for other sources. In contrast, Mn concentrations in dust were consistently lower than in soil and were not associated with chat sources. Mn dust concentrations were predicted by soil concentrations and occupant density. These findings suggest that nearby outdoor sources of metal contaminants from mine waste may migrate indoors. Populations farther away from the mining site may also be exposed if secondary uses of chat are in close proximity to the home.

  8. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles.

  9. Continuous overturn control of compactors/rollers by rollover protective structures

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Melvin L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report on the effectiveness of Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) in preventing continuous overturns of compactors/rollers. This study is a case-based analysis of government investigation reports of injury-related overturns of compactors/rollers. The overturns were predominately on construction sites including road and embankment construction in the USA. Other sites included driveway and roadway maintenance or repair and transporting of compactors/rollers either by driving or when loading on or unloading from trailers. The principle intervention observed in controlling a continuous overturn (a roll beyond 90° relative to the impact surface) was the presence of a ROPS on a compactor/roller that serves as an anti-roll bar. The main outcome measures are cases of compactor/roller overturns that are restricted to a 90° roll or are continuous (exceed a 90° roll.) All cases of an overturn in which a ROPS was present resulted in no continuous overturn, and the cases involved with no ROPS averaged an overturn of 301°, showing a propensity for a continuous overturn. This case-based analysis identified a ROPS on compactors/rollers as an effective control for reducing the risk of an overturn to 90° relative to the impact plane. PMID:21765649

  10. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  11. Permeable pavement and stormwater management systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Imran, H M; Akib, Shatirah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled stormwater runoff not only creates drainage problems and flash floods but also presents a considerable threat to water quality and the environment. These problems can, to a large extent, be reduced by a type of stormwater management approach employing permeable pavement systems (PPS) in urban, industrial and commercial areas, where frequent problems are caused by intense undrained stormwater. PPS could be an efficient solution for sustainable drainage systems, and control water security as well as renewable energy in certain cases. Considerable research has been conducted on the function of PPS and their improvement to ensure sustainable drainage systems and water quality. This paper presents a review of the use of permeable pavement for different purposes. The paper focuses on drainage systems and stormwater runoff quality from roads, driveways, rooftops and parking lots. PPS are very effective for stormwater management and water reuse. Moreover, geotextiles provide additional facilities to reduce the pollutants from infiltrate runoff into the ground, creating a suitable environment for the biodegradation process. Furthermore, recently, ground source heat pumps and PPS have been found to be an excellent combination for sustainable renewable energy. In addition, this study has identified several gaps in the present state of knowledge on PPS and indicates some research needs for future consideration.

  12. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Crane, Judy L; Watts, Alison W; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E Spencer

    2012-03-20

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments-including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air-contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  13. Omaha utility tests trenchless units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Like all gas utilities, Metropolitan Utility District of Omaha, Neb., is always looking for better, more efficient ways of installing underground facilities. The utility's growth plan was having an effect on the type of work performed by the construction division. Gas main installations in fully developed, all-electric subdivisions were becoming more common. This paper reports that this type of work involved extensive restoration when performed by conventional methods, due to the presence of established lawns, landscaping, driveways and other underground utilities, that added significantly to the overall cost of the project. Disruption of the lawns was an inconvenience and nuisance to the utility's customers, which the district wanted to minimize in the interest of good customer and public relations. As a result, the utility scheduled field demonstrations by various boring equipment makers. After several less-than-successful demonstrations by various manufacturers, the MUD contacted Midwest Pow-R Mole Co. Inc., for a test of the new Pow-R Mole directional boring system. The system was developed by Pow-R Devices Inc., Clarence Center, N.Y.

  14. Metal sources and exposures in the homes of young children living near a mining-impacted Superfund site

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Schaider, Laurel A.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Wright, Robert O.; Shine, James P.; Spengler, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Children living near hazardous waste sites may be exposed to environmental contaminants, yet few studies have conducted multi-media exposure assessments, including residential environments where children spend most of their time. We sampled yard soil, house dust, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 in 59 homes of young children near an abandoned mining area and analyzed samples for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and manganese (Mn). In over half of the homes, dust concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, and As were higher than those in soil. Proximity to mine waste (chat) piles and the presence of chat in the driveway significantly predicted dust metals levels. Homes with both chat sources had Pb, Zn, Cd, and As dust levels two to three times higher than homes with no known chat sources after controlling for other sources. In contrast, Mn concentrations in dust were consistently lower than in soil and were not associated with chat sources. Mn dust concentrations were predicted by soil concentrations and occupant density. These findings suggest that nearby outdoor sources of metal contaminants from mine waste may migrate indoors. Populations farther away from the mining site may also be exposed if secondary uses of chat are in close proximity to the home. PMID:21587306

  15. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  16. Passive heating of the ground surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyburczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  17. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Ballart, Cristina; Guerrero, Irene; Castells, Xavier; Barón, Sergio; Castillejo, Soledad; Alcover, M Magdalena; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus , the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled). Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category), wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park), general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR): 0.41) and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59). In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40) and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08). Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  18. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Elvidge, Christopher D; Tuttle, Benjamin T; Sutton, Paul C; Baugh, Kimberly E; Howard, Ara T; Milesi, Cristina; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2007-09-21

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density ofconstructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots,buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatialresolution is required to observe these features, the new product reports the estimateddensity of ISA on a one-km² grid based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA - thebrightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The model wascalibrated using 30-meter resolution ISA of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey.Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights andreference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States landarea is impervious surface (83,337 km²) and 0.43 % of the world's land surface (579,703km²) is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country(87,182 km²), but has only 67 m² of ISA per person, compared to 297 m² per person in theUSA. The distribution of ISA in the world's primary drainage basins indicates that watersheds damaged by ISA are primarily concentrated in the USA, Europe, Japan, China and India. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  19. The temporal changes in road stormwater runoff quality and the implications to first flush control in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaoke; Hou, Peiqiang; Wan, Wuxing; Ren, Yufen; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Yang, Le

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the quality of stormwater runoff from a driveway in the southwest mountainous urban area of Chongqing, China, from 2010 to 2011. The results showed that the mean concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 4.1, 2.4, and 2.2 times the grade V levels of the national surface water standard of China. The pollutant concentration peak preceded or synchronized with the rainfall intensity peak and occurred 10 min after the runoff started. The significant high pollutant concentration in the initial stage of the rainfall suggested that first flush control is necessary, especially for the most polluted constitutes, such as total suspended solids, COD, and TN. Three potential pollution sources were identified: the atmospheric dry and wet deposition (TN, NO₃(-)-N, NH₄(+)-N, and DCu), the road sediment and materials (total suspended solids, COD, and TP), and the vehicle emissions (DPb and DZn). Therefore, this study indicates that reductions in road sediments and material pollution and dry and wet deposition should be the priority factors for pollution control of road stormwater runoff in mountainous urban areas.

  20. Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat and PAHs: Implications for the Environment, Human Health, and Stormwater Management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20−35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them. PMID:22296333

  1. Distribution of pesticides in dust particles in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jaben; Reif, Ruben; Luo, Yuzhuo; Gan, Jay

    2016-07-01

    In regions with a mild climate, pesticides are often used around homes for pest control. Recent monitoring studies have linked pesticide use in residential areas to aquatic toxicity in urban surface water ecosystems, and suggested dust particles on paved surfaces as an important source of pesticides. To test the hypothesis that dust on hard surfaces is a significant source of pesticides, we evaluated spatial and temporal patterns of current-use insecticides in Southern California, and further explored their distribution as a function of particle sizes. Pyrethroid insecticides were detected in dust from the driveway, curb gutter and street at 53.5-94.8%, with median concentrations of 1-46 ng g(-1). Pyrethroid residues were uniformly distributed in areas adjacent to a house, suggesting significant redistribution. The total levels of pyrethroids in dust significantly (p < 0.01) decreased from October to February, suggesting rainfalls as a major mechanism to move pesticide residues offsite. Fipronil as well as its degradation products, were detected at 50.6-75.5%, and spatial and temporal patterns of fipronil residues suggested rapid transformations of fipronil to its biologically active intermediates. Moreover, pyrethroids were found to be enriched in fine particles that have a higher mobility in runoff than coarse particles. Results from this study highlight the widespread occurrence of pesticides in outdoor dust around homes and the potential contribution to downstream surface water contamination via rain-induced runoff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure pathway evaluations for sites that processed asbestos-contaminated vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Dearwent, Steve M; Durant, James T; Dyken, Jill J; Freed, Jennifer A; Moore, Susan McAfee; Wheeler, John S

    2005-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is currently evaluating the potential public health impacts associated with the processing of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite at various facilities around the country. Vermiculite ore contaminated with significant levels of asbestos was mined and milled in Libby, Montana, from the early 1920s until 1990. The majority of the Libby ore was then shipped to processing facilities for exfoliation. ATSDR initiated the National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) to identify and evaluate exposure pathways associated with these processing facilities. This manuscript details ATSDR's phased approach in addressing exposure potential around these sites. As this is an ongoing project, only the results from a selected set of completed site analyses are presented. Historical occupational exposures are the most significant exposure pathway for the site evaluations completed to date. Former workers also probably brought asbestos fibers home on their clothing, shoes, and hair, and their household contacts may have been exposed. Currently, most site-related worker and community exposure pathways have been eliminated. One community exposure pathway of indeterminate significance is the current exposure of individuals through direct contact with waste rock brought home for personal use as fill material, driveway surfacing, or soil amendment. Trace levels of asbestos are present in soil at many of the sites and buried waste rock has been discovered at a few sites; therefore, future worker and community exposure associated with disturbing on-site soil during construction or redevelopment at these sites is also a potential exposure pathway.

  3. On-road vehicle detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zehang; Bebis, George; Miller, Ronald

    2006-05-01

    Developing on-board automotive driver assistance systems aiming to alert drivers about driving environments, and possible collision with other vehicles has attracted a lot of attention lately. In these systems, robust and reliable vehicle detection is a critical step. This paper presents a review of recent vision-based on-road vehicle detection systems. Our focus is on systems where the camera is mounted on the vehicle rather than being fixed such as in traffic/driveway monitoring systems. First, we discuss the problem of on-road vehicle detection using optical sensors followed by a brief review of intelligent vehicle research worldwide. Then, we discuss active and passive sensors to set the stage for vision-based vehicle detection. Methods aiming to quickly hypothesize the location of vehicles in an image as well as to verify the hypothesized locations are reviewed next. Integrating detection with tracking is also reviewed to illustrate the benefits of exploiting temporal continuity for vehicle detection. Finally, we present a critical overview of the methods discussed, we assess their potential for future deployment, and we present directions for future research.

  4. The Usage of Rusboost Boosting Method for Classification of Impervious Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesikoglu, M. H.; Atasever, U. H.; Ozkan, C.; Besdok, E.

    2016-10-01

    Impervious surface areas are artificial structures covered by materials such as asphalt, stone, brick, rooftops and concrete. Buildings, parking lots, roads, driveways and sidewalks are shown as impervious surfaces. They increase depending on the population growth. The spatial development of impervious surface expansion is necessary for better understanding of the urbanization status and its effect on environment. There are different impervious surface determining approaches met in literature. In this paper, it is aimed to extract the impervious surface areas of Kayseri city, Turkey by using remote sensing techniques. It is possible to group these techniques under a few main topics as V-I-S (vegetation-impervious surface-soil) model, based on spectral mixture analysis or decision tree algorithms or impervious surface indices. According to these techniques, we proposed a new technique by using RUSBoost algorithm based on decision tree in this study. In this scope, Landsat 8 LDCM image belonging to July, 2013 was used. Determining of impervious surface areas accurately depends on accuracy of image classification methods. Therefore, satellite image was classified separately by using Classification Tree and RUSBoost boosting method which increases accuracy of the classification method based on decision tree. Classification accuracies of these supervised classification methods were compared and it was observed that the best overall accuracy was obtained with RUSBoost method. For this reason, RUSBoost method was preferred to determine impervious surface areas. The overall accuracies were obtained 95 % with Classification Tree and 97 % with RUSBoost boosting method.

  5. Cooler paving materials for heat-island mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.

    1998-07-01

    Many cities suffer summer daytime temperatures greater than their suburban or rural surroundings. One of the causes of this heat island phenomenon is the absorption of sunlight by dark pavements. In warm climates, the urban heating damages the environment by adding to air-conditioning demand and creating smog. If urban roads, driveways and walkways were paved with light colored, and consequently cooler, materials these penalties would be diminished. However, lighter materials may cost more than the usual asphalt materials, In this report, the dollar value of potential air conditioning and smog savings from lighter pavements is estimated, and compared to the extra cost of such roads. The extra cost is minimized if the lighter-colored coating is applied as a thin layer when normal maintenance is performed. The authors find that, in Los Angeles, increasing the albedo from 0.1 to 0.35, could produce an air-conditioning saving of $0.012/m{sub 2}-yr. and smog savings of about $0.06/m{sub 2}-yr. The present value of these savings, for the 5 year lifetime of the resurfacing, is about 5 times the annual saving, or about $0.36/m{sub 2}. (The particular climate and smog problem clearly influence this result.) Thus one could purchase a cooler material whose extra cost is this amount, with no net expense. If roads are cooler they may also last longer and thus save money.

  6. Formulating a programme of repairs to structural home injury hazards in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G; Kamalesh, Venugopal; Cunningham, Malcolm; Cunningham, Chris; Guria, Jagadish; Draper, Robert; Skelton, Pounamu

    2013-08-01

    Home injuries are a substantial health burden worldwide, with the home setting being at least as important as the road for injury. Focusing on common injury hazards presented by the home environment, we sought to examine the justification for significant expenditure on safety-related repairs to the housing stock. Trained inspectors assessed 961 New Zealand houses for injury hazards. Using administrative data from the Accident Compensation Corporation (the national injury insurance agency), 1328 home injuries were identified amongst the 1612 occupants of these houses over the 2006-2009 period. Telephone interviews gathered data on the location and nature of these injuries, and the attitudes of those injured to potential injury hazards in their homes. Commonly occurring injury hazards that could be repaired at modest cost were identified based on their prevalence estimated by the housing inspection, and their location with respect to the areas of the home where the injuries occurred (identified during the telephone interviews). About 38% of the home injuries studied were potentially related to a structural aspect of the home environment. Common safety hazards included the lack of working smoke detectors (65% of the sample), inadequately fenced driveways (55%), hot water temperatures measured at over 60° (49%) and poorly lit access to the house (34%). A protocol for identifying and repairing important common hazards was designed. The actual safety effects of this protocol are in the process of being examined in a randomised controlled trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EMERGENCY BRAKING IN ADULTS VERSUS NOVICE TEEN DRIVERS: RESPONSE TO SIMULATED SUDDEN DRIVING EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Venk; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death in teens in the United States. Newly licensed drivers are the group most at risk for crashes. Their driving skills are very new, still very often untested, so that their ability to properly react in an emergency situation remains a research question. Since it is impossible to expose human subjects to critical life threatening driving scenarios, researchers have been increasingly using driving simulators to assess driving skills. This paper summarizes the results of a driving scenario in a study comparing the driving performance of novice teen drivers (n=21) 16–17 year olds with 90 days of provisional licensure with that of experienced adult drivers (n=17) 25–50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years. As part of a 30 to 35 simulated drive that encompassed the most common scenarios that result in serious crashes, participants were exposed to a sudden car event. As the participant drove on a suburban road, a car surged from a driveway hidden by a fence on the right side of the road. To avoid the crash, participants must hard brake, exhibiting dynamic control over both attentional and motor resources. The results showed strong differences between the experienced adult and novice teen drivers in the brake pressure applied. When placed in the same situation, the novice teens decelerated on average 50% less than the experienced adults (p<0.01). PMID:26709330

  8. EMERGENCY BRAKING IN ADULTS VERSUS NOVICE TEEN DRIVERS: RESPONSE TO SIMULATED SUDDEN DRIVING EVENTS.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Helen S; Kandadai, Venk; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death in teens in the United States. Newly licensed drivers are the group most at risk for crashes. Their driving skills are very new, still very often untested, so that their ability to properly react in an emergency situation remains a research question. Since it is impossible to expose human subjects to critical life threatening driving scenarios, researchers have been increasingly using driving simulators to assess driving skills. This paper summarizes the results of a driving scenario in a study comparing the driving performance of novice teen drivers (n=21) 16-17 year olds with 90 days of provisional licensure with that of experienced adult drivers (n=17) 25-50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years. As part of a 30 to 35 simulated drive that encompassed the most common scenarios that result in serious crashes, participants were exposed to a sudden car event. As the participant drove on a suburban road, a car surged from a driveway hidden by a fence on the right side of the road. To avoid the crash, participants must hard brake, exhibiting dynamic control over both attentional and motor resources. The results showed strong differences between the experienced adult and novice teen drivers in the brake pressure applied. When placed in the same situation, the novice teens decelerated on average 50% less than the experienced adults (p<0.01).

  9. Implications of Use of Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat on Urban Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and improve the appearance of asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central and eastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35% crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—median total PAH concentrations in dust from CT-sealcoated pavement are 2,200 mg/kg compared to a median concentration of 11 mg/kg for dust from unsealed pavement. Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, often resulting in sediment concentrations above toxicity thresholds based on effects-based sediment quality guidelines. Acute 2-day laboratory toxicity testing of simulated runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) demonstrated that toxicity continues for samples collected for weeks or months following sealcoat application and that toxicity is enhanced by exposure to UV light. Using the fish-liver cell line RTL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  10. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and Water Quality of Urban Water Bodies: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.; Kienzler, A.; Devaux, A.; Bony, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and beautify the asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central, southern, and northeastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg PAHs, about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—PAH concentrations in fine particles (dust) from CT-sealcoated pavement are about 1,000 times higher than in dust from AS-sealcoated pavement (median total PAH concentrations 2,200 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively). Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, with implications for ecological health. Acute 2-d toxicity of runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to stream biota, demonstrated for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), continues for samples collected as long as weeks or months following sealcoat application. Using the fish-liver cell line RGL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems for at least several weeks after sealant application, and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  11. Using the KINEROS2 modeling framework to evaluate the increase in storm runoff from residential development in a semi-arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Goodrich, David C.; Unkrich, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in runoff from urbanization is well known; one extreme example comes from a 13 hectare residential neighborhood in southeast Arizona where runoff was 27 times greater than an adjacent grassland watershed over a forty‐month period from 2005 to 2008. Rainfall‐runoff modeling using the newly‐described KINEROS2 urban element and tension infiltrometer measurements indicate that 17±14 percent of this increase in runoff is due to a 53 percent decrease in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of constructed pervious areas, as compared to the undeveloped grassland. Directly connected impervious areas, primarily streets and driveways, cause 56 percent of the increase in runoff, and indirectly connected impervious areas, primarily rooftops and sidewalks, and a decrease in canopy interception account for the remaining 27 percent increase. Tension infiltrometer measurements show that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is about double in the grassland watershed than in the urban watershed, 6.2 ± 3.5mm/hr and 2.9 ± 1.6mm/hr, respectively. Ks in the urban watershed identified from calibrating the rainfall‐runoff model to measured runoff is 9.5 ± 2.8 mm/hr—higher than what was measured but much lower than the 26 mm/hr value indicated by a soil‐texture based KINEROS2 parameter look‐up table. A new component of the KINEROS2 modeling framework, the urban element, forms the basis for the model by simulating a contiguous row of houses and the adjoining street as a series of pervious and impervious overland flow planes. Tests using different levels of discretization found that watershed geometry can be represented in a simplified manner, although more detailed discretization led to better model performance.

  12. Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

  13. Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ΣPAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ΣPAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

  14. Results of the mobile gamma scanning activities in Wayne and Pequannock Townships, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.A.; Roberts, D.A.; Patania, V.P.; Foley, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    During the early 1980s the W. R. Grace site and the adjacent area were the focus of several radiological investigations. Radiological surveys revealed surface radionuclide concentrations greater than those acceptable under US Department of Energy (DOE) remedial action guidelines. In 1984, Congress assigned responsibility for cleanup of the W.R. Grace site to the Department of Energy. The property was redesignated as the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and in 1985 DOE began plans for survey/monitoring, and remedial action of nearby vicinity properties and the interim storage site. Evaluations of the radiological survey data in 1986 indicated radioactive contamination above current DOE guidelines at the off-site areas of parts of Township Park southwest of WISS, and parts of the Sheffield Brook area and railroad siding in Pequannock Township. Remedial action was conducted over several years of most of these areas and independent verification of remedial action was performed. A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a mobile radiological scanning survey of a stretch of public roadway in the immediate vicinity south of the WISS, extending northwest to the Pompton turnpike. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify at least 24 anomalous areas, some attributable to the naturally elevated levels in concrete, asphalt, and natural granite found in streets, driveways and landscaping materials in the area. Analyses of the biased soil samples taken in the ballpark also revealed slightly elevated thorium concentrations. However, soil concentration measurements when averaged over 100 m{sup 2} fall below the limits prescribed by DOE radiological guidelines established for this site. The anomalies may result from a wide range of sources, such as ash, granite, and fertilizer as well as materials from the former Grace facility.

  15. Modeling fault among accident--involved pedestrians and motorists in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karl; Brunner, I Made; Yamashita, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Using a comprehensive database of police-reported accidents in Hawaii, we describe the nature of pedestrian accidents over the period 2002-2005. Approximately 36% of the accidents occur in residential areas, while another 34% occur in business areas. Only 41.7% of the pedestrian accidents occur at intersections. More pedestrian crashes occur at non-intersection locations-including midblock locations, driveways, parking lots, and other off roadway locations. Approximately 38.2% of the crashes occur at crosswalk locations, while proportionately more (61.8%) of the pedestrian accidents occur at non-crosswalk locations. Using this database the human, temporal, roadway, and environmental factors associated with being "at-fault" for both pedestrians and drivers are also examined. Using techniques of logistic regression, several different explanatory models are constructed, to identify the factors associated with crashes producing fatalities and serious injuries. Finally, two pedestrian models (drunk males and young boys) and one driver model (male commuters) are developed to provide further understanding of pedestrian accident causation. Drunk male pedestrians who were jaywalking were in excess of 10x more likely than other groups to be at-fault in pedestrian accidents. Young boys in residential areas were also more likely to be at-fault. Male commuters in business areas in the morning were also found to have higher odds of being classified at-fault when involved in pedestrian accidents. The results of this study indicate that there should be a combination of enforcement and educational programs implemented for both the pedestrian and drivers to show those at-fault the consequences of their actions, and to reduce the overall number of accidents.

  16. Removal and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants in an urban stormwater bioretention facility.

    PubMed

    DiBlasi, Catherine J; Li, Houng; Davis, Allen P; Ghosh, Upal

    2009-01-15

    This research investigated the removal and fate of 16 USEPA priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from urban stormwater runoff through a bioretention cell. Bioretention is an infiltration/filtration practice containing a mixed layer of about 90 cm of soil, sand, and organic matter, planted with appropriate vegetation. Field water quality monitoring and bioretention media core analyses were performed. The results indicate that bioretention is a promising management practice to control runoff PAH pollutants. The PAH event mean concentration (EMC) reduction ranged from 31 to 99%, with a mean discharge EMC of 0.22 microg/L. The mass load decreased from a mean value of 0.0180 kg/ha yr to 0.0025 kg/ha yr, suggesting an average PAH mass load reduction of 87% to the discharging watershed. The most dominant PAH species monitored were fluoranthene and pyrene. Influent PAHs indicated strong affiliation with runoff total suspended solids (TSS). As such, PAH removal positively correlated with TSS removal. Low rainfall depth was associated with high influent PAH concentration and resulted in favorable PAH removal. Source investigation suggested that the PAHs measured in the monitored cell were from pyrogenic sources, likely resulting from vehicle combustion processes. Sealers used in parking lots and driveway coatings were also a possible source of PAHs. Media core analyses indicated that the intercepted PAH compounds transported only a few centimeters vertically in the soil media near the runoff entrance location, suggesting that a shallow cell design may be adequate for systems focusing on PAH removal.

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Radiological survey of Shiprock vicinity property SH15, Shiprock, New Mexico, October-November 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, K.F.; Justus, A.L.; Sholeen, C.M.; Smith, W.H.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    At the time of the survey, one residential structure was located on the property. The lands surrounding the structure were landscaped with lawn cover and other vegetation. The lands in the unlandscaped east section contained a large garden plot and a dirt driveway leading to the back easement. The assessment activities included determination of indoor and outdoor surface radiation levels, for both fixed and removable contamination, through direct instrument and smear (indoor only) surveys; measurement of ambient external penetrating radiation levels at 1-meter heights; and analyses of air and soil samples. No evidence of radioactive contamination was found in the residential structure; background levels of radioactivity were indicated throughout. Radiation exposure rates were less than the 20 ..mu..R/h above background limit specified in the EPA Standard. Short-term radon daughter measurements did not exceed the 0.02 WL limit for average annual concentration including background as specified in the EPA Standard. The assessment indicated elevated levels of radioactivity in the outside environs. General areas of contamination were found in the backyard, along the back easement and encompassing about 1200 ft/sup 2/ of land area there, and extending into the unlandscaped east section, encompassing about 2400 ft/sup 2/ there. Several discrete hot spots or localized areas were found within these general areas. Radiochemical analysis of the soil samples collected from the areas indicated radium concentrations of 64 +- 6 and 82 +- 8 pCi/g, which are in excess of the limit of 5 pCi/g above background. Subsurface soil sampling was not conducted, and thus the vertical extent of the radiological contamination is now known. Remedial action for this vicinity site should be considered.

  18. Quantifying the Components of Impervious Surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilley, Janet S.; Slonecker, E. Terrence

    2006-01-01

    This study's objectives were to (1) determine the relative contribution of impervious surface individual components by collecting digital information from high-resolution imagery, 1-meter or better; and to (2) determine which of the more advanced techniques, such as spectral unmixing or the application of coefficients to land use or land cover data, was the most suitable method that could be used by State and local governments as well as Federal agencies to efficiently measure the imperviousness in any given watershed or area of interest. The components of impervious surfaces, combined from all the watersheds and time periods from objective one were the following: buildings 29.2-percent, roads 28.3-percent, parking lots 24.6-percent; with the remaining three totaling 14-percent - driveways, sidewalks, and other, where other were any other features that were not contained within the first five. Results from objective two were spectral unmixing techniques will ultimately be the most efficient method of determining imperviousness, but are not yet accurate enough as it is critical to achieve accuracy better than 10-percent of the truth, of which the method is not consistently accomplishing as observed in this study. Of the three techniques in coefficient application tested, land use coefficient application was not practical, while if the last two methods, coefficients applied to land cover data, were merged, their end results could be to within 5-percent or better, of the truth. Until the spectral unmixing technique has been further refined, land cover coefficients should be used, which offer quick results, but not current as they were developed for the 1992 National Land Characteristics Data.

  19. The racial/ethnic distribution of heat risk-related land cover in relation to residential segregation.

    PubMed

    Jesdale, Bill M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Cushing, Lara

    2013-07-01

    We examined the distribution of heat risk-related land cover (HRRLC) characteristics across racial/ethnic groups and degrees of residential segregation. Block group-level tree canopy and impervious surface estimates were derived from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset for densely populated urban areas of the United States and Puerto Rico, and linked to demographic characteristics from the 2000 Census. Racial/ethnic groups in a given block group were considered to live in HRRLC if at least half their population experienced the absence of tree canopy and at least half of the ground was covered by impervious surface (roofs, driveways, sidewalks, roads). Residential segregation was characterized for metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico using the multigroup dissimilarity index. After adjustment for ecoregion and precipitation, holding segregation level constant, non-Hispanic blacks were 52% more likely (95% CI: 37%, 69%), non-Hispanic Asians 32% more likely (95% CI: 18%, 47%), and Hispanics 21% more likely (95% CI: 8%, 35%) to live in HRRLC conditions compared with non-Hispanic whites. Within each racial/ethnic group, HRRLC conditions increased with increasing degrees of metropolitan area-level segregation. Further adjustment for home ownership and poverty did not substantially alter these results, but adjustment for population density and metropolitan area population attenuated the segregation effects, suggesting a mediating or confounding role. Land cover was associated with segregation within each racial/ethnic group, which may be explained partly by the concentration of racial/ethnic minorities into densely populated neighborhoods within larger, more segregated cities. In anticipation of greater frequency and duration of extreme heat events, climate change adaptation strategies, such as planting trees in urban areas, should explicitly incorporate an environmental justice framework that addresses racial/ethnic disparities in HRRLC.

  20. Changing spatial patterns of evapotranspiration and deep drainage in response to the interactions among impervious surface arrangement, soil characteristics, and weather on a residential parcel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voter, C. B.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The introduction impervious surfaces in urban areas is a key driver of hydrologic change. It is now well understood that the amount of "effective" impervious area directly connected to the storm sewer network is a better indicator of hydrologic behavior than the total amount of impervious area. Most studies in urban hydrology have focused on the relationship between impervious connectivity and stormwater runoff or other surface water flows, with the result that the effect on subsurface flow is not as well understood. In the field, we observe differences in soil moisture availability that are dependent on proximity to impervious features and significant from a root water uptake perspective, which indicates that parcel-scale subsurface and plant water fluxes may also be sensitive to fine-scaled heterogeneity in impervious surface arrangement and connectivity. We use ParFlow with CLM, a watershed model with fully integrated variably-saturated subsurface flow, overland flow, and land-surface processes, to explore the extent to which soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and deep drainage vary under various impervious surface arrangement and soil condition scenarios, as well as under a range of precipitation regimes. We investigate the effect of several impervious surface and soil characteristics, including general lot layout, downspout disconnect, and direction of driveway/sidewalk slope, and soil compaction. We show that that some impervious connectivity schemes transfer more water from impervious areas to pervious ones and promote localized recharge by developing well-defined, fast-moving wetting fronts that are able to penetrate the root zone. Enhanced infiltration is translated more directly to recharge in normal to wet years but partitioned more often to transpiration in dry years, leading to a nonlinear relationship among precipitation, runoff and recharge.

  1. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  2. The Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Heat Risk–Related Land Cover in Relation to Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Cushing, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the distribution of heat risk–related land cover (HRRLC) characteristics across racial/ethnic groups and degrees of residential segregation. Methods: Block group–level tree canopy and impervious surface estimates were derived from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset for densely populated urban areas of the United States and Puerto Rico, and linked to demographic characteristics from the 2000 Census. Racial/ethnic groups in a given block group were considered to live in HRRLC if at least half their population experienced the absence of tree canopy and at least half of the ground was covered by impervious surface (roofs, driveways, sidewalks, roads). Residential segregation was characterized for metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico using the multigroup dissimilarity index. Results: After adjustment for ecoregion and precipitation, holding segregation level constant, non-Hispanic blacks were 52% more likely (95% CI: 37%, 69%), non-Hispanic Asians 32% more likely (95% CI: 18%, 47%), and Hispanics 21% more likely (95% CI: 8%, 35%) to live in HRRLC conditions compared with non-Hispanic whites. Within each racial/ethnic group, HRRLC conditions increased with increasing degrees of metropolitan area-level segregation. Further adjustment for home ownership and poverty did not substantially alter these results, but adjustment for population density and metropolitan area population attenuated the segregation effects, suggesting a mediating or confounding role. Conclusions: Land cover was associated with segregation within each racial/ethnic group, which may be explained partly by the concentration of racial/ethnic minorities into densely populated neighborhoods within larger, more segregated cities. In anticipation of greater frequency and duration of extreme heat events, climate change adaptation strategies, such as planting trees in urban areas, should explicitly incorporate an environmental justice framework that addresses

  3. Random parameter models for accident prediction on two-lane undivided highways in India.

    PubMed

    Dinu, R R; Veeraragavan, A

    2011-02-01

    Generalized linear modeling (GLM), with the assumption of Poisson or negative binomial error structure, has been widely employed in road accident modeling. A number of explanatory variables related to traffic, road geometry, and environment that contribute to accident occurrence have been identified and accident prediction models have been proposed. The accident prediction models reported in literature largely employ the fixed parameter modeling approach, where the magnitude of influence of an explanatory variable is considered to be fixed for any observation in the population. Similar models have been proposed for Indian highways too, which include additional variables representing traffic composition. The mixed traffic on Indian highways comes with a lot of variability within, ranging from difference in vehicle types to variability in driver behavior. This could result in variability in the effect of explanatory variables on accidents across locations. Random parameter models, which can capture some of such variability, are expected to be more appropriate for the Indian situation. The present study is an attempt to employ random parameter modeling for accident prediction on two-lane undivided rural highways in India. Three years of accident history, from nearly 200 km of highway segments, is used to calibrate and validate the models. The results of the analysis suggest that the model coefficients for traffic volume, proportion of cars, motorized two-wheelers and trucks in traffic, and driveway density and horizontal and vertical curvatures are randomly distributed across locations. The paper is concluded with a discussion on modeling results and the limitations of the present study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Time for prediction? The effect of presentation rate on predictive sentence comprehension during word-by-word reading

    PubMed Central

    Wlotko, Edward W.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2015-01-01

    Predictive processing is a core component of normal language comprehension, but the brain may not engage in prediction to the same extent in all circumstances. This study investigates the effects of timing on anticipatory comprehension mechanisms. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read two-sentence mini-scenarios previously shown to elicit prediction-related effects for implausible items that are categorically related to expected items (‘They wanted to make the hotel look more like a tropical resort. So along the driveway they planted rows of PALMS/PINES/TULIPS.’). The first sentence of every pair was presented in its entirety and was self-paced. The second sentence was presented word-by-word with a fixed stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of either 500 ms or 250 ms that was manipulated in a within-subjects blocked design. Amplitudes of the N400 ERP component are taken as a neural index of demands on semantic processing. At 500 ms SOA, implausible words related to predictable words elicited reduced N400 amplitudes compared to unrelated words (PINES vs. TULIPS), replicating past studies. At 250 ms SOA this prediction-related semantic facilitation was diminished. Thus, timing is a factor in determining the extent to which anticipatory mechanisms are engaged. However, we found evidence that prediction can sometimes be engaged even under speeded presentation rates. Participants who first read sentences in the 250 ms SOA block showed no effect of semantic similarity for this SOA, although these same participants showed the effect in the second block with 500 ms SOA. However, participants who first read sentences in the 500 ms SOA block continued to show the N400 semantic similarity effect in the 250 ms SOA block. These findings add to results showing that the brain flexibly allocates resources to most effectively achieve comprehension goals given the current processing environment. PMID:25987437

  6. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity.

  7. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  8. PAH Concentrations Decline Following 2006 Ban on Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealants in Austin, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    U.S. (including Lady Bird Lake) and were the primary cause of increasing PAH trends in recent decades. The results presented here are the first direct evidence that removing this source can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies. CT sealants are sprayed or painted on asphalt parking lots and driveways. The sealant abrades into fine particles that can be washed into streams and lakes and tracked into homes.

  9. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways.

  10. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface flows can occur as a

  11. Losses of glyphosate and AMPA via drainflow in a typical Belgian residential area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele

    2014-05-01

    Urban hard surfaces are considered as important facilitators for pesticide transport into urban streams. To obtain concurrent high-resolution data for a detailed investigation on the losses of pesticide runoff from hard surfaces, a monitoring campaign was performed in a typical Belgian residential area (9.5 ha) between 7 May and 7 August, 2013. The campaign yielded a concurrent dataset of rainfall (1-mm rainfall interval), discharge (1-min interval), glyphosate application by the residents and the occurrences of glyphosate and its major degradation product - aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the separated storm drainage outflow during 12 rainfall events. In addition, detailed information was obtained on the spatial characteristics of the study area. The resulting dataset allows us to investigate the relevance of catchment hydrology, urban surface properties and pesticide application to the transport and losses of glyphosate in a residential environment. During the campaign, glyphosate was only applied by local residents, mainly on their private driveways. As a result of their continuous use, both glyphosate and AMPA were detected in all analysed outflow samples, with maximum concentrations of 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L, respectively. Overall, the storm drainage system collected 0.43% of the applied amount of glyphosate. However, this loss rate varied considerably among rainfall events, ranging from 0.04% to 23.36%. According to statistical analysis of the 12 rainfall events, the loss rate was significantly correlated with three factors: the application amount prior to a rainfall event (p < 0.005), rainfall amount during the event (p < 0.02) and the weighted lag time between glyphosate application and the start of the rainfall event (negatively, p < 0.05). A regression analysis showed that these three factors can explain more than 85% of the variation in the loss rate of glyphosate. Furthermore, three types of glyphosate runoff were classified by a clustering

  12. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of California Almond Orchards Using Advanced Farming Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Schellenberg, Daniel; Saa Silva, Sebastian; Muhammad, Saiful; Sanden, Blake; Brown, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Mobilization of reactive nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, NOx, N2O, NO2- and NO3-) is perceived as one of the foremost challenges for modern agricultural production systems. Yet information to address the question of how advanced nitrogen (N) management alters reactive N mobilization is lacking. During 2009 to 2012 we monitored spatially constrained N2O emissions and potential leachable NO3-, along with yield-N content to examine their contribution to nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, fruit-N exported/fertilizer-N applied) for a modern, high yielding almond production system. This modern production system schedules irrigation to match evapotranspiration (ETc) estimated from the Penman-Montieth calculation of a reference evapotranspiration (ETo) times a seasonal crop coefficient (Kc) which was verified using eddy covariance and surface renewal latent heat flux estimates. Split N-fertilizer applications were targeted to tree-N demand and root proliferation. These production systems demand upwards of 300 kg N ha-1. NUE was found to be nearly 80% at an N application level allowing for economic sustainability of the system (308 kg N ha-1). When mobilization of N2O and NO3- were included in the NUE assessment, these systems were still highly sustainable in terms of N applied. We also monitored production and consumption of the greenhouse gases of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). These systems had relatively low levels of N2O emissions with emissions of N2O as a fraction of N-fertilizer applied being consistently less than IPCC Tier 1 emissions factors, and lower than the average estimated for most continental US farming systems. The system also demonstrated a capacity for net CH4 oxidation over the course of a season that occurred mainly in the driveways between tree rows that are kept dry over the course of the season in this arid environment. Our study indicated that tight management of water resources and targeted applications of N-fertilizer resulted in net positive

  13. Rapid Mapping of Surface Rupture from the South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, C. C.; Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid documentation (<1 day) of co-seismic surface rupture location and slip is essential for scientific and emergency response. We demonstrate how social media (text messaging and Twitter) and the emerging 3D data collection technique known as Structure from Motion (SfM), used in conjunction with traditional field reconnaissance, enabled us to rapidly locate and document surface ruptures from the Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. On the morning of the event, our field team used information available on social media to identify locations with potential surface rupture. Preliminary observations of surface rupture (measurements and geo-tagged photographs) were texted to the office-based team member who created digital maps of the rupture trace and shared them online via Twitter in near-real time. We documented many ephemeral features (such as offset roads, curbs, and driveways) along the rupture trace within 12 hours of the event, before these features were destroyed by road and infrastructure repair. We were able to return to most sites again within several days, allowing us to document continuing slip and create time-series datasets of offset features. After the collection and re-collection of data at selected sites, we made detailed measurements remotely using 3D models constructed with SfM. The ability to quantitatively project features into the fault plane using these models allows for accurate measurements of small features often difficult to observe and quantify in the field. Traditionally, even preliminary maps of rupture extent and offset magnitudes are not available for several days after an event because office-based processing and compilation is required. Because we were able to compile our data in real time, we distributed our results while they were still valuable for ongoing scientific response. Our work helped other science teams efficiently target fieldwork and instrument deployment; for example, one geodetic survey team used our surface rupture map to

  14. Wisconsin builds a distributed resources collaborative: Looking for local solutions that work

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.

    1995-12-01

    I`d like to tell you how I got involved in the DR Collaborative and why I`m here. John Nesbitt asked me to come, to be the public advocate, the bumblebee on the EPRI body politic. What follows is my own thought, not that of John or my fellow collaborators, who may or may not agree with me. How did I come to know John Nesbitt? In August 1991, I found that some Wisconsin utilities intended to run a 138 kV transmission line across my property, along the driveway where my kids ride their bikes, along the high ground where we walk to escape the mosquitoes in the summer, where we ski cross-country and admire the snowy view in the winter. As a result, I became intensely interested in the electric power business. One thing led to another. I got on the Board of Wisconsin Demand-Side Demonstrations (WDSD), representing a group called the Citizens` Utility Board (CUB). I met Mr. Nesbitt. We shared an interest in distributed resources (DR). Along with some others, we conspired to initiate the Targeted Area Planning (TAP) collaborative. TAP is what we call DR in Wisconsin. I began to talk in acronyms. The simple truth is, I detest transmission lines. And, since transmission lines are invariably hooked up to central generation, I have no love for big power plants either. That whole system approach looks excessive and outdated to me, a vestige of the nineteenth century, Jules Verne without the romance. My opinion is, who needs it? I am aware that my opinion is not shared by everyone. I grant you that transmission lines might be a mite more acceptable if the thousands of landowners like me who presently subsidize their existence were receiving compensation, say an annual commodity transfer fee, that reflected some small portion of the value of transmission lines in the present system. That is certainly not the case, and if it were, the present system, when and if deregulated, would price itself out of existence all the more quickly.

  15. A pre-and-post study of an urban renewal program in a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban renewal programs aim to target both the physical and social environments to improve the social capital, social connectedness, sense of community and economic conditions of residents of the neighbourhoods. We evaluated the impact of an urban renewal program on the health and well-being of residents of a socially disadvantaged community in south-western Sydney, Australia. Methods Pre- and post-urban renewal program surveys were conducted with householders by trained interviewers. The urban renewal program was conducted over 16 months and consisted of internal upgrades (including internal painting; replacement of kitchens, bathrooms and carpets; general maintenance), external upgrades (including property painting; new fencing, carports, letterboxes, concrete driveways, drainage and landscaping), general external maintenance, and social interventions such as community engagement activities, employment initiatives, and building a community meeting place. The questionnaire asked about demographic characteristics, self-reported physical activity, psychological distress, self-rated health, and perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. We used the paired chi-square test (McNemars test) to compare paired proportions. A Bonferroni corrected p-value of <0.0013 denoted statistical significance. Results Following the urban renewal program we did not find statistically significant changes in perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. However, post-urban renewal, more householders reported there were attractive buildings and homes in their neighbourhood (18% vs 64%), felt that they belonged to the neighbourhood (48% vs 70%), that their area had a reputation for being a safe place (8% vs 27%), that they felt safe walking down their street after dark (52% vs 85%), and that people who came to live in the neighbourhood would be more likely to stay rather than move elsewhere (13% vs 54%). Changes in

  16. A pre-and-post study of an urban renewal program in a socially disadvantaged neighbourhood in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, Bin; Maxwell, Michelle; Saddik, Basema; Lobb, Elizabeth; Byun, Roy; Gutierrez, Rodrigo; Paszek, John

    2012-07-12

    Urban renewal programs aim to target both the physical and social environments to improve the social capital, social connectedness, sense of community and economic conditions of residents of the neighbourhoods. We evaluated the impact of an urban renewal program on the health and well-being of residents of a socially disadvantaged community in south-western Sydney, Australia. Pre- and post-urban renewal program surveys were conducted with householders by trained interviewers. The urban renewal program was conducted over 16 months and consisted of internal upgrades (including internal painting; replacement of kitchens, bathrooms and carpets; general maintenance), external upgrades (including property painting; new fencing, carports, letterboxes, concrete driveways, drainage and landscaping), general external maintenance, and social interventions such as community engagement activities, employment initiatives, and building a community meeting place. The questionnaire asked about demographic characteristics, self-reported physical activity, psychological distress, self-rated health, and perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. We used the paired chi-square test (McNemars test) to compare paired proportions. A Bonferroni corrected p-value of <0.0013 denoted statistical significance. Following the urban renewal program we did not find statistically significant changes in perceptions of aesthetics, safety and walkability in the neighbourhood. However, post-urban renewal, more householders reported there were attractive buildings and homes in their neighbourhood (18% vs 64%), felt that they belonged to the neighbourhood (48% vs 70%), that their area had a reputation for being a safe place (8% vs 27%), that they felt safe walking down their street after dark (52% vs 85%), and that people who came to live in the neighbourhood would be more likely to stay rather than move elsewhere (13% vs 54%). Changes in psychological distress and self

  17. Exploring the impact of access designs on crash injury severity on multilane highways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Huang, Bing; Lu, Jian; Zhao, Jianyou; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Access design is a critical factor that influences the safety and mobility of urban/suburban multilane highways due to the interactions between access movements and through traffic. An effective way for improving the safety and mobility of multilane highways is to control access maneuvers by implementing appropriate access designs. Understanding the impact of access designs on crash injury severity is beneficial for implementing effective countermeasures to mitigate crash injury at access points. Thus, the objectives of this article are to investigate the impact of access designs on crash injury severity and identify contributing factors of crash injury severity at access points of multilane highways. A total of 1830 crash records were collected at 149 access points with different access designs for a period of 3 years (2008-2010) in Florida. A heterogeneous logit model, relaxing the constraint of identical variances across observations in the traditional ordered choice models, was developed to evaluate the impact of access designs on crash injury severity and identify contributing factors. The marginal effects of the developed model were used to interpret the impact of access designs and other contributing factors. At 4-leg access points, given that a crash has occurred, replacing full median openings with closed medians will reduce the probability of severe injury (fatality, incapacitating injury, or nonincapacitating injury) by 9.73 percent; substituting full median openings with directional median openings will reduce the probability of severe injury by 11.02 percent. At 3-leg access points, given that a crash has occurred, closed medians significantly experience a lower risk of severe injury than full median openings; however, there is no evidence that directional median openings are similarly effective. Other contributing factors of crash injury severity at access points were identified as number of lanes, shoulder width, median width, driveway density, left

  18. Back to the Future -Precipitation Extremes, Climate Variability, Environmental Planning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.

    2008-12-01

    --"The last major climatic oscillation peak was about 1856, or 74 years ago. Practically all of our important railroad and public highway work has been done since that time. Most of our parks systems driveways, and roads of all type for auto travel, in the various States, have been completed within the past 30 years, namely, beginning at the very lowest point of our climatic swing (1900-1910). There is every reason to believe, therefore, as the next 20 years comes on apace, we will witness considerable damage to work done during the past regime of weather."-- Schuman, 1931 At the beginning of the 21st century, as at the beginning of the 20th century, the fundamental question is whether the nation is more prepared for natural disasters today than it was eight decades ago. Indeed, the question is whether the best science, engineering and policy tools are in place to prepare for and respond to extreme events. Changes in the risk and magnitude of extreme precipitation events rank among the most studied impacts, and indicators (symptoms) of climatic variations. Extreme precipitation translates generally into extreme flooding, landslides, collapse of lifeline infrastructure, and the breakdown of public health services among others. In approaching the problem of quantifying the risk and magnitude of extreme precipitation events, there are two major challenges: 1) it is difficult to characterize "observed" (20th century) conditions due to the lack of long-term observations - i.e., short and incomplete historical records; and 2) it is difficult to characterize "predicted" (21st century) conditions due to the lack of skill of precipitation forecasts at spatial and temporal scales meaningful for impact studies, and the short-duration of climate model simulations themselves. The first challenge translates in estimating the probability of occurrence (rare) and magnitude (very large) of events that may have not happened yet. The second challenge is that of quantifying

  19. Assessment of cancer risks due to environmental exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Driece, Hermen A L; Siesling, Sabine; Swuste, Paul H J J; Burdorf, Alex

    2010-07-01

    In a rural area widespread pollution of friable and non-friable waste products was present, used to harden dirt tracks, yards, and driveways during 1935-1974. Exposure to environmental asbestos was assessed by a site approach, based on number of polluted sites within postal code areas, and by a household approach, based on number of households in the close vicinity to polluted sites within postal code areas. Based on asbestos soil investigations, 293 sites were identified with asbestos waste material at the surface, of which 77% contained crocidolite fibres as well as chrysotile fibres. The 293 sites-at-risk varied from 5 m(2) to 2722 m(2) and were surrounded by 347 households within 100 m of these sites. Distance to the plant was associated with the number of sites (r=0.36), and with the number of households (r=0.52). However, categorization of postal code areas into low, intermediate or high likelihood of exposure to asbestos showed a modest agreement between the site and household approach. In the site approach a total of 2.3 million person-years at risk were estimated with an average exposure of 1674 fibres/m(3) and an expected 1.8 cases of malignant mesothelioma each year. The household approach resulted in estimates of 1.2 million person-years at risk, and 0.9 cases of malignant mesothelioma per year, respectively. This study illustrates that asbestos waste on the surface of roads and yards in an area with over 130,000 inhabitants may result in long-term exposure to asbestos that will cause several cases of malignant mesothelioma each year. Although distance to plant, number of polluted sites and number of exposed household were associated, the modest agreement among these measures of exposure indicate that the exposure assessment strategy chosen in a particular study may result in considerable misclassification. Without detailed information on individual behaviour within the polluted area, it is difficult to show that a more individually oriented approach

  20. Land cover mapping and change detection in urban watersheds using QuickBird high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, David Barry

    The objective of this research was to develop methods for urban land cover analysis using QuickBird high spatial resolution satellite imagery. Such imagery has emerged as a rich commercially available remote sensing data source and has enjoyed high-profile broadcast news media and Internet applications, but methods of quantitative analysis have not been thoroughly explored. The research described here consists of three studies focused on the use of pan-sharpened 61-cm spatial resolution QuickBird imagery, the spatial resolution of which is the highest of any commercial satellite. In the first study, a per-pixel land cover classification method is developed for use with this imagery. This method utilizes a per-pixel classification approach to generate an accurate six-category high spatial resolution land cover map of a developing suburban area. The primary objective of the second study was to develop an accurate land cover change detection method for use with QuickBird land cover products. This work presents an efficient fuzzy framework for transforming map uncertainty into accurate and meaningful high spatial resolution land cover change analysis. The third study described here is an urban planning application of the high spatial resolution QuickBird-based land cover product developed in the first study. This work both meaningfully connects this exciting new data source to urban watershed management and makes an important empirical contribution to the study of suburban watersheds. Its analysis of residential roads and driveways as well as retail parking lots sheds valuable light on the impact of transportation-related land use on the suburban landscape. Broadly, these studies provide new methods for using state-of-the-art remote sensing data to inform land cover analysis and urban planning. These methods are widely adaptable and produce land cover products that are both meaningful and accurate. As additional high spatial resolution satellites are launched and the

  1. Hydrology, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient yields in nearshore areas of four lakes in northern Wisconsin, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Hunt, Randall J.; Greb, Steven R.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Krohelski, James T.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of shoreline development on water quality and nutrient yields in nearshore areas of four lakes in northern Wisconsin were investigated from October 1999 through September 2001. The study measured surface runoff and ground-water flows from paired developed (sites containing lawn, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways) and undeveloped (mature and immature woods) catchments adjacent to four lakes in northern Wisconsin. Water samples from surface runoff and ground water were collected and analyzed for nutrients. Coupled with water volumes, loads and subsequent yields of selected constituents were computed for developed and undeveloped catchments. The median runoff from lawn surfaces ranged from 0.0019 to 0.059 inch over the catchment area. Median surface runoff estimates from the wooded catchments were an order of magnitude less than those from the lawn catchments. The increased water volumes from the lawn catchments resulted in greater nutrient loads and subsequent annual nutrient yields from the developed sites. Soil temperature and soil moisture were measured at two sites with mixed lawn and wooded areas. At both of these sites, the area covered with a lawn commonly was warmer than the wooded area. No consistent differences in soil moisture were found. A ground-water model was constructed to simulate the local flow systems at two of the paired catchments. Model simulations showed that much of the ground water delivered to the lake originated from distant areas that did not contribute runoff directly to the lake. Surface runoff and ground-water nutrient concentrations from the lawn and wooded catchments did not have apparent patterns. Some of the median concentrations from lawns were significantly different (at the 0.05 significance level) from those at wooded catchments. Water wells and piezometers were sampled for chemical analyses three times during the study period. Variability in the shallow ground-water chemistry over time in the lawn samples was

  2. Environmental setting, water budget, and stream assessment for the Broad Run watershed, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.

    2005-01-01

    . Assessment of fluvial-geomorphic conditions included large-scale mapping of stream classes within the Broad Run watershed and in-depth study of three representative stream reaches also within the Broad Run watershed. Based on the total distance of all stream reaches classified within the Broad Run watershed, 61 percent were classified as C-class, 14 percent as E-class, 13 percent as B-class, 5 percent as F-class, 4 percent as undifferentiated B- and F-class, 2 percent as G-class, and less than 1 percent as A-class. The map of stream classes indicates that the Broad Run watershed currently has no large-scale areas of stream impairment and that, generally, the stream is not entrenched and the main branch of the Broad Run has an available, functioning flood plain. Smaller tributary streams, however, showed signs of localized entrenchment due to site-specific influences such as natural stream-channel evolution, localized channelization, localized contraction due to road and driveway crossings, and (or) increased localized runoff. For example, one small reach along a tributary channel was observed to become entrenched due to runoff originating from a new housing development. Entrenched stream reaches are merely located by large-scale mapping and require individual assessment to determine potential causes of entrenchment and (or) future restorative actions. Three in-depth geomorphic study sites showed that the Broad Run can currently be considered graded or in a state of dynamic equilibrium. The sites did, however, identify certain vulnerabilities to future changes within the watershed. These vulnerabilities included disruption of the present sediment supply, including both increases and (or) reductions in the current sediment loads within the Broad Run; increases in both magnitude and duration of storm-water runoff; encroachment of development onto present flood-plain areas, and (or) alterations to riparian zones. Assessment of stream-quality conditions includ

  3. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Azaarenes in Runoff from Freshly Applied Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT-sealcoat) is extensively applied to asphalt parking lots and driveways in the U.S. and Canada. Toxicity to fish and invertebrates of runoff from pavement to which CT-sealcoat has been freshly applied has been reported, but relatively little is known about how concentrations of chemicals in runoff change in the hours to days following sealcoat application. We measured the concentrations of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 7 azaarenes in 9 samples of simulated runoff from a coal-tar-sealed test plot collected at increasing intervals from 5 hours to 16 weeks following application. Azaarenes, several of which are common constituents in coal-tar pitch, and their oxidized derivatives, azaarones, are an emerging group of little-studied heterocyclic chemicals. Runoff samples were collected by spraying 25 L of a diluted groundwater to 10 m2 on sealed pavement and retrieving the runoff downgradient where the runoff pooled against spill berms. Unfiltered samples were analyzed by GC/MS following liquid-liquid extraction. In the first sample (t=5 hr), phenanthrene had the highest concentration (130 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Concentrations of the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2 and 3 ring) decreased during the 16 weeks following application, and concentrations of the higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 ring) increased, coincident with an increase in the concentration of suspended particulates. In the final sample (t=16 weeks), fluoranthene had the highest concentration (36 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Of the azaarenes measured, concentrations of acridine and carbazole (107 and 750 μg/L, respectively) in the initial sample exceeded those of any of the PAHs measured except phenanthrene; acridine and carbazole concentrations decreased over the 5 weeks to <5% of their initial values. Samples of dried sealcoat were analyzed the day of application and 5 weeks later. Samples were