Science.gov

Sample records for driving transgene expression

  1. The mouse muscle creatine kinase promoter faithfully drives reporter gene expression in transgenic Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wayland; Neff, Eric S; Furlow, J David

    2004-06-17

    Developing Xenopus laevis experience two periods of muscle differentiation, once during embryogenesis and again at metamorphosis. During metamorphosis, thyroid hormone induces both muscle growth in the limbs and muscle death in the tail. In mammals, the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene is activated during the differentiation from myoblasts to myocytes and has served as both a marker for muscle development and to drive transgene expression in transgenic mice. Transcriptional control elements are generally highly conserved throughout evolution, potentially allowing mouse promoter use in transgenic X. laevis. This paper compares endogenous X. laevis MCK gene expression and the mouse MCK (mMCK) promoter driving a green fluorescent protein reporter in transgenic X. laevis. The mMCK promoter demonstrated strong skeletal muscle-specific transgene expression in both the juvenile tadpole and adult frog. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrate the functional conservation of regulatory sequences in vertebrate muscle gene promoters and illustrate the utility of using X. laevis transgenesis for detailed comparative study of mammalian promoter activity in vivo.

  2. A promoter that drives gene expression preferentially in male transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiling; Ma, Yamin; Li, Wenzhi; Xu, Wei; Ma, Li; Fu, Guoxing; Tian, Xiaohua; Wang, Yueling; Li, Xu; Bythwood, Tameka; Richards, Jendai; Akinbami, Mukaila A; Song, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Gender-preferential gene expression is a widespread phenomenon in humans. It is important to study how gender differences influence the pathogenesis of various diseases and response to specific drugs. The aim of this study is to determine if the mouse albumin enhancer/promoter may serve as the promoter to introduce gender-preferential gene expression in transgenic animals. We created four independent transgenic rat lines in which the human C-reactive protein transgene was under the control of mouse albumin enhancer/promoter. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that transgene expression in the liver of male rats was significantly higher than transgene expression in the female rats (P < 0.05).There was a 5.3-fold (male/female) difference in line-519, and a 12.2-fold (male/female) difference in line-488. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the serum of male transgenic rats had a 13- to 679-fold difference at the protein level on transgene production compared with female transgenic rats. The male-to-female difference in gene expression was 10- to 17-fold in the liver of transgenic rats. Orchiectomy dramatically reduced protein production from the transgene in the liver. Testosterone administration into female rats did not increase the transgene expression, but estrogen administration into the male rats reduced transgene expression. This study provides a valuable tool for investigating the pathological roles of genes that are expressed in a gender-preferential manner in human disease.

  3. A promoter from sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus drives transgene expression in banana and other monocot and dicot plants.

    PubMed

    Schenk, P M; Sagi, L; Remans, T; Dietzgen, R G; Bernard, M J; Graham, M W; Manners, J M

    1999-04-01

    A 1369 bp DNA fragment (Sc) was isolated from a full-length clone of sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) and was shown to have promoter activity in transient expression assays using monocot (banana, maize, millet and sorghum) and dicot plant species (tobacco, sunflower, canola and Nicotiana benthamiana). This promoter was also tested for stable expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. These experiments showed that this promoter could drive high-level expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in most plant cells. The expression level was comparable to the maize ubiquitin promoter in standardised transient assays in maize. In transgenic banana plants the expression levels were variable for different transgenic lines but was generally comparable with the activities of both the maize ubiquitin promoter and the enhanced cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The Sc promoter appears to express in a near-constitutive manner in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. The promoter from sugarcane bacilliform virus represents a useful tool for the high-level expression of foreign genes in both monocot and dicot transgenic plants that could be used similarly to the CaMV 35S or maize polyubiquitin promoter.

  4. Sugarcane Loading Stem Gene promoters drive transgene expression preferentially in the stem.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Richard L; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Promoter regions of six sugarcane Loading Stem Gene (ScLSG) alleles were analyzed using bioinformatic and transgenic approaches. Stable transgene expression analyses, on multiple independent lines per construct, revealed differences between ScLSG promoters in absolute levels and in tissue-selectivity of luciferase reporter activity. Four promoters drove peak expression in the sucrose-loading zone and maintained substantial expression throughout mature stems. One drove a pattern of gradual increase along the stem maturation profile. In general, stem: root expression ratio increased with plant age. The ScLSG5 promoter had the fewest light-enhanced and root-expression motifs in bioinformatic analysis, and drove the highest level and specificity of transgene expression in stems. This indicates the potential to further improve the stem specificity of ScLSG promoter sequences by eliminating enhancers of expression in other tissues. An intron in the 5'UTR was important for expression strength. The ScLSG promoters will be useful for research and biotechnology in sugarcane, where the tailored expression of transgenes in stems is important for enhanced accumulation of sugar or value-added products, and for development as a bioenergy feedstock.

  5. Pineapple translation factor SUI1 and ribosomal protein L36 promoters drive constitutive transgene expression patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Koia, Jonni; Moyle, Richard; Hendry, Caroline; Lim, Lionel; Botella, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    The availability of a variety of promoter sequences is necessary for the genetic engineering of plants, in basic research studies and for the development of transgenic crops. In this study, the promoter and 5' untranslated regions of the evolutionally conserved protein translation factor SUI1 gene and ribosomal protein L36 gene were isolated from pineapple and sequenced. Each promoter was translationally fused to the GUS reporter gene and transformed into the heterologous plant system Arabidopsis thaliana. Both the pineapple SUI1 and L36 promoters drove GUS expression in all tissues of Arabidopsis at levels comparable to the CaMV35S promoter. Transient assays determined that the pineapple SUI1 promoter also drove GUS expression in a variety of climacteric and non-climacteric fruit species. Thus the pineapple SUI1 and L36 promoters demonstrate the potential for using translation factor and ribosomal protein genes as a source of promoter sequences that can drive constitutive transgene expression patterns.

  6. Recombinant Human Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Promoter Drives Selective AAV-Mediated Transgene Expression in Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Fröhlich, Dominik; Klugmann, Claudia B; Wen, Xin; Harasta, Anne E; Ramkumar, Roshini; Spencer, Ziggy H T; Housley, Gary D; Klugmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are hereditary central white matter disorders caused by oligodendrocyte dysfunction. Recent clinical trials for some of these devastating neurological conditions have employed an ex vivo gene therapy approach that showed improved endpoints because cross-correction of affected myelin-forming cells occurred following secretion of therapeutic proteins by transduced autologous grafts. However, direct gene transfer to oligodendrocytes is required for the majority of leukodystrophies with underlying mutations in genes encoding non-secreted oligodendroglial proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are versatile tools for gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) and proof-of-concept studies in rodents have shown that the use of cellular promoters is sufficient to target AAV-mediated transgene expression to glia. The potential of this strategy has not been exploited. The major caveat of the AAV system is its limited packaging capacity of ~5 kb, providing the rationale for identifying small yet selective recombinant promoters. Here, we characterize the human myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) promoter for reliable targeting of AAV-mediated transgene expression to oligodendrocytes in vivo. A homology screen revealed highly conserved genomic regions among mammalian species upstream of the transcription start site. Recombinant AAV expression cassettes carrying the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by truncated versions of the recombinant MAG promoter (2.2, 1.5 and 0.3 kb in size) were packaged as cy5 vectors and delivered into the dorsal striatum of mice. At 3 weeks post-injection, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes expressing the reporter were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Our results revealed that both 2.2 and 1.5 kb MAG promoters targeted more than 95% of transgene expression to oligodendrocytes. Even the short 0.3 kb fragment conveyed high oligodendroglial specific transgene

  7. Recombinant Human Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Promoter Drives Selective AAV-Mediated Transgene Expression in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Fröhlich, Dominik; Klugmann, Claudia B.; Wen, Xin; Harasta, Anne E.; Ramkumar, Roshini; Spencer, Ziggy H. T.; Housley, Gary D.; Klugmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are hereditary central white matter disorders caused by oligodendrocyte dysfunction. Recent clinical trials for some of these devastating neurological conditions have employed an ex vivo gene therapy approach that showed improved endpoints because cross-correction of affected myelin-forming cells occurred following secretion of therapeutic proteins by transduced autologous grafts. However, direct gene transfer to oligodendrocytes is required for the majority of leukodystrophies with underlying mutations in genes encoding non-secreted oligodendroglial proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are versatile tools for gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) and proof-of-concept studies in rodents have shown that the use of cellular promoters is sufficient to target AAV-mediated transgene expression to glia. The potential of this strategy has not been exploited. The major caveat of the AAV system is its limited packaging capacity of ~5 kb, providing the rationale for identifying small yet selective recombinant promoters. Here, we characterize the human myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) promoter for reliable targeting of AAV-mediated transgene expression to oligodendrocytes in vivo. A homology screen revealed highly conserved genomic regions among mammalian species upstream of the transcription start site. Recombinant AAV expression cassettes carrying the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by truncated versions of the recombinant MAG promoter (2.2, 1.5 and 0.3 kb in size) were packaged as cy5 vectors and delivered into the dorsal striatum of mice. At 3 weeks post-injection, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes expressing the reporter were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Our results revealed that both 2.2 and 1.5 kb MAG promoters targeted more than 95% of transgene expression to oligodendrocytes. Even the short 0.3 kb fragment conveyed high oligodendroglial specific transgene

  8. Evaluation of viral and mammalian promoters for driving transgene expression in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Zhang Guisheng; Knapp, Joseph E.; Liu Dexi . E-mail: dliu@pitt.edu

    2006-01-13

    Fifteen luciferase plasmid constructs driven by various promoters including cytomegalovirus (CMV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), human serum albumin (SA), {alpha}-1 antitrypsin (AAT), cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, mouse CYP2b10, human amyloid precursor protein (APP), chicken {beta} actin (ACT), nuclear factor {kappa} B (NF{kappa}B), and heat shock protein 70 (HS) promoters were hydrodynamically introduced into mouse hepatocytes, and the level and persistence of luciferase gene expression were examined. Eight hours post-gene transfer, the CMV and AAT promoters showed the highest activity, followed by the CYP2D6, HS, and RSV promoters which were slightly less active. The human serum albumin promoter exhibited the lowest activity among the promoters examined. The time course of gene expression showed a two-phase decline in luciferase activity with a rapid phase within First 5-7 days and a slower decline thereafter. Results from Southern and Northern blot analyses revealed a good correlation between the decline of luciferase activity and the decrease in mRNA level, suggesting promoter silencing as the possible mechanism for the observed transient luciferase gene expression. Inclusion of EBN1 and oriP sequences of Epstein-Barr virus into the plasmid extended the period of active transcription for about one week. These results provide important information concerning the role of promoters in regulating transgene expression and for the proper design of plasmids for gene expression and gene therapy.

  9. The promoter of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 4 drives developmentally targeted transgene expression mainly in adult cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Young; Ahn, Kyu Youn; Lee, Seon Min; Koh, Jeong Tae; Chun, Byeong Jo; Bae, Choon Sang; Lee, Kee Sook; Kim, Kyung Keun

    2004-05-21

    Restricting transgene expression to specific cell types and maintaining long-term expression are major goals for gene therapy. Previously, we cloned brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 4 (BAI1-AP4), a novel brain-specific protein that interacts with BAI1, and found that it was developmentally upregulated in the adult brain. In this report, we isolated 5 kb of the 5' upstream sequence of the mouse BAI1-AP4 gene and analyzed its promoter activity. Functional analyses demonstrated that an Sp1 site was the enhancer, and the region containing the transcription initiation site and an AP2-binding site was the basal promoter. We examined the ability of the BAI1-AP4 promoter to drive adult brain-specific expression by using it to drive lacZ expression in transgenic (TG) mice. Northern blot analyses showed a unique pattern of beta-galactosidase expression in TG brain, peaking at 1 month after birth, like endogenous BAI1-AP4. Histological analyses demonstrated the same localization and developmental expression of beta-galactosidase and BAI1-AP4 in most neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate that TG mice carrying the BAI1-AP4 promoter could be a valuable model system for region-specific brain diseases.

  10. Driving midgut-specific expression and secretion of a foreign protein in transgenic mosquitoes with AgAper1 regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Abraham, E G; Donnelly-Doman, M; Fujioka, H; Ghosh, A; Moreira, L; Jacobs-Lorena, M

    2005-06-01

    The Anopheles gambiae adult peritrophic matrix protein 1 (AgAper1) regulatory elements were used to drive the expression of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a protein known to disrupt malaria parasite development in mosquitoes. These AgAper1 regulatory elements were sufficient to promote the accumulation of PLA2 in midgut epithelial cells before a blood meal and its release into the lumen upon blood ingestion. Plasmodium berghei oocyst formation was reduced by approximately 80% (74-91% range) in transgenic mosquitoes. Blood-seeking behaviour and survival of AgAper1-PLA2 transgenic mosquitoes were comparable to sibling wild-type mosquitoes, while fertility was substantially lower. Ultrastructural studies suggest that decreased fitness is a consequence of internal damage to midgut epithelial cells.

  11. The β-actin gene promoter of rohu carp (Labeo rohita) drives reporter gene expressions in transgenic rohu and various cell lines, including spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Mohanta, Ramya; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Nayak, Swapnarani; Jena, Sasmita; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Nandanpawar, Priyanka

    2015-06-01

    We previously characterized the β-actin gene promoter of Indian domesticated rohu carp (Labeo rohita) and made a reporter construct via fusion to green fluorescence protein (GFP) cDNA. In this study, the same construct was used to breed transgenic rohu fish. About 20% of the transgenic offspring showed ubiquitous expression of the reporter GFP gene. In a few of the transgenic fish, we documented massive epithelial and/or muscular expression with visible green color under normal light. The expression of GFP mRNA was higher in the muscle tissue of transgenic fish than in that of non-transgenic fish. A highly efficient nucleofection protocol was optimized to transfect proliferating spermatogonial cells of rohu using this reporter construct. The β-actin promoter also drove expressions in HEK293 (derived from human embryonic kidney cells), K562 (human leukemic cells) and SF21 (insect ovarian cells) lines. These findings imply conserved regulatory mechanisms of β-actin gene expression across eukaryotes. Furthermore, the isolated β-actin promoter with consensus regulatory elements has the potential to be used in generating transgenic carp with genes of interest and in basic biology research.

  12. Relative transgene expression frequencies in homozygous versus hemizygous transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Ping; Opsahl, Margaret L; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Morley, Steven D; West, John D

    2013-12-01

    We have used a simple binomial model of stochastic transgene inactivation at the level of the chromosome or transgene, rather than the cellular level, for the analysis of two mouse transgenic lines that show variegated patterns of expression. This predicts the percentages of cells that express one, both or neither alleles of the transgene in homozygotes from the observed percentages of cells, which express the transgene in hemizygotes. It adequately explained the relationship between the numbers of cells expressing the transgene in hemizygous and homozygous mosaic 21OH/LacZ mouse adrenals and mosaic BLG/7 mouse mammary glands. The binomial model also predicted that a small proportion of cells in mosaic mammary glands of BLG/7 homozygotes would express both BLG/7 alleles but published data indicated that all cells expressing the transgene showed monoallelic expression. Although it didn't fit all of the BLG/7 data as precisely as a more complex model, which used several ad hoc assumptions to explain these results, the simple binomial model was able to explain the relationship in observed transgene expression frequencies between hemizygous and homozygous mosaic tissues for both 21OH/LacZ and BLG/7 mice. It may prove to be a useful general model for analysing other transgenic animals showing mosaic transgene expression.

  13. [Inheritance and expression stability of transgene in transgenic animals].

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technology is one of the most hotspots in biology. In the past decade, the progress in animal cloning has provided an alternative method to improve transgenic efficiency. Many kinds of transgenic animals have been successfully produced via the combination of transfection and nuclear transfer. However, the ultimate aim of transgenesis is not to produce several transgenic animals, but to service for the needs of human. In animal production, transgenic technology has been used to breed new livestock, which has received a lot of attention in China. It has been evidenced that inheritance and expression instability of transgene in transgenic animals is still the major limitation, which is attributed to position effect, epigenetic modification, and hereditary efficiency of transgene. In this review, we discussed the three points for promoting the industrialization of animal transgenic breeding.

  14. Expression specificity of GFAP transgenes.

    PubMed

    Su, Mu; Hu, Huimin; Lee, Youngjin; d'Azzo, Alessandra; Messing, Albee; Brenner, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein found predominantly in astrocytes. This specificity has recommended the GFAP gene promoter for targeting transgene expression to astrocytes. Although both we [Brenner et al. J. Neurosci. 14:1030-1037, (1994)] and others [Mucke et al. New Biol. 3:465-474, (1991)] have reported astrocyte specificity for GFAP promoters, we demonstrate here that these DNA sequences can also direct activity in neurons. The pattern of neuronal activity varied with both the nature of the expressed sequence and the transgene insertion site. Specifically, neuronal expression was very high for a protective protein/cathepsin A minigene, moderate for lacZ and undetectable for GFP. These findings, coupled with a survey of the literature, recommend that investigators using GFAP-driven transgenes verify specificity for each line studied, using a detection system whose sensitivity is sufficient to detect a compromising level of misexpression.

  15. Feline neural progenitor cells II: use of novel plasmid vector and hybrid promoter to drive expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor transgene.

    PubMed

    You, X Joann; Yang, Jing; Gu, Ping; Liew, Chee Gee; Klassen, Henry J

    2012-01-01

    Sustained transgene expression is required for the success of cell transplant-based gene therapy. Most widely used are lentiviral-based vectors which integrate into the host genome and thereby maintain sustained transgene expression. This requires integration into the nuclear genome, and potential risks include activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Plasmids have been used; however lack of sustained expression presents an additional challenge. Here we used the pCAG-PyF101-eGFP plasmid to deliver the human GDNF gene to cat neural progenitor cells (cNPCs). This vector consists of a CAGG composite promoter linked to the polyoma virus mutant enhancer PyF101. Expression of an episomal eGFP reporter and GDNF transgene were stably maintained by the cells, even following induction of differentiation. These genetically modified cells appear suitable for use in allogeneic models of cell-based delivery of GDNF in the cat and may find veterinary applications should such strategies prove clinically beneficial.

  16. Introducing Transgenes Into Insect Populations Using Combined Gene-drive Strategies: Modeling and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magori, Krisztian; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Engineered underdominance (EU), meiotic drive (MD) and Wolbachia have been proposed as mechanisms for driving anti-pathogen transgenes into natural populations of insect vectors of human diseases. EU can drive transgenes to high and stable frequencies but requires the release of sizeable numbers of engineered insects. MD and Wolbachia either cannot maintain high frequencies of transgenes or lack appropriate expression in critical tissues, but both can drive the transgenes to spread from very low initial frequencies. Here we use mathematical models to assess the utility of combining EU with MD or with Wolbachia. Under some conditions, the combination of EU and MD results in a more efficient transgene-drive strategy than either mechanism alone. This combined strategy could drive the transgenes to stable fixation and would require fewer released insects than EU alone, especially when only males are released. However, a combination of EU and Wolbachia does not work better than EU alone because it requires the release of even more engineered insects. PMID:17785193

  17. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  18. Transgene expression systems in the Triticeae cereals.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Götz; Himmelbach, Axel; Chen, Wanxin; Douchkov, Dimitar K; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The control of transgene expression is vital both for the elucidation of gene function and for the engineering of transgenic crops. Given the dominance of the Triticeae cereals in the agricultural economy of the temperate world, the development of well-performing transgene expression systems of known functionality is of primary importance. Transgenes can be expressed either transiently or stably. Transient expression systems based on direct or virus-mediated gene transfer are particularly useful in situations where the need is to rapidly screen large numbers of genes. However, an unequivocal understanding of gene function generally requires that a transgene functions throughout the plant's life and is transmitted through the sexual cycle, since this alone allows its effect to be decoupled from the plant's response to the generally stressful gene transfer event. Temporal, spatial and quantitative control of a transgene's expression depends on its regulatory environment, which includes both its promoter and certain associated untranslated region sequences. While many transgenic approaches aim to manipulate plant phenotype via ectopic gene expression, a transgene sequence can be also configured to down-regulate the expression of its endogenous counterpart, a strategy which exploits the natural gene silencing machinery of plants. In this review, current technical opportunities for controlling transgene expression in the Triticeae species are described. Apart from protocols for transient and stable gene transfer, the choice of promoters and other untranslated regulatory elements, we also consider signal peptides, as they too govern the abundance and particularly the sub-cellular localization of transgene products.

  19. Transgene expression in the basidiomycete root pathogen Armillaria mellea.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toward development of a genetic transformation system for Armillaria mellea, we used particle bombardment to identify promoters for driving transgene expression. The plasmid tested was pYES-hph-004iGFP, on which the green fluorescence protein gene, gfp, is linked to the Agaricus bisporus gpdII promo...

  20. The effect of gene drive on containment of transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John M

    2009-05-21

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever continue to be a major health problem through much of the world. Several new potential approaches to disease control utilize gene drive to spread anti-pathogen genes into the mosquito population. Prior to a release, these projects will require trials in outdoor cages from which transgenic mosquitoes may escape, albeit in small numbers. Most genes introduced in small numbers are very likely to be lost from the environment; however, gene drive mechanisms enhance the invasiveness of introduced genes. Consequently, introduced transgenes may be more likely to persist than ordinary genes following an accidental release. Here, we develop stochastic models to analyze the loss probabilities for several gene drive mechanisms, including homing endonuclease genes, transposable elements, Medea elements, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia, engineered underdominance genes, and meiotic drive. We find that Medea and Wolbachia present the best compromise between invasiveness and containment for the six gene drive systems currently being considered for the control of mosquito-borne disease.

  1. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  2. Transgenic control of perforin gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenheld, M.G.; Podack, E.R.; Levy, R.B.

    1995-03-01

    Perforin is a pore-forming effector molecule of CTL and NK cells. To characterize perforin gene expression and its transcriptional control mechanisms in vivo, expression of a cell surface tag, i.e., human CD4, was driven by 5.1 kb of the murin perforin 5{prime} flanking and promoter region in transgenic mice. Six out of seven transgenic lines expressed the perforin-tag hybrid gene at low to intermediate levels, depending on the integration site. Transgene expression occurred in all cells that physiologically are able to express perforin. At the whole organ level, significant amounts of transgenic mRNA and endogenous perforin mRNA were co-expressed in the lymphoid organs, as well as in the lung, the ileum, the oviduct/uterus, and the bone marrow. At the single cell level, the perforin tag was present on NK cells and on CD8{sup +}, as well as on CD4{sup +} cells. Also targeted were Thy-1.2{sup +} {gamma}{delta} T cells, but not Thy-1.2{sup -} {gamma}{delta} T cells, B cells, nor monocytes. During thymic T cell development, transgene expression occurred in double negative (CD4{sup -}CD8{sup -}) thymocytes and was detected at all subsequent stages, but exceeded the expression levels of the endogenous gene in the thymus. In conclusion, the analyzed perforin 5{prime} flanking and promoter region contains important cis-acting sequences that restrict perforin expression to T cells and NK cells, and therefore provides a unique tool for manipulating T cell and/or Nk cell-mediated immune responses in transgenic mice. On the other hand, the normal control of perforin gene expression involves at least one additional negative control mechanism that was not mediated by the transgenic promoter and upstream region. This control restricts perforin gene expression in thymically developing T cells and in most resting peripheral T cells, but can be released upon T cell activation. 43 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Variegated transgene expression in mouse mammary gland is determined by the transgene integration locus.

    PubMed Central

    Dobie, K W; Lee, M; Fantes, J A; Graham, E; Clark, A J; Springbett, A; Lathe, R; McClenaghan, M

    1996-01-01

    Mice carrying an ovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) transgene secrete BLG protein into their milk. To explore transgene expression stability, we studied expression levels in three BLG transgenic mouse lines. Unexpectedly, two lines exhibited variable levels of transgene expression. Copy number within lines appeared to be stable and there was no evidence of transgene rearrangement. In the most variable line, BLG production levels were stable within individual mice in two successive lactations. Backcrossing demonstrated that genetic background did not contribute significantly to variable expression. Tissue in situ hybridization revealed mosaicism of transgene expression within individual mammary glands from the two variable lines; in low expressors, discrete patches of cells expressing the transgene were observed. Transgene protein concentrations in milk reflected the proportion of epithelial cells expressing BLG mRNA. Furthermore, chromosomal in situ hybridization revealed that transgene arrays in both lines are situated close to the centromere. We propose that mosaicism of transgene expression is a consequence of the chromosomal location and/or the nature of the primary transgene integration event. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8692874

  4. Aberrant gene expression in deceased transgenic cloned calves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wang, S H; Dai, Y P; Li, N

    2009-05-01

    Several transgenic cloned species have been obtained; however, the efficiency of transgenic cloning remains very low, even lower than cloning. Many experiments have demonstrated abnormal growth and development, and inappropriate gene expression in cloned animals. In this study, we examined the expression of 19 development-related genes in lungs of three normal controls and three aberrant transgenic cloned calves. Results showed in transgenic cloned calves, 84.2% genes had decreased expression levels, however, 5.3% genes had increased levels. This study suggests transgenic cloning and the aberrant expression would cause abnormal growth and development in transgenic cloned calves. To our knowledge, this is the first time that gene expression was examined in transgenic cloned cattle. These findings may have some implications in understanding the low efficiency of the transgenic cloning.

  5. Differential regulation of laminin b1 transgene expression in the neonatal and adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sharif, K A; Baker, H; Gudas, L J

    2004-01-01

    Laminins are the major glycoproteins present in basement membrane, a type of extracellular matrix. We showed that the LAMB1 gene, which encodes the laminin beta1 subunit, is transcriptionally activated by retinoic acid in embryonic stem cells. However, little information is available concerning LAMB1 developmental regulation and spatial expression in the adult mouse brain. In this study we used transgenic mice expressing different lengths of LAMB1 promoter driving beta-galactosidase to investigate developmental and adult transcriptional regulation in the regions of the brain in which the laminin beta1 protein is expressed. CNS expression was not observed in transgenic mice carrying a 1.4LAMB1betagal construct. Mice carrying a 2.5LAMB1betagal construct expressed the LAMB1 transgene, as assayed by X-gal staining, only in the molecular layer of the neonatal cerebellum. In contrast, a 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene showed broad regional expression in the adult mouse brain, including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, colliculi, striatum, and substantia nigra. Similar expression patterns were observed for the endogenous laminin beta1 protein and for the 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene, analyzed with an antibody against the beta-galactosidase protein. The 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene expression in the hippocampal tri-synaptic circuit suggests a role for the LAMB1 gene in learning and memory.

  6. Oviduct-specific expression of human neutrophil defensin 4 in lentivirally generated transgenic chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongxin; Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Li, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yaqiong; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    The expression of oviduct-specific recombinant proteins in transgenic chickens is a promising technology for the production of therapeutic biologics in eggs. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector encoding an expression cassette for human neutrophil defensin 4 (HNP4), a compound that displays high activity against Escherichia coli, and produced transgenic chickens that expressed the recombinant HNP4 protein in egg whites. After the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant HNP4 protein was tested at the cellular level, a 2.8-kb ovalbumin promoter was used to drive HNP4 expression specifically in oviduct tissues. From 669 injected eggs, 218 chickens were successfully hatched. Ten G0 roosters, with semens identified as positive for the transgene, were mated with wild-type hens to generate G1 chickens. From 1,274 total offspring, fifteen G1 transgenic chickens were positive for the transgene, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The results of the Southern blotting and genome walking indicated that a single copy of the HNP4 gene was integrated into chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 of the chickens. As expected, HNP4 expression was restricted to the oviduct tissues, and the levels of both transcriptional and translational HNP4 expression varied greatly in transgenic chickens with different transgene insertion sites. The amount of HNP4 protein expressed in the eggs of G1 and G2 heterozygous transgenic chickens ranged from 1.65 μg/ml to 10.18 μg/ml. These results indicated that the production of transgenic chickens that expressed HNP4 protein in egg whites was successful.

  7. Oviduct-Specific Expression of Human Neutrophil Defensin 4 in Lentivirally Generated Transgenic Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongxin; Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Li, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yaqiong; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    The expression of oviduct-specific recombinant proteins in transgenic chickens is a promising technology for the production of therapeutic biologics in eggs. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector encoding an expression cassette for human neutrophil defensin 4 (HNP4), a compound that displays high activity against Escherichia coli, and produced transgenic chickens that expressed the recombinant HNP4 protein in egg whites. After the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant HNP4 protein was tested at the cellular level, a 2.8-kb ovalbumin promoter was used to drive HNP4 expression specifically in oviduct tissues. From 669 injected eggs, 218 chickens were successfully hatched. Ten G0 roosters, with semens identified as positive for the transgene, were mated with wild-type hens to generate G1 chickens. From 1,274 total offspring, fifteen G1 transgenic chickens were positive for the transgene, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The results of the Southern blotting and genome walking indicated that a single copy of the HNP4 gene was integrated into chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 of the chickens. As expected, HNP4 expression was restricted to the oviduct tissues, and the levels of both transcriptional and translational HNP4 expression varied greatly in transgenic chickens with different transgene insertion sites. The amount of HNP4 protein expressed in the eggs of G1 and G2 heterozygous transgenic chickens ranged from 1.65 μg/ml to 10.18 μg/ml. These results indicated that the production of transgenic chickens that expressed HNP4 protein in egg whites was successful. PMID:26020529

  8. Efficient Generation of Mice with Consistent Transgene Expression by FEEST

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Jiang, Yonghua; Mu, Libing; Liu, Yanbin; Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Aiqun; Tang, Nan; Chen, Ting; Luo, Minmin; Yu, Lei; Gao, Shaorong; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models are widely used in biomedical research; however, current techniques for producing transgenic mice are limited due to the unpredictable nature of transgene expression. Here, we report a novel, highly efficient technique for the generation of transgenic mice with single-copy integration of the transgene and guaranteed expression of the gene-of-interest (GOI). We refer to this technique as functionally enriched ES cell transgenics, or FEEST. ES cells harboring an inducible Cre gene enabled the efficient selection of transgenic ES cell clones using hygromycin before Cre-mediated recombination. Expression of the GOI was confirmed by assaying for the GFP after Cre recombination. As a proof-of-principle, we produced a transgenic mouse line containing Cre-activatable tTA (cl-tTA6). This tTA mouse model was able to induce tumor formation when crossed with a transgenic mouse line containing a doxycycline-inducible oncogene. We also showed that the cl-tTA6 mouse is a valuable tool for faithfully recapitulating the clinical course of tumor development. We showed that FEEST can be easily adapted for other genes by preparing a transgenic mouse model of conditionally activatable EGFR L858R. Thus, FEEST is a technique with the potential to generate transgenic mouse models at a genome-wide scale. PMID:26573149

  9. Transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing fluorescent proteins for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) nude mouse with ubiquitous GFP expression. The GFP nude mouse was obtained by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the β-actin promoter drives GFP expression in essentially all tissues. In the adult mice, many organs brightly expressed GFP, including the spleen, heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum as well as the circulatory system. The liver expressed GFP at a lesser level. The red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic nude mouse was obtained by crossing non-transgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives RFP (DsRed2) expression in essentially all tissues. In the RFP nude mouse, the organs all brightly expressed RFP, including the heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, liver, duodenum, the male and female reproductive systems; brain and spinal cord; and the circulatory system, including the heart, and major arteries and veins. The skinned skeleton highly expressed RFP. The bone marrow and spleen cells were also RFP positive. The cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) nude mouse was developed by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic CK/ECFP mouse in which the β-actin promoter drives expression of CFP in almost all tissues. In the CFP nude mice, the pancreas and reproductive organs displayed the strongest fluorescence signals of all internal organs, which vary in intensity. The GFP, RFP, and CFP nude mice when transplanted with cancer cells of another color are powerful models for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) at the cellular level.

  10. Generation of stable Xenopus laevis transgenic lines expressing a transgene controlled by weak promoters.

    PubMed

    L'hostis-Guidet, Anne; Recher, Gaëlle; Guillet, Brigitte; Al-Mohammad, Abdulrahim; Coumailleau, Pascal; Tiaho, François; Boujard, Daniel; Madigou, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    Combining two existing protocols of trangenesis, namely the REMI and the I-SceI meganuclease methods, we generated Xenopus leavis expressing a transgene under the control of a promoter that presented a restricted pattern of activity and a low level of expression. This was realized by co-incubating sperm nuclei, the I-SceI enzyme and the transgene prior to transplantation into unfertilized eggs. The addition of the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element in our constructs further enhanced the expression of the transgene without affecting the tissue-specificity of the promoter activity. Using this combination of methods we produced high rates of fully transgenic animals that stably transmitted the transgene to the next generations with a transmission rate of 50% indicating a single integration event.

  11. qPCR for quantification of transgene expression and determination of transgene copy number.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a mature technology that can be used to accurately quantify the number of copies of a target nucleic acid in a sample. Here, we describe a method for using this technology to determine the copy number of a transgene stably integrated into a plant's genome and to ascertain the level of transgene expression.

  12. Goat uromodulin promoter directs kidney-specific expression of GFP gene in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue-Jin; Chretien, Nathalie; Bilodeau, Annie S; Zhou, Jiang Feng; Lazaris, Anthoula; Karatzas, Costas N

    2005-01-01

    Background Uromodulin is the most abundant protein found in the urine of mammals. In an effort to utilize the uromodulin promoter in order to target recombinant proteins in the urine of transgenic animals we have cloned a goat uromodulin gene promoter fragment (GUM promoter) and used it to drive expression of GFP in the kidney of transgenic mice. Results The GUM-GFP cassette was constructed and transgenic mice were generated in order to study the promoter's tissue specificity, the GFP kidney specific expression and its subcellular distribution. Tissues collected from three GUM-GFP transgenic mouse lines, and analyzed for the presence of GFP by Western blotting and fluorescence confirmed that the GUM promoter drove expression of GFP specifically in the kidney. More specifically, by using immuno-histochemistry analysis of kidney sections, we demonstrated that GFP expression was co-localized, with endogenous uromodulin protein, in the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limbs (TAL) of Henle's loop and the early distal convoluted tubule in the kidney. Conclusion The goat uromodulin promoter is capable of driving recombinant protein expression in the kidney of transgenic mice. The goat promoter fragment cloned may be a useful tool in targeting proteins or oncogenes in the kidney of mammals. PMID:15823198

  13. Glucose metabolic gene expression in growth hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Panserat, Stéphane; Kamalam, Biju Sam; Fournier, Jeanne; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    Salmonids are generally known to be glucose intolerant. However, previous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon display modified nutritional regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis compared to non-transgenic fish, suggesting the potential for better use of glucose in GH transgenic fish. To examine this in detail, GH transgenic and non-transgenic coho salmon were subjected to glucose tolerance test and subsequent metabolic assessments. After intra-peritoneal injection of 250mg/kg glucose, we analysed post-injection kinetics of glycaemia and expression of several key target genes highly involved in glucose homeostasis in muscle and liver tissues. Our data show no significant differences in plasma glucose levels during peak hyperglycaemia (3-6h after injection), demonstrating a similar glucose tolerance between transgenic and non transgenic. However, and unrelated to the hyperglycaemic episode, GH transgenic fish return to a slightly lower basal glycaemia values 24h after injection. Correspondingly, GH transgenic fish exhibited higher mRNA levels of glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in liver, and glucose transporter (GLUT4) in muscle. These data suggest that these metabolic actors may be involved in different glucose use in GH transgenic fish, which would be expected to influence the glucose challenge response. Overall, our data demonstrate that GH transgenic coho salmon may be a pertinent animal model for further study of glucose metabolism in carnivorous fish.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Control of Transgene Expression in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stankunas, Kryn

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic zebrafish research has provided valuable insights into gene functions and cell behaviors directing vertebrate development, physiology, and disease models. Most approaches use constitutive transgene expression and therefore do not provide control over the timing or levels of transgene induction. We describe an inducible gene expression system that uses new tissue-specific zebrafish transgenic lines that express the Gal4 transcription factor fused to the estrogen-binding domain of the human estrogen receptor. We show these Gal4-ERT driver lines confer rapid, tissue-specific induction of UAS-controlled transgenes following tamoxifen exposure in both embryos and adult fish. We demonstrate how this technology can be used to define developmental windows of gene function by spatiotemporal-controlled expression of constitutively active Notch1 in embryos. Given the array of existing UAS lines, the modular nature of this system will enable many previously intractable zebrafish experiments. PMID:24643048

  15. Biodegradation of explosives by transgenic plants expressing pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    French, C E; Rosser, S J; Davies, G J; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1999-05-01

    Plants offer many advantages over bacteria as agents for bioremediation; however, they typically lack the degradative capabilities of specially selected bacterial strains. Transgenic plants expressing microbial degradative enzymes could combine the advantages of both systems. To investigate this possibility in the context of bioremediation of explosive residues, we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase, an enzyme derived from an explosive-degrading bacterium that enables degradation of nitrate ester and nitroaromatic explosives. Seeds from transgenic plants were able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mM glycerol trinitrate (GTN) or 0.05 mM trinitrotoluene, at concentrations that inhibited germination and growth of wild-type seeds. Transgenic seedlings grown in liquid medium with 1 mM GTN showed more rapid and complete denitration of GTN than wild-type seedlings. This example suggests that transgenic plants expressing microbial degradative genes may provide a generally applicable strategy for bioremediation of organic pollutants in soil.

  16. Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50 kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:23586046

  17. Expression systems and species used for transgenic animal bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50 kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors.

  18. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

    PubMed

    Huber, Reinhard C; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa; Lillico, Simon; Sandøe, Peter; Sørensen, Dorte B; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Olsson, I Anna S

    2012-08-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology--animal welfare--has not been approached through systematic assessment and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals along various stages of post natal development. The protocol used covered reproductory performance and behaviour in GFP and wildtype sows and general health and development, social behaviour, exploratory behaviour and emotionality in GFP and wildtype littermates from birth until an age of roughly 4 months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs expressing GFP as healthy. Although the results are not surprising in the light of previous experience, they give a more solid fundament to the evaluation of GFP expression as being relatively non-invasive in pigs. The present study may furthermore serve as starting point for researchers aiming at a systematic characterization of welfare relevant effects in the line of transgenic pigs they are working with.

  19. Generation of transgenic dogs that conditionally express green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Hong, So Gun; Jang, Goo; Kwon, Mo Sun; Koo, Bon Chul; Kim, Teoan; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Ko, Chemyong; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2011-06-01

    We report the creation of a transgenic dog that conditionally expresses eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) under the regulation of doxycycline. Briefly, fetal fibroblasts infected with a Tet-on eGFP vector were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Subsequently reconstructed oocytes were transferred to recipients. Three clones having transgenes were born and one dog was alive. The dog showed all features of inducible expression of eGFP upon doxycycline administration, and successful breeding resulted in eGFP-positive puppies, confirming stable insertion of the transgene into the genome. This inducible dog model will be useful for a variety of medical research studies.

  20. Cross-contamination with tamoxifen induces transgene expression in non-exposed inducible transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Brake, Rachael L; Simmons, Paul J; Begley, C Glenn

    2004-12-30

    Inducible transgenic mouse models that impose a constraint on both temporal and spatial expression of a given transgene are invaluable. These animals facilitate experiments that can address the role of a specific cell or group of cells within an animal or in a particular window of time. A common approach to achieve inducibility involves the site-specific recombinase 'Cre', which is linked to a modified version of one of various steroid hormone-binding domains. Thus, the expression of Cre is regulated such that a functional nuclear transgene product can only be generated with the addition of an exogenous ligand. However, critical requirements of this system are that the nuclear localization of the transgene product be tightly regulated, that the dosage of the inducing agent remains consistent among experimental animals and that the transgene cassette cannot express in the absence of the inducing agent. We used the Cre ER(T2) cassette, which is regulated by the addition of the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen to determine whether cross-contamination of tamoxifen between animals housed together can be a significant source of spurious results. We found that cross-contamination of exogenous tamoxifen does occur. It occurred in all animals tested. We suggest that the mechanism of contamination is through exposure to tamoxifen in the general environment and/or to coprophagous behavior. These results have important implications for the interpretation and design of experiments that use 'inducible' transgenic animals.

  1. Colored medaka and zebrafish: transgenics with ubiquitous and strong transgene expression driven by the medaka β-actin promoter.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Nozomi; Ando, Kazunori; Kudo, Akira; Kinoshita, Masato; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2012-12-01

    Conditional cell labeling, cell tracing, and genetic manipulation approaches are becoming increasingly important in developmental and regenerative biology. Such approaches in zebrafish research are hampered by the lack of an ubiquitous transgene driver element that is active at all developmental stages. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) β-actin (Olactb) promoter, which drives constitutive transgene expression during all developmental stages, and the analysis of adult organs except blood cell types. Taking advantage of the compact medaka promoter, we succeeded in generating a zebrafish transgenic (Tg) line with unprecedentedly strong and widespread transgene expression from embryonic to adult stages. Moreover, the Tg carries a pair of loxP sites, which enables the reporter fluorophore to switch from DsRed2 to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). We induced Cre/loxP recombination with Tg(hsp70l: mCherry-t2a-Cre(ERt2) ) in the double Tg embryo and generated a Tg line that constitutively expresses EGFP. We further demonstrate the powerful application of Olactb-driven Tgs for cell lineage tracing using transplantation experiments with embryonic cells at the shield stage and adult cells of regenerating fin. Thus, the use of promoter elements from medaka is an alternative approach to generate Tgs with stronger and even novel expression patterns in zebrafish. The Olactb promoter and the Tg lines presented here represent an important advancement for the broader use of Cre/loxP-based Tg applications in zebrafish. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  2. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G B Sunil; Ganapathi, T R; Revathi, C J; Srinivas, L; Bapat, V A

    2005-10-01

    Embryogenic cells of bananan cv. Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the 's' gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Four different expression cassettes (pHBS, pHER, pEFEHBS and pEFEHER) were utilized to optimize the expression of HBsAg in banana. The transgenic nature of the plants and expression of the antigen was confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants were estimated by ELISA for all the four constructs. Maximum expression level of 38 ng/g F.W. of leaves was noted in plants transformed with pEFEHBS grown under in vitro conditions, whereas pHER transformed plants grown in the green house showed the maximum expression level of 19.92 ng/g F.W. of leaves. Higher monoclonal antibody binding of 67.87% of the antigen was observed when it was expressed with a C-terminal ER retention signal. The buoyant density in CsCl of HBsAg derived from transgenic banana leaves was determined and found to be 1.146 g/ml. HBsAg obtained from transgenic banana plants is similar to human serum derived one in buoyant density properties. The transgenic plants were grown up to maturity in the green house and the expression of HBsAg in the fruits was confirmed by RT-PCR. These transgenic plants were multiplied under in vitro using floral apex cultures. Attempts were also made to enhance the expression of HBsAg in the leaves of transgenic banana plants by wounding and/or treatment with plant growth regulators. This is the first report on the expression of HBsAg in transgenic banana fruits.

  3. A conditional transgenic mouse line for targeted expression of the stem cell marker LGR5.

    PubMed

    Norum, Jens Henrik; Bergström, Åsa; Andersson, Agneta Birgitta; Kuiper, Raoul V; Hoelzl, Maria A; Sørlie, Therese; Toftgård, Rune

    2015-08-15

    LGR5 is a known marker of embryonic and adult stem cells in several tissues. In a mouse model, Lgr5+ cells have shown tumour-initiating properties, while in human cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma and colon cancer, LGR5 expression levels are increased: however, the effect of increased LGR5 expression is not fully understood. To study the effects of elevated LGR5 expression levels we generated a novel tetracycline-responsive, conditional transgenic mouse line expressing human LGR5, designated TRELGR5. In this transgenic line, LGR5 expression can be induced in any tissue depending on the expression pattern of the chosen transcriptional regulator. For the current study, we used transgenic mice with a tetracycline-regulated transcriptional transactivator linked to the bovine keratin 5 promoter (K5tTA) to drive expression of LGR5 in the epidermis. As expected, expression of human LGR5 was induced in the skin of double transgenic mice (K5tTA;TRELGR5). Inducing LGR5 expression during embryogenesis and early development resulted in macroscopically and microscopically detectable phenotypic changes, including kink tail, sparse fur coat and enlarged sebaceous glands. The fur and sebaceous gland phenotypes were reversible upon discontinued expression of transgenic LGR5, but this was not observed for the kink tail phenotype. There were no apparent phenotypic changes if LGR5 expression was induced at three weeks of age. The results demonstrate that increased expression of LGR5 during embryogenesis and the neonatal period alter skin development and homeostasis.

  4. Production of cloned transgenic cow expressing omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Duan, Biao; Pang, Daxin; Zhang, Li; Yuan, Ting; Xue, Lian; Ni, Daibang; Cheng, Lei; Dong, Shuhua; Wei, Zhuying; Li, Lin; Yu, Ming; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan; Lai, Liangxue; Dai, Yifan; Li, Guang-Peng

    2012-06-01

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are important for human health. Alternative resources of n-3 PUAFs created by transgenic domestic animals would be an economic approach. In this study, we generated a mfat-1 transgenic cattle expressed a Caenorhabditis elegans gene, mfat-1, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Fatty acids analysis of tissue and milk showed that all of the examined n-3 PUAFs were greatly increased and simultaneously the n-6 PUAFs decreased in the transgenic cow. A significantly reduction of n-6/n-3 ratios (P<0.05) in both tissue and milk were observed.

  5. Human coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression in transgenic mouse prostate tumors enhances adenoviral delivery of genes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yunhua; Peng, Weidan; Verbitsky, Amy; Chen, Jiping; Wu, Lily; Rauen, Katherine A; Sawicki, Janet A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic mice that recapitulate the progression of human diseases are potentially useful models for testing the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. Their use in pre-clinical testing of adenovirally-delivered gene therapies, however, is limited because of restricted cell surface expression of Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) in mice. To develop a more suitable transgenic mouse model for testing adenoviral-based gene therapies for prostate cancer, we generated prostate specific antigen/human CAR (PSA/hCAR) transgenic mice in which a chimeric enhancer/promoter sequence of the human PSA gene drives expression of a functional hCAR coding sequence. Expression of an adenovirally-delivered luciferase reporter gene in prostate tumor cells in bigenic mice (PSA/hCAR + TRAMP) was enhanced compared to the level in tumor cells lacking the PSA/hCAR transgene. Breeding PSA/hCAR mice to existing transgenic mouse models for prostate cancer (e.g., TRAMP) results in improved mouse models for testing adenovirally-delivered therapeutic genes. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Design rules for efficient transgene expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark A; Sternes, Peter R; Mudge, Stephen R; Graham, Michael W; Birch, Robert G

    2014-09-01

    Sustained expression of transgenes in specified developmental patterns is commonly needed in plant biotechnology, but obstructed by transgene silencing. Here, we present a set of gene design rules, tested on the silencing-susceptible beetle luc and bacterial ims genes, expressed in sugarcane. Designs tested independently or in combination included removal of rare codons, removal of RNA instability sequences, blocking of likely endogenous sRNA binding sites and randomization of non-rare codons. Stable transgene expression analyses, on multiple independent lines per construct, showed greatest improvement from the removal of RNA instability sequences, accompanied by greatly reduced transcript degradation evident in northern blot analysis. We provide a set of motifs that readily can be eliminated concurrently with rare codons and undesired structural features such as repeat sequences, using Gene Designer 2.0 software. These design rules yielded 935- and 5-fold increased expression in transgenic callus, relative to the native luc and ims sequences; and gave sustained expression under the control of sugarcane and heterologous promoters over several years in greenhouse and field trials. The rules can be applied easily with codon usage tables from any plant species, providing a simple and effective means to achieve sustained expression of otherwise silencing-prone transgenes in plants.

  7. Improved production of genetically modified fetuses with homogeneous transgene expression after transgene integration site analysis and recloning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; Dos Santos Miranda, Moyses; Perecin, Felipe; De Bem, Tiago Henrique; Pereira, Flavia Thomaz Verechia; Russo-Carbolante, Elisa Maria; Alves, Daiani; Strauss, Bryan; Bajgelman, Marcio; Krieger, José Eduardo; Binelli, Mario; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira

    2011-02-01

    Animal cloning by nuclear transfer (NT) has made the production of transgenic animals using genetically modified donor cells possible and ensures the presence of the gene construct in the offspring. The identification of transgene insertion sites in donor cells before cloning may avoid the production of animals that carry undesirable characteristics due to positional effects. This article compares blastocyst development and competence to establish pregnancies of bovine cloned embryos reconstructed with lentivirus-mediated transgenic fibroblasts containing either random integration of a transgene (random integration group) or nuclear transfer derived transgenic fibroblasts with known transgene insertion sites submitted to recloning (recloned group). In the random integration group, eGFP-expressing bovine fetal fibroblasts were selected by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and used as nuclei donor cells for NT. In the recloned group, a fibroblast cell line derived from a transgenic cloned fetus was characterized regarding transgene insertion and submitted to recloning. The recloned group had higher blastocyst production (25.38 vs. 14.42%) and higher percentage of 30-day pregnancies (14.29 vs. 2.56%) when compared to the random integration group. Relative eGFP expression analysis in fibroblasts derived from each cloned embryo revealed more homogeneous expression in the recloned group. In conclusion, the use of cell lines recovered from transgenic fetuses after identification of the transgene integration site allowed for the production of cells and fetuses with stable transgene expression, and recloning may improve transgenic animal yields.

  8. Amino acids regulate transgene expression in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M R; Verrey, François

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway.

  9. Amino Acids Regulate Transgene Expression in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Marta; Guetg, Adriano; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Arps, Lisa; Ruckstuhl, Lisa; Camargo, Simone M. R.; Verrey, François

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression and cell growth rely on the intracellular concentration of amino acids, which in metazoans depends on extracellular amino acid availability and transmembrane transport. To investigate the impact of extracellular amino acid concentrations on the expression of a concentrative amino acid transporter, we overexpressed the main kidney proximal tubule luminal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1-collectrin (SLC6A19-TMEM27) in MDCK cell epithelia. Exogenously expressed proteins co-localized at the luminal membrane and mediated neutral amino acid uptake. However, the transgenes were lost over few cell culture passages. In contrast, the expression of a control transgene remained stable. To test whether this loss was due to inappropriately high amino acid uptake, freshly transduced MDCK cell lines were cultivated either with physiological amounts of amino acids or with the high concentration found in standard cell culture media. Expression of exogenous transporters was unaffected by physiological amino acid concentration in the media. Interestingly, mycoplasma infection resulted in a significant increase in transgene expression and correlated with the rapid metabolism of L-arginine. However, L-arginine metabolites were shown to play no role in transgene expression. In contrast, activation of the GCN2 pathway revealed by an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation may trigger transgene derepression. Taken together, high extracellular amino acid concentration provided by cell culture media appears to inhibit the constitutive expression of concentrative amino acid transporters whereas L-arginine depletion by mycoplasma induces the expression of transgenes possibly via stimulation of the GCN2 pathway. PMID:24797296

  10. Positive feedback system provides efficient and persistent transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-02

    The two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system, using artificial transcription factors, effectively enhances transgene expression. In this study, a TSTA system-based positive feedback system was developed to achieve efficient and persistent transgene expression. A fusion protein of the sequence-specific DNA binding domain of yeast GAL4 and the transcriptional activation domain of herpes simplex virus VP16 (GAL4-VP16) was used as an "activator" to amplify the expression of the luciferase "reporter" gene. It was found that the introduction of five tandem copies of the GAL4 recognition sequence (G5) into both the upstream and downstream regions of the expression cassette synergistically enhanced the transgene expression. The upstream and downstream G5 sequences were introduced into the expression cassette of the activator itself, and into that of the reporter, to form the positive feedback loop that enabled continuous activator expression. This positive feedback system maintained the expression levels of the reporter for 4 days in HeLa cells and for a week in mouse liver, while those from the usual plasmids decreased by 30- and 50-fold, respectively. These results constitute the first evidence that the positive feedback system is a useful method for long-term transgene expression in cultured cells and in vivo. This system would be applicable to gene therapy, in vivo imaging, and biotechnology.

  11. High-level expressing YAC vector for transgenic animal bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y; Miwa, M; Takahashi, R; Kodaira, K; Hirabayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Ueda, M

    1999-04-01

    The position effect is one major problem in the production of transgenic animals as mammary gland bioreactors. In the present study, we introduced the human growth hormone (hGH) gene into 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin position-independent YAC vectors using homologous recombination and produced transgenic rats via microinjection of YAC DNA into rat embryos. The efficiency of producing transgenic rats with the YAC vector DNA was the same as that using plasmid constructs. All analyzed transgenic rats had one copy of the transgene and produced milk containing a high level of hGH (0.25-8.9 mg/ml). In transgenic rats with the YAC vector in which the human alpha-lactalbumin gene was replaced with the hGH gene, tissue specificity of hGH mRNA was the same as that of the endogenous rat alpha-lactalbumin gene. Thus, the 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin YAC is a useful vector for high-level expression of foreign genes in the milk of transgenic animals.

  12. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5{prime} flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3{prime} flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels.

  13. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  14. Generation of Cre Transgenic Mice with Postnatal RPE-Specific Ocular Expression

    PubMed Central

    Iacovelli, Jared; Zhao, Chen; Wolkow, Natalie; Veldman, Peter; Gollomp, Kandace; Ojha, Pallavi; Lukinova, Nina; King, Ayala; Feiner, Leonard; Esumi, Noriko; Zack, Donald J.; Pierce, Eric A.; Vollrath, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To generate and characterize a constitutively active, RPE-specific, cre-expressing transgenic mouse line. This line can be used to create RPE-specific knockouts by crossing with mice harboring loxP-flanked (floxed) genes. Methods. A transgene construct was assembled with the BEST1 promoter driving cre expression. Transgenic mice were generated on a C57BL/6 background. Cre expression was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Cre enzymatic activity was tested by crossing to three lines with floxed DNA regions and detecting deletion of the intervening sequences or through histochemical detection of lacZ activity. Potential cre-mediated toxicity was assessed by retinal histology up to 24 months of age and by electroretinography. Results. The BEST1-cre line with expression in the highest percentage of RPE cells displayed a patchy mosaic expression pattern, with 50% to 90% of RPE cells expressing cre. In mice outcrossed to a mixed B6/129 background, expression was consistently found in 90% of RPE cells. Within the eye, only the RPE cells were immunoreactive with an anti-cre antibody. Maximum cre expression quantified by Western blot analysis occurred at P28. Crosses with three lines containing floxed sequences revealed RPE-specific cre activity in the eye and extraocular expression limited to the testes. Histology and electroretinography showed no cre-mediated RPE toxicity. Conclusions. This BEST1-cre transgenic line enables generation of RPE-specific knockout mice. The mosaic expression pattern provides an internal control; the non–cre-expressing RPE cells continue to express the floxed genes. These mice should facilitate study of the multifunctional RPE and the generation of mouse models of human retinal disease. PMID:21212186

  15. Inheritance and expression of transgenes through anther culture of transgenic hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soon; Kuk, Yong In; Kim, Kyung-Moon

    2007-01-01

    Anther cultures have been developed from transgenic donor peppers carrying HPT/J1-1. Eight out of sixteen plants produced from an anther culture set pepper fruits. Southern blot analysis of donors revealed two independent plants with a single copy of the integrated transgene. PCR and RT-PCR results showed the inheritance of HPT/J1-1 and expression of J1-1 in A1. All A1 progeny derived from transgenic anthers had resistance to hygromycin. They grew normally and showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type. Therefore, the use of an anther culture system coupled with genetic transformation in breeding programs will greatly facilitate the genetic improvement of pepper plants.

  16. MAR Elements and Transposons for Improved Transgene Integration and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Déborah; Harraghy, Niamh; Le Fourn, Valérie; Bire, Solenne; Girod, Pierre-Alain; Regamey, Alexandre; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence; Bigot, Yves; Mermod, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and long-term expression of transgenes remain significant challenges for gene therapy and biotechnology applications, especially when antibiotic selection procedures are not applicable. In this context, transposons represent attractive gene transfer vectors because of their ability to promote efficient genomic integration in a variety of mammalian cell types. However, expression from genome-integrating vectors may be inhibited by variable gene transcription and/or silencing events. In this study, we assessed whether inclusion of two epigenetic control elements, the human Matrix Attachment Region (MAR) 1–68 and X-29, in a piggyBac transposon vector, may lead to more reliable and efficient expression in CHO cells. We found that addition of the MAR 1–68 at the center of the transposon did not interfere with transposition frequency, and transgene expressing cells could be readily detected from the total cell population without antibiotic selection. Inclusion of the MAR led to higher transgene expression per integrated copy, and reliable expression could be obtained from as few as 2–4 genomic copies of the MAR-containing transposon vector. The MAR X-29-containing transposons was found to mediate elevated expression of therapeutic proteins in polyclonal or monoclonal CHO cell populations using a transposable vector devoid of selection gene. Overall, we conclude that MAR and transposable vectors can be used to improve transgene expression from few genomic transposition events, which may be useful when expression from a low number of integrated transgene copies must be obtained and/or when antibiotic selection cannot be applied. PMID:23646143

  17. MAR elements and transposons for improved transgene integration and expression.

    PubMed

    Ley, Déborah; Harraghy, Niamh; Le Fourn, Valérie; Bire, Solenne; Girod, Pierre-Alain; Regamey, Alexandre; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence; Bigot, Yves; Mermod, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and long-term expression of transgenes remain significant challenges for gene therapy and biotechnology applications, especially when antibiotic selection procedures are not applicable. In this context, transposons represent attractive gene transfer vectors because of their ability to promote efficient genomic integration in a variety of mammalian cell types. However, expression from genome-integrating vectors may be inhibited by variable gene transcription and/or silencing events. In this study, we assessed whether inclusion of two epigenetic control elements, the human Matrix Attachment Region (MAR) 1-68 and X-29, in a piggyBac transposon vector, may lead to more reliable and efficient expression in CHO cells. We found that addition of the MAR 1-68 at the center of the transposon did not interfere with transposition frequency, and transgene expressing cells could be readily detected from the total cell population without antibiotic selection. Inclusion of the MAR led to higher transgene expression per integrated copy, and reliable expression could be obtained from as few as 2-4 genomic copies of the MAR-containing transposon vector. The MAR X-29-containing transposons was found to mediate elevated expression of therapeutic proteins in polyclonal or monoclonal CHO cell populations using a transposable vector devoid of selection gene. Overall, we conclude that MAR and transposable vectors can be used to improve transgene expression from few genomic transposition events, which may be useful when expression from a low number of integrated transgene copies must be obtained and/or when antibiotic selection cannot be applied.

  18. Fitness of anopheline mosquitoes expressing transgenes that inhibit Plasmodium development.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Luciano A; Wang, Jing; Collins, Frank H; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2004-03-01

    One potential strategy for the control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases is the introduction into wild vector populations of genetic constructs that reduce vectorial capacity. An important caveat of this approach is that the genetic construct should have minimal fitness cost to the transformed vector. Previously, we produced transgenic Anopheles stephensi expressing either of two effector genes, a tetramer of the SM1 dodecapeptide or the phospholipase A2 gene (PLA2) from honeybee venom. Mosquitoes carrying either of these transgenes were impaired for Plasmodium berghei transmission. We have investigated the role of two effector genes for malaria parasite blockage in terms of the fitness imposed to the mosquito vector that expresses either molecule. By measuring mosquito survival, fecundity, fertility, and by running population cage experiments, we found that mosquitoes transformed with the SM1 construct showed no significant reduction in these fitness parameters relative to nontransgenic controls. The PLA2 transgenics, however, had reduced fitness that seemed to be independent of the insertion site of the transgene. We conclude that the fitness load imposed by refractory gene(s)-expressing mosquitoes depends on the effect of the transgenic protein produced in that mosquito. These results have important implications for implementation of malaria control via genetic modification of mosquitoes.

  19. Viral vectors: from virology to transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Bouard, D; Alazard-Dany, N; Cosset, F-L

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1970s, it was predicted that gene therapy would be applied to humans within a decade. However, despite some success, gene therapy has still not become a routine practise in medicine. In this review, we will examine the problems, both experimental and clinical, associated with the use of viral material for transgenic insertion. We shall also discuss the development of viral vectors involving the most important vector types derived from retroviruses, adenoviruses, herpes simplex viruses and adeno-associated viruses. This article is part of a themed section on Vector Design and Drug Delivery. For a list of all articles in this section see the end of this paper, or visit: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2009 PMID:18776913

  20. Expression of Recombinant Human Alpha-Lactalbumin in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Using a Hybrid Pomoter/Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yu-Guo; An, Liyou; Yu, Baoli; Song, Shaozheng; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Liqing; Gu, Yinyin; Yu, Minghui; Cheng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    To improve nutrient content of goat milk, we describe the construction of a vector (pBLAC) containing a hybrid goat β-lactoglobulin (BLG) promoter/cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer. We also describe the generation of transgenic goats expressing rhLA by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Of 334 one-cell stage embryos derived from three transgenic cell lines and 99 embryos derived from non-transgenic (NT) cells surgically transferred to the oviducts of 37 recipients, two recipients delivered two kids (2%) from the non-transfected line and five recipients delivered six kids (1.8%) from transgenic cell lines, three of which died within 2 days. Compared to the NT donor cells, transfection of donor cells does not negatively affect the development of nuclear transfer embryos into viable transgenic offspring. However, the clone efficiency in cell line number 1 was lower than that in numbers 2 and 3, and in the NT lines (0.9% versus 1.9% 2.4% and 2%; P < 0.05). Two transgenic cloned goats expressed rhLA in the milk at 0.1–0.9 mg/mL. The mammary gland-specific expression vector pBLAC with hybrid BLG/CMV can drive the hLA gene to express in vitro and in vivo. These data establish the basis for use of a hybrid promoter/enhancer strategy to produce rhLA transgenic goats. PMID:24527256

  1. Expression of recombinant human alpha-lactalbumin in the milk of transgenic goats using a hybrid pomoter/enhancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu-Guo; An, Liyou; Yu, Baoli; Song, Shaozheng; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Liqing; Gu, Yinyin; Yu, Minghui; Cheng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    To improve nutrient content of goat milk, we describe the construction of a vector (pBLAC) containing a hybrid goat β -lactoglobulin (BLG) promoter/cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer. We also describe the generation of transgenic goats expressing rhLA by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Of 334 one-cell stage embryos derived from three transgenic cell lines and 99 embryos derived from non-transgenic (NT) cells surgically transferred to the oviducts of 37 recipients, two recipients delivered two kids (2%) from the non-transfected line and five recipients delivered six kids (1.8%) from transgenic cell lines, three of which died within 2 days. Compared to the NT donor cells, transfection of donor cells does not negatively affect the development of nuclear transfer embryos into viable transgenic offspring. However, the clone efficiency in cell line number 1 was lower than that in numbers 2 and 3, and in the NT lines (0.9% versus 1.9% 2.4% and 2%; P < 0.05). Two transgenic cloned goats expressed rhLA in the milk at 0.1-0.9 mg/mL. The mammary gland-specific expression vector pBLAC with hybrid BLG/CMV can drive the hLA gene to express in vitro and in vivo. These data establish the basis for use of a hybrid promoter/enhancer strategy to produce rhLA transgenic goats.

  2. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  3. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  4. Generation of transgenic marmosets expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Eun; Zhang, Xian Feng; Choi, Sang-Ho; Okahara, Junko; Sasaki, Erika; Silva, Afonso C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic monitoring of neuronal activity in the living brain with optical imaging techniques became feasible owing to the continued development of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs). Here we report for the first time the successful generation of transgenic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), an important nonhuman primate model in neurophysiological research, which were engineered to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based family of GECIs, GCaMP, under control of either the CMV or the hSyn promoter. High titer lentiviral vectors were produced, and injected into embryos collected from donor females. The infected embryos were then transferred to recipient females. Eight transgenic animals were born and shown to have stable and functional GCaMP expression in several different tissues. Germline transmission of the transgene was confirmed in embryos generated from two of the founder transgenic marmosets that reached sexual maturity. These embryos were implanted into six recipient females, three of which became pregnant and are in advanced stages of gestation. We believe these transgenic marmosets will be invaluable non-human primate models in neuroscience, allowing chronic in vivo monitoring of neural activity with functional confocal and multi-photon optical microscopy imaging of intracellular calcium dynamics. PMID:27725685

  5. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Piglets Expressing the Nematode Fat-1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yidi; Dou, Hongwei; Yin, Jingdong; Chen, Yu; Pang, Xinzhi; Vajta, Gabor; Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Production of transgenic animals via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide, but this application is somewhat limited by its relatively low efficiency. In this study, we used handmade cloning (HMC) established previously to produce transgenic pigs that express the functional nematode fat-1 gene. Codon-optimized mfat-1 was inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors, which were transferred into primary swine donor cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select donor clones capable of converting n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts derived from the clones that lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio to approximately 1:1 were transferred surgically into the uteri of recipients for transgenic piglets. By HMC, 37% (n=558) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage after 7 days of culture in vitro, with an average cell number of 81±36 (n=14). Three recipients became pregnant after 408 day-6 blastocysts were transferred into four naturally cycling females, and a total of 14 live offspring were produced. The nematode mfat-1 effectively lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in muscle and major organs of the transgenic pig. Our results will help to establish a reliable procedure and an efficient option in the production of transgenic animals. PMID:22686479

  6. Generation of Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing Human APP Mutation Under Control of Zebrafish appb Promotor.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yun-Zhu; Liang, Liang; Fu, Ai-Ling; Liu, Yan; Sun, Lan; Li, Qian; Wu, Dan; Sun, Man-Ji; Zhang, Ying-Ge; Zhao, Bao-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid peptide precursor (APP) as the precursor protein of peptide betaamyloid (β-amyloid, Aβ), which is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), also has an important effect on the development and progression of AD. Through knocking-in APP gene in animals, numerous transgenic AD models have been set up for the investigation of the mechanisms behind AD pathogenesis and the screening of anti-AD drugs. However, there are some limitations to these models and here is a need for such an AD model that is economic as well as has satisfactory genetic homology with human. We generated a new AD transgenic model by knocking a mutant human APP gene (APPsw) in zebrafish with appb promoter of zebrafish to drive the expression of APPsw. Fluorescent image and immunochemistry stain showed and RT-PCR and western blot assay confirmed that APPsw was successfully expressed in the brain, heart, eyes and vasculature of the transgenic zebrafish. Behavioral observation demonstrated that the transgenic zebrafish had AD-like symptoms. Histopathological observation found that there were cerebral β-amyloidosis and angiopathy (CAA), which induced neuron loss and enlarged pervascular space. These results suggest that APPsw transgenic zebrafish well simulate the pathological characters of AD and can be used as an economic AD transgenic model. Furthermore, the new model suggested that APP can express in microvasculatures and cause the Aβ generation and deposition in cerebral vessel which further destroys cerebral vascular structure resulting in the development and/or the progress of AD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. [Generation of transgenic mice expressing human lysozyme in mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Li, Guo-cai; Sun, Huai-chang

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of generating animal mammary gland bioreactors expressing human lysozyme (hLYZ). The recombinant vector p205C3-hLYZ, as a result of connecting the hLYZ cDNA with the mammry gland expression vector p205C3, was used to generate transfer genic mice by microinjection. A total of 136 F0 mice were obtained, of which 7 (2 females and 5 males) and 4 (1 females and 3 males) were found to contain the transfer-gene by PCR and Southern blotting respectively. The results of Western blotting indicated that the expressed protein had the same molecular weight as that of normal hLYZ. From the F1 generation on, the mice mated only with their brothers or sisters and a colony of F7 transgenic mice was obtained. Among the offspring, the female transgenic mice maintained and expressed the transfer-gene stably with an expression level as high as 750 mg/L. The expressed protein had strong tissue specificity, and in addition to the mammary glands, some degree of ectropic expression in the spleens and intestines of the transgenic mice was confirmed by dot blotting assay. These data indicate that the mice mammary gland bioreactors expressing hLYZ have been successfully generated.

  8. Development of transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mo Sun; Koo, Bon Chul; Choi, Bok Ruyl; Lee, Hoon Taek; Kim, Young Hye; Ryu, Wang-Shik; Shim, Hosup; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Teoan

    2004-07-23

    In this work we demonstrated the successful production of transgenic chickens expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene. Replication-defective recombinant retroviruses produced from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retrovirus vector system were injected beneath the blastoderm of non-incubated chicken embryos (stage X). From 129 injected eggs, 13 chicks hatched after 21 days of incubation. All hatched chicks were found to express vector-encoded EGFP gene, which was under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter and boosted post-transcriptionally by woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element sequence. Green fluorescent signals, indicative of the EGFP gene expression, were detected in various body parts, including head, limb, eye, toe, and several internal organs. Genomic incorporation of the transgene was also proven by Southern blot assay. Our results show the exceptional versatile effectiveness of the EGFP gene as a marker in the gene expression-related studies which therefore would be very helpful in establishing a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies on embryo development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors.

  9. Temporally and spatially controlled expression of transgenes in embryonic and adult tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Triplett, Aleata A.; Harms, Don W.; Lin, Wan-chi; Creamer, Bradley A.; Rizzino, Angie; Wagner, Kay-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Using ES cell-mediated transgenesis, we generated a novel mouse strain that permits a temporally and spatially controlled expression of responder genes in embryonic and multiple adult tissues. The transgene was constructed in a way that a CMV enhancer linked to the chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) drives the expression of the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) in particular tissues upon Cre-mediated excision of a floxed βgeo marker located between the promoter and the tTA. Based on the enzymatic activity of lacZ, the CAG-βgeo-tTA construct exhibits a widespread expression and appears to be very strong in the brain, heart, muscle, pancreas, and skin. Like the embryonic stem cell line that was used to generate this strain, the CAG-βgeo-tTA transgene is already highly active in preimplantation embryos. Using in vivo bioluminescence imaging on MMTV-Cre, CAG-βgeo-tTA, TetO-Luciferase triple transgenic mice and their controls, we demonstrated that the expression of the tTA, which is strictly dependent on the presence of Cre recombinase, induces the activation of the reporter transgene in the absence of any ligands. The tTA-mediated transactivation can be completely ablated through administration of doxycycline, and its subsequent withdrawal lifts the transcriptional block. Based on these characteristics, this novel strain may be useful in experiments that require a sustained expression of transgenes in particular cell types over a prolonged period followed by a rapid downregulation, for example in studies that examine the therapeutic value of cancer-initiating oncogenes during disease progression. PMID:19821046

  10. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R.; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  11. Leaf proteome analysis of transgenic plants expressing antiviral antibodies.

    PubMed

    Di Carli, Mariasole; Villani, Maria Elena; Renzone, Giovanni; Nardi, Luca; Pasquo, Alessandra; Franconi, Rosella; Scaloni, Andrea; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Desiderio, Angiola

    2009-02-01

    The expression of exogenous antibodies in plant is an effective strategy to confer protection against viral infection or to produce molecules with pharmaceutical interest. However, the acceptance of the transgenic technology to obtain self-protecting plants depends on the assessment of their substantial equivalence compared to non-modified crops with an established history of safe use. In fact, the possibility exists that the introduction of transgenes in plants may alter expression of endogenous genes and/or normal production of metabolites. In this study, we investigated whether the expression in plant of recombinant antibodies directed against viral proteins may influence the host leaf proteome. Two transgenic plant models, generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, were analyzed for this purpose, namely, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. MicroTom and Nicotiana benthamiana, expressing recombinant antibodies against cucumber mosaic virus and tomato spotted wilt virus, respectively. To obtain a significant representation of plant proteomes, optimized extraction procedures have been devised for each plant species. The proteome repertoire of antibody-expressing and control plants was compared by 2-DE associated to DIGE technology. Among the 2000 spots detected within the gels, about 10 resulted differentially expressed in each transgenic model and were identified by MALDI-TOF PMF and muLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS procedures. Protein variations were restricted to a limited number of defined differences with an average ratio below 2.4. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were related to photosynthesis or defense function. The overall results suggest that the expression of recombinant antibodies in both systems does not significantly alter the leaf proteomic profile, contributing to assess the biosafety of resistant plants expressing antiviral antibodies.

  12. [Generation of sugar beet transgenic plants expressing bar gene].

    PubMed

    Mishutkina, Ia V; Kamionskaia, A M; Skriabin, K G

    2010-01-01

    The parameters of transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 for 5 domestic sorts and lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera (Alef) Krass) were optimized. The system of transgenic tissue selection based on resistance to phosphinothricin, allowing to avoid the appearing of chimeric shoots among initial transformants was developed. The transgenic plants of sugar beet sorts Ramonskaya single seed 47, L'govskaya single seed 52 and RMS 73, and LBO 17 and LBO 19 lines expressing the gene of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase bar have been obtained. The resistance of these sorts and lines to the effect of phosphinothricin in vitro has been shown.

  13. Expression of a Synthetic Gene of CTDM by Transgenic Animals.

    PubMed

    Sakai, R; Maeda, A; Matsuura, R; Eguchi, H; Lo, P; Hasuwa, H; Ikawa, M; Nakahata, K; Zenitani, M; Yamamichi, T; Umeda, S; Okuyama, H; Miyagawa, S

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce molecules that can precisely regulate the complement and coagulation system and to assess the expression of such molecules in transgenic animals. The CTDM gene, which is composed of the delta-1-99 amino acid (aa) C1-INH, EGF domain 4-6 of thrombomoduline (TM), short consensus repeat (SCR) 2-4 of DAF(CD55), and SCR 2-4 of MCP(CD46) was established. The codon usage for expression in mammals was adopted. The cDNA of CTDM was subcloned into the pCPI site (the human insulin promoter and a cytomegalovirus enhancer). pCPI-CTDM was transfected into pig endothelial cells (PEC). The expression of the molecule was clearly assessed by means of flow cytometry. BD3F1 female mice were induced to superovulate and were then crossed with BD3F1 males. Micro-injection and embryo transfer were performed by standard methods, thus generating transgenic mice that express CTDM. The mice carried the CTDM plasmid, as verified by PCR. Tissue expression levels in transgenic mouse lines generated with the constructs were follows: pancreas, 1.0; brain, 5.4; thymus, 0.3; heart, 0.2; lung, 1.2; liver, 0.1; kidney, 0.1; intestine, 0.4; and spleen, 1.6. A naive control mouse was also analyzed in the exact manner as for the transgenic mice. A synthetic CTDM gene with codon usage optimized to the mammalian system represents a critical factor in the development of transgenic animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pollen viability and transgene expression following storage in honey.

    PubMed

    Eady, C; Twell, D; Lindsey, K

    1995-07-01

    Transgenic plants of tobacco and Arabidopsis that produce genetically marked pollen, expressing the reporter gene uidA (gusA), were generated to determine whether pollen proteins can be expressed and stable in honey, a potential route by which foreign proteins might enter the wider environment. Hydrated tobacco pollen was found to lose viability rapidly in honey, while pollen in the natural dehydrated form remained viable for at least several days and in some cases several weeks, as determined by FDA staining activity and germinability. Dehydrated pollen was found to be capable of transient foreign gene expression, following microprojectile bombardment, after incubation in honey for at least 120 h. PCR amplification of transgene sequences in pollen of transgenic plants revealed that pollen DNA can remain relatively intact after 7 weeks in honey. GUS enzyme activity analysis and SDS-PAGE of pollen proteins revealed that foreign and native pollen proteins are stable in pollen incubated in honey for at least 6 weeks. We conclude that pollen may represent an ecologically important vector for transgenic protein products.

  15. Transgenic Expression of Dentin Phosphoprotein Inhibits Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Liu, P.; Wang, S.; Liu, C.; Jani, P.; Lu, Y.; Qin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is proteolytically processed into an NH2-terminal fragment called dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a COOH-terminal fragment known as dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in formation of bone and dentin. To investigate the functions of DPP in skeletal development, we generated transgenic mice to overexpress hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged DPP under the control of a 3.6 kb type I collagen (Col1a1) promoter (designated as Col1a1-HA-DPP). The Col1a1-HA-DPP transgenic mice were significantly smaller by weight, had smaller skeletons and shorter long bones than their wild type littermates, as demonstrated by X-ray radiography. They displayed reduced trabecular bone formation and narrower zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the long bones. Histological analyses showed that the transgenic mice had reduced cell proliferation in the proliferating zone, but lacked obvious defects in the chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, the transgenic mice with a high level of transgene expression developed spontaneous long bone fractures. In conclusion, overexpressing DPP inhibited skeletal development, suggesting that the balanced actions between the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of DSPP may be required for normal skeletal development. PMID:26972716

  16. Isolation of yellow catfish β-actin promoter and generation of transgenic yellow catfish expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jiachun; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Song, Wei; Bao, Jie; Liang, Dong; Li, Junbo; Li, Kui; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Muzi; Cai, Yongxiang; Yang, Jiaxin; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2012-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) is one of the most important freshwater farmed species in China. However, its small size and slow growth rate limit its commercial value. Because genetic engineering has been a powerful tool to develop and improve fish traits for aquaculture, we performed transgenic research on yellow catfish in order to increase its size and growth rate. Performing PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned a genomic fragment comprising 5'-flanking sequence upstream of the initiation codon of β-actin gene in yellow catfish. The sequence is 1,017 bp long, containing the core sequence of proximal promoter including CAAT box, CArG motif and TATA box. Microinjecting the transgene construct Tg(beta-actin:eYFP) of the proximal promoter fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene into zebrafish and yellow catfish embryos, we found the promoter could drive the reporter to express transiently in both embryos at early development. Screening the offspring of five transgenic zebrafish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry) or 19 yellow catfish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(beta-actin:eYFP), we obtained three lines of transgenic zebrafish and one transgenic yellow catfish, respectively. Analyzing the expression patterns of the reporter genes in transgenic zebrafish (Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry)nju8/+) and transgenic yellow catfish (Tg(beta-actin:eYFP)nju11/+), we found the reporters were broadly expressed in both animals. In summary, we have established a platform to make transgenic yellow catfish using the proximal promoter of its own β-actin gene. The results will help us to create transgenic yellow catfish using "all yellow catfish" transgene constructs.

  17. Transgene Expression and Bt Protein Content in Transgenic Bt Maize (MON810) under Optimal and Stressful Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Trtikova, Miluse; Wikmark, Odd Gunnar; Zemp, Niklaus; Widmer, Alex; Hilbeck, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Bt protein content in transgenic insect resistant (Bt) maize may vary between tissues within plants and between plants growing under different environmental conditions. However, it is unknown whether and how Bt protein content correlates with transgene expression, and whether this relationship is influenced by stressful environmental conditions. Two Bt maize varieties containing the same transgene cassette (MON 810) were grown under optimal and stressful conditions. Before and during stress exposure, the upper leaves were analysed for transgene expression using quantitative RT-PCR and for Bt content using ELISA. Under optimal conditions there was no significant difference in the transgene expression between the two investigated Bt maize varieties whereas Bt protein content differed significantly. Transgene expression was correlated with Bt protein content in only one of the varieties. Under stressful environmental conditions we found similar transgene expressions as under optimal conditions but Bt content responded differently. These results suggest that Bt content is not only controlled by the transgene expression but is also dependent on the genetic background of the maize variety. Under stressful conditions the concentration of Bt protein is even more difficult to predict. PMID:25853814

  18. Transgenic expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 induces coronary artery ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Dahi, Sia; Karliner, Joel S; Sarkar, Rajabrata; Lovett, David H

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is generally diagnosed in patients undergoing arteriography for presumptive atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. CAE is commonly considered as a variant of atherosclerotic disease; however, recent studies suggest that CAE is the result of a systemic vascular disorder. There is increasing evidence that aneurysmal vascular disease is a systemic disorder characterized by enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased synthesis of enzymes capable of degrading elastin and other components of the vascular wall. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 degrades a number of extracellular substrates, including elastin and has been shown to play a critical role in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms. This study characterizes the development of CAE in a unique murine transgenic model with cardiac-specific expression of active MMP-2. Transgenic mice were engineered to express an active form of MMP-2 under control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Coronary artery diameters were quantified, along with studies of arterial structure, elastin integrity and vascular expression of the MMP-2 transgene. Latex casts quantified total coronary artery volumes and arterial branching. Mid-ventricular coronary luminal areas were increased in the MMP-2 transgenics, coupled with foci of aneurysmal dilation, ectasia and perivascular fibrosis. There was no evidence for atherogenesis. Coronary vascular elastin integrity was compromised and coupled with inflammatory cell infiltration. Latex casts of the coronary arteries displayed ectasia with fusiform dilatation. The MMP-2 transgenic closely replicates human CAE and supports a critical and initiating role for this enzyme in the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:21039989

  19. cis-acting DNA regulatory elements, including the retinoic acid response element, are required for tissue specific laminin B1 promoter/lacZ expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sharif, K A; Li, C; Gudas, L J

    2001-05-01

    The LAMB1 gene encodes the laminin beta1 subunit of laminin, an extracellular matrix protein. Using several transgenic mouse lines containing various lengths of the LAMB1 promoter driving lacZ reporter gene expression, regions of LAMB1 promoter that contain cis-acting DNA regulatory element(s) have been identified. The 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene is expressed in various tissues during development. LAMB1 transgene expression is observed in a selective set of nephrons of the neonatal and adult kidneys. The cis-acting DNA regulatory elements responsible for LAMB1 transgene expression in ovaries and in juvenile kidneys are present between -'1.4 and -0.7 kb relative to the transcription start site, while those of adult kidneys are located between -2.5 and -1.4 kb. The LAMB1 transgene is also expressed in the epididymis of 1 week old transgenic mice. Mutation of the retinoic acid response element (RARE) in the context of the 3.9LAMB1betagal transgene results in loss of LAMB1 transgene expression in all tissues. Thus, sequences between -2.5 and -0.7 kb plus the RARE are required for appropriate expression of the LAMB1 transgene in mice.

  20. The methods to generate transgenic animals and to control transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2002-09-25

    Transgenic animals have been used for years to study gene function and to create models for the study of human diseases. This approach has become still more justified after the complete sequencing of several genomes. Transgenic animals are ready to become industrial bioreactors for the preparation of pharmaceuticals in milk and probably in the future in egg white. Improvement of animal production by transgenesis is still in infancy. Despite its intensive use, animal transgenesis is still suffering from technical limitations. The generation of transgenics has recently become easier or possible for different species thanks to the use of transposons or retrovirus, to incubation of sperm which DNA followed by fertilization by intracellular sperm injection or not and to the use of the cloning technique using somatic cells in which genes have been added or inactivated. The Cre-LoxP system is more and more used to withdraw a given sequence from the genome or to target the integration of a foreign DNA. The tetracycline system has been improved and can more and more frequently be used to obtain faithful expression of transgenes. Several tools: RNA forming a triple helix with DNA, antisense RNA including double strand RNA inducing RNA interference and ribozymes, and also expression of proteins having a negative transdominant effect, are tentatively being improved to inhibit specifically the expression of host or viral genes.All these techniques are expected to offer experimenters new and more precise models to study gene function even in large animals. Improvement of breeding by transgenesis has become more plausible including through the precise allele replacement in farm animals.

  1. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing cobra venom factor.

    PubMed

    Andrä, Jörg; Halter, Roman; Kock, Michael A; Niemann, Heiner; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Paul, Dieter

    2002-10-01

    Cobra venom factor (CVF), the anticomplementary protein in cobra venom, activates the alternative complement pathway, eventually leading to complement consumption. Here, we describe the development of a transgenic mouse model for CVF. We generated a DNA construct containing the full-length cDNA for single-chain pre-pro-CVF. Expression of CVF was controlled by the alpha(1)-antitrypsin promoter to achieve liver-specific expression. Linearized DNA was microinjected into murine ovary cells (strain CD(2)F(1) (BALB/cxDBA/2J)) and the newborn mice were analyzed for stable integration of CVF DNA. After establishing the transgene, mice were propagated in a BALB/c background. The CVF mRNA was detected in the liver and, in some animals, in the kidney. CVF protein was detected in small amounts in the serum. Serum complement hemolytic activity in CVF-transgenic mice was virtually absent. The concentration of plasma C3 was significantly reduced. The CVF-transgenic animals show no unusual phenotype. They provide an animal model to study the effect of long-term complement depletion by continued activation, as well as the role of complement in host immune response and pathogenesis of disease.

  2. Generation of cloned transgenic cats expressing red fluorescence protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xi Jun; Lee, Hyo Sang; Yu, Xian Feng; Choi, Eugene; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun; Lee, Young S; Cho, Su Jin; Jin, Guang Zhen; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Nam Hyung; Kong, Il Keun

    2008-03-01

    A method for engineering and producing genetically modified cats is important for generating biomedical models of human diseases. Here we describe the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce cloned transgenic cats that systemically express red fluorescent protein. Immature oocytes were collected from superovulating cat ovaries. Donor fibroblasts were obtained from an ear skin biopsy of a white male Turkish Angora cat, cultured for one to two passages, and subjected to transduction with a retrovirus vector designed to transfer and express the red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene. A total of 176 RFP cloned embryos were transferred into 11 surrogate mothers (mean = 16 +/- 7.5 per recipient). Three surrogate mothers were successfully impregnated (27.3%) and delivered two liveborn and one stillborn kitten at 65 to 66 days of gestation. Analysis of nine feline-specific microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned cats were genetically identical to the donor cat. Presence of the RFP gene in the transgenic cat genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Whole-body red fluorescence was detected 60 days after birth in the liveborn transgenic (TG) cat but not in the surrogate mother cat. Red fluorescence was detected in tissue samples, including hair, muscle, brain, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, bronchus, lung, stomach, intestine, tongue, and even excrement of the stillborn TG cat. These results suggest that this nuclear transfer procedure using genetically modified somatic cells could be useful for the efficient production of transgenic cats.

  3. Expression of RNA-interference/antisense transgenes by the cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing strategy to study gene functions in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Dagang; Zhou, Hai; Li, Feng; Yang, Jiawei; Hong, Laifa; Fu, Xiao; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Zhenlan; Li, Jianming; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2011-03-03

    Antisense and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing systems are powerful reverse genetic methods for studying gene function. Most RNAi and antisense experiments used constitutive promoters to drive the expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes; however, several reports showed that constitutive promoters were not expressed in all cell types in cereal plants, suggesting that the constitutive promoter systems are not effective for silencing gene expression in certain tissues/organs. To develop an alternative method that complements the constitutive promoter systems, we constructed RNAi and/or antisense transgenes for four rice genes using a constitutive promoter or a cognate promoter of a selected rice target gene and generated many independent transgenic lines. Genetic, molecular, and phenotypic analyses of these RNAi/antisense transgenic rice plants, in comparison to previously-reported transgenic lines that silenced similar genes, revealed that expression of the cognate promoter-driven RNAi/antisense transgenes resulted in novel growth/developmental defects that were not observed in transgenic lines expressing constitutive promoter-driven gene-silencing transgenes of the same target genes. Our results strongly suggested that expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes by cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing approach to discovery gene function in rice.

  4. Expression of RNA-Interference/Antisense Transgenes by the Cognate Promoters of Target Genes Is a Better Gene-Silencing Strategy to Study Gene Functions in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai; Li, Feng; Yang, Jiawei; Hong, Laifa; Fu, Xiao; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Zhenlan; Li, Jianming; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2011-01-01

    Antisense and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing systems are powerful reverse genetic methods for studying gene function. Most RNAi and antisense experiments used constitutive promoters to drive the expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes; however, several reports showed that constitutive promoters were not expressed in all cell types in cereal plants, suggesting that the constitutive promoter systems are not effective for silencing gene expression in certain tissues/organs. To develop an alternative method that complements the constitutive promoter systems, we constructed RNAi and/or antisense transgenes for four rice genes using a constitutive promoter or a cognate promoter of a selected rice target gene and generated many independent transgenic lines. Genetic, molecular, and phenotypic analyses of these RNAi/antisense transgenic rice plants, in comparison to previously-reported transgenic lines that silenced similar genes, revealed that expression of the cognate promoter-driven RNAi/antisense transgenes resulted in novel growth/developmental defects that were not observed in transgenic lines expressing constitutive promoter-driven gene-silencing transgenes of the same target genes. Our results strongly suggested that expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes by cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing approach to discovery gene function in rice. PMID:21408609

  5. Multiple effects of genetic background on variegated transgene expression in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Opsahl, Margaret L; McClenaghan, Margaret; Springbett, Anthea; Reid, Sarah; Lathe, Richard; Colman, Alan; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2002-01-01

    BLG/7 transgenic mice express an ovine beta-lactoglobulin transgene during lactation. Unusually, transgene expression levels in milk differ between siblings. This variable expression is due to variegated transgene expression in the mammary gland and is reminiscent of position-effect variegation. The BLG/7 line was created and maintained on a mixed CBA x C57BL/6 background. We have investigated the effect on transgene expression of backcrossing for 13 generations into these backgrounds. Variable transgene expression was observed in all populations examined, confirming that it is an inherent property of the transgene array at its site of integration. There were also strain-specific effects on transgene expression that appear to be independent of the inherent variegation. The transgene, compared to endogenous milk protein genes, is specifically susceptible to inbreeding depression. Outcrossing restored transgene expression levels to that of the parental population; thus suppression was not inherited. Finally, no generation-dependent decrease in mean expression levels was observed in the parental population. Thus, although the BLG/7 transgene is expressed in a variegated manner, there was no generation-associated accumulated silencing of transgene expression. PMID:11901126

  6. Multiple effects of genetic background on variegated transgene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Opsahl, Margaret L; McClenaghan, Margaret; Springbett, Anthea; Reid, Sarah; Lathe, Richard; Colman, Alan; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2002-03-01

    BLG/7 transgenic mice express an ovine beta-lactoglobulin transgene during lactation. Unusually, transgene expression levels in milk differ between siblings. This variable expression is due to variegated transgene expression in the mammary gland and is reminiscent of position-effect variegation. The BLG/7 line was created and maintained on a mixed CBA x C57BL/6 background. We have investigated the effect on transgene expression of backcrossing for 13 generations into these backgrounds. Variable transgene expression was observed in all populations examined, confirming that it is an inherent property of the transgene array at its site of integration. There were also strain-specific effects on transgene expression that appear to be independent of the inherent variegation. The transgene, compared to endogenous milk protein genes, is specifically susceptible to inbreeding depression. Outcrossing restored transgene expression levels to that of the parental population; thus suppression was not inherited. Finally, no generation-dependent decrease in mean expression levels was observed in the parental population. Thus, although the BLG/7 transgene is expressed in a variegated manner, there was no generation-associated accumulated silencing of transgene expression.

  7. Generation of transgenic energy cane plants with integration of minimal transgene expression cassette.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Walid M; Hao, Wu; Xiong, Yuan; Steeves, Cody; Sandhu, Surinder K; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as feedstock and direct replacement for petrochemicals in the fuel, chemical, pharmaceutical and material industries. Energy cane has been identified by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as prime lignocellulosic feedstock as it produces record biomass yields and is able to grow on low-value land with reduced inputs. Molecular improvement of energy cane is an essential step toward the development of a high-value crop and may contribute to improved biomass conversion to value added products. Such improvements require a development of an efficient regeneration and transformation system for the vegetatively propagated energy cane varieties. In this report, an efficient biolistic gene delivery protocol for energy canes (genotype L 79-1002 and Ho 00-961) has been established with immature leaf rolls as explants. Embryonic calli, developed approximately 6 weeks after culture initiation and was used as target for biolistic transfer of a minimum expression cassette of P-ubi::nptII::35S polyA derived from plasmid pJFNPTII. Putative transgenic clones of callus were obtained after selection on callus induction medium supplemented with 30 mg l(-1) geneticin. Regeneration was carried out on NB medium, which is modified from MS supplemented with 1.86 mg l(-1) naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.1mg l(-1), 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 20mg l(-1) paromomycin. Shoots growing on selection media were transferred to hormone free medium with 20 mg l(-1) paromomycin. Putative transgenic lines were first analyzed by PCR. Transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Immunochromathography assays confirmed transgene expression.

  8. Generation of Transgenic Energy Cane Plants with Integration of Minimal Transgene Expression Cassette.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Walid M; Hao, W U; Xiong, Yuan; Steeves, Cody; Sandhu, Surinder K; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-03-03

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as feedstock and direct replacement for petrochemicals in the fuel, chemical, pharmaceutical and material industries. Energy cane has been identified by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as prime lignocellulosic feedstock as it produces record biomass yields and is able to grow on low-value land with reduced inputs. Molecular improvement of energy cane is an essential step toward the development of a high-value crop and may contribute to improved biomass conversion to value added products. Such improvements require a development of an efficient regeneration and transformation system for the vegetatively propagated energy cane varieties. In this report, an efficient biolistic gene delivery protocol for energy canes (genotype L 79-1002 and Ho 00-961) has been established with immature leaf rolls as explants. Embryonic calli, developed approximately 6 weeks after culture initiation and was used as target for biolistic transfer of a minimum expression cassette of P-ubi::nptII::35S polyA derived from plasmid pJFNPTII. Putative transgenic clones of callus were obtained after selection on callus induction medium supplemented with 30 mg l-1 geneticin. Regeneration was carried out on NB medium, which is modified from MS supplemented with 1.86 mg l-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.1mg l-1, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 20mg l-1 paromomycin. Shoots growing on selection media were transferred to hormone free medium with 20 mg l-1 paromomycin. Putative transgenic lines were first analyzed by PCR. Transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Immunochromathography assays confirmed transgene expression.

  9. Comparisons of Ribosomal Protein Gene Promoters Indicate Superiority of Heterologous Regulatory Sequences for Expressing Transgenes in Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Careen; Judelson, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in Phytophthora research can be hampered by the limited number of known constitutive promoters for expressing transgenes and the instability of transgene activity. We have therefore characterized genes encoding the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Phytophthora and studied their suitability for expressing transgenes in P. infestans. Phytophthora spp. encode a standard complement of 79 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Several genes are duplicated, and two appear to be pseudogenes. Half of the genes are expressed at similar levels during all stages of asexual development, and we discovered that the majority share a novel promoter motif named the PhRiboBox. This sequence is enriched in genes associated with transcription, translation, and DNA replication, including tRNA and rRNA biogenesis. Promoters from the three P. infestans genes encoding ribosomal proteins S9, L10, and L23 and their orthologs from P. capsici were tested for their ability to drive transgenes in stable transformants of P. infestans. Five of the six promoters yielded strong expression of a GUS reporter, but the stability of expression was higher using the P. capsici promoters. With the RPS9 and RPL10 promoters of P. infestans, about half of transformants stopped making GUS over two years of culture, while their P. capsici orthologs conferred stable expression. Since cross-talk between native and transgene loci may trigger gene silencing, we encourage the use of heterologous promoters in transformation studies. PMID:26716454

  10. Comparisons of Ribosomal Protein Gene Promoters Indicate Superiority of Heterologous Regulatory Sequences for Expressing Transgenes in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Andreeva, Kalina; Khachatoorian, Careen; Judelson, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in Phytophthora research can be hampered by the limited number of known constitutive promoters for expressing transgenes and the instability of transgene activity. We have therefore characterized genes encoding the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Phytophthora and studied their suitability for expressing transgenes in P. infestans. Phytophthora spp. encode a standard complement of 79 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Several genes are duplicated, and two appear to be pseudogenes. Half of the genes are expressed at similar levels during all stages of asexual development, and we discovered that the majority share a novel promoter motif named the PhRiboBox. This sequence is enriched in genes associated with transcription, translation, and DNA replication, including tRNA and rRNA biogenesis. Promoters from the three P. infestans genes encoding ribosomal proteins S9, L10, and L23 and their orthologs from P. capsici were tested for their ability to drive transgenes in stable transformants of P. infestans. Five of the six promoters yielded strong expression of a GUS reporter, but the stability of expression was higher using the P. capsici promoters. With the RPS9 and RPL10 promoters of P. infestans, about half of transformants stopped making GUS over two years of culture, while their P. capsici orthologs conferred stable expression. Since cross-talk between native and transgene loci may trigger gene silencing, we encourage the use of heterologous promoters in transformation studies.

  11. Expression of rice thaumatin-like protein gene in transgenic banana plants enhances resistance to fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, F; Sariah, M; Maziah, M

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of controlling Fusarium wilt--caused by Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4)--was investigated by genetic engineering of banana plants for constitutive expression of rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp) gene. Transgene was introduced to cauliflower-like bodies' cluster, induced from meristemic parts of male inflorescences, using particle bombardment with plasmid carrying a rice tlp gene driving by the CaMV 35S promoter. Hygromycin B was used as the selection reagent. The presence and integration of rice tlp gene in genomic DNA confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR revealed the expression of transgene in leaf and root tissues in transformants. Bioassay of transgenic banana plants challenged with Fusarium wilt pathogen showed that expression of TLP enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4) compared to control plants.

  12. Increased Ubqln2 expression causes neuron death in transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Wu, Qinxue; Zhou, Hongxia; Huang, Cao; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2016-10-01

    Pathogenic mutation of ubiquilin 2 (UBQLN2) causes neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. How UBQLN2 mutations cause the diseases is not clear. While over-expression of UBQLN2 with pathogenic mutation causes neuron death in rodent models, deletion of the Ubqln2 in rats has no effect on neuronal function. Previous findings in animal models suggest that UBQLN2 mutations cause the diseases mainly through a gain rather than a loss of functions. To examine whether the toxic gain in UBQLN2 mutation is related to the enhancement of UBQLN2 functions, we created new transgenic rats over-expressing wild-type human UBQLN2. Considering that human UBQLN2 may not function properly in the rat genome, we also created transgenic rats over-expressing rat's own Ubqln2. When over-expressed in rats, both human and rat wild-type Ubqln2 caused neuronal death and spatial learning deficits, the pathologies that were indistinguishable from those observed in mutant UBQLN2 transgenic rats. Over-expressed wild-type UBQLN2 formed protein inclusions attracting the autophagy substrate sequestosome-1 and the proteasome component 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 7. These findings suggest that excess UBQLN2 is toxic rather than protective to neurons and that the enhancement of UBQLN2 functions is involved in UBQLN2 pathogenesis. Pathogenic mutation in ubiquilin 2 (UBQLN2) causes neurodegeneration in ALS and FTLD. Studies in rodent models suggest a gain of toxic function in mutant UBQLN2. We created new transgenic rats as a relevant model and examined whether enhancing wild-type UBQLN2 expression is implicated in the pathogenesis of mutant UBQLN2. We observed that over-expression of human or rat wild-type Ubqln2 caused protein aggregation and neuronal death in transgenic rats. Our findings suggest that excess UBQLN2 is toxic rather than protective to neurons and that uncontrolled enhancement of UBQLN2 function is involved in UBQLN2 pathogenesis

  13. Human HLA-Ev (147) Expression in Transgenic Animals.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, R; Maeda, A; Sakai, R; Eguchi, H; Lo, P-C; Hasuwa, H; Ikawa, M; Nakahata, K; Zenitani, M; Yamamichi, T; Umeda, S; Deguchi, K; Okuyama, H; Miyagawa, S

    2016-05-01

    In our previous study, we reported on the development of substituting S147C for HLA-E as a useful gene tool for xenotransplantation. In this study we exchanged the codon of HLA-Ev (147), checked its function, and established a line of transgenic mice. A new construct, a codon exchanging human HLA-Ev (147) + IRES + human beta 2-microgloblin, was established. The construct was subcloned into pCXN2 (the chick beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer) vector. Natural killer cell- and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicities were performed using the established the pig endothelial cell (PEC) line with the new gene. Transgenic mice with it were next produced using a micro-injection method. The expression of the molecule on PECs was confirmed by the transfection of the plasmid. The established molecules on PECs functioned well in regulating natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity. We have also successfully generated several lines of transgenic mice with this plasmid. The expression of HLA-Ev (147) in each mouse organ was confirmed by assessing the mRNA. The chick beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer resulted in a relatively broad expression of the gene in each organ, and a strong expression in the cases of the heart and lung. A synthetic HLA-Ev (147) gene with a codon usage optimized to a mammalian system represents a critical factor in the development of transgenic animals for xenotransplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    DOEpatents

    Rouy, Didier; Duverger, Nicolas; Emmanuel, Florence; Denefle, Patrice; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Viglietta, Celine; Rubin, Edward M.; Hughes, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  15. Isolation and Live Imaging of Enteric Progenitors based on Sox10-Histone2BVenus Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Corpening, Jennifer C.; Deal, Karen K.; Cantrell, V. Ashley; Skelton, Stephanie B.; Buehler, Dennis P.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate dynamic imaging of neural crest (NC) lineages and discrimination of individual cells in the enteric nervous system (ENS) where close juxtaposition often complicates viewing, we generated a mouse BAC transgenic line that drives a Histone2BVenus (H2BVenus) reporter from Sox10 regulatory regions. This strategy does not alter the endogenous Sox10 locus and thus facilitates analysis of normal NC development. Our Sox10-H2BVenus BAC transgene exhibits temporal, spatial, and cell-type specific expression that reflects endogenous Sox10 patterns. Individual cells exhibiting nuclear–localized fluorescence of the H2BVenus reporter are readily visualized in both fixed and living tissue and are amenable to isolation by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS-isolated H2BVenus+ enteric NC-derived progenitors (ENPs) exhibit multi-potency, readily form neurospheres, self-renew in vitro and express a variety of stem cell genes. Dynamic live imaging as H2BVenus+ ENPs migrate down the fetal gut reveals cell fragmentation suggesting that apoptosis occurs at a low frequency during normal development of the ENS. Confocal imaging both during population of the fetal intestine and in post-natal gut muscle strips revealed differential expression between individual cells consistent with down-regulation of the transgene as progression towards non-glial fates occurs. The expression of the Sox10-H2BVenus transgene in multiple regions of the peripheral nervous system will facilitate future studies of NC lineage segregation as this tool is expressed in early NC progenitors and maintained in enteric glia. PMID:21504042

  16. Enhanced hyperplasia in muscles of transgenic zebrafish expressing Follistatin1.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Nie, Fen; Yin, Zhan; He, JiangYan

    2011-02-01

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) super-family and functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth. Binding of the specific receptor, Activin receptor IIB (Act RIIB), with myostatin or other related TGF-β members, could be inhibited by the activin-binding protein follistatin (Fst) in mammals. Overexpressing Fst in mouse skeletal muscle leads to muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia. To determine if Fst has similar roles in fish, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing high levels of zebrafish Fst1 using the promoter of the zebrafish skeletal muscle-specific gene, myosin, light polypeptide 2, skeletal muscle (Mylz2). Independent transgenic zebrafish lines exhibited elevated expression levels of myogenic regulatory genes MyoD and Pax7 in muscle cells. Adult Fst1 overexpressing transgenic zebrafish exhibited a slight body weight increase. The high level of Fst1 expression dramatically increased myofiber numbers in skeletal muscle, without significantly changing the fiber size. Our findings suggest that Fst1 overexpression can promote zebrafish muscle growth by enhancing myofiber hyperplasia.

  17. Strategies to facilitate transgene expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Eichler-Stahlberg, Alke; Weisheit, Wolfram; Ruecker, Ovidiu; Heitzer, Markus

    2009-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been identified as a promising organism for the production of recombinant proteins. While during the last years important improvements have been developed for the production of proteins within the chloroplast, the expression levels of transgenes from the nuclear genome were too low to be of biotechnological importance. In this study, we integrated endogenous intronic sequences into the expression cassette to enhance the expression of transgenes in the nucleus. The insertion of one or more copies of intron sequences from the Chlamydomonas RBCS2 gene resulted in increased expression levels of a Renilla-luciferase gene used as a reporter. Although any of the three RBCS2 introns alone had a positive effect on expression, their integration in their physiological number and order created an over-proportional stimulating effect observed in all transformants. The secretion of the luciferase protein into the medium was achieved by using the export sequence of the Chlamydomonas ARS2 gene in a cell wall deficient strain and Renilla-luciferase could be successfully concentrated with the help of attached C-terminal protein tags. Similarly, a codon adapted gene variant for human erythropoietin (crEpo) was expressed as a protein of commercial relevance. Extracellular erythropoietin produced in Chlamydomonas showed a molecular mass of 33 kDa probably resulting from post-translational modifications. Both, the increased expression levels of transgenes by integration of introns and the isolation of recombinant proteins from the culture medium are important steps towards an extended biotechnological use of this alga.

  18. Fast-muscle-specific expression of human aldolase A transgenes.

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, M; Maire, P; Concordet, J P; Moch, C; Porteu, A; Kahn, A; Daegelen, D

    1994-01-01

    The expression of the human aldolase A gene is controlled by three alternative promoters. In transgenic mice, pN and pH are active in all tissues whereas pM is activated specifically in adult muscles composed mainly of fast, glycolytic fibers. To detect potential regulatory regions involved in the fast-muscle-specific activation of pM, we analyzed DNase I hypersensitivity in a 4.3-kbp fragment from the 5' end of the human aldolase A gene. Five hypersensitive sites were located near the transcription initiation site of each promoter in those transgenic-mouse tissues in which the corresponding promoter was active. Only one muscle-specific hypersensitive site was detected, mapping near pM. To functionally delimit the elements required for muscle-specific activity of pM, we performed a deletion analysis of the aldolase A 5' region in transgenic mice. Our results show that a 280-bp fragment containing 235 bp of pM proximal upstream sequences together with the noncoding M exon is sufficient for tissue-specific expression of pM. When a putative MEF-2-binding site residing in this proximal pM region is mutated, pM is still active and no change in its tissue specificity is detected. Furthermore, we observed a modulation of pM activity by elements lying further upstream and downstream from pM. Interestingly, pM was expressed in a tissue-specific way in all transgenic mice in which the 280-bp region was present (32 lines and six founder animals). This observation led us to suggest that the proximal pM region contains elements that are able to override to some extent the effects of the surrounding chromatin. Images PMID:7935397

  19. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  20. Characterization of Growth and Reproduction Performance, Transgene Integration, Expression, and Transmission Patterns in Transgenic Pigs Produced by piggyBac Transposition-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Zicong; Cai, Gengyuan; Gao, Wenchao; Jiang, Gelong; Liu, Dewu; Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan; Wu, Zhenfang

    2016-10-01

    Previously we successfully produced a group of EGFP-expressing founder transgenic pigs by a newly developed efficient and simple pig transgenesis method based on cytoplasmic injection of piggyBac plasmids. In this study, we investigated the growth and reproduction performance and characterized the transgene insertion, transmission, and expression patterns in transgenic pigs generated by piggyBac transposition. Results showed that transgene has no injurious effect on the growth and reproduction of transgenic pigs. Multiple copies of monogenic EGFP transgene were inserted at noncoding sequences of host genome, and passed from founder transgenic pigs to their transgenic offspring in segregation or linkage manner. The EGFP transgene was ubiquitously expressed in transgenic pigs, and its expression intensity was associated with transgene copy number but not related to its promoter DNA methylation level. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study that fully described the growth and reproduction performance, transgene insertion, expression, and transmission profiles in transgenic pigs produced by piggyBac system. It not only demonstrates that piggyBac transposition-mediated gene transfer is an effective and favorable approach for pig transgenesis, but also provides scientific information for understanding the transgene insertion, expression and transmission patterns in transgenic animals produced by piggyBac transposition.

  1. Expression of Recombinant Human BChE in the Milk of Transgenic Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    of transgenic animals . A DNA expression vector containing the huBChE cDNA under the control of the goat ß-casein promoter was used to generate...documented that the mammary gland of transgenic animals is an alternative system for recombinant protein production [17]. A variety of recombinant...human proteins have been expressed and secreted into the milk of transgenic animals [17, 18]. We report herein on the generation of transgenic mice

  2. Slow-growth phenotype of transgenic tomato expressing apoplastic invertase

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.D.; Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1991-02-01

    The growth of transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants that express in their apoplast yeast invertase under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter is severely inhibited. The higher the level of invertase, the greater the inhibition of growth. A second phenotypic characteristic of these transgenic plants is the development of yellow and necrotic spots on the leaves, and leaf curling. Again the severity of the symptoms is correlated with the level of invertase. These symptoms do not develop in shaded leaves indicating the need for photosynthesis. Keeping the plants in the dark for a prolonged period (24 hours) results in the disappearance of leaf starch from the control plants, but not from the plants with apoplastic invertase. These results are consistent with the interpretation that apoplastic invertase prevents photosynthate export from source leaves and that phloem loading includes an apoplastic step.

  3. Lupine leghemoglobin I: expression in transgenic Lotus and tobacco tissues.

    PubMed

    Strózycki, P M; Karłowski, W M; Dessaux, Y; Petit, A; Legocki, A B

    2000-03-01

    The proximal parts of the promoters of the genes for symbiotic-type hemoglobins are generally conserved, but the promoter of the lbI gene of lupine (LulbI) shows some unusual structural features. It lacks typical organ-specific elements characteristic of all the leghemoglobin gene promoters described thus far. We have analysed its functional activity in transgenic Lotus corniculatus. A fusion construct between the lbI promoter and the GUS reporter gene was expressed mainly in the central zone of the root nodule, but the product was also detected in the non-nodule root zone and in roots in tissue culture. In roots of transgenic tobacco, the activity of the promoter was only 24% lower than in Lotus nodules. LulbI promoter activity was also detected in tobacco leaves. Lupine hemoglobin I has a higher sequence identity to symbiotic-type hemoglobins and thus it groups within the "Class II" hemoglobins.

  4. Unstable expression of transgene is associated with the methylation of CAG promoter in the offspring from the same litter of homozygous transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Qin-Kai; Jiang, Ying; Xu, Deng-Gao; Zhang, Min; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic animals have been established for studying gene function, improving animals' production traits, and providing organ models for the exploration of human diseases. However, the stability of inheritance and transgene expression in transgenic animals has gained extensive attention. The unstable expression of transgene through DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) targeting to the methylation of transgenic DNA such as CAG promoter and Egfp coding region in homozygous transgenic animals is still unknown. In the present study, the offspring from the same litter of homozygous transgenic mice carrying ubiquitously expressed enhanced green fluorescence protein driven by CMV early enhancer/chicken β-actin (CAG) promoter was observed to have unstable expression of transgene Egfp, quantitative PCR, western blot and bisulfite sequencing were conducted to quantify the expressional characteristics and methylation levels in various tissues. The correlation between transgene expression and methylation was analyzed. We have found that transgene expression is dependent on the methylation of CAG promoter, but not Egfp coding region. We have also characterized the correlation between the methylation of CAG promoter and DNMT, and found that only Dnmt3b expression is correlated with the methylation of CAG promoter. In conclusion, Dnmt3b-related methylation of CAG promoter can inhibit the transgene expression and may result in the unstable expression of transgene in the offspring from the same litter of homozygous transgenic mice.

  5. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  6. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.

  7. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  8. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release.

    PubMed

    Poovaiah, Charleson R; Bewg, William P; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plant height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. This study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.

  9. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; ...

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  10. AAVPG: A vigilant vector where transgene expression is induced by p53

    SciTech Connect

    Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Medrano, Ruan F.V.; Carvalho, Anna Carolina P.V.; Strauss, Bryan E.

    2013-12-15

    Using p53 to drive transgene expression from viral vectors may provide on demand expression in response to physiologic stress, such as hypoxia or DNA damage. Here we introduce AAVPG, an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector where a p53-responsive promoter, termed PG, is used to control transgene expression. In vitro assays show that expression from the AAVPG-luc vector was induced specifically in the presence of functional p53 (1038±202 fold increase, p<0.001). The AAVPG-luc vector was an effective biosensor of p53 activation in response to hypoxia (4.48±0.6 fold increase in the presence of 250 µM CoCl{sub 2}, p<0.001) and biomechanical stress (2.53±0.4 fold increase with stretching, p<0.05). In vivo, the vigilant nature of the AAVPG-luc vector was revealed after treatment of tumor-bearing mice with doxorubicin (pre-treatment, 3.4×10{sup 5}±0.43×10{sup 5} photons/s; post-treatment, 6.6×10{sup 5}±2.1×10{sup 5} photons/s, p<0.05). These results indicate that the AAVPG vector is an interesting option for detecting p53 activity both in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • AAV vector where transgene expression is controlled by the tumor suppressor p53. • The new vector, AAVPG, shown to function as a biosensor of p53 activity, in vitro and in vivo. • The p53 activity monitored by the AAVPG vector is relevant to cancer and other diseases. • AAVPG reporter gene expression was activated upon DNA damage, hypoxia and mechanical stress.

  11. Vitamin H-regulated transgene expression in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Wilfried; Bacchus, William; Daoud-El Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Although adjustable transgene expression systems are considered essential for future therapeutic and biopharmaceutical manufacturing applications, the currently available transcription control modalities all require side-effect-prone inducers such as immunosupressants, hormones and antibiotics for fine-tuning. We have designed a novel mammalian transcription-control system, which is reversibly fine-tuned by non-toxic vitamin H (also referred to as biotin). Ligation of vitamin H, by engineered Escherichia coli biotin ligase (BirA), to a synthetic biotinylation signal fused to the tetracycline-dependent transactivator (tTA), enables heterodimerization of tTA to a streptavidin-linked transrepressor domain (KRAB), thereby abolishing tTA-mediated transactivation of specific target promoters. As heterodimerization of tTA to KRAB is ultimately conditional upon the presence of vitamin H, the system is vitamin H responsive. Transgenic Chinese hamster ovary cells, engineered for vitamin H-responsive gene expression, showed high-level, adjustable and reversible production of a human model glycoprotein in bench-scale culture systems, bioreactor-based biopharmaceutical manufacturing scenarios, and after implantation into mice. The vitamin H-responsive expression systems showed unique band pass filter-like regulation features characterized by high-level expression at low (0–2 nM biotin), maximum repression at intermediate (100–1000 nM biotin), and high-level expression at increased (>100 000 nM biotin) biotin concentrations. Sequential ON-to-OFF-to-ON, ON-to-OFF and OFF-to-ON expression profiles with graded expression transitions can all be achieved by simply increasing the level of a single inducer molecule without exchanging the culture medium. These novel expression characteristics mediated by an FDA-licensed inducer may foster advances in therapeutic cell engineering and manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein therapeutics. PMID:17827215

  12. Using inositol as a biocompatible ligand for efficient transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Bellis, Susan L; Fan, Yiwen; Wu, Yunkun

    2015-01-01

    Transgene transfection techniques using cationic polymers such as polyethylenimines (PEIs) and PEI derivatives as gene vectors have shown efficacy, although they also have shortcomings. PEIs have decent DNA-binding capability and good cell internalization performance, but they cannot deliver gene payloads very efficiently to cell nuclei. In this study, three hyperbranched polyglycerol-polyethylenimine (PG6-PEI) polymers conjugated with myo-inositol (INO) molecules were developed. The three resulting PG6-PEI-INO polymers have an increased number of INO ligands per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 1 had only 14 carboxymethyl INO (CMINO) units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 2 had approximately 130 CMINO units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 3 had as high as 415 CMINO units approximately. Mixing PG6-PEI-INO polymers with DNA produced compact nanocomposites. We then performed localization studies using fluorescent microscopy. As the number of conjugated inositol ligands increased in PG6-PEI-INO polymers, there was a corresponding increase in accumulation of the polymers within 293T cell nuclei. Transfection performed with spherical 293T cells yielded 82% of EGFP-positive cells when using PG6-PEI-INO 3 as the vehicle. Studies further revealed that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) can inhibit the transgene efficiency of PG6-PEI-INO polymers, as compared with PEI and PG6-PEI that were not conjugated with inositol. Our work unveiled the possibility of using inositol as an effective ligand for transgene expression. PMID:25926732

  13. GH/IGF-I Transgene Expression on Muscle Homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose to test the hypothesis that the growth hormone/ insulin like growth factor-I axis through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms may provide long term muscle homeostasis under conditions of prolonged weightlessness. As a key alternative to hormone replacement therapy, ectopic production of hGH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and IGF-I will be studied for its potential on muscle mass impact in transgenic mice under simulated microgravity. Expression of either hGH or IGF-I would provide a chronic source of a growth-promoting protein whose biosynthesis or secretion is shut down in space. Muscle expression of the IGF-I transgene has demonstrated about a 20% increase in hind limb muscle mass over control nontransgenic litter mates. These recent experiments, also establish the utility of hind-limb suspension in mice as a workable model to study atrophy in weight bearing muscles. Thus, transgenic mice will be used in hind-limb suspension models to determine the role of GH/IGF-I on maintenance of muscle mass and whether concentric exercises might act in synergy with hormone treatment. As a means to engineer and ensure long-term protein production that would be workable in humans, gene therapy technology will be used by to monitor muscle mass preservation during hind-limb suspension, after direct intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered muscle-specific vector expressing GHRH. Effects of this gene-based therapy will be assessed in both fast twitch (medial gastrocnemius) and slow twitch muscle (soleus). End-points include muscle size, ultrastructure, fiber type, and contractile function, in normal animals, hind limb suspension, and reambutation.

  14. The arcelin-5 Gene of Phaseolus vulgaris Directs High Seed-Specific Expression in Transgenic Phaseolus acutifolius and Arabidopsis Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Alain; Dillen, Willy; De Clercq, Janniek; Van Montagu, Marc; Angenon, Geert

    1999-01-01

    The regulatory sequences of many genes encoding seed storage proteins have been used to drive seed-specific expression of a variety of proteins in transgenic plants. Because the levels at which these transgene-derived proteins accumulate are generally quite low, we investigated the utility of the arcelin-5 regulatory sequences in obtaining high seed-specific expression in transgenic plants. Arcelin-5 is an abundant seed protein found in some wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Seeds of Arabidopsis and Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) plants transformed with arcelin-5 gene constructs synthesized arcelin-5 to levels of 15% and 25% of the total protein content, respectively. To our knowledge, such high expression levels directed by a transgene have not been reported before. The transgenic plants also showed low plant-to-plant variation in arcelin expression. Complex transgene integration patterns, which often result in gene silencing effects, were not associated with reduced arcelin-5 expression. High transgene expression was the result of high mRNA steady-state levels and was restricted to seeds. This indicates that all requirements for high seed-specific expression are cis elements present in the cloned genomic arcelin-5 sequence and trans-acting factors that are available in Arabidopsis and Phaseolus spp., and thus probably in most dicotyledonous plants. PMID:10444093

  15. Lymphopoiesis in transgenic mice over-expressing Artemis.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Munoz, P; Abramowski, V; Jacquot, S; André, P; Charrier, S; Lipson-Ruffert, K; Fischer, A; Galy, A; Cavazzana, M; de Villartay, J-P

    2016-02-01

    Artemis is a factor of the non-homologous end joining pathway involved in DNA double-strand break repair that has a critical role in V(D)J recombination. Mutations in DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS gene result in radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency in humans owing to a lack of mature T and B cells. Given the known drawbacks of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), gene therapy appears as a promising alternative for these patients. However, the safety of an unregulated expression of Artemis has to be established. We developed a transgenic mouse model expressing human Artemis under the control of the strong CMV early enhancer/chicken beta actin promoter through knock-in at the ROSA26 locus to analyze this issue. Transgenic mice present a normal development, maturation and function of T and B cells with no signs of lymphopoietic malignancies for up to 15 months. These results suggest that the over-expression of Artemis in mice (up to 40 times) has no deleterious effects in early and mature lymphoid cells and support the safety of gene therapy as a possible curative treatment for Artemis-deficient patients.

  16. [Effect of Intron Orientation on the Expression of Transgene Imposed by MAR Expression Vector in Stably Recombinant CHO Cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Chun-peng; Wang, Xiao-yin; Sun, Qiu-li; Wang, Tian-yun

    2016-03-01

    To determine the effect of intron orientation on the transgene expression level imposed by matrix attachment region (MAR) expression vector. The MAR of β-globin was amplified by PCR, and then cloned into MAR expression vectors. An intron sequence was digested with restriction enzyme, ligated to the MAR expression vector in reverse orientation, and then transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The transfected stable cells were screened by G418. The level of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene expression was analyzed by ELISA method. The transgene expression levels of CHO cells with the two expression vectors with a positive intron or without MAR were higher than that of CHO cells with an expression vector with reverse intron (P < 0.05). MAR did not improve transgene expression with reverse intron presence. Different orientation of intron can affect transgene expression in recombinant CHO cells. The transgene expression level can be increased using positive intron and MAR.

  17. Quantitative analysis of tetracycline-inducible expression of the green fluorescent protein gene in transgenic chickens.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun; Roh, Ji Yeol; Kim, Minjee; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Kim, Teoan

    2012-01-01

    The use of transgenic farm animals as "bioreactors" to address the growing demand for biopharmaceuticals, both in terms of increased quantity and greater number, represents a key development in the advancement of medical science. However, the potential for detrimental side-effects as a result of uncontrolled constitutive expression of foreign genes in transgenic animals is a well-recognized limitation of such systems. Previously, using a tetracycline-inducible expression system, we demonstrated the induction of expression of a transgene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transgenic chickens by feeding with doxycycline, a tetracycline derivative; expression of GFP reverted to pre-induction levels when the inducer was removed from the diet. As a proof of principle study, however, quantitative assessment of expression was not possible, as only one G0 and one G1 transgenic chicken was obtained. In the current study, a sufficient number of G2 and G3 transgenic chickens were obtained, and quantification analysis demonstrated up to a 20-fold induction of expression by doxycycline. In addition, stable transmission of the transgene without any apparent genetic modifications was observed through several generations. The use of an inducible expression system that can be regulated by dietary supplementation could help mitigate the physiological disruption that can occur in transgenic animals as a result of uncontrolled constitutive expression of a transgene. Importantly, these results also support the use of the retroviral system for generating transgenic animals with minimal risk in terms of biosafety.

  18. Gender roles, sex and the expression of driving anger.

    PubMed

    Sullman, M J M; Paxion, J; Stephens, A N

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigated the validity of the 25-item Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) as well as the role of sex and gender-roles in relation to the expression of driving anger in a sample of 378 French drivers (males=38%, M=32.9years old). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the four-factor structure of the 25-item DAX (Adaptive/Constructive Expression; Use of the Vehicle to Express Anger; Verbal Aggressive Expression and Personal Physical Aggressive Expression) and two of the three aggressive factors were found to have significant positive relationships with driving anger, while adaptive/constructive expression was negatively related to driving anger. Use of the vehicle to express anger was not significantly related to crash involvement, but was significantly related to all other crash-related conditions (traffic tickets, loss of concentration, loss of control of the vehicle, near crash). The presence of feminine traits, but not sex, was predictive of adaptive/constructive behaviours, while masculine traits predicted more frequent verbal aggressive expression, use of the vehicle to express anger, personal physical aggressive expression and total aggressive expression. This finding may account for the inconsistent relationship found between driving anger and sex in previous research. This research also found that the 25-item DAX is a valid tool to measure the expression of driving anger and that the endorsement of masculine traits are related to more aggressive forms of driving anger expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MicroRNA-150-regulated vectors allow lymphocyte-sparing transgene expression in hematopoietic gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, N; Jagielska, J; Heckl, D; Brennig, S; Pfaff, N; Maetzig, T; Modlich, U; Cantz, T; Gentner, B; Schambach, A; Moritz, T

    2012-09-01

    Endogenous microRNA (miRNA) expression can be exploited for cell type-specific transgene expression as the addition of miRNA target sequences to transgenic cDNA allows for transgene downregulation specifically in cells expressing the respective miRNAs. Here, we have investigated the potential of miRNA-150 target sequences to specifically suppress gene expression in lymphocytes and thereby prevent transgene-induced lymphotoxicity. Abundance of miRNA-150 expression specifically in differentiated B and T cells was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Mono- and bicistronic lentiviral vectors were used to investigate the effect of miRNA-150 target sequences on transgene expression in the lymphohematopoietic system. After in vitro studies demonstrated effective downregulation of transgene expression in murine B220(+) B and CD3(+) T cells, the concept was further verified in a murine transplant model. Again, marked suppression of transgene activity was observed in B220(+) B and CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells whereas expression in CD11b(+) myeloid cells, lin(-) and lin(-)/Sca1(+) progenitors, or lin(-)/Sca1(+)/c-kit(+) stem cells remained almost unaffected. No toxicity of miRNA-150 targeting in transduced lymphohematopoietic cells was noted. Thus, our results demonstrate the suitability of miRNA-150 targeting to specifically suppress transgene expression in lymphocytes and further support the concept of miRNA targeting for cell type-specific transgene expression in gene therapy approaches.

  20. MAR-Mediated transgene integration into permissive chromatin and increased expression by recombination pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Junier, Thomas; Regamey, Alexandre; Iseli, Christian; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Bosshard, Sandra; Majocchi, Stefano; Le Fourn, Valérie; Girod, Pierre-Alain; Xenarios, Ioannis; Mermod, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Untargeted plasmid integration into mammalian cell genomes remains a poorly understood and inefficient process. The formation of plasmid concatemers and their genomic integration has been ascribed either to non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathways. However, a direct involvement of these pathways has remained unclear. Here, we show that the silencing of many HR factors enhanced plasmid concatemer formation and stable expression of the gene of interest in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, while the inhibition of NHEJ had no effect. However, genomic integration was decreased by the silencing of specific HR components, such as Rad51, and DNA synthesis-dependent microhomology-mediated end-joining (SD-MMEJ) activities. Genome-wide analysis of the integration loci and junction sequences validated the prevalent use of the SD-MMEJ pathway for transgene integration close to cellular genes, an effect shared with matrix attachment region (MAR) DNA elements that stimulate plasmid integration and expression. Overall, we conclude that SD-MMEJ is the main mechanism driving the illegitimate genomic integration of foreign DNA in CHO cells, and we provide a recombination engineering approach that increases transgene integration and recombinant protein expression in these cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 384-396. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    SciTech Connect

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D.

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plant height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.

  2. Concordant activity of transgene expression cassettes inserted into E1, E3 and E4 cloning sites in the adenovirus genome

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Linh; Nakamura, Takafumi; Rosales, A. Gabriela; Carlson, Stephanie K.; Bailey, Kent R.; Peng, Kah-Whye; Russell, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Expression cassettes can be inserted at several positions into recombinant adenoviral genomes but the implications of this choice for transgene expression level have not been determined. Knowledge of the relative expression levels of transgenes inserted at different sites in the adenoviral genome is of particular significance for transgene expression monitoring approaches that rely on the concordant expression of a marker transgene inserted elsewhere in the viral genome. Methods Three expression cassettes, each comprising a cytomegalovirus promoter driving one of three marker peptides [serum carcinoembryonic antigen (sCEA), beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) or human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS)], were inserted into E1, E3 or E4 cloning sites in a recombinant adenoviral vector backbone. High titer stocks of bicistronic adenoviral vectors coding for combinations of marker peptides were prepared. A panel of human cells of various lineages was infected with the vectors and expression ratios of the transgene-encoded proteins were analysed. Serum levels of the soluble proteins and hepatic uptake of radioactive iodine were also compared in vivo in nude rats after intravenous vector infusion. Results High concordance of expression between the inserted transgenes was observed in all of the bicistronic vectors irrespective of whether the expression cassettes were placed in the E1, E3 or E4 regions. Concordance was maintained across multiple cell lineages. In vivo, in athymic rats, blood and urine levels of βhCG were highly concordant with serum levels of sCEA at all timepoints after intravenous infusion of the bicistronic vectors encoding both of these soluble markers. Hepatic radioiodine uptake was concordant with serum CEA concentration in mice infused with a bicistronic vector expressing CEA and NIS. Conclusions The expression level of a given transgene in an adenoviral vector genome can be accurately and quantitatively inferred from the

  3. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3 years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217 mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns.

  4. A compact unc45b‐promoter drives muscle‐specific expression in zebrafish and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rudeck, Steven; Etard, Christelle; Khan, Muzamil M.; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Rudolf, Rüdiger; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Gene therapeutic approaches to cure genetic diseases require tools to express the rescuing gene exclusively within the affected tissues. Viruses are often chosen as gene transfer vehicles but they have limited capacity for genetic information to be carried and transduced. In addition, to avoid off‐target effects the therapeutic gene should be driven by a tissue‐specific promoter in order to ensure expression in the target organs, tissues, or cell populations. The larger the promoter, the less space will be left for the respective gene. Thus, there is a need for small but tissue‐specific promoters. Here, we describe a compact unc45b promoter fragment of 195 bp that retains the ability to drive gene expression exclusively in skeletal and cardiac muscle in zebrafish and mouse. Remarkably, the described unc45b promoter fragment not only drives muscle‐specific expression but presents heat‐shock inducibility, allowing a temporal and spatial quantity control of (trans)gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the transgenic expression of the smyd1b gene driven by the unc45b promoter fragment is able to rescue the embryonically lethal heart and skeletal muscle defects in smyd1b‐deficient flatline mutant zebrafish. Our findings demonstrate that the described muscle‐specific unc45b promoter fragment might be a valuable tool for the development of genetic therapies in patients suffering from myopathies. genesis 54:431–438, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27295336

  5. A transgenic rat with ubiquitous expression of firefly luciferase gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakamata, Yoji; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    In vivo imaging strategies provide cellular and molecular events in real time that helps us to understand biological processes in living animals. The development of molecular tags such as green fluorescent proteins and luciferase from the firefly Photinus pyralis has lead to a revolution in the visualization of complex biochemical processes. We developed a novel inbred transgenic rat strain containing firefly luciferase based on the transgenic (Tg) technique in rats. This Tg rat expressed the luciferase gene ubiquitously under control of the ROSA26 promoter. Cellular immune responsiveness against the luciferase protein was evaluated using conventional skin grafting and resulted in the long-term acceptance of Tg rat skin on wild-type rats. Strikingly, organ transplant with heart and small bowel demonstrated organ viability and graft survival, suggesting that cells from luciferase-Tg are transplantable to track their fate. Taking advantage of the less immunogenic luciferase, we also tested the role of hepatocyte-infusion in a liver injury model, and bone marrow-derived cells in a skin defect model. Employed in conjunction with modern advances in optical imaging, this luciferase-Tg rat system provides an innovative animal tool and a new means of facilitating biomedical research such as in the case of regeneration medicine.

  6. How to make tetracycline-regulated transgene expression go on and off.

    PubMed

    Rennel, Emma; Gerwins, Pär

    2002-10-01

    Tetracycline-regulated gene expression systems are widely used to allow temporal and quantitative control of transgene expression in cultured cells and transgenic animals. While working with the Tet-Off system, where tetracycline or the analogue doxycycline suppresses expression, we noted a considerable variability in induced transgene expression after removal of doxycycline. Variable expression of the transgene could not be explained by clonal variation since it was noted when working with clonal cell lines. Instead we found that doxycycline bound nonspecifically to cells and extracellular matrix and was slowly released after it had been removed from tissue culture media. The released doxycycline reached sufficiently high levels to completely suppress transgene expression. The effect was not dependent on cell type or the nature of the transgene. However, robust and rapid transgene expression could be induced if released doxycycline were removed by washing cells 3h after the initial removal of doxycycline. The use of different vector systems, harboring the tetracycline-regulatable components, yielded similar results. These results not only help explain why tetracycline-regulatable transgene expression systems sometimes are variable but also provide simple ways to substantially improve the efficiency, utility, and reliability of these widely used expression systems.

  7. Expression of Gal4-dependent transgenes in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system labeled with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein using Csf1r-Gal4VP16/UAS-ECFP double-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; van Zuylen, Wendy J M; DeBats, Claire E E; Alexander, Kylie A; Kellie, Stuart; Hume, David A

    2008-02-01

    We generated double-transgenic mice carrying cointegrated tissue-specific Gal4 and Gal4 reporter transgenes to direct transgene overexpression in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). A modified promoter of the Csf1r (c-fms) gene, containing a deletion of the trophoblast-specific promoter, was used to drive the expression of Gal4VP16 transcriptional activator specifically in macrophages. This module was cointegrated with a fluorescent reporter, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), driven by a Gal4-dependent promoter. ECFP fluorescence was first detected in forming blood islands of the yolk sac at 8 dpc, then in macrophages in the yolk sac and the embryo proper. In adult mice ECFP was detected primarily in monocytes, tissue macrophages, microglia, and dendritic cells, including Langerhans cells of the skin. Crossing of these mice to transgenics containing tagged protein under control of a Gal4-dependent promoter directed expression of that protein in mononuclear phagocytes of double-transgenic animals. The new mouse line provides a useful tool for overexpression of transgenes in cells of the myeloid lineage, while simultaneously labeling them by ECFP expression.

  8. Contribution of Epigenetic Modifications to the Decline in Transgene Expression from Plasmid DNA in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Lei; Nishikawa, Makiya; Ando, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Yuki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Short-term expression of transgenes is one of the problems frequently associated with non-viral in vivo gene transfer. To obtain experimental evidence for the design of sustainable transgene expression systems, the contribution of epigenetic modifications to the decline in transgene expression needs to be investigated. Bisulfite sequencing and reactivation by hydrodynamic injection of isotonic solution were employed to investigate methylation statues of CpG in transiently expressing plasmid, pCMV-Luc, in mouse liver after hydrodynamic delivery. The cytosines of CpGs in the promoter region of pCMV-Luc were methylated in mouse liver, but the methylation was much later than the decline in the expression. The expression from pre-methylated pCMV-Luc was insensitive to reactivation. Neither an inhibitor of DNA methylation nor an inhibitor of histone deacetylation had significant effects on transgene expression after hydrodynamic injection of pCMV-Luc. Partial hepatectomy, which reduces the transgene expression from the non-integrated vector into the genome, significantly reduced the transgene expression of human interferon γ from a long-term expressing plasmid pCpG-Huγ, suggesting that the CpG-reduced plasmid was not significantly integrated into the genomic DNA. These results indicate that the CpG-reduced plasmids achieve prolonged transgene expression without integration into the host genome, although the methylation status of CpG sequences in plasmids will not be associated with the prolonged expression. PMID:26262639

  9. Transgenic expression of therapeutic proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana seed.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L; Boothe, Joseph G

    2012-01-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins in plant seed augments alternative production platforms such as microbial fermentation, cell-based systems, transgenic animals, and other recombinant plant production systems to meet increasing demands for the existing biologics, drugs under evaluation, and undiscovered therapeutics in the future. We have developed upstream purification technologies for oilseeds which are designed to cost-effectively purify therapeutic proteins amenable to conventional downstream manufacture. A very useful tool in these endeavors is the plant model system Arabidopsis thaliana. The current chapter describes the rationale and methods used to over-express potential therapeutic products in A. thaliana seed for evaluation and definitive insight into whether our production platform, Safflower, can be utilized for large-scale manufacture.

  10. Generation and immunogenicity of Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein expressed in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Hanqing; Zhang, Xiaobo; Xiao, Hailin; Jiang, Yunbo; Song, Yunfeng; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo; Zhen, Yonglian; Chen, Huanchun

    2009-03-06

    Transgenic plants have become attractive as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins that can be developed as edible vaccines. In the present study, transgenic rice expressing the envelope protein (E) of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), under the control of a dual cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S) promoter, was generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot, Northern blot, Western blot and ELISA analyses confirmed that the E gene was integrated into transgenic rice and was expressed in the leaves at levels of 1.1-1.9 microg/mg of total soluble protein. After intraperitoneal immunization of mice with crude protein extracts from transgenic rice plants, JEV-specific neutralizing antibody could be detected. Moreover, E-specific mucosal immune responses could be detected in mice after oral immunization with protein extracts from transgenic rice plants. These results show the potential of using a transgenic rice-based expression system as an alternative bioreactor for JEV subunit vaccine.

  11. Expression of Trichoderma reesei exo-cellobiohydrolase I transgenic tobacco leaves and calli

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu ); Hooker, Brian S. ); Quesenberry, Ryan D. ); Gao, Jianwei

    1998-12-01

    Expression of Trichoderma reesei exo-cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) gene in transgenic tobacco was under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. In transgenic leaf tissues, CBHI activity up to 66.1 mmol h{sup -1} g{sup -1} total protein was observed. In transgenic calli, the highest CBHI activity was 83.6 umol h{sup -1} g{sup -1} total protein. Protein immunoblot analysis confirms the presence of CBHI enzyme in both transgenic calli and leaf tissues. CBHI expression levels accounted for about 0.11% and 0.082% of total protein in transgenic leaf tissues and calli, respectively. Furthermore, expression of CBHI gene did not affect normal growth and development of transgenic plants.

  12. Tissue-specific and differentiation-specific expression of a human K14 keratin gene in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Vassar, R.; Rosenberg, M.; Tyner, A.; Fuchs, E. ); Ross, S. )

    1989-03-01

    A construct containing {approx}2,500 base pairs (bp) of 5{prime} upstream and {approx}700 bp of 3{prime} downstream sequence was used to drive the expression of an intronless human K14 gene in vitro and in vivo. To track the expression of the gene, a small sequence encoding the antigenic portion of neuropeptide substance P was inserted in frame 5{prime} to the TGA translation stop codon of the gene. Surprisingly, this gene was expressed promiscuously in a wide variety of cultured cells transiently transfected with the construct. In contrast, when introduced into the germ line of transgenic mice, the construct was expressed in a fashion analogous to the endogenous K14 gene--namely, in the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelia. The results suggest that some regulatory mechanism is overridden as a consequence of transient transfection but that sequences that can control proper K14 expression are present in the construct. The appropriate tissue-specific and differentiation-specific expression of K14{center dot}P in transgenic mice is an important first step in characterizing a promoter that could be employed to drive the foreign expression of drug-related genes in the epidermis of skin grafts.

  13. Effect of β‑globin MAR characteristic elements on transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Dong, Weihua; Wang, Tianyun; Liu, Zhonghe; Wang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoyin; Zhao, Chunpeng; Zhang, Junhe; Wang, Li

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the characteristic elements of matrix attachment region (MAR) on transgene expression. Human β‑globin MAR was obtained by PCR amplification. A splicing MAR fragment containing all the characteristic elements of β‑globin MAR was artificially synthesized and then cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector. Following digestion and sequence identification, we transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with the two vectors, and then screened for the transformation of stable cells. The transgene expression level was analyzed by ELISA, and the copy numbers of the CAT gene were analyzed by real‑time fluorescent quantitative PCR. β‑globin MAR enhanced CAT reporter gene expression by 2.1489‑fold, whereas the β‑globin MAR characteristic elements did not enhance this expression. The real‑time fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the relative copy numbers of the CAT gene of the β‑globin MAR expression vector were 1.2‑fold higher compared with those of the non‑MAR expression vector. MAR was able to improve the transgene expression level to a certain extent. The MAR characteristic elements did not improve the transgene expression alone. The transgenic expression levels were not linear with the transgene copy number; however, the enhancement of transgenic expression was relative to the increase in the gene copy number.

  14. Viral expression cassette elements to enhance transgene target specificity and expression in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Powell, Sara Kathleen; Rivera-Soto, Ricardo; Gray, Steven James

    2015-01-01

    Over the last five years, the number of clinical trials involving AAV (adeno-associated virus) and lentiviral vectors continue to increase by about 150 trials each year. For continued success, AAV and lentiviral expression cassettes need to be designed to meet each disease's specific needs. This review discusses how viral vector expression cassettes can be engineered with elements to enhance target specificity and increase transgene expression. The key differences relating to target specificity between ubiquitous and tissue-specific promoters are discussed, as well as how endogenous miRNAs and their target sequences have been used to restrict transgene expression. Specifically, relevant studies indicating how cis-acting elements such as introns, WPRE, polyadenylation signals, and the CMV enhancer are highlighted to show their utility for enhancing transgene expression in gene therapy applications. All discussion bears in mind that expression cassettes have space constraints. In conclusion, this review can serve as a menu of vector genome design elements and their cost in terms of space to thoughtfully engineer viral vectors for gene therapy.

  15. Defense gene expression is potentiated in transgenic barley expressing antifungal peptide Metchnikowin throughout powdery mildew challenge.

    PubMed

    Rahnamaeian, Mohammad; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Transgenesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from different origins has emerged as an option for improvement of crop disease resistance since proof-of-concept for their activities against microbial phytopathogens is provided, persistently. Nevertheless, a more systematic approach based on knowledge of AMPs modes of action including elucidation of their cellular targets and possible impact on immune system considerably improves and diversifies the armory against harmful plant diseases. In present study, the impact of Metchnikowin (Mtk) expression in barley in terms of modulating different immune pathways was investigated. Monitoring of transcript abundance of different genes involved in key immune pathways of SAR, ISR, and redox milieu during interaction of Mtk barley with biotrophic Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) demonstrated that several immune responses are modulated in Mtk transgenic plants. Present findings substantiate the higher activation of SAR pathway as well as ISR pathway in transgenic plants. Regarding susceptibility factors, nonetheless MLO gene is expressed more in Mtk plants and should lead to an increased cellular accessibility to Bgh, its impact is presumably overwhelmed by other mechanism(s) so that the plants show more resistance when challenging with Bgh. On the other hand, no obvious difference was observed between expression level of Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) in transgenic and wild type plants, which could be an indicative of its neutrality in resistance/susceptibility of transgenic plants to Bgh. The provided evidence on the involved pathways in Mtk-induced resistance improves our knowledge concerning impacts of AMPs expressed in diverse plant species on immune system of relevant transgenic plants.

  16. Novel CXCL13 transgenic mouse: inflammation drives pathogenic effect of CXCL13 in experimental myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Julia Miriam; Robinet, Marieke; Aricha, Revital; Cufi, Perrine; Villeret, Bérengère; Lantner, Frida; Shachar, Idit; Fuchs, Sara; Souroujon, Miriam C; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Le Panse, Rozen

    2016-02-16

    Abnormal overexpression of CXCL13 is observed in many inflamed tissues and in particular in autoimmune diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disease mainly mediated by anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. Thymic hyperplasia characterized by ectopic germinal centers (GCs) is a common feature in MG and is correlated with high levels of anti-AChR antibodies. We previously showed that the B-cell chemoattractant, CXCL13 is overexpressed by thymic epithelial cells in MG patients. We hypothesized that abnormal CXCL13 expression by the thymic epithelium triggered B-cell recruitment in MG. We therefore created a novel transgenic (Tg) mouse with a keratin 5 driven CXCL13 expression. The thymus of Tg mice overexpressed CXCL13 but did not trigger B-cell recruitment. However, in inflammatory conditions, induced by Poly(I:C), B cells strongly migrated to the thymus. Tg mice were also more susceptible to experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) with stronger clinical signs, higher titers of anti-AChR antibodies, increased thymic B cells, and the development of germinal center-like structures. Consequently, this mouse model finally mimics the thymic pathology observed in human MG. Our data also demonstrated that inflammation is mandatory to reveal CXCL13 ability to recruit B cells and to induce tertiary lymphoid organ development.

  17. Novel CXCL13 transgenic mouse: inflammation drives pathogenic effect of CXCL13 in experimental myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Julia Miriam; Robinet, Marieke; Aricha, Revital; Cufi, Perrine; Villeret, Bérengère; Lantner, Frida; Shachar, Idit; Fuchs, Sara; Souroujon, Miriam C.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal overexpression of CXCL13 is observed in many inflamed tissues and in particular in autoimmune diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disease mainly mediated by anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. Thymic hyperplasia characterized by ectopic germinal centers (GCs) is a common feature in MG and is correlated with high levels of anti-AChR antibodies. We previously showed that the B-cell chemoattractant, CXCL13 is overexpressed by thymic epithelial cells in MG patients. We hypothesized that abnormal CXCL13 expression by the thymic epithelium triggered B-cell recruitment in MG. We therefore created a novel transgenic (Tg) mouse with a keratin 5 driven CXCL13 expression. The thymus of Tg mice overexpressed CXCL13 but did not trigger B-cell recruitment. However, in inflammatory conditions, induced by Poly(I:C), B cells strongly migrated to the thymus. Tg mice were also more susceptible to experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) with stronger clinical signs, higher titers of anti-AChR antibodies, increased thymic B cells, and the development of germinal center-like structures. Consequently, this mouse model finally mimics the thymic pathology observed in human MG. Our data also demonstrated that inflammation is mandatory to reveal CXCL13 ability to recruit B cells and to induce tertiary lymphoid organ development. PMID:26771137

  18. Enhanced Transgene Expression in Sugarcane by Co-Expression of Virus-Encoded RNA Silencing Suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Won; Beyene, Getu; Buenrostro-Nava, Marco T.; Molina, Joe; Wang, Xiaofeng; Ciomperlik, Jessica J.; Manabayeva, Shuga A.; Alvarado, Veria Y.; Rathore, Keerti S.; Scholthof, Herman B.; Mirkov, T. Erik

    2013-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing is commonly observed in polyploid species and often poses a major limitation to plant improvement via biotechnology. Five plant viral suppressors of RNA silencing were evaluated for their ability to counteract gene silencing and enhance the expression of the Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (EYFP) or the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in sugarcane, a major sugar and biomass producing polyploid. Functionality of these suppressors was first verified in Nicotiana benthamiana and onion epidermal cells, and later tested by transient expression in sugarcane young leaf segments and protoplasts. In young leaf segments co-expressing a suppressor, EYFP reached its maximum expression at 48–96 h post-DNA introduction and maintained its peak expression for a longer time compared with that in the absence of a suppressor. Among the five suppressors, Tomato bushy stunt virus-encoded P19 and Barley stripe mosaic virus-encoded γb were the most efficient. Co-expression with P19 and γb enhanced EYFP expression 4.6-fold and 3.6-fold in young leaf segments, and GUS activity 2.3-fold and 2.4-fold in protoplasts compared with those in the absence of a suppressor, respectively. In transgenic sugarcane, co-expression of GUS and P19 suppressor showed the highest accumulation of GUS levels with an average of 2.7-fold more than when GUS was expressed alone, with no detrimental phenotypic effects. The two established transient expression assays, based on young leaf segments and protoplasts, and confirmed by stable transgene expression, offer a rapid versatile system to verify the efficiency of RNA silencing suppressors that proved to be valuable in enhancing and stabilizing transgene expression in sugarcane. PMID:23799071

  19. Altered gene expression patterns of innate and adaptive immunity pathways in transgenic rainbow trout harboring Cecropin P1 transgene.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jay H; Lin, Chun-Mean; Chen, Maria J; Chen, Thomas T

    2014-10-11

    We have recently developed several homozygous families of transgenic rainbow trout harbouring cecropin P1 transgene. These fish exhibit resistance characteristic to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). In our earlier studies we have reported that treatment of a rainbow trout macrophage cell line (RTS11) with a linear cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptide (e.g., cecropin B) resulted in elevated levels of expression of two pro-inflammatory relevant genes (e.g., IL-1β and COX-2). Therefore, we hypothesized that in addition to the direct antimicrobial activity of cecropin P1 in the disease resistant transgenic rainbow trout, this antimicrobial peptide may also affect the expression of immune relevant genes in the host. To confirm this hypothesis, we launched a study to determine the global gene expression profiles in three immune competent organs of cecropin P1 transgenic rainbow trout by using a 44k salmonid microarray. From the microarray data, a total of 2480 genes in the spleen, 3022 in the kidney, and 2102 in the liver were determined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the cecropin P1 transgenic rainbow trout when compared to the non-transgenics. There were 478 DEGs in common among three tissues. Enrichment analyses conducted by two different bioinformatics tools revealed a tissue specific profile of functional pathway perturbation. Many of them were directly related to innate immune system such as phagocytosis, lysosomal processing, complement activation, antigen processing/presentation, and leukocyte migration. Perturbation of other biological functions that might contribute indirectly to host immunity was also observed. The gene product of cecropin P1 transgene produced in the disease resistant transgenic rainbow trout not only can kill the pathogens directly but also exert multifaceted immunomodulatory properties to boost host immunity. The identified genes involved in different pathways related

  20. Generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys that express green fluorescent protein throughout the whole body

    PubMed Central

    Seita, Yasunari; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Matsushita, Jun; Azami, Takuya; Okahara, Junko; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji; Itoh, Yasushi; Imamura, Takeshi; Nishimura, Masaki; Tooyama, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Mitinori; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Erika; Ema, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are valuable for human disease modelling, because rodents poorly recapitulate some human diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease amongst others. Here, we report for the first time, the generation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic cynomolgus monkeys by lentivirus infection. Our data show that the use of a human cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer and chicken beta actin promoter (CAG) directed the ubiquitous expression of the transgene in cynomolgus monkeys. We also found that injection into mature oocytes before fertilization achieved homogenous expression of GFP in each tissue, including the amnion, and fibroblasts, whereas injection into fertilized oocytes generated a transgenic cynomolgus monkey with mosaic GFP expression. Thus, the injection timing was important to create transgenic cynomolgus monkeys that expressed GFP homogenously in each of the various tissues. The strategy established in this work will be useful for the generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys for transplantation studies as well as biomedical research. PMID:27109065

  1. Transgenic silkworms expressing human insulin receptors for evaluation of therapeutically active insulin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Ishii, Kenichi; Miyaguchi, Wataru; Horie, Ryo; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Tatematsu, Ken-ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-12

    We established a transgenic silkworm strain expressing the human insulin receptor (hIR) using the GAL4/UAS system. Administration of human insulin to transgenic silkworms expressing hIR decreased hemolymph sugar levels and facilitated Akt phosphorylation in the fat body. The decrease in hemolymph sugar levels induced by injection of human insulin in the transgenic silkworms expressing hIR was blocked by co-injection of wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor. Administration of bovine insulin, an hIR ligand, also effectively decreased sugar levels in the transgenic silkworms. These findings indicate that functional hIRs that respond to human insulin were successfully induced in the transgenic silkworms. We propose that the humanized silkworm expressing hIR is useful for in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic activities of insulin receptor agonists.

  2. Long-term T-DNA insert stability and transgene expression consistency in field propagated sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Caffall, Kerry Hosmer; He, Chengkun; Smith-Jones, Michele; Mayo, Kristin; Mai, Pearl; Dong, Shujie; Ke, John; Dunder, Erik; Yarnall, Michele; Whinna, Rachel; DeMaio, Joe; Gu, Weining; Sheldon, Judith; Allen, Martin; Costello, Tricia; Setliff, Kristin; Jain, Rakesh; Snyder, Ada; Lovelady, Clark; Rawls, Eric; Palmer, Eric; Zhang, Yan; Bate, Nicholas; Shi, Liang; Jepson, Ian

    2017-03-01

    This study addresses T-DNA insert stability and transgene expression consistency in multiple cycles of field propagated sugarcane. T-DNA inserts are stable; no transgene rearrangements were observed. AmCYAN1 and PMI protein accumulation levels were maintained. There was no evidence that production of either protein declined across generations and no transgene silencing was observed in three commercial sugarcane varieties through commercially relevant ratooning, propagation-by-setts, and micro-propagation generation processes over 4 years of field testing. Long term transgene expression consistency and T-DNA insert stability can be achieved in sugarcane, suggesting that it is highly probable that transgenic sugarcane can be successfully commercialized. This study addresses T-DNA insert stability and transgene expression consistency in multiple cycles of field propagated sugarcane. These data are critical supporting information needed for successful commercialization of GM sugarcane. Here seventeen transgenic events, containing the AmCYAN1 gene driven by a CMP promoter and the E. coli PMI gene driven by either a CMP or Ubi promoter, were used to monitor T-DNA insert stability and consistency of transgene encoded protein accumulation through commercially relevant ratooning, propagation-by-setts, and micro-propagation generation processes. The experiments were conducted in three commercial sugarcane varieties over 4 years of field testing. DNA gel blot analysis showed that the T-DNA inserts are stable; no transgene rearrangements were observed. Quantitative ELISA showed no evidence of decreasing AmCYAN1 and PMI protein levels across generations and no transgene silencing was observed. These results indicate that long term transgene expression consistency and T-DNA insert stability can be achieved in sugarcane, suggesting that it is highly probable that transgenic sugarcane can be successfully commercialized.

  3. Tal1 transgenic expression reveals absence of B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Palamarchuk, Alexey; Zanesi, Nicola; Aqeilan, Rami I; Efanov, Alexey; Maximov, Vadim; Santanam, Urmila; Hagan, John P; Croce, Carlo M; Pekarsky, Yuri

    2006-06-15

    TAL1 oncogene encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Tal1, which is required for blood cell development, and its activation is a frequent event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Tal1 interacts and inhibits other helix-loop-helix factors such as E47 and HEB. To investigate the function of Tal1 in B cells, we generated Emu-TAL1 transgenic mouse line, expressing Tal1 in mouse B-cell lineage. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of lymphocytes isolated from spleens of five out of five founders reveals complete absence of IgM- or CD19-expressing cells. Only 2% to 3% of these cells were B220+ and 100% of B220+ cells were CD43+, indicating that these mice were able to make pro-B cells. Similarly, FACS analysis of bone marrow cells in Emu-TAL1 mice revealed complete absence of B220+IgM+ and B220+CD19+ cells. Analysis of the recombination status of IgH genes revealed the presence of D-J but absence or drastic reduction of V-D-J rearrangements. Our results suggest that Tal1 overexpression in B cells results in a phenotype similar to that of B cells of E47/E2A knockout animals. This represents first in vivo evidence that Tal1 can completely inhibit E47/E2A function.

  4. Sequence-Modified Antibiotic Resistance Genes Provide Sustained Plasmid-Mediated Transgene Expression in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiamiao; Zhang, Feijie; Fire, Andrew Z; Kay, Mark A

    2017-03-30

    Conventional plasmid vectors are incapable of achieving sustained levels of transgene expression in vivo even in quiescent mammalian tissues because the transgene expression cassette is silenced. Transcriptional silencing results from the presence of the bacterial plasmid backbone or virtually any DNA sequence of >1 kb in length placed outside of the expression cassette. Here, we show that transcriptional silencing can be substantially forestalled by increasing the An/Tn sequence composition in the plasmid bacterial backbone. Increasing numbers of An/Tn sequences increased sustained transcription of both backbone sequences and adjacent expression cassettes. In order to recapitulate these expression profiles in compact and portable plasmid DNA backbones, we engineered the standard kanamycin or ampicillin antibiotic resistance genes, optimizing the number of An/Tn sequence without altering the encoded amino acids. The resulting vector backbones yield sustained transgene expression from mouse liver, providing generic DNA vectors capable of sustained transgene expression without additional genes or mammalian regulatory elements.

  5. Transgenic expression of interferon-γ in mouse stomach leads to inflammation, metaplasia, and dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Syu, Li-Jyun; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Eaton, Kathryn A; Liu, Zhiping; Tetarbe, Manas; Keeley, Theresa M; Pero, Joanna; Ferris, Jennifer; Wilbert, Dawn; Kaatz, Ashley; Zheng, Xinlei; Qiao, Xiotan; Grachtchouk, Marina; Gumucio, Deborah L; Merchant, Juanita L; Samuelson, Linda C; Dlugosz, Andrzej A

    2012-12-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. It arises through a stepwise process that includes prominent inflammation with expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and multiple other pro-inflammatory cytokines. We engineered mice expressing IFN-γ under the control of the stomach-specific H(+)/K(+) ATPase β promoter to test the potential role of this cytokine in gastric tumorigenesis. Stomachs of H/K-IFN-γ transgenic mice exhibited inflammation, expansion of myofibroblasts, loss of parietal and chief cells, spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, and dysplasia. Proliferation was elevated in undifferentiated and metaplastic epithelial cells in H/K-IFN-γ transgenic mice, and there was increased apoptosis. H/K-IFN-γ mice had elevated levels of mRNA for IFN-γ target genes and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Intracellular mediators of IFN-γ and IL-6 signaling, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3, respectively, were detected in multiple cell types within stomach. H/K-IFN-γ mice developed dysplasia as early as 3 months of age, and 4 of 39 mice over 1 year of age developed antral polyps or tumors, including one adenoma and one adenocarcinoma, which expressed high levels of nuclear β-catenin. Our data identified IFN-γ as a pivotal secreted factor that orchestrates complex changes in inflammatory, epithelial, and mesenchymal cell populations to drive pre-neoplastic progression in stomach; however, additional alterations appear to be required for malignant conversion.

  6. Transgenic Expression of Interferon-γ in Mouse Stomach Leads to Inflammation, Metaplasia, and Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Syu, Li-Jyun; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Liu, Zhiping; Tetarbe, Manas; Keeley, Theresa M.; Pero, Joanna; Ferris, Jennifer; Wilbert, Dawn; Kaatz, Ashley; Zheng, Xinlei; Qiao, Xiotan; Grachtchouk, Marina; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Merchant, Juanita L.; Samuelson, Linda C.; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. It arises through a stepwise process that includes prominent inflammation with expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and multiple other pro-inflammatory cytokines. We engineered mice expressing IFN-γ under the control of the stomach-specific H+/K+ ATPase β promoter to test the potential role of this cytokine in gastric tumorigenesis. Stomachs of H/K-IFN-γ transgenic mice exhibited inflammation, expansion of myofibroblasts, loss of parietal and chief cells, spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, and dysplasia. Proliferation was elevated in undifferentiated and metaplastic epithelial cells in H/K-IFN-γ transgenic mice, and there was increased apoptosis. H/K-IFN-γ mice had elevated levels of mRNA for IFN-γ target genes and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Intracellular mediators of IFN-γ and IL-6 signaling, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3, respectively, were detected in multiple cell types within stomach. H/K-IFN-γ mice developed dysplasia as early as 3 months of age, and 4 of 39 mice over 1 year of age developed antral polyps or tumors, including one adenoma and one adenocarcinoma, which expressed high levels of nuclear β-catenin. Our data identified IFN-γ as a pivotal secreted factor that orchestrates complex changes in inflammatory, epithelial, and mesenchymal cell populations to drive pre-neoplastic progression in stomach; however, additional alterations appear to be required for malignant conversion. PMID:23036899

  7. MYMIV-AC2, a geminiviral RNAi suppressor protein, has potential to increase the transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Jamilur; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Gene silencing is one of the limiting factors for transgene expression in plants. But the plant viruses have learnt to suppress gene silencing by encoding the protein(s), called RNA silencing suppressor(s) (RSS). Hence, these proteins could be used to overcome the limitation for transgene expression. The RNAi suppressors, namely HC-Pro and P19, have been shown to enhance the transgene expression but other RSS proteins have not been screened for similar role. Moreover, none of RSSs from the DNA viruses are known for enhancing the expression of transgenes. The Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) belonging to the genus Begomovirus within the family of Geminiviridae encodes an RSS called the AC2 protein. Here, we used AC2 to elevate the expression of the transgenes. Upon introduction of MYMIV-AC2 in the silenced GFP transgenic tobacco lines, by either genetic hybridisation or transgenesis, the GFP expression was enhanced several fold in F1 and T0 lines. The GFP-siRNA levels were much reduced in F1 and T0 lines compared with those of the initial parental silenced lines. The enhanced GFP expression was also observed at the cellular level. This approach was also successful in enhancing the expression of another transgene, namely topoisomeraseII.

  8. Development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing avidin gene conferring resistance to stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Abouseadaa, Heba H; Osman, Gamal H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E; Abdelsattar, Mohamed T; Morsy, Yasser B; Alameldin, Hussien F; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Nour-Eldin, Hanan A; Salem, Reda; Gad, Adel A; Elkhodary, Soheir E; Shehata, Maher M; Mahfouz, Hala M; Eissa, Hala F; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2015-07-22

    Wheat is considered the most important cereal crop all over the world. The wheat weevil Sitophilus granarius is a serious insect pests in much of the wheat growing area worldwide and is responsible for significant loss of yield. Avidin proteins has been proposed to function as plant defense agents against insect pests. A synthetic avidin gene was introduced into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Giza 168 using a biolistic bombardment protocol. The presence and expression of the transgene in six selected T0 transgenic wheat lines were confirmed at the molecular level. Accumulation of avidin protein was detected in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants. Avidin transgene was stably integrated, transcribed and translated as indicated by Southern blot, ELISA, and dot blot analyses, with a high level of expression in transgenic wheat seeds. However, no expression was detected in untransformed wheat seeds. Functional integrity of avidin was confirmed by insect bioassay. The results of bioassay using transgenic wheat plants challenged with wheat weevil revealed 100 % mortality of the insects reared on transgenic plants after 21 days. Transgenic wheat plants had improved resistance to Sitophilus granarius.

  9. Sex-linked behavioural differences in mice expressing a human insulin transgene in the medial habenula.

    PubMed

    Douhet, P; Bertaina, V; Durkin, T; Calas, A; Destrade, C

    1997-12-01

    We previously reported that a human insulin transgene was specifically expressed in the medial habenula of the adult mouse brain, and that this expression was ascribed to the delta-168 transgene. The present study analyses the possible behavioural consequences of this insulin transgene expression using measures of food intake, spontaneous activity, emotional reactivity, learning and extinction performance of an operant task. The delta-168 transgenic mice did not differ from the C57BL/6 control mice as concerns food intake, behaviour in the open field, or emotional response in an elevated plus maze. On the other hand, measures of locomotor activity in a circular corridor revealed a significantly faster decline of spontaneous locomotor activity in male as compared to female delta-168 transgenic mice. Moreover, as compared to female transgenic mice, male transgenic mice exhibited a deficit in the rate of acquisition and an acceleration of the rate of extinction of a bar press response in a Skinner box. In contrast, the behaviour of female transgenic mice did not differ from either male or female C57BL/6 control mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that the behavioural modifications observed in delta-168 transgenic mice are sex-linked and suggest that these behavioural differences result from changes in the interaction (interface) between motivational and motor mechanisms mediated via the striato-habenulo-mesencephalic system.

  10. The construction and expression of lysine-rich gene in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2012-08-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEO(r) was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase-PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows.

  11. The Construction and Expression of Lysine-Rich Gene in the Mammary Gland of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Song, Guangqi; Chen, Yue; Wang, Zhongwei; Yin, Yupeng; Kong, Delong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhihui; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, β-casein, αS2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEOr was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase–PCR, in situ hybridization, and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that of nontransgenic controls (p<0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows. PMID:22577831

  12. Digital gene expression analysis of mature seeds of transgenic maize overexpressing Aspergillus niger phyA2 and its non-transgenic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jun; Yang, Litao; Wang, Congmao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The next generation sequencing technologies have been recently used for transcriptome analysis in many organisms because of the decreased sequencing cost and increased sequence output. In this study, we used digital gene expression (DGE) technique to compare the transcriptomic changes in mature seeds between transgenic maize overexpressing Aspergillus niger phyA2 and its non-transgenic counterpart. Deep sequencing of DGE libraries of the transgenic and its non-transgenic counterpart seeds generated 3,783,500 and 3,790,500 reads of 21-nucleotide, respectively, with frequencies spanning over four orders of magnitude. In transgenic maize, 53.97% of the unambiguous signature tags were mapped to the maize B73 reference genome, and 46.47% of genes were detected by at least two reads; in non-transgenic maize, the corresponding numbers were 51.38% and 47.39%. Compared with non-transgenic counterpart, about 12% of detected genes were differentially expressed in the transcriptome of transgenic maize seeds. Among these differentially expressed genes, there were 23 transcription factors in 14 families and no allergen genes. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 21 pathways were significantly affected by the transgenic event, in which the pathway involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum was the most significantly affected. Results from this study indicated that both intended and unintended transcriptomic changes occurred in the transgenic maize, thus emphasizing the importance of transcriptome profiling in risk assessment of transgenic events.

  13. New complex Ad vectors incorporating both rtTA and tTS deliver tightly regulated transgene expression both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rubinchik, S; Woraratanadharm, J; Yu, H; Dong, J-Y

    2005-03-01

    Regulation of transgene expression is a major goal of gene therapy research. Previously, we have developed a complex adenovirus (Ad) vector with tetracycline-regulated expression of a Fas ligand (FasL)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. This vector delivered high levels of activity that was regulated by doxycycline. However, this regulation was limited by the low but significant background activity of the TRE promoter. Recently, the Tet-regulated transcriptional silencer, tTS, was reported to suppress efficiently basal TRE activity without affecting induced expression levels. Here, we report development of Ad vectors that incorporate tTS in combination with that of reverse transactivator (rtTA) coupled with TRE promoter driving transgene expression. Incorporation of tTS improved control of transgene expression in vitro, so that an induction range of over three orders of magnitude was achieved in some cell lines. Effective regulation of transgene expression was also seen in a mouse model in vivo, following systemic vector delivery. In the case of FasL-GFP expression, significant improvement in the control of apoptotic activity both in vitro and in a mouse hepatotoxicity model was demonstrated when using rtTA-tTS vectors. In conclusion, a highly effective transgene regulation system, deliverable by a single adenoviral vector, is now available.

  14. Temporal and spatial patterning of transgene expression by near-infrared irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Leyre; Lopez, Daniel; Arruebo, Manuel; Wilson, Christopher G; Franceschi, Renny T.; Voellmy, Richard; Santamaria, Jesus; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether near-infrared (NIR) light could be employed for patterning transgene expression in plasmonic cell constructs. Hollow gold nanoparticles with a plasmon surface band absorption peaking at ~750 nm, a wavelength within the so called “tissue optical window”, were used as fillers in fibrin-based hydrogels. These composites, which efficiently transduce NIR photon energy into heat, were loaded with genetically-modified cells that harbor a heat-activated and ligand-dependent gene switch for regulating transgene expression. NIR laser irradiation in the presence of ligand triggered 3-dimensional patterns of transgene expression faithfully matching the illuminated areas of plasmonic cell constructs. This noninvasive technology was proven useful for remotely controlling in vivo the spatiotemporal bioavailability of transgenic vascular endothelial growth factor. The combination of spatial control by means of NIR irradiation along with safe and timed transgene induction presents a high application potential for engineering tissues in regenerative medicine scenarios. PMID:24957294

  15. A regulatory toolbox of MiniPromoters to drive selective expression in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Swanson, Douglas J.; Liu, Li; de Leeuw, Charles N.; Banks, Kathleen G.; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Fulton, Debra L.; Ali, Johar; Amirabbasi, Mahsa; Arenillas, David J.; Babyak, Nazar; Black, Sonia F.; Bonaguro, Russell J.; Brauer, Erich; Candido, Tara R.; Castellarin, Mauro; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Jason C. Y.; Chopra, Vik; Docking, T. Roderick; Dreolini, Lisa; D'Souza, Cletus A.; Flynn, Erin K.; Glenn, Randy; Hatakka, Kristi; Hearty, Taryn G.; Imanian, Behzad; Jiang, Steven; Khorasan-zadeh, Shadi; Komljenovic, Ivana; Laprise, Stéphanie; Liao, Nancy Y.; Lim, Jonathan S.; Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Flora; Liu, Jun; Lu, Meifen; McConechy, Melissa; McLeod, Andrea J.; Milisavljevic, Marko; Mis, Jacek; O'Connor, Katie; Palma, Betty; Palmquist, Diana L.; Schmouth, Jean-François; Swanson, Magdalena I.; Tam, Bonny; Ticoll, Amy; Turner, Jenna L.; Varhol, Richard; Vermeulen, Jenny; Watkins, Russell F.; Wilson, Gary; Wong, Bibiana K. Y.; Wong, Siaw H.; Wong, Tony Y. T.; Yang, George S.; Ypsilanti, Athena R.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Holt, Robert A.; Goldowitz, Daniel; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Simpson, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pleiades Promoter Project integrates genomewide bioinformatics with large-scale knockin mouse production and histological examination of expression patterns to develop MiniPromoters and related tools designed to study and treat the brain by directed gene expression. Genes with brain expression patterns of interest are subjected to bioinformatic analysis to delineate candidate regulatory regions, which are then incorporated into a panel of compact human MiniPromoters to drive expression to brain regions and cell types of interest. Using single-copy, homologous-recombination “knockins” in embryonic stem cells, each MiniPromoter reporter is integrated immediately 5′ of the Hprt locus in the mouse genome. MiniPromoter expression profiles are characterized in differentiation assays of the transgenic cells or in mouse brains following transgenic mouse production. Histological examination of adult brains, eyes, and spinal cords for reporter gene activity is coupled to costaining with cell-type–specific markers to define expression. The publicly available Pleiades MiniPromoter Project is a key resource to facilitate research on brain development and therapies. PMID:20807748

  16. Targeted transgenic expression of an osteoclastic transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase in cells of osteoclastic lineage increases bone resorption and bone loss in male young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Matilda H-C; Amoui, Mehran; Stiffel, Virginia; Srivastava, Apurva K; Wergedal, Jon E; Lau, K-H William

    2009-04-24

    This study evaluated whether transgenic expression of PTP-oc (osteoclastic transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase) in cells of the osteoclast lineage would affect bone resorption and bone density in young adult mice. Transgenic mice were generated with a transgenic construct using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase exon 1C promoter to drive expression of rabbit PTP-oc in osteoclastic cells. pQCT evaluation of femurs of young adult male progeny of three lines showed that transgenic mice had reduced bone volume and area, cortical and trabecular bone mineral content, and density. Histomorphometric analyses at secondary spongiosa of the femur and at metaphysis of the L4 vertebra confirmed that male transgenic mice had decreased trabecular surface, reduced percentage of trabecular area, decreased trabecular number, increased trabecular separation, and increased osteoclast number per bone surface length. Consistent with an increase in bone resorption, the serum C-telopeptide level was 25% higher in transgenic mice than in wild-type littermates. However, the bone phenotype was not readily observed in female young adult transgenic mice. This could in part be due to potential interactions between estrogen and PTP-oc signaling, since the bone loss phenotype was seen in young adult ovariectomized transgenic mice by microcomputed tomography analysis. In vitro, the average pit area per resorption pit created by marrow-derived transgenic osteoclasts was approximately 50% greater than that created by wild-type osteoclasts. Transgenic osteoclasts showed a lower c-Src phosphotyrosine 527 level, greater c-Src kinase activity, and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. In summary, this study provides compelling in vivo evidence that PTP-oc is a positive regulator of osteoclasts.

  17. High-level Genomic Integration, Epigenetic Changes, and Expression of Sleeping Beauty Transgene

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianhui; Park, Chang Won; Sjeklocha, Lucas; Kren, Betsy T.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2010-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) has emerged as an important nonviral vector for integrating transgenes into mammalian genomes. We report here a novel dual fluorescent reporter cis SB-Tn system that permitted nonselective fluorescent-activated cell sorting for SB-Tn-transduced K562 erythroid cells. Using an internal ribosome entry site element, the green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was linked to the SB10 transposase gene as an indirect marker for the robust expression of SB10 transposase. Flourescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) by eGFP resulted in significant enrichment (> 60%) of cells exhibiting SB-Tn-mediated genomic insertions and long-term expression of a DsRed transgene. The hybrid erythroid-specific promoter of DsRed transgene was verified in erythroid or megakaryocyte differentiation of K562 cells. Bisulfite-mediated genomic analyses identified different DNA methylation patterns between DsRed+ and DsRed− cell clones, suggesting a critical role in transgene expression. Moreover, although the host genomic copy of the promoter element showed no CpG methylation, the same sequence carried by the transgene was markedly hypermethylated. Additional evidence also suggested a role for histone deacetylation in the regulation of DsRed transgene. The presence of SB transgene affected the expression of neighboring host genes at distances > 45 kb. Our data suggested that fluorescent reporter cis SB-Tn system can be used to enrich mammalian cells harboring SB-mediated transgene insertions. The epigenetic modification detected on the DsRed transgene demonstrated that transgenes inserted by SB could also be selectively modified by host cellular epigenetic systems. In addition, long-range activation of host genes must now be recognized as a potential consequence of an inserted transgene cassette containing enhancer elements. PMID:20041635

  18. Transient Expression of Transgenic IL-12 in Mouse Liver Triggers Unremitting Inflammation Mimicking Human Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gil-Farina, Irene; Di Scala, Marianna; Salido, Eduardo; López-Franco, Esperanza; Rodríguez-García, Estefania; Blasi, Mercedes; Merino, Juana; Aldabe, Rafael; Prieto, Jesús; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2016-09-15

    The etiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) remains poorly understood. In this study, we sought to develop an animal model of human AIH to gain insight into the immunological mechanisms driving this condition. C57BL/6 mice were i.v. injected with adeno-associated viral vectors encoding murine IL-12 or luciferase under the control of a liver-specific promoter. Organ histology, response to immunosuppressive therapy, and biochemical and immunological parameters, including Ag-specific humoral and cellular response, were analyzed. Mechanistic studies were carried out using genetically modified mice and depletion of lymphocyte subpopulations. Adeno-associated virus IL-12-treated mice developed histological, biochemical, and immunological changes resembling type 1 AIH, including marked and persistent liver mononuclear cell infiltration, hepatic fibrosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, anti-nuclear and anti-smooth muscle actin Abs, and disease remission with immunosuppressive drugs. Interestingly, transgenic IL-12 was short-lived, but endogenous IL-12 expression was induced, and both IL-12 and IFN-γ remained elevated during the entire study period. IFN-γ was identified as an essential mediator of liver damage, and CD4 and CD8 T cells but not NK, NKT, or B cells were essential executors of hepatic injury. Furthermore, both MHC class I and MHC class II expression was upregulated at the hepatocellular membrane, and induction of autoreactive liver-specific T cells was detected. Remarkably, although immunoregulatory mechanisms were activated, they only partially mitigated liver damage. Thus, low and transient expression of transgenic IL-12 in hepatocytes causes loss of tolerance to hepatocellular Ags, leading to chronic hepatitis resembling human AIH type 1. This model provides a practical tool to explore AIH pathogenesis and novel therapies.

  19. Transgenic plants expressing GLK1 and CCA1 having increased nitrogen assimilation capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A; Nero, Damion C

    2012-04-10

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  20. Preservation and Faithful Expression of Transgene via Artificial Seeds in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenting; Liang, Zongsuo; Wang, Xinhua; Sibbald, Susan; Hunter, David; Tian, Lining

    2013-01-01

    Proper preservation of transgenes and transgenic materials is important for wider use of transgenic technology in plants. Here, we report stable preservation and faithful expression of a transgene via artificial seed technology in alfalfa. DNA constructs containing the uid reporter gene coding for β-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by a 35S promoter or a tCUP promoter were introduced into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Somatic embryos were subsequently induced from transgenic alfalfa plants via in vitro technology. These embryos were treated with abscisic acid to induce desiccation tolerance and were subjected to a water loss process. After the desiccation procedure, the water content in dried embryos, or called artificial seeds, was about 12–15% which was equivalent to that in true seeds. Upon water rehydration, the dried somatic embryos showed high degrees of viability and exhibited normal germination. Full plants were subsequently developed and recovered in a greenhouse. The progeny plants developed from artificial seeds showed GUS enzyme activity and the GUS expression level was comparable to that of plants developed from somatic embryos without the desiccation process. Polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transgene was well retained in the plants and Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated in plant genome. The research showed that the transgene and the new trait can be well preserved in artificial seeds and the progeny developed. The research provides a new method for transgenic germplasm preservation in different plant species. PMID:23690914

  1. Mono-allelic expression of variegating transgene locus in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Opsahl, Margaret L; Springbett, Anthea; Lathe, Richard; Colman, Alan; McClenaghan, Margaret; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2003-12-01

    We have generated transgenic mice which express an ovine beta-lactoglobulin transgene during lactation. In two transgenic lines, BLG/7 and BLG/45, beta-lactoglobulin protein levels vary between siblings, reflected at the cellular level by a mosaic transgene expression pattern in the mammary tissue that is reminiscent of position effect variegation. To investigate whether this variegating expression profile can be affected by the introduction of an identical variegating locus on the homologous chromosome, we compared the beta-lactoglobulin expression profiles in mice hemizygous or homozygous for the transgene locus. In BLG/45 mice, milk protein analysis revealed that transgene expression was effectively doubled in homozygous compared to hemizygous mice. In contrast, beta-lactoglobulin protein in hemizygous and homozygous BLG/7 mice displayed a similar range; although minimum expression levels were doubled in the homozygous population, the maximum level of expression was indistinguishable between the two populations. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for transgene mRNA indicated that for a given protein level, the extent of cellular expression is similar in both BLG/7 populations. In homozygous mice genomic DNA and nuclear RNA FISH demonstrated that only one of the two BLG/7 loci is active in expressing cells, while two transcription foci were present in BLG/45 homozygous mice. This mono-allelic transgene expression pattern is not inherited through the germline, as hemizygous mice bred from homozygous parents expressed at the expected hemizygous population level. We discuss these observations in the context of known epigenetic events such as imprinting and trans-inactivation.

  2. Transgenic expression of human cytoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) by porcine skin for xenogeneic skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua-Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Fan, Na-Na; Zhao, Ben-Tian; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Liu, Zhao-Ming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Dong-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Shang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Lu-Lu; Xiang, Peng-Ying; Ge, Liang-Peng; Wei, Hong; Lai, Liang-Xue

    2015-04-01

    Porcine skin is frequently used as a substitute of human skin to cover large wounds in clinic practice of wound care. In our previous work, we found that transgenic expression of human cytoxicT-lymphocyte associated antigen4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) in murine skin graft remarkably prolonged its survival in xenogeneic wounds without extensive immunosuppression in recipients, suggesting that transgenic hCTLA4Ig expression in skin graft may be an effective and safe method to prolong xenogeneic skin graft survival. In this work, using a transgene construct containing hCTLA4Ig coding sequence under the drive of human Keratine 14 (k14) promoter, hCTLA4Ig transgenic pigs were generated by somatic nuclear transfer. The derived transgenic pigs were healthy and exhibited no signs of susceptibility to infection. The hCTLA4Ig transgene was stably transmitted through germline over generations, and thereby a transgenic pig colony was established. In the derived transgenic pigs, hCTLA4Ig expression in skin was shown to be genetically stable over generations, and detected in heart, kidney and corneal as well as in skin. Transgenic hCTLA4Ig protein in pigs exhibited expected biological activity as it suppressed human lymphocyte proliferation in human mixed lymphocyte culture to extents comparable to those of commercially purchased purified hCTLA4Ig protein. In skin grafting from pigs to rats, transgenic porcine skin grafts exhibited remarkably prolonged survival compared to the wild-type skin grafts derived from the same pig strain (13.33 ± 3.64 vs. 6.25 ± 2.49 days, P < 0.01), further indicating that the transgenic hCTLA4Ig protein was biologically active and capable of extending porcine skin graft survival in xenogeneic wounds. The transgenic pigs generated in this work can be used as a reproducible resource to provide porcine skin grafts with extended survival for wound coverage, and also as donors to investigate the impacts of hCTLA4Ig on xenotransplantation of other organs

  3. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  4. Extensive Methylation of Promoter Sequences Silences Lentiviral Transgene Expression During Stem Cell Differentiation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Friederike; Ball, Claudia R; Tuorto, Francesca; Nowrouzi, Ali; Wang, Wei; Zavidij, Oksana; Dieter, Sebastian M; Fessler, Sylvia; van der Hoeven, Franciscus; Kloz, Ulrich; Lyko, Frank; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Glimm, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) are widely used to stably transfer genes into target cells investigating or treating gene functions. In addition, gene transfer into early murine embryos may be improved to efficiently generate transgenic mice. We applied lentiviral gene transfer to generate a mouse model transgenic for SET binding protein-1 (Setbp1) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Neither transgenic founders nor their vector-positive offspring transcribed or expressed the transgenes. Bisulfite sequencing of the internal spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) promoter demonstrated extensive methylation of all analyzed CpGs in the transgenic mice. To analyze the impact of Setbp1 on epigenetic silencing, embryonic stem cells (ESC) were differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CM) in vitro. In contrast to human promoters in LV, virally derived promoter sequences were strongly methylated during differentiation, independent of the transgene. Moreover, the commonly used SFFV promoter (SFFVp) was highly methylated with remarkable strength and frequency during hematopoietic differentiation in vivo in LV but less in γ-retroviral (γ-RV) backbones. In summary, we conclude that LV using an internal SFFVp are not suitable to generate transgenic mice or perform constitutive expression studies in differentiating cells. Choosing the appropriate promoter is also crucial to allow stable transgene expression in clinical gene therapy. PMID:22434137

  5. Copper transport during lactation in transgenic mice expressing the human ATP7A protein

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Roxana M.; Michalczyk, Agnes A.; Freestone, David J.; Currie, Scott; Linder, Maria C.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Both copper transporting ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are expressed in mammary epithelial cells but their role in copper delivery to milk has not been clarified. We investigated the role of ATP7A in delivery of copper to milk using transgenic mice that over-express human ATP7A. In mammary gland of transgenic mice, human ATP7A protein was 10- to 20-fold higher than in control mice, and was localized to the basolateral membrane of mammary epithelial cells in lactating mice. The copper concentration in the mammary gland of transgenic dams and stomach contents of transgenic pups was significantly reduced compared to non-transgenic mice. The mRNA levels of endogenous Atp7a, Atp7b, and Ctr1 copper transporters in the mammary gland were not altered by the expression of the ATP7A transgene, and the protein levels of Atp7b and ceruloplasmin were similar in transgenic and non-transgenic mice. These data suggest that ATP7A plays a role in removing excess copper from the mammary epithelial cells rather than supplying copper to milk. PMID:18515074

  6. Transgenic mice expressing high plasma concentrations of human apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a).

    PubMed Central

    Linton, M F; Farese, R V; Chiesa, G; Grass, D S; Chin, P; Hammer, R E; Hobbs, H H; Young, S G

    1993-01-01

    The B apolipoproteins, apo-B48 and apo-B100, are key structural proteins in those classes of lipoproteins considered to be atherogenic [e.g., chylomicron remnants, beta-VLDL, LDL, oxidized LDL, and Lp(a)]. Here we describe the development of transgenic mice expressing high levels of human apo-B48 and apo-B100. A 79.5-kb human genomic DNA fragment containing the entire human apo-B gene was isolated from a P1 bacteriophage library and microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. 16 transgenic founders expressing human apo-B were generated, and the animals with the highest expression had plasma apo-B100 levels nearly as high as those of normolipidemic humans (approximately 50 mg/dl). The human apo-B100 in transgenic mouse plasma was present largely in lipoproteins of the LDL class as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis, chromatography on a Superose 6 column, and density gradient ultracentrifugation. When the human apo-B transgenic founders were crossed with transgenic mice expressing human apo(a), the offspring that expressed both transgenes had high plasma levels of human Lp(a). Both the human apo-B and Lp(a) transgenic mice will be valuable resources for studying apo-B metabolism and the role of apo-B and Lp(a) in atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8254057

  7. Transgene Expression in Microalgae—From Tools to Applications

    PubMed Central

    Doron, Lior; Segal, Na'ama; Shapira, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae comprise a biodiverse group of photosynthetic organisms that reside in water sources and sediments. The green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was adopted as a useful model organism for studying various physiological systems. Its ability to grow under both photosynthetic and heterotrophic conditions allows efficient growth of non-photosynthetic mutants, making Chlamydomonas a useful genetic tool to study photosynthesis. In addition, this green alga can grow as haploid or diploid cells, similar to yeast, providing a powerful genetic system. As a result, easy and efficient transformation systems have been developed for Chlamydomonas, targeting both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Since microalgae comprise a rich repertoire of species that offer variable advantages for biotech and biomed industries, gene transfer technologies were further developed for many microalgae to allow for the expression of foreign proteins of interest. Expressing foreign genes in the chloroplast enables the targeting of foreign DNA to specific sites by homologous recombination. Chloroplast transformation also allows for the introduction of genes encoding several enzymes from a complex pathway, possibly as an operon. Expressing foreign proteins in the chloroplast can also be achieved by introducing the target gene into the nuclear genome, with the protein product bearing a targeting signal that directs import of the transgene-product into the chloroplast, like other endogenous chloroplast proteins. Integration of foreign genes into the nuclear genome is mostly random, resulting in large variability between different clones, such that extensive screening is required. The use of different selection modalities is also described, with special emphasis on the use of herbicides and metabolic markers which are considered to be friendly to the environment, as compared to drug-resistance genes that are commonly used. Finally, despite the development of a wide range of transformation

  8. A modified RMCE-compatible Rosa26 locus for the expression of transgenes from exogenous promoters.

    PubMed

    Tchorz, Jan S; Suply, Thomas; Ksiazek, Iwona; Giachino, Claudio; Cloëtta, Dimitri; Danzer, Claus-Peter; Doll, Thierry; Isken, Andrea; Lemaistre, Marianne; Taylor, Verdon; Bettler, Bernhard; Kinzel, Bernd; Mueller, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Generation of gain-of-function transgenic mice by targeting the Rosa26 locus has been established as an alternative to classical transgenic mice produced by pronuclear microinjection. However, targeting transgenes to the endogenous Rosa26 promoter results in moderate ubiquitous expression and is not suitable for high expression levels. Therefore, we now generated a modified Rosa26 (modRosa26) locus that combines efficient targeted transgenesis using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by Flipase (Flp-RMCE) or Cre recombinase (Cre-RMCE) with transgene expression from exogenous promoters. We silenced the endogenous Rosa26 promoter and characterized several ubiquitous (pCAG, EF1α and CMV) and tissue-specific (VeCad, αSMA) promoters in the modRosa26 locus in vivo. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous pCAG promoter in the modRosa26 locus now offers high transgene expression. While tissue-specific promoters were all active in their cognate tissues they additionally led to rare ectopic expression. To achieve high expression levels in a tissue-specific manner, we therefore combined Flp-RMCE for rapid ES cell targeting, the pCAG promoter for high transgene levels and Cre/LoxP conditional transgene activation using well-characterized Cre lines. Using this approach we generated a Cre/LoxP-inducible reporter mouse line with high EGFP expression levels that enables cell tracing in live cells. A second reporter line expressing luciferase permits efficient monitoring of Cre activity in live animals. Thus, targeting the modRosa26 locus by RMCE minimizes the effort required to target ES cells and generates a tool for the use exogenous promoters in combination with single-copy transgenes for predictable expression in mice.

  9. A Modified RMCE-Compatible Rosa26 Locus for the Expression of Transgenes from Exogenous Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Tchorz, Jan S.; Suply, Thomas; Ksiazek, Iwona; Giachino, Claudio; Cloëtta, Dimitri; Danzer, Claus-Peter; Doll, Thierry; Isken, Andrea; Lemaistre, Marianne; Taylor, Verdon; Bettler, Bernhard; Kinzel, Bernd; Mueller, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Generation of gain-of-function transgenic mice by targeting the Rosa26 locus has been established as an alternative to classical transgenic mice produced by pronuclear microinjection. However, targeting transgenes to the endogenous Rosa26 promoter results in moderate ubiquitous expression and is not suitable for high expression levels. Therefore, we now generated a modified Rosa26 (modRosa26) locus that combines efficient targeted transgenesis using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by Flipase (Flp-RMCE) or Cre recombinase (Cre-RMCE) with transgene expression from exogenous promoters. We silenced the endogenous Rosa26 promoter and characterized several ubiquitous (pCAG, EF1α and CMV) and tissue-specific (VeCad, αSMA) promoters in the modRosa26 locus in vivo. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous pCAG promoter in the modRosa26 locus now offers high transgene expression. While tissue-specific promoters were all active in their cognate tissues they additionally led to rare ectopic expression. To achieve high expression levels in a tissue-specific manner, we therefore combined Flp-RMCE for rapid ES cell targeting, the pCAG promoter for high transgene levels and Cre/LoxP conditional transgene activation using well-characterized Cre lines. Using this approach we generated a Cre/LoxP-inducible reporter mouse line with high EGFP expression levels that enables cell tracing in live cells. A second reporter line expressing luciferase permits efficient monitoring of Cre activity in live animals. Thus, targeting the modRosa26 locus by RMCE minimizes the effort required to target ES cells and generates a tool for the use exogenous promoters in combination with single-copy transgenes for predictable expression in mice. PMID:22253858

  10. Transgenic Anopheles gambiae expressing an antimalarial peptide suffer no significant fitness cost.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Clare C; Meredith, Janet M; Eggleston, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases present some of the greatest health challenges faced by the world today. In many cases, existing control measures are compromised by insecticide resistance, pathogen tolerance to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines. In light of these difficulties, new genetic tools for disease control programmes, based on the deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes, are seen as having great promise. Transgenic strains may be used to control disease transmission either by suppressing vector populations or by replacing susceptible with refractory genotypes. In practice, the fitness of the transgenic strain relative to natural mosquitoes will be a critical determinant of success. We previously described a transgenic strain of Anopheles gambiae expressing the Vida3 peptide into the female midgut following a blood-meal, which exhibited significant protection against malaria parasites. Here, we investigated the fitness of this strain relative to non-transgenic controls through comparisons of various life history traits. Experiments were designed, as far as possible, to equalize genetic backgrounds and heterogeneity such that fitness comparisons focussed on the presence and expression of the transgene cassette. We also employed reciprocal crosses to identify any fitness disturbance associated with inheritance of the transgene from either the male or female parent. We found no evidence that the presence or expression of the effector transgene or associated fluorescence markers caused any significant fitness cost in relation to larval mortality, pupal sex ratio, fecundity, hatch rate or longevity of blood-fed females. In fact, fecundity was increased in transgenic strains. We did, however, observe some fitness disturbances associated with the route of inheritance of the transgene. Maternal inheritance delayed male pupation whilst paternal inheritance increased adult longevity for both males and unfed females. Overall, in comparison to controls, there was

  11. Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells

    PubMed Central

    Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S.; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

  12. Recurrent selection for transgene expression levels in maize results in proxy selection for a native gene with the same promoter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High expression levels of a transgene can be very useful, making a transgene easier to evaluate for safety and efficacy. High expression levels can also increase the economic benefit of the production of high value proteins in transgenic plants. The goal of this research is to determine if recurre...

  13. Quaternization enhances the transgene expression efficacy of aminoglycoside-derived polymers.

    PubMed

    Miryala, Bhavani; Feng, Yunpeng; Omer, Ala; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to synthesize and investigate the transgene expression efficacy of quaternized derivatives of aminoglycoside polymers in different cancer cell lines. A series of glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) derivatives of aminoglycoside polymers (GTMAC-AM polymers), containing varying degrees of quaternization (13-45%), were synthesized. The structures and properties of GTMAC-AM polymers were investigated using FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Physicochemical factors that influence transgene expression efficacy including DNA binding, hydrodynamic size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity, were determined. Formation of polymer-plasmid DNA complexes was also visualized using atomic force microscopy. GTMAC-AM polymers demonstrated higher transgene expression efficacies compared to their parent polymers, 25 kDa poly(ethyleneimine), as well as Lipofectamine-3000. Our results indicate that quaternization enhances the transgene expression efficacy and reduces the cytotoxicity of aminoglycoside-derived polymers, making it an attractive strategy for nucleic acid delivery with these new materials.

  14. Expression of the G72/G30 gene in transgenic mice induces behavioral changes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Hattori, E; Nakajima, A; Woehrle, N S; Opal, M D; Zhang, C; Grennan, K; Dulawa, S C; Tang, Y-P; Gershon, E S; Liu, C

    2014-02-01

    The G72/G30 gene complex is a candidate gene for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, G72 and G30 mRNAs are expressed at very low levels in human brain, with only rare splicing forms observed. We report here G72/G30 expression profiles and behavioral changes in a G72/G30 transgenic mouse model. A human BAC clone containing the G72/G30 genomic region was used to establish the transgenic mouse model, on which gene expression studies, western blot and behavioral tests were performed. Relative to their minimal expression in humans, G72 and G30 mRNAs were highly expressed in the transgenic mice, and had a more complex splicing pattern. The highest G72 transcript levels were found in testis, followed by cerebral cortex, with very low or undetectable levels in other tissues. No LG72 (the long putative isoform of G72) protein was detected in the transgenic mice. Whole-genome expression profiling identified 361 genes differentially expressed in transgenic mice compared with wild-type, including genes previously implicated in neurological and psychological disorders. Relative to wild-type mice, the transgenic mice exhibited fewer stereotypic movements in the open field test, higher baseline startle responses in the course of the prepulse inhibition test, and lower hedonic responses in the sucrose preference test. The transcriptome profile changes and multiple mouse behavioral effects suggest that the G72 gene may play a role in modulating behaviors relevant to psychiatric disorders.

  15. Transgenic mouse with human mutant p53 expression in the prostate epithelium.

    PubMed

    Elgavish, Ada; Wood, Philip A; Pinkert, Carl A; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Cartee, Todd; Wilbanks, John; Mentor-Marcel, Roycelynn; Tian, Liqun; Scroggins, Samuel E

    2004-09-15

    Apoptosis is disrupted in prostate tumor cells, conferring a survival advantage. p53 is a nuclear protein believed to regulate cancer progression, in part by inducing apoptosis. To test this possibility in future studies, the objective of the present study was to generate a transgenic mouse model expressing mutant p53 in the prostate (PR). Transgene incorporation was tested using Southern analysis. Expression of mutant p53 protein was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis in the PR was evaluated using the Tunnel method. A construct, consisting of the rat probasin promoter and a mutant human p53 fragment, was prepared and used to generate transgenic mice. rPB-mutant p53 transgene incorporation, as well as nuclear accumulation of mutant human p53 protein, was demonstrated. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) III and IV were found in PR of 52-week old transgenic mice, whereas no pathological changes were found in the other organs examined. PR ability to undergo apoptosis following castration was reduced in rPB-mutant p53 mice as compared to non transgenic littermates. Transgenic rPB-mutant p53 mice accumulate mutant p53 protein in PR, resulting in neoplastic lesions and reduced apoptotic potential in the PR. Breeding rPB-mutant p53 mice with mice expressing an oncogene in their PR will be useful in examining interactions of multiple genes that result in progression of slow growing prostate tumors expressing oncogenes alone to metastatic cancer. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Expression of human protamine P1 in sperm of transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Keith, C.; Stilwell, J.; Lowe, X.; Anderson, G.

    1994-12-31

    Transgenic mice were produced by pronuclear injection with DNA constructs containing human protamine P1 cDNA recombined with a murine protamine P1 promoter, and were identified by PCR. Expression of human P1 was investigated using huplm, a monoclonal antibody specific for human P1, applied to murine testicular cells, smears of epididymal sperm, and smears of detergent-isolated sperm nuclei. Various antibodies and nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. Two male founders (T3 and T7) sired more than five generations of transgenic offspring each with continued expression of human P1 in their sperm. Transgenic animals appear of normal fertility with sperm of typical nuclear morphology. The human P1 transgene was expressed postmeioticly in both lines, as expected. Nearly 100% of sperm of T3 and T7 hemizygotes labeled with huplm, consistent with complete diffusion of human P1 protein through the intercellular bridge of spermatogenic cells. Human P1 labeling of sperm nuclei was not visibly affected by sonication or by treatment with the detergent MATAB or the reducing agent DTT. A third founder female (T5) showed a transmission pattern consistent with insertion of the transgene into an X chromosome; her transgenic offspring expressed human P1 in only a small fraction of sperm. Human P1 transgenes may serve as efficient targets for germinal mutations and transgenicmice may provide promising models for investigating the DNA complexes.

  17. Expression of an osmotin-like protein from Solanum nigrum confers drought tolerance in transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ricardo Luís Mayer; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Bredemeier, Christian; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; de Brito, Giovani Greigh; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Bertagnolli, Paulo Fernando; de Sá, Maria Eugênia Lisei; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; de Amorim, Regina Maria Santos; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Margis, Rogério; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2014-12-10

    Drought is by far the most important environmental factor contributing to yield losses in crops, including soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. To address this problem, a gene that encodes an osmotin-like protein isolated from Solanum nigrum var. americanum (SnOLP) driven by the UBQ3 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred into the soybean genome by particle bombardment. Two independently transformed soybean lines expressing SnOLP were produced. Segregation analyses indicated single-locus insertions for both lines. qPCR analysis suggested a single insertion of SnOLP in the genomes of both transgenic lines, but one copy of the hpt gene was inserted in the first line and two in the second line. Transgenic plants exhibited no remarkable phenotypic alterations in the seven analyzed generations. When subjected to water deficit, transgenic plants performed better than the control ones. Leaf physiological measurements revealed that transgenic soybean plants maintained higher leaf water potential at predawn, higher net CO2 assimilation rate, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration rate than non-transgenic plants. Grain production and 100-grain weight were affected by water supply. Decrease in grain productivity and 100-grain weight were observed for both transgenic and non-transgenic plants under water deficit; however, it was more pronounced for non-transgenic plants. Moreover, transgenic lines showed significantly higher 100-grain weight than non-transgenic plants under water shortage. This is the first report showing that expression of SnOLP in transgenic soybeans improved physiological responses and yield components of plants when subjected to water deficit, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  18. Expression profiling of microRNAs in optineurin (E50K) mutant transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Jiang, B O; Lei, Dawei; Zhou, Xinrong; Yuan, Huiping

    2016-02-01

    An E50K substitution in the transcription factor optineurin (OPTN) induces primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). To explore the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in E50K OPTN-induced POAG, miRNA expression profiling was performed on retinal samples from OPTN (E50K) transgenic and wild-type mice. The retinas were collected from 30 transgenic and 30 wild-type mice, and miRNA expression was evaluated using a genome-wide miRNA microarray. miRNAs that were differentially expressed in retinal samples from OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice were identified and validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Additional gene ontology and signaling pathway analyses were performed using bioinformatics tools. A total of 48 miRNAs exhibited increased or decreased expression in the retinas from OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice when compared with the expression in the retinas from wild-type mice. A total of 5 miRNAs with increased expression in OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice could be grouped into one cluster as they belong to the miR-8 family and may act as regulators in the development of POAG in OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice. RT-qPCR results confirmed significantly increased expression of miR-141 in the retinas of OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice as compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, these results show that certain miRNAs are differentially expressed in the retinas of OPTN (E50K) transgenic mice and may play roles in the pathogenesis of POAG induced by OPTN (E50K).

  19. Generating a transgenic mouse line stably expressing human MHC surface antigen from a HAC carrying multiple genomic BACs.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Ishikura, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Takanori; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Junpei; Nakayama, Manabu; Okamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Tuneko; Koseki, Haruhiko; Ohara, Osamu; Ikeno, Masashi; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector is a promising tool to improve the problematic suppression and position effects of transgene expression frequently seen in transgenic cells and animals produced by conventional plasmid or viral vectors. We generated transgenic mice maintaining a single HAC vector carrying two genomic bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from human HLA-DR loci (DRA and DRB1). Both transgenes on the HAC in transgenic mice exhibited tissue-specific expression in kidney, liver, lung, spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, and thymus cells in RT-PCR analysis. Stable functional expression of a cell surface HLA-DR marker from both transgenes, DRA and DRB1 on the HAC, was detected by flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes and maintained through at least eight filial generations. These results indicate that the de novo HAC system can allow us to manipulate multiple BAC transgenes with coordinated expression as a surface antigen through the generation of transgenic animals.

  20. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  1. Transgenic rice plants expressing cry1Ia5 gene are resistant to stem borer (Chilo agamemnon).

    PubMed

    Moghaieb, Reda E A

    2010-01-01

    The stem borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stem borer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stem borers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants.

  2. Correlation between transgen expression and plasmid DNA loss in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Ryohei; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgene expression from plasmid DNA is dependent on the expression efficiency per plasmid and the amount of intranuclear plasmid. In the present study, intranuclear dispositions of two types of plasmid DNAs (i.e. the pCpGfree and pLIVE plasmids) that maintain transgene expression in mouse liver were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between transgene expression and plasmid stability in the nucleus was examined. First, the pCpGfree and pLIVE plasmid DNAs, bearing the mouse secreted alkaline phosphatase (Seap) gene, were administered into mouse liver by the hydrodynamics-based method. Next, various Seap-plasmid DNAs containing different promoters, upstream and downstream sequences, and backbones were injected into mice, and both SEAP expression and plasmid DNA amounts were monitored for 28 days. At the 14- and 28-day time points, the amount of the pCpGfree plasmid DNA was one order of magnitude less than that of the pLIVE plasmid. Meanwhile, the expression efficiency per plasmid was one order of magnitude more efficient for the pCpGfree plasmid DNA. Moreover, the administration of various Seap-plasmid DNAs revealed that negative correlations exist between plasmid stability and SEAP expression level. The results obtained suggest that the pCpGfree plasmid is unstable from the viewpoint of quantity and maintains transgene expression by its high expression efficiency and also that transgene expression negatively affects the stability of plasmid DNA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A transgenic approach to control hemipteran insects by expressing insecticidal genes under phloem-specific promoters

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Shaista; Amin, Imran; Jander, Georg; Mukhtar, Zahid; Saeed, Nasir A.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The first generation transgenic crops used strong constitutive promoters for transgene expression. However, tissue-specific expression is desirable for more precise targeting of transgenes. Moreover, piercing/sucking insects, which are generally resistant to insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins, have emerged as a major pests since the introduction of transgenic crops expressing these toxins. Phloem-specific promoters isolated from Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) were used for the expression of two insecticidal proteins, Hadronyche versuta (Blue Mountains funnel-web spider) neurotoxin (Hvt) and onion leaf lectin, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Here we demonstrate that transgenic plants expressing Hvt alone or in combination with onion leaf lectin are resistant to Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug), Myzus persicae (green peach aphids) and Bemisia tabaci (silver leaf whitefly). The expression of both proteins under different phloem-specific promoters resulted in close to 100% mortality and provided more rapid protection than Hvt alone. Our results suggest the employment of the Hvt and onion leaf lectin transgenic constructs at the commercial level will reduce the use of chemical pesticides for control of hemipteran insect pests. PMID:27708374

  4. Transgenic SCs expressing GDNF-IRES-DsRed impair nerve regeneration within acellular nerve allografts.

    PubMed

    Ee, Xueping; Yan, Ying; Hunter, Daniel A; Schellhardt, Lauren; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Mackinnon, Susan E; Wood, Matthew D

    2017-09-01

    Providing temporally regulated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to injured nerve can promote robust axon regeneration. However, it is poorly understood why providing highly elevated levels of GDNF to nerve can lead to axon entrapment in the zone containing elevated GDNF. This limited understanding represents an obstacle to the translation of GDNF therapies to treat nerve injuries clinically. Here, we investigated how transgenic Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing GDNF-IRES-DsRed impact nerve regeneration. Cultured primary SCs were transduced with lentiviruses (GDNF-overexpressing transgenic SCs), one of which provides the capability to express high levels of GDNF and regulate temporal GDNF expression. These SC groups were transplanted into acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) bridging a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. GDNF-overexpressing transgenic SCs expressing GDNF for as little as 1 week decreased axon regeneration across ANAs and caused extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To determine whether additional gene expression changes beyond GDNF transgene expression occurred in GDNF-overexpressing transgenic SCs, microarray analysis of GDNF-overexpressing transgenic SCs compared to untreated SCs was performed. Microarray analysis revealed a set of common genes regulated in transgenic SC groups expressing high levels of GDNF compared to untreated SCs. A co-culture model of GDNF-overexpressing transgenic SCs with fibroblasts (FBs) revealed differential FB ECM-related gene expression compared to untreated SCs. These data suggest a component of axon entrapment is independent of GDNF's impact on axons. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2121-2130. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Feasible introgression of an anti-pathogen transgene into an urban mosquito population without using gene-drive.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Robert, Michael A; Gould, Fred; Lloyd, Alun L

    2014-07-01

    Introgressing anti-pathogen constructs into wild vector populations could reduce disease transmission. It is generally assumed that such introgression would require linking an anti-pathogen gene with a selfish genetic element or similar technologies. Yet none of the proposed transgenic anti-pathogen gene-drive mechanisms are likely to be implemented as public health measures in the near future. Thus, much attention now focuses instead on transgenic strategies aimed at mosquito population suppression, an approach generally perceived to be practical. By contrast, aiming to replace vector competent mosquito populations with vector incompetent populations by releasing mosquitoes carrying a single anti-pathogen gene without a gene-drive mechanism is widely considered impractical. Here we use Skeeter Buster, a previously published stochastic, spatially explicit model of Aedes aegypti to investigate whether a number of approaches for releasing mosquitoes with only an anti-pathogen construct would be efficient and effective in the tropical city of Iquitos, Peru. To assess the performance of such releases using realistic release numbers, we compare the transient and long-term effects of this strategy with two other genetic control strategies that have been developed in Ae. aegypti: release of a strain with female-specific lethality, and a strain with both female-specific lethality and an anti-pathogen gene. We find that releasing mosquitoes carrying only an anti-pathogen construct can substantially decrease vector competence of a natural population, even at release ratios well below that required for the two currently feasible alternatives that rely on population reduction. Finally, although current genetic control strategies based on population reduction are compromised by immigration of wild-type mosquitoes, releasing mosquitoes carrying only an anti-pathogen gene is considerably more robust to such immigration. Contrary to the widely held view that transgenic control

  6. Feasible Introgression of an Anti-pathogen Transgene into an Urban Mosquito Population without Using Gene-Drive

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kenichi W.; Robert, Michael A.; Gould, Fred; Lloyd, Alun L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Introgressing anti-pathogen constructs into wild vector populations could reduce disease transmission. It is generally assumed that such introgression would require linking an anti-pathogen gene with a selfish genetic element or similar technologies. Yet none of the proposed transgenic anti-pathogen gene-drive mechanisms are likely to be implemented as public health measures in the near future. Thus, much attention now focuses instead on transgenic strategies aimed at mosquito population suppression, an approach generally perceived to be practical. By contrast, aiming to replace vector competent mosquito populations with vector incompetent populations by releasing mosquitoes carrying a single anti-pathogen gene without a gene-drive mechanism is widely considered impractical. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we use Skeeter Buster, a previously published stochastic, spatially explicit model of Aedes aegypti to investigate whether a number of approaches for releasing mosquitoes with only an anti-pathogen construct would be efficient and effective in the tropical city of Iquitos, Peru. To assess the performance of such releases using realistic release numbers, we compare the transient and long-term effects of this strategy with two other genetic control strategies that have been developed in Ae. aegypti: release of a strain with female-specific lethality, and a strain with both female-specific lethality and an anti-pathogen gene. We find that releasing mosquitoes carrying only an anti-pathogen construct can substantially decrease vector competence of a natural population, even at release ratios well below that required for the two currently feasible alternatives that rely on population reduction. Finally, although current genetic control strategies based on population reduction are compromised by immigration of wild-type mosquitoes, releasing mosquitoes carrying only an anti-pathogen gene is considerably more robust to such immigration. Conclusions

  7. Changes in endogenous gene transcript and protein levels in maize plants expressing the soybean ferritin transgene.

    PubMed

    Kanobe, Milly N; Rodermel, Steven R; Bailey, Theodore; Scott, M Paul

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, we tested effects of soybean ferritin transgene (SoyFer1, M64337) on transcript and protein levels of endogenous genes in maize. Results showed that the transgene was successfully introduced and expressed in the maize seed endosperm. mRNA abundance of seven tested iron homeostasis genes and seed storage protein genes differed significantly between seed samples positive and negative for the transgene. The PCR negative samples had higher zein and total protein content compared to the positive samples. However, PCR positive samples had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We have shown that the soybean ferritin transgene affected the expression of native iron homeostasis genes in the maize plant. These results underscore the importance of taking a holistic approach to the evaluation of transgenic events in target plants, comparing the transgenic plant to the untransformed controls.

  8. Changes in endogenous gene transcript and protein levels in maize plants expressing the soybean ferritin transgene

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Milly N.; Rodermel, Steven R.; Bailey, Theodore; Scott, M. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, we tested effects of soybean ferritin transgene (SoyFer1, M64337) on transcript and protein levels of endogenous genes in maize. Results showed that the transgene was successfully introduced and expressed in the maize seed endosperm. mRNA abundance of seven tested iron homeostasis genes and seed storage protein genes differed significantly between seed samples positive and negative for the transgene. The PCR negative samples had higher zein and total protein content compared to the positive samples. However, PCR positive samples had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We have shown that the soybean ferritin transgene affected the expression of native iron homeostasis genes in the maize plant. These results underscore the importance of taking a holistic approach to the evaluation of transgenic events in target plants, comparing the transgenic plant to the untransformed controls. PMID:23785377

  9. Transgenic expression of phytase in wheat endosperm increases bioavailability of iron and zinc in grains.

    PubMed

    Abid, Nabeela; Khatoon, Asia; Maqbool, Asma; Irfan, Muhammad; Bashir, Aftab; Asif, Irsa; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, Asma; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-02-01

    Phytate is a major constituent of wheat seeds and chelates metal ions, thus reducing their bioavailability and so the nutritional value of grains. Transgenic plants expressing heterologous phytase are expected to enhance degradation of phytic acid stored in seeds and are proposed to increase the in vitro bioavailability of mineral nutrients. Wheat transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus japonicus phytase gene (phyA) in wheat endosperm were developed till T3 generation. The transgenic lines exhibited 18-99 % increase in phytase activity and 12-76 % reduction of phytic acid content in seeds. The minimum phytic acid content was observed in chapatti (Asian bread) as compared to flour and dough. The transcript profiling of phyA mRNA indicated twofold to ninefold higher expression as compared to non transgenic controls. There was no significant difference in grain nutrient composition of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. In vitro bioavailability assay for iron and zinc in dough and chapatti of transgenic lines revealed a significant increase in iron and zinc contents. The development of nutritionally enhanced cereals is a step forward to combat nutrition deficiency for iron and zinc in malnourished human population, especially women and children.

  10. Expression of gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase transgene improves tocopherol composition in lettuce (Latuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Ae; Lee, Chong Ae; Kim, Young Soo; Baek, So Hyeon; de los Reyes, Benildo G; Yun, Song Joong

    2005-02-28

    A cDNA encoding gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase (gamma-TMT) from Arabidopsis thaliana was overexpressed in lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) to improve the tocopherol composition. Seven lines of lettuce (T0) containing the gamma-TMT transgene were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The inheritance and expression of the transgene were confirmed by DNA and RNA gel blot analyses as well as quantification of tocopherols and gamma-TMT activities. The ratio of alpha-/gamma-tocopherol content (TR) varied from 0.6 to 1.2 in non-transformed plants, while the T0 plants had ratios of 0.8 to 320. The ratio ranged from 0.4 to 544 in 41 T1 progenies of the T0 transgenic line gTM3, and the phenotypic segregation indicated monogenic inheritance of the transgene (i.e., 3:1 = dominant:wild-type classes). There was a tight relationship between the TR phenotype and gamma-TMT activity, and enzyme activities were affected by the copy number and transcript levels of the transgene. The TR phenotype was stably expressed in T2 progenies of T1 plants. The results from this study indicated that a stable inheritance and expression of Arabidopsis gamma-TMT transgene in lettuce results in a higher enzyme activity and the conversion of the gamma-tocopherol pool to alpha-tocopherol in transgenic lettuce.

  11. Reduced beta 2-microglobulin mRNA levels in transgenic mice expressing a designed hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, S; Hotchkiss, G; Andäng, M; Nyholm, T; Inzunza, J; Jansson, I; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    1994-01-01

    We have generated three artificial hammerhead ribozymes, denoted 'Rz-b', 'Rz-c' and 'Rz-d', with different specificities for exon II of the mouse beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) mRNA. In this study we tested for ribozyme mediated reduction of beta 2M mRNA in a cell line and in transgenic mice. Transfections of either of the Rz-b, Rz-c or Rz-d plasmids into a mouse cell-line (NIH/3T3) revealed reductions of beta 2M mRNA substrate in each case. Ribozyme expression in individual transfected clones was accompanied with an up to 80% reduction of beta 2M mRNA levels. Rz-c was selected for a transgenic study. Seven Rz-c transgenic founder animals were identified from which three ribozyme expressing families were established and analysed. Expression of the ribozyme transgene was tested for and detected in lung, kidney and spleen. Expression was accompanied with reduction of the beta 2M mRNA levels of heterozygous (Rz+/-) animals compared to non-transgenic litter mates. The effect was most pronounced in lung with more than 90% beta 2M mRNA reduction in individual mice. In summary, expression of our ribozymes in a cell free system, in a cell-line and in transgenic mice were all accompanied with reductions of beta 2M mRNA levels. Images PMID:8036151

  12. Reduced beta 2-microglobulin mRNA levels in transgenic mice expressing a designed hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Larsson, S; Hotchkiss, G; Andäng, M; Nyholm, T; Inzunza, J; Jansson, I; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    1994-06-25

    We have generated three artificial hammerhead ribozymes, denoted 'Rz-b', 'Rz-c' and 'Rz-d', with different specificities for exon II of the mouse beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) mRNA. In this study we tested for ribozyme mediated reduction of beta 2M mRNA in a cell line and in transgenic mice. Transfections of either of the Rz-b, Rz-c or Rz-d plasmids into a mouse cell-line (NIH/3T3) revealed reductions of beta 2M mRNA substrate in each case. Ribozyme expression in individual transfected clones was accompanied with an up to 80% reduction of beta 2M mRNA levels. Rz-c was selected for a transgenic study. Seven Rz-c transgenic founder animals were identified from which three ribozyme expressing families were established and analysed. Expression of the ribozyme transgene was tested for and detected in lung, kidney and spleen. Expression was accompanied with reduction of the beta 2M mRNA levels of heterozygous (Rz+/-) animals compared to non-transgenic litter mates. The effect was most pronounced in lung with more than 90% beta 2M mRNA reduction in individual mice. In summary, expression of our ribozymes in a cell free system, in a cell-line and in transgenic mice were all accompanied with reductions of beta 2M mRNA levels.

  13. Live imaging of protein kinase activities in transgenic mice expressing FRET biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Yuji; Sumiyama, Kenta; Mizuno, Rei; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Hirata, Eishu; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Genetically-encoded biosensors based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been widely used in biology to visualize the spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling molecules. Despite the increasing multitude of these biosensors, their application has been mostly limited to cultured cells with transient biosensor expression, due to particular difficulties in the development of transgenic mice that express FRET biosensors. In this study, we report the efficient generation of transgenic mouse lines expressing heritable and functional biosensors for ERK and PKA. These transgenic mice were created by the cytoplasmic co-injection of Tol2 transposase mRNA and a circular plasmid harbouring Tol2 recombination sites. High expression of the biosensors in a wide range of cell types allowed us to screen newborn mice simply by inspection. Observation of these transgenic mice by two-photon excitation microscopy yielded real-time activity maps of ERK and PKA in various tissues, with greatly improved signal-to-background ratios. Our transgenic mice may be bred into diverse genetic backgrounds; moreover, the protocol we have developed paves the way for the generation of transgenic mice that express other FRET biosensors, with important applications in the characterization of physiological and pathological signal transduction events in addition to drug development and screening.

  14. Knockdown of Myostatin Expression by RNAi Enhances Muscle Growth in Transgenic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shengwei; Ni, Wei; Sai, Wujiafu; Zi, Ha; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Pengyang; Sheng, Jinliang; Chen, Chuangfu

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) has been shown to be a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. MSTN dysfunction therefore offers a strategy for promoting animal growth performance in livestock production. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using RNAi-based technology to generate transgenic sheep with a double-muscle phenotype. A shRNA expression cassette targeting sheep MSTN was used to generate stable shRNA-expressing fibroblast clones. Transgenic sheep were further produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. Five lambs developed to term and three live lambs were obtained. Integration of shRNA expression cassette in three live lambs was confirmed by PCR. RNase protection assay showed that the shRNAs targeting MSTN were expressed in muscle tissues of three transgenic sheep. MSTN expression was significantly inhibited in muscle tissues of transgenic sheep when compared with control sheep. Moreover, transgenic sheep showed a tendency to faster increase in body weight than control sheep. Histological analysis showed that myofiber diameter of transgenic sheep M17 were bigger than that of control sheep. Our findings demonstrate a promising approach to promoting muscle growth in livestock production. PMID:23526994

  15. Expression of human apolipoprotein B and assembly of lipoprotein(a) in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, M.J.; Stoltzfus, L.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Lawn, R.M.

    1994-03-15

    The atherogenic macromolecule lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has resisted in vivo analyses partly because it is found in a limited number of experimental animals. Although transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)] have previously been described, they failed to assemble Lp(a) particles because of the inability of human apo(a) to associate with mouse apolipoprotein B (apoB). The authors isolated a 90-kilobase P1 phagemid containing the human apoB gene and with this DNA generated 13 lines of transgenic mice of which 11 expressed human apoB. The human apoB transcript was expressed and edited in the liver of the transgenic mice. Plasma concentrations of human apoB, as well as low density lipoprotein (LDL), were related to transgene copy number; the transgenic line with the most copies of human apoB had a >4-fold increase in LDL cholesterol compared with nontransgenics and a lipoprotein profile similar to that of humans. When human apoB and apo(a) transgenic mice were bred together, plasma apo(a) in mice expressing both human proteins was tightly associated with lipoproteins in the LDL density region. These studies demonstrate the successful expression of human apoB and the efficient assembly of Lp(a) in mice.

  16. In vitro manipulation of early mouse embryos induces HIV1-LTRlacZ transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Vernet, M; Cavard, C; Zider, A; Fergelot, P; Grimber, G; Briand, P

    1993-12-01

    We report here that the transcriptional activity of early mouse embryos is affected by their manipulation and culture in vitro, using transgenic embryos that express the reporter gene lacZ. We examined the pattern of expression of the lacZ gene fused to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat during the preimplantation stages. Transgene expression is induced as early as the two-cell stage in embryos developed in vitro, while there is no constitutive expression at the same stage in embryos developed in vivo. We have established a relation between this inducible expression occurring in vitro and an oxidative stress phenomenon. Indeed, when the culture medium is supplemented with antioxidants such N-acetyl-cysteine or CuZn-superoxide dismutase the transgene expression is markedly reduced. We also present evidence that the transgene expression in vitro coincides with the onset of the embryonic genome activation as attested by the synthesis of the 70 x 10(3) M(r) protein complex. Therefore, this transgene expression could prove to be a useful tool in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this crucial developmental event.

  17. Criteria for high-level expression of a fungal laccase gene in transgenic maize.

    PubMed

    Hood, Elizabeth E; Bailey, Michele R; Beifuss, Katherine; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Horn, Michael E; Callaway, Evelyn; Drees, Carol; Delaney, Donna E; Clough, Richard; Howard, John A

    2003-03-01

    Expression of industrial enzymes in transgenic plants offers an alternative system to fungal fermentation for large-scale production. Very high levels of expression are required to make the enzymes cost-effective. We tested several parameters to determine the best method for achieving high levels of expression for a fungal laccase gene. Transgenic maize plants were generated using an Agrobacterium-mediated system. The molecular parameters that induced the highest expression were the maize embryo-preferred globulin 1 promoter and targeting of the protein to the cell wall. Two independent transgenic events that yielded multiple clonal plants were characterized in detail. Independent transgenic events 01 and 03 contained two or one copies of T-DNA, respectively. Plants derived from a single transgenic event varied in expression level, and the variation in expression levels was heritable. Within the seed, expression in these plants was primarily within the embryo, and was associated with seed browning and limited germination. High oil germplasm was used to increase germination, as well as to assist in increasing expression 20-fold in five generations through breeding and selection.

  18. Expression of a fungal glucoamylase in transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Huang, Jinming; Fang, Jun; Lin, Chaoyang; Cheng, Jiaan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2008-10-01

    Glucoamylase, which catalyses the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds of starch, is an important industrial enzyme used in starch enzymatic saccharification. In this study, a glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus awamori, under the control of the promoter of seed storage protein Gt1, was introduced into rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Significant glucoamylase activity was detected specifically in the seeds but not other tissues of the transgenic rice lines. The highest enzymatic activity was found in the transgenic line Bg17-2, which was estimated to have about 500 units per gram of seeds (one unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that produces 1 micromol of reducing sugar in 1 min at 60 degrees C using soluble starch as substrate). The optimum pH for the activity of the rice produced enzyme is 5.0-5.5, and the optimum temperature is around 60 degrees C. One part of this transgenic glucoamylase rice seed flour fully converted 25 parts of corn starch pre-liquefied by an alpha-amylase also produced by a transgenic rice into glucose in 16 h incubation. This study suggests that this hydrolysis enzyme may substitute commercial fermentation enzymes for industrial starch conversion.

  19. Transgene expression of lilies grown in the greenhouse and outdoors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants were transformed with either the bar-uidA fusion gene or the npt II and uidA genes and grown for two seasons in the greenhouse and outdoors in containers. All transgenes were under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. During the first year there was no differ...

  20. Transgenic expression of ZBP1 in neurons suppresses cocaine-associated conditioning.

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Kyle A B; Nwokafor, Chiso; Scott, Daniel; Baroni, Timothy E; Tenenbaum, Scott A; Hiroi, Noboru; Singer, Robert H; Czaplinski, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    To directly address whether regulating mRNA localization can influence animal behavior, we created transgenic mice that conditionally express Zipcode Binding Protein 1 (ZBP1) in a subset of neurons in the brain. ZBP1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the localization, as well as translation and stability of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We took advantage of the absence of ZBP1 expression in the mature brain to examine the effect of expressing ZBP1 on animal behavior. We constructed a transgene conditionally expressing a GFP-ZBP1 fusion protein in a subset of forebrain neurons and compared cocaine-cued place conditioning in these mice versus noninduced littermates. Transgenic ZBP1 expression resulted in impaired place conditioning relative to nonexpressing littermates, and acutely repressing expression of the transgene restored normal cocaine conditioning. To gain insight into the molecular changes that accounted for this change in behavior, we identified mRNAs that specifically immunoprecipitated with transgenic ZBP1 protein from the brains of these mice. These data suggest that RNA-binding proteins can be used as a tool to identify the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in the establishment and function of neural circuits involved in addiction behaviors.

  1. Lactase gene promoter fragments mediate differential spatial and temporal expression patterns in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Maravelias, Charalambos; Sibley, Eric

    2006-04-01

    Lactase gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated during mammalian gut development. We hypothesize that distinct DNA control regions specify appropriate spatial and temporal patterning of lactase gene expression. In order to define regions of the lactase promoter involved in mediating intestine-specific and spatiotemporal restricted expression, transgenic mice harboring 100 bp, 1.3- and 2.0- kb fragments of the 5' flanking region of the rat lactase gene cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter were characterized. The 100-bp lactase promoter-reporter transgenic mouse line expressed maximal luciferase activity in the intestine with a posterior shift in spatial restriction and ectopic expression in the stomach and lung. The temporal pattern of expression mediated by the 1.3-kb promoter?reporter transgene increases with postnatal maturation in contrast with the postnatal decline mediated by the 2.0-kb promoter-reporter transgene and the endogenous lactase gene. The differential transgene expression patterns mediated by the lactase promoter fragments suggests that intestine-specific spatial and temporal control elements reside in distinct regions of the DNA sequences upstream of the lactase gene transcription start-site.

  2. Negative regulation in correct tissue-specific expression of mouse mammary tumor virus in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, S R; Hsu, C L; Choi, Y; Mok, E; Dudley, J P

    1990-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is an endogenous murine retrovirus that is expressed in the epithelial cells of the mammary and salivary glands, lungs, kidneys, and seminal vesicles and in the lymphoid cells of the spleen and thymus. Several studies have shown that the long terminal repeat (LTR) of this virus can direct the expression of reporter genes to the same tissues in transgenic mice. To determine whether multiple regulatory elements within the LTR are involved in this tissue-specific expression, we have established lines of transgenic mice containing transgenes that have deletions in the MMTV LTR. Deletions of all LTR sequences upstream of -364 or of LTR sequences from -165 to -665 both result in the expression of linked reporter genes such as the simian virus 40 early region or the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in novel sites, such as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle; expression of endogenous MMTV and transgenes containing the full-length LTR is not detected in these organs. Negative regulation appears to involve more than one region, since deletion of sequences between either -201 and -471 or -201 and -344, as well as sequences upstream of -364, results in inappropriate expression in heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Therefore, a negative regulatory element(s) in the MMTV LTR can suppress transcription from the viral promoter in several different organs. This represents the first example of generalized negative regulatory elements that act in many different tissues in transgenic mice to prevent inappropriate expression of a gene. Images PMID:1700274

  3. BCL-B (BCL2L10) is overexpressed in patients suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) and drives an MM-like disease in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Puissant, Alexandre; Richez, Valentine; Cassel, Romeo; Fenouille, Nina; Gilleron, Jerome; Bailly-Maitre, Beatrice; Mallavialle, Aude; Marchetti, Sandrine; Amiot, Martine; Gomez-Bougie, Patricia; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Hofman, Paul; Karsenti, Jean-Michel; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) evolves from a premalignant condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). However, the factors underlying the malignant transformation of plasmocytes in MM are not fully characterized. We report here that Eµ-directed expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-B protein in mice drives an MM phenotype that reproduces accurately the human disease. Indeed, with age, Eµ-bcl-b transgenic mice develop the characteristic features of human MM, including bone malignant plasma cell infiltration, a monoclonal immunoglobulin peak, immunoglobulin deposit in renal tubules, and highly characteristic bone lytic lesions. In addition, the tumors are serially transplantable in irradiated wild-type mice, underlying the tumoral origin of the disease. Eµ-bcl-b plasmocytes show increased expression of a panel of genes known to be dysregulated in human MM pathogenesis. Treatment of Eµ-bcl-b mice with drugs currently used to treat patients such as melphalan and VELCADE efficiently kills malignant plasmocytes in vivo. Finally, we find that Bcl-B is overexpressed in plasmocytes from MM patients but neither in MGUS patients nor in healthy individuals, suggesting that Bcl-B may drive MM. These findings suggest that Bcl-B could be an important factor in MM disease and pinpoint Eµ-bcl-b mice as a pertinent model to validate new therapies in MM. PMID:27455953

  4. BCL-B (BCL2L10) is overexpressed in patients suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) and drives an MM-like disease in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Mohamed-Amine; Jacquel, Arnaud; Robert, Guillaume; Puissant, Alexandre; Richez, Valentine; Cassel, Romeo; Fenouille, Nina; Roulland, Sandrine; Gilleron, Jerome; Griessinger, Emmanuel; Dubois, Alix; Bailly-Maitre, Beatrice; Goncalves, Diogo; Mallavialle, Aude; Colosetti, Pascal; Marchetti, Sandrine; Amiot, Martine; Gomez-Bougie, Patricia; Rochet, Nathalie; Deckert, Marcel; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Hofman, Paul; Karsenti, Jean-Michel; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine; Nadel, Bertrand; Cluzeau, Thomas; Anderson, Kenneth C; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel; Auberger, Patrick; Luciano, Frederic

    2016-08-22

    Multiple myeloma (MM) evolves from a premalignant condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). However, the factors underlying the malignant transformation of plasmocytes in MM are not fully characterized. We report here that Eµ-directed expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-B protein in mice drives an MM phenotype that reproduces accurately the human disease. Indeed, with age, Eµ-bcl-b transgenic mice develop the characteristic features of human MM, including bone malignant plasma cell infiltration, a monoclonal immunoglobulin peak, immunoglobulin deposit in renal tubules, and highly characteristic bone lytic lesions. In addition, the tumors are serially transplantable in irradiated wild-type mice, underlying the tumoral origin of the disease. Eµ-bcl-b plasmocytes show increased expression of a panel of genes known to be dysregulated in human MM pathogenesis. Treatment of Eµ-bcl-b mice with drugs currently used to treat patients such as melphalan and VELCADE efficiently kills malignant plasmocytes in vivo. Finally, we find that Bcl-B is overexpressed in plasmocytes from MM patients but neither in MGUS patients nor in healthy individuals, suggesting that Bcl-B may drive MM. These findings suggest that Bcl-B could be an important factor in MM disease and pinpoint Eµ-bcl-b mice as a pertinent model to validate new therapies in MM.

  5. Expression of Huntington's disease protein results in apoptotic neurons in the brains of cloned transgenic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongshan; Wang, Chuan-En; Zhao, Bentian; Li, Wei; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Yang, Huaqiang; Fan, Pei; O'Neill, Ashley; Gu, Weiwang; Yi, Hong; Li, Shihua; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is a hallmark of many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and the polyglutamine diseases, which are all caused by misfolded proteins that accumulate in neuronal cells of the brain. Although apoptosis is believed to contribute to neurodegeneration in these cases, genetic mouse models of these diseases often fail to replicate apoptosis and overt neurodegeneration in the brain. Using nuclear transfer, we generated transgenic Huntington's disease (HD) pigs that express N-terminal (208 amino acids) mutant huntingtin with an expanded polyglutamine tract (105Q). Postnatal death, dyskinesia and chorea-like movement were observed in some transgenic pigs that express mutant huntingtin. Importantly, the transgenic HD pigs, unlike mice expressing the same transgene, displayed typical apoptotic neurons with DNA fragmentation in their brains. Also, expression of mutant huntingtin resulted in more neurons with activated caspase-3 in transgenic pig brains than that in transgenic mouse brains. Our findings suggest that species differences determine neuropathology and underscore the importance of large mammalian animals for modeling neurological disorders. PMID:20660116

  6. Effects of BCL-2 over-expression on B cells in transgenic rats and rat hybridomas.

    PubMed

    Iscache, Anne-Laure; Ménoret, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Rémy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Pedros, Christophe; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Buelow, Roland; Anegon, Ignacio

    2011-10-01

    The rat is an important biomedical experimental model that benefited from the recent development of new transgenic and knockout techniques. With the goal to optimize rat mAb production and to analyze the impact of Bcl-2 on B-cell development, we generated bcl-2 transgenic rats. Transgenic rats showed Bcl-2 over-expression in B cells, increased B cell numbers in lymphoid organs, elevated production of immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonged B-cell survival in vitro. Transgenic rats remained healthy, reproduced normally and did not develop autoimmunity. Fusions with bcl-2 transgenic splenocytes did not result in increased hybridoma generation. A comparison of on- and off-rates of 39 mAbs generated with bcl-2 transgenic and wild-type animals revealed no significant differences. Over-expression of Bcl-2 in hybridomas did not change cell proliferation but resulted in increased Ig production. Bcl-2 transgenic rats will be a useful tool for the generation of rat mAbs, the analysis of B cells in different pathophysiological models, such as autoimmunity, cancer or organ transplantation, and the study of rat B-cell biology.

  7. Generation of a transgenic mouse line for conditional expression of human IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Taiki; Murasawa, Yusuke; Ikai, Rina; Hayakawa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ogiso, Noboru; Niida, Shumpei; Watanabe, Ken

    2016-01-01

    IL-6 is a cytokine that is involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, and approaches using gain-of-function transgenic animals have contributed in elucidating IL-6 function. However, studies of the multiple functions of IL-6 in vivo are very time consuming because they require the generation of transgenic mice that harbor the gene encoding IL-6 under the control of specific promoters to mimic different pathologies. Here, we report the establishment of a conditional human IL-6 transgenic mouse, LGL-IL6, which conditionally expresses human IL-6 by taking advantage of the well-characterized Cre recombinase drivers. PMID:27349442

  8. Expression of exogenous protein in the egg white of transgenic chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alex J; Speksnijder, Gordon; Baugh, Larry R; Morris, Julie A; Ivarie, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Using a replication-deficient retroviral vector based on the avian leukosis virus (ALV), we inserted into the chicken genome a transgene encoding a secreted protein, beta-lactamase, under the control of the ubiquitous cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. Biologically active beta-lactamase was secreted into the serum and egg white of four generations of transgenic chickens. The expression levels were similar in successive generations, and expression levels in the magnum of the oviduct were constant over at least 16 months in transgenic hens, indicating that the transgene was stable and not subject to silencing. These results support the potential of the hen as a bioreactor for the production of commercially valuable, biologically active proteins in egg white.

  9. Insulitis in transgenic mice expressing tumor necrosis factor beta (lymphotoxin) in the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Picarella, D E; Kratz, A; Li, C B; Ruddle, N H; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor beta (TNF-beta) (lymphotoxin) may play an important role in the immune response and pathologic inflammatory diseases. Insulitis is an important early step in the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To understand better the role of TNF-beta in the regulation of inflammation and type 1 diabetes, we produced transgenic mice in which the murine TNF-beta gene was regulated by the rat insulin II promoter. The transgene was expressed in the pancreas, kidney, and skin of transgenic mice. The expression of TNF-beta in the pancreas of transgenic mice resulted in a leukocytic inflammatory infiltrate consisting primarily of B220+ IgM+ B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The insulitis is reminiscent of the early stages of diabetes, though the mice did not progress to diabetes. Images PMID:1279667

  10. Transgenic mice expressing a human mutant beta1 thyroid receptor are hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive.

    PubMed

    Siesser, W B; Zhao, J; Miller, L R; Cheng, S-Y; McDonald, M P

    2006-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. We have found that a transgenic mouse bearing a human mutant thyroid receptor (TRbeta1) expresses all of the defining symptoms of ADHD--inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity--as well as a 'paradoxical' response to methylphenidate (MPH). As with ADHD, the behavioral phenotypes expressed by the TRbeta transgenic mice are dynamic and sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, stress, and reinforcement. TRbeta transgenic mice are euthyroid except for a brief period during postnatal development, but the behavioral phenotypes, elevated dopamine turnover, and paradoxical response to MPH persist into adulthood. Thus, like the vast majority of children with ADHD, the TRbeta transgenic mice exhibit the symptoms of ADHD in the complete absence of thyroid abnormalities. This suggests that even transient perturbations in developmental thyroid homeostasis can have long-lasting behavioral and cognitive consequences, including producing the full spectrum of symptoms of ADHD.

  11. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  12. Tissue-specific expression of human CD4 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, F P; Doros, L; Vitale, J; Blackwell, C; Gosselin, J; Snyder, B W; Wadsworth, S C

    1993-01-01

    The gene for the human CD4 glycoprotein, which serves as the receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1, along with approximately 23 kb of sequence upstream of the translational start site, was cloned. The ability of 5' flanking sequences to direct tissue-specific expression was tested in cell culture and in transgenic mice. A 5' flanking region of 6 kb was able to direct transcription of the CD4 gene in NIH 3T3 cells but did not result in detectable expression in the murine T-cell line EL4 or in four lines of transgenic mice. A larger 5' flanking region of approximately 23 kb directed high-level CD4 transcription in the murine T-cell line EL4 and in three independent lines of transgenic mice. Human CD4 expression in all tissues analyzed was tightly correlated with murine CD4 expression; the highest levels of human CD4 RNA expression were found in the thymus and spleen, with relatively low levels detected in other tissues. Expression of human CD4 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was examined by flow cytometry in these transgenic animals and found to be restricted to the murine CD4+ subset of lymphocytes. Human CD4 protein, detected with an anti-human CD4 monoclonal antibody, was present on the surface of 45 to 50% of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all transgenic lines. Images PMID:8474453

  13. Lox-dependent gene expression in transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Shcherbak, N; Kishchenko, O; Sakhno, L; Komarnytsky, I; Kuchuk, M

    2013-01-01

    Lox sites of the Cre/lox recombination system from bacteriophage P1 were analyzed for their ability to affect on transgene expression when inserted upstream from a gene coding sequence adjacent to the right border (RB) of T-DNA. Wild and mutated types of lox sites were tested for their effect upon bar gene expression in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods. Lox-mediated expression of bar gene, recognized by resistance of transgenic plants to PPT, occurred only in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. RT-PCR analysis confirms that PPT-resistant phenotype of transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was caused by activation of bar gene. The plasmid with promoterless gus gene together with the lox site adjacent to the RB was constructed and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum as well. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity and expression of gus gene was detected in plant leaves. Expression of bar gene from the vectors containing lox site near RB allowed recovery of numerous PPT-resistant transformants of such important crops as Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lactuca sativa and Solanum tuberosum. Our results demonstrate that the lox site sequence adjacent to the RB can be used to control bar gene expression in transgenic plants.

  14. Minicircle DNA Provides Enhanced and Prolonged Transgene Expression Following Airway Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Munye, Mustafa M.; Tagalakis, Aristides D.; Barnes, Josephine L.; Brown, Rachel E.; McAnulty, Robin J.; Howe, Steven J.; Hart, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy for cystic fibrosis using non-viral, plasmid-based formulations has been the subject of intensive research for over two decades but a clinically viable product has yet to materialise in large part due to inefficient transgene expression. Minicircle DNA give enhanced and more persistent transgene expression compared to plasmid DNA in a number of organ systems but has not been assessed in the lung. In this study we compared minicircle DNA with plasmid DNA in transfections of airway epithelial cells. In vitro, luciferase gene expression from minicircles was 5–10-fold higher than with plasmid DNA. In eGFP transfections in vitro both the mean fluorescence intensity and percentage of cells transfected was 2–4-fold higher with minicircle DNA. Administration of equimolar amounts of DNA to mouse lungs resulted in a reduced inflammatory response and more persistent transgene expression, with luciferase activity persisting for 2 weeks from minicircle DNA compared to plasmid formulations. Transfection of equal mass amounts of DNA in mouse lungs resulted in a 6-fold increase in transgene expression in addition to more persistent transgene expression. Our findings have clear implications for gene therapy of airway disorders where plasmid DNA transfections have so far proven inefficient in clinical trials. PMID:26975732

  15. Robust heat-inducible gene expression by two endogenous hsp70-derived promoters in transgenic Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Carpenetti, Tiffany L. G.; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is an important vector of the viruses that cause dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and yellow fever. Reverse genetic approaches to the study of gene function in this mosquito have been limited by the lack of a robust inducible promoter to allow precise temporal control over a protein-encoding or hairpin RNA transgene. Likewise, investigations into the molecular and biochemical basis of vector competence would benefit from the ability to activate an anti-pathogen molecule at specific times during infection. We have characterized the ability of genomic sequences derived from two Ae. aegypti hsp70 genes to drive heat-inducible expression of a reporter in both transient and germline transformation contexts. AaHsp70-luciferase transcripts accumulated specifically after heat shock, and displayed a pattern of rapid induction and decay similar to endogenous AaHsp70 genes. Luciferase expression in transgenic Ae. aegypti increased by ∼25-50 fold in whole adults by four hours after heat-shock, with significant activity (∼20 fold) remaining at 24 hr. Heat-induced expression was even more dramatic in midgut tissues, with one strain showing a ∼2500-fold increase in luciferase activity. The AaHsp70 promoters described could be valuable for gene function studies as well as for the precise timing of the expression of anti-pathogen molecules. PMID:22142225

  16. Production of germline transgenic pigs co-expressing double fluorescent proteins by lentiviral vector.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Yu, Fu-Xian; Huang, Jing; Hu, Xiao-Rui; Pan, Jian-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    Genomic integration of transgene by lentiviral vector has been proved an efficient method to produce single-transgenic animals. But it failed to create multi-gene transgenic offspring. Here, we have exploited lentivirus to generate the double-transgenic piglets through the female germline. The recombinant lentivirus containing fluorescent proteins genes (DsRed1 and Venus) were injected into the perivitelline space of 2-cell stage in vitro porcine embryos. Compared to control group, there was no significantly decreased in the proportion of blastocysts, and the two fluorescent protein genes were co-expressed in almost all the injected embryos. Total of 32 injected in vitro embryos were transferred to 2 recipients. One recipient gave birth of three live offspring, and one female piglet was identified as genomic transgene integration by PCR analysis. Subsequently, the female transgenic founder was mated naturally with a wild-type boar and gave birth of two litters of total 23 F(1) generation piglets, among which Venus and DsRed1 genes were detected in 11 piglets and 10 kinds of organs by PCR and RT-PCR respectively. The co-expression of two fluorescent proteins was visible in four different frozen tissue sections from the RT-PCR positive piglets, and 3 to 5 copies of the transgenes were detected to be integrated into the second generation genome by southern blotting analysis. The transgenes were heritable and stably integrated in the F(1) generation. The results indicated for the first time that lentiviral vector combined with natural mating has the potential to become a simple and practical technology to create germline double-transgenic livestock or biomedical animals.

  17. Identification of the MUC2 Promoter as a Strong Promoter for Intestinal Gene Expression through Generation of Transgenic Quail Expressing GFP in Gut Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Woodfint, Rachel M.; Chen, Paula R.; Ahn, Jinsoo; Suh, Yeunsu; Hwang, Seongsoo; Lee, Sang Suk; Lee, Kichoon

    2017-01-01

    Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2.9 kb proximal promoter region, for transcription factors such as caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4A), and transcription factor 4 (TCF4) that are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and functional integrity. By generating transgenic quail, we demonstrated that the 2.9 kb chicken MUC2 promoter could drive green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter expression exclusively in the small intestine, large intestine, and ceca. Fluorescence image analysis further revealed GFP expression in intestine epithelial cells. The GFP expression was barely detectable in the embryonic intestine, but increased during post-hatch development. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the reporter gene confirmed that the 2.9 kb MUC2 promoter could retain the regulatory element to drive expression of target genes in intestinal tissues after hatching. This new transgene expression system, using the MUC2 promoter, will provide a new method of overexpressing target genes to study gene function in the avian intestine. PMID:28106824

  18. Extraembryonic expression of the human MHC class I gene HLA-G in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.M.; Ehlenfeldt, R.G.; Athanasiou, M.C.; Duvick, L.A.; Orr, H.T. ); Hubert, H.

    1993-09-01

    Trophoblast, the only fetal tissue in direct contact with maternal cells, fails to express the polymorphic HLA class I molecules HLA-A and -B, but does express the nonpolymorphic class I molecule HLA-G. It is thought that HLA-G may provide some of the functions of a class I molecule without stimulating maternal immune rejection of the fetal semiallograft. As a first step in identifying the cis-acting DNA regulatory elements involved in the control of class I expression by extraembryonic tissue, several types of transgenic mice were produced. Two HLA-G genomic fragments were used, 5.7 and 6.0 kb in length. These include the entire HLA-G coding region, 1 kb of 3' flanking sequence, and 1.2 or 1.4 kb of 5' flanking sequence, respectively. A hybrid transgene, HLA-A2/G, was produced by replacing the 5' flanking sequence, first exon, and early first intron of HLA-G with the corresponding elements of HLA-A. Comparison of transgene mRNA expression patterns seen in HLA-A2/G and HLA-G transgenic mice suggests that 5' flanking sequences are largely responsible for the differing patterns of expression typical of the classical class I and HLA-G genes. Studies comparing the extraembryonic HLA-G expression levels of founder embryos transgenic for either the 5.7 - or 6.0-kb HLA-G transgene showed that the 6.0-kb transgene directed HLA-G expression far more efficiently than did the 5.7-kb HLA-G transgene, producing extraembryoinc HLA-G mRNA levels similar to those seen in human extraembryoinic tissues. The results of these studies suggest that the 250-bp fragment present at the extreme 5' end of the 6.0-kb HLA-G transgene and absent from the 5.7-kb HLA-G transgene contains an important positive regulatory element. This 250-bp fragment lies further upstream than any of the previously documented class I regulatory regions and may function as a locus control region.

  19. Mouse opsin promoter-directed Cre recombinase expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Le, Yun-Zheng; Zheng, Lixin; Zheng, Wei; Ash, John D; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Zhu, Meili; Anderson, Robert E

    2006-04-18

    Gene inactivation with homologous recombination in mice is a widely used tool to study gene function. However, many proteins play essential roles in a number of tissues and germline gene inactivation often results in embryonic lethality. To overcome this limitation and to dissect the functions of essential genes beyond embryonic development, we generated mouse rod opsin promoter-controlled cre transgenic mice with a goal of obtaining transgenic lines with a range of Cre activity in rod photoreceptors. Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase directed by a long or short mouse opsin promoter were generated. Candidate Cre-expressing lines were identified with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Potentially useful Cre-expressing lines were characterized further with immunohistochemistry, PCR, and functional analysis using a Cre-activatable lacZ reporter mouse strain (R26R) to determine temporal and spatial patterns of Cre expression. Retinal function and morphology in these mouse lines were analyzed with electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin stained retinal sections. Transgenic mice expressing Cre in rod photoreceptors were generated. Characterization of candidate photoreceptor-specific Cre mice using immunohistochemistry and functional assays demonstrated that an efficient Cre-mediated recombination occurred in rod photoreceptor cells in one mouse line and a mosaic Cre-mediated recombination occurred in rod photoreceptors and rod bipolar cells in another mouse line. Further analysis of these mice with ERG and morphological examination suggested that the retinas of eight-month-old adults were normal. We have generated transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase in rod photoreceptors. One transgenic mouse line was capable of carrying out efficient Cre-mediated recombination in rod photoreceptors. Another transgenic mouse line was capable of carrying out mosaic Cre-mediated recombination in rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells across the

  20. Transgenic Expression of the Anti-parasitic Factor TEP1 in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Ann-Katrin; Saenger, Mélanie; Soichot, Julien; Scholze, Heidi; Boch, Jens; Blandin, Stéphanie A.; Marois, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes genetically engineered to be resistant to Plasmodium parasites represent a promising novel approach in the fight against malaria. The insect immune system itself is a source of anti-parasitic genes potentially exploitable for transgenic designs. The Anopheles gambiae thioester containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a potent anti-parasitic protein. TEP1 is secreted and circulates in the mosquito hemolymph, where its activated cleaved form binds and eliminates malaria parasites. Here we investigated whether TEP1 can be used to create malaria resistant mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter transgene, we determined that the fat body is the main site of TEP1 expression. We generated transgenic mosquitoes that express TEP1r, a potent refractory allele of TEP1, in the fat body and examined the activity of the transgenic protein in wild-type or TEP1 mutant genetic backgrounds. Transgenic TEP1r rescued loss-of-function mutations, but did not increase parasite resistance in the presence of a wild-type susceptible allele. Consistent with previous reports, TEP1 protein expressed from the transgene in the fat body was taken up by hemocytes upon a challenge with injected bacteria. Furthermore, although maturation of transgenic TEP1 into the cleaved form was impaired in one of the TEP1 mutant lines, it was still sufficient to reduce parasite numbers and induce parasite melanization. We also report here the first use of Transcription Activator Like Effectors (TALEs) in Anopheles gambiae to stimulate expression of endogenous TEP1. We found that artificial elevation of TEP1 expression remains moderate in vivo and that enhancement of endogenous TEP1 expression did not result in increased resistance to Plasmodium. Taken together, our results reveal the difficulty of artificially influencing TEP1-mediated Plasmodium resistance, and contribute to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mosquito resistance to Plasmodium parasites. PMID:28095489

  1. Reduction of malaria transmission by transgenic mosquitoes expressing an antisporozoite antibody in their salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Sumitani, M; Kasashima, K; Yamamoto, D S; Yagi, K; Yuda, M; Matsuoka, H; Yoshida, S

    2013-02-01

    We have previously developed a robust salivary gland-specific expression system in transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. To establish transgenic mosquito lines refractory to Plasmodium falciparum using this system, we generated a transgenic mosquito harbouring the gene encoding an anti-P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) single-chain antibody (scFv) fused to DsRed in a secretory form (mDsRed-2A10 scFv). Fluorescence microscopy showed that the mDsRed-2A10 scFv was localized in the secretory cavities and ducts of the salivary glands in a secreted form. To evaluate P. falciparum transmission-blocking in a rodent malaria model, a transgenic Plasmodium berghei line expressing PfCSP in place of PbCSP (PfCSP/Pb) was constructed. The PfCSP/Pb parasites were able to bind to the mDsRed-2A10 scFv in the salivary glands of the transgenic mosquitoes. Importantly, the infectivity of the transgenic mosquitoes to mice was strongly impaired, indicating that the parasites had been inactivated. These results suggest that salivary gland-specific expression of antisporozoite molecules could be a promising strategy for blocking malaria transmission to humans.

  2. Immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural polyprotein P1 expressed in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Qin; Jiang, Yunbo; Song, Yunfeng; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2012-04-01

    Transgenic plants have become developed as bioreactors for producing heterologous proteins and may even form edible vaccines. In the present study, a transgenic rice expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide (P1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), under the control of a dual cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S) promoter, was generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot, northern blot, western blot, and ELISA analyses confirmed that the P1 gene was integrated into the transgenic rice and the protein was expressed specifically in the leaves at levels of 0.6-1.3 μg/mg of total soluble protein. After intraperitoneal immunization of mice with crude protein extracts from transgenic rice plants, FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected. The immunized mice could clear virus from their sera after FMDV challenge. In addition, FMDV-specific mucosal immune responses were detected in mice after oral immunization with protein extracts from transgenic rice plants. Partial virus clearance was obtained after FMDV challenge. These results indicate the potential of using a transgenic rice-based expression system as an alternative bioreactor for FMDV subunit vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The formation of brown adipose tissue induced by transgenic over-expression of PPARγ2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Jinzeng; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Ting; Xu, Dequan; Zuo, Bo; Hou, Liming; Wu, Wangjun; Zhang, Lin; Xia, Xiaoliang; Ma, Zhiyuan; Ren, Zhuqing; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2014-04-18

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate energy as heat, therefore reducing fat deposition and counteracting obesity. Brown adipocytes arise from myoblastic progenitors during embryonic development by the action of transcription regulator PRDM16 binding to PPARγ, which promotes BAT-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. To investigate the capability of converting white adipose tissue to BAT or browning by PPARγ in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with over-expressed PPARγ2. The transgenic mice showed strong brown fat features in subcutaneous fat in morphology and histology. To provide molecular evidences on browning characteristics of the adipose tissue, we employed quantitative real-time PCR to determine BAT-specific gene expressions. The transgenic mice had remarkably elevated mRNA level of UCP1, Elovl3, PGC1α and Cebpα in subcutaneous fat. Compared with wild-type mice, UCP1 protein levels were increased significantly in transgenic mice. ATP concentration was slightly decreased in the subcutaneous fat of transgenic mice. Western blotting analysis also confirmed that phosphorylated AMPK and ACC proteins were significantly (P<0.01) increased in the transgenic mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that over-expression of PPARγ2 in skeletal muscle can promote conversion of subcutaneous fat to brown fat formation, which can have beneficial effects on increasing energy metabolisms and combating obesity.

  4. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Heinen, Shane J.; Radmer, Lorien; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:18467324

  5. Targeted expression of MYCN causes neuroblastoma in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W A; Aldape, K; Mohapatra, G; Feuerstein, B G; Bishop, J M

    1997-06-02

    The proto-oncogene MYCN is often amplified in human neuroblastomas. The assumption that the amplification contributes to tumorigenesis has never been tested directly. We have created transgenic mice that overexpress MYCN in neuroectodermal cells and develop neuroblastoma. Analysis of tumors by comparative genomic hybridization revealed gains and losses of at least seven chromosomal regions, all of which are syntenic with comparable abnormalities detected in human neuroblastomas. In addition, we have shown that increases in MYCN dosage or deficiencies in either of the tumor suppressor genes NF1 or RB1 can augment tumorigenesis by the transgene. Our results provide direct evidence that MYCN can contribute to the genesis of neuroblastoma, suggest that the genetic events involved in the genesis of neuroblastoma can be tumorigenic in more than one chronological sequence, and offer a model for further study of the pathogenesis and therapy of neuroblastoma.

  6. Development of S/MAR minicircles for enhanced and persistent transgene expression in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Argyros, Orestis; Wong, Suet Ping; Fedonidis, Constantinos; Tolmachov, Oleg; Waddington, Simon N; Howe, Steven J; Niceta, Marcello; Coutelle, Charles; Harbottle, Richard P

    2011-05-01

    We have previously described the development of a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) episomal vector system for in vivo application and demonstrated its utility to sustain transgene expression in the mouse liver for at least 6 months following a single administration. Subsequently, we observed that transgene expression is sustained for the lifetime of the animal. The level of expression, however, does drop appreciably over time. We hypothesised that by eliminating the bacterial components in our vectors, we could improve their performance since bacterial sequences have been shown to be responsible for the immunotoxicity of the vector and the silencing of its expression when applied in vivo. We describe here the development of a minimally sized S/MAR vector, which is devoid of extraneous bacterial sequences. This minicircle vector comprises an expression cassette and an S/MAR moiety, providing higher and more sustained transgene expression for several months in the absence of selection, both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to the expression of our original S/MAR plasmid vector, the novel S/MAR minicircle vectors mediate increased transgene expression, which becomes sustained at about twice the levels observed immediately after administration. These promising results demonstrate the utility of minimally sized S/MAR vectors for persistent, atoxic gene expression.

  7. Hydrodynamic Tail Vein Injection as a Simple Tool for Yielding Extended Transgene Expression in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Takuma; Ukawa, Masami; Kanazawa, Yuki; Ando, Hidenori; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamic tail vein injection was considered an in vivo transfection method that yields a higher level of gene expression mainly in the liver. This method has been applied to cancer gene therapy targeting both hepatic and non-hepatic cancers. However, intratumor transgene expression in non-hepatic tumors has not been well studied. In this study, we showed an extended transgene expression of β-galactosidase (LacZ), a nonsecretory protein, in a subcutaneously implanted murine solid tumor following the hydrodynamic injection of plasmid DNA (LacZ pDNA). Our result may indicate that the hydrodynamic injection method is a powerful tool that can be used to gain transgene expression not only in the liver but also in solid tumors.

  8. A 5' Noncoding Exon Containing Engineered Intron Enhances Transgene Expression from Recombinant AAV Vectors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiamiao; Williams, James A; Luke, Jeremy; Zhang, Feijie; Chu, Kirk; Kay, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) expression system in which the essential bacterial elements for plasmid replication and selection are placed within an engineered intron contained within a universal 5' UTR noncoding exon. Like minicircle DNA plasmids (devoid of bacterial backbone sequences), MIP plasmids overcome transcriptional silencing of the transgene. However, in addition MIP plasmids increase transgene expression by 2 and often >10 times higher than minicircle vectors in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of the MIP intronic sequences in a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector system. Recombinant AAV vectors containing an intron with a bacterial replication origin and bacterial selectable marker increased transgene expression by 40 to 100 times in vivo when compared with conventional AAV vectors. Therefore, inclusion of this noncoding exon/intron sequence upstream of the coding region can substantially enhance AAV-mediated gene expression in vivo.

  9. Transgenic labeling of parvalbumin-expressing neurons with tdTomato.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, T; Ting, J T; Monteiro, P; Feng, G

    2016-05-03

    Parvalbumin (PVALB)-expressing fast-spiking interneurons subserve important roles in many brain regions by modulating circuit function and dysfunction of these neurons is strongly implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. To facilitate the study of PVALB neuron function we need to be able to identify PVALB neurons in vivo. We have generated a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line expressing the red fluorophore tdTomato under the control of endogenous regulatory elements of the Pvalb gene locus (JAX # 027395). We show that the tdTomato transgene is faithfully expressed relative to endogenous PVALB expression throughout the brain. Furthermore, targeted patch clamp recordings confirm that the labeled populations in neocortex, striatum, and hippocampus are fast-spiking interneurons based on intrinsic properties. This new transgenic mouse line provides a useful tool to study PVALB neuron function in the normal brain as well as in mouse models of psychiatric disease.

  10. Expression and Chloroplast Targeting of Cholesterol Oxidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, David R.; Grebenok, Robert J.; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E.; Greenplate, John T.; Purcell, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase represents a novel type of insecticidal protein with potent activity against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the cholesterol oxidase choM gene and expressed cytosolic and chloroplast-targeted versions of the ChoM protein. Transgenic leaf tissues expressing cholesterol oxidase exerted insecticidal activity against boll weevil larvae. Our results indicate that cholesterol oxidase can metabolize phytosterols in vivo when produced cytosolically or when targeted to chloroplasts. The transgenic plants exhibiting cytosolic expression accumulated low levels of saturated sterols known as stanols, and displayed severe developmental aberrations. In contrast, the transgenic plants expressing chloroplast-targeted cholesterol oxidase maintained a greater accumulation of stanols, and appeared phenotypically and developmentally normal. These results are discussed within the context of plant sterol distribution and metabolism. PMID:11457962

  11. Regulation of the human apolipoprotein AIV gene expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Baralle, M; Vergnes, L; Muro, A F; Zakin, M M; Baralle, F E; Ochoa, A

    1999-02-19

    The apolipoprotein (Apo) AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster has a complex pattern of gene expression that is modulated by both gene- and cluster-specific cis-acting elements. In particular the regulation of Apo AIV expression has been previously studied in vivo and in vitro including several transgenic mouse lines but a complete, consistent picture of the tissue-specific controls is still missing. We have analysed the role of the Apo AIV 3' flanking sequences in the regulation of gene expression using both in vitro and in vivo systems including three lines of transgenic mice. The transgene consisted of a human fragment containing 7 kb of the 5' flanking region, the Apo AIV gene itself and 6 kb of the 3' flanking region (-7+6 Apo AIV). Accurate analysis of the Apo AIV mRNA levels using quantitative PCR and Northern blots showed that the 7+6 kb Apo AIV fragment confers liver-specific regulation in that the human Apo AIV transgene is expressed at approximately the same level as the endogenous mouse Apo AIV gene. In contrast, the intestinal regulation of the transgene did not follow, the pattern observed with the endogenous gene although it produced a much higher intestinal expression following the accepted human pattern. Therefore, this animal model provides an excellent substrate to design therapeutic protocols for those metabolic derangements that may benefit from variations in Apo AIV levels and its anti-atherogenic effect.

  12. Generation of transgenic Wuzhishan miniature pigs expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Wang, Wei; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Cui, Cheng-du; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Red fluorescent protein and its variants enable researchers to study gene expression, localization, and protein-protein interactions in vitro in real-time. Fluorophores with higher wavelengths are usually preferred since they efficiently penetrate tissues and produce less toxic emissions. A recently developed fluorescent protein marker, monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1), is particularly useful because of its rapid maturation and minimal interference with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-derived markers. We generated a pCX-mRFP1-pgk-neoR construct and evaluated the ability of mRFP1 to function as a fluorescent marker in transgenic Wuzhishan miniature pigs. Transgenic embryos were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of nuclei isolated from ear fibroblasts expressing mRFP1. Embryos generated by SCNT developed into blastocysts in vitro (11.65%; 31/266). Thereafter, a total of 685 transgenic embryos were transferred into the oviducts of three recipients, two of which became pregnant. Of these, one recipient had six aborted fetuses, whereas the other recipient gave birth to four offspring. All offspring expressed the pCX-mRFP1-pgk-neoR gene as shown by PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The transgenic pigs expressed mRFP1 in all organs and tissues at high levels. These results demonstrate that Wuzhishan miniature pigs can express mRFP1. To conclude, this transgenic animal represents an excellent model with widespread applications in medicine and agriculture.

  13. Expressing the sweet potato orange gene in transgenic potato improves drought tolerance and marketable tuber production.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Han, Eun-Heui; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Hong, Su-Young; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is generally considered to be sensitive to drought stress. Even short periods of water shortage can result in reduced tuber production and quality. We previously reported that transgenic potato plants expressing the sweet potato orange gene (IbOr) under the control of the stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SOR plants) showed increased tolerance to methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress and high salinity, along with increased carotenoid contents. In this study, in an effort to improve the productivity and environmental stress tolerance of potato, we subjected transgenic potato plants expressing IbOr to water-deficient conditions in the greenhouse. The SOR plants exhibited increased tolerance to drought stress under greenhouse conditions. IbOr expression was associated with slightly negative phenotypes, including reduced tuber production. Controlling IbOr expression imparted the same degree of drought tolerance while ameliorating these negative phenotypic effects, leading to levels of tuber production similar to or better than those of wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. In particular, under drought stress, drought tolerance and the production of marketable tubers (over 80g) were improved in transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that expressing the IbOr transgene can lead to significant gains in drought tolerance and tuber production in potato, thereby improving these agronomically important traits. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47 mg/larvae/day and 12.46 mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Building an atlas of gene expression driving kidney development: pushing the limits of resolution.

    PubMed

    Potter, S Steven; Brunskill, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Changing gene expression patterns is the essential driver of developmental processes. Growth factors, micro-RNAs, long intergenic noncoding RNAs, and epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, all work by impacting gene expression. The key features of developing cells, including their ability to communicate with others, are defined primarily by their gene-expression profiles. It is therefore clear that a gene-expression atlas of the developing kidney can provide a useful tool for the developmental nephrology research community. Toward this end, the GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP) consortium has worked to create an atlas of the changing gene-expression patterns that drive kidney development. In this article, the global gene-expression profiling strategies of GUDMAP are reviewed. The initial work used laser-capture microdissection to purify multiple compartments of the developing kidney, including cap mesenchyme, renal vesicle, S-shaped bodies, proximal tubules, and more, which were then gene-expression profiled using microarrays. Resolution of the atlas was then improved by using transgenic mice with specific cell types labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing their purification and profiling. In addition, RNA-Seq replaced microarrays. Currently, the atlas is being pushed to the single-cell resolution using microfluidic approaches that allow high-throughput RNA-Seq analysis of hundreds of individual cells. Results can identify novel types of cells and define interesting heterogeneities present within cell populations.

  16. Regulatory region in choline acetyltransferase gene directs developmental and tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnerberg, P; Lendahl, U; Funakoshi, H; Arhlund-Richter, L; Persson, H; Ibáñez, C F

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine, one of the main neurotransmitters in the nervous system, is synthesized by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; acetyl-CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.6). The molecular mechanisms controlling the establishment, maintenance, and plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in vivo are largely unknown. A previous report showed that a 3800-bp, but not a 1450-bp, 5' flanking segment from the rat ChAT gene promoter directed cell type-specific expression of a reporter gene in cholinergic cells in vitro. Now we have characterized a distal regulatory region of the ChAT gene that confers cholinergic specificity on a heterologous downstream promoter in a cholinergic cell line and in transgenic mice. A 2342-bp segment from the 5' flanking region of the ChAT gene behaved as an enhancer in cholinergic cells but as a repressor in noncholinergic cells in an orientation-independent manner. Combined with a heterologous basal promoter, this fragment targeted transgene expression to several cholinergic regions of the central nervous system of transgenic mice, including basal forebrain, cortex, pons, and spinal cord. In eight independent transgenic lines, the pattern of transgene expression paralleled qualitatively and quantitatively that displayed by endogenous ChAT mRNA in various regions of the rat central nervous system. In the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord, 85-90% of the transgene expression was targeted to the ventral part of the cord, where cholinergic alpha-motor neurons are located. Transgene expression in the spinal cord was developmentally regulated and responded to nerve injury in a similar way as the endogenous ChAT gene, indicating that the 2342-bp regulatory sequence contains elements controlling the plasticity of the cholinergic phenotype in developing and injured neurons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7732028

  17. Relationship between expression levels and atherogenesis in scavenger receptor class B, type I transgenics.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Y; Gong, E; Royer, L; Cooper, P N; Francone, O L; Rubin, E M

    2000-07-07

    Both in vitro and in vivo studies of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) have implicated it as a likely participant in the metabolism of HDL cholesterol. To investigate the effect of SR-BI on atherogenesis, we examined two lines of SR-BI transgenic mice with high (10-fold increases) and low (2-fold increases) SR-BI expression in an inbred mouse background hemizygous for a human apolipoprotein (apo) B transgene. Unlike non-HDL cholesterol levels that minimally differed in the various groups of animals, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely related to SR-BI expression. Mice with the low expression SR-BI transgene had a 50% reduction in HDL cholesterol, whereas the high expression SR-BI transgene was associated with 2-fold decreases in HDL cholesterol as well as dramatic alterations in HDL composition and size including the near absence of alpha-migrating particles as determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The low expression SR-BI/apo B transgenics had more than a 2-fold decrease in the development of diet-induced fatty streak lesions compared with the apo B transgenics (4448 +/- 1908 micrometer(2)/aorta to 10133 +/- 4035 micrometer (2)/aorta; p < 0.001), whereas the high expression SR-BI/apo B transgenics had an atherogenic response similar to that of the apo B transgenics (14692 +/- 7238 micrometer(2)/aorta) but 3-fold greater than the low SR-BI/apo B mice (p < 0.001). The prominent anti-atherogenic effect of moderate SR-BI expression provides in vivo support for the hypothesis that HDL functions to inhibit atherogenesis through its interactions with SR-BI in facilitating reverse cholesterol transport. The failure of the high SR-BI/apo B transgenics to have similar or even greater reductions in atherogenesis suggests that the changes resulting from extremely high SR-BI expression including dramatic changes in lipoproteins may have both pro- and anti-atherogenic consequences, illustrating the complexity of the relationship between SR-BI and

  18. Relationship between expression levels and atherogenesis in scavenger receptor Class B, Type I Transgenics

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yukihiko; Gong, Elaine; Royer, Lori; Cooper, Philip N.; Francone, Omar L; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-03-15

    Both in vitro and in vivo studies of SR-BI have implicated it as a likely participant in the metabolism of HDL cholesterol. To investigate SR-BI's effect on atherogenesis we examined two lines of SR-BI transgenic mice with high (10-fold increases) and low (2-fold increases) in SR-BI expression in an inbred mouse background hemizygous for a human apo B transgene. Unlike non-HDL cholesterol levels which minimally differed in the various groups of animals, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely related to SR-BI expression. Mice with the low expression SR-BI transgene had a 50% reduction in HDL cholesterol while the high expression SR-BI transgene was associated with two-fold decreases in HDL as well as dramatic alterations in HDL composition and size including the near absence of a-migrating particles as determined by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. The low expression SR-BI/apo B transgenics had more than a two-fold decrease in the development of diet induced fatty streak lesions compared t o the apo B transgenics (4448{+-}1908 {mu}m2/aorta to 10133 {+-} 4035 {mu}m2/aorta; p<0.001), while the high expression SR-BI/apo B transgenics had an atherogenic response similar to that of the apo B transgenics (14692{+-}7238 {mu}m2/aorta) but three-fold greater than the low SR-BI/apo B mice (p<0.001). The prominent anti-atherogenic effect of moderate SR-BI expression provides in vivo support for the hypothesis that HDL functions to inhibit atherogenesis through its interactions with SR-BI in facilitating reverse cholesterol transport. The failure of the high SR-BI/apo B transgenics to have similar or even greater reductions in atherogenesis suggests that the changes resulting from extremely high SR-BI expression including dramatic changes in lipoproteins may have both pro- and anti-atherogenic consequences illustrating the complexity of the relationship between SR-BI and atherogenesis.

  19. Nuclear expression of a mitochondrial DNA gene: mitochondrial targeting of allotopically expressed mutant ATP6 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Dunn, David A; Pinkert, Carl A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear encoding of mitochondrial DNA transgenes followed by mitochondrial targeting of the expressed proteins (allotopic expression; AE) represents a potentially powerful strategy for creating animal models of mtDNA disease. Mice were created that allotopically express either a mutant (A6M) or wildtype (A6W) mt-Atp6 transgene. Compared to non-transgenic controls, A6M mice displayed neuromuscular and motor deficiencies (wire hang, pole, and balance beam analyses; P < 0.05), no locomotor differences (gait analysis; P < 0.05) and enhanced endurance in Rota-Rod evaluations (P < 0.05). A6W mice exhibited inferior muscle strength (wire hang test; P < 0.05), no difference in balance beam footsteps, accelerating Rota-Rod, pole test and gait analyses; (P < 0.05) and superior performance in balance beam time-to-cross and constant velocity Rota-Rod analyses (P < 0.05) in comparison to non-transgenic control mice. Mice of both transgenic lines did not differ from non-transgenic controls in a number of bioenergetic and biochemical tests including measurements of serum lactate and mitochondrial MnSOD protein levels, ATP synthesis rate, and oxygen consumption (P > 0.05). This study illustrates a mouse model capable of circumventing in vivo mitochondrial mutations. Moreover, it provides evidence supporting AE as a tool for mtDNA disease research with implications in development of DNA-based therapeutics.

  20. Expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) induces melanoma in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu Yeong; Chang, Kai; Pickel, James M.; Badger, John D.; Roche, Katherine W.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS and mediates fast synaptic transmission upon activation of glutamate-gated ion channels. In addition, glutamate modulates a variety of other synaptic responses and intracellular signaling by activating metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which are G protein-coupled receptors. The mGluRs are also expressed in nonneuronal tissues and are implicated in a variety of normal biological functions as well as diseases. To study mGluR-activated calcium signaling in neurons, we generated mGluR5 transgenic animals using a Thy1 promoter to drive expression in the forebrain, and one founder unexpectedly developed melanoma. To directly investigate the role of mGluR5 in melanoma formation, we generated mGluR5 transgenic lines under a melanocyte-specific promoter, tyrosinase-related protein 1. A majority of the founders showed a severe phenotype with early onset. Hyperpigmentation of the pinnae and tail could be detected as early as 3–5 d after birth for most of the mGluR5 transgene-positive mice. There was 100% penetrance in the progeny from the tyrosinase-related protein 1-mGluR5 lines generated from founders that developed melanoma. Expression of mGluR5 was detected in melanoma samples by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the expression of several cancer-related proteins in tumor samples and observed a dramatic increase in the phosphorylation of ERK, implicating ERK as a downstream effector of mGluR5 signaling in tumors. Our findings show that mGluR5-mediated glutamatergic signaling can trigger melanoma in vivo. The aggressive growth and severe phenotype make these mouse lines unique and a potentially powerful tool for therapeutic studies. PMID:21896768

  1. Expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) induces melanoma in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu Yeong; Chang, Kai; Pickel, James M; Badger, John D; Roche, Katherine W

    2011-09-13

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS and mediates fast synaptic transmission upon activation of glutamate-gated ion channels. In addition, glutamate modulates a variety of other synaptic responses and intracellular signaling by activating metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which are G protein-coupled receptors. The mGluRs are also expressed in nonneuronal tissues and are implicated in a variety of normal biological functions as well as diseases. To study mGluR-activated calcium signaling in neurons, we generated mGluR5 transgenic animals using a Thy1 promoter to drive expression in the forebrain, and one founder unexpectedly developed melanoma. To directly investigate the role of mGluR5 in melanoma formation, we generated mGluR5 transgenic lines under a melanocyte-specific promoter, tyrosinase-related protein 1. A majority of the founders showed a severe phenotype with early onset. Hyperpigmentation of the pinnae and tail could be detected as early as 3-5 d after birth for most of the mGluR5 transgene-positive mice. There was 100% penetrance in the progeny from the tyrosinase-related protein 1-mGluR5 lines generated from founders that developed melanoma. Expression of mGluR5 was detected in melanoma samples by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the expression of several cancer-related proteins in tumor samples and observed a dramatic increase in the phosphorylation of ERK, implicating ERK as a downstream effector of mGluR5 signaling in tumors. Our findings show that mGluR5-mediated glutamatergic signaling can trigger melanoma in vivo. The aggressive growth and severe phenotype make these mouse lines unique and a potentially powerful tool for therapeutic studies.

  2. mpeg1 promoter transgenes direct macrophage-lineage expression in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ellett, Felix; Pase, Luke; Hayman, John W.; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play important roles during the innate immune response, phagocytosing invading microbes and delivering antimicrobial compounds to the site of injury. Functional analyses of the cellular innate immune response in zebrafish infection/inflammation models have been aided by transgenic lines with fluorophore-marked neutrophils. However, it has not been possible to study macrophage behaviors and neutrophil/macrophage interactions in vivo directly because there has been no macrophage-only reporter line. To remove this roadblock, a macrophage-specific marker was identified (mpeg1) and its promoter used in mpeg1-driven transgenes. mpeg1-driven transgenes are expressed in macrophage-lineage cells that do not express neutrophil-marking transgenes. Using these lines, the different dynamic behaviors of neutrophils and macrophages after wounding were compared side-by-side in compound transgenics. Macrophage/neutrophil interactions, such as phagocytosis of senescent neutrophils, were readily observed in real time. These zebrafish transgenes provide a new resource that will contribute to the fields of inflammation, infection, and leukocyte biology. PMID:21084707

  3. Human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) expression in transgenic chicken

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sung June; Ji, Mi-Ran; Jang, Ye-Jin; Hwang, A-In; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Jeom Sun; Kim, Kyung-Woon; Chung, Hak-Jae; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Jeon, Iksoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a metalloprotein and functions as an antioxidant enzyme. In this study, we used lentiviral vectors to generate transgenic chickens that express the human EC-SOD gene. The recombinant lentiviruses were injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid eggs. Subsequently, the embryos were incubated to hatch using phases II and III of the surrogate shell ex vivo culture system. Of 158 injected embryos, 16 chicks (G0) hatched and were screened for the hEC-SOD by PCR. Only 1 chick was identified as a transgenic bird containing the transgene in its germline. This founder (G0) bird was mated with wild-type hens to produce transgenic progeny, and 2 transgenic chicks (G1) were produced. In the generated transgenic hens (G2), the hEC-SOD protein was expressed in the egg white and showed antioxidant activity. These results highlight the potential of the chicken for production of biologically active proteins in egg white. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(8): 404-409] PMID:23977988

  4. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  5. Transgenic plant virus resistance mediated by untranslatable sense RNAs: expression, regulation, and fate of nonessential RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H A; Swaney, S L; Parks, T D; Wernsman, E A; Dougherty, W G

    1994-01-01

    Haploid leaf tissue of tobacco cultivars K326 and K149 was transformed with several transgenes containing cDNA of the potato virus Y (PVY) coat protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF). The various transgenes containing the PVY CP ORF sequence produced (1) the expected mRNA and CP product, (2) an mRNA rendered untranslatable by introduction of a stop codon immediately after the initiation codon, or (3) an antisense RNA that was untranslatable as a result of the incorrect orientation of the PVY CP ORF behind the transcriptional promoter. Homozygous doubled haploid (DH) (diploid) plants were generated, and selfed progeny from these plants were examined. Resistance was virus specific, functioning only against PVY. An inverse correlation between transgene-derived PVY transcript steady state levels and resistance was generally noted with lines expressing the untranslatable sense version of the PVY CP ORF. A collection of DH lines, derived from a single transformation event of a common haploid plant and isogenic for the PVY transgenes expressing untranslatable sense RNA, displayed different levels of PVY resistance. Lines with actively transcribed, methylated transgene sequences had low steady state levels of transgene transcript and a virus-resistant phenotype. These results are discussed within the context of sense suppression in plants. PMID:7994177

  6. Enhanced water stress tolerance of transgenic maize plants over-expressing LEA Rab28 gene.

    PubMed

    Amara, Imen; Capellades, Montserrat; Ludevid, M Dolors; Pagès, Montserrat; Goday, Adela

    2013-06-15

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins participate in plant stress responses and contribute to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In this report Rab28 LEA gene has been over-expressed in maize plants under a constitutive maize promoter. The expression of Rab28 transcripts led to the accumulation and stability of Rab28 protein in the transgenic plants. Native Rab28 protein is localized to nucleoli in wild type maize embryo cells; here we find by whole-mount immunocytochemistry that in root cells of Rab28 transgenic and wild-type plants the protein is also associated to nucleolar structures. Transgenic plants were tested for stress tolerance and resulted in sustained growth under polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-mediated dehydration compared to wild-type controls. Under osmotic stress transgenic seedlings showed increased leaf and root areas, higher relative water content (RWC), reduced chlorophyll loss and lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) production in relation to wild-type plants. Moreover, transgenic seeds exhibited higher germination rates than wild-type seeds under water deficit. Overall, our results highlight the presence of transgenic Rab28 protein in nucleolar structures and point to the potential of group 5 LEA Rab28 gene as candidate to enhance stress tolerance in maize plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Schreglmann, Sebastian R; Regensburger, Martin; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Xiang, Wei; Winkler, Jürgen; Winner, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS) under the murine Thy1 (mThy1) promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction. Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive) in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF) promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex. The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  8. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  9. The TGV transgenic vectors for single-copy gene expression from the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed

    Gumbiner-Russo, L M; Lombardo, M J; Ponder, R G; Rosenberg, S M

    2001-07-25

    Plasmid-based cloning and expression of genes in Escherichia coli can have several problems: plasmid destabilization; toxicity of gene products; inability to achieve complete repression of gene expression; non-physiological overexpression of the cloned gene; titration of regulatory proteins; and the requirement for antibiotic selection. We describe a simple system for cloning and expression of genes in single copy in the E. coli chromosome, using a non-antibiotic selection for transgene insertion. The transgene is inserted into a vector containing homology to the chromosomal region flanking the attachment site for phage lambda. This vector is then linearized and introduced into a recombination-proficient E. coli strain carrying a temperature-sensitive lambda prophage. Selection for replacement of the prophage with the transgene is performed at high temperature. Once in the chromosome, transgenes can be moved into other lysogenic E. coli strains using standard phage-mediated transduction techniques, selecting against a resident prophage. Additional vector constructs provide an arabinose-inducible promoter (P(BAD)), P(BAD) plus a translation-initiation sequence, and optional chloramphenicol-, tetracycline-, or kanamycin-resistance cassettes. These Transgenic E. coli Vectors (TGV) allow drug-free, single-copy expression of genes from the E. coli chromosome, and are useful for genetic studies of gene function.

  10. LiPS-A3S, a human genomic site for robust expression of inserted transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Kotini, Andriana G; Sadelain, Michel; Papapetrou, Eirini P

    2016-01-01

    Transgenesis of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can enable and empower a variety of studies in stem cell research, including lineage tracing and functional genetics studies. While in recent years much progress has been made in the development of tools for gene targeting, little attention has been given to the identification of sites in the human genome where transgenes can be inserted and reliably expressed. In order to find human genomic sites capable of supporting long-term and high-level transgene expression in hPSCs, we performed a lentiviral screen in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We isolated 40 iPSC clones each harboring a single vector copy and characterized the level of transgene expression afforded by each unique integration site. We selected one clone, LiPS-A3 with an integration site in chromosome 15 maintaining robust expression without silencing and demonstrate that different transgenes can be inserted therein rapidly and efficiently through recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). The LiPS-A3 line can greatly facilitate the insertion of reporter and other genes in hPSCs. Targeting transgenes in the LiPS-A3S genomic locus can find broad applications in stem cell research and possibly cell and gene therapy. PMID:27898090

  11. Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1

    PubMed Central

    Ihemere, Uzoma E.; Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants. PMID:22993514

  12. Iron Biofortification and Homeostasis in Transgenic Cassava Roots Expressing the Algal Iron Assimilatory Gene, FEA1.

    PubMed

    Ihemere, Uzoma E; Narayanan, Narayanan N; Sayre, Richard T

    2012-01-01

    We have engineered the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory gene, FEA1, in its storage roots with the objective of enhancing the root nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 g meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 gene in storage roots did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of ferrous iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, fibrous roots of FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe (III) chelate reductase activity consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in the transgenic plants. We also show that multiple cassava genes involved in iron homeostasis have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in leaves, stems, and roots of transgenic plants consistent with increased iron sink strength in transgenic roots. These results are discussed in terms of strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  13. Isolation of a polyubiquitin promoter and its expression in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, J E; Oosumi, T; Belknap, W R

    1995-01-01

    A polyubiquitin clone (ubi7) was isolated from a potato (Solanum tuberosum) genomic library using a copy-specific probe from a stress-induced ubiquitin cDNA. The genomic clone contained a 569-bp intron immediately 5' to the initiation codon for the first ubiquitin-coding unit. Two chimeric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion transgenes were introduced into potato. The first contained GUS fused to a 1156-bp promoter fragment containing only 5' flanking and 5' untranslated sequences from ubi7. The second transgene contained GUS translationally fused to the carboxy terminus of the first ubiquitin-coding unit and thus included the intron present in the 5' untranslated region of the polyubiquitin gene. Both ubi7-GUS transgenes were activated by wounding in tuber tissue and in leaves by application of exogenous methyl jasmonate. They were also expressed constitutively in the potato tuber peel (outer 1-2 mm). Both transgenes were actively expressed in mature leaves. Exceptionally high levels of expression were observed in senescent leaves. Transgenic clones containing the ubi7 intron and the first ubiquitin-coding unit showed GUS expression levels at least 10 times higher than clones containing GUS fused to the intronless promoter. PMID:8539296

  14. Isolation of a polyubiquitin promoter and its expression in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, J E; Oosumi, T; Belknap, W R

    1995-12-01

    A polyubiquitin clone (ubi7) was isolated from a potato (Solanum tuberosum) genomic library using a copy-specific probe from a stress-induced ubiquitin cDNA. The genomic clone contained a 569-bp intron immediately 5' to the initiation codon for the first ubiquitin-coding unit. Two chimeric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion transgenes were introduced into potato. The first contained GUS fused to a 1156-bp promoter fragment containing only 5' flanking and 5' untranslated sequences from ubi7. The second transgene contained GUS translationally fused to the carboxy terminus of the first ubiquitin-coding unit and thus included the intron present in the 5' untranslated region of the polyubiquitin gene. Both ubi7-GUS transgenes were activated by wounding in tuber tissue and in leaves by application of exogenous methyl jasmonate. They were also expressed constitutively in the potato tuber peel (outer 1-2 mm). Both transgenes were actively expressed in mature leaves. Exceptionally high levels of expression were observed in senescent leaves. Transgenic clones containing the ubi7 intron and the first ubiquitin-coding unit showed GUS expression levels at least 10 times higher than clones containing GUS fused to the intronless promoter.

  15. [Selection of microRNA for providing tumor specificity of transgene expression in cancer gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Shepelev, M V; Kalinichenko, S V; Vikhreva, P N; Korobko, I V

    2016-01-01

    The use of tumor-specific microRNA loss to inhibit transgene expression in normal cells is considered as a way to increase the specificity of gene-therapeutic antitumor drugs. This method assumes the introduction of recognition sites of suppressed in tumor cells microRNAs into transgene transcipt. In the presented work, the efficiency of the strategy for providing the tumor specificity of transgene expression depending on parameters of microRNA expression in normal and tumor cells was studied. It was established that microRNA suppression in tumor cells and the determination of absolute microRNA levels in tumor and normal cells are not sufficient for the adequate estimation of the possibility of specific microRNA usage in the scheme of cancer gene therapy, and particularly do not allow to exclude a significant decrease in the efficiency of the gene-therapeutic drug upon the introduction of microRNA recognition sites. These parameters are only suitable for the preliminary selection of microRNA. The effect of introduction of microRNA recognition sites on transgene expression level in target tumor cells should be validated experimentally. It is suggested that this should be done directly in the cancer gene therapy scheme with monitoring of the therapeutic transgene activity.

  16. Microdissection of the gene expression codes driving nephrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, Eric W; Patterson, Larry T

    2010-01-01

    The kidney represents an excellent model system for learning the principles of organogenesis. It is intermediate in complexity, and employs many commonly used developmental processes. As such, kidney development has been the subject of intensive study, using a variety of techniques, including in situ hybridization, organ culture and gene targeting, revealing many critical genes and pathways. Nevertheless, proper organogenesis requires precise patterns of cell type specific differential gene expression, involving very large numbers of genes. This review is focused on the use of global profiling technologies to create an atlas of gene expression codes driving development of different mammalian kidney compartments. Such an atlas allows one to select a gene of interest, and to determine its expression level in each element of the developing kidney, or to select a structure of interest, such as the renal vesicle, and to examine its complete gene expression state. Novel component specific molecular markers are identified, and the changing waves of gene expression that drive nephrogenesis are defined. As the tools continue to improve for the purification of specific cell types and expression profiling of even individual cells it is possible to predict an atlas of gene expression during kidney development that extends to single cell resolution. PMID:21220959

  17. The second intron of AGAMOUS drives carpel- and stamen-specific expression sufficient to induce complete sterility in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongrang; Liu, Zhongchi

    2008-05-01

    Gene containment technologies that prevent transgene dispersal through pollen, fruit and seed are in immediate demand to address concerns of gene flow from transgenic crops into wild species or close relatives. In this study, we isolated the enhancer element of Arabidopsis AGAMOUS that drives gene expression specifically in stamens and carpels. By fusing this AG enhancer to a minimal 35S promoter fragment, two tissue-specific promoters, fAGIP and rAGIP in forward and reverse orientations, respectively, were created and fused to the GUS reporter. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring either fAGIP::GUS or rAGIP::GUS displayed similar GUS expression specifically in carpel and stamen tissues and their primordial cells. To test their utility for engineering sterility, the promoters were fused to the Diphtheria toxin A (DT-A) gene coding for a ribosome inactivating protein as well as the Barnase gene coding for an extracellular ribonuclease, and tested for tissue-specific ablation. Over 89% of AGIP::DT-A and 68% of AGIP::Barnase transgenic plants displayed specific and precise ablation of stamens and carpels and are completely sterile. These transgenic plants showed normal vegetative development with prolonged vegetative growth. To evaluate the stability of the sterile phenotype, 16 AGIP::DT-A lines underwent two consecutive cutback generations and showed no reversion of the floral phenotype. This study demonstrates a simple, precise and efficient approach to achieve absolute sterility through irreversible ablation of both male and female floral organs. This approach should have a practical application for transgene containment in ornamental, landscaping, and woody species, whose seeds and fruits are of no economic value.

  18. Evaluation of adenovirus capsid labeling versus transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been utilized for a variety of gene therapy applications. Our group has incorporated bioluminescent, fluorographic reporters, and/or suicide genes within the adenovirus genome for analytical and/or therapeutic purposes. These molecules have also been incorporated as capsid components. Recognizing that incorporations at either locale yield potential advantages and disadvantages, our report evaluates the benefits of transgene incorporation versus capsid incorporation. To this end, we have genetically incorporated firefly luciferase within the early region 3 or at minor capsid protein IX and compared vector functionality by means of reporter readout. PMID:20102632

  19. Factors that influence transgene expression and cell viability on DNA-PEI-seeded collagen films.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jordan M; Roth, Charles M; Dunn, Michael G

    2005-01-01

    Gene delivery from tissue-engineering devices has the potential to improve healing, but better regulation of the level and duration of gene expression is needed. We hypothesized that transgene expression could be controlled by varying the fabrication and soaking parameters used in making collagen- based gene delivery scaffolds. Collagen films were made from acid-insoluble type I bovine dermal collagen and seeded with plasmid DNA encoding firefly luciferase, complexed with polyethylenimine. By varying the thickness of the films, the volume of the DNA soak solution, and the pH of the DNA soak solution, and by cross-linking the films, we identified variable combinations that produce significantly different levels of cell number and transgene expression in L-929 cells in vitro. Increasing film thickness or soak volume increased overall reporter gene expression. Decreasing film thickness or soak volume decreased cell number but did not significantly change reporter gene expression per cell. Cross-linking by ultraviolet irradiation (before adding the DNA) significantly decreased transgene expression, probably because of decreased swelling of the collagen film. These results suggest that collagen-based biomaterials may be designed and fabricated to induce, in a controlled fashion, various levels of cellularity and transgene expression.

  20. Mifepristone-inducible transgene expression in neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, BE; Grunseich, C; Gowing, G; Avalos, P; Tian, J; Shelley, BC; Mooney, M; Narwani, K; Shi, Y; Svendsen, CN; Wolfe, JH; Fischbeck, KH; Pierson, TM

    2016-01-01

    Numerous gene and cell therapy strategies are being developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these strategies use constitutive expression of therapeutic transgenic proteins, and although functional in animal models of disease, this method is less likely to provide adequate flexibility for delivering therapy to humans. Ligand-inducible gene expression systems may be more appropriate for these conditions, especially within the central nervous system (CNS). Mifepristone’s ability to cross the blood–brain barrier makes it an especially attractive ligand for this purpose. We describe the production of a mifepristone-inducible vector system for regulated expression of transgenes within the CNS. Our inducible system used a lentivirus-based vector platform for the ex vivo production of mifepristone-inducible murine neural progenitor cells that express our transgenes of interest. These cells were processed through a series of selection steps to ensure that the cells exhibited appropriate transgene expression in a dose-dependent and temporally controlled manner with minimal background activity. Inducible cells were then transplanted into the brains of rodents, where they exhibited appropriate mifepristone-inducible expression. These studies detail a strategy for regulated expression in the CNS for use in the development of safe and efficient gene therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:26863047

  1. Mifepristone-inducible transgene expression in neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, B E; Grunseich, C; Gowing, G; Avalos, P; Tian, J; Shelley, B C; Mooney, M; Narwani, K; Shi, Y; Svendsen, C N; Wolfe, J H; Fischbeck, K H; Pierson, T M

    2016-05-01

    Numerous gene and cell therapy strategies are being developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these strategies use constitutive expression of therapeutic transgenic proteins, and although functional in animal models of disease, this method is less likely to provide adequate flexibility for delivering therapy to humans. Ligand-inducible gene expression systems may be more appropriate for these conditions, especially within the central nervous system (CNS). Mifepristone's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier makes it an especially attractive ligand for this purpose. We describe the production of a mifepristone-inducible vector system for regulated expression of transgenes within the CNS. Our inducible system used a lentivirus-based vector platform for the ex vivo production of mifepristone-inducible murine neural progenitor cells that express our transgenes of interest. These cells were processed through a series of selection steps to ensure that the cells exhibited appropriate transgene expression in a dose-dependent and temporally controlled manner with minimal background activity. Inducible cells were then transplanted into the brains of rodents, where they exhibited appropriate mifepristone-inducible expression. These studies detail a strategy for regulated expression in the CNS for use in the development of safe and efficient gene therapy for neurological disorders.

  2. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus expressing yeast cytosine deaminase: relationship between viral replication, transgene expression, prodrug bioactivation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Kuroda, T; Fuchs, B C; He, X; Supko, J G; Schmitt, A; McGinn, C M; Lanuti, M; Tanabe, K K

    2012-03-01

    Yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) is a well-characterized prodrug/enzyme system that converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and has been combined with oncolytic viruses. However, in vivo studies of the interactions between 5-FC bioactivation and viral replication have not been previously reported, nor have the kinetics of transgene expression and the pharmacokinetics of 5-FC and 5-FU. We constructed a replication-conditional Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expressing yCD and examined cytotoxicity when 5-FC was initiated at different times after viral infection, and observed that earlier 5-FC administration led to greater cytotoxicity than later 5-FC administration in vitro and in vivo. In animal models, 12 days of 5-FC administration was superior to 6 days, but dosing beyond 12 days did not further enhance efficacy. Consistent with the dosing-schedule results, both viral genomic DNA copy number and viral titers were observed to peak on Day 3 after viral injection and gradually decrease thereafter. The virus is replication-conditional and was detected in tumors for as long as 2 weeks after viral injection. The maximum relative extent of yCD conversion of 5-FC to 5-FU in tumors was observed on Day 6 after viral injection and it decreased progressively thereafter. The observation that 5-FU generation within tumors did not lead to appreciable levels of systemic 5-FU (<10 ng ml⁻¹) is important and has not been previously reported. The approaches used in these studies of the relationship between the viral replication kinetics, transgene expression, prodrug administration and anti-tumor efficacy are useful in the design of clinical trials of armed, oncolytic viruses.

  3. Early myeloid cell-specific expression of the human cathepsin G gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Grisolano, J L; Sclar, G M; Ley, T J

    1994-09-13

    The human cathepsin G (CG) gene is expressed only in promyelocytes and encodes a neutral serine protease that is packaged in the azurophil (primary) granules of myeloid cells. To define the cis-acting DNA elements that are responsible for promyelocyte-specific "targeting," we injected a 6-kb transgene containing the entire human CG gene, including coding sequences contained in a 2.7-kb region, approximately 2.5 kb of 5' flanking sequence, and approximately 0.8 kb of 3' flanking sequence. Seven of seven "transient transgenic" murine embryos revealed human CG expression in the fetal livers at embryonic day 15. Stable transgenic founder lines were created with the same 6-kb fragment; four of five founder lines expressed human CG in the bone marrow. The level of human CG expression was relatively low per gene copy when compared with the endogenous murine CG gene, and expression was integration-site dependent; however, the level of gene expression correlated roughly with gene copy number. The human CG transgene and the endogenous murine CG gene were coordinately expressed in the bone marrow and the spleen. Immunohistochemical analysis of transgenic bone marrow revealed that the human CG protein was expressed exclusively in myeloid cells. Expression of human CG protein was highest in myeloid precursors and declined in mature myeloid cells. These data suggest that the human CG gene was appropriately targeted and developmentally regulated, demonstrating that the cis-acting DNA sequences required for the early myeloid cell-specific expression of human CG are present in this small genomic fragment.

  4. Ubiquitin fusion expression and tissue-dependent targeting of hG-CSF in transgenic tobacco

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is an important human cytokine which has been widely used in oncology and infection protection. To satisfy clinical needs, expression of recombinant hG-CSF has been studied in several organisms, including rice cell suspension culture and transient expression in tobacco leaves, but there was no published report on its expression in stably transformed plants which can serve as a more economical expression platform with potential industrial application. Results In this study, hG-CSF expression was investigated in transgenic tobacco leaves and seeds in which the accumulation of hG-CSF could be enhanced through fusion with ubiquitin by up to 7 fold in leaves and 2 fold in seeds, leading to an accumulation level of 2.5 mg/g total soluble protein (TSP) in leaves and 1.3 mg/g TSP in seeds, relative to hG-CSF expressed without a fusion partner. Immunoblot analysis showed that ubiquitin was processed from the final protein product, and ubiquitination was up-regulated in all transgenic plants analyzed. Driven by CaMV 35S promoter and phaseolin signal peptide, hG-CSF was observed to be secreted into apoplast in leaves but deposited in protein storage vacuole (PSV) in seeds, indicating that targeting of the hG-CSF was tissue-dependent in transgenic tobacco. Bioactivity assay showed that hG-CSF expressed in both seeds and leaves was bioactive to support the proliferation of NFS-60 cells. Conclusions In this study, the expression of bioactive hG-CSF in transgenic plants was improved through ubiquitin fusion strategy, demonstrating that protein expression can be enhanced in both plant leaves and seeds through fusion with ubiquitin and providing a typical case of tissue-dependent expression of recombinant protein in transgenic plants. PMID:21985646

  5. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice expressing mitochondrial targeted red fluorescent protein selectively in neurons: modeling mitochondriopathy in excitotoxicity and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Pan, Yan; Price, Ann; Martin, Lee J

    2011-11-02

    Mitochondria have roles or appear to have roles in the pathogenesis of several chronic age-related and acute neurological disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia, and could be critical targets for development of rational mechanism-based, disease-modifying therapeutics for treating these disorders effectively. A deeper understanding of neural tissue mitochondria pathobiologies as definitive mediators of neural injury, disease, and cell death merits further study, and the development of additional tools to study neural mitochondria will help achieve this unmet need. We created transgenic mice that express the coral (Discosoma sp.) red fluorescent protein DsRed2 specifically in mitochondria of neurons using a construct engineered with a Thy1 promoter, specific for neuron expression, to drive expression of a fusion protein of DsRed2 with a mitochondrial targeting sequence. The biochemical and histological characterization of these mice shows the expression of mitochondrial-targeted DsRed2 to be specific for mitochondria and concentrated in distinct CNS regions, including cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord. Red fluorescent mitochondria were visualized in cerebral cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, ventrobasal thalamic neurons, subthalamic neurons, and spinal motor neurons. For the purpose of proof of principle application, these mice were used in excitotoxicity paradigms and double transgenic mice were generated by crossing Thy1-mitoDsRed2 mice with transgenic mice expressing enhanced-GFP (eGFP) under the control of the Hlxb9 promoter that drives eGFP expression specifically in motor neurons and by crossing Thy1-mitoDsRed2 mice to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice expressing human mutant superoxide dismutase-1. These novel transgenic mice will be a useful tool for better understanding the biology of mitochondria in mouse and cellular models

  6. German taxi drivers' experiences and expressions of driving anger: Are the driving anger scale and the driving anger expression inventory valid measures?

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Stefan; Oehl, Michael; Seigies, Kristin

    2017-05-19

    The objective of this article was 2-fold: firstly, we wanted to examine whether the original Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the original Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) apply to German professional taxi drivers because these scales have previously been given to professional and particularly to nonprofessional drivers in different countries. Secondly, we wanted to examine possible differences in driving anger experience and expression between professional German taxi drivers and nonprofessional German drivers. We applied German versions of the DAS, the DAX, and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) to a sample of 138 professional German taxi drivers. We then compared their ratings to the ratings of a sample of 1,136 nonprofessional German drivers (Oehl and Brandenburg n.d. ). Regarding our first objective, confirmatory factor analysis shows that the model fit of the DAS is better for nonprofessional drivers than for professional drivers. The DAX applies neither to professional nor to nonprofessional German drivers properly. Consequently, we suggest modified shorter versions of both scales for professional drivers. The STAXI applies to both professional and nonprofessional drivers. With respect to our second objective, we show that professional drivers experience significantly less driving anger than nonprofessional drivers, but they express more driving anger. We conclude that the STAXI can be applied to professional German taxi drivers. In contrast, for the DAS and the DAX we found particular shorter versions for professional taxi drivers. Especially for the DAX, most statements were too strong for German drivers to agree to. They do not show behaviors related to driving anger expression as they are described in the DAX. These problems with the original American DAX items are in line with several other studies in different countries. Future investigations should examine whether (professional) drivers from further countries express their anger

  7. Constitutive and salt-inducible expression of SlBADH gene in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom) enhances salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-yu; Lai, Lu-di; Tong, Shao-ming; Li, Qiu-li

    2013-03-08

    To improve the stress tolerance of crops, many genes, including transcription factors, have been expressed in transgenic plants using either constitutive or stress-inducible promoters. However, transgenic plants that show strong constitutive expression of transcription factors often suffer from many undesirable phenotypes, such as stunted growth and reduced yield. In the present study, the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene, cloned from Suaeda liaotungensis and, controlled by the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter or stress-inducible promoter of BADH (P5: -300 to +62 bp), was transformed into tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The transformants with single copy of SlBADH were determined by real time PCR. Expression of SlBADH in the P5:BADH transgenic plants exhibited salt induced and was higher than that in CaMV35S:BADH under salt stress. The SlBADH enhanced salt tolerance of P5:BADH and CaMV35S:BADH transformants. And SlBADH in P5:BADH plants did not affect the growth of transformants. Consequently, we conclude that the P5 promoter can drive increased expression of SlBADH in transgenic tomato under salt stress and increase salt tolerance without affecting plant growth.

  8. Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianming; Ristic, Zoran

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) carrying a maize (Zea mays L.) gene (Zmeftu1) for chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, displays reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation following exposure to heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C) [Fu et al. in Plant Mol Biol 68:277-288, 2008]. In the current study, we investigated the segregation pattern and expression of the transgene Zmeftu1 and determined the grain yield of transgenic plants after exposure to a brief heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C). We also assessed thermal aggregation of soluble leaf proteins in transgenic plants, testing the hypothesis that increased levels of EF-Tu will lead to a non-specific protection of leaf proteins against thermal aggregation. The transgenic wheat displayed a single-gene pattern of segregation of Zmeftu1. Zmeftu1 was expressed, and the transgenic plants synthesized and accumulated three anti-EF-Tu cross-reacting polypeptides of similar molecular mass but different pI, suggesting the possibility of posttranslational modification of this protein. The transgenic plants also showed better grain yield after exposure to heat stress compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. Soluble leaf proteins of various molecular masses displayed lower thermal aggregation in transgenic than in non-transgenic wheat. The results suggest that overexpression of chloroplast EF-Tu can be beneficial to wheat tolerance to heat stress. Moreover, the results also support the hypothesis that EF-Tu contributes to heat tolerance by acting as a molecular chaperone and protecting heat-labile proteins from thermal aggregation in a non-specific manner.

  9. Neuroendocrine function in adult female transgenic mice expressing the human growth hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, V; Bartke, A; Wagner, T E

    1992-04-01

    Adult female transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene with mouse metallothionein-I promoter are sterile. To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary function in these animals, adult female transgenic mice and nontransgenic normal littermates were ovariectomized. On days 7 and 8 after ovariectomy, mice were injected with either oil or primed with 0.5 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) in oil, 24 h later treated with 10 micrograms EB/100 g body wt and a day later bled for measurements of FSH, LH, and PRL levels. Plasma gonadotropin and PRL levels were also measured in ovary-intact transgenic and normal siblings at estrus. Additional ovariectomized EB-treated transgenic mice and normal siblings were injected with either saline or GnRH in saline (1 ng/g body wt) and were bled 15 min later for determination of circulating hormone levels. At estrus, in transgenic mice, circulating FSH and PRL levels were significantly lower (FSH:P less than 0.001; PRL:P less than 0.025), but plasma LH concentrations were higher (P less than 0.001) than those in nontransgenic mice. As expected, ovariectomy significantly increased (P less than 0.001) circulating FSH and LH levels in both groups of mice relative to ovary-intact animals, but the increase in plasma LH levels was attenuated in transgenic mice. The suppressive effect of estrogen on circulating FSH and LH levels were similar in transgenic and nontransgenic mice. Treatment with GnRH significantly increased plasma FSH and LH levels in both transgenic and normal mice. However, the plasma FSH and LH responses to GnRH administration were significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) in transgenic mice. The results of these studies indicate that adult female transgenic mice expressing the hGH gene are hypoprolactinemic. Yet due to PRL-like activity of hGH, the gonadotropin secretion is altered. Thus, endogenously secreted hGH modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary function of adult female transgenic mice bearing the hGH gene.

  10. A fast-evolving human NPAS3 enhancer gained reporter expression in the developing forebrain of transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Gretel B.; López-Leal, Rodrigo; Lorenzo, Juan R.; Franchini, Lucía F.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental brain gene NPAS3 stands out as a hot spot in human evolution because it contains the largest number of human-specific, fast-evolving, conserved, non-coding elements. In this paper we studied 2xHAR142, one of these elements that is located in the fifth intron of NPAS3. Using transgenic mice, we show that the mouse and chimp 2xHAR142 orthologues behave as transcriptional enhancers driving expression of the reporter gene lacZ to a similar NPAS3 expression subdomain in the mouse central nervous system. Interestingly, the human 2xHAR142 orthologue drives lacZ expression to an extended expression pattern in the nervous system. Thus, molecular evolution of 2xHAR142 provides the first documented example of human-specific heterotopy in the forebrain promoted by a transcriptional enhancer and suggests that it may have contributed to assemble the unique properties of the human brain. PMID:24218632

  11. Golden bananas in the field: elevated fruit pro-vitamin A from the expression of a single banana transgene.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Kleidon, Jennifer; Hoang, Phuong; Geijskes, Jason; Daniells, Jeff; Zaplin, Ella; Rosenberg, Yvonne; James, Anthony; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Deo, Pradeep; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Namanya, Priver; Becker, Douglas; Tindamanyire, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Harding, Robert; Dale, James

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains one of the world's major public health problems despite food fortification and supplements strategies. Biofortification of staple crops with enhanced levels of pro-vitamin A (PVA) offers a sustainable alternative strategy to both food fortification and supplementation. As a proof of concept, PVA-biofortified transgenic Cavendish bananas were generated and field trialed in Australia with the aim of achieving a target level of 20 μg/g of dry weight (dw) β-carotene equivalent (β-CE) in the fruit. Expression of a Fe'i banana-derived phytoene synthase 2a (MtPsy2a) gene resulted in the generation of lines with PVA levels exceeding the target level with one line reaching 55 μg/g dw β-CE. Expression of the maize phytoene synthase 1 (ZmPsy1) gene, used to develop 'Golden Rice 2', also resulted in increased fruit PVA levels although many lines displayed undesirable phenotypes. Constitutive expression of either transgene with the maize polyubiquitin promoter increased PVA accumulation from the earliest stage of fruit development. In contrast, PVA accumulation was restricted to the late stages of fruit development when either the banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase or the expansin 1 promoters were used to drive the same transgenes. Wild-type plants with the longest fruit development time had also the highest fruit PVA concentrations. The results from this study suggest that early activation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and extended fruit maturation time are essential factors to achieve optimal PVA concentrations in banana fruit. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Expression of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Egg Whites of Transgenic Hens

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications. PMID:25706123

  13. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  14. Production of Transgenic Calves Expressing an shRNA Targeting Myostatin

    PubMed Central

    Tessanne, K; Golding, MC; Long, CR; Peoples, MD; Hannon, G; Westhusin, ME

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a well-known negative regulator of muscle growth. Animals that possess mutations within this gene display an enhanced muscling phenotype, a desirable agricultural trait. Increased neonatal morbidity is common, however, resulting from complications arising from the birth of offspring with increased fetal muscle mass. The objective of the current research was to generate an attenuated MSTN-null phenotype in a large-animal model using RNA interference to enhance muscle development without the detrimental consequences of an inactivating mutation. To this end, we identified a series of short interfering RNAs that demonstrated effective suppression of MSTN mRNA and protein levels. To produce transgenic offspring capable of stable MSTN suppression in vivo, a recombinant lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting MSTN for silencing was introduced into bovine fetal fibroblasts. These cells were used as nucleus donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Twenty blastocysts were transferred into seven recipient cows resulting in five pregnancies. One transgenic calf developed to term, but died following delivery by Caesarean-section. As an alternative strategy, microinjection of recombinant lentiviral particles into the perivitelline space of in vitro-produced bovine zygotes was utilized to produce 40 transgenic blastocysts that were transferred into 14 recipient cows, resulting in 7 pregnancies. Five transgenic calves were produced, of which three expressed the transgene. This is the first report of transgenic livestock produced by direct injection of a recombinant lentivirus, and expressing transgenes encoding shRNAs targeting an endogenous gene (myostatin) for silencing. PMID:22139943

  15. Over-expression of AGPase genes enhances seed weight and starch content in transgenic maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhao, Yajie; Li, Bei; Zhang, Juren

    2011-02-01

    Cereal crops accumulate starch in the seed endosperm as an energy reserve. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in cereal seeds. The AGPase in the maize endosperm is a heterotetramer of two small subunits, encoded by Brittle2 (Bt2) gene, and two large subunits, encoded by the Shrunken2 (Sh2) gene. The two genes (Bt2, Sh2) from maize were introduced into two elite maize inbred lines, solely and in tandem, and under the control of endosperm-specific promoters for over-expression. PCR, Southern blotting, and real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the transgenes were integrated into the genome of transgenic plants and were over-expressed in their progeny. The over-expression of either gene enhanced AGPase activity, seed weight and starch content compared with the WT, but the amounts were lower than plants with over-expression of both Bt2 and Sh2. Developing seeds from co-expression transgenic maize plants had higher cytoplasmic AGPase activity: the 100-grain weight increased 15% over the wild type (WT), and the starch content increased to over 74% compared with the WT of 65%. These results indicate that over-expression of the genes in transgenic maize plants could improve kernel traits. This report provides a feasible approach for increasing starch content and seed weight in maize.

  16. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals.

  17. Transgenic Mice Expressing Yeast CUP1 Exhibit Increased Copper Utilization from Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenliang; Liao, Rongrong; Zhang, Xiangzhe; Wang, Qishan; Pan, Yuchun

    2014-01-01

    Copper is required for structural and catalytic properties of a variety of enzymes participating in many vital biological processes for growth and development. Feeds provide most of the copper as an essential micronutrient consumed by animals, but inorganic copper could not be utilized effectively. In the present study, we aimed to develop transgenic mouse models to test if copper utilization will be increased by providing the animals with an exogenous gene for generation of copper chelatin in saliva. Considering that the S. cerevisiae CUP1 gene encodes a Cys-rich protein that can bind copper as specifically as copper chelatin in yeast, we therefore constructed a transgene plasmid containing the CUP1 gene regulated for specific expression in the salivary glands by a promoter of gene coding pig parotid secretory protein. Transgenic CUP1 was highly expressed in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands and secreted in saliva as a 9-kDa copper-chelating protein. Expression of salivary copper-chelating proteins reduced fecal copper contents by 21.61% and increased body-weight by 12.97%, suggesting that chelating proteins improve the utilization and absorbed efficacy of copper. No negative effects on the health of the transgenic mice were found by blood biochemistry and histology analysis. These results demonstrate that the introduction of the salivary CUP1 transgene into animals offers a possible approach to increase the utilization efficiency of copper and decrease the fecal copper contents. PMID:25265503

  18. Herbicide resistance of transgenic rice plants expressing human CYP1A1.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakiko; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ohkawa, Yasunobu

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) metabolize herbicides to produce mainly non-phytotoxic metabolites. Although rice plants endogenously express multiple P450 enzymes, transgenic plants expressing other P450 isoforms might show improved herbicide resistance or reduce herbicide residues. Mammalian P450s metabolizing xenobiotics are reported to show a broad and overlapping substrate specificity towards lipophilic foreign chemicals, including herbicides. These P450s are ideal for enhancing xenobiotic metabolism in plants. A human P450, CYP1A1, metabolizes various herbicides with different structures and modes of herbicide action. We introduced human CYP1A1 into rice plants, and the transgenic rice plants showed broad cross-resistance towards various herbicides and metabolized them. The introduced CYP1A1 enhanced the metabolism of chlorotoluron and norflurazon. The herbicides were metabolized more rapidly in the transgenic rice plants than in non-transgenic controls. Transgenic rice plants expressing P450 might be useful for reducing concentrations of various chemicals in the environment.

  19. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals. PMID:26426396

  20. Exogenous gypsy insulator sequences modulate transgene expression in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Carballar-Lejarazú, Rebeca; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A

    2013-04-30

    Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, and these insects are the targets of innovative vector control programs. Proposed approaches include the use of genetic strategies based on transgenic mosquitoes to suppress or modify vector populations. Although substantial advances have been made in engineering resistant mosquito strains, limited efforts have been made in refining mosquito transgene expression, in particular attenuating the effects of insertions sites, which can result in variations in phenotypes and impacts on fitness due to the random integration of transposon constructs. A promising strategy to mitigate position effects is the identification of insulator or boundary DNA elements that could be used to isolate transgenes from the effects of their genomic environment. We applied quantitative approaches that show that exogenous insulator-like DNA derived from the Drosophila melanogaster gypsy retrotransposon can increase and stabilize transgene expression in transposon-mediated random insertions and recombinase-catalyzed, site-specific integrations in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. These sequences can contribute to precise expression of transgenes in mosquitoes engineered for both basic and applied goals.

  1. Characterization of Bioactive Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Cloned Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Jianwu; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yufang; Guo, Chengdong; Yang, Penghua; Yu, Tian; Li, Rong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Background There is great potential for using transgenic technology to improve the quality of cow milk and to produce biopharmaceuticals within the mammary gland. Lysozyme, a bactericidal protein that protects human infants from microbial infections, is highly expressed in human milk but is found in only trace amounts in cow milk. Methodology/Principal Findings We have produced 17 healthy cloned cattle expressing recombinant human lysozyme using somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we just focus on four transgenic cattle which were natural lactation. The expression level of the recombinant lysozyme was up to 25.96 mg/L, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Purified recombinant human lysozyme showed the same physicochemical properties, such as molecular mass and bacterial lysis, as its natural counterpart. Moreover, both recombinant and natural lysozyme had similar conditions for reactivity as well as for pH and temperature stability during in vitro simulations. The gross composition of transgenic and non-transgenic milk, including levels of lactose, total protein, total fat, and total solids were not found significant differences. Conclusions/Significance Thus, our study not only describes transgenic cattle whose milk offers the similar nutritional benefits as human milk but also reports techniques that could be further refined for production of active human lysozyme on a large scale. PMID:21436886

  2. Diversity of Reporter Expression Patterns in Transgenic Mouse Lines Targeting Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Expressing Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Molet, Jenny; Gunn, Benjamin G.; Ressler, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice, including lines targeting corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF or CRH), have been extensively employed to study stress neurobiology. These powerful tools are poised to revolutionize our understanding of the localization and connectivity of CRH-expressing neurons, and the crucial roles of CRH in normal and pathological conditions. Accurate interpretation of studies using cell type-specific transgenic mice vitally depends on congruence between expression of the endogenous peptide and reporter. If reporter expression does not faithfully reproduce native gene expression, then effects of manipulating unintentionally targeted cells may be misattributed. Here, we studied CRH and reporter expression patterns in 3 adult transgenic mice: Crh-IRES-Cre;Ai14 (tdTomato mouse), Crfp3.0CreGFP, and Crh-GFP BAC. We employed the CRH antiserum generated by Vale after validating its specificity using CRH-null mice. We focused the analyses on stress-salient regions, including hypothalamus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and hippocampus. Expression patterns of endogenous CRH were consistent among wild-type and transgenic mice. In tdTomato mice, most CRH-expressing neurons coexpressed the reporter, yet the reporter identified a few non-CRH-expressing pyramidal-like cells in hippocampal CA1 and CA3. In Crfp3.0CreGFP mice, coexpression of CRH and the reporter was found in central amygdala and, less commonly, in other evaluated regions. In Crh-GFP BAC mice, the large majority of neurons expressed either CRH or reporter, with little overlap. These data highlight significant diversity in concordant expression of reporter and endogenous CRH among 3 available transgenic mice. These findings should be instrumental in interpreting important scientific findings emerging from the use of these potent neurobiological tools. PMID:26402844

  3. Transgenic expression of the human growth hormone minigene promotes pancreatic β-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Baan, Mieke; Kibbe, Carly R; Bushkofsky, Justin R; Harris, Ted W; Sherman, Dawn S; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic mouse models are designed to study the role of specific proteins. To increase transgene expression the human growth hormone (hGH) minigene, including introns, has been included in many transgenic constructs. Until recently, it was thought that the hGH gene was not spliced, transcribed, and translated to produce functional hGH protein. We generated a transgenic mouse with the transcription factor Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) followed by the hGH minigene, under control of the mouse insulin promoter (MIP) to target expression specifically in the pancreatic β-cell. Expression of FoxM1 in isolated pancreatic islets in vitro stimulates β-cell proliferation. We aimed to investigate the effect of FoxM1 on β-cell mass in a mouse model for diabetes mellitus. However, we found inadvertent coexpression of hGH protein from a spliced, bicistronic mRNA. MIP-FoxM1-hGH mice had lower blood glucose and higher pancreatic insulin content, due to increased β-cell proliferation. hGH signals through the murine prolactin receptor, and expression of its downstream targets tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1), tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), and cytokine-inducible SH2 containing protein (Cish) was increased. Conversely, transcriptional targets of FoxM1 were not upregulated. Our data suggest that the phenotype of MIP-FoxM1-hGH mice is due primarily to hGH activity and that the FoxM1 protein remains largely inactive. Over the past decades, multiple transgenic mouse strains were generated that make use of the hGH minigene to increase transgene expression. Our work suggests that each will need to be carefully screened for inadvertent hGH production and critically evaluated for the use of proper controls.

  4. Analysis of imprinted messenger RNA expression in deceased transgenic cloned goats.

    PubMed

    Jia, R X; Zhou, Z R; Zhang, G M; Wang, L Z; Fan, Y X; Wan, Y J; Zhang, Y L; Wang, Z Y; Wang, F

    2016-01-29

    Genomic imprinting is an important epigenetic mechanism that has vital effects on fetal growth and development. We observed the differences in four tissues (heart, spleen, liver, and kidney) from dead transgenic cloned goats using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Eight imprinted genes in the tissues of dead transgenic cloned and normal goats were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. H&E staining results from the abortion group indicated the lack of obvious morphological changes in heart and spleen tissues, while inflammatory cell infiltration and glomerular nephritis characteristics were observed in liver and kidney tissues, respectively. Compared to the control group, CDKN1C, H19, IGF2R, and SNRPN were significantly (P < 0.05) overexpressed in the heart tissue of the abortion group, while XIST was significantly reduced. In the liver tissues, CDKN1C and DLK1 expression decreased, while GNAS, H19, IGF2R, PEG3, and XIST expression increased significantly. In the spleen tissues, DLK1 expression increased, while GNAS, H19, IGF2R, PEG3, SNRPN, and XIST expression decreased. In the kidney tissues, CDKN1C, DLK1, GNAS, IGF2R, and PEG3 expression increased, while H19 and XIST expression decreased. The overall expression of imprinted genes was abnormal in different tissues of transgenic cloned goats, and the degree of abnormal genomic imprinting was more severe in the abortion group compared to the death and control groups. These results suggest that abnormal expression of imprinted genes may cause developmental defects in transgenic cloned goats. Moreover, abnormal epigenetic modifications may affect the reprogramming of transgenic donor cells.

  5. Elevated production of melatonin in transgenic rice seeds expressing rice tryptophan decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Park, Sangkyu; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Kim, Young-Soon; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-04-01

    A major goal of plant biotechnology is to improve the nutritional qualities of crop plants through metabolic engineering. Melatonin is a well-known bioactive molecule with an array of health-promoting properties, including potent antioxidant capability. To generate melatonin-rich rice plants, we first independently overexpressed three tryptophan decarboxylase isogenes in the rice genome. Melatonin levels were altered in the transgenic lines through overexpression of TDC1, TDC2, and TDC3; TDC3 transgenic seed (TDC3-1) had melatonin concentrations 31-fold higher than those of wild-type seeds. In TDC3 transgenic seedlings, however, only a doubling of melatonin content occurred over wild-type levels. Thus, a seed-specific accumulation of melatonin appears to occur in TDC3 transgenic lines. In addition to increased melatonin content, TDC3 transgenic lines also had enhanced levels of melatonin intermediates including 5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptamine, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin. In contrast, expression levels of melatonin biosynthetic mRNA did not increase in TDC3 transgenic lines, indicating that increases in melatonin and its intermediates in these lines are attributable exclusively to overexpression of the TDC3 gene.

  6. Intracerebral transplants of primary muscle cells: a potential 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiao, S.; Schultz, E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    After the transplantation of rat primary muscle cells into the caudate or cortex of recipient rats, the muscle cells were able to persist for at least 6 months. Muscle cells transfected with expression plasmids prior to transplantation were able to express reporter genes in the brains for at least 2 months. These results suggest that muscle cells might be a useful 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain.

  7. Intracerebral transplants of primary muscle cells: a potential 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiao, S.; Schultz, E.; Wolff, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    After the transplantation of rat primary muscle cells into the caudate or cortex of recipient rats, the muscle cells were able to persist for at least 6 months. Muscle cells transfected with expression plasmids prior to transplantation were able to express reporter genes in the brains for at least 2 months. These results suggest that muscle cells might be a useful 'platform' for transgene expression in the brain.

  8. Genetically stable expression of functional miraculin, a new type of alternative sweetener, in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hyeon-Jin; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yano, Megumu; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    Miraculin is a taste-modifying protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica, a shrub native to West Africa. Miraculin by itself is not sweet, but it is able to turn a sour taste into a sweet taste. This unique property has led to increasing interest in this protein. In this article, we report the high-yield production of miraculin in transgenic tomato plants. High and genetically stable expression of miraculin was confirmed by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant miraculin accumulated to high levels in leaves and fruits, up to 102.5 and 90.7 microg/g fresh weight, respectively. Purified recombinant miraculin expressed in transgenic tomato plants showed strong sweetness-inducing activity, similar to that of native miraculin. These results demonstrate that recombinant miraculin was correctly processed in transgenic tomato plants, and that this production system could be a good alternative to production from the native plant.

  9. Development of Transgenic Minipigs with Expression of Antimorphic Human Cryptochrome 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunxin; Bolund, Lars; Vajta, Gábor; Dou, Hongwei; Yang, Wenxian; Xu, Ying; Luan, Jing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Du, Yutao

    2013-01-01

    Minipigs have become important biomedical models for human ailments due to similarities in organ anatomy, physiology, and circadian rhythms relative to humans. The homeostasis of circadian rhythms in both central and peripheral tissues is pivotal for numerous biological processes. Hence, biological rhythm disorders may contribute to the onset of cancers and metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, amongst others. A tight regulation of circadian clock effectors ensures a rhythmic expression profile of output genes which, depending on cell type, constitute about 3–20% of the transcribed mammalian genome. Central to this system is the negative regulator protein Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) of which the dysfunction or absence has been linked to the pathogenesis of rhythm disorders. In this study, we generated transgenic Bama-minipigs featuring expression of the Cys414-Ala antimorphic human Cryptochrome 1 mutant (hCRY1AP). Using transgenic donor fibroblasts as nuclear donors, the method of handmade cloning (HMC) was used to produce reconstructed embryos, subsequently transferred to surrogate sows. A total of 23 viable piglets were delivered. All were transgenic and seemingly healthy. However, two pigs with high transgene expression succumbed during the first two months. Molecular analyzes in epidermal fibroblasts demonstrated disturbances to the expression profile of core circadian clock genes and elevated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, known to be risk factors in cancer and metabolic disorders. PMID:24146819

  10. Exploiting position effects and the gypsy retrovirus insulator to engineer precisely expressed transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Markstein, Michele; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Villalta, Christians; Celniker, Susan E; Perrimon, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    A major obstacle to creating precisely expressed transgenes lies in the epigenetic effects of the host chromatin that surrounds them. Here we present a strategy to overcome this problem, employing a Gal4-inducible luciferase assay to systematically quantify position effects of host chromatin and the ability of insulators to counteract these effects at phiC31 integration loci randomly distributed throughout the Drosophila genome. We identify loci that can be exploited to deliver precise doses of transgene expression to specific tissues. Moreover, we uncover a previously unrecognized property of the gypsy retrovirus insulator to boost gene expression to levels severalfold greater than at most or possibly all un-insulated loci, in every tissue tested. These findings provide the first opportunity to create a battery of transgenes that can be reliably expressed at high levels in virtually any tissue by integration at a single locus, and conversely, to engineer a controlled phenotypic allelic series by exploiting several loci. The generality of our approach makes it adaptable to other model systems to identify and modify loci for optimal transgene expression. PMID:18311141

  11. Exploiting position effects and the gypsy retrovirus insulator to engineer precisely expressed transgenes.

    PubMed

    Markstein, Michele; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Villalta, Christians; Celniker, Susan E; Perrimon, Norbert

    2008-04-01

    A major obstacle to creating precisely expressed transgenes lies in the epigenetic effects of the host chromatin that surrounds them. Here we present a strategy to overcome this problem, employing a Gal4-inducible luciferase assay to systematically quantify position effects of host chromatin and the ability of insulators to counteract these effects at phiC31 integration loci randomly distributed throughout the Drosophila genome. We identify loci that can be exploited to deliver precise doses of transgene expression to specific tissues. Moreover, we uncover a previously unrecognized property of the gypsy retrovirus insulator to boost gene expression to levels severalfold greater than at most or possibly all un-insulated loci, in every tissue tested. These findings provide the first opportunity to create a battery of transgenes that can be reliably expressed at high levels in virtually any tissue by integration at a single locus, and conversely, to engineer a controlled phenotypic allelic series by exploiting several loci. The generality of our approach makes it adaptable to other model systems to identify and modify loci for optimal transgene expression.

  12. Expression of human transferrin can be regulated effectively by rabbit transferrin regulatory elements in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingbin; Gong, Xiuli; Pan, Shubiao; Guo, Xinbing; Ren, Zhaorui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-06-01

    Human transferrin (hTF) belongs to the iron-binding glycoprotein family. It plays an important role in iron transport throughout the body. Transgenic mice are a good model to study how to produce functional hTF on a large-scale. We have improved the expression of hTF and investigated its regulatory mechanism in transgenic mice. Three expression constructs were prepared in which hTF expression was controlled by different regulatory cassettes of rabbit transferrin (rTF). hTF was secreted into serum of transgenic mice when its expression was controlled by the rTF promoter and enhancer, whereas the rTF enhancer in tandem with the rTF promoter repressed hTF secretion into milk. A significant inverse relationship between methylation of the rTF promoter and hTF expression was observed in liver, heart, mammary gland, and muscle of transgenic mice. The highest concentration of hTF was 700 μg/ml in milk.

  13. Expression of the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene in transgenic potato plants confers resistance to aphids.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xue; Yan, Haolu; Liang, Lina; Zhou, Xiangyan; Yang, Jiangwei; Si, Huaijun; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Aphids, the largest group of sap-sucking pests, cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide every year. The massive use of pesticides to combat this pest causes severe damage to the environment, putting in risk the human health. In this study, transgenic potato plants expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene were developed using CaMV 35S and ST-LS1 promoters generating six transgenic lines (35S1-35S3 and ST1-ST3 corresponding to the first and second promoter, respectively). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the GNA gene was expressed in leaves, stems and roots of transgenic plants under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, while it was only expressed in leaves and stems under the control of the ST-LS1 promoter. The levels of aphid mortality after 5 days of the inoculation in the assessed transgenic lines ranged from 20 to 53.3%. The range of the aphid population in transgenic plants 15 days after inoculation was between 17.0±1.43 (ST2) and 36.6±0.99 (35S3) aphids per plant, which corresponds to 24.9-53.5% of the aphid population in non-transformed plants. The results of our study suggest that GNA expressed in transgenic potato plants confers a potential tolerance to aphid attack, which appears to be an alternative against the use of pesticides in the future. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Shen, Zhi-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for economical manufacture. An HSA expression cassette was inserted into a T-DNA vector encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) cassette suppressing the CYP81A6 gene. This gene detoxifies the herbicide bentazon and is linked to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers glyphosate tolerance. ANX Sepharose Fast Flow (ANX FF) anion exchange chromatography coupled with Butyl Sepharose High Performance (Butyl HP) hydrophobic interaction chromatography was used to purify rHSA. A transgenic rice line, HSA-84, was obtained with stable expression of rHSA of up to 0.72% of the total dry weight of the dehusked rice seeds. This line also demonstrated high sensitivity to bentazon, and thus could be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon. A two-step chromatography purification scheme was established to purify the rHSA from rice seeds to a purity of 99% with a recovery of 62.4%. Results from mass spectrometry and N-terminus sequencing suggested that the purified rHSA was identical to natural plasma-derived HSA. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of HSA with a built-in transgene safety control mechanism. PMID:24101203

  15. Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human α-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

    2015-02-01

    Production of human α-lactalbumin (hα-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat β-lactoglobulin (βLG) promoter, the hα-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of hα-LA was investigated. Both the hα-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ≈60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these hα-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried hα-LA and the hα-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins.

  16. Generation of transgenic plants expressing antibodies to the environmental pollutant microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Drake, Pascal M W; Barbi, Tommaso; Drever, Matthew R; van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Porter, Andrew J R; Ma, Julian K-C

    2010-03-01

    We describe the engineering, regeneration, and characterization of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a recombinant antibody specific to microcystin-LR (MC-LR), the environmental toxin pollutant produced by species of cyanobacteria. The antibody was created by a genetic fusion of the antigen-binding regions of the microcystin-specific single-chain antibody, 3A8, with constant regions from the murine IgG1kappa, Guy's 13. IgG transgenes were controlled by a leader peptide that targets the transgene products to the secretory pathway and also allows for rhizosecretion. The antibody, extracted from the leaves or rhizosecreted into hydroponic medium by transgenic plants, was shown to have functional binding to MC-LR. Antibody yields in transgenic plant leaves reached a maximum of 64 microg/g leaf fresh weight (0.6% total soluble protein), and the rate of antibody rhizosecretion reached a maximum of 5 microg/g root dry weight/24 h. Rhizosecreted antibody bound to MC-LR in hydroponic medium, and transgenic plants grew more efficiently on medium containing MC-LR compared to wild-type controls. This proof of concept paves the way for applications to produce diagnostic antibodies to microcystin-LR, remove it from the environment by phytoremediation, or enhance yields in crops exposed to MC-LR.-Drake, P. M. W., Barbi, T., Drever, M. R., van Dolleweerd, C. J., Porter, A. J. R., Ma, J. K.-C. Generation of transgenic plants expressing antibodies to the environmental pollutant microcystin-LR.

  17. Expression of jasmonic ethylene responsive factor gene in transgenic poplar tree leads to increased salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiliang; Su, Xiaohua; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Zhang, Xianghua; Huang, Rongfeng

    2009-02-01

    The stress resistance of plants can be enhanced by regulating the expression of multiple downstream genes associated with stress resistance. We used the Agrobacterium method to transfer the tomato jasmonic ethylene responsive factors (JERFs) gene that encodes the ethylene response factor (ERF) like transcription factor to the genome of a hybrid poplar (Populus alba x Populus berolinensis). Eighteen resistant plants were obtained, of which 13 were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase PCR and Southern blot analyses as having incorporated the JERFs gene and able to express it at the transcriptional level. Salinity tests were conducted in a greenhouse with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl. In the absence of NaCl, the transgenic plants were significantly taller than the control plants, but no statistically significant differences in the concentrations of proline and chlorophyll were observed. With increasing salinity, the extent of damage was significantly less in transgenic plants than that in control plants, and the reductions in height, basal diameter and biomass were less in transgenic plants than those in control plants. At 200 and 300 mM NaCl concentrations, transgenic plants were 128.9% and 98.8% taller, respectively, and had 199.8% and 113.0% more dry biomass, respectively, than control plants. The saline-induced reduction in leaf water content and increase in root/crown ratio were less in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar proline concentration increased more in response to salt treatment in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar Na(+) concentration was higher in transgenic plants than in control plants. In the coastal area in Panjin of Liaoning where the total soil salt concentration is 0.3%, a salt tolerance trial of transgenic plants indicated that 3-year-old transgenic plants were 14.5% and 33.6% taller than the control plants at two field sites. The transgenic plants at the two field sites were growing

  18. Fitness aspects of transgenic Aedes fluviatilis mosquitoes expressing a Plasmodium-blocking molecule.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maíra N; Nogueira, Paula M; Dias, Fernando B S; Valle, Denise; Moreira, Luciano A

    2010-12-01

    Vector-born diseases cause millions of deaths every year globally. Alternatives for the control of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever are urgently needed and the use of transgenic mosquitoes that block parasite/virus is a sound strategy to be used within control programs. However, prior to use transgenic mosquitoes as control tools, it is important to study their fitness since different biological aspects might influence their ability to disseminate and compete with wild populations. We previously reported the construction of four transgenic Aedes fluviatilis mosquito lines expressing a Plasmodium- blocking molecule (mutated bee venom phospholipase A(2)-mPLA(2)). Presently we studied two aspects of their fitness: body size, that has been used as a fitness-related status, and the expression of major enzymes classes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including insecticides. Body size analysis (recorded by geometric wing morphometrics) indicated that both male and female mosquitoes were larger than the non-transgenic counterparts, suggesting that this characteristic might have an impact on their overall fitness. By contrast, no significant difference in the activity of enzymes related to metabolic insecticide resistance was detected in transgenic mosquitoes. The implication on fitness advantage of these features, towards the implementation of this strategy, is further discussed.

  19. Enhanced tolerance of transgenic potato plants expressing choline oxidase in chloroplasts against water stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jie; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Chen, Wei; Eneji, Anthony E

    2013-12-01

    Glycinebetaine, whose biosynthesis could be catalyzed by choline oxidase (COD), is an extremely efficient compatible solute for scavenging oxidative stress-inducing molecules and protecting the photosynthetic system in plants. To study the effects of the codA transgene for choline oxidase on the drought resistance and recovery, a transgenic potato cultivar (SC) bearing codA gene and a non-transgenic (NT) control cultivar were raised in pots under moderate and severe drought stress. The experiment was constituted by a two-day-pretreatment with 20% PEG and a four-day-water stress combined with two-day-recovery treatment. Under the four-day-water stress, plants were provided with normal water condition, 10% or 20% polyethylene glycol. The results of pretreatment showed an expression of codA gene in transgenic potato and an accumulation of glycine betaine (GB); leaf water potential was higher in SC than in NT. In the stress-recovery-treatment, SC showed stronger antioxidant ability, more efficient photosynthetic system, higher chlorophyll content, lower malondialdehyde content and better recovery from water deficit stress than NT. Although this work concentrated on the short-term water stress and recover treatments on transgenic potato plants with the over-expression of CodA gene and its control line. The datas shows that the exogenous codA gene provided potato a stronger drought resistance and recovery ability.

  20. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  1. Tissue-specific expression and promoter analyses of the human tissue kallikrein gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, W; Wang, J; Chao, L; Chao, J

    1997-01-01

    The expression of the tissue kallikrein gene is tissue-specific and exhibits a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-translational regulation. Information concerning the mechanism of its tissue-specific expression has been limited owing to the lack of suitable cell lines for the expression study. We approached this problem by introducing human tissue kallikrein gene constructs into mouse embryos, creating transgenic lines carrying its coding sequence with varying lengths of the promoter region. One construct (PHK) contained 801 bp in the 5'-flanking region and two deletion constructs contained either 302 bp (D300) or 202 bp (D200) of the promoter region. The expression of human tissue kallikrein in these transgenic mice was monitored by Northern blot, reverse transcriptase-PCR followed by Southern blot, and radioimmunoassay. In all three lines, human tissue kallikrein was expressed predominantly in the pancreas and at lower levels in other tissues, including salivary gland, kidney and spleen. This pattern was similar to that of tissue kallikrein expression in human tissues. The D300 line has higher levels of transgene expression than the D200 and PHK lines. The results indicate that the 202 bp segment immediately upstream of the translation starting site is sufficient to direct a tissue-specific expression pattern of the human tissue kallikrein gene, and that regulatory elements might exist between -801 and -202. PMID:9224635

  2. Specific Micro RNA-Regulated TetR-KRAB Transcriptional Control of Transgene Expression in Viral Vector-Transduced Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pichard, Virginie; Aubert, Dominique; Boni, Sebastien; Battaglia, Severine; Ivacik, Dejana; Nguyen, Tuan Huy; Arbuthnot, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Precise control of transgene expression in a tissue-specific and temporally regulated manner is desirable for many basic and applied investigations gene therapy applications. This is important to regulate dose of transgene products and minimize unwanted effects. Previously described methods have employed tissue specific promoters, miRNA-based transgene silencing or tetR-KRAB-mediated suppression of transgene promoters. To improve on versatility of transgene expression control, we have developed expression systems that use combinations of a tetR-KRAB artificial transgene-repressor, endogenous miRNA silencing machinery and tissue specific promoters. Precise control of transgene expression was demonstrated in liver-, macrophage- and muscle-derived cells. Efficiency was also demonstrated in vivo in murine muscle. This multicomponent and modular regulatory system provides a robust and easily adaptable method for achieving regulated transgene expression in different tissue types. The improved precision of regulation will be useful for many gene therapy applications requiring specific spatiotemporal transgene regulation. PMID:23251659

  3. A Histone2BCerulean BAC transgene identifies differential expression of Phox2b in migrating enteric neural crest derivatives and enteric glia

    PubMed Central

    Corpening, Jennifer C.; Cantrell, V. Ashley; Deal, Karen K.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian enteric nervous system (ENS) derives from migratory enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCC) that express the transcription factor Phox2b. Studies of these enteric progenitors have typically relied on immunohistochemical (IHC) detection. To circumvent complicating factors of IHC, we have generated a mouse BAC transgenic line that drives a Histone2BCerulean (H2BCFP) reporter from Phox2b regulatory regions. This construct does not alter the endogenous Phox2b locus and enables studies of normal neural crest (NC) derivatives. The Phox2b-H2BCFP transgene expresses the H2BCFP reporter in patterns that recapitulate expression of endogenous Phox2b. Our studies reveal Phox2b expression in mature enteric glia at levels below that of enteric neurons. Moreover, we also observe differential expression of the transgene reporter within the leading ENCC that traverse the gut. Our findings indicate that the wavefront of migrating enteric progenitors is not homogeneous, and suggest these cells may be fate-specified before expression of mature lineage markers appears. PMID:18351668

  4. Synthetic TAL effectors for targeted enhancement of transgene expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Rudis, Mary R; Peng, Yanhui; Mazarei, Mitra; Millwood, Reginald J; Yang, Jian-Ping; Xu, Wenzhi; Chesnut, Jonathan D; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2014-05-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), secreted by the pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas, specifically activate expression of targeted genes in plants. Here, we designed synthetic TALEs that bind to the flanking regions of the TATA-box motif on the CaMV 35S promoter for the purpose of understanding the engineerable 'hot-spots' for increasing transgene expression. We demonstrated that transient expression of de novo-engineered TALEs using agroinfiltration could significantly increase reporter gene expression in stable transgenic tobacco expressing the orange fluorescent protein reporter gene pporRFP under the control of synthetic inducible, minimal or full-length 35S promoters. Moreover, the additive effects of a combination of two different synthetic TALEs could significantly enhance the activation effects of TALEs on reporter gene expression more than when each TALE was used individually. We also studied the effects of the C-terminal domain and the activation domain of synthetic TALEs, as well as the best 'hot-spots' on the 35S promoter on targeted transgene activation. Furthermore, TALE activation of the Arabidopsis MYB transcription factor AtPAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1) in stable transgenic tobacco gave rise to a dark purple colour on infiltrated leaves when driven by four copies of cis-regulatory elements of pathogenesis-related gene (PR1) with enhancer motifs B and A1 from the 35S promoter. These results provide novel insights into the potential applications of synthetic TALEs for targeted gene activation of transgenes in plants. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Enhanced Myogenesis in adult skeletal muscle by transgenic expression of Myostatin Propeptide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Skeletal muscle growth and maintenance are essential for human health. One of the muscle regulatory genes, namely myostatin, a member of transforming growth factor-ß, plays a dominant role in the genetic control of muscle mass. Transgenic expression of myostatin propeptide in skeletal muscle showed ...

  6. Fish as bioreactors: transgene expression of human coagulation factor VII in fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Gyulin; Müller, Ferenc; Rahman, M Aziz; Williams, Darren W; Murdock, Paul J; Pasi, K John; Goldspink, Geoffrey; Farahmand, Hamid; Maclean, Norman

    2004-01-01

    A plasmid containing human coagulation factor VII (hFVII) complementary DNA regulated by a cytomegalovirus promoter was microinjected into fertilized eggs of zebrafish, African catfish, and tilapia. The active form of hFVll was detected in the fish embryos by various assays. This positive expression of human therapeutic protein in fish embryos demonstrates the possibility of exploitation of transgenic fish as bioreactors.

  7. Technical advance: stringent control of transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana using the Top10 promoter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, J.; Scott, A. C.; Thompson, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We show that the tightly regulated tetracycline-sensitive Top10 promoter system (Weinmann et al. Plant J. 1994, 5, 559-569) is functional in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pure breeding A. thaliana line (JL-tTA/8) was generated which expressed a chimeric fusion of the tetracycline repressor and the activation domain of Herpes simplex virus (tTA), from a single transgenic locus. Plants from this line were crossed with transgenics carrying the ER-targeted green fluorescent protein coding sequence (mGFP5) under control of the Top10 promoter sequence. Progeny from this cross displayed ER-targeted GFP fluorescence throughout the plant, indicating that the tTA-Top10 promoter interaction was functional in A. thaliana. GFP expression was repressed by 100 ng ml-1 tetracycline, an order of magnitude lower than the concentration used previously to repress expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Moreover, the level of GFP expression was controlled by varying the concentration of tetracycline in the medium, allowing a titred regulation of transgenic activity that was previously unavailable in A. thaliana. The kinetics of GFP activity were determined following de-repression of the Top10:mGFP5 transgene, with a visible ER-targeted GFP signal appearing from 24 to 48 h after de-repression.

  8. Changes in endogenous gene transcript and protein levels in maize plants expressing the soybean ferritin transgene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, w...

  9. Increased liver pathology in hepatitis C virus transgenic mice expressing the hepatitis B virus X protein

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, Victor V.; Lerat, Herve; Madden, Charles R.; Finegold, Milton J.; McGarvey, Michael J.; Mohammed, Essam M.A.; Forbes, Stuart J.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Grona, Shala J.; Hollinger, F. Blaine; Slagle, Betty L. . E-mail: bslagle@bcm.edu

    2006-04-10

    Transgenic mice expressing the full-length HCV coding sequence were crossed with mice that express the HBV X gene-encoded regulatory protein HBx (ATX mice) to test the hypothesis that HBx expression accelerates HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. At 16 months (mo) of age, hepatocellular carcinoma was identified in 21% of HCV/ATX mice, but in none of the single transgenic animals. Analysis of 8-mo animals revealed that, relative to HCV/WT mice, HCV/ATX mice had more severe steatosis, greater liver-to-body weight ratios, and a significant increase in the percentage of hepatocytes staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Furthermore, primary hepatocytes from HCV, ATX, and HCV/ATX transgenic mice were more resistant to fas-mediated apoptosis than hepatocytes from nontransgenic littermates. These results indicate that HBx expression contributes to increased liver pathogenesis in HCV transgenic mice by a mechanism that involves an imbalance in hepatocyte death and regeneration within the context of severe steatosis.

  10. Technical advance: stringent control of transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana using the Top10 promoter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, J.; Scott, A. C.; Thompson, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We show that the tightly regulated tetracycline-sensitive Top10 promoter system (Weinmann et al. Plant J. 1994, 5, 559-569) is functional in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pure breeding A. thaliana line (JL-tTA/8) was generated which expressed a chimeric fusion of the tetracycline repressor and the activation domain of Herpes simplex virus (tTA), from a single transgenic locus. Plants from this line were crossed with transgenics carrying the ER-targeted green fluorescent protein coding sequence (mGFP5) under control of the Top10 promoter sequence. Progeny from this cross displayed ER-targeted GFP fluorescence throughout the plant, indicating that the tTA-Top10 promoter interaction was functional in A. thaliana. GFP expression was repressed by 100 ng ml-1 tetracycline, an order of magnitude lower than the concentration used previously to repress expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Moreover, the level of GFP expression was controlled by varying the concentration of tetracycline in the medium, allowing a titred regulation of transgenic activity that was previously unavailable in A. thaliana. The kinetics of GFP activity were determined following de-repression of the Top10:mGFP5 transgene, with a visible ER-targeted GFP signal appearing from 24 to 48 h after de-repression.

  11. Transgenic Expression of ZBP1 in Neurons Suppresses Cocaine-Associated Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapidus, Kyle A. B.; Nwokafor, Chiso; Scott, Daniel; Baroni, Timothy E.; Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Hiroi, Noboru; Singer, Robert H.; Czaplinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    To directly address whether regulating mRNA localization can influence animal behavior, we created transgenic mice that conditionally express Zipcode Binding Protein 1 (ZBP1) in a subset of neurons in the brain. ZBP1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the localization, as well as translation and stability of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We…

  12. Transgene expression in pear (Pyrus communis L.) driven by a phloem-specific promoter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A gene expression cassette carrying ß-glucuronidase (uidA) reporter gene under the control of the promoter of the Arabidopsis sucrose-H+ symporter gene (AtSUC2) was introduced to pear plants via an Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-explant transformation procedure. Transgenic shoots were regenerated from...

  13. Transgenic Expression of ZBP1 in Neurons Suppresses Cocaine-Associated Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapidus, Kyle A. B.; Nwokafor, Chiso; Scott, Daniel; Baroni, Timothy E.; Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Hiroi, Noboru; Singer, Robert H.; Czaplinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    To directly address whether regulating mRNA localization can influence animal behavior, we created transgenic mice that conditionally express Zipcode Binding Protein 1 (ZBP1) in a subset of neurons in the brain. ZBP1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the localization, as well as translation and stability of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. We…

  14. Transgenic citrus expressing synthesized cecropin B genes in the phloem exhibits decreased susceptibility to Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiuping; Jiang, Xueyou; Xu, Lanzhen; Lei, Tiangang; Peng, Aihong; He, Yongrui; Yao, Lixiao; Chen, Shanchun

    2017-03-01

    Expression of synthesized cecropin B genes in the citrus phloem, where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus resides, significantly decreased host susceptibility to Huanglongbing. Huanglongbing (HLB), associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus bacteria, is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. All of the commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to this disease. The cationic lytic peptide cecropin B, isolated from the Chinese tasar moth (Antheraea pernyi), has been shown to effectively eliminate bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated that transgenic citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) expressing the cecropin B gene specifically in the phloem had a decreased susceptibility to HLB. Three plant codon-optimized synthetic cecropin B genes, which were designed to secrete the cecropin B peptide into three specific sites, the extracellular space, the cytoplasm, and the endoplasmic reticulum, were constructed. Under the control of the selected phloem-specific promoter GRP1.8, these constructs were transferred into the citrus genome. All of the cecropin B genes were efficiently expressed in the phloem of transgenic plants. Over more than a year of evaluation, the transgenic lines exhibited reduced disease severity. Bacterial populations in transgenic lines were significantly lower than in the controls. Two lines, in which bacterial populations were significantly lower than in others, showed no visible symptoms. Thus, we demonstrated the potential application of the phloem-specific expression of an antimicrobial peptide gene to protect citrus plants from HLB.

  15. Minimizing the unpredictability of transgene expression in plants: the role of genetic insulators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic transformation of plants has become a necessary tool for fundamental plant biology research, as well as the generation of engineered plants exhibiting improved agronomic and industrial traits. However, this technology is significantly hindered by the fact that transgene expression is hi...

  16. The food additive vanillic acid controls transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice

    PubMed Central

    Gitzinger, Marc; Kemmer, Christian; Fluri, David A.; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Trigger-inducible transcription-control devices that reversibly fine-tune transgene expression in response to molecular cues have significantly advanced the rational reprogramming of mammalian cells. When designed for use in future gene- and cell-based therapies the trigger molecules have to be carefully chosen in order to provide maximum specificity, minimal side-effects and optimal pharmacokinetics in a mammalian organism. Capitalizing on control components that enable Caulobacter crescentus to metabolize vanillic acid originating from lignin degradation that occurs in its oligotrophic freshwater habitat, we have designed synthetic devices that specifically adjust transgene expression in mammalian cells when exposed to vanillic acid. Even in mice transgene expression was robust, precise and tunable in response to vanillic acid. As a licensed food additive that is regularly consumed by humans via flavoured convenience food and specific fresh vegetable and fruits, vanillic acid can be considered as a safe trigger molecule that could be used for diet-controlled transgene expression in future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:22187155

  17. Remodeling of mouse milk glycoconjugates by transgenic expression of a human glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Prieto, P A; Mukerji, P; Kelder, B; Erney, R; Gonzalez, D; Yun, J S; Smith, D F; Moremen, K W; Nardelli, C; Pierce, M

    1995-12-08

    The mammary gland is a unique biosynthetic tissue that produces a variety of species-specific glycoconjugates, but the factors regulating the production of specific glycoconjugates are not well understood. To explore the underlying regulation, a fusion gene containing a cDNA encoding the human alpha 1,2-fucosyltransferase (alpha 1,2FT), which generates the H-blood group antigen, flanked by the murine whey acidic protein promoter and a polyadenylation signal, was introduced into mice. Milk samples from transgenic animals contained soluble forms of the alpha 1,2FT, as revealed by Western blots of milk samples using an anti-alpha 1,2FT antiserum and by the demonstration of alpha 1,2FT enzyme activity. Milk from transgenic animals also contained large quantities of 2'-fucosyllactose (Fuc alpha 1-2Gal beta 1-4Glc) and modified glycoproteins containing the H-antigen, whereas milk from control animals lacked these glycoconjugates. Expression levels of 2'-fucosyllactose were high in most animals and represented 1/3 to nearly 1/2 of the total milk oligosaccharides. These results demonstrate that heterologous transgenic expression of a glycosyltransferase can result in the expression of both the transgene and its secondary gene products and that the structures of milk oligosaccharides can be remodeled depending on expression of the appropriate enzyme. Furthermore, these results suggest that the lactating mammary gland may be a unique biosynthetic reactor for the production of biologically active oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates.

  18. Expression of spearmint limonene synthase in transgenic spike lavender results in an altered monoterpene composition in developing leaves.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We generated transgenic spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) plants constitutively expressing the limonene synthase (LS) gene from spearmint (Mentha spicata), encoding the LS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of limonene from geranyl diphosphate. Overexpression of the LS transgene did not consistently affect monoterpene profile in pooled leaves or flowers from transgenic T(0) plants. Analyses from cohorts of leaves sampled at different developmental stages showed that essential oil accumulation in transgenic and control plants was higher in developing than in mature leaves. Furthermore, developing leaves of transgenic plants contained increased limonene contents (more than 450% increase compared to controls) that correlated with the highest transcript accumulation of the LS gene. The levels of other monoterpene pathway components were also significantly altered. T(0) transgenic plants were grown for 2 years, self-pollinated, and the T(1) seeds obtained. The increased limonene phenotype was maintained in the progenies that inherited the LS transgene.

  19. Alteration of catecholamine phenotype in transgenic mice influences expression of adrenergic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Ota, A; Togari, A; Morita, S; Mizuguchi, T; Sawada, H; Yamada, K; Nagatsu, I; Matsumoto, S; Fujita, K

    1995-08-01

    Agonist-induced regulation of adrenergic receptors (ARs) has an important role in controlling physiological functions in response to changes in catecholamine stimulation. We previously generated transgenic mice expressing phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) under the control of a human dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene promoter to switch catecholamine specificity from the norepinephrine phenotype to the epinephrine phenotype. In the present study, we first examined changes in catecholamine metabolism in peripheral tissues innervated by sympathetic neurons of the transgenic mice. In the transgenic target tissues, a high-level expression of PNMT led to a dramatic increase in the epinephrine levels, whereas the norepinephrine levels were decreased to 48.6-87.9% of the nontransgenic control levels. Analysis of plasma catecholamines in adrenalectomized mice showed large amounts of epinephrine derived from sympathetic neurons in the transgenic mice. Subsequently, we performed radioligand binding assays with (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol to determine changes in binding sites of beta-AR subtypes. In transgenic mice, the number of beta 2-AR binding sites was 56.4-74.9% of their nontransgenic values in the lung, spleen, submaxillary gland, and kidney, whereas the beta 1-AR binding sites were regulated in a different fashion among these tissues. Moreover, northern blot analysis of total RNA from the lung tissues showed that down-regulation of beta 2 binding sites was accompanied by a significant decrease in steady-state levels of the receptor mRNA. These results strongly suggest that alteration of catecholamine specificity in the transgenic sympathetic neurons leads to regulated expression of the beta-AR subtypes in their target tissues.

  20. Relationship between expression of epidermal growth factor and simian virus 40 T antigen in a line of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lafond, R E; Giammalvo, J T; Norkin, L C

    1995-09-01

    The pattern of expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen gene and resultant dysplasia were re-examined in a line of transgenic mice in which the T antigen gene was under the control of the SV40 early promoter. We found that T antigen expression in the kidney, and resulting dysplastic lesions, occurred exclusively in the distal convoluted tubules and the ascending limbs of Henle. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the kidney of normal mice was similarly immunolocalized. The correlation between high EGF immunoreactivity in normal mouse tissues and T antigen expression in the transgenic counterpart was also seen in the choroid plexus epithelium and in the submandibular glands of male mice. T antigen was not found in the submandibular gland of transgenic females. Similarly, EGF was only rarely detected in the normal female submandibular gland. In contrast to the correlation between T antigen expression in the transgenic mice and EGF expression in the corresponding tissues of the normal mice, within the dysplastic lesions of the transgenic mice EGF expression was severely diminished. Adenocarcinomas of the male submandibular gland from another line of transgenic mice that expresses the Int-1 transgene, showed similarly reduced levels of immunostaining for EGF. Thus, reduced expression of EGF might be a general feature of dysplasia and tumorigenesis in those tissues that normally express EGF.

  1. Repression of retrovirus-mediated transgene expression by interferons: implications for gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh, S; Carroll, J M; Taichman, L B

    1997-01-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer is commonly used in gene therapy protocols and has the potential to provide long-term expression of the transgene. Although expression of a retrovirus-delivered transgene is satisfactory in cultured cells, it has been difficult to achieve consistent and high-level expression in vivo. In this investigation, we explored the possibility of modulating transgene expression by host-derived cytokines. Normal human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were transduced with recombinant retroviruses expressing a reporter gene (lacZ). Treatment of transduced cells with a proinflammatory cytokine, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), significantly reduced lacZ expression to less than 25% of that of nontreated cells. The inhibition was concentration dependent (peak at 5 ng/ml) and time dependent (maximal at 16 h for transcript and 24 h for protein); expression remained repressed in the continued presence of IFN-gamma but returned to normal levels 24 h after IFN-gamma withdrawal. The decrease in beta-galactosidase activity appeared to result from decrease in steady-state lacZ mRNA levels. Inhibitors of transcription and translation blocked IFN-gamma-induced repression, suggesting involvement of newly synthesized protein intermediates. Similar results were obtained by treatment of transduced cells with IFN-alpha but not with other proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 (IL-1), IL-4, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Although the level of lacZ mRNA was reduced by >70% following IFN treatment, the rate of lacZ transcription was not significantly different from that for nontreated cells. These results suggest that IFN-mediated regulation of transgene expression is at a posttranscriptional level. Interestingly, IFN-gamma also suppressed transgene expression driven by a cellular promoter (involucrin) inserted in an internal position in the retroviral vector. The presence of the overlapping 3' untranslated

  2. GAL4-NF-kappaB fusion protein augments transgene expression from neuronal promoters in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, B H; Yang, Y; Paton, J F R; Li, F; Boulaire, J; Kasparov, S; Wang, S

    2006-12-01

    Targeted gene expression mediated by a mammalian cellular promoter is desirable for gene therapy in the brain, where there are a variety of different neuronal phenotypes, several types of supportive cells, and blood vessels. However, this approach can be hampered by weak activity of some cellular promoters. In view of the potency of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in regulating neuronal gene expression, we have assessed whether it can be used to enhance the strength of neuron-specific promoters. Our approach was to use a neuronal promoter to drive expression of a chimeric transactivator, which consisted of a part of the transcriptional activation domain of the NF-kappaB p65 protein fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 protein from yeast. The second copy of the neuronal promoter was modified by introducing the unique GAL4 binding sequences at its 5' end and used to drive the expression of a transgene. Binding of the chimeric transcriptional activator upstream of the second promoter was expected to potentiate its transcriptional activity. In this study, the approach was applied to the platelet-derived growth factor beta chain and synapsin-1 neuron-specific promoters and tested in vitro and in vivo using plasmid, lentiviral, and baculoviral vectors. We observed up to a 100-fold improvement in reporter gene expression in cultured neurons and 20-fold improvement in the rat brain in vivo. Moreover, the cell-type specificity of the two tested promoters was well preserved and restricted to neurons. Finally, the expression driven by the new lentiviral vectors with the p65-potentiated synapsin-1 promoter showed no signs of decline or cell damage 4 weeks after injection. This approach should be suitable for constructing powerful and stable gene expression systems based on weak cell-specific promoters in neuronal phenotypes.

  3. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-08-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti. The primary transcript was processed in the same way as in soybean nodules and the resulting mRNA was translated into Lbc(3) protein. Quantitative determination of the Lbc(3) protein in nodules of transgenic plants indicated that the steady-state level of the soybean protein is comparable to that of endogenous Lotus leghemoglobin.

  4. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  5. Matrix attachment region combinations increase transgene expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun-Peng; Guo, Xiao; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Chang-Zheng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Jun-He; Chen, Shao-Nan; Jia, Yan-Long; Wang, Tian-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are cis-acting DNA elements that can increase transgene expression levels in a CHO cell expression system. To investigate the effects of MAR combinations on transgene expression and the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we generated constructs in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene flanked by different combinations of human β-interferon and β-globin MAR (iMAR and gMAR, respectively), which was driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or simian virus (SV) 40 promoter. These were transfected into CHO-K1 cells, which were screened with geneticin; eGFP expression was detected by flow cytometry. The presence of MAR elements increased transfection efficiency and transient and stably expression of eGFP expression under both promoters; the level was higher when the two MARs differed (i.e., iMAR and gMAR) under the CMV but not the SV40 promoter. For the latter, two gMARs showed the highest activity. We also found that MARs increased the ratio of stably transfected positive colonies. These results indicate that combining the CMV promoter with two different MAR elements or the SV40 promoter with two gMARs is effective for inducing high expression level and stability of transgenes. PMID:28216629

  6. Matrix attachment region combinations increase transgene expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Peng; Guo, Xiao; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Chang-Zheng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Jun-He; Chen, Shao-Nan; Jia, Yan-Long; Wang, Tian-Yun

    2017-02-20

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are cis-acting DNA elements that can increase transgene expression levels in a CHO cell expression system. To investigate the effects of MAR combinations on transgene expression and the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we generated constructs in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene flanked by different combinations of human β-interferon and β-globin MAR (iMAR and gMAR, respectively), which was driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or simian virus (SV) 40 promoter. These were transfected into CHO-K1 cells, which were screened with geneticin; eGFP expression was detected by flow cytometry. The presence of MAR elements increased transfection efficiency and transient and stably expression of eGFP expression under both promoters; the level was higher when the two MARs differed (i.e., iMAR and gMAR) under the CMV but not the SV40 promoter. For the latter, two gMARs showed the highest activity. We also found that MARs increased the ratio of stably transfected positive colonies. These results indicate that combining the CMV promoter with two different MAR elements or the SV40 promoter with two gMARs is effective for inducing high expression level and stability of transgenes.

  7. Prefrontal parvalbumin interneurons shape neuronal activity to drive fear expression.

    PubMed

    Courtin, Julien; Chaudun, Fabrice; Rozeske, Robert R; Karalis, Nikolaos; Gonzalez-Campo, Cecilia; Wurtz, Hélène; Abdi, Azzedine; Baufreton, Jerome; Bienvenu, Thomas C M; Herry, Cyril

    2014-01-02

    Synchronization of spiking activity in neuronal networks is a fundamental process that enables the precise transmission of information to drive behavioural responses. In cortical areas, synchronization of principal-neuron spiking activity is an effective mechanism for information coding that is regulated by GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic interneurons through the generation of neuronal oscillations. Although neuronal synchrony has been demonstrated to be crucial for sensory, motor and cognitive processing, it has not been investigated at the level of defined circuits involved in the control of emotional behaviour. Converging evidence indicates that fear behaviour is regulated by the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). This control over fear behaviour relies on the activation of specific prefrontal projections to the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), a structure that encodes associative fear memories. However, it remains to be established how the precise temporal control of fear behaviour is achieved at the level of prefrontal circuits. Here we use single-unit recordings and optogenetic manipulations in behaving mice to show that fear expression is causally related to the phasic inhibition of prefrontal parvalbumin interneurons (PVINs). Inhibition of PVIN activity disinhibits prefrontal projection neurons and synchronizes their firing by resetting local theta oscillations, leading to fear expression. Our results identify two complementary neuronal mechanisms mediated by PVINs that precisely coordinate and enhance the neuronal activity of prefrontal projection neurons to drive fear expression.

  8. Oviduct-specific expression of two therapeutic proteins in transgenic hens.

    PubMed

    Lillico, S G; Sherman, A; McGrew, M J; Robertson, C D; Smith, J; Haslam, C; Barnard, P; Radcliffe, P A; Mitrophanous, K A; Elliot, E A; Sang, H M

    2007-02-06

    Recent advances in avian transgenesis have led to the possibility of utilizing the laying hen as a production platform for the large-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical proteins. Ovalbumin constitutes more than half of the protein in the white of a laid egg, and expression of the ovalbumin gene is restricted to the tubular gland cells of the oviduct. Here we describe the use of lentiviral vectors to deliver transgene constructs comprising regulatory sequences from the ovalbumin gene designed to direct synthesis of associated therapeutic proteins to the oviduct. We report the generation of transgenic hens that synthesize functional recombinant pharmaceutical protein in a tightly regulated tissue-specific manner, without any evidence of transgene silencing after germ-line transmission.

  9. Expression of a calmodulin methylation mutant affects the growth and development of transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D M; Besl, L; Oh, S H; Masterson, R V; Schell, J; Stacey, G

    1992-01-01

    Transgenic plants were constructed that express two foreign calmodulins (VU-1 and VU-3 calmodulins) derived from a cloned synthetic calmodulin gene. VU-1 calmodulin, similar to endogenous plant calmodulin, possesses a lysine residue at position 115 and undergoes posttranslational methylation. VU-3 calmodulin is a site-directed mutant of VU-1 calmodulin that is identical in sequence except for the substitution of an arginine at position 115 and thus is incapable of methylation. Both calmodulin genes, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were expressed in transgenic tobacco. Foreign calmodulin protein accumulated in plant tissues to levels equivalent to that of the endogenous calmodulin. All transformed lines of VU-1 plants were indistinguishable from untransformed controls with respect to growth and development. However, all transformed lines of VU-3 plants were characterized by decreased stem internode growth, reduced seed production, and reduced seed and pollen viability. The data suggest that these phenotypes are the result of the expression of the calmodulin mutant rather than the position of transferred DNA insertion or the overall alteration of calmodulin levels. Analyses of the activity of the purified transgenic calmodulins suggest that calmodulin-dependent NAD kinase is among the potential targets that may have altered regulation in VU-3 transgenic plants. Images PMID:1325656

  10. Changes in oil content of transgenic soybeans expressing the yeast SLC1 gene.

    PubMed

    Rao, Suryadevara S; Hildebrand, David

    2009-10-01

    The wild type (Wt) and mutant form of yeast (sphingolipid compensation) genes, SLC1 and SLC1-1, have been shown to have lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) activities (Nageic et al. in J Biol Chem 269:22156-22163, 1993). Expression of these LPAT genes was reported to increase oil content in transgenic Arabidopsis and Brassica napus. It is of interest to determine if the TAG content increase would also be seen in soybeans. Therefore, the wild type SLC1 was expressed in soybean somatic embryos under the control of seed specific phaseolin promoter. Some transgenic somatic embryos and in both T2 and T3 transgenic seeds showed higher oil contents. Compared to controls, the average increase in triglyceride values went up by 1.5% in transgenic somatic embryos. A maximum of 3.2% increase in seed oil content was observed in a T3 line. Expression of the yeast Wt LPAT gene did not alter the fatty acid composition of the seed oil.

  11. Optogenetic in vivo cell manipulation in KillerRed-expressing zebrafish transgenics.

    PubMed

    Teh, Cathleen; Chudakov, Dmitry M; Poon, Kar-Lai; Mamedov, Ilgar Z; Sek, Jun-Yan; Shidlovsky, Konstantin; Lukyanov, Sergey; Korzh, Vladimir

    2010-11-02

    KillerRed (KR) is a novel photosensitizer that efficiently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in KR-expressing cells upon intense green or white light illumination in vitro, resulting in damage to their plasma membrane and cell death. We report an in vivo modification of this technique using a fluorescent microscope and membrane-tagged KR (mem-KR)-expressing transgenic zebrafish. We generated several stable zebrafish Tol2 transposon-mediated enhancer-trap (ET) transgenic lines expressing mem-KR (SqKR series), and mapped the transposon insertion sites. As mem-KR accumulates on the cell membrane and/or Golgi, it highlights cell bodies and extensions, and reveals details of cellular morphology. The photodynamic property of KR made it possible to damage cells expressing this protein in a dose-dependent manner. As a proof-of-principle, two zebrafish transgenic lines were used to affect cell viability and function: SqKR2 expresses mem-KR in the hindbrain rhombomeres 3 and 5, and elsewhere; SqKR15 expresses mem-KR in the heart and elsewhere. Photobleaching of KR by intense light in the heart of SqKR15 embryos at lower levels caused a reduction in pumping efficiency of the heart and pericardial edema and at higher levels - in cell death in the hindbrain of SqKR2 and in the heart of SqKR15 embryos. An intense illumination of tissues expressing mem-KR affects cell viability and function in living zebrafish embryos. Hence, the zebrafish transgenics expressing mem-KR in a tissue-specific manner are useful tools for studying the biological effects of ROS.

  12. Coordinated patterns of gene expressions for adult muscle build-up in transgenic mice expressing myostatin propeptide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoping; Li, Eileena J; Wall, Robert J; Yang, Jinzeng

    2009-07-08

    Skeletal muscle growth and maintenance are essential for human health. One of the muscle regulatory genes, namely myostatin, a member of transforming growth factor-beta, plays a dominant role in the genetic control of muscle mass. Myostatin is synthesized as a precursor protein, which generates the N-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal mature myostatin peptide by a post-translational cleavage event. Previously, transgenic over-expression of myostatin propeptide in skeletal muscle results in significant muscle growth in early stages of development. The objectives of present study were to further characterize muscle growth in later stages of life and to identify genes and their expression patterns that are responsible for adult muscle build-up by myostatin propeptide. Immunohistochemical staining with an antibody to the N-terminus indicates a high level of myostatin propeptide present in the muscles of transgenic mice while there were no apparent differences in myostatin protein distribution in the muscle fibers between the transgenic and wild-type mice. Main individual muscles increased by 76-152% in the transgenic mice over their wild-type littermate mice at 12 months of age. A large number of nuclei were localized in the central and basal lamina of the myofibers in the transgenic mice as the number of nuclei per fiber and 100 microm(2) area was significantly higher in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. By systemic comparisons of global mRNA expression patterns between transgenic mice and wild-type littermates using microarray and qRT-PCR techniques, we have identified distinct gene expression patterns to support adult muscle build-up by myostatin propeptide, which are comprised of enhanced expressions of myogenic regulatory factors and extracelullar matrix components, and differentially down-regulated expressions of genes related to protein degradation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The results present a coordinated pattern of gene expressions for reduced

  13. Coordinated patterns of gene expressions for adult muscle build-up in transgenic mice expressing myostatin propeptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoping; Li, Eileena J; Wall, Robert J; Yang, Jinzeng

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle growth and maintenance are essential for human health. One of the muscle regulatory genes, namely myostatin, a member of transforming growth factor-β, plays a dominant role in the genetic control of muscle mass. Myostatin is synthesized as a precursor protein, which generates the N-terminal propeptide and the C-terminal mature myostatin peptide by a post-translational cleavage event. Previously, transgenic over-expression of myostatin propeptide in skeletal muscle results in significant muscle growth in early stages of development. The objectives of present study were to further characterize muscle growth in later stages of life and to identify genes and their expression patterns that are responsible for adult muscle build-up by myostatin propeptide. Results Immunohistochemical staining with an antibody to the N-terminus indicates a high level of myostatin propeptide present in the muscles of transgenic mice while there were no apparent differences in myostatin protein distribution in the muscle fibers between the transgenic and wild-type mice. Main individual muscles increased by 76–152% in the transgenic mice over their wild-type littermate mice at 12 months of age. A large number of nuclei were localized in the central and basal lamina of the myofibers in the transgenic mice as the number of nuclei per fiber and 100 μm2 area was significantly higher in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. By systemic comparisons of global mRNA expression patterns between transgenic mice and wild-type littermates using microarray and qRT-PCR techniques, we have identified distinct gene expression patterns to support adult muscle build-up by myostatin propeptide, which are comprised of enhanced expressions of myogenic regulatory factors and extracelullar matrix components, and differentially down-regulated expressions of genes related to protein degradation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Conclusion The results present a coordinated pattern of gene

  14. Increasing morphinan alkaloid production by over-expressing codeinone reductase in transgenic Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Philip J; Miller, James A C; Allen, Robert S; Chitty, Julie A; Gerlach, Wayne L; Frick, Susanne; Kutchan, Toni M; Fist, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    Only plants of the Papaver genus (poppies) are able to synthesize morphinan alkaloids, and cultivation of P. somniferum, opium poppy, remains critical for the production and supply of morphine, codeine and various semi-synthetic analgesics. Opium poppy was transformed with constitutively expressed cDNA of codeinone reductase (PsCor1.1), the penultimate step in morphine synthesis. Most transgenic lines showed significant increases in capsule alkaloid content in replicated glasshouse and field trials over 4 years. The morphinan alkaloid contents on a dry weight basis were between 15% and 30% greater than those in control high-yielding genotypes and control non-transgenic segregants. Transgenic leaves had approximately 10-fold greater levels of Cor transcript compared with non-transgenic controls. Two cycles of crossing of the best transgenic line into an elite high-morphine genotype resulted in significant increases in morphine and total alkaloids relative to the elite recurrent parent. No significant changes in alkaloid profiles or quantities were observed in leaf, roots, pollen and seed.

  15. Impact of age and vector construct on striatal and nigral transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Polinski, Nicole K; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Benskey, Matthew J; Fischer, D Luke; Kemp, Christopher J; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Sandoval, Ivette M; Paumier, Katrina L; Sortwell, Caryl E

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic protein delivery using viral vectors has shown promise in preclinical models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) but clinical trial success remains elusive. This may partially be due to a failure to include advanced age as a covariate despite aging being the primary risk factor for PD. We investigated transgene expression following intracerebral injections of recombinant adeno-associated virus pseudotypes 2/2 (rAAV2/2), 2/5 (rAAV2/5), 2/9 (rAAV2/9), and lentivirus (LV) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in aged versus young adult rats. Both rAAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 yielded lower GFP expression following injection to either the aged substantia nigra or striatum. rAAV2/9-mediated GFP expression was deficient in the aged striatonigral system but displayed identical transgene expression between ages in the nigrostriatal system. Young and aged rats displayed equivalent GFP levels following LV injection to the striatonigral system but LV-delivered GFP was deficient in delivering GFP to the aged nigrostriatal system. Notably, age-related transgene expression deficiencies revealed by protein quantitation were poorly predicted by GFP-immunoreactive cell counts. Further, in situ hybridization for the viral CβA promoter revealed surprisingly limited tropism for astrocytes compared to neurons. Our results demonstrate that aging is a critical covariate to consider when designing gene therapy approaches for PD. PMID:27933309

  16. Expression of human coagulation Factor IX in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lingxia; Chen, Yuhui; Cui, Lijie; Ren, Weiwei; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, a plant binary expression vector PG-pRD12-hFIX (where PG is polygalacturonase) harbouring the hFIX (human coagulation Factor IX) gene was constructed and introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After kanamycin selection, 32 putative independent transgenic tomato plants were regenerated. PCR and Southern-blot analyses confirmed the transgenic status of some plants. RT (reverse transcription)-PCR analysis for the expression of the introduced gene (hFIX) demonstrated that the hFIX gene was expressed specifically in fruits of the tomato. Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of a 56 kDa band specific to hFIX in the transformed tomatoes. ELISA results showed that the expression of hFIX protein reached a maximum of 15.84 ng/g fresh weight in mature fruit. A blood-clotting assay demonstrated the clotting activity of the expressed hFIX protein in transgenic tomato fruits. This is the first report on the expression of hFIX in plants, and our research provides potentially valuable knowledge for further development of the plant-derived therapeutic proteins.

  17. A novel vector platform for vitamin H-inducible transgene expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wilfried; Bacchus, William; Gruber, Franziska; Hamberger, Mattia; Fussenegger, Martin

    2007-08-31

    Inducible transgene control systems have been instrumental to gene therapy, biopharmaceutical manufacturing, drug discovery, synthetic biology and functional genomic research. The most widely used heterologous gene regulation systems are responsive to antibiotics of the tetracycline, streptogramin and macrolide classes. Although these antibiotics are clinically licensed, concerns about the emergence of resistant bacteria, side-effects in animal studies, and economic considerations associated with clearance of antibiotics in biopharmaceutical manufacturing, have limited the use of heterologous transgene control modalities to basic research activities. We have therefore designed a strategy to convert antibiotic-responsive transcription factors into gene regulation systems responsive to non-toxic biotin, also known as vitamin H. Constitutive ligation of biotin to the Avitag-containing VP16 transactivation domain by the Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA enables heterodimerization with tetracycline- (TetR), streptogramin- (Pip), and macrolide- (E) dependent repressors fused to streptavidin, which creates synthetic transactivators able to activate specific promoters (P(hCMV-1), P(PIR), P(ETR)). We have demonstrated (i) that exogenous biotin (40nM) can induce heterologous transgene expression in a biotin- (serum-) free culture environment (biotin-dependent heterodimerization of transactivator); (ii) that excess biotin (above 200microM) gradually represses transgene expression in a biotin- (serum-) containing environment (saturation of streptavidin by excess biotin prevents heterodimerization of the transactivator); and (iii) that avidin can sequestrate endogenous biotin in serum-containing cultures and so repress transgene expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, by engineering all off the components required for biotin-controlled transgene expression (Avitag-VP16, repressor-streptavidin, BirA) into a tricistronic (lenti)vector configuration, it was possible

  18. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2b in the milk of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Liu, Qingyou; Cui, Kuiqing; Liu, Jinfeng; Ren, Yanping; Shi, Deshun

    2013-02-01

    Interferon alpha 2b (IFNα-2b) is an important immune regulator widely used in clinic, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis, hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia and multiple myeloma, etc. The clinically used IFNα-2b is generally produced by E.Coli, which lacks the post-translational O-glycosylation presents on naturally synthesized protein, and has a short serum half-life. In this study, a transgenic cassette pBCN-IFN-pA-CMV-EGFP was constructed, with a 5.2 kb beta-casein regulation fragment from Jersey cow and a 6×His tagged human Interferon alpha 2b (hIFNα-2b) gene fragment. By using pronuclear microinjection technique, transgenic mice were generated and the expression of IFNα-2b in the milk was assayed. The hIFNα-2b was correctly translated in milk of transgenic mice according to Western blot analysis. The expression level of hIFNα-2b was varied among the transgenic mice, and the highest one was about 29.71 μg/L. The recombinant protein exhibited biological activity in vitro by increasing the luminescence value and the MxA gene expression in established WISH cells, and the specific activity is approximately 2.8 × 10(7 )IU/mg. The expression of recombinant hIFNα-2b in mammary glands of transgenic mice constitutes an important step towards low-cost and full biological activity production of this protein drug in mammary gland bioreactor.

  19. A comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed

    Samac, Deborah A; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Dornbusch, Melinda; Saruul, Purev; Temple, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    The activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. Three promoters, the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene. The highest GUS enzyme activity was obtained using the CsVMV promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. The 35S promoter was expressed in leaves, roots, and stems at moderate levels, but the promoter was not active in stem pith cells, root cortical cells, or in the symbiotic zones of nodules. The ScBV promoter was active primarily in vascular tissues throughout the plant. In leaves, GUS activity driven by the CsVMV promoter was approximately 24-fold greater than the activity from the 35S promoter and 38-fold greater than the activity from the ScBV promoter. Five promoters, the double 35S promoter, figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, CsVMV promoter, ScBV promoter, and alfalfa small subunit Rubisco (RbcS) promoter were used to control expression of a cDNA from Trichoderma atroviride encoding an endochitinase (ech42). Highest chitinase activity in leaves, roots, and root nodules was obtained in plants containing the CsVMV:ech42 transgene. Plants expressing the endochitinase were challenged with Phoma medicaginis var. medicaginis, the causal agent of spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa. Although endochitinase activity in leaves of transgenic plants was 50- to 2650-fold greater than activity in control plants, none of the transgenic plants showed a consistent increase in disease resistance compared to controls. The high constitutive levels of both GUS and endochitinase activity obtained demonstrate that the CsVMV promoter is useful for high-level transgene expression in alfalfa.

  20. [Construction and Identification of Transgenic Strain of Toxoplasma gondii High-expressing Virulence Factor ROP18].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zong-ru; An, Ran; Yang, Jie; Wan, Li-juan; Du, Jan

    2015-02-01

    To construct a transgenic strain of Toxoplasma gondii high-expressing ROP18. The gene sequence of encoding ROP18 was amplified by RT-PCR with RNA of T. gondii RH strain. The purified PCR product was subcloned into pCR-Blunt II-Top vector to construct pROP18. The gene sequence of encoding ROP18 was amplified from pROP18, and subcloned into pTUB8-mycGFPPftail-Ty1. The recombinant plasmid pTUB8-ROP18-Ty1 was electroporated into T. gondii RH strain. Stable transgenic cells were selected in the presence of 25 µg/ml mycophenolic acid and 50 µg/ml xanthine, and parasite clones were isolated by limiting dilution after drug selection. The expression of ROP18 in transgenic parasites was detected by immunofluorescence analysis and Western blotting. Giemsa assay was used to detect the proliferation rate of RH strain and the transgenic strain of T. gondii high-expressing ROP18. Twenty mice were divided into two groups. Each mouse in RH strain group was intraperitoneally injected with 1 x 10(3) RH strain, and that of transgenic strain group received 1 x 10(3) transgenic high-expressing ROP18 strain. The full-length sequence of ROP18 gene (1,665 bp) was amplified by RT-PCR. The recombinant plasmid pTUB8-ROP18-Ty1 was identified by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing methods. Western blotting analysis showed that the transgenic high-expressing ROP18 strain expressed ROP18-Ty1 (Mr 56,000). Immunofluorescence assay showed that ROP18-Ty1 was localized in the rhoptry of T. gondii. Giemsa assay confirmed that ROP18 protein enhanced the proliferation of T. gondii. On the 6th, 12th, and 24th hour after HFF cells infected with T. gondii, the number of tachyzoites in transgenic strain group was 100.0 ± 16.9, 476.0 ± 31.1, and 860.0 ± 52.3, respectively, higher than that of RH strain group (88.0 ± 16.9, 300.0 ± 11.3, 675.0 ± 35.4) (P < 0.05). In RH strain group, all the mice were survival on the 8th day post-infection, the survival rate on the 14th day was 30% (3/10), and

  1. Expression and Cellular Immunogenicity of a Transgenic Antigen Driven by Endogenous Poxviral Early Promoters at Their Authentic Loci in MVA

    PubMed Central

    Orubu, Toritse; Alharbi, Naif Khalaf; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Cottingham, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    CD8+ T cell responses to vaccinia virus are directed almost exclusively against early gene products. The attenuated strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is under evaluation in clinical trials of new vaccines designed to elicit cellular immune responses against pathogens including Plasmodium spp., M. tuberculosis and HIV-1. All of these recombinant MVAs (rMVA) utilize the well-established method of linking the gene of interest to a cloned poxviral promoter prior to insertion into the viral genome at a suitable locus by homologous recombination in infected cells. Using BAC recombineering, we show that potent early promoters that drive expression of non-functional or non-essential MVA open reading frames (ORFs) can be harnessed for immunogenic expression of recombinant antigen. Precise replacement of the MVA orthologs of C11R, F11L, A44L and B8R with a model antigen positioned to use the same translation initiation codon allowed early transgene expression similar to or slightly greater than that achieved by the commonly-used p7.5 or short synthetic promoters. The frequency of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells induced in mice by single shot or adenovirus-prime, rMVA-boost vaccination were similarly equal or marginally enhanced using endogenous promoters at their authentic genomic loci compared to the traditional constructs. The enhancement in immunogenicity observed using the C11R or F11L promoters compared with p7.5 was similar to that obtained with the mH5 promoter compared with p7.5. Furthermore, the growth rates of the viruses were unimpaired and the insertions were genetically stable. Insertion of a transgenic ORF in place of a viral ORF by BAC recombineering can thus provide not only a potent promoter, but also, concomitantly, a suitable insertion site, potentially facilitating development of MVA vaccines expressing multiple recombinant antigens. PMID:22761956

  2. Astrocyte heterogeneity revealed by expression of a GFAP-LacZ transgene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjin; Su, Mu; Messing, Albee; Brenner, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein present primarily in astrocytes. The gene is first expressed as astrocytes mature, and in the adult is strongly upregulated in response to CNS damage. Thus, in addition to its astrocyte specificity, transcriptional regulation of the GFAP gene is of interest as a reporter of CNS signaling during development and injury. Several laboratories have shown that approximately 2 kb of 5'-flanking DNA of the human or mouse GFAP gene is sufficient to direct transgene expression to astrocytes and to confer developmental and injury-induced regulation. Enhancer regions have been identified adjacent to the basal promoter and about 1500 bp upstream of the RNA start site. Juxtaposition of these two segments yielded a 447 bp promoter, gfa28, which strongly drove reporter activity in transfected glioma cells. We report here that in mice a gfa28-lacZ transgene expresses in only certain brain regions, revealing an unexpected heterogeneity among astrocytes. The restricted pattern of expression is present early in development, is not altered by injury, and is preserved in cultured astrocytes. However, astrocytes cultured from an inactive region strongly express a transiently transfected gfa28-lacZ construct, and activity of the embedded gfa28-lacZ transgene is partially restored by treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. These results indicate that the absence of gfa28-lacZ expression in specific brain regions results from a developmental failure to remodel GFAP chromatin to an open structure. Thus, expression of the gfa28-lacZ transgene appears to serendipitously mark a distinct set of astrocyte precursors.

  3. Growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription-related gene expression differs in lung of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li; Jia, Ruo-Xin; Sun, Yan-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Wan, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhong, Bu-Shuai; Wang, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce mammalian transgenic clones. Only a small proportion of manipulated embryos, however, can develop into viable offspring. The abnormal growth and development of cloned animals, furthermore, are accompanied by aberrant lung development. Our objective was to investigate molecular background of lung developmental problems in transgenic (random insertion of exogenous DNA) cloned goats. We examined expression of 15 genes involved in growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription in lung tissue of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats of various ages. Compared with normal goats of the same age from conventional reproduction, expression of 13 genes (BMP4, FGF10, GHR, HGFR, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, H19, CDKNIC, PCAF, MeCP2, HDAC1, and Dnmt3b) decreased in transgenic cloned goats that died at or shortly after birth; Expression of eight genes (FGF10, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, PCAF, HDAC1, MeCP2, and Dnmt3b) decreased in fetal death of transgenic cloned goats. Expression of two epigenetic transcription genes (PCAF and Dnmt3b) decreased in disease death of transgenic cloned goats (1-4 months old). Disruptions in gene expression might be associated with the high neonatal mortality in transgenic cloned animals. These findings have implications in understanding the low efficiency of transgenic cloning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of a calpastatin transgene slows muscle wasting and obviates changes in myosin isoform expression during murine muscle disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidball, James G.; Spencer, Melissa J.

    2002-01-01

    Muscle wasting is a prominent feature of several systemic diseases, neurological damage and muscle disuse. The contribution of calpain proteases to muscle wasting in any instance of muscle injury or disease has remained unknown because of the inability to specifically perturb calpain activity in vivo. We have generated a transgenic mouse with muscle-specific overexpression of calpastatin, which is the endogenous inhibitor of calpains, and induced muscle atrophy by unloading hindlimb musculature for 10 days. Expression of the transgene resulted in increases in calpastatin concentration in muscle by 30- to 50-fold, and eliminated all calpain activity that was detectable on zymograms. Muscle fibres in ambulatory, transgenic mice were smaller in diameter, but more numerous, so that muscle mass did not differ between transgenic and non-transgenic mice. This is consistent with the role of the calpain-calpastatin system in muscle cell fusion that has been observed in vitro. Overexpression of calpastatin reduced muscle atrophy by 30 % during the 10 day unloading period. In addition, calpastatin overexpression completely prevented the shift in myofibrillar myosin content from slow to fast isoforms, which normally occurs in muscle unloading. These findings indicate that therapeutics directed toward regulating the calpain-calpastatin system may be beneficial in preventing muscle mass loss in muscle injury and disease.

  5. Expression of a calpastatin transgene slows muscle wasting and obviates changes in myosin isoform expression during murine muscle disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidball, James G.; Spencer, Melissa J.

    2002-01-01

    Muscle wasting is a prominent feature of several systemic diseases, neurological damage and muscle disuse. The contribution of calpain proteases to muscle wasting in any instance of muscle injury or disease has remained unknown because of the inability to specifically perturb calpain activity in vivo. We have generated a transgenic mouse with muscle-specific overexpression of calpastatin, which is the endogenous inhibitor of calpains, and induced muscle atrophy by unloading hindlimb musculature for 10 days. Expression of the transgene resulted in increases in calpastatin concentration in muscle by 30- to 50-fold, and eliminated all calpain activity that was detectable on zymograms. Muscle fibres in ambulatory, transgenic mice were smaller in diameter, but more numerous, so that muscle mass did not differ between transgenic and non-transgenic mice. This is consistent with the role of the calpain-calpastatin system in muscle cell fusion that has been observed in vitro. Overexpression of calpastatin reduced muscle atrophy by 30 % during the 10 day unloading period. In addition, calpastatin overexpression completely prevented the shift in myofibrillar myosin content from slow to fast isoforms, which normally occurs in muscle unloading. These findings indicate that therapeutics directed toward regulating the calpain-calpastatin system may be beneficial in preventing muscle mass loss in muscle injury and disease.

  6. Functional expression of the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in transgenic lettuce.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hyeon-Jin; Cui, Min-Long; Ma, Biao; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-23

    Taste-modifying proteins are a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners and flavor enhancers and have been used in some cultures for centuries. The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, has the unusual property of being able to modify a sour taste into a sweet taste. Here, we report the use of a plant expression system for the production of miraculin. A synthetic gene encoding miraculin was placed under the control of constitutive promoters and transferred to lettuce. Expression of this gene in transgenic lettuce resulted in the accumulation of significant amounts of miraculin protein in the leaves. The miraculin expressed in transgenic lettuce possessed sweetness-inducing activity. These results demonstrate that the production of miraculin in edible plants can be a good alternative strategy to enhance the availability of this protein.

  7. Prevention of scrapie pathogenesis by transgenic expression of anti-prion protein antibodies.

    PubMed

    Heppner, F L; Musahl, C; Arrighi, I; Klein, M A; Rülicke, T; Oesch, B; Zinkernagel, R M; Kalinke, U; Aguzzi, A

    2001-10-05

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are initiated by extracerebral exposure to prions. Although prion transmission from extracerebral sites to the brain represents a potential target for prophylaxis, attempts at vaccination have been limited by the poor immunogenicity of prion proteins. To circumvent this, we expressed an anti-prion protein (anti-PrP) mu chain in Prnp(o/o) mice. Transgenic mice developed sustained anti-PrP titers, which were not suppressed by introduction of Prnp+ alleles. Transgene expression prevented pathogenesis of prions introduced by intraperitoneal injection in the spleen and brain. Expression of endogenous PrP (PrP(C)) in the spleen and brain was unaffected, suggesting that immunity was responsible for protection. This indicates the feasibility of immunological inhibition of prion disease in vivo.

  8. Predation drives interpopulation differences in parental care expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-San; Lin, Si-Min; Dubey, Sylvain; Pike, David A

    2013-03-01

    Expressing parental care after oviposition or parturition is usually an obligate (evolved) trait within a species, despite evolutionary theory predicting that widespread species should vary in whether or not they express parental care according to local selection pressures. The lizard Eutropis longicaudata expresses maternal care only in a single population throughout its large geographical range, but why this pattern occurs is unknown. We used reciprocal translocation and predator exclusion experiments to test whether this intraspecific variation is a fixed trait within populations and whether predator abundance explains this perplexing pattern. Wild-caught female lizards that were reciprocally translocated consistently guarded or abandoned eggs in line with their population of origin. By contrast, most lizards raised in a common garden environment and subsequently released as adults adopted the maternal care strategy of the recipient population, even when the parents originated from a population lacking maternal care. Egg predation represents a significant fitness cost in the populations where females display egg-guarding behaviour, but guarding eggs outweighs this potential cost by increasing hatching success. These results imply that predators can be a driving force in the expression of parental care in instances where it is normally absent and that local selection pressure is sufficient to cause behavioural divergence in whether or not parental care is expressed.

  9. Production of transgenic chickens expressing a tetracycline-inducible GFP gene.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mo Sun; Koo, Bon Chul; Roh, Ji Yeol; Kim, Minjee; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Kim, Teoan

    2011-07-15

    There is much interest in using farm animals as 'bioreactors' to produce large quantities of biopharmaceuticals. However, uncontrolled constitutive expression of foreign genes have been known to cause serious physiological disturbances in transgenic animals. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of the controllable expression of an exogenous gene in the chicken. A retrovirus vector was designed to express GFP (green fluorescent protein) and rtTA (reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator) under the control of the tetracycline-inducible promoter and the PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase) promoter, respectively. G0 founder chickens were produced by infecting the blastoderm of freshly laid eggs with concentrated retrovirus vector. Feeding the chickens obtained with doxycycline, a tetracycline derivative, resulted in emission of green body color under fluorescent light, and no apparent significant physiological dysfunctions. Successful germline transmission of the exogenous gene was also confirmed. Expression of the GFP gene reverted to the pre-induction levels when doxycycline was removed from the diet. The results showed that a tetracycline-inducible expression system in transgenic animals might be a promising solution to minimize physiological disturbances caused by the transgene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biodegradation of atrazine by three transgenic grasses and alfalfa expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase gene.

    PubMed

    Vail, Andrew W; Wang, Ping; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Samac, Deborah A; Vance, Carroll P; Wackett, Lawrence P; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The widespread use of atrazine and other s-triazine herbicides to control weeds in agricultural production fields has impacted surface and groundwater in the United States and elsewhere. We previously reported the cloning, sequencing, and expression of six genes involved in the atrazine biodegradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, which is initiated by atzA, encoding atrazine chlorohydrolase. Here we explored the use of enhanced expression of a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase, p-AtzA, in transgenic grasses (tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and switchgrass) and the legume alfalfa for the biodegradation of atrazine. Enhanced expression of p-AtzA was obtained by using combinations of the badnavirus promoter, the maize alcohol dehydrogenase first intron, and the maize ubiquitin promoter. For alfalfa, we used the first intron of the 5'-untranslated region tobacco alcohol dehydrogenase gene and the cassava vein mosaic virus promoter. Resistance of plants to atrazine in agar-based and hydroponic growth assays was correlated with in vivo levels of gene expression and atrazine degradation. The in planta expression of p-atzA enabled transgenic tall fescue to transform atrazine into hydroxyatrazine and other metabolites. Results of our studies highlight the potential use of transgenic plants for bioremediating atrazine in the environment.

  11. Susceptibility to hepatotoxicity in transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative human keratin 18 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, N O; Michie, S A; Soetikno, R M; Resurreccion, E Z; Broome, R L; Oshima, R G; Omary, M B

    1996-01-01

    Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/18) are intermediate filament phosphoglycoproteins that are expressed preferentially in simple-type epithelia. We recently described transgenic mice that express point-mutant human K18 (Ku, N.-O., S. Michie, R.G. Oshima, and M.B. Omary. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 131:1303-1314) and develop chronic hepatitis and hepatocyte fragility in association with hepatocyte keratin filament disruption. Here we show that mutant K18 expressing transgenic mice are highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity after acute administration of acetaminophen (400 mg/Kg) or chronic ingestion of griseofulvin (1.25% wt/wt of diet). The predisposition to hepatotoxicity results directly from the keratin mutation since nontransgenic or transgenic mice that express normal human K18 are more resistant. Hepatotoxicity was manifested by a significant difference in lethality, liver histopathology, and biochemical serum testing. Keratin glycosylation decreased in all griseofulvin-fed mice, whereas keratin phosphorylation increased dramatically preferentially in mice expressing normal K18. The phosphorylation increase in normal K18 after griseofulvin feeding appears to involve sites that are different to those that increase after partial hepatectomy. Our results indicate that hepatocyte intermediate filament disruption renders mice highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity, and raises the possibility that K18 mutations may predispose to drug hepatotoxicity. The dramatic phosphorylation increase in nonmutant keratins could provide survival advantage to hepatocytes. PMID:8770877

  12. Variability of Inducible Expression across the Hematopoietic System of Tetracycline Transactivator Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takiguchi, Megumi; Dow, Lukas E.; Prier, Julia E.; Carmichael, Catherine L.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Turner, Stephen J.; Lowe, Scott W.; Huang, David C. S.; Dickins, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    The tetracycline (tet)-regulated expression system allows for the inducible overexpression of protein-coding genes, or inducible gene knockdown based on expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). The system is widely used in mice, however it requires robust expression of a tet transactivator protein (tTA or rtTA) in the cell type of interest. Here we used an in vivo tet-regulated fluorescent reporter approach to characterise inducible gene/shRNA expression across a range of hematopoietic cell types of several commonly used transgenic tet transactivator mouse strains. We find that even in strains where the tet transactivator is expressed from a nominally ubiquitous promoter, the efficiency of tet-regulated expression can be highly variable between hematopoietic lineages and between differentiation stages within a lineage. In some cases tet-regulated reporter expression differs markedly between cells within a discrete, immunophenotypically defined population, suggesting mosaic transactivator expression. A recently developed CAG-rtTA3 transgenic mouse displays intense and efficient reporter expression in most blood cell types, establishing this strain as a highly effective tool for probing hematopoietic development and disease. These findings have important implications for interpreting tet-regulated hematopoietic phenotypes in mice, and identify mouse strains that provide optimal tet-regulated expression in particular hematopoietic progenitor cell types and mature blood lineages. PMID:23326559

  13. PVY-resistant transgenic potato plants expressing an anti-NIa protein scFv antibody.

    PubMed

    Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia; Jaoua, Leïla; Rouis, Souad; Saïdi, Mohamed Najib; Bouaziz, Donia; Ellouz, Radhouane

    2006-06-01

    A synthetic gene encoding a single chain Fv fragment of an antibody directed against the nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protein of potato virus Y (PVY) was used to transform two commercial potato cultivars (Claustar and BF15). The NIa protease forms the nuclear inclusion body A and acts as the major protease in the cleavage of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. Immunoblot analysis showed that most of the resulting transgenic plants accumulate high levels of the transgenic protein. Furthermore, a majority of the selected transgenic lines showed an efficient and complete protection against the challenge virus after mechanical inoculation with PVYO strain. Two transgenic lines showed an incomplete resistance with delayed appearance of symptoms accompanied by low virus titers, whereas one line developed symptoms during the first days after inoculation but recovered rapidly, leading to a low virus accumulation rate. These results confirm that expression of scFv antibody is able to inhibit a crucial step in the virus multiplication, such as polyprotein cleavage is a powerful strategy for engineered virus resistance. It can lead to a complete resistance that was not obtained previously by expression of scFv directed against the viral coat protein.

  14. High-Toughness Silk Produced by a Transgenic Silkworm Expressing Spider (Araneus ventricosus) Dragline Silk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4–2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  15. Transgenic mice expressing the human heat shock protein 70 have improved post-ischemic myocardial recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Plumier, J C; Ross, B M; Currie, R W; Angelidis, C E; Kazlaris, H; Kollias, G; Pagoulatos, G N

    1995-01-01

    Heat shock treatment induces expression of several heat shock proteins and subsequent post-ischemic myocardial protection. Correlations exist between the degree of stress used to induce the heat shock proteins, the amount of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the level of myocardial protection. The inducible HSP70 has also been shown to be protective in transfected myogenic cells. Here we examined the role of human inducible HSP70 in transgenic mouse hearts. Overexpression of the human HSP70 does not appear to affect normal protein synthesis or the stress response in transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic mice. After 30 min of ischemia, upon reperfusion, transgenic hearts versus nontransgenic hearts showed significantly improved recovery of contractile force (0.35 +/- 0.08 versus 0.16 +/- 0.05 g, respectively, P < 0.05), rate of contraction, and rate of relaxation. Creatine kinase, an indicator of cellular injury, was released at a high level (67.7 +/- 23.0 U/ml) upon reperfusion from nontransgenic hearts, but not transgenic hearts (1.6 +/- 0.8 U/ml). We conclude that high level constitutive expression of the human inducible HSP70 plays a direct role in the protection of the myocardium from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Images PMID:7706492

  16. Expression of a Cystatin Transgene in Eggplant Provides Resistance to Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Papolu, Pradeep K.; Dutta, Tushar K.; Tyagi, Nidhi; Urwin, Peter E.; Lilley, Catherine J.; Rao, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) cause substantial yield decline in eggplant and sustainable management options to minimize crop damage due to nematodes are still limited. A number of genetic engineering strategies have been developed to disrupt the successful plant–nematode interactions. Among them, delivery of proteinase inhibitors from the plant to perturb nematode development and reproduction is arguably the most effective strategy. In the present study, transgenic eggplant expressing a modified rice cystatin (OC-IΔD86) gene under the control of the root-specific promoter, TUB-1, was generated to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. Five putative transformants were selected through PCR and genomic Southern blot analysis. Expression of the cystatin transgene was confirmed in all the events using western blotting, ELISA and qPCR assay. Upon challenge inoculation, all the transgenic events exhibited a detrimental effect on RKN development and reproduction. The best transgenic line (a single copy event) showed 78.3% inhibition in reproductive success of RKN. Our results suggest that cystatins can play an important role for improving nematode resistance in eggplant and their deployment in gene pyramiding strategies with other proteinase inhibitors could ultimately enhance crop yield. PMID:27516765

  17. Expression of soybean lectin in transgenic tobacco results in enhanced resistance to pathogens and pests.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peipei; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Xiaohui; Xie, Yongli; Wu, Huijun; Gao, Xuewen

    2013-10-01

    Lectins are proteins of non-immune origin that specifically interact with carbohydrates, known to play important roles in the defense system of plants. In this study, in order to study the function of a new soybean lectin (SBL), the corresponding encoding gene lec-s was introduced into tobacco plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot analyses had revealed that the lec-s gene was stable integrated into the chromosome of the tobacco. The results of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) also indicated that the lec-s gene in the transgenic tobacco plants could be expressed under the control of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Evaluation agronomic of the performance had showed that the transgenic plants could resist to the infection of Phytophthora nicotianae. Insect bioassays using detached leaves from transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that the ectopically expressed SBL significantly (P.0.05) reduced the weight gain of larvae of the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). Further on, the lectins retarded the development of the larvae and their metamorphosis. These findings suggest that soybean lectins have potential as a protective agent against pathogens and insect pests through a transgenic approach.

  18. Does pea lectin expressed transgenically in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) influence honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae?

    PubMed

    Lehrman, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important both for pollination and for honey production. Pollen is the major protein source for bees, which exposes them directly to changes in pollen quality e.g. through genetic engineering. In order to create a worst case scenario regarding pea lectin (PSL) expressed transgenically in oilseed rape anthers and pollen, the maximum amount of dried pollen that could be mixed in an artificial diet without negatively affecting larval performance (1.5% w/w) was fed to bee larvae. Pollen from two transgenic plant lines expressing PSL up to 1.2% of total soluble protein and pollen from one non-transgenic line was added to the same diet and used as a pollen control. When these three pollen diets and the control diet (without added pollen) were compared, no negative effect from the pollen of the transgenic plants could be detected on larval mortality, weight, or development time. An increased weight and a reduced developmental time were recorded for larvae on all diets containing pollen when compared to the diet without pollen.

  19. Pulmonary malformation in transgenic mice expressing human keratinocyte growth factor in the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Simonet, W S; DeRose, M L; Bucay, N; Nguyen, H Q; Wert, S E; Zhou, L; Ulich, T R; Thomason, A; Danilenko, D M; Whitsett, J A

    1995-01-01

    Expression of human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF/FGF-7) was directed to epithelial cells of the developing embryonic lung of transgenic mice disrupting normal pulmonary morphogenesis during the pseudoglandular stage of development. By embryonic day 15.5(E15.5), lungs of transgenic surfactant protein C (SP-C)-KGF mice resembled those of humans with pulmonary cystadenoma. Lungs were cystic, filling the thoracic cavity, and were composed of numerous dilated saccules lined with glycogen-containing columnar epithelial cells. The normal distribution of SP-C proprotein in the distal regions of respiratory tubules was disrupted. Columnar epithelial cells lining the papillary structures stained variably and weakly for this distal respiratory cell marker. Mesenchymal components were preserved in the transgenic mouse lungs, yet the architectural relationship of the epithelium to the mesenchyme was altered. SP-C-KGF transgenic mice failed to survive gestation to term, dying before E17.5. Culturing mouse fetal lung explants in the presence of recombinant human KGF also disrupted branching morphogenesis and resulted in similar cystic malformation of the lung. Thus, it appears that precise temporal and spatial expression of KGF is likely to play a crucial role in the control of branching morphogenesis during fetal lung development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8618921

  20. Pathogenesis of axonal dystrophy and demyelination in alphaA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Van Rijk, A F; Sweers, M A M; Merkx, G F M; Lammens, M; Bloemendal, H

    2003-04-01

    We recently described a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing hamster alphaA-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, under direction of the hamster vimentin promoter. As a result myelin was degraded and axonal dystrophy in both central nervous system (especially spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system occurred. Homozygous transgenic mice developed hind limb paralysis after 8 weeks of age and displayed progressive loss of myelin and axonal dystrophy in both the central and peripheral nervous system with ongoing age. Pathologically the phenotype resembled, to a certain extent, neuroaxonal dystrophy. The biochemical findings presented in this paper (activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and transglutamase, myelin protein zero expression levels and blood sugar levels) confirm this pathology and exclude other putative pathologies like Amyothrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy. Consequently, an excessive cytoplasmic accumulation of the transgenic protein or a disturbance of the normal metabolism are considered to cause the observed neuropathology. Therefore, extra-ocular alphaA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice may serve as a useful animal model to study neuroaxonal dystrophy.

  1. Pathogenesis of axonal dystrophy and demyelination in αA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Van Rijk, AF; Sweers, MAM; Merkx, GFM; Lammens, M; Bloemendal, H

    2003-01-01

    We recently described a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing hamster αA-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, under direction of the hamster vimentin promoter. As a result myelin was degraded and axonal dystrophy in both central nervous system (especially spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system occurred. Homozygous transgenic mice developed hind limb paralysis after 8 weeks of age and displayed progressive loss of myelin and axonal dystrophy in both the central and peripheral nervous system with ongoing age. Pathologically the phenotype resembled, to a certain extent, neuroaxonal dystrophy. The biochemical findings presented in this paper (activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and transglutamase, myelin protein zero expression levels and blood sugar levels) confirm this pathology and exclude other putative pathologies like Amyothrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy. Consequently, an excessive cytoplasmic accumulation of the transgenic protein or a disturbance of the normal metabolism are considered to cause the observed neuropathology. Therefore, extra-ocular αA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice may serve as a useful animal model to study neuroaxonal dystrophy. PMID:12801283

  2. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  3. High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms.

  4. Drought-inducible expression of Hv-miR827 enhances drought tolerance in transgenic barley.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, Jannatul; Whitford, Ryan; Nguyen, Martin; Brien, Chris; Langridge, Peter; Tricker, Penny J

    2017-05-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses reducing crop yield. Since the discovery of plant microRNAs (miRNAs), considerable progress has been made in clarifying their role in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including drought. miR827 was previously reported to confer drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. We examined barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Golden Promise') plants over-expressing miR827 for plant performance under drought. Transgenic plants constitutively expressing CaMV-35S::Ath-miR827 and drought-inducible Zm-Rab17::Hv-miR827 were phenotyped by non-destructive imaging for growth and whole plant water use efficiency (WUEwp). We observed that the growth, WUEwp, time to anthesis and grain weight of transgenic barley plants expressing CaMV-35S::Ath-miR827 were negatively affected in both well-watered and drought-treated growing conditions compared with the wild-type plants. In contrast, transgenic plants over-expressing Zm-Rab17::Hv-miR827 showed improved WUEwp with no growth or reproductive timing change compared with the wild-type plants. The recovery of Zm-Rab17::Hv-miR827 over-expressing plants also improved following severe drought stress. Our results suggest that Hv-miR827 has the potential to improve the performance of barley under drought and that the choice of promoter to control the timing and specificity of miRNA expression is critical.

  5. RNA Interference Is Responsible for Reduction of Transgene Expression after Sleeping Beauty Transposase Mediated Somatic Integration

    PubMed Central

    Rauschhuber, Christina; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrating non-viral vectors based on transposable elements are widely used for genetically engineering mammalian cells in functional genomics and therapeutic gene transfer. For the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase system it was demonstrated that convergent transcription driven by the SB transposase inverted repeats (IRs) in eukaryotic cells occurs after somatic integration. This could lead to formation of double-stranded RNAs potentially presenting targets for the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and subsequently resulting into silencing of the transgene. Therefore, we aimed at investigating transgene expression upon transposition under RNA interference knockdown conditions. Principal Findings To establish RNAi knockdown cell lines we took advantage of the P19 protein, which is derived from the tomato bushy stunt virus. P19 binds and inhibits 21 nucleotides long, small-interfering RNAs and was shown to sufficiently suppress RNAi. We found that transgene expression upon SB mediated transposition was enhanced, resulting into a 3.2-fold increased amount of colony forming units (CFU) after transposition. In contrast, if the transgene cassette is insulated from the influence of chromosomal position effects by the chicken-derived cHS4 insulating sequences or when applying the Forg Prince transposon system, that displays only negligible transcriptional activity, similar numbers of CFUs were obtained. Conclusion In summary, we provide evidence for the first time that after somatic integration transposon derived transgene expression is regulated by the endogenous RNAi machinery. In the future this finding will help to further improve the molecular design of the SB transposase vector system. PMID:22570690

  6. Modulating Expression of Peripherin/rds in Transgenic Mice: Critical Levels and the Effect of Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Nour, May; Ding, Xi-Qin; Stricker, Heidi; Fliesler, Steven J.; Naash, Muna I.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Mutations in the photoreceptor-specific protein peripherin/rds are associated with multiple retinal diseases. To date, attempts to achieve complete structural and functional rescue in animal models of peripherin/rds-induced retinal degeneration have not been successful. Gene therapy – directed approaches have been hindered by the haploinsufficiency phenotype, which dictates well-regulated expression of peripherin/rds protein levels. METHODS Using a transgenic mouse line expressing wild-type peripherin/rds (NMP), the authors evaluated the critical in vivo level of peripherin/rds needed to maintain photoreceptor structure and ERG function and assessed the consequences of peripherin/rds overexpression in both rods and cones by Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and electroretinography. The NMP transgene included a C-terminal modification (P341Q) to facilitate detection of the transgenic protein in the presence of wild-type peripherin/rds, using the monoclonal antibody 3B6. RESULTS Peripherin/rds protein levels in NMP homozygotes were ~60% of wild-type levels. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses confirmed normal biochemical properties of the NMP protein when compared with wild-type peripherin/rds. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated appropriate localization of transgenic peripherin/rds protein to the disc rim region of photoreceptor outer segments. Total peripherin/rds levels in the retina were modulated by crossing NMP transgenic mice into different rds genetic backgrounds. A positive correlation was observed between peripherin/rds expression levels and the structural and functional integrity of photoreceptor outer segments. Overexpression of peripherin/rds caused no detectable adverse effects on rod or cone structure and function. CONCLUSIONS These findings may have significant implications regarding therapeutic intervention in peripherin/rds-associated retinal diseases. PMID:15277471

  7. The ZmRCP-1 promoter of maize provides root tip specific expression of transgenes in plantain.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Stephen O; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Collins, Richard; Atkinson, Howard J; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-12-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide 25 % of the food energy requirements for more than 100 million people in Africa. Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe losses to the crop due to lack of control options. The sterile nature of Musa spp. hampers conventional breeding but makes the crop suitable for genetic engineering. A constitutively expressed synthetic peptide in transgenic plantain has provided resistance against nematodes. Previous work with the peptide in potato plants indicates that targeting expression to the root tip improves the efficacy of the defence mechanism. However, a promoter that will provide root tip specific expression of transgenes in a monocot plant, such as plantain, is not currently available. Here, we report the cloning and evaluation of the maize root cap-specific protein-1 (ZmRCP-1) promoter for root tip targeted expression of transgenes that provide a defence against plant parasitic nematodes in transgenic plantain. Our findings indicate that the maize ZmRCP-1 promoter delivers expression of β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene in roots but not in leaves of transgenic plantains. In mature old roots, expression of gusA gene driven by ZmRCP-1 becomes limited to the root cap. Invasion by the nematode Radopholus similis does not modify Root Cap-specific Protein-1 promoter activity. Root cap-specific protein-1 promoter from maize can provide targeted expression of transgene for nematode resistance in transgenic plantain.

  8. A new β-estradiol-inducible vector set that facilitates easy construction and efficient expression of transgenes reveals CBL3-dependent cytoplasm to tonoplast translocation of CIPK5.

    PubMed

    Schlücking, Kathrin; Edel, Kai H; Köster, Philipp; Drerup, Maria M; Eckert, Christian; Steinhorst, Leonie; Waadt, Rainer; Batistic, Oliver; Kudla, Jörg

    2013-11-01

    Transient and stable expression of transgenes is central to many investigations in plant biology research. Chemical regulation of expression can circumvent problems of plant lethality caused by constitutive overexpression or allow inducible knock (out/down) approaches. Several chemically inducible or repressible systems have been described and successfully applied. However, cloning and application-specific modification of most available inducible expression systems have been limited and remained complicated due to restricted cloning options. Here we describe a new set of 57 vectors that enable transgene expression in transiently or stably transformed cells. All vectors harbor a synthetically optimized XVE expression cassette, allowing β-estradiol mediated protein expression. Plasmids are equipped with the reporter genes GUS, GFP, mCherry, or with HA and StrepII epitope tags and harbor an optimized multiple cloning site for flexible and simple cloning strategies. Moreover, the vector design allows simple substitution of the driving promoter to achieve tissue-specificity or to modulate expression ranges of inducible transgene expression. We report details of the kinetics and dose-dependence of expression induction in Arabidopsis leaf mesophyll protoplasts, transiently transformed Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and stably transformed Arabidopsis plants. Using these vectors, we investigated the influence of CBL (Calcineurin B-like) protein expression on the subcellular localization of CIPKs (Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases). These analyses uncovered that induced co-expression of CBL3 is fully sufficient for dynamic translocation of CIPK5 from the cytoplasm to the tonoplast. Thus, the vector system presented here facilitates a broad range of research applications.

  9. A tetracycline- inducible and skeletal muscle specific Cre recombinase transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pengcheng; Monks, D. Ashley

    2009-01-01

    We have generated a transgenic mouse that expresses Cre recombinase only in skeletal muscle and only following tetracycline-treatment. This spatiotemporal specificity is achieved using 2 transgenes. The first transgene uses the human skeletal actin (HSA) promoter to drive expression of the reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA). The second transgene uses a tetracycline responsive promoter to drive expression of Cre recombinase. We monitored transgene expression in these mice by crossing them with ROSA26 loxP-LacZ reporter mice, which express β–galactosidase when activated by Cre. We find that expression of this transgene is only detectable within skeletal muscle and that Cre expression in the absence of tetracycline is negligible. Cre is readily induced in this model with tetracycline analogs at a range of embryonic and postnatal ages and in a pattern consistent with other HSA transgenic mice. This mouse improves upon existing transgenic mice in which skeletal muscle Cre is expressed throughout development by allowing Cre expression to begin at later developmental stages. This temporal control of transgene expression has several applications, including overcoming embryonic or perinatal lethality due to transgene expression. This mouse is especially suited for studies of steroid hormone action, as it uses tetracycline, rather than tamoxifen to activate Cre expression. In summary, we find that this transgenic induction system is suitable for studies of gene function in the context of hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle and/or interactions between muscle and motoneurons in mice. PMID:19263419

  10. A tetracycline-inducible and skeletal muscle-specific Cre recombinase transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pengcheng; Monks, D Ashley

    2009-05-01

    We have generated a transgenic mouse that expresses Cre recombinase only in skeletal muscle and only following tetracycline treatment. This spatiotemporal specificity is achieved using two transgenes. The first transgene uses the human skeletal actin (HSA) promoter to drive expression of the reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA). The second transgene uses a tetracycline responsive promoter to drive the expression of Cre recombinase. We monitored transgene expression in these mice by crossing them with ROSA26 loxP-LacZ reporter mice, which express beta-galactosidase when activated by Cre. We find that the expression of this transgene is only detectable within skeletal muscle and that Cre expression in the absence of tetracycline is negligible. Cre is readily induced in this model with tetracycline analogs at a range of embryonic and postnatal ages and in a pattern consistent with other HSA transgenic mice. This mouse improves upon existing transgenic mice in which skeletal muscle Cre is expressed throughout development by allowing Cre expression to begin at later developmental stages. This temporal control of transgene expression has several applications, including overcoming embryonic or perinatal lethality due to transgene expression. This mouse is especially suited for studies of steroid hormone action, as it uses tetracycline, rather than tamoxifen, to activate Cre expression. In summary, we find that this transgenic induction system is suitable for studies of gene function in the context of hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle or interactions between muscle and motoneurons in mice.

  11. Comparison of factor VIII transgenes bioengineered for improved expression in gene therapy of hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Dooriss, Kerry L; Denning, Gabriela; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Javazon, Elisabeth H; McCarty, David A; Spencer, H Trent; Doering, Christopher B

    2009-05-01

    Successful gene therapy of hemophilia A depends on the sustained expression of therapeutic levels of factor VIII (fVIII). Because of mRNA instability, interactions with resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, and the requirement for carbohydrate-facilitated transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, fVIII is expressed at much lower levels from mammalian cells than other proteins of similar size and complexity. A number of bioengineered forms of B domain-deleted (BDD) human fVIII have been generated and shown to have enhanced expression. Previously, we demonstrated that recombinant BDD porcine fVIII exhibits high-level expression due to specific sequence elements that increase biosynthesis via enhanced posttranslational transit through the secretory pathway. In the current study, high-expression recombinant fVIII constructs were compared directly in order to determine the relative expression of the various bioengineered fVIII transgenes. The data demonstrate that BDD porcine fVIII expression is superior to that of any of the human fVIII variant constructs tested. Mean fVIII expression of 18 units/10(6) cells/24 hr was observed from HEK-293 cells expressing a single copy of the porcine fVIII transgene, which was 36- to 225-fold greater than that of any human fVIII transgene tested. Furthermore, greater than 10-fold higher expression was observed in human cells transduced with BDD porcine fVIII versus BDD human fVIII-encoding lentiviral vectors, even at low proviral copy numbers, supporting its use over other human fVIII variants in future hemophilia A gene therapy clinical trials.

  12. Transgenic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jänne, J; Alhonen, L; Hyttinen, J M; Peura, T; Tolvanen, M; Korhonen, V P

    1998-01-01

    Since the generation of the first transgenic mice in 1980, transgene technology has also been successfully applied to large farm animals. Although this technology can be employed to improve certain production traits of livestock, this approach has not been very successful so far owing to unwanted effects encountered in the production animals. However, by using tissue-specific targeting of the transgene expression, it is possible to produce heterologous proteins in the extracellular space of large transgenic farm animals. Even though some recombinant proteins, such as human hemoglobin, have been produced in the blood of transgenic pigs, in the majority of the cases mammary gland targeted expression of the transgene has been employed. Using production genes driven by regulatory sequences of milk protein genes a number of valuable therapeutic proteins have been produced in the milk of transgenic bioreactors, ranging from rabbits to dairy cattle. Unlike bacterial fermentors, the mammary gland of transgenic bioreactors appear to carry out proper postsynthetic modifications of human proteins required for full biological activity. In comparison with mammalian cell bioreactors, transgenic livestock with mammary gland targeted expression seems to be able to produce valuable human therapeutic proteins at very low cost. Although not one transgenically produced therapeutic protein is yet on the market, the first such proteins have recently entered or even completed clinical trials required for their approval.

  13. Imaging Transgene Expression with Radionuclide Imaging Technologies1

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, SS; Herschman, HR; Cherry, SR; Barrio, JR; Satyamurthy, N; Toyokuni, T; Phelps, ME; Larson, SM; Balaton, J; Finn, R; Sadelain, M; Tjuvajev, J

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A variety of imaging technologies are being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Noninvasive, repetitive and quantitative imaging of gene expression will help both to facilitate human gene therapy trials and to allow for the study of animal models of molecular and cellular therapy. Radionuclide approaches using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the most mature of the current imaging technologies and offer many advantages for imaging gene expression compared to optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches. These advantages include relatively high sensitivity, full quantitative capability (for PET), and the ability to extend small animal assays directly into clinical human applications. We describe a PET scanner (micro PET) designed specifically for studies of small animals. We review “marker/reporter gene” imaging approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) genes. We describe and contrast several radiolabeled probes that can be used with the HSV1-tk reporter gene both for SPECT and for PET imaging. We also describe the advantages/disadvantages of each of the assays developed and discuss future animal and human applications. PMID:10933072

  14. Development of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for the precise quantification of transgene expression levels in rice plants.

    PubMed

    James, Victoria A.; Worland, Barbara; Snape, John W.; Vain, Philippe

    2004-04-01

    Variation in transgene expression levels can result from uncontrolled differences in experimental protocols. It is important to quantify and eliminate this unwanted variation as much as possible in order to attain precision in transgenic studies. Large-scale transgenic studies could, by their design, generate additional variation. The influence of different plant growth, sampling and analysis strategies in generating spurious variation in transgene expression level quantification in rice plant populations was assessed. The use of multiple independent plant phenotypic analyses (enzymatic assays in this study) was identified as the major source of spurious variation (doubling or tripling the variation). The quantification of transgene expression levels was also found to be significantly influenced by plant age, the choice of leaf sampled and leaf size. All of these factors reduced the precision of molecular genetic studies and generated artefactual results in transgenic studies. Identification of the sources of extraneous variation allowed the development of a new standard operating procedure (SOP) for rice, designed to control spurious variation. SOP allowed the influence of differences in growth period and independent phenotypic analyses to be minimized. The coefficient of variation in transgene expression levels, between and within genetically identical rice plants, was reduced to approximately 10 to 15% using SOP. Adoption of quality assurance (QA) criteria such as SOP is key to improving the reproducibility of transgenic studies.

  15. Generation and characterization of a transgenic mouse model with hepatic expression of human CYP2A6.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Su, Ting; Cui, Huadong; Zhang, Xiuling; D'Agostino, Jaime; Zhuo, Xiaoliang; Yang, Weizhu; Swiatek, Pamela J; Ding, Xinxin

    2005-12-09

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a transgenic mouse model in which CYP2A6, a human P450 enzyme, is expressed specifically in the liver. CYP2A6, which is mainly expressed in human liver, is active toward many xenobiotics. Our transgene construct contained the mouse transthyretin promoter/enhancer, a full-length CYP2A6 cDNA, and a downstream neomycin-resistance gene for positive selection in embryonic stem cells. Hepatic expression of the CYP2A6 transgene was demonstrated by immunoblotting, whereas tissue specificity of CYP2A6 expression was confirmed by RNA-PCR. The transgenic mouse was further characterized after being backcrossed to the B6 strain for six generations. Hepatic microsomes from homozygous transgenic mice had activities significantly higher than those of B6 mice toward coumarin. The in vivo activity of transgenic CYP2A6 was also determined. Systemic clearance of coumarin was significantly higher in the transgenic mice than in B6 controls, consistent with the predicted role of CYP2A6 as the major coumarin hydroxylase in human liver. The CYP2A6-transgenic mouse model should be valuable for studying the in vivo function of this polymorphic human enzyme in drug metabolism and chemical toxicity.

  16. Virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin RNA give immunity to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. Results Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) replication protein (Rep) gene were introduced into the plant expression vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out and three transgenic tobacco lines (MP16-17-3, MP16-17-29 and MP16-17-58) immune to TMV infection and three transgenic tobacco lines (Rep15-1-1, Rep15-1-7 and Rep15-1-32) immune to CMV infection were obtained. Virus inoculation assays showed that the resistance of these transgenic plants could inherit and keep stable in T4 progeny. The low temperature (15℃) did not influence the resistance of transgenic plants. There was no significant correlation between the resistance and the copy number of the transgene. CMV infection could not break the resistance to TMV in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing TMV hairpin MP RNA. Conclusions We have demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressed partial TMV movement gene and partial CMV replicase gene in the form of an intermolecular intron-hairpin RNA exhibited complete resistance to TMV or CMV infection. PMID:21269519

  17. Generation of Transgenic Rodent Malaria Parasites Expressing Human Malaria Parasite Proteins.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ahmed M; Mogollon, Catherin Marin; Lin, Jing-Wen; van Pul, Fiona J A; Janse, Chris J; Khan, Shahid M

    2015-01-01

    We describe methods for the rapid generation of transgenic rodent Plasmodium berghei (Pb) parasites that express human malaria parasite (HMP) proteins, using the recently developed GIMO-based transfection methodology. Three different genetic modifications are described resulting in three types of transgenic parasites. (1) Additional Gene (AG) mutants. In these mutants the HMP gene is introduced as an "additional gene" into a silent/neutral locus of the Pb genome under the control of either a constitutive or stage-specific Pb promoter. This method uses the GIMO-transfection protocol and AG mutants are generated by replacing the positive-negative selection marker (SM) hdhfr::yfcu cassette in a neutral locus of a standard GIMO mother line with the HMP gene expression cassette, resulting in SM free transgenic parasites. (2) Double-step Replacement (DsR) mutants. In these mutants the coding sequence (CDS) of the Pb gene is replaced with the CDS of the HMP ortholog in a two-step GIMO-transfection procedure. This process involves first the replacement of the Pb CDS with the hdhfr::yfcu SM, followed by insertion of the HMP ortholog at the same locus thereby replacing hdhfr::yfcu with the HMP CDS. These steps use the GIMO-transfection protocol, which exploits both positive selection for Pb orthologous gene-deletion and negative selection for HMP gene-insertion, resulting in SM free transgenic parasites. (3) Double-step Insertion (DsI) mutants. When a Pb gene is essential for blood stage development the DsR strategy is not possible. In these mutants the HMP expression cassette is first introduced into the neutral locus in a standard GIMO mother line as described for AG mutants but under the control elements of the Pb orthologous gene; subsequently, the Pb ortholog CDS is targeted for deletion through replacement of the Pb CDS with the hdhfr::yfcu SM, resulting in transgenic parasites with a new GIMO locus permissive for additional gene-insertion modifications.The different

  18. Promoter methylation and histone modifications affect the expression of the exogenous DsRed gene in transgenic goats.

    PubMed

    Nuo, M T; Yuan, J L; Yang, W L; Gao, X Y; He, N; Liang, H; Cang, M; Liu, D J

    2016-08-29

    Transgene silencing, which is common in transgenic plants and animals, limits the generation and application of genetically modified organisms, and is associated with the exogenous gene copy number, the methylation status of its promoters, and histone modification abnormalities. Here, we analyzed the expression of the exogenous gene DsRed and the methylation status of its cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in six healthy transgenic cashmere goats and transgenic nuclear donor cells. The CMV promoter exhibited high methylation levels (74.4-88.2%) in four of the goats, a moderate methylation level (58.7%) in one, and a low methylation level (21.2%) in one, while the methylation level of the transgenic nuclear donor cells was comparatively low (14.3%). DsRed expression was negatively correlated with promoter methylation status. Transgenic cashmere goats carried one to three copies of the CMV promoter fragment and one to six copies of the DsRed fragment, but copy number showed no obvious correlation with DsRed expression. After treatment with the methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, DsRed expression in transgenic goat cells significantly increased and CMV promoter methylation significantly decreased; this indicated an inverse correlation between promoter methylation status and DsRed expression. After treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, DsRed expression increased, indicating that an abnormal histone modification in transgenic goats is also involved in exogenous gene silencing. These findings indicate the potential of trichostatin A and 5-azacytidine to rescue the biological activity of silenced exogenous transgenes in adult-derived transgenic cells under culture conditions.

  19. Seed coat pigmentation in transgenic soybean expressing the silencing suppressor 2b gene of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kyoko; Nishizawa, Keito; Hirose, Aya; Kurauchi, Tasuku; Senda, Mineo; Masuta, Chikara; Ishimoto, Masao

    2013-12-01

    Soybean expressing the Cucumber mosaic virus 2b gene manifests seed coat pigmentation due to suppression of endogenous RNA silencing but no other morphological abnormality. This gene may help prevent transgene silencing. RNA silencing is an important mechanism for gene regulation and antiviral defense in plants. It is also responsible for transgene silencing, however, and thus hinders the establishment of transgenic plants. The 2b protein of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) functions as a suppressor of RNA silencing and therefore might prove beneficial for stabilization of transgene expression. We have now generated transgenic soybean that harbors the 2b gene of a CMV-soybean strain under the control of a constitutive promoter to investigate the effects of 2b expression. No growth abnormality was apparent in 2b transgenic plants, although the seed coat was pigmented in several of the transgenic lines. Genes for chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme of the flavonoid pathway, are posttranscriptionally silenced by the inhibitor (I) locus in nonpigmented (yellow) soybean seeds. The levels of CHS mRNA and CHS small interfering RNA in strongly pigmented 2b transgenic seed coats were higher and lower, respectively, than those in the seed coat of a control transgenic line. The expression level of 2b also correlated with the extent of seed coat pigmentation. On the other hand, introduction of the 2b gene together with the DsRed2 gene into somatic embryos prevented the time-dependent decrease in transient DsRed2 expression. Our results indicate that the 2b gene alone is able to suppress RNA silencing of endogenous CHS genes regulated by the I locus, and that 2b is of potential utility for stabilization of transgene expression in soybean without detrimental effects other than seed coat pigmentation.

  20. A new transgenic mouse line for tetracycline inducible transgene expression in mature melanocytes and the melanocyte stem cells using the Dopachrome tautomerase promoter.

    PubMed

    Woods, Susan L; Bishop, J Michael

    2011-04-01

    We have generated a novel transgenic mouse to direct inducible and reversible transgene expression in the melanocytic compartment. The Dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) control sequences we used are active early in the development of melanocytes and so this system was designed to enable the manipulation of transgene expression during development in utero and in the melanocyte stem cells as well as mature melanocytes. We observed inducible lacZ and GFP reporter transgene activity specifically in melanocytes and melanocyte stem cells in mouse skin. This mouse model will be a useful tool for the pigment cell community to investigate the contribution of candidate genes to normal melanocyte and/or melanoma development in vivo. Deregulated expression of the proto-oncogene MYC has been observed in melanoma, however whether MYC is involved in tumorigenesis in pigment cells has yet to be directly investigated in vivo. We have used our system to over-express MYC in the melanocytic compartment and show for the first time that increased MYC expression can indeed promote melanocytic tumor formation.

  1. Differentially expressed microRNAs and affected signaling pathways in placentae of transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Jun; Jin, Li-Jun; Ma, Xue-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Ling; Zhai, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Yang, Xue-Yi

    2014-07-15

    Placental deficiencies are related to the developmental abnormalities of transgenic cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer, but the concrete molecular mechanism is not very clear. Studies have shown that placental development can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) in normal pregnancy. Thus, this study screened differentially expressed miRNAs by the next-generation sequencing technology to reveal the relationship between miRNAs expression and aberrant development of placentae produced by the transgenic-clone technology. Expressions of miRNAs and mRNAs in different placentae were compared, the placentae derived from one natural pregnancy counterpart (PNC), one natural pregnancy of a cloned offspring as a mother (PCM), and two transgenic (human beta-defensin-3) cloned pregnancy: one offspring was alive after birth (POL) and the other offspring was dead in 2 days after birth (POD). Further, signaling pathway analysis was conducted. The results indicated that 694 miRNAs were differentially expressed in four placental samples, such as miR-210, miR-155, miR-21, miR-128, miR-183, and miR-145. Signaling pathway analysis revealed that compared with PNC, significantly upregulated pathways in POL, POD, and PCM mainly included focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, pathways in cancer, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endosytosis, and adherens junction, and significantly downregulated pathways mainly included malaria, nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study confirmed alterations of the expression profile of miRNAs and signaling pathways in placentae from transgenic (hBD-3) cloned cattle (PTCC), which could lead to the morphologic and histologic deficiencies of PTCC. This information would be useful for the relative research in future.

  2. Efficient Gene Transfer and Durable Transgene Expression in Grafted Rabbit Veins

    PubMed Central

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; Clowes, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Venous bypass grafts are useful treatments for obstructive coronary artery disease. However, their usefulness is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Genetic engineering of venous bypass grafts that prevented atherosclerosis could improve long-term graft patency and clinical outcomes. We used a rabbit model of jugular vein-to-carotid interposition grafting to develop gene therapy for vein-graft atherosclerosis. Rabbit veins were easily transduced in situ with a first-generation adenoviral vector; however, most transgene expression (∼80%) was lost within 3 days after arterial grafting. This rapid loss of transgene expression was not prevented by transducing veins after grafting or by prolonged ex vivo transduction. However, delaying vein-graft transduction for 28 days (after the vein had adapted to the arterial circulation) prevented this early loss of transgene expression. We used the delayed transduction approach to test the durability of expression of a therapeutic transgene (apolipoprotein A-I) expressed from a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector. HDAd DNA and apolipoprotein A-I mRNA were easily detectable in transduced vein grafts. Vector DNA and mRNA declined by 4 weeks, and then persisted stably for at least 6 months. Delaying transduction for 28 days after grafting permitted initiation of vein-graft neointimal growth and medial thickening before gene transfer. However, vein-graft lumen diameter was not compromised, because of gradual outward remodeling of grafted veins. Our data highlight the promise of HDAd-mediated gene therapy, delivered to arterialized vein grafts, for preventing vein-graft atherosclerosis. PMID:25383597

  3. Transgenic Expression of a Viral Cystatin Gene CpBV-CST1 in Tobacco Confers Insect Resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Kim, Y; Yeam, I; Kim, Y

    2016-10-01

    A viral gene, CpBV-CST1, was identified from a polydnavirus Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV). Its protein product was significantly toxic to lepidopteran insects. This study generated a transgenic tobacco plant expressing CpBV-CST1 Expression of transgene CpBV-CST1 was confirmed in T1 generation (second generation after transgenesis) in both mRNA and protein levels. Young larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) suffered high mortalities after feeding on transgenic tobacco. All 10 T1 transgenic tobacco plants had no significant variation in speed-to-kill. In order to further explore insect resistance of these transgenic tobaccos, bioassays were performed by assessing antixenosis and antibiosis. S. exigua larvae significantly avoided T1 plants in a choice test. Larvae fed with T1 plant exhibited significant decrease in protease activity in the midgut due to consuming CpBV-CST1 protein produced by the transgenic plant. Furthermore, the transgenic tobacco exhibited similar insect resistance to other tobacco-infesting insects, including a leaf-feeding insect, Helicoverpa assulta, and a sap-feeding insect, Myzus persicae These results demonstrate that a viral cystatin gene can be used to develop insect-resistant transgenic plant, suggesting a prospective possibility of expanding the current transgenic approach to high-valued crops. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Production of germline transgenic chickens expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein using a MoMLV-based retrovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun; Choi, Bok Ryul; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Cho, Seong-Keun; Sohn, Sea Hwan; Cho, Eun Jung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Chang, Wonkyung; Jeon, Iksoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Park, Jae Bok; Kim, Teoan

    2006-11-01

    The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) -based retrovirus vector system has been used most often in gene transfer work, but has been known to cause silencing of the imported gene in transgenic animals. In the present study, using a MoMLV-based retrovirus vector, we successfully generated a new transgenic chicken line expressing high levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). The level of eGFP expression was conserved after germline transmission and as much as 100 microg of eGFP could be detected per 1 mg of tissue protein. DNA sequencing showed that the transgene had been integrated at chromosome 26 of the G1 and G2 generation transgenic chickens. Owing to the stable integration of the transgene, it is now feasible to produce G3 generation of homozygous eGFP transgenic chickens that will provide 100% transgenic eggs. These results will help establish a useful transgenic chicken model system for studies of embryonic development and for efficient production of transgenic chickens as bioreactors.

  5. Transgenic mosquitoes expressing a phospholipase A(2) gene have a fitness advantage when fed Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; Kizito, Christopher; Rasgon, Jason L; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2) into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control.

  6. Transgenic Mosquitoes Expressing a Phospholipase A2 Gene Have a Fitness Advantage When Fed Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Blood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C.; Kizito, Christopher; Rasgon, Jason L.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. Results We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2) into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development of human malaria parasites. In addition, when fed on malaria-infected blood, mosquitoes from both transgenic lines are more fecund than non-transgenic mosquitoes. Consistent with these observations, cage experiments with mixed populations of transgenic and non-transgenic mosquitoes show that the percentage of transgenic mosquitoes increases when maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. Conclusions Our results suggest that the expression of an anti-Plasmodium effector gene gives transgenic mosquitoes a fitness advantage when fed malaria-infected blood. These findings have important implications for future applications of transgenic mosquito technology in malaria control. PMID:24098427

  7. A genetic strategy to treat sickle cell anemia by coregulating globin transgene expression and RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Samakoglu, Selda; Lisowski, Leszek; Budak-Alpdogan, Tulin; Usachenko, Yelena; Acuto, Santina; Di Marzo, Rosalba; Maggio, Aurelio; Zhu, Ping; Tisdale, John F; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The application of RNA interference (RNAi) to stem cell-based therapies will require highly specific and lineage-restricted gene silencing. Here we show the feasibility and therapeutic potential of coregulating transgene expression and RNAi in hematopoietic stem cells. We encoded promoterless small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) within the intron of a recombinant gamma-globin gene. Expression of both gamma-globin and the lariat-embedded small interfering RNA (siRNA) was induced upon erythroid differentiation, specifically downregulating the targeted gene in tissue- and differentiation stage-specific fashion. The position of the shRNA within the intron was critical to concurrently achieve high-level transgene expression, effective siRNA generation and minimal interferon induction. Lentiviral transduction of CD34(+) cells from patients with sickle cell anemia led to erythroid-specific expression of the gamma-globin transgene and concomitant reduction of endogenous beta(S) transcripts, thus providing proof of principle for therapeutic strategies that require synergistic gene addition and gene silencing in stem cell progeny.

  8. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  9. bcl-2 transgene expression can protect neurons against developmental and induced cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Farlie, P G; Dringen, R; Rees, S M; Kannourakis, G; Bernard, O

    1995-01-01

    The bcl-2 protooncogene, which protects various cell types from apoptotic cell death, is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system. To explore its role in regulation of neuronal cell death, we generated transgenic mice expressing Bcl-2 under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter, which forced expression uniquely in neurons. Sensory neurons isolated from dorsal root ganglia of newborn mice normally require nerve growth factor for their survival in culture, but those from the bcl-2 transgenic mice showed enhanced survival in its absence. Furthermore, apoptotic death of motor neurons after axotomy of the sciatic nerve was inhibited in these mice. The number of neurons in two neuronal populations from the central and peripheral nervous system was increased by 30%, indicating that Bcl-2 expression can protect neurons from cell death during development. The generation of these transgenic mice suggests that Bcl-2 may play an important role in survival of neurons both during development and throughout adult life. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7753817

  10. Transgenic poplar expressing Arabidopsis NDPK2 enhances growth as well as oxidative stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Myoung Duck; Choi, Young Im; Park, Sung-Chul; Yun, Dae-Jin; Noh, Eun Woon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2011-04-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) is known to regulate the expression of antioxidant genes in plants. Previously, we reported that overexpression of Arabidopsis NDPK2 (AtNDPK2) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter in transgenic potato and sweetpotato plants enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In this study, transgenic poplar (Populus alba × Poplus glandulosa) expressing the AtNDPK2 gene under the control of a SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SN) was generated to develop plants with enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. The level of AtNDPK2 expression and NDPK activity in SN plants following methyl viologen (MV) treatment was positively correlated with the plant's tolerance to MV-mediated oxidative stress. We also observed that antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase were increased in MV-treated leaf discs of SN plants. The growth of SN plants was substantially increased under field conditions including increased branch number and stem diameter. SN plants exhibited higher transcript levels of the auxin-response genes IAA2 and IAA5. These results suggest that enhanced AtNDPK2 expression affects oxidative stress tolerance leading to improved plant growth in transgenic poplar. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A Mini-intronic Plasmid (MIP): A Novel Robust Transgene Expression Vector In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiamiao; Zhang, Feijie; Kay, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial backbone (BB) sequences contained within a canonical plasmid DNA dampen exogenous transgene expression by tenfold to 1,000-fold over a period of a few weeks following transfection into quiescent tissues such as the liver. Minicircle DNA vectors devoid of bacterial plasmid backbone sequences overcome transgene silencing providing persistent transgene expression. Because, we recently established that the length rather than sequence of the DNA flanking the transgene expression cassette is the major parameter affecting transgene silencing, we developed an alternative plasmid propagation process in which the essential bacterial elements for plasmid replication and selection are placed within an engineered intron contained within the eukaryotic expression cassette. As with the minicircle vector, the mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) vector system overcomes transgene silencing observed with plasmids but in addition provides between 2 and often 10 times or higher levels of transgene expression compared with minicircle vectors containing the same expression cassette in vivo and in vitro. These improved plasmids will benefit all studies involving gene transfer/therapy approaches. PMID:23459514

  12. [Fruit-specific expression of sweet protein Brazzein in transgenic tomato plants].

    PubMed

    Yin, Tao; Lu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Shang-Long; Liu, Jing-Mei; Chen, Da-Ming

    2009-06-01

    The AGPL1 (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit 1) promoter from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris S.) has proved to exhibit fruit-specific expression patterns in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). A plant expression vector harboring sweet-taste protein, Brazzein, directed by AGPL1 promoter, was constructed and transferred into tomato plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transform methods. Histochemical staining assay, PCR screening, Southern blotting analysis and RT-PCR analysis showed that Brazzein gene was successfully integrated into the genome of transgenic tomato plants with stable expression. Sweet-taste fruits were produced under control of fruit-specific AGPL1 promoter, whereas other parameters of fruit quality were largely unchanged.

  13. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) expressing tomato glucanase leads to arrested growth of Alternaria brassicae.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Kalyan K; Bhattacharya, R C; Koundal, K R; Chatterjee, S C

    2007-02-01

    Brassica juncea is an important oilseed crop of the Indian sub-continent. Yield loss due to fungal disease alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicae is a serious problem in cultivation of this crop. Nonavailability of resistance genes within crossable germplasms of Brassica necessitates use of genetic engineering strategies to develop genetic resistance against this pathogen. The pathogenesis related (PR) proteins are group of plant proteins that are toxic to invading fungal pathogens, but are present in plant in trace amount. Thus, overexpression of PR proteins leads to increased resistance to pathogenic fungi in several crops. The PR protein glucanase hydrolyzes a major cell-wall component, glucan, of pathogenic fungi and acts as a plant defense barrier. We report the expression of a class I basic glucanase gene, under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, in Indian mustard and its genetic resistance against alternaria leaf spot. Southern and Northern hybridization confirmed stable integration and expression of the glucanase gene in mustard transgenics. Several independent transgenics were screened in vitro and under poly house conditions for their resistance against Alternaria brassicae. In an in vitro antifungal assay, transgenics arrested hyphal growth of Alternaria brassicae by 15-54%. Under pathogen-challenged conditions in poly house, the transgenics showed restricted number, size and spread of lesions caused by Alternaria brassicae. Also, the onset of disease was delayed in transgenics compared to untransformed parent plants. The results demonstrate potentiality of a PR protein from a heterologous source in developing alternaria leaf spot resistance in Indian mustard.

  14. Transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase-9 augments monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice

    PubMed Central

    George, Joseph; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by intimal lesions, right ventricular hypertrophy, and adventitial thickening of pulmonary arteries with progressive pulmonary hypertension. This investigation was aimed to examine the effects of transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the pathogenesis of PAH. Methods PAH was induced using serial subcutaneous administration of monocrotaline (MCT). Right ventricular pressure was measured through the right jugular vein using a 1.4F Millar Mikro-tip catheter-transducer. Zymography, western blotting, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were carried out for MMP-9. Immunohistochemistry was performed for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Mac-3 antigen. Results Measurement of right ventricular pressure demonstrated 2.5-fold and 3.7-fold elevation after the administration of MCT in wild-type and MMP-9 transgenic mice, respectively. Zymography, western blotting, and qRT-PCR depicted increased activity and expression of MMP-9 after treatment with MCT, which were augmented in transgenic mice. There was marked pulmonary inflammation with extensive infiltration of mononuclear cells, which was more intense in MMP-9 transgenic mice. SMA and Mac-3 staining demonstrated hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries with occlusion of precapillary vessels and extensive infiltration of macrophages, respectively. All these changes were aggravated in MCT-treated MMP-9 transgenic mice when compared to normal littermates. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the MCT-induced PAH in mouse is a reproducible and potentially valuable animal model for the human disease. Our results further demonstrated that MMP-9 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of PAH and effective blocking of MMP-9 could provide an option in the therapeutic intervention of human PAH. PMID:21063214

  15. Transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase-9 augments monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    George, Joseph; D'Armiento, Jeanine

    2011-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by intimal lesions, right ventricular hypertrophy, and adventitial thickening of pulmonary arteries with progressive pulmonary hypertension. This investigation was aimed to examine the effects of transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the pathogenesis of PAH. PAH was induced using serial subcutaneous administration of monocrotaline (MCT). Right ventricular pressure was measured through the right jugular vein using a 1.4F Millar Mikro-tip catheter-transducer. Zymography, western blotting, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were carried out for MMP-9. Immunohistochemistry was performed for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Mac-3 antigen. Measurement of right ventricular pressure demonstrated 2.5-fold and 3.7-fold elevation after the administration of MCT in wild-type and MMP-9 transgenic mice, respectively. Zymography, western blotting, and qRT-PCR depicted increased activity and expression of MMP-9 after treatment with MCT, which were augmented in transgenic mice. There was marked pulmonary inflammation with extensive infiltration of mononuclear cells, which was more intense in MMP-9 transgenic mice. SMA and Mac-3 staining demonstrated hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries with occlusion of precapillary vessels and extensive infiltration of macrophages, respectively. All these changes were aggravated in MCT-treated MMP-9 transgenic mice when compared to normal littermates. Our study demonstrated that the MCT-induced PAH in mouse is a reproducible and potentially valuable animal model for the human disease. Our results further demonstrated that MMP-9 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of PAH and effective blocking of MMP-9 could provide an option in the therapeutic intervention of human PAH.

  16. Transposon-mediated transgenesis, transgenic rescue, and tissue-specific gene expression in rodents and rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Katter, Katharina; Geurts, Aron M.; Hoffmann, Orsolya; Mátés, Lajos; Landa, Vladimir; Hiripi, László; Moreno, Carol; Lazar, Jozef; Bashir, Sanum; Zidek, Vaclav; Popova, Elena; Jerchow, Boris; Becker, Katja; Devaraj, Anantharam; Walter, Ingrid; Grzybowksi, Michael; Corbett, Molly; Filho, Artur Rangel; Hodges, Matthew R.; Bader, Michael; Ivics, Zoltán; Jacob, Howard J.; Pravenec, Michal; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Rülicke, Thomas; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Germline transgenesis is an important procedure for functional investigation of biological pathways, as well as for animal biotechnology. We have established a simple, nonviral protocol in three important biomedical model organisms frequently used in physiological studies. The protocol is based on the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon system, SB100X, which reproducibly promoted generation of transgenic founders at frequencies of 50–64, 14–72, and 15% in mice, rats, and rabbits, respectively. The SB100X-mediated transgene integrations are less prone to genetic mosaicism and gene silencing as compared to either the classical pronuclear injection or to lentivirus-mediated transgenesis. The method was successfully applied to a variety of transgenes and animal models, and can be used to generate founders with single-copy integrations. The transposon vector also allows the generation of transgenic lines with tissue-specific expression patterns specified by promoter elements of choice, exemplified by a rat reporter strain useful for tracking serotonergic neurons. As a proof of principle, we rescued an inborn genetic defect in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat by SB100X transgenesis. A side-by-side comparison of the SB100X- and piggyBac-based protocols revealed that the two systems are complementary, offering new opportunities in genome manipulation.—Katter, K., Geurts, A. M., Hoffmann, O., Mátés, L., Landa,V., Hiripi, L., Moreno, C., Lazar, J., Bashir, S., Zidek, V., Popova, E., Jerchow, B., Becker, K., Devaraj, A., Walter, I., Grzybowksi, M., Corbett, M., Rangel Filho, A., Hodges, M. R., Bader, M., Ivics, Z., Jacob, H. J., Pravenec, M., Bősze, Z., Rülicke, T., Izsvák, Z. Transposon-mediated transgenesis, transgenic rescue, and tissue-specific gene expression in rodents and rabbits. PMID:23195032

  17. Bioremediation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by bacterial nitroreductase expressing transgenic aspen.

    PubMed

    Van Dillewijn, Pieter; Couselo, José L; Corredoira, Elena; Delgado, Antonio; Wittich, Rolf-Michael; Ballester, Antonio; Ramos, Juan L

    2008-10-01

    Trees belonging to the genus Populus are often used for phytoremediation due to their deep root formation, fast growth and high transpiration rates. Here, we study the capacity of transgenic hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides var. Etropole) which expresses the bacterial nitroreductase gene, pnrA, to tolerate and take-up greater amounts of the toxic and recalcitrant explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from contaminated waters and soil. Transgenic aspen tolerate up to 57 mg TNT/L in hydroponic media and more than 1000 mg TNT/ kg soil, whereas the parental aspen could not endure in hydroponic culture with more than 11 mg TNT/L or soil with more than 500 mg TNT/kg. Likewise, the phytotoxicological limit for transgenic plants to a constant concentration of TNT was 20 mg TNT/L while wild-type plants only tolerated 10 mg TNT/L. Transgenic plants also showed improved uptake of TNT over wild-type plants when the original TNT concentration was above 35 mg TNT/L in liquid media or 750 mg TNT/kg in soil. Assays with 13C-labeled TNT show rapid adsorption of TNT to the root surface followed by a slower entrance rate into the plant. Most of the 13C-carbon from the labeled TNT taken up bythe plant (> 95%) remains in the root with little translocation to the stem. Altogether, transgenic aspen expressing pnrA are highly interesting for phytoremediation applications on contaminated soil and underground aquifers.

  18. Delay of Disease Development in Transgenic Plants that Express the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell Abel, Patricia; Nelson, Richard S.; de, Barun; Hoffmann, Nancy; Rogers, Stephen G.; Fraley, Robert T.; Beachy, Roger N.

    1986-05-01

    A chimeric gene containing a cloned cDNA of the coat protein (CP) gene of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was introduced into tobacco cells on a Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from which tumor inducing genes had been removed. Plants regenerated from transformed cells expressed TMV mRNA and CP as a nuclear trait. Seedlings from self-fertilized transgenic plants were inoculated with TMV and observed for development of disease symptoms. The seedlings that expressed the CP gene were delayed in symptom development and 10 to 60 percent of the transgenic plants failed to develop symptoms for the duration of the experiments. Increasing the concentration of TMV in the inoculum shortened the delay in appearance of symptoms. The results of these experiments indicate that plants can be genetically transformed for resistance to virus disease development.

  19. Polyethylenimine-mediated expression of transgenes in the acinar cells of rats salivary glands in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Wigand, Timothy; Aye, Myo-Pale'; Shitara, Akiko; Weigert, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Non viral-mediated transfection of plasmid DNA provides a fast and reliable way to express various transgenes in selected cell populations in live animals. Here, we show an improvement of a previously published method that is based on injecting plasmid DNA into the ductal system of the salivary glands in live rats. Specifically, using complexes between plasmid DNA and polyethyleneimine (PEI) we show that the expression of the transgenes is directed selectively to the salivary acinar cells. PEI does not affect the ability of cells to undergo regulated exocytosis, which was one of the main drawbacks of the previous methods. Moreover PEI does not affect the proper localization and targeting of transfected proteins, as shown for the apical plasma membrane water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5). Overall, this approach, coupled with the use of intravital microscopy, permits to conduct localization and functional studies under physiological conditions, in a rapid, reliable, and affordable fashion. PMID:25621283

  20. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway.

  1. Genomic safe harbors permit high β-globin transgene expression in thalassemia induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Papapetrou, Eirini P; Lee, Gabsang; Malani, Nirav; Setty, Manu; Riviere, Isabelle; Tirunagari, Laxmi M S; Kadota, Kyuichi; Roth, Shoshannah L; Giardina, Patricia; Viale, Agnes; Leslie, Christina; Bushman, Frederic D; Studer, Lorenz; Sadelain, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Realizing the therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells will require robust, precise and safe strategies for genetic modification, as cell therapies that rely on randomly integrated transgenes pose oncogenic risks. Here we describe a strategy to genetically modify human iPS cells at ‘safe harbor’ sites in the genome, which fulfill five criteria based on their position relative to contiguous coding genes, microRNAs and ultraconserved regions. We demonstrate that ~10% of integrations of a lentivirally encoded β-globin transgene in β-thalassemia-patient iPS cell clones meet our safe harbor criteria and permit high-level β-globin expression upon erythroid differentiation without perturbation of neighboring gene expression. This approach, combining bioinformatics and functional analyses, should be broadly applicable to introducing therapeutic or suicide genes into patient-specific iPS cells for use in cell therapy. PMID:21151124

  2. EMT Inducers Catalyze Malignant Transformation of Mammary Epithelial Cells and Drive Tumorigenesis towards Claudin-Low Tumors in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fauvet, Frédérique; Courtois-Cox, Stéphanie; Wierinckx, Anne; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Treilleux, Isabelle; Tissier, Agnès; Gras, Baptiste; Pourchet, Julie; Puisieux, Isabelle; Browne, Gareth J.; Spicer, Douglas B.; Lachuer, Joël; Ansieau, Stéphane; Puisieux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an embryonic transdifferentiation process consisting of conversion of polarized epithelial cells to motile mesenchymal ones. EMT–inducing transcription factors are aberrantly expressed in multiple tumor types and are known to favor the metastatic dissemination process. Supporting oncogenic activity within primary lesions, the TWIST and ZEB proteins can prevent cells from undergoing oncogene-induced senescence and apoptosis by abolishing both p53- and RB-dependent pathways. Here we show that they also downregulate PP2A phosphatase activity and efficiently cooperate with an oncogenic version of H-RAS in malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. Thus, by down-regulating crucial tumor suppressor functions, EMT inducers make cells particularly prone to malignant conversion. Importantly, by analyzing transformed cells generated in vitro and by characterizing novel transgenic mouse models, we further demonstrate that cooperation between an EMT inducer and an active form of RAS is sufficient to trigger transformation of mammary epithelial cells into malignant cells exhibiting all the characteristic features of claudin-low tumors, including low expression of tight and adherens junction genes, EMT traits, and stem cell–like characteristics. Claudin-low tumors are believed to be the most primitive breast malignancies, having arisen through transformation of an early epithelial precursor with inherent stemness properties and metaplastic features. Challenging this prevailing view, we propose that these aggressive tumors arise from cells committed to luminal differentiation, through a process driven by EMT inducers and combining malignant transformation and transdifferentiation. PMID:22654675

  3. Characterization of phenotype resistance to plum pox of transgenic plums expressing plum pox virus capsid gene.

    PubMed

    Ravelonandro, M; Scorza, R; Dunez, J

    1998-09-01

    Resistance to plum pox virus (PPV) infection can be obtained in transgenic plants that express the virus capsid gene. An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to introduce the PPV capsid gene into Prunus domestica plants. Over 11 regenerated plants (clones) were observed for the development of the disease symptoms and analysed for the presence of PPV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) through 4 dormancy cycles. The level of protection against PPV was determined in the transformed plants, non-transformed plants, and a control transgenic plant "transformed" with the plasmid vector alone. One clone, C-5, appeared fully protected, while PT-6 and C-4 clones accumulated a low concentration of virus and the rest of the clones was entirely susceptible. Little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to virus infection in transgenic woody plants. To investigate this aspect, comparative studies based on the characteristics of resistant and susceptible clones have been started. A question, whether the phenotype resistance of clone C-5 is similar to that observed in transgenic herbaceous plants or not, has been addressed. Recent progress in this investigation is presented.

  4. Expression of bkt and bch genes from Haematococcus pluvialis in transgenic Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Zheng, KaiJing; Wang, ChaoGang; Xiao, Ming; Chen, Jun; Li, JianCheng; Hu, ZhangLi

    2014-10-01

    β-carotene ketolase and β-carotene hydroxylase encoded by bkt and bch, respectively, are key enzymes required for astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcu pluvialis 34-1n. Two expression vectors containing cDNA sequences of bkt and bch were constructed and co-transformed into cell-wall-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-849. Transgenic algae were screened on TAP agar plates containing 10 μg mL(-1) Zeomycin. PCR-Southern analysis showed that bkt and bch were integrated into the genomes of C. reinhardtii. Transcripts of bkt and bch were further confirmed by RT-PCR-Southern analysis. Compared with the wild type, transgenic algae produced 29.04% and 30.27% more carotenoids and xanthophylls, respectively. Moreover, the transgenic algae could accumulate 34% more astaxanthin than wild type. These results indicate that foreign bkt and bch genes were successfully translated into β-carotene ketolase and β-carotene hydroxylase, which were responsible for catalyzing the biosynthesis of astaxanthin in transgenic algae.

  5. Evaluation of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a bacterial Co-Ni transporter for acquisition of cobalt.

    PubMed

    Nair, Smitha; Joshi-Saha, Archana; Singh, Sudhir; Ramachandran, V; Singh, Surya; Thorat, Vidya; Kaushik, C P; Eapen, Susan; D'Souza, S F

    2012-11-15

    Phytoremediation is a viable strategy for management of toxic wastes in a large area/volume with low concentrations of toxic elemental pollutants. With increased industrial use of cobalt and its alloys, it has become a major metal contaminant in soils and water bodies surrounding these industries and mining sites with adverse effects on the biota. A bacterial Co-Ni permease was cloned from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum to explore its potential for phytoremediation and was found to be specific for cobalt and nickel. The transgenic plants accumulated more cobalt and nickel as compared to control, whereas no significant difference in accumulation of other divalent ions was observed. The transgenic plants were evaluated for cobalt content and showed increased acquisition of cobalt (up to 5 times) as compared to control. The plants were also assessed for accumulation of nickel and found to accumulate up to 2 times more nickel than control. At the same initial concentration of cobalt and nickel, transgenic plant preferentially accumulated cobalt as compared to nickel. The present study is perhaps the first attempt to develop transgenic plants expressing heterologous Co transporter with an improved capacity to uptake cobalt. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transgenic rice plants expressing synthetic cry2AX1 gene exhibits resistance to rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis).

    PubMed

    Manikandan, R; Balakrishnan, N; Sudhakar, D; Udayasuriyan, V

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a major source of insecticidal genes imparting insect resistance in transgenic plants. Level of expression of transgenes in transgenic plants is important to achieve desirable level of resistance against target insects. In order to achieve desirable level of expression, rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence was fused with synthetic cry2AX1 gene to target its protein in chloroplasts. Sixteen PCR positive lines of rice were generated by Agrobacterium mediated transformation using immature embryos. Southern blot hybridization analysis of T0 transgenic plants confirmed the integration of cry2AX1 gene in two to five locations of rice genome and ELISA demonstrated its expression. Concentration of Cry2AX1 in transgenic rice events ranged 5.0-120 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue. Insect bioassay of T0 transgenic rice plants against neonate larvae of rice leaffolder showed larval mortality ranging between 20 and 80 % in comparison to control plant. Stable inheritance and expression of cry2AX1 gene was demonstrated in T1 progenies through Southern and ELISA. In T1 progenies, the highest concentration of Cry2AX1 and mortality of rice leaffolder larvae were recorded as 150 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue and 80 %, respectively. The Cry2AX1 expression even at a very low concentration (120-150 ng/g) in transgenic rice plants was found effective against rice leaffolder larvae.

  7. Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic tobacco plants under the control of a wound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to control Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gulbitti-Onarici, Selma; Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Taga, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-07-01

    Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated under the control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis in transgenic tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanically wounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanical wounding of transgenic plants was effective in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during 6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobacco plants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves were either fed directly to the insect larvae or they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection of mechanically wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of the bioassay.

  8. Co-integration, co-expression and inheritance of unlinked minimal transgene expression cassettes in an apomictic turf and forage grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge).

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Sukhpreet; Altpeter, Fredy

    2008-11-01

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) is an important turf and forage grass in the southeastern United States and other subtropical regions. Biolistic co-transfer of two unlinked, minimal, linear transgene expression cassettes (MCs) into the apomictic bahiagrass cv. Argentine was carried out to evaluate co-integration, quantify co-expression and analyze inheritance to apomictic seed progeny. Gold projectiles were coated with minimal unlinked nptII and bar expression cassettes in a 1:2 molar ratio. Complexity of transgene loci correlated with the amount of DNA used during gene transfer. Transgenic plants displayed a simple nptII integration pattern with 1-4 hybridization signals compared to the non-selected bar gene with 2 to more than 5 hybridization signals per transgenic line. Co-expression of unlinked nptII and bar genes occurred in 19 of the 20 co-transformed lines (95% co-expression frequency). Protein quantification revealed that several lines with complex integration patterns displayed a higher transgene expression than lines with simple transgene integration patterns. Several transgenic lines displayed hybridization signals indicative of concatemerization. Concatemers were confirmed following PCR amplification and sequence analysis of transgene loci. The obligate apomictic bahiagrass cv. Argentine produced uniform seed progeny without segregation of simple or complex transgene loci. NPTII- and PAT-ELISA, as well as herbicide application, confirmed stable expression of the nptII and bar gene at levels similar to the primary transformants. These results demonstrate that biolistic transfer of MCs support stable and high level co-expression of transgenes in bahiagrass.

  9. Transgenic rice plants expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase show resistance to the Fusarium phytotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Ohsato, Shuichi; Ochiai-Fukuda, Tetsuko; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Koizumi, Shinzo; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Kudo, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Kimura, Makoto

    2007-04-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of small grain cereal crops caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. These fungi produce the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives, which enhance the disease development during their interactions with host plants. For the self-protection, the trichothecene producer Fusarium species have Tri101 encoding trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase. Although transgenic expression of Tri101 significantly reduced inhibitory action of DON on tobacco plants, there are several conflicting observations regarding the phytotoxicity of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) to cereal plants; 3-ADON was reported to be highly phytotoxic to wheat at low concentrations. To examine whether cereal plants show sufficient resistance to 3-ADON, we generated transgenic rice plants with stable expression and inheritance of Tri101. While root growth of wild-type rice plants was severely inhibited by DON in the medium, this fungal toxin was not phytotoxic to the transgenic lines that showed trichothecene 3-O-acetylation activity. This is the first report demonstrating the DON acetylase activity and DON-resistant phenotype of cereal plants expressing the fungal gene.

  10. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M.; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  11. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminaryin vitroandin vivoimaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Oral immunization of mice using transgenic tomato fruit expressing VP1 protein from enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsuan-Fu; Chang, Meng-Huei; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Jeng, Shih-Tong

    2006-04-05

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease associated with fatal neurological complications in young children, and several major outbreaks have occurred recently. This study developed an effective antiviral agent by transforming the gene for VP1 protein, a previously defined epitope and also a coat protein of EV71, into tomato plant. VP1 protein was first fused with sorting signals to enable it to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of tomato plant, and its expression level increased to 27 microg/g of fresh tomato fruit. Transgenic tomato fruit expressing VP1 protein was then used as an oral vaccine, and the development of VP1-specific fecal IgA and serum IgG were observed in BALB/c mice. Additionally, serum from mice fed transgenic tomato could neutralize the infection of EV71 to rhabdomyosarcoma cells, indicating that tomato fruit expressing VP1 was successful in orally immunizing mice. Moreover, the proliferation of spleen cells from orally immunized mice was stimulated by VP1 protein, and provided further evidence of both humoral and cellular immunity. Results of this study not only demonstrate the feasibility of using transgenic tomato as an oral vaccine to generate protective immunity in mice against EV71, but also suggest the probability of enterovirus vaccine development.

  13. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-08-18

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies.

  14. Cosmetics-triggered percutaneous remote control of transgene expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ye, Haifeng; Xie, Mingqi; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies. PMID:25943548

  15. Overview of expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-jun; Guo, Bin; Huo, Yan-lin; Guan, Zheng-ping; Wei, Ya-hui

    2010-10-28

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a pathogen for chronic liver infection, afflicts more than 350 million people world-wide. The effective way to control the virus is to take HBV vaccine. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is an effective protective antigen suitable for vaccine development. At present, "edible" vaccine based on transgenic plants is one of the most promising directions in novel types of vaccines. HBsAg production from transgenic plants has been carried out, and the transgenic plant expression systems have developed from model plants (such as tobacco, potato and tomato) to other various plant platforms. Crude or purified extracts of transformed plants have been found to conduct immunological responses and clinical trials for hepatitis B, which gave the researches of plant-based HBsAg production a big boost. The aim of this review was to summarize the recent data about plant-based HBsAg development including molecular biology of HBsAg gene, selection of expression vector, the expression of HBsAg gene in plants, as well as corresponding immunological responses in animal models or human.

  16. Rgulatable Transgene Expression for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Zetang

    2017-09-15

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer. For which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3) or interleukin 10 (IL-10) from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet)-on based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency associated promoter 2 (LAP-2) and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX). We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  17. Regulatable Transgene Expression for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Zetang

    2017-09-15

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer for which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3) or interleukin-10 (IL-10) from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet)-on-based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP-2), and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX). We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  18. Increased maintenance and persistence of transgenes by excision of expression cassettes from plasmid sequences in vivo.

    PubMed

    Riu, Efren; Grimm, Dirk; Huang, Zan; Kay, Mark A

    2005-05-01

    Persistence of transgene expression is a major limitation for nonvirus-mediated gene therapy approaches. We have suggested that covalent linkage of bacterial DNA to the expression cassette plays a critical role in transcriptional silencing of transgenes in vivo. To gain insight into the role of the covalent linkage of plasmid DNA to the expression cassette and transcriptional repression, and whether this silencing effect could be alleviated by altering the molecular structure of vector DNAs in vivo, we generated a scheme for converting routine plasmids into a purified expression cassette, free of bacterial DNA after gene transfer in vivo. To do this, the human alpha-1-antitrypsin (hAAT) and human clotting factor IX (hfIX) reporter genes were flanked by two ISceI endonuclease recognition sites, and coinjected together with a plasmid encoding the I-SceI cDNA or a control plasmid into mouse liver. Two weeks after DNA administration, mice injected with the reporter gene alone or with the irrelevant control plasmid showed low serum levels of hAAT or hFIX, which remained low throughout the length of the experiment. However, animals that expressed I-SceI had a 5- to 10-fold increase in serum hAAT or hFIX that persisted for at least 8 months (length of study). Expression of I-SceI resulted in cleavage and excision of the expression cassettes from the plasmid backbone, forming mostly circles devoid of bacterial DNA sequences, as established by a battery of different Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses in both C57BL/6 and scid treated mice. In contrast, only the input parental circular plasmid DNA band was detected in mice injected with the reporter gene alone, or an I-SceI plasmid together with the hAAT reporter plasmid lacking the I-SceI sites. Similar results were obtained when the Flp recombinase system was used to make mini-plasmids in mouse liver in vivo. This study presents further independent evidence that removing the covalent linkage between

  19. Production of transgenic cloned pigs expressing the far-red fluorescent protein monomeric Plum

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Masahito; KOBAYASHI, Mirina; NAGAYA, Masaki; MATSUNARI, Hitomi; NAKANO, Kazuaki; MAEHARA, Miki; HAYASHIDA, Gota; TAKAYANAGI, Shuko; SAKAI, Rieko; UMEYAMA, Kazuhiro; WATANABE, Nobuyuki; ONODERA, Masafumi; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Monomeric Plum (Plum), a far-red fluorescent protein with photostability and photopermeability, is potentially suitable for in vivo imaging and detection of fluorescence in body tissues. The aim of this study was to generate transgenic cloned pigs exhibiting systemic expression of Plum using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. Nuclear donor cells for SCNT were obtained by introducing a Plum-expression vector driven by a combination of the cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken beta-actin promoter into porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed SCNT embryos were 81.0% (34/42) and 78.6% (33/42), respectively. At 36–37 days of gestation, three fetuses systemically expressing Plum were obtained from one recipient to which 103 SCNT embryos were transferred (3/103, 2.9%). For generation of offspring expressing Plum, rejuvenated PFFs were established from one cloned fetus and used as nuclear donor cells. Four cloned offspring and one stillborn cloned offspring were produced from one recipient to which 117 SCNT embryos were transferred (5/117, 4.3%). All offspring exhibited high levels of Plum fluorescence in blood cells, such as lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. In addition, the skin, heart, kidney, pancreas, liver and spleen also exhibited Plum expression. These observations demonstrated that transfer of the Plum gene did not interfere with the development of porcine SCNT embryos and resulted in the successful generation of transgenic cloned pigs that systemically expressed Plum. This is the first report of the generation and characterization of transgenic cloned pigs expressing the far-red fluorescent protein Plum. PMID:25739316

  20. Production and Breeding of Transgenic Cloned Pigs Expressing Human CD73

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Chan; Lee, Haesun; Oh, Keon Bong; Hwang, In-Sul; Yang, Hyeon; Park, Mi-Ryung; Ock, Sun-A; Woo, Jae-Seok; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the reasons to causing blood coagulation in the tissue of xenografted organs was known to incompatibility of the blood coagulation and anti-coagulation regulatory system between TG pigs and primates. Thus, overexpression of human CD73 (hCD73) in the pig endothelial cells is considered as a method to reduce coagulopathy after pig-to-non-human-primate xenotransplantation. This study was performed to produce and breed transgenic pigs expressing hCD73 for the studies immune rejection responses and could provide a successful application of xenotransplantation. The transgenic cells were constructed an hCD73 expression vector under control porcine Icam2 promoter (pIcam2-hCD73) and established donor cell lines expressing hCD73. The numbers of transferred reconstructed embryos were 127 ± 18.9. The pregnancy and delivery rate of surrogates were 8/18 (44%) and 3/18 (16%). The total number of delivered cloned pigs were 10 (2 alive, 7 mummy, and 1 died after birth). Among them, three live hCD73-pigs were successfully delivered by Caesarean section, but one was dead after birth. The two hCD73 TG cloned pigs had normal reproductive ability. They mated with wild type (WT) MGH (Massachusetts General Hospital) female sows and produced totally 16 piglets. Among them, 5 piglets were identified as hCD73 TG pigs. In conclusion, we successfully generated the hCD73 transgenic cloned pigs and produced their litters by natural mating. It can be possible to use a mate for the production of multiple transgenic pigs such as α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out /hCD46 for xenotransplantation. PMID:28785737

  1. Constitutive expression of SMAR1 confers susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Bhawna; Malonia, Sunil K.; Majumdar, Subeer S.; Gupta, Pushpa; Wadhwa, Neerja; Badhwar, Archana; Gupta, Umesh D.; Katoch, Vishwa M.; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Studies involving animal models of experimental tuberculosis have elucidated the predominant role of cytokines secreted by T cells and macrophages to be an essential component of the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The immune activities of CD4+ T cells are mediated in part by Th1 cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) which is produced p