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Sample records for dropping mercury electrode

  1. Square wave voltammetry at the dropping mercury electrode: Theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Turner, J.A.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of square wave voltammetry at the dropping mercury electrode are presented. The technique involves scanning the entire potential range of interest on a single drop of a DME. Asymmetries in the waveform as well as variations in current measurement parameters are discussed. Indications are that previous uses of the waveform may not have utilized all its capabilities.

  2. Square wave voltammetry at the dropping mercury electrode: Experimental

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J.A.; Christie, J.H.; Vukovic, M.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental verification of earlier theoretical work for square wave voltammetry at the dropping mercury electrode is given. Experiments using ferric oxalate and cadmium(II) in HCl confirm excellent agreement with theory. Experimental peak heights and peak widths are found to be within 2% of calculated results. An example of trace analysis using square wave voltammetry at the DME is presented. The technique is shown to have the same order of sensitivity as differential pulse polarography but is much faster to perform. A detection limit for cadmium in 0.1 M HCl for the system used here was 7 ?? 10-8 M.

  3. Increased sensitivity of anodic stripping voltammetry at the hanging mercury drop electrode by ultracathodic deposition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, José A; Rodrigues, Carlos M; Almeida, Paulo J; Valente, Inês M; Gonçalves, Luís M; Compton, Richard G; Barros, Aquiles A

    2011-09-09

    An improved approach to the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) determination of heavy metals, using the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), is reported. It was discovered that using very cathodic accumulation potentials, at which the solvent reduction occurs (overpotential deposition), the voltammetric signals of zinc(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and copper(II) increase. When compared with the classical methodology a 5 to 10-fold signal increase is obtained. This effect is likely due to both mercury drop oscillation at such cathodic potentials and added local convection at the mercury drop surface caused by the evolution of hydrogen bubbles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential pulse polarographic investigation of lansoprazole and rabeprazole using dropping mercury electrode.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, P; Zschimmer, K; Knoth, H

    2009-06-01

    The electrochemical reduction of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) lansoprazole and rabeprazole has been investigated by differential pulse polarography (DPP) using a dropping mercury electrode (DME). The results were compared not only among both substances but also among other proton pump inhibitors depending on the varying chemical structures of the agents. All investigations were carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions with pH values from 3.0 to 11.0. It was shown that both PPI undergo an extensive decomposition decreasing with increasing pH values forming two main compounds, a cyclic sulfenamide and a dimer. In this case lansoprazole was found to be stable at pH 8.0 and rabeprazole at pH 9.0. The decomposition of rabeprazole ran considerably quicker and also up to higher pH values than those of lansoprazole. The peak currents varied linearly with the concentration of both PPI in the range from 1 x 10(-6) M to 7 x 10(-5) M at pH 9.0. Both substances showed similarities in reaction as well as individual differences based on their varying chemical structures and characteristics.

  5. Back to the hydrated electron-how it is produced and monitored at the dropping mercury electrode in pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyrovský, Michael; Pucciarelli, Filippo

    A reproducible current-voltage curve of pure water, obtained with the dropping mercury electrode (DME), contains a 1-2 V wide region where no faradaic processes take place. This region consists of three distinct parts according to different orientations of water molecules and their interactions with the mercury surface. On irradiation of the DME by UV and visible light a cathodic photocurrent is produced in the negative part of the nonfaradaic region, which increases with increasing voltage. The photocurrent appears in water in the absence of scavengers of hydrated electrons, and its magnitude is of the same order as that of the current due to photoemission of electrons into solutions of electrolytes containing scavengers. Additions of electrolytes decrease and ultimately suppress this kind of photocurrent. We explain the photocurrent by the effect of an electric field of the extended electrode double layer on the return of hydrated electrons, generated by photoemission, back to the electrode. Retarded by electrostatic repulsion from the negatively-charged electrode, some of the hydrated electrons undergo a relatively slow reaction with water, which under those conditions acts as a weak electron scavenger.

  6. Low-level determination of silicon in steels by anodic stripping voltammetry on a hanging mercury drop electrode.

    PubMed

    Rahier, A H; Lunardi, S; Nicolle, F; George, S M

    2010-10-15

    The sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) proposed originally by Ishiyama et al. (2001) has been revised and improved to allow the accurate measurement of silicon on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) instead of a glassy carbon electrode. We assessed the rate of formation of the partially reduced β-silicododecamolybdate and found that metallic mercury promotes the reaction in the presence of a large concentration of Fe(3+). The scope of the method has been broadened by carrying out the measurements in the presence of a constant amount of Fe(3+). The limit of detection (LOD) of the method described in the present paper is 100 μg Sig(-1) of steel, with a relative precision ranging from 5% to 12%. It can be further enhanced to 700 ng Sig(-1) of steel provided the weight of the sample, the dilution factors, the duration of the electrolysis and the ballast of iron are adequately revised. The tolerance to several interfering species has been examined, especially regarding Al(3+), Cr(3+) and Cr VI species. The method was validated using four low-alloy ferritic steels certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Its application to nickel base alloys as well as to less complicated matrixes is straightforward. It has also been successfully applied to the determination of free silicon into silicon carbide nano-powder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Analysis of Chromium Using the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-23

    suppressing the electronic noise level, or by measuring instantaneous concentrations in the diffusion layer of the electrode. Increasing the flux of...called the Nernst diffusion layer, 6o (see Figure 2). Nernst ( 3 ) assumed that no convective electrolyte motion occurs within the diffusion layer, that...the concentration gradient of the electroactive species is given solely by diffusion and that it is linear. From this assumption the concentration

  8. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Robert W.; Maroone, James P.; Tipping, Donald W.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  9. Single-Drop Solution Electrode Discharge-Induced Cold Vapor Generation Coupling to Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion: A Robust Approach for Sensitive Quantification of Total Mercury Distribution in Fish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Lin, Yao; Tian, Yunfei; Wu, Li; Yang, Lu; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2017-02-07

    Sensitive quantification of mercury distribution in fish is challenging because of insufficient sensitivities of conventional analytical methods, the limited mass of organs (tens of micrograms to several milligrams), and dilution of analyte concentration from sample digestion. In this work, a simple and robust approach coupling multiwall carbon nanotubes assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MWCNTs-MSPD) to single-drop solution electrode glow discharge-induced cold vapor generation (SD-SEGD-CVG) was developed for the sensitive determination of mercury in limited amount of sample. Mercury species contained in a limited amount of sample can be efficiently extracted into a 100 μL of eluent by MWCNTs-MSPD, which are conveniently converted to Hg(0) by SD-SEGD-CVG and further transported to atomic fluorescence spectrometry for their determination. Therefore, analyte dilution resulted from sample preparation is avoided and sensitivity is significantly improved. On the basis of consumption of 1 mg of sample, a limit of detection of 0.01 μg L(-1) (0.2 pg) was obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.2% and 4.6% for 2 and 20 μg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analysis of three Certified Reference Materials with satisfying results. To confirm that SD-SEGD-CVG-AFS coupling to MWCNTs-MSPD is a promising method to quantify mercury distribution in fish, this method was successfully applied for the sensitive determination of mercury in seven organs of common carps (muscle, gill, intestine, liver, gallbladder, brain, and eye) after dietary of mercury species. The proposed method provides advantages of minimum sample dilution, low blank, high sample introduction efficiency, high sensitivity, and minimum toxic chemicals and sample consumption.

  10. Monolayers and multilayers of chlorophyll [correction of chlorophyl] a on a mercury electrode.

    PubMed

    Moncelli, M R; Becucci, L; Dolfi, A; Tadini Buoninsegni, F; Agostiano, A

    2002-05-15

    A novel experimental technique used to investigate chlorophyll films on a hanging mercury drop electrode is described. Two different procedures are employed to prepare self-assembled chlorophyll monolayers and multilayers on the mercury electrode. Upon illuminating the chlorophyll a (Chl)-coated mercury electrode with an appropriate light source, the photocurrents generated by the Chl aggregates are measured under short-circuit conditions in the absence of photoartefacts. The preliminary results obtained by this novel technique are presented.

  11. Picoinjection of Microfluidic Drops Without Metal Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, Brian; Tran, Tuan; Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Existing methods for picoinjecting reagents into microfluidic drops require metal electrodes integrated into the microfluidic chip. The integration of these electrodes adds cumbersome and error-prone steps to the device fabrication process. We have developed a technique that obviates the needs for metal electrodes during picoinjection. Instead, it uses the injection fluid itself as an electrode, since most biological reagents contain dissolved electrolytes and are conductive. By eliminating the electrodes, we reduce device fabrication time and complexity, and make the devices more robust. In addition, with our approach, the injection volume depends on the voltage applied to the picoinjection solution; this allows us to rapidly adjust the volume injected by modulating the applied voltage. We demonstrate that our technique is compatible with reagents incorporating common biological compounds, including buffers, enzymes, and nucleic acids. PMID:24797680

  12. Construction and evaluation of a flow-through cell adapted to a commercial static mercury drop electrode (SMDE) to study the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Abate, Gilberto; Lichtig, Jaim; Masini, Jorge C

    2002-09-12

    This paper describes the construction and application of a robust flow-through cell for use with the capillary of a commercial static mercury drop electrode. Linearity of peak current was observed up to 0.50 mumol l(-1) for Cd(II) or Pb(II) in anodic stripping voltammetry experiments performed under continuous flow during the deposition step, using 120 s of deposition time and flow rate of 4.0 ml min(-1). Under these conditions the limits of detection for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 13 and 17 nmol l(-1), respectively. An analytical throughput of 20 analyses per h was possible using 10 s for cleaning the cell between two samples and including the time needed for the potential scan, which was performed with the flow stopped, using the differential pulse mode for current sampling. The linear dynamic range can be extended up to 5 mumol l(-1) for both cations if the deposition time is decreased to 30 s, a condition in which the sampling throughput is 35 analyses per h. The proposed manifold was used to study the adsorption rates of Cd(II) and Pb(II) onto vermiculite at different pHs, allowing one to perform high sensitivity measurements at high sampling frequency, using low cost instrumentation.

  13. Simultaneous determination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Sb, Bi, Se, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co and Fe in water samples by differential pulse stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, M M; Hassanein, A M; Hammam, E; Beltagi, A M

    2000-06-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric procedure is described for the simultaneous determination of eleven elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Sb, Bi, Se, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co and Fe) in water samples. Firstly, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is used for the direct simultaneous determination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Sb and Bi in 0.1 M HCI solution (pH = 1) containing 2 M NaCl. Then, differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry (DPCSV) is used for the determination of Se in the same solution. Zn is subsequently determined by DPASV after raising the pH of the same solution to pH 4. Next, the pH of the medium is raised to pH 8.5 by adding NH3/NH4Cl buffer solution for the determination of Mn by DPASV. Ni and Co are determined in the same solution by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) after adding DMG (1 x 10(-4) M). Finally, 1 x 10(-5) M 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) is added to the solution for the determination of Fe by DPAdSV. The optimal conditions are described. Relative standard deviations and relative errors are calculated for the eleven elements at three different concentration levels. The lower detection limits for the investigated elements range from 1.11 x 10(-10) to 1.05 x 10(-9)M, depending on the element determined. The proposed analysis scheme was applied for the determination of these eleven elements in some ground water samples.

  14. Photocatalytic current on a mercury electrode in acidified ethylene glycol solutions of tribenzylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Kokilashvili, R.G.; Dzhaparidze, Dzh.I.; Pleskov, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    In ethylene glycol solutions of acid on a mercury cathode in the presence of tribenzylamine (TrBA), catalytic currents of the liberation of hydrogen are observed. Under the same conditions, with illumination of the electrode, the authors detected photocurrents that can be interpreted as the light-stimulated catalytic liberation of hydrogen. In both cases the determining role, in all probability, is played by the tribenzylammonium cation adsorbed on mercury, according to the authors. Photocurrent was measured on an electrode in the form of a hanging mercury drop. An OSL-1 illuminator with DRSh-250 mercury lamp, with interface filters, was used to illuminate the electrode and in individual measurements an LPM-11 laser was used. The light intensity was varied with the aid of neutral glasses NG. The investigated process consists of photoreduction of adsorbed TrBAH/sup +/.

  15. Voltammetry of two single-stranded isomeric end-labeled -SH deoxyoligonucleotides on mercury electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kizek, R; Havran, L; Kubicárová, T; Yosypchuk, B; Heyrovský, M

    2002-04-01

    Voltammetry of isomeric end-labeled -SH deoxyoligonucleotides on a hanging mercury drop electrode depends on the dislocation of the electroactive components along the strand as well as on their adsorptivity with respect to adsorptivity of the other parts of the molecule.

  16. Advantages of using a mercury coated, micro-wire, electrode in adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Gun, Jenny; Salaün, Pascal; van den Berg, Constant M G

    2006-06-30

    A mercury coated, gold, micro-wire electrode is used here for the determination of iron in seawater by catalytic cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) with a limit of detection of 0.1 nM Fe at a 60s adsorption time. It was found that the electrode surface is stable for extended periods of analyses (at least five days) and that it is reactivated by briefly (2s) applying a negative potential prior to each scan. Advantages of this electrode over mercury drop electrodes are that metallic mercury use is eliminated and that it can be readily used for flow analysis. This is demonstrated here by the determination of iron in seawater by continuous flow analysis. It is likely that this method can be extended to other elements. Experiments using bismuth coated, carbon fibre, electrodes showed that the bismuth catalyses the oxidation of the important oxidants bromate and hydrogen peroxide, which makes it impossible to use bismuth based electrodes for catalytic CSV involving these oxidants. For this reason mercury coated electrodes retain a major advantage for catalytic voltammetric analyses.

  17. Voltage Fluctuations at Sodium Beta Alumina/Mercury Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    008 VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS AT SODIUM 0" ALUMINA/MERCURY ELECTRODES by Chu Kun Kuo* and James J. Brophy Physics Department University of Utah Salt Lake...ADDRESS (Cty. State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City. State, and ZIP Code) UNIVERSITY OF UTAH UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84112...Include Security Classification) VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS AT SODIUM BETA" ALUMINA/MERCURY ELECTRODES -, J l.. 0 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Chu Kun Kuo and James

  18. A Comparative Electrochemical Behaviour Study and Analytical Detection of the p-Nitrophenol Using Silver Solid Amalgam, Mercury, and Silver Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Djenaine; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This work reports a comparative electrochemical behaviour study and p-nitrophenol analytical detection using silver solid amalgam, hanging dropping mercury, and silver electrodes. For this, square wave voltammetry was employed, where the analytical responses and the redox mechanisms could be compared for reduction processes of 4-nitrophenol by analysis of the voltammetric responses. The analytical performance of the electrode was evaluated and detection and quantification limits, recovery percentages, repeatability, and reproducibility for the silver solid amalgam and hanging dropping mercury electrodes presented similar values; the results presented for the silver electrode indicated worse analytical parameters than the other electrodes. The results indicate that the silver solid amalgam electrode can be considered a suitable tool and an interesting alternative for the analytical determination of 4-nitrophenol, as well as for the determination of other biological and environmentally interesting compounds that present analytical responses on mercury surfaces. PMID:21647286

  19. Drop detachment and motion on fuel cell electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Eric; Hellstern, Thomas; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Benziger, Jay

    2012-02-01

    Liquid water is pushed through flow channels of fuel cells, where one surface is a porous carbon electrode made up of carbon fibers. Water drops grow on the fibrous carbon surface in the gas flow channel. The drops adhere to the superficial fiber surfaces but exhibit little penetration into the voids between the fibers. The fibrous surfaces are hydrophobic, but there is a substantial threshold force necessary to initiate water drop motion. Once the water drops begin to move, however, the adhesive force decreases and drops move with minimal friction, similar to motion on superhydrophobic materials. We report here studies of water wetting and water drop motion on typical porous carbon materials (carbon paper and carbon cloth) employed in fuel cells. The static coefficient of friction on these textured surfaces is comparable to that for smooth Teflon. But the dynamic coefficient of friction is several orders of magnitude smaller on the textured surfaces than on smooth Teflon. Carbon cloth displays a much smaller static contact angle hysteresis than carbon paper due to its two-scale roughness. The dynamic contact angle hysteresis for carbon paper is greatly reduced compared to the static contact angle hysteresis. Enhanced dynamic hydrophobicity is suggested to result from the extent to which a dynamic contact line can track topological heterogeneities of the liquid/solid interface.

  20. Voltammetry at the Thin-Film Mercury Electrode (TFME).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomeroy, R. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is the use of the Thin-Film Mercury Electrode for anodic stripping voltammetry, simple voltammetry of solution cations and cathodic stripping voltammetry for the determination of an environmentally important molecule, thiourea. The construction of a simple potentiostat and applications for student laboratory courses are included. (CW)

  1. Voltammetry at the Thin-Film Mercury Electrode (TFME).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomeroy, R. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is the use of the Thin-Film Mercury Electrode for anodic stripping voltammetry, simple voltammetry of solution cations and cathodic stripping voltammetry for the determination of an environmentally important molecule, thiourea. The construction of a simple potentiostat and applications for student laboratory courses are included. (CW)

  2. Cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping voltametry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Hutchins-Kumar, L.D.

    1986-02-01

    The response characteristics and analytical advantages of cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping measurements of trace metals are described. The coating provides an effective barrier of the mercury surface, thus eliminating the effects of various organic surfactants. For example, up to at least 100 ppm gelatin does not alter the response. The diagnostic power of rotating disk measurements is used to evaluate the transport toward the mercury surface. The response is limited by the permeability of the film, thus allowing stripping measurements in systems with poorly controlled mass transport. Base hydrolysis of the film is used to manipulate the permeability. Scanning electron micrographs show the microstructures of the films following different hydrolysis times. The discriminative properties of these coatings can be used also to improve the resolution between two adjacent stripping peaks. The response of the modified electrode is directly proportional to the analyte concentration and is reproducible. With a 10-min deposition time, detection limits are 7 x 10 M lead and 1.3 x 10 Z M cadmium. Various metal ions and organic surfactants are tested. The performance of this novel electrode system is compared to that of a conventional mercury film electrode. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  3. The application of a bubbling mercury electrode to anodic stripping voltammetry. Determination of zinc, cadium, lead and copper in natural water and industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cospito, M.; Zanello, P.; Lucarini, L.

    1982-03-01

    A hanging mercury drop electrode characterized by periodic renewal of the diffusion layer is proposed. A thin covering of mercury is deposited on the tip of a platinum wire sealed in a tube coaxial with an external tube. The wire acts as the cathode in an electrolytic cell, containing a concentrated solution of mercury perchlorate in dilute perchloric acid and using a mercury reservoir as the anode. Before each analysis, four drops of mercury are made to adhere to the wire. Test samples are placed in the cell and oxygen is removed by nitrogen bubbling. A negative voltage 0.25V larger than the stripping peak of the metal to be determined is applied across the electrodes. Concentration is proportional to peak current recorded at the anode. Sensitivity, defined as the amount of current per minute and per mole is ten times lower than that of other stripping techniques, but polluting ions in water are detected.

  4. Wetting of aluminum electrodes with mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarshan, T. S.; Lim, M. H.; Hefley, P. L.; Thompson, J. E.

    1984-10-01

    The liquid metal coating (wetting) of metal surfaces has considerable interest from both theoretical and practical standpoints. This paper describes a practical method for wetting materials such as aluminum and elkonite (70% tungsten and 30% copper) by mercury (Hg), to result in a strongly adhering coating. The readiness of Al to form an oxide layer generally inhibits wetting by Hg. The technique presented in this paper involves protecting a cleaned substrate surface by coating it with a Hg soluble, stable material such as Cu, until the substrate surface is brought into contact with Hg, to produce surface complexing. Some practical applications of liquid metal wetting are reviewed. The theory of wetting is also briefly reviewed. A plasma technique which has been successfully employed to Hg wet some materials which are known to be difficult to be wetted by Hg, is also briefly reviewed.

  5. Redox kinetic measurements of glutathione at the mercury electrode by means of square-wave voltammetry. The role of copper, cadmium and zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Mladenov, Mitko; Mirceski, Valentin; Gjorgoski, Icko; Jordanoski, Blagoja

    2004-12-01

    The electrode reaction of glutathione (GSH) at the hanging mercury drop electrode is studied by means of square-wave voltammetry (SWV). At potentials more positive than -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl (3 mol/l KCl)) the oxidation of the mercury electrode in the presence of GSH leads to creation of a sparingly soluble mercury-GSH complex that deposits onto the electrode surface. Under cathodic potential scan, the deposited complex acts as a reducible reactant, giving raise to a well-defined cathodic stripping reversible SW voltammetric response. The electrode reaction can be described by the scheme: Hg(SG)(2(s))+e(-)+2H((aq))(+) = Hg((l))+2GSH((aq)). Thus, the electrode reaction provides information on both thermodynamics and kinetics of the chemical interactions of GSH with mercury. An experimental methodology for measuring the kinetics of the electrode reactions, based on the property known as "quasireversible maximum", is developed. The standard redox rate constant is 5.09, 5.75 and 5.22 cm s(-1) in a phosphate buffer at pH 5.6, 7.0 and 8.5, respectively, with a precision of +/-10%. The high rate of the electrode reaction reflects the strong affinity of GSH towards chemical interaction with mercury. The electrode reaction is particularly sensitive to the presence of heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+.) The rate of the electrode reaction decreases significantly in the presence of these ions due to simultaneous interactions of GSH with the respective ion and mercury.

  6. Voltammetric analysis of ceftazidime after preconcentration at various mercury and carbon electrodes: application to sub-ppb level determination in urine samples.

    PubMed

    El-Maali, N A

    2000-04-28

    The electrochemical behavior of ceftazidime (CFZ) at four different kinds of electrodes viz. static mercury drop electrode (SMDE), controlled growth mercury electrode (CGME), glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and carbon paste electrode (CPE) has been presented. Optimal operational parameters have been selected for the drug preconcentration and determination in aqueous medium. Down to 2x10(-10) M CFZ is achieved as detection limit at the CGME. Modification of the CPE with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) enhances both the sensitivity and selectivity for the drug accumulation and, therefore, its determination at very low levels. Application of the proposed method for CFZ analysis in spiked urine samples or those taken after metabolism has been easily assessed. Down to 1x10(-9) M CFZ (0.695 ng ml(-1)) could be easily achieved in such samples.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of solid mercury amalgam electrodes for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Jusková, Petra; Ostatná, Veronika; Palecek, Emil; Foret, Frantisek

    2010-04-01

    Gold and carbon electrodes have been largely used as transducers in protein and DNA sensors and arrays. Liquid mercury electrodes, with potential windows allowing detection of DNA and protein reduction processes at highly negative potentials, were considered as useless in such arrays. Here, we show that solid amalgam electrode (SAE) arrays can be prepared as a substitution of liquid mercury in the analysis of the above biomacromolecules. Vacuum metal sputtering on a glass substrate, photolithography, and galvanic mercury amalgam formation were used for fabrication of an inexpensive disposable electrode array. The resulting ultrathin (less than 1 microm) amalgam microelectrodes were characterized with respect to influence of the electrode composition and size on the reproducibility and stability of electrochemical signals. Further characterization was performed using electron microscopy and the well-established ruthenium electrochemistry. Final, optimized, design was applied in protein analysis employing the recently described electrocatalytic chronopotentiometric peak H.

  8. Electrochemical studies of some quinolone antibiotics. Part I. Qualitative analysis on mercury and carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Warowna-Grześkiewicz, M; Chodkowski, J; Fijałek, Z

    1995-01-01

    Direct current polarography and cyclic voltammetry was used to study quinolone antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin on a mercury and carbon electrode. The dependence of limiting currents and half-wave potentials on the pH of the solution, mercury head, temperature, ionic strength of the solution, methyl cellulose concentration, scan rate and quinolone concentration was studied. The optimal parameters and background solutions have been chosen. It was concluded that on mercury electrode quinolones are reduced in two one-electron waves and the process of the reduction is accompanied by an acid-base equilibrium. An anodic peak observed on graphite electrode is probably caused by the oxidation of piperazine ring in the molecule.

  9. Copper-mercury film electrode for cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of Se(IV).

    PubMed

    Sladkov, Vladimir; David, François; Fourest, Blandine

    2003-01-01

    The copper-mercury film electrode has been suggested for the determination of Se(IV) in a wide range of concentration from 1x10(-9) to 1x10(-6) mol L(-1)by square-wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. Insufficient reproducibility and sensitivity of the mercury film electrode have been overcome by using copper(II) ions during the plating procedure. Copper(II) has been found to be reduced and form a reproducible copper-mercury film on a glassy carbon electrode surface. The plating potential and time, the concentration of copper(II) and the concentration of the supporting electrolyte have been optimised. Microscopy has been used for a study of the morphology of the copper-mercury film. It has been found that it is the same as for the mercury one. The preconcentration step consists in electrodeposition of copper selenide on the copper-mercury film. The relative standard deviation is 4.3% for 1x10(-6) mol L(-1) of Se(IV). The limit of detection is 8x10(-10) mol L(-1) for 5 min of accumulation.

  10. An In Situ Surface Fourier Transform Infrared Study of the Adsorption of Isoquinoline at a Stationary Mercury Electrode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-15

    Infrared Study of the Adsorption of Isoquinoline at a Stationary Mercury Electrode by DJ. Blackwood and S. Pons Prepared for publication in J...Secunt ClaMwfkation) An in situ Surface Fourier Transform Infrared Study of the Adsorption of Isoquinoline at a Stationary Mercury Electrode D.lc...SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on roverse if necessary and identify by block ’e’ 9ELD I GROUP I SUB-GROUP infrared spectroelectrochemistry ,adsorption, mercury I

  11. A decision support system for electrode shaping in multi-pad FES foot drop correction.

    PubMed

    Malešević, Jovana; Dedijer Dujović, Suzana; Savić, Andrej M; Konstantinović, Ljubica; Vidaković, Aleksandra; Bijelić, Goran; Malešević, Nebojša; Keller, Thierry

    2017-07-03

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can be applied as an assistive and therapeutic aid in the rehabilitation of foot drop. Transcutaneous multi-pad electrodes can increase the selectivity of stimulation; however, shaping the stimulation electrode becomes increasingly complex with an increasing number of possible stimulation sites. We described and tested a novel decision support system (DSS) to facilitate the process of multi-pad stimulation electrode shaping. The DSS is part of a system for drop foot treatment that comprises a custom-designed multi-pad electrode, an electrical stimulator, and an inertial measurement unit. The system was tested in ten stroke survivors (3-96 months post stroke) with foot drop over 20 daily sessions. The DSS output suggested stimulation pads and parameters based on muscle twitch responses to short stimulus trains. The DSS ranked combinations of pads and current amplitudes based on a novel measurement of the quality of the induced movement and classified them based on the movement direction (dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, eversion and inversion) of the paretic foot. The efficacy of the DSS in providing satisfactory pad-current amplitude choices for shaping the stimulation electrode was evaluated by trained clinicians. The range of paretic foot motion was used as a quality indicator for the chosen patterns. The results suggest that the DSS output was highly effective in creating optimized FES patterns. The position and number of pads included showed pronounced inter-patient and inter-session variability; however, zones for inducing dorsiflexion and plantar flexion within the multi-pad electrode were clearly separated. The range of motion achieved with FES was significantly greater than the corresponding active range of motion (p < 0.05) during the first three weeks of therapy. The proposed DSS in combination with a custom multi-pad electrode design covering the branches of peroneal and tibial nerves proved to be an effective

  12. Anodic Stripping Voltametry at Mercury Film Deposited on Ultrasmall Carbon Ring Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-05

    ABSTRACT ’Mas-,im 2?0 wC!OS) Anodic stripping voltammetry of lead and cadmium without deliberately added electrolytes has been studied at ultrasmall...ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT MERCURY FILMS DEPOSITED ON ULTRASMALL CARBON RING ELECTRODES ABSTRACT Anodic stripping voltammetry of lead and cadmium ...electroac- tive species to the electrode region then arises. Golas and Osteryoung [11,12] have performed anodic stripping square - wave voltam- metry in

  13. Mercury(II) removal from water by electrocoagulation using aluminium and iron electrodes.

    PubMed

    Nanseu-Njiki, Charles Péguy; Tchamango, Serge Raoul; Ngom, Philippe Claude; Darchen, André; Ngameni, Emmanuel

    2009-09-15

    In this work, electrocoagulation was used to evaluate the treatment of synthetic solutions containing mercury(II) of concentration 2 x 10(-5)M. The effects of the distance between the electrodes, current density, charge loading and initial pH on the removal efficiency were investigated, using aluminium and iron electrodes. Analysis of the filtrates resulting from the treatment was made by anodic redissolution in the differential pulse mode. The removal efficiency was above 99.9% when the distance between the electrodes was 3 cm, the current density ranging from 2.5 to 3.125 A dm(-2); for instance, 99.95% of the mercury(II) was eliminated when a charge loading of 9.33 and 15.55 F m(-3) were used for iron and aluminium respectively. In these conditions, by varying the pH of the mercury(II) solutions from 3 to 7, the removal efficiency remained higher than 99%. In addition, some experiments were carried out on a river water contaminated with mercury(II) ions, and the results obtained showed that the presence of organic matter do not influence the efficiency of the treatment. The elimination of mercury(II) ions is best performed with iron, where 15 min of electrolysis was sufficient to reach the highest removal compared to aluminium which required 25 min for the same result.

  14. Theoretical treatment of staircase voltammetric stripping from the thin film mercury electrode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Staircase voltammetric stripping is an attractive alternative to both differential pulse and linear scan voltammetric stripping. This paper presents a theoretical treatment of this new stripping mode applied to the thin-film mercury electrode. For equivalent scan rates the faradaic response is somewhat smaller than that obtained by linear scan stripping.

  15. Sensitive determination of mercury by a miniaturized spectrophotometer after in situ single-drop microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangwen; Liu, Rui; Tan, Zhiqiang; Wen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Chengbin; Lv, Yi

    2010-11-15

    An in situ single-drop microextraction (SDME) method was developed for trace mercury determination by a miniaturized spectrophotometer, in which a simple and cheap light-emitting diode (LED) was employed as the light source, and a handheld charge coupled device (CCD) was served as the detector. A droplet of 0.006% dithizone-CCl(4) (m/v) was used as extraction phase and hanged on a rolled PTFE tube. LED light was adjusted carefully to pass through the centre of the droplet and the entrance slit of the CCD detector. The radiation intensities of 475 nm before and after SDME (I(0) and I(i)) were recorded for quantification. Under the optimum conditions, the system provided a linear range of 2-50 μg L(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983 and a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.2 μg L(-1). The enrichment factor was about 69. The present method showed the merits of high sensitivity, simplicity, rapidity, low reagent consumption and field analysis potential. Finally, this method was successfully applied for the determination of the total mercury in spiked tap water sample, spiked river water sample and certified reference material (GBW (E) 080393, simulated water). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Redox kinetics of adriamycin adsorbed on the surface of graphite and mercury electrodes.

    PubMed

    Komorsky-Lovrić, Sebojka

    2006-09-01

    Kinetics of the surface redox reactions of adriamycin (doxorubicin hydrochloride) adsorbed on paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE) and on mercury electrode is measured by square-wave voltammetry. In 0.9 mol/L KNO3 buffered to pH 4.65, the standard electrode reaction rate constants of the first quinone/hydroquinone redox couple (see Scheme 2) on PIGE and mercury are k(s1)=49+/-12 s(-1) and k(s1)=147+/-36 s(-1), respectively. Under the same conditions, the standard rate constant of the second redox couple on the PIGE is smaller than 4 s(-1) and the electron transfer coefficient of the reduction is alpha2=0.35.

  17. Stripping voltammetric determination of mercury(II) at antimony-coated carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Amir M; Vytřas, Karel

    2011-10-15

    A new procedure was elaborated to determine mercury(II) using an anodic stripping square-wave voltammetry at the antimony film carbon paste electrode (SbF-CPE). In highly acidic medium of 1M hydrochloric acid, voltammetric measurements can be realized in a wide potential window. Presence of cadmium(II) allows to separate peaks of Hg(II) and Sb(III) and apparently catalyses reoxidation of electrolytically accumulated mercury, thus allowing its determination at ppb levels. Calibration dependence was linear up to 100 ppb Hg with a detection limit of 1.3 ppb. Applicability of the method was tested on the real river water sample.

  18. Differential pulse and square-wave cathodic stripping voltammetry of xanthine and xanthosine at a mercury electrode.

    PubMed

    Temerk, Y M; Kamal, M M; Ahmed, G A W; Ibrahim, H S M

    2003-08-01

    The surface activity of xanthine (Xan) and xanthosine (Xano) at a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) was studied using out-of-phase ac and cyclic dc voltammetry. The results show that Xan and Xano were strongly adsorbed and chemically interacted with the charged mercury surface, which is the prerequisite step for applying the cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of such biologically important compounds. Differential pulse cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPCASV) and square-wave cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWCASV) were applied for the ultratrace determination of Xan and Xano compounds. Moreover, a rapid and sensitive controlled adsorptive accumulation of Cu(II) complexes of both compounds provided the basis of a direct stripping voltammetric determination of such compounds to submicromolar and nanomolar levels. Operational and solution conditions for the quantitative ultratrace determination of Xan and Xano were optimized in absence and presence of Cu(II). The calibration curve data were subjected to least-squares refinements. The effects of several types of inorganic and organic interfering species on the determination of Xan or Xano were considered.

  19. Effect of electrode intrusion on pressure drop and electrochemical performance of an all-vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Jayanti, S.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a study of the effect of electrode intrusion into the flow channel in an all-vanadium redox flow battery. Permeability, pressure drop and electrochemical performance have been measured in a cell with active area 100 cm2and 414 cm2 fitted with a carbon felt electrode of thickness of 3, 6 or 9 mm compressed to 1.5, 2.5 or 4 mm, respectively, during assembly. Results show that the pressure drop is significantly higher than what can be expected in the thick electrode case while its electrochemical performance is lower. Detailed flow analysis using computational fluid dynamics simulations in two different flow fields shows that both these results can be attributed to electrode intrusion into the flow channel leading to increased resistance to electrolyte flow through the electrode. A correlation is proposed to evaluate electrode intrusion depth as a function of compression.

  20. Indirect potentiometric titration of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparations using copper based mercury film electrode.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kamal Nazer, Meeran Mohideen; Hameed, Abdul Rahman Shahul; Riyazuddin, Patel

    2004-01-01

    A simple and rapid potentiometric method for the estimation of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed. The method is based on treating ascorbic acid with iodine and titration of the iodide produced equivalent to ascorbic acid with silver nitrate using Copper Based Mercury Film Electrode (CBMFE) as an indicator electrode. Interference study was carried to check possible interference of usual excipients and other vitamins. The precision and accuracy of the method was assessed by the application of lack-of-fit test and other statistical methods. The results of the proposed method and British Pharmacopoeia method were compared using F and t-statistical tests of significance.

  1. Digital simulation of chronoamperometry at an electrode within a hemispherical polymer drop containing an enzyme: comparison of a hemispherical with a flat disk electrode.

    PubMed

    Britz, Dieter; Strutwolf, Jörg

    2013-12-15

    Current-time and steady state current behaviour was simulated for the cases of a hemispherical and flat inlaid disk electrodes located under a hemispherical polymer drop containing an enzyme which converts a substrate diffusing into the drop into a product that is electroactive at the electrode. As well, a cylindrical electrode with length much greater than its diameter and coated with a layer of polymer/enzyme was treated. The ratio of steady state currents at the hemispherical to the disk electrode is not, as has sometimes been assumed, always equal to π/2; indeed this is only approached for polymer drops with large spillover ratio, that is, having a radius much larger than that of the electrodes. Steady state currents for all electrode geometries (including the cylinder) go through a maximum for some spillover ratio and then approach a constant value for larger spillover ratios. This constant value is the same as that for the diffusion limited current in a semi-infinite medium. For a cylindrical electrode, the steady state current tends towards zero for large spillover ratios.

  2. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of cadmium using a "mercury free" indium film electrode.

    PubMed

    Anandhakumar, Sukeri; Mathiyarasu, Jayaraman; Phani, Kanala Lakshimi Narasimha

    2013-10-07

    In this work, the determination of cadmium has been attempted using an indium film electrode in the presence of bromide ions as an additive, for the first time. The electrode was prepared in situ on a glassy carbon substrate and employed in combination with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The purpose of having bromide ions is to enhance the analytical value of cadmium detection. In the absence of bromide ions, cadmium stripping peaks coalesce with indium and it is difficult to resolve for analytical purposes. The addition of bromide ions strongly influences the peak separation, thanks to the complex-forming characteristics of cadmium with bromide ions. Several key operational parameters influencing the electroanalytical response of indium modified electrodes were examined and optimized, such as deposition potential, pH, bromide ion and indium concentration. The indium modified electrode exhibited well-defined, separated stripping signals and revealed good linear behavior in the examined concentration range from 1 to 25 ng ml(-1). The present method shows a low detection limit value of 0.36 ng ml(-1). These results suggest that the proposed electrode contributes to the wider applicability of electrochemical stripping techniques in connection with "mercury-free" electrodes.

  3. Catalytic hydrogen evolution in cathodic stripping voltammetry on a mercury electrode in the presence of cobalt(II) ion and phenylthiourea or thiourea.

    PubMed

    Spătaru, N; Bănica, F G

    2001-11-01

    The system Co(II)-phenylthiourea (PTU)-borax buffer was investigated by cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) at a hanging mercury drop electrode. The results of the voltammetric measurements showed that the presence of both PTU and Co(II) gives rise to a new irreversible peak at about -1.5 V. Based upon our previous results obtained in the study of other sulfur compounds and the sulfide ion itself, the peak was ascribed to the catalytic hydrogen evolution superimposed on the reduction of the coordinated Co(II) ion. The catalyst itself is a Co(II) complex with the sulfide ion produced by the decomposition of the analyte during the deposition step. The influence of PTU and cobalt concentration, accumulation conditions and stripping parameters was investigated and complementary data on thiourea are included. The results showed that the measurement of the catalytic hydrogen evolution peak current can be used as a basis for a simple, accurate and rapid method for the determination of PTU within the concentration range 10-100 nM. The catalytic method is relatively free of interferences and could be a suitable alternative for cases in which the stripping peak due to mercury ion reduction in the accumulated mercury compound is disturbed by some interference.

  4. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  5. Influence of the inter-electrode gap on the cathode sheath characteristics (voltage drop across it and its thickness)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, V. A.; Artushenko, K. P.; Yegorenkov, V. D.

    2017-05-01

    This paper is devoted to studying how the inter-electrode distance affects the voltage drop across electrodes, the cathode sheath thickness, and the axial distribution of plasma parameters. The experiment demonstrates the simultaneous growth of both the voltage drop across the electrodes and the cathode sheath thickness when on increasing the gap the anode is moved away from the cathode while remaining in the negative glow. This effect is most clearly pronounced under low gas pressure and high current values when the negative glow length is large. The discharge axial structure dynamics is studied with the Langmuir probe technique and with the OOPIC Pro code. The inter-electrode gap growth with the current fixed is found to be accompanied by the plasma concentration increase in the negative glow. The positive plasma potential is shown to cause the current to the grounded anode to be transported by fast electrons accelerated in the cathode sheath. Moving the anode away from the cathode through the negative glow weakens the flow of fast electrons coming to the anode, thus decreasing the discharge current. In order to restore the discharge current, one has to increase the voltage across the electrodes, leading to the cathode sheath thickness increase and the plasma concentration growth in the negative glow.

  6. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002476.htm Mercury To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses poisoning from mercury. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  7. A methylene blue-mediated enzyme electrode for the determination of trace mercury(II), mercury(I), methylmercury, and mercury-glutathione complex.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Zhu, M; Yuan, Z; Li, X

    2001-01-01

    A methylene blue-mediated enzyme biosensor has been developed for the detection of inhibitors including mercury(II), mercury(I), methylmercury, and mercury-glutathione complex. The inhibition to horseradish peroxidase was apparently reversible and noncompetitive in the presence of HgCl2 in less than 8 s and irreversibly inactivated when incubated with different concentrations of HgCl2 for 1-8 min. The binding site of horseradish peroxidase with HgCl2 probably was a cysteine residue SH. Mercury compounds can be assayed amperometrically with the detection limits 0.1 ng ml(-1) Hg for HgCl2 and methylmercury, 0.2 ng ml(-1) Hg for Hg2(NO3)2 and 1.7 ng ml(-1) Hg for mercury glutathione complex. Inactivation of the immobilized horseradish peroxidase was displayed in the AFM images of the enzyme membranes.

  8. Creating gold nanoprisms directly on quartz crystal microbalance electrodes for mercury vapor sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Y. M.; Ippolito, S. J.; O'Mullane, A. P.; Tardio, J.; Bansal, V.; Bhargava, S. K.

    2011-07-01

    A novel electrochemical route is used to form highly {111}-oriented and size-controlled Au nanoprisms directly onto the electrodes of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) which are subsequently used as mercury vapor sensors. The Au nanoprism loaded QCM sensors exhibited excellent response-concentration linearity with a response enhancement of up to ~ 800% over a non-modified sensor at an operating temperature of 28 °C. The increased surface area and atomic-scale features (step/defect sites) introduced during the growth of nanoprisms are thought to play a significant role in enhancing the sensing properties of the Au nanoprisms toward Hg vapor. The sensors are shown to have excellent Hg sensing capabilities in the concentration range of 0.123-1.27 ppmv (1.02-10.55 mg m - 3), with a detection limit of 2.4 ppbv (0.02 mg m - 3) toward Hg vapor when operating at 28 °C, and 17 ppbv (0.15 mg m - 3) at 89 °C, making them potentially useful for air monitoring applications or for monitoring the efficiency of Hg emission control systems in industries such as mining and waste incineration. The developed sensors exhibited excellent reversible behavior (sensor recovery) within 1 h periods, and crucially were also observed to have high selectivity toward Hg vapor in the presence of ethanol, ammonia and humidity, and excellent long-term stability over a 33 day operating period.

  9. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetric determination of thallium(I) at a Nafion/mercury film modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Lu, T H; Yang, H Y; Sun, I W

    1999-06-01

    A Nafion/mercury film electrode (NMFE) was used for the determination of trace thallium(I) in aqueous solutions. Thallium(I) was preconcentrated onto the NMFE from the sample solution containing 0.01 M ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and determined by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Various factors influencing the determination of thallium(I) were thoroughly investigated. This modified electrode exhibits good resistance to interferences from surface-active compounds. The presence of EDTA effectively eliminated the interferences from metal ions, such as lead(II) and cadmium(II), which are generally considered as the major interferents in the determination of thallium at a mercury electrode. With 2-min preconcentration, linear calibration graphs were obtained over the range 0.05-100 ppb of thallium(I). An even lower detection limit, 0.01 ppb, were achieved with 5-min accumulation. The electrode is easy to prepare and can be readily renewed after each stripping experiment. Applicability of this procedure to various water samples is illustrated.

  10. Simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol assembled Au substrate and its recognition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Qing; Liang, Hai-Qing; Cao, Zhong; Xiao, Qing; Xiao, Zhong-Liang; Song, Liu-Bin; Chen, Dan; Wang, Fu-Liang

    2017-03-01

    A simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol (1-UDT) assembled Au substrate (Au/1-UDT) has been well constructed. 1-UDT was for the purpose of generating self-assembled monolayer on gold surface to recognize Hg(2+) in aqueous solution, which had a working concentration range of 1.0×10(-8)-1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a Nernst response slope of 28.83±0.4mV/-pC, a detection limit of 4.5×10(-9)molL(-1), and a good selectivity over the other tested cations. Also, the Au/1-UDT possessed good reproducibility, stability, and short response time. The recovery obtained for the determination of mercury ion in practical tremella samples was in the range of 99.8-103.4%. Combined electrochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with quantum chemical computation, the probable recognition mechanism of the electrode for selective recognition of Hg(2+) has been investigated. The covalent bond formed between mercury and sulfur is stronger than the one between gold and sulfur and thus prevents the adsorption of 1-UDT molecules on the gold surface. The quantum chemical computation with density functional theory further demonstrates that the strong interaction between the mercury atom and the sulfur atom on the gold surface leads to the gold sulfur bond ruptured and the gold mercury metallophilic interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immersed single-drop microextraction-electrothermal vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy for the trace determination of mercury in water samples.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Habib; Naderi, Mehrnoush

    2009-06-15

    A new method based on single-drop microextraction (SDME) combined with electrothermal vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETV-AAS) was developed for the trace determination of mercury in water samples. A microdrop of m-xylene was applied as the extraction solvent. After extraction, the microdrop was introduced, directly, into a graphite furnace of AAS. Some important extraction parameters such as type of solvent, volume of solvent, sample stirring, ionic strength, sample pH, chelating agent concentration, sample temperature, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The highest possible microdrop volume of 10 microL, a sampling temperature of 27 degrees C, and use of m-xylene containing dithizone, as complexing agent, are major parameters led to achieve a high enrichment factor of 970. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the method was 0.01 microg L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 6.1% (n=7). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of Hg in two river water samples. The effects of interfering species such as Pt, Pd, Cu, Au, and Bi, having the tendency to form complexes with dithizone, at two concentration levels of 100 and 1000 microg L(-1) were also studied.

  12. Determination of Antimony (III) in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Gómez González, M. Jesús; Arcos-Martínez, M. Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), the repeatability (3.81 %) and the reproducibility (5.07 %) of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III) was calculated at a value of 1.27×10−8 M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10−8 − 8.26 × 10−8 M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples. PMID:22389596

  13. Determination of Antimony (III) in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Gómez González, M Jesús; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), the repeatability (3.81 %) and the reproducibility (5.07 %) of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III) was calculated at a value of 1.27×10(-8) M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10(-8) - 8.26 × 10(-8) M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  14. Characterization of activated carbon fiber filters for pressure drop, submicrometer particulate collection, and mercury capture.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Lee, T G; Hazelwood, M; Hedrick, E; Biswas, P

    2000-06-01

    The use of activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters for the capture of particulate matter and elemental Hg is demonstrated. The pressure drop and particle collection efficiency characteristics of the ACF filters were established at two different face velocities and for two different aerosols: spherical NaCl and combustion-generated silica particles. The clean ACF filter specific resistance was 153 kg m-2 sec-1. The experimental specific resistance for cake filtration was 1.6 x 10(6) sec-1 and 2.4 x 10(5) sec-1 for 0.5- and 1.5-micron mass median diameter particles, respectively. The resistance factor R was approximately 2, similar to that for the high-efficiency particulate air filters. There was a discrepancy in the measured particle collection efficiencies and those predicted by theory. The use of the ACF filter for elemental Hg capture was illustrated, and the breakthrough characteristic was established. The capacity of the ACF filter for Hg capture was similar to other powdered activated carbons.

  15. Clinical application of peroneal nerve stimulator system using percutaneous intramuscular electrodes for correction of foot drop in hemiplegic patients.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yoichi; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Misawa, Akiko; Ando, Shigeru; Itoi, Eiji; Konishi, Natsuo

    2006-10-01

    Objective.  To assess the orthotic effect of a functional electrical stimulation device (Akita Heel Sensor System; AHSS) in the treatment of hemiplegic gait with foot drop. Materials and Methods.  In the AHSS, a heel sensor is attached to a small plastic heel brace, and the peroneal nerve is stimulated via percutaneous intramuscular electrodes. During the swing phase of the hemiplegic gait, the common peroneal nerve is stimulated by the AHSS. Eight patients in chronic stages of hemiplegia participated in this study. Walking speeds and step cadences on a 10-m course were compared between walking with stimulation and walking without stimulation. Results.  Mean walking speed (± SD) was 0.50 ± 0.26 m/sec without stimulation and 0.64 ± 0.31 m/sec with stimulation. The mean percentage increase in walking speed with stimulation was 30.1%. Mean step cadence was 31 ± 7 steps/10 m without stimulation and 27 ± 7 steps/10 m with stimulation. By correcting foot drop, the AHSS significantly increased walking speed and decreased cadence (p < 0.05). Conclusion.  The AHSS can significantly improve walking in hemiplegic patients with foot drop.

  16. Poly(ester sulphonic acid) coated mercury thin film electrodes: characterization and application in batch injection analysis stripping voltammetry of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Brett, C M; Fungaro, D A

    2000-01-10

    Mercury-thin film electrodes coated with a thin film of poly(ester sulphonic acid) (PESA) have been investigated for application in the analysis of trace heavy metals by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry using the batch injection analysis (BIA) technique. Different polymer dispersion concentrations in water/acetone mixed solvent are investigated and are characterised by electrochemical impedance measurements on glassy carbon and on mercury film electrodes. The influence of electrolyte anion, acetate or nitrate, on polymer film properties is demonstrated, acetate buffer being shown to be preferable for stripping voltammetry applications. Although stripping currents are between 30 and 70% less at the coated than at bare mercury thin film electrodes, the influence of model surfactants on stripping response is shown to be very small. The effect of the composition of the modifier film dispersion on calibration plots is shown; however, detection limits of around 5 nM are found for all modified electrodes tested. This coated electrode is an alternative to Nafion-coated mercury thin film electrodes for the analysis of trace metals in complex matrices, particularly useful when there is a high concentration of non-ionic detergents.

  17. Preparation of a gold electrode modified with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and its application to determination of mercury in the environment.

    PubMed

    Lexa, J; Stulík, K

    1989-08-01

    A gold film electrode modified with a film of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in a PVC matrix has been prepared and tested. Cyclic voltammetric experiments have shown that the electrode is useful for highly selective voltammetric determinations of a number of metals, primarily Hg, Cr, Fe, Bi, Sb, U and Pb. The electrode has been applied to the anodic stripping voltammetric determination of mercury in some environmental samples, such as river sediments. Concentrations of 0.02-50 ppm of mercury can be determined with good precision and accuracy, as demonstrated by analyses of reference materials. A selective decomposition of the samples at laboratory temperature decreases the danger of sample contamination and of volatilization of mercury.

  18. The Influence of Electrode Surface Mercury Film Deformation on the Breakdown Voltage of a Sub-Nanosecond Pulse Discharge Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Ming; Xu, Weijun; Wang, Rui

    2012-11-01

    A sub-nanosecond pulse discharge tube is a gas discharge tube which can generate a rapid high-voltage pulse of kilo-volts in amplitude and sub-nanoseconds in width. In this paper, the sub-nanosecond pulse discharge tube and its working principles are described. Because of the phenomenon that the deformation process of the mercury film on the electrode surface lags behind the charging process, the mercury film deformation process affects the dynamic breakdown voltage of the tube directly. The deformation of the mercury film is observed microscopically, and the dynamic breakdown voltage of the tube is measured using an oscillograph. The results show that all the parameters in the charging process, such as charging resistance, charging capacitance and DC power supply, affect the dynamic breakdown voltage of the tube. Based on these studies, the output pulse amplitude can be controlled continuously and individually by adjusting the power supply voltage. When the DC power supply is adjusted from 7 kV to 10 kV, the dynamic breakdown voltage ranges from 6.5 kV to 10 kV. According to our research, a kind of sub-nanosecond pulse generator is made, with a pulse width ranging from 0.5 ns to 2.5 ns, a rise time from 0.32 ns to 0.58 ns, and a pulse amplitude that is adjustable from 1.5 kV to 5 kV.

  19. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of mercury using multi-walled carbon nanotubes film coated glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongchao

    2003-10-01

    An electrochemical method for the determination of trace levels of mercury based on a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) film coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is described. In 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl solution containing 0.02 mol L(-1) KI, Hg(2+) was firstly preconcentrated at the MWNT film and then reduced at -0.60 V. During the anodic potential sweep, reduced mercury was oxidized, and then a sensitive and well-defined stripping peak at about -0.20 V appeared. Under identical conditions, a MWNT film coated GCE greatly enhances the stripping peak current of mercury in contrast to a bare GCE. Low concentrations of I(-) remarkably improve the determining sensitivity, since this increases the accumulation efficiency of Hg(2+) at the MWNT film coated GCE. The stripping peak current is proportional to the concentration of Hg(2+) over the range 8 x 10(-10)-5 x 10(-7) mol L(-1). The lowest detectable concentration of Hg(2+) is 2 x 10(-10) mol L(-1) at 5 min accumulation. The relative standard deviation (RSD) at 1 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) Hg(2+) was about 6% ( n=10). By using this proposed method, Hg(2+) in some water samples was determined, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The two results are similar, suggesting that the MWNT-film coated GCE has great potential in practical analysis.

  20. Optimization of method for zinc analysis in several bee products on renewable mercury film silver based electrode.

    PubMed

    Opoka, Włodzimierz; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Maślanka, Anna; Piech, Robert; Baś, Bogusław; Włodarczyk, Edyta; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an interesting target for detection as it is one of the elements necessary for the proper functioning of the human body, its excess and deficiency can cause several symptoms. Several techniques including electrochemistry have been developed but require laboratory equipment, preparative steps and mercury or complex working electrodes. We here described the development of a robust, simple and commercially available electrochemical system. Differential pulse (DP) voltammetry was used for this purpose with the cyclic renewable mercury film silver based electrode (Hg(Ag)FE) and 0.05 M KNO3 solution as a supporting electrolyte. The effect of various factors such as: preconcentration potential and time, pulse amplitude and width, step potential and supporting electrolyte composition are optimized. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.62 ng/mL and 4.85 ng/mL, respectively. The repeatability of the method at a concentration level of the analyte as low as 3 ng/mL, expressed as RSD is 3.5% (n = 6). Recovery was determined using certified reference material: Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2). The recovery of zinc ranged from 96.6 to 106.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of zinc in bee products (honey, propolis and diet supplements) after digestion procedure.

  1. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Burns, J. A.; Cassen, P.; Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to the flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft, Mercury was the least investigated and most poorly known terrestrial planet (Kuiper 1970, Devine 1972). Observational difficulties caused by its proximity to the Sun as viewed from Earth caused the planet to remain a small, vague disk exhibiting little surface contrast or details, an object for which only three major facts were known: 1. its bulk density is similar to that of Venus and Earth, much greater than that of Mars and the Moon; 2. its surface reflects electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths in the same manner as the Moon (taking into account differences in their solar distances); and 3. its rotation period is in 2/3 resonance with its orbital period. Images obtained during the flyby by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 (and the two subsequent flybys on 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975) revealed Mercury's surface in detail equivalent to that available for the Moon during the early 1960's from Earth-based telescopic views. Additionally, however, information was obtained on the planet's mass and size, atmospheric composition and density, charged-particle environment, and infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and most significantly of all, the existence of a planetary magnetic field that is probably intrinsic to Mercury was established. In the following, this new information is summarized together with results from theoretical studies and ground-based observations. In the quantum jumps of knowledge that have been characteristic of "space-age" exploration, the previously obscure body of Mercury has suddenly come into sharp focus. It is very likely a differentiated body, probably contains a large Earth-like iron-rich core, and displays a surface remarkably similar to that of the Moon, which suggests a similar evolutionary history.

  2. Quantitative weaknesses of the Marcus-Hush theory of electrode kinetics revealed by Reverse Scan Square Wave Voltammetry: The reduction of 2-methyl-2-nitropropane at mercury microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborda, Eduardo; Wang, Yijun; Henstridge, Martin C.; Martínez-Ortiz, Francisco; Molina, Angela; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-08-01

    The Marcus-Hush and Butler-Volmer kinetic electrode models are compared experimentally by studying the reduction of 2-methyl-2-nitropropane in acetonitrile at mercury microelectrodes using Reverse Scan Square Wave Voltammetry. This technique is found to be very sensitive to the electrode kinetics and to permit critical comparison of the two models. The Butler-Volmer model satisfactorily fits the experimental data whereas Marcus-Hush does not quantitatively describe this redox system.

  3. Anodic stripping voltammetry with gold electrodes as an alternative method for the routine determination of mercury in fish. Comparison with spectroscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Giacomino, Agnese; Ruo Redda, Andrea; Squadrone, Stefania; Rizzi, Marco; Abete, Maria Cesarina; La Gioia, Carmela; Toniolo, Rosanna; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery

    2017-04-15

    The applicability to the determination of mercury in tuna of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SW-ASV) conducted at both solid gold electrode (SGE) and a gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs-GCE) was demonstrated. Mercury content in two certified materials and in ten samples of canned tuna was measured. The performances of the electrodes were compared with one another as well as with two spectroscopic techniques, namely cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) and a direct mercury analyser (DMA). The results found pointed out that both SW-ASV approaches were suitable and easy-to-use method to monitor mercury concentration in tunas, since they allowed accurate quantification at concentration values lower than the maximum admissible level in this matrix ([Hg]=1mg/kgwet weight,ww). In particular, mercury detection at the AuNPs-GCE showed a LOQ in fish-matrix of 0.1μg/l, corresponding to 0.06mg/kgww, with performance comparable to that of DMA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potentiometric detection of mercury(II) ions using a carbon paste electrode modified with substituted thiourea-functionalized highly ordered nanoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Mehran; Divsar, Faten; Badiei, Alireza; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Mohammadi Ziarani, Ghodsi; Chaloosi, Marzieh; Abdi Jahangir, Ali

    2009-06-01

    A potentiometric sensor is reported for the mercury(II) detection, which uses substituted thiourea-functionalized nanoporous silica (FTU-LUS-1) as the sensitive material. Substituted thiourea (FTU) and FTU-LUS-1 were first prepared and then characterized by 1H NMR, 19F NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, XRD, TG and CNS elemental analysis. The electrodes with FTU-LUS-1 proportion of 10.0 wt% demonstrated very stable potentials. The prepared electrodes exhibit a Nernstian slope of 28.4 +/- 1.0 mV decade(-1) for mercury(II) ion over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-1) mol dm(-3). The electrode exhibited a detection limit of 7.0 x 10(-8) mol dm(-3). Moreover, the selectivity coefficient, response time, performance, sensitivity and stability of the modified electrode were investigated. The electrode presented a response time of about 35 s, a high performance and sensitivity in a wide range of cation activities as well as good long term stability (more than 9 months). The method was satisfactory and could also be used to monitor the mercury(II) ion concentration in waste water and fish samples.

  5. Simulation of the chemical fate and bioavailability of liquid elemental mercury drops from gold mining in Amazonian freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Dominique, Yannick; Muresan, Bogdan; Duran, Robert; Richard, Sandrine; Boudou, Alain

    2007-11-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg(o)) for gold amalgamation is the main process applied by artisanal gold miners in South America, leading to important discharges into freshwater ecosystems. Through a 28-day experimental approach based on indoor microcosms, we simulated the chemical fate and bioavailability of Hg(o) droplets in the presence or absence of sediment collected from a typical forest creek that is unaffected by gold mining activities. Our results clearly showed significant mercury transfers in the water column in both the dissolved gaseous Hg(o) and oxidized (Hg(II)) forms, with a marked effect of the presence of sediment. After 28 days, Hg total (HgT) concentration in the water column was 25 times higher in sediment-free units (108 +/- 17 vs. 4 +/- 0.4 nM). Methylmercury (MeHg) determinations in the dissolved fraction showed a significant increase only in the presence of sediment after 7 and 14 days. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used as indicators for mercury bioavailability. The HgT determinations in four organs revealed significant accumulation levels as early as 7 days exposure, with marked differences in favor of fish collected from the sediment-free units. Significant MeHg increases were observed in the four organs only when sediment was present. Genomic tools applied to estimate sulfate-reducing bacteria communities showed mercury impacts on their diversity and distribution in the different compartments (water, sediment, biofilm, fish gut).

  6. Preconcentration and determination of mercury(II) at a chemically modified electrode containing 3-(2-thioimidazolyl)propyl silica gel.

    PubMed

    Dias Filho, Newton L; do Carmo, Devaney R; Caetano, Laércio; Rosa, André H

    2005-11-01

    A mercury-sensitive chemically modified graphite paste electrode was constructed by incorporating modified silica gel into a conventional graphite paste electrode. The functional group attached to the (3-chloropropyl) silica gel surface was 2-mercaptoimidazole, giving a new product denoted by 3-(2-thioimidazolyl)propyl silica gel, which is able to complex mercury ions. Mercury was chemically adsorbed on the modified graphite paste electrode containing 3-(2-thioimidazolyl)propyl silica (TIPSG GPE) by immersion in a Hg(II) solution, and the resultant surface was characterized by cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. One cathodic peak at 0.1 V and other anodic peak at 0.34 V were observed on scanning the potential from -0.1 to 0.8 V (0.01 M KNO3; v = 2.0 mV s(-1) vs. Ag/AgCl). The anodic peak at 0.34 V show an excellent sensitivity for Hg(II) ions in the presence of several foreign ions. A calibration graph covering the concentration range from 0.02 to 2 mg L(-1) was obtained. The detection limit was estimated to be 5 microg L(-1). The precision for six determinations of 0.05 and 0.26 mg L(-1) Hg(II) was 3.0 and 2.5% (relative standard deviation), respectively. The method can be used to determine the concentration of mercury(II) in natural waters contaminated by this metal.

  7. Part I. Carbon and mercury-carbon optically transparent electrodes. Part II. Investigation of redox properties of technetium by cyclic voltammetry and thin layer spectroelectrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon optically transparent electrode (C OTE) has been prepared by vapor-deposithing a thin carbon film (150 to 310 A thick) on glass and quartz. Optical transparency is good throughout the ultraviolet-visible region. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical measurements were made with ferricyanide and o-tolidine respectively. The C OTE serves as a good substrate for deposition of a thin mercury film to form a mercury film transparent electrode (Hg-C OTE). The Hg-C OTE exhibits electrochemical properties of conventional mercury film electrodes as evidenced by Pb/sup 2 +/ cyclic voltammograms. The Hg-C OTE exhibits electrochemical properties of conventional mercury film electrodes as evidenced by Pb/sup 2 -/ cyclic VOHammograms. The Hg-C OTE enabled the spectrochemical characterization of cysteine oxidation, which was shown to involve the oxidation of mercury to form mercurous cysteinate. An 8080 based microcomputer has been interfaced with a Harrick oscillating mirror rapid scanning uv-visible spectrophotometer. Two different approaches are compared for controlling the galvanometer. The first utilizes the digital hardware on the Harrick processing module to derive the mirror drive waveform, while the second creates the waveform under direct software control. A potentiostat is also interfaced and the system is demonstrated by the spectroelectrochemical determination of the redox potential of o-tolidine. Redox potentials are also determined for a series of technetium complexes by the spectropotentiostatic technique. These include hexahalogens, ditertiary arsine, and 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino) ethane complexes of technetium. Transient hexavalent technetium is produced, detected, and characterized in aqueous alkaline media by pulse radiolysis and very fast scan cyclic voltammetry. The lifetime is of the order of milliseconds. This species is potentially useful in the preparation of technetium radiopharmaceuticals.

  8. The cyclic renewable mercury film silver based electrode for determination of molybdenum(VI) traces using adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Piech, Robert; Baś, Bogusław; Kubiak, Władysław W

    2008-07-15

    The new cyclic renewable mercury film silver based electrode (Hg(Ag)FE), applied for the determination of molybdenum(VI) traces using differential pulse adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP AdSV) is presented. The Hg(Ag)FE electrode is characterized by very good surface reproducibility (

  9. Simultaneous automatic electrochemical detection of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead ions in environmental samples using a thin-film mercury electrode and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-12-30

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933).

  10. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933). PMID:25558996

  11. Synthetic silver oxide and mercury-free zinc electrodes for silver-zinc reserve batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David F.; Gucinski, James A.

    Reserve activated silver oxide-zinc cells were constructed with synthetic silver oxide (Ag 2O) electrodes with Pb-treated zinc electrodes produced by a non-electrolytic process. The cells were tested before and after thermally accelerated aging. At discharge rates up to 80 mA cm -2, the discharge was limited by the Ag 2O electrode, with a coulombic efficiency between 89-99%. At higher rates, the cells are apparently zinc-limited. Test cells were artificially aged at 90°C for 19 h and discharged at 21°C at 80 mA cm -2. No capacity loss was measured, but a delayed activation rise time was noted (192 ms fresh vs. 567 ms aged). The delay is thought to be caused by zinc passivation due to the outgassing of cell materials.

  12. Electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a carbon paste electrode surface for the determination of mercury.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Srikant; Satpati, Ashis Kumar; Reddy, Annareddy Venkata Ramana

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical method was developed for the determination of Hg at ultratrace levels using an Au nanoparticle (AuNP) array modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) by anodic stripping voltammetry. Scanning electron microscopy measurements imaged the size and shape of AuNPs on the CPE substrate; it was possible to tune the size and the NP density by changing the deposition time and medium. Electrochemical characterization of the AuNP modified CPE was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance measurements. Interferences due to some commonly occurring metal ions and surfactants on the stripping peak of Hg were also investigated. The 3σ detection limit for Hg using the AuNP modified electrode was as 0.24 μg/L. This method was applied to determine Hg in soil samples.

  13. Determination of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine in diluted alkaline electrolyte by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at the mercury film electrode.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arnaldo Aguiar; Aucélio, Ricardo Queiroz; Rey, Nicolás Adrián; Miguel, Eliane Monsores; Farias, Percio Augusto Mardini

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a stripping method for the determination of nevirapine at the submicromolar concentration levels. The method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation of nevirapine at thin-film mercury electrode, followed by a linear cyclic scan voltammetry measurement of the surface species. Optimal experimental conditions include a 2.0 x 10(-3) mol L(-1) NaOH solution (supporting electrolyte), an accumulation potential of -0.20 V, and a scan rate of 100 mV s(-1). The response of nevirapine is linear over the concentration range 0.01-0.14 ppm. For an accumulation time of 6 minutes, the detection limit was found to be 0.87 ppb (3.0 x 10(-9) mol L(-1)). More convenient methods to measure the nevirapine in presence of the efavirenz, acyclovir, didanosine, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, lamivudine, zidovudine and metals ions were also investigated. The utility of this method is demonstrated by the presence of nevirapine together with ATP or DNA.

  14. Determination of Xanthine in the Presence of Hypoxanthine by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Percio Augusto Mardini; Castro, Arnaldo Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    A stripping method for the determination of xanthine in the presence of hypoxanthine at the submicromolar concentration levels is described. The method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation at the thin-film mercury electrode followed by a fast linear scan voltammetric measurement of the surface species. Optimum experimental conditions were found to be the use of 1.0 × 10−3 mol L−1 NaOH solution as supporting electrolyte, an accumulation potential of 0.00 V for xanthine and −0.50 V for hypoxanthine–copper, and a linear scan rate of 200 mV second−1. The response of xanthine is linear over the concentration ranges of 20–140 ppb. For an accumulation time of 30 minutes, the detection limit was found to be 36 ppt (2.3 × 10−10 mol L−1). Adequate conditions for measuring the xanthine in the presence of hypoxanthine, copper and other metals, uric acid, and other nitrogenated bases were also investigated. The utility of the method is demonstrated by the presence of xanthine associated with hypoxanthine, uric acid, nitrogenated bases, ATP, and ssDNA. PMID:24940040

  15. Determination of the Antiretroviral Drug Acyclovir in Diluted Alkaline Electrolyte by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arnaldo Aguiar; Cordoves, Ana Isa Perez; Farias, Percio Augusto Mardini

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a stripping method for the determination of acyclovir at the submicromolar concentration level. This method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation of acyclovir at thin-film mercury electrode, followed by a linear cyclic scan voltammetry measurement of the surface species. Optimal experimental conditions include a NaOH solution of 2.0 × 10−3 mol L−1 (supporting electrolyte), an accumulation potential of −0.40 V, and a scan rate of 100 mV s−1. The response of acyclovir is linear over the concentration range 0.02 to 0.12 ppm. For an accumulation time of 4 minutes, the detection limit was found to be 0.42 ppb (1.0 × 10−9 mol L−1). More convenient methods to measure the acyclovir in presence of the didanosine, efavirenz, nevirapine, nelfinavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine were also investigated. The utility of this method is demonstrated by the presence of acyclovir together with Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or DNA. PMID:23761958

  16. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R.V. Flora; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Andrew Karash; Henry W. Pennline; Radisav D. Vidic

    2006-03-15

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal from coal combustion using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10{sup -13}m{sup 2} and 2.5 x 10{sup -4}m{sup -1}, respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval. 17 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters.

    PubMed

    Flora, Joseph R V; Hargis, Richard A; O'Dowd, William J; Karash, Andrew; Pennline, Henry W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2006-03-01

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10(-13) m2 and 2.5 x 10(-4) m(-1), respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval.

  18. From mercury to nanosensors: Past, present and the future perspective of electrochemistry in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Sibel A; Uslu, Bengi

    2016-10-25

    Polarography was the first developed automated method of voltage-controlled electrolysis with dropping mercury electrode (DME). Then, hanging mercury drop and static mercury drop electrodes were added as an alternative indicator electrode. In this way, polarography turned formally into voltammetry with mercury electrodes in the electroreduction way. Solid electrodes such as noble metal and carbon based electrodes can be used for the investigation of the compounds for both oxidation and reduction directions, which is called voltammetry. The voltammetric and polarographic techniques are more sensitive, reproducible, and easily used electroanalytical methods that can be alternative to more frequently used separation and spectrometric methods. Furthermore, in some cases there is a relationship between voltammetry and pharmaceutical samples, and the knowledge of the mechanism of their electrode reactions can give a useful clue in elucidation of the mechanism of their interaction with living cells. The voltammetric and polarographic analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical preparations are by far the most common use of electrochemistry for analytical pharmaceutical problems. Recent trends and challenges in the electrochemical methods for the detection of DNA hybridization and pathogens are available. Low cost, small sample requirement and possibility of miniaturization justifies their increasing development.

  19. Mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on glassy carbon electrodes: Ion-exchange, permselectivity properties and analytical application of poly-l-lysine-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-coated mercury film electrodes for the detection of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Monterroso, Sandra C C; Carapuça, Helena M; Duarte, Armando C

    2006-02-28

    The present work describes the preparation, optimization and characterization of mixed polyelectrolyte coatings of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) for the modification of thin mercury film electrodes (MFEs). The novel-modified electrodes were applied in the direct analysis of trace metals in estuarine waters by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The effects of the coating morphology and thickness and also of the monomeric molar ratio PLL/PSS on the cation-exchange ability of the PLL-PSS polyelectrolyte coatings onto glassy carbon (GC) were evaluated using target cationic species such as dopamine (DA) or lead cation. Further, the semi-permeability of the PLL-PSS-coated electrodes based both on electrostatic interactions and on molecular size leads to an improved anti-fouling ability against several tensioactive species. The analytical usefulness of the PLL-PSS-mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on thin mercury film electrodes is demonstrated via SWASV measurements of trace metals (lead, copper and cadmium at the low nanomolar level; accumulation time of 180s) in estuarine waters containing moderate levels of dissolved organic matter, resulting in a fast and direct methodology requiring no sample pretreatment.

  20. Application of artificial neural network to simultaneous potentiometric determination of silver(I), mercury(II) and copper(II) ions by an unmodified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Tashkhourian, Javad; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Sharghi, Hashem

    2004-10-20

    The response characteristics and selectivity coefficients of an unmodified carbon paste electrode (CPEs) towards Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) were evaluated. The electrode was used as an indicator electrode for the simultaneous determination of the three metal ions in their mixtures via potentiometric titration with a standard thiocyanate solution. A three-layered feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) trained by back-propagation learning algorithm was used to model the complex non-linear relationship between the concentration of silver, copper and mercury in their different mixtures and the potential of solution at different volumes of the added titrant. The network architecture and parameters were optimized to give low prediction errors. The optimized networks were able to precisely predict the concentrations of the three cations in synthetic mixtures.

  1. Electrochemical reduction of chloridazon at mercury electrodes, and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Zimpl, M; Kotoucek, M; Lemr, K; Veselá, J; Skopalová, J

    2001-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the herbicide chloridazon, I (pyrazon), at different pH is described. The electrode reaction (one wave in acidic media and another in alkaline media), investigated using direct current and pulse voltammetry, controlled-potential coulometry, and HPLC-MS, is a combination of the electroreduction (two-electron in the first step) and a kinetic process as a result of which simple compounds (HCl, NH3) are released and, moreover, a five-membered pyrrole cycle is formed in strongly acid media. Products of the kinetic reaction are further reducible. The dissociation constant of I, pKa = 2.96, was found spectrophotometrically. Fast-scan differential pulse voltammetry (FSDPV) was used for determination of I; the detection limit was 2.7 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) (0.006 microg L(-1)) at pH 2.3. Chloridazon was determined in spiked drinking and river water.

  2. Simultaneous determination of copper and lead in seawater using optimised thin-mercury film electrodes in situ plated in thiocyanate media.

    PubMed

    Carapuça, Helena M; Monterroso, Sandra C C; Rocha, Luciana S; Duarte, Armando C

    2004-10-08

    In the present work the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) methodology using a thin mercury film electrode in situ plated in thiocyanate media was re-assessed in order to allow the simultaneous determination of copper and lead in seawater. Under previously suggested conditions [6], i.e. using a concentration of thiocyanate of 5mM, the ASV peaks of copper and lead overlapped due to the formation of a stable copper(I)-thiocyanate species, limiting the analytical determinations. Therefore, the best value for the thiocyanate concentration was re-evaluated: for 0.05mM a trade-off between good resolution of the copper and lead peaks and high reproducibility of the mercury film formation/removing processes was achieved. In this media, the ASV peaks for Pb and Cu occurred, separated by 140mV. Also, the in situ thin mercury film electrode was produced and removed with good repeatability, which was confirmed by the relative standard deviation values for the ASV determinations: 0.5% for Pb and 2.0% for Cu (10 replicate determinations in a solution with metal concentrations 1.5x10(-8)M for lead and 2.2x10(-8)M for copper). The optimised methodology was successfully applied to the determination of copper in the presence of lead, in certified seawater (NASS-5).

  3. Trace vanadium analysis by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry using mercury-coated micro-wire and polystyrene-coated bismuth film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2009-06-08

    An electrochemical technique has been developed for ultra-trace (ng L(-1)) vanadium (V) measurement. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry for V analysis was developed at mercury-coated gold micro-wire electrodes (MWEs, 100 microm) in the presence of gallic acid (GA) and bromate ion. A potential of -0.275 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was used to accumulate the complex in acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at the electrode surface followed by a differential pulse voltammetric scan. Parameters affecting the electrochemical response, including pH, concentration of GA and bromate, deposition potential and time have been optimized. Linear response was obtained in the 0-1000 ng L(-1) range (2 min deposition), with a detection limit of 0.88 ng L(-1). The method was validated by comparison of results for an unknown solution of V by atomic absorption measurement. The protocol was evaluated in a real sample by measuring the amount of V in river water samples. Thick bismuth film electrodes with protective polystyrene films have also been made and evaluated as a mercury free alternative. However, ng L(-1) level detection was only attainable with extended (10 min) deposition times. The proposed use of MWEs for the detection of V is sensitive enough for future use to test V concentration in biological fluids treated by the advanced oxidation process (AOP).

  4. Ion-exchange voltammetry with nafion/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) mixed coatings on mercury film electrodes: characterization studies and application to the determination of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luciana S; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Carapuça, Helena M

    2006-09-12

    This work aimed to produce improved polymer coatings for the modification of thin mercury film electrodes (TMFEs). The goal is to obtain sensitive, reproducible, mechanically stable and antifouling devices suitable for the determination of trace metal cations in complex media. Therefore, novel mixed coatings of two sulfonated cation-exchange polymers of dissimilar characteristics-Nafion (NA) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-were produced by solvent evaporation onto glassy carbon electrodes. The effect of the mass ratio (NA:PSS) on the film morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy, revealing the formation of biphasic polymer systems, where PSS bead-shaped clusters appeared randomly dispersed into a uniform and compact NA environment. The permselectivity/ion-exchange features of the mixed films onto glassy carbon were evaluated using cathecol, urate, and dopamine. To allow trace metal analysis, thin mercury films were plated through the NA/PSS coatings, being the reproducibility and ion-exchange features of the mixed coatings-TMFE evaluated using lead ions. The best NA/PSS coating was found for the mass ratio of 5.3. Analytical performance of the NA/PSS-TMFE yielded a detection limit of 5.5 nM (3sigma), and the application of this modified electrode to an untreated polluted estuarine water sample produced significant improvements in the quality of the signal compared with that for a bare TMFE.

  5. Trace vanadium analysis by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry using mercury-coated micro-wire and polystyrene-coated bismuth film electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce; Chambers, James Q.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical technique has been developed for ultra trace (ngL−1) vanadium (V) measurement. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry for V analysis was developed at mercury-coated gold micro-wire (MWE, 100 μm) electrodes in the presence of gallic acid (GA) and bromate ion. A potential of −0.275 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was used to accumulate the complex in acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at the electrode surface followed by a differential pulse voltammetric scan. Parameters affecting the electrochemical response, including pH, concentration of GA and bromate, deposition potential and time have been optimized. Linear response was obtained in the 0–1000 ngL−1 range (2 min deposition), with a detection limit of 0.88 ngL−1. The method was validated by comparison of results for an unknown solution of V by atomic absorption measurement. The protocol was evaluated in a real sample by measuring the amount of V in river water samples. Thick bismuth film electrodes with protective polystyrene films have also been made and evaluated as a mercury free alternative. However, ngL−1 level detection was only attainable with extended (10 min) deposition times. The proposed use of MWEs for the detection of V is sensitive enough for future use to test V concentration in biological fluids treated by the advanced oxidation process (AOP). PMID:19446059

  6. Mercury determination in urine samples by gold nanostructured screen-printed carbon electrodes after vortex-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Elena; Vidal, Lorena; Costa-García, Agustín; Canals, Antonio

    2016-04-07

    A novel approach is presented to determine mercury in urine samples, employing vortex-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and microvolume back-extraction to prepare samples, and screen-printed electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles for voltammetric analysis. Mercury was extracted directly from non-digested urine samples in a water-immiscible ionic liquid, being back-extracted into an acidic aqueous solution. Subsequently, it was determined using gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed electrodes. Under optimized microextraction conditions, standard addition calibration was applied to urine samples containing 5, 10 and 15 μg L(-1) of mercury. Standard addition calibration curves using standards between 0 and 20 μg L(-1) gave a high level of linearity with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.990 to 0.999 (N = 5). The limit of detection was empirical and statistically evaluated, obtaining values that ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 μg L(-1), and from 1.1 to 1.3 μg L(-1), respectively, which are significantly lower than the threshold level established by the World Health Organization for normal mercury content in urine (i.e., 10-20 μg L(-1)). A certified reference material (REC-8848/Level II) was analyzed to assess method accuracy finding 87% and 3 μg L(-1) as the recovery (trueness) and standard deviation values, respectively. Finally, the method was used to analyze spiked urine samples, obtaining good agreement between spiked and found concentrations (recovery ranged from 97 to 100%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Clere, T.M.

    1983-08-30

    A 3-dimensional electrode is disclosed having substantially coplanar and substantially flat portions and ribbon-like curved portions, said curved portions being symmetrical and alternating in rows above and below said substantially coplanar, substantially flat portions, respectively, and a geometric configuration presenting in one sectional aspect the appearance of a series of ribbon-like oblate spheroids interrupted by said flat portions and in another sectional aspect, 90/sup 0/ from said one aspect, the appearance of a square wave pattern.

  8. Voltammetric detection of lead(II) and mercury(II) using a carbon paste electrode modified with thiol self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (SAMMS).

    PubMed

    Yantasee, Wassana; Lin, Yuehe; Zemanian, Thomas S; Fryxell, Glen E

    2003-05-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode modified with thiol terminated self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (SH-SAMMS) provides a new sensor for simultaneous detection of lead (Pb2+) and mercury (Hg2+) in aqueous solutions. The overall analysis involved a two-step procedure: an accumulation step at open circuit, followed by medium exchange to a pure electrolyte solution for the stripping analysis. Factors affecting the performance of the SH-SAMMS modified electrodes were investigated, including electrode activation and regeneration, electrode composition, preconcentration time, electrolysis time, and composition of electrolysis and stripping media. The most sensitive and reliable electrode contained 20% SH-SAMMS and 80% carbon paste. The optimal operating conditions were a sequence with a 2 min preconcentration period, then a 60 s electrolysis period of the preconcentrated species in 0.2 M nitric acid, followed by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from -1.0 V to 0.6 V in 0.2 M nitric acid. The areas of the peak responses were linear with respect to metal ion concentrations in the ranges of 10-1500 ppb Pb2+ and 20-1600 ppb Hg2+. The detection limits for Pb2+ and Hg2+ were 0.5 ppb Pb2+ and 3 ppb Hg2+ after a 20 min preconcentration period.

  9. Flow injection analysis of mercury(II) in pharmaceuticals based on enzyme inhibition and biosensor detection.

    PubMed

    Bertocchi, P; Ciranni, E; Compagnone, D; Magearu, V; Palleschi, G; Pirvutoiu, S; Valvo, L

    1999-06-01

    An enzymatic amperometric procedure for measurement of mercury(II) in pharmaceuticals, based on the inhibition of invertase and on a glucose electrode was studied. Analytical parameters for measurements in batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) have been optimised. Mercury(II) was detected in the 10-60 ppb range with RSD < or =2%. A sample throughput of 6 h(-1) for batch and 15 h(-1) for FIA was obtained. The total mercury(II) from thimerosal (thiomersal, sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate) in eye-drop samples was measured with the amperometric procedure after oxidative cleavage treatment. Results for both batch and FIA procedures correlated well with atomic absorbtion spectroscopy (AAS) data.

  10. Voltammetric studies of Cu-adriblastina complex and its effect on ssDNA-adriblastina interaction at in situ mercury film electrode.

    PubMed

    El-Hady, D Abd; Abdel-Hamid, M Ibrahim; Seliem, M Mahmoud; E-Maali, N Abo

    2004-11-01

    Adriblastina, a cancerostatic anthracycline antibiotic, causes considerable oxidative damage to DNA molecules. The interaction of this compound with DNA was investigated using Osteryoung square wave stripping voltammetry (OSWSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) at an in situ mercury film electrode. It was found that the equilibrium constant of the bonded oxidized form of the drug was 63 times bigger more important than that of the bonded reduced form. Copper forms 1 metal: 2 drug stoichiometry complex which is highly stable compared to ssDNA-drug interaction and consequently inhibited the drug biochemical damaging effects. Copper complex offered sub-nanogram determination of adriblastina in aqueous and urine media.

  11. An experimental comparison of the Marcus-Hush and Butler-Volmer descriptions of electrode kinetics applied to cyclic voltammetry. The one electron reductions of europium (III) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane studied at a mercury microhemisphere electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henstridge, Martin C.; Wang, Yijun; Limon-Petersen, Juan G.; Laborda, Eduardo; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-11-01

    We present a comparative experimental evaluation of the Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush models using cyclic voltammetry at a microelectrode. Numerical simulations are used to fit experimental voltammetry of the one electron reductions of europium (III) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane, in water and acetonitrile, respectively, at a mercury microhemisphere electrode. For Eu (III) very accurate fits to experiment were obtained over a wide range of scan rates using Butler-Volmer kinetics, whereas the Marcus-Hush model was less accurate. The reduction of 2-methyl-2-nitropropane was well simulated by both models, however Marcus-Hush required a reorganisation energy lower than expected.

  12. How voltage drops are manifested by lithium ion configurations at interfaces and in thin films on battery electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kevin; Leenheer, Andrew Jay

    2015-04-09

    Battery electrode surfaces are generally coated with electronically insulating solid films of thickness 1-50 nm. Both electrons and Li+ can move at the electrode–surface film interface in response to the voltage, which adds complexity to the “electric double layer” (EDL). We also apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to investigate how the applied voltage is manifested as changes in the EDL at atomic length scales, including charge separation and interfacial dipole moments. Illustrating examples include Li3PO4, Li2CO3, and LixMn2O4 thin films on Au(111) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Adsorbed organic solvent molecules can strongly reduce voltages predicted in vacuum. We propose that manipulating surface dipoles, seldom discussed in battery studies, may be a viable strategy to improve electrode passivation. We also distinguish the computed potential governing electrons, which is the actual or instantaneous voltage, and the “lithium cohesive energy”-based voltage governing Li content widely reported in DFT calculations, which is a slower-responding self-consistency criterion at interfaces. Furthermore, this distinction is critical for a comprehensive description of electrochemical activities on electrode surfaces, including Li+ insertion dynamics, parasitic electrolyte decomposition, and electrodeposition at overpotentials.

  13. How voltage drops are manifested by lithium ion configurations at interfaces and in thin films on battery electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Leung, Kevin; Leenheer, Andrew Jay

    2015-04-09

    Battery electrode surfaces are generally coated with electronically insulating solid films of thickness 1-50 nm. Both electrons and Li+ can move at the electrode–surface film interface in response to the voltage, which adds complexity to the “electric double layer” (EDL). We also apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to investigate how the applied voltage is manifested as changes in the EDL at atomic length scales, including charge separation and interfacial dipole moments. Illustrating examples include Li3PO4, Li2CO3, and LixMn2O4 thin films on Au(111) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Adsorbed organic solvent molecules can strongly reduce voltages predicted in vacuum. We proposemore » that manipulating surface dipoles, seldom discussed in battery studies, may be a viable strategy to improve electrode passivation. We also distinguish the computed potential governing electrons, which is the actual or instantaneous voltage, and the “lithium cohesive energy”-based voltage governing Li content widely reported in DFT calculations, which is a slower-responding self-consistency criterion at interfaces. Furthermore, this distinction is critical for a comprehensive description of electrochemical activities on electrode surfaces, including Li+ insertion dynamics, parasitic electrolyte decomposition, and electrodeposition at overpotentials.« less

  14. On-site fuel electroanalysis: determination of lead, copper and mercury in fuel bioethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry using screen-printed gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Eduardo S; Richter, Eduardo M; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2014-07-21

    The potential application of commercial screen-printed gold electrodes (SPGEs) for the trace determination of lead, copper, and mercury in fuel bioethanol is demonstrated. Samples were simply diluted in 0.067 mol L(-1) HCl solution prior to square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) measurements recorded with a portable potentiostat. The proposed method presented a low detection limit (<2 μg L(-1)) for a 240 s deposition time, linear range between 5 and 300 μg L(-1), and adequate recovery values (96-104%) for spiked samples. This analytical method shows great promise for on-site trace metal determination in fuel bioethanol once there is no requirement for sample treatment or electrode modification.

  15. Square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry of molybdenum(VI) in continuous flow at a wall-jet mercury film electrode sensor.

    PubMed

    Neto, M M; Rocha, M M; Brett, C M

    1994-09-01

    An adsorptive stripping voltammetry method for the determination of traces of molybdenum(VI) in flowing solution at a wall-jet electrode sensor has been developed. After adsorption of a molybdenum complex on a wall-jet mercury film electrode, the complex is reduced by a square wave scan. More satisfactory results were obtained using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a complexing agent in nitrate medium than using Toluidine Blue in oxalic acid. Enhanced sensitivity was achieved by optimizing adsorption time and square wave parameter values. The detection limit of Mo(VI) was found to be at the nanomolar level. Interference of some other metallic species in the determination of nanomolar Mo(VI) was also investigated: Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II) do not interfere at 10 muM, whereas 1 muM FeEDTA(-) causes an increase in peak current. This iron interference was removed effectively with citric acid.

  16. Transient current response of iron-nickel-chromium alloy rotating cylindrical electrodes scribed with a dropped stylus

    SciTech Connect

    Odegard, C.A.; Bronson, A.

    1997-10-01

    The scribing technique was used to investigate dissolution and repassivation kinetics of three iron-nickel-chromium (Fe-Ni-Cr) electrodes immersed in a 0.01 M potassium chloride (KCl) + 0.01 M sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electrolyte. The study related the extent of surface deformation with the electrochemical response, as a result of a Vickers diamond impacting a rotating cylindrical electrode (RCE). The transient current response and transient impact force (F{sub imp}) of the stylus were measured simultaneously. For a given alloy, the scratch current density (i{sub s}) was observed to remain unchanged with respect to F{sub imp} of the stylus from 44 N to 432 N. Activation charge density (q{sub act}) was observed to remain constant with F{sub imp}, whereas the repassivation charge density (q{sub rep}) increased with increasing F{sub imp}. Surface deformation of the alloys was discussed according to the principles of microindentation of alloys, which showed that electrochemical responses for the alloys corresponded with the plastically deformed zone associated with the scratch. Alloy composition affected i{sub s}, q{sub act}, and q{sub rep} for the F{sub imp} values measured.

  17. Highly Selective Mercury Detection at Partially Oxidized Graphene/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate) Nanocomposite Film Modified Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Nael; Sundramoorthy, Ashok; Chang, Woo-Jin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2014-12-01

    Partially oxidized graphene flakes (po-Gr) were obtained from graphite electrode by an electrochemical exfoliation method. As-produced po-Gr flakes were dispersed in water with the assistance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The po-Gr flakes and the po-Gr/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite (po-Gr/PEDOT:PSS) were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, we demonstrated the potential use of po-Gr/PEDOT:PSS electrode in electrochemical detection of mercury ions (Hg2+) in water samples. The presence of po-Gr sheets in PEDOT:PSS film greatly enhanced the electrochemical response for Hg2+. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a well-defined Hg2+ redox peaks with a cathodic peak at 0.23 V, and an anodic peak at 0.42 V. Using differential pulse stripping voltammetry, detection of Hg2+ was achieved in the range of 0.2 to 14 µM (R2 = 0.991), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.19 µM for Hg2+. The electrode performed satisfactorily for sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ in real samples, and the po-Gr/PEDOT:PSS film remains stable on the electrode surface for repeated use. Therefore, our method is potentially suitable for routine Hg2+ sensing in environmental water samples.

  18. Ultramicroband array electrode. 1. Analysis of mercury in contaminated soils and flue gas exposed samples using a gold-plated iridium portable system by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Dietze, William; Nyasulu, Frazier; Mibeck, Blaise A F

    2006-07-15

    The applicability of a gold-plated iridium Nano-Band array ultramicroelectrode (6 microm by 0.2 microm, 64-microm interspacing, 100 electrode bands) in the analysis of mercury using a portable system is demonstrated by anodic stripping voltammetry in real-life samples. Optimized measurement parameters, 0.1 M HCl electrolyte, plating potential of 0 mV, and staircase scan mode were identified. The dynamic linear range is 10-180 ppb at 5-s deposition time with 1.5 microC of gold plated. The experimental detection limit for Hg2+ in 0.1 M HCl was 0.5 ppb at a deposition time of 4 min and a scan rate of 10 V/s. Real-life samples, such as flue gas exposed samples from flue gas simulators could be analyzed within 5 min using the method of standard additions. We identified a field-portable extraction procedure for soil samples using 1:1 concentrated HNO3/30% H2O2 mixture, compatible with ASV and the iridium electrode. The detection limit for soils is 1 ppm. The results obtained using ASV are in good agreement with reference values using cold vapor atomic absorption for the sample matrixes studied here. To our knowledge, this is the first mercury application using a reusable iridium array ultramicroelectrode. The portable potentiostat is less than 500 g, and together with the portable digestion method, makes the Nano-Band Explorer system field applicable.

  19. "One-drop-of-blood" electroanalysis of lead levels in blood using a foam-like mesoporous polymer of melamine-formaldehyde and disposable screen-printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanfang; Xu, Lubin; Li, Shuying; Chen, Qi; Yang, Daoshan; Chen, Lingxin; Wang, Hua

    2015-03-21

    A foam-like mesoporous polymer of melamine-formaldehyde (mPMF) was synthesized and further deposited on disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the electroanalysis of Pb(2+) ions in blood. Investigations indicate that the prepared mPMF is ultrastable in water, showing a mesoporous structure and an amine-rich composition, as characterized by electronic microscopy images and IR spectra. Importantly, it possesses a highly-selective chelating ability and a powerful absorbent capacity for Pb(2+) ions. By way of solid-state PbCl2 voltammetry, the mPMF-modified sensor could allow for the detection of Pb(2+) ions in one drop of blood with a high detection selectivity, sensitivity (down to about 0.10 μg L(-1) Pb(2+) ions) and reproducibility. Such a simple "one-drop-of-blood" electroanalysis method equipped with disposable SPEs and a portable electrochemical transducer can be tailored for the field-deployable or on-site monitoring of blood Pb(2+) levels in the clinical laboratory.

  20. Determination of ultra-trace Sb(III) in seawater by stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) with a mercury film electrode in the presence of copper.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, V; Waeles, M; Vandenhecke, J; Riso, R D

    2010-04-15

    This work reports the determination of ultra-trace of Sb(III) in seawater by using a stripping chronopotentiometric (SCP) method with a mercury film electrode. A sensitivity and detection limit of 360 ms L microg(-1) and 8 ng L(-1) (70 pM), respectively, were accomplished for a 15-min electrolysis time. Compared to the only two chronopotentiometric methods reported for Sb(III) determination in seawater, our method is more sensitive and does not need to use a medium exchange procedure before the stripping step. Moreover, the use of a double electrolysis potential (-450 mV and -250 mV) allows the analysis of Sb(III) independently from the Cu level in the sample. The method was successfully used to study the behaviour of dissolved Sb(III) in the Penzé estuary, NW France.

  1. Screen-printed electrode based electrochemical detector coupled with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and microvolume back-extraction for determination of mercury in water samples.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Elena; Vidal, Lorena; Martín-Yerga, Daniel; Blanco, María del Carmen; Canals, Antonio; Costa-García, Agustín

    2015-04-01

    A novel approach is presented, whereby gold nanostructured screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCnAuEs) are combined with in-situ ionic liquid formation dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in-situ IL-DLLME) and microvolume back-extraction for the determination of mercury in water samples. In-situ IL-DLLME is based on a simple metathesis reaction between a water-miscible IL and a salt to form a water-immiscible IL into sample solution. Mercury complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate is extracted from sample solution into the water-immiscible IL formed in-situ. Then, an ultrasound-assisted procedure is employed to back-extract the mercury into 10 µL of a 4 M HCl aqueous solution, which is finally analyzed using SPCnAuEs. Sample preparation methodology was optimized using a multivariate optimization strategy. Under optimized conditions, a linear range between 0.5 and 10 µg L(-1) was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 for six calibration points. The limit of detection obtained was 0.2 µg L(-1), which is lower than the threshold value established by the Environmental Protection Agency and European Union (i.e., 2 µg L(-1) and 1 µg L(-1), respectively). The repeatability of the proposed method was evaluated at two different spiking levels (3 and 10 µg L(-1)) and a coefficient of variation of 13% was obtained in both cases. The performance of the proposed methodology was evaluated in real-world water samples including tap water, bottled water, river water and industrial wastewater. Relative recoveries between 95% and 108% were obtained.

  2. Ultramicroband array electrode. 1. Analysis of mercury in contaminated soils and flue gas exposed samples using a gold-plated iridium portable system by anodic stripping voltammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, L.; Dietze, W.; Nyasulu, F.; Mibeck, B.A.F.

    2006-07-15

    The applicability of a gold-plated iridium Nano-Band array ultramicroelectrode (6 {mu}m by 0.2 {mu}m, 64-{mu}m interspacing, 100 electrode bands) in the analysis of mercury using a portable system is demonstrated by anodic stripping voltammetry in real-life samples. Optimized measurement parameters, 0.1 M HCl electrolyte, plating potential of 0 mV, and staircase scan mode were identified. The dynamic linear range is 10-180 ppb at 5-s deposition time with 1.5 {mu}C of gold plated. The experimental detection limit for Hg{sup 2+} in 0.1 M HCl was 0.5 ppb at a deposition time of 4 min and a scan rate of 10 V/s. Real-life samples, such as flue gas exposed samples from flue gas simulators could be analyzed within 5 min using the method of standard additions. We identified a field-portable extraction procedure for soil samples using 1:1 concentrated HNO{sub 3}/30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture, compatible with ASV and the iridium electrode. The detection limit for soils is 1 ppm. The results obtained using ASV are in good agreement with reference values using cold vapor atomic absorption for the sample matrixes studied here. To our knowledge, this is the first mercury application using a reusable iridium array ultramicroelectrode. The portable potentiostat is less than 500 g, and together with the portable digestion method, makes the Nano-Band Explorer system field applicable.

  3. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  4. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  5. A novel voltammetric sensor for sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions using glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene-based ion imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Heydari, Abolfazl; Ghanei-Motlagh, Reza; Gupta, Vinod K

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel strategy was proposed to prepare ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Polymerization was performed using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,2'-((9E,10E)-1,4-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-diylidene) bis(hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) (DDBHCT) as the chelating agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator, via surface imprinted technique. The RGO-IIP was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical procedure was based on the accumulation of Hg(II) ions at the surface of a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with RGO-IIP. The prepared RGO-IIP sensor has higher voltammetric response compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), traditional IIP and RGO. The RGO-IIP modified electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward Hg(II) concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 80 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.02 μg L(-1) (S/N=3), below the guideline value from the World Health Organization (WHO). The applicability of the proposed electrochemical sensor to determination of mercury(II) ions in different water samples was reported.

  6. Determination of mercury in hair by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a rotating gold disk electrode after microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    East, Gaston A; Marinho, Epitácio P

    2005-03-01

    A simple and reliable method for the determination of mercury in hair on a rotating gold disk electrode using subtractive anodic stripping voltammetry without removal of oxygen is reported. Voltammetric and microwave parameters were optimized to obtain the best analytical results. Parameters such as supporting electrolyte concentration, influence of chloride in the Hg peak, deposition potential, scan rate, accumulation time, rotation rate, square-wave amplitude, and electrode conditioning were studied. Pressurized microwave-assisted digestion of hair, suitable for the accurate voltammetric determination of Hg, was evaluated using six acid mixtures and several time-power programs. Under the optimized conditions, no interference by copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, manganese, iron, or zinc was found at concentrations corresponding to their occurrence in normal hair. A calibration plot between 6,67 and 46,69 microg/L was linear, with r(2) better than 0.999. The detection limit for a deposition time of 60 s at 254 g was calculated as 1.92 nM (3omega). Validation of the method was demonstrated with the use of a certified reference sample of hair. Eight real samples of hair (four unexposed children and four exposed persons) were also analyzed.

  7. Voltammetric determination of trace amounts of diacetyl at a mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode following gas-diffusion microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rui M; Gonçalves, Luís M; Vyskočil, Vlastimil; Rodrigues, José A

    2017-07-01

    A new approach was developed for the determination of trace amounts of diacetyl in food products using gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME) and subsequent detection by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at a mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode (m-AgSAE). Diacetyl is a vicinal diketone responsible for the buttery aroma in many fermented foods and beverages. Its determination is important not only for evaluation of the final product quality (note of mention: health related concerns were associated with continuous diacetyl exposure) but also to monitor fermentation. GDME, a technique combining gas-diffusion and microextraction, particularly aimed to volatile and semi-volatile analytes, seemed the best way to selective extract diacetyl. A solution of 0.05% o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) prepared in a Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 5.0) was chosen as the extracting solution. This solution simultaneously extracts, pre-concentrates and derivatizes diacetyl to 2,3-dimethylquinoxaline (DMQ), enhancing the extraction selectivity and making the analyte electroactive. After finding the optimum conditions for the extraction process (10min at 60°C with 1.0mL of OPDA at pH 5.0), the DPV measurements at the m-AgSAE were conducted with a scan rate of 7mVs(-1), a modulation amplitude of 50mV and a modulation time of 100ms. Under these conditions, the resulting DMQ could be easily measured at a potential of -0.6V vs. Ag|AgCl (3molL(-1) KCl). The amalgam electrode keeps the advantages of classic mercury electrodes, like high sensitivity, while being environmentally friendly. The GDME/m-AgSAE produced suitable method features for the determination of low amounts of diacetyl (as DMQ) in alcoholic beverages, and in fact, to the best of our knowledge, the limit of quantification of 0.18µgL(-1) is one of the lowest reported in literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Catalytic effect of potassium in Na(1-x)KxCdPb3(PO4)3 to detect mercury (II) in fish and seawater using a carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Lahrich, S; Manoun, B; El Mhammedi, M A

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a synthesis of a new lacunar apatite, KCdPb3(PO4)3, using solid state method, and its application as modifier of carbon paste electrode (KLA-CPE) to determine mercury (II). Sodium replacement with potassium induced a linear variation of the crystallographic parameters a and c according to Vegard's law and led to amplify the electrical signal of the working electrode. The peak currents of mercury (II) increased linearly with their concentration at the range from 2.0×10(-7)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The detection limit was found to be 1.11×10(-8)molL(-1). The use of this electrochemical sensor has been successfully implemented for the determination of Hg (II) in seawater and fish samples. The obtained results were found to be very satisfactory.

  9. Adsorption of pyrantel pamoate on mercury from aqueous solutions: studies by stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod K; Jain, Rajeev; Jadon, N; Radhapyari, K

    2010-10-01

    Adsorption and electrochemical reduction of pyrantel pamoate are studied in Britton Robinson buffer medium at hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric technique. The peak current shows a linear dependence with the drug concentration over the range 250 ng mL(-1) to 64 microg mL(-1). Applicability to assay the drug in urine samples is illustrated in the concentration range 5-20 microg mL(-1).

  10. LabVIEW-based sequential-injection analysis system for the determination of trace metals by square-wave anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry on mercury-film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV.

  11. Determination of mercury(ii) in water at sub-nanomolar levels by laser ablation-ICPMS analysis of screen printed electrodes used as a portable voltammetric preconcentration system.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Zuriñe; Unceta, Nora; Sánchez, Alicia; Gómez-Caballero, Alberto; Berrio-Ochoa, Luis Maria; Aranzazu Goicolea, M; Barrio, Ramón J

    2017-03-06

    Environmental pollution by mercury in ambient water samples is a recognized problem worldwide. Sample preservation and transport to the laboratory lead to uncertain analytical results. This study outlines the development of a procedure for on-site electrodeposition of mercury from water samples on a screen-printed gold electrode (SPGE) using portable voltammetric techniques. Once in the laboratory, Hg is analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) in order to ensure that the required sensitivity and precision levels for environmental sample analysis are reached. A new ablation chamber was intentionally designed for the analysis of SPGE's gold electrode. This cell has a small internal volume of 15 cm(3) and the SPGE device perfectly fits inside. This design assures signal stability, avoids elemental fractionation and reduces wash-out time to a few seconds, reducing the analysis time considerably. The proposed method is capable of measuring dissolved mercury at the ng L(-1) level (quantification limit 200 ng L(-1)) with good precision (RSD < 7.6%). The proposed method was tested with the NCS ZC 76303 (NIM-GBW08603) Mercury in water Certified Reference Material.

  12. Simultaneous electrochemical sensing of thallium, lead and mercury using a novel ionic liquid/graphene modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hasan; Afkhami, Abbas; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Rezaei, Mosayeb; Sabounchei, Seyed Javad; Sarlakifar, Mehdi

    2015-04-22

    In the present manuscript, an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive detection of Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) is described. A new composite electrode has been fabricated using graphene, 1-n-octylpyridinum hexafluorophosphate (OPFP), and [2,4-Cl2C6H3C(O)CHPPh3] (L), as a new synthetic phosphorus ylide. The physicochemical and electrochemical characterizations of fabricated sensor were investigated in details. The advantages of the proposed composite electrode are its ability in simultaneous electrochemical detection of Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) with good selectivity, stability and no need for separating of the three species from complex mixtures prior to electrochemical measurements. The analytical performance of the proposed electrode was examined using square wave voltammetry. Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) can be determined in linear ranges from 1.25×10(-9) to 2.00×10(-7) mol L(-1). Low detection limits of 3.57×10(-10) mol L(-1) for Tl(+), 4.50×10(-10) mol L(-1) for Pb(2+) and 3.86×10(-10) mol L(-1) for Hg(2+) were achieved. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was applied to detect trace analyte ions in various water and soil samples with satisfactory results.

  13. Simultaneous determination of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in fuel ethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry using a glassy carbon-mercury-film electrode.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcelo Firmino; Saczk, Adelir Aparecida; Okumura, Leonardo Luiz; Fernandes, Andréa Pires; De Moraes, Mercedes; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2004-09-01

    A new, versatile, and simple method for quantitative analysis of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in fuel ethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry is described. These metals can be quantified by direct dissolution of fuel ethanol in water and subsequent voltammetric measurement after the accumulation step. A maximum limit of 20% ( v/ v) ethanol in water solution was obtained for voltammetric measurements without loss of sensitivity for metal species. Chemical and operational optimum conditions were analyzed in this study; the values obtained were pH 2.9, a 4.7-microm thickness mercury film, a 1,000-rpm rotation frequency of the working electrode, and a 600-s pre-concentration time. Voltammetric measurements were obtained using linear scan (LSV), differential pulse (DPV), and square wave (SWV) modes and detection limits were in the range 10(-9)-10(-8) mol L(-1) for these metal species. The proposed method was compared with a traditional analytical technique, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), for quantification of these metal species in commercial fuel ethanol samples.

  14. Electrochemical detection of DNA binding by tumor suppressor p53 protein using osmium-labeled oligonucleotide probes and catalytic hydrogen evolution at the mercury electrode.

    PubMed

    Němcová, Kateřina; Sebest, Peter; Havran, Luděk; Orság, Petr; Fojta, Miroslav; Pivoňková, Hana

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present an electrochemical DNA-protein interaction assay based on a combination of protein-specific immunoprecipitation at magnetic beads (MBIP) with application of oligonucleotide (ON) probes labeled with an electroactive oxoosmium complex (Os,bipy). We show that double-stranded ONs bearing a dT20 tail labeled with Os,bipy are specifically recognized by the tumor suppressor p53 protein according to the presence or absence of a specific binding site (p53CON) in the double-stranded segment. We demonstrate the applicability of the Os,bipy-labeled probes in titration as well as competition MBIP assays to evaluate p53 relative affinity to various sequence-specific or structurally distinct unlabeled DNA substrates upon modulation of the p53-DNA binding by monoclonal antibodies used for the immunoprecipitation. To detect the p53-bound osmium-labeled probes, we took advantage of a catalytic peak yielded by Os,bipy-modified DNA at the mercury-based electrodes, allowing facile determination of subnanogram quantities of the labeled oligonucleotides. Versatility of the electrochemical MBIP technique and its general applicability in studies of any DNA-binding protein is discussed.

  15. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  16. Simple protein structure-sensitive chronopotentiometric analysis with dithiothreitol-modified Hg electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ostatná, Veronika; Cernocká, Hana; Paleček, Emil

    2012-10-01

    We have shown that proteins produce at bare mercury electrodes a well-developed chronopotentiometric peak H. At sufficiently high current densities and low ionic strengths, this peak is sensitive to changes in protein structures. At higher ionic strengths this sensitivity can be lost but it can be restored, when instead of bare, thiol-modified Hg electrodes are used. Here we studied properties of the dithiothreitol (DTT) layer at the hanging mercury drop electrode and showed that at low concentrations (5 μM-200 μM) the DTT is adsorbed as a dithiol with both -SH groups attached to the surface. At higher DTT concentrations than 1mM, a densely packed pinhole-free layer is formed with the DTT molecules bound to the electrode surface by a single -SH group, oriented perpendicularly to the surface. We found that, if a sufficiently high DTT concentration is used, preparation of the DTT-modified Hg electrodes can be omitted and proteins can be co-adsorbed with DTT on liquid Hg or solid amalgam electrodes without the loss of sensitivity for changes in protein structures. The newly observed properties of the DTT self assembled monolayers (SAMs) at Hg electrodes appear important for designing new types of solid amalgam electrode arrays for electrochemical analysis of proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation.

  18. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  19. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  20. Ag Nanoparticles Drop-Casting Modification of Screen-Printed Electrodes for the Simultaneous Voltammetric Determination of Cu(II) and Pb(II)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; de Pablo, Joan; Esteban, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    A new silver nanoparticle modified screen-printed electrode was developed and applied to the simultaneous determination of Pb(II) and Cu(II). Two different types of silver nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes, Ag nanoseeds and Ag nanoprisms, were microscopically characterized and three different carbon substrates, graphite, graphene and carbon nanofibers, were tested. The best analytical performance was achieved for the combination of Ag nanoseeds with a carbon nanofiber modified screen-printed electrode. The resulting sensor allowed the simultaneous determination of Pb(II) and Cu(II) at trace levels and its applicability to natural samples was successfully tested with a groundwater certified reference material, presenting high reproducibility and trueness. PMID:28635631

  1. Ag Nanoparticles Drop-Casting Modification of Screen-Printed Electrodes for the Simultaneous Voltammetric Determination of Cu(II) and Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; de Pablo, Joan; Esteban, Miquel

    2017-06-21

    A new silver nanoparticle modified screen-printed electrode was developed and applied to the simultaneous determination of Pb(II) and Cu(II). Two different types of silver nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes, Ag nanoseeds and Ag nanoprisms, were microscopically characterized and three different carbon substrates, graphite, graphene and carbon nanofibers, were tested. The best analytical performance was achieved for the combination of Ag nanoseeds with a carbon nanofiber modified screen-printed electrode. The resulting sensor allowed the simultaneous determination of Pb(II) and Cu(II) at trace levels and its applicability to natural samples was successfully tested with a groundwater certified reference material, presenting high reproducibility and trueness.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF VOLTAMMETRIC METHODS FOR AN IN SITU DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SULFIDE IN ANOXIC POREWATER USING A MERCURY PLATED GOLD ELECTRODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Voltammetric methods for determination of total sulfide concentrations in anoxic sediments utilizing a previously described [1] gold-based mercury amalgam microelectrode were optimized. Systematic studies in NaCl (supporting electrolyte) and porewater indicate variations in ionic...

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF VOLTAMMETRIC METHODS FOR AN IN SITU DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SULFIDE IN ANOXIC POREWATER USING A MERCURY PLATED GOLD ELECTRODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Voltammetric methods for determination of total sulfide concentrations in anoxic sediments utilizing a previously described [1] gold-based mercury amalgam microelectrode were optimized. Systematic studies in NaCl (supporting electrolyte) and porewater indicate variations in ionic...

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-06-24

    Testing of Mercury Capsule Shape A by the Hydrodynamics Division of Langley. Joseph Shortal wrote (vol. 3, p. 19): The Hydrodynamics Division provided assistance in determining landing loads. In this connection, after PARD engineers had unofficially approached that division to make some water impact tests with the boilerplate capsule, J.B. Parkinson, Hydrodynamics Chief visited Shortal to find out if the request had his support. Finding out that it did, Parkinson said, Its your capsule. If you want us to drop it in the water, we will do it. From Shortal (Vol. 3, p. 16): The basic design of the capsule was made by M.A. Faget and his coworkers at PARD during the winter of 1957-1958. It was natural, then, that extensive use was made of the facilities at Wallops during the development of the spacecraft. The tests at Wallops consisted of 26 full-size capsules, either launched from the ground by rocket power or dropped from airplanes at high altitude and 28 scaled models, either rocket boosted or released from balloons. Emphasis in the Wallops program was on dynamic stability and aerodynamic heating of the capsule, and effectiveness of the pilot-escape and parachute-recovery systems. The biggest part of the Wallops program was the series of full-size capsules, rocket launched with the Little Joe booster, developed especially for Mercury. -- Published in Joseph A. Shortal, History of Wallops Station: Origins and Activities Through 1949, (Wallops Island, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Station, nd), Comment Edition.

  5. Drop dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The drop dynamics module is a Spacelab-compatible acoustic positioning and control system for conducting drop dynamics experiments in space. It consists basically of a chamber, a drop injector system, an acoustic positioning system, and a data collection system. The principal means of collecting data is by a cinegraphic camera. The drop is positioned in the center of the chamber by forces created by standing acoustic waves generated in the nearly cubical chamber (about 12 cm on a side). The drop can be spun or oscillated up to fission by varying the phse and amplitude of the acoustic waves. The system is designed to perform its experiments unattended, except for start-up and shutdown events and other unique events that require the attention of the Spacelab payload specialist.

  6. Pressure Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  7. In situ control of local pH using a boron doped diamond ring disk electrode: optimizing heavy metal (mercury) detection.

    PubMed

    Read, Tania L; Bitziou, Eleni; Joseph, Maxim B; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-01-07

    A novel electrochemical approach to modifying aqueous solution pH in the vicinity of a detector electrode in order to optimize the electrochemical measurement signal is described. A ring disk electrode was employed where electrochemical decomposition of water on the ring was used to generate a flux of protons which adjusts the local pH controllably and quantifiably at the disk. Boron doped diamond (BDD) functioned as the electrode material given the stability of this electrode surface especially when applying high potentials (to electrolyze water) for significant periods of time. A pH sensitive iridium oxide electrode electrodeposited on the disk electrode demonstrated that applied positive currents on the BDD ring, up to +50 μA, resulted in a local pH decrease of over 4 orders of magnitude, which remained stable over the measurement time of 600 s. pH generation experiments were found to be in close agreement with finite element simulations. The dual electrode arrangement was used to significantly improve the stripping peak signature for Hg in close to neutral conditions by the generation of pH = 2.0, locally. With the ability to create a localized pH change electrochemically in the vicinity of the detector electrode, this system could provide a simple method for optimized analysis at the source, e.g., river and sea waters.

  8. THE EFFECT OF MERCURY CONTROLS ON WALLBOARD MANUFACTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra Meischen

    2004-07-01

    Pending EPA regulations may mandate 70 to 90% mercury removal efficiency from utility flue gas. A mercury control option is the trapping of oxidized mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization systems (FGD). The potential doubling of mercury in the FGD material and its effect on mercury volatility at temperatures common to wallboard manufacture is a concern that could limit the growing byproduct use of FGD material. Prediction of mercury fate is limited by lack of information on the mercury form in the FGD material. The parts per billion mercury concentrations prevent the identification of mercury compounds by common analytical methods. A sensitive analytical method, cold vapor atomic fluorescence, coupled with leaching and thermodecomposition methods were evaluated for their potential to identify mercury compounds in FGD material. The results of the study suggest that the mercury form is dominated by the calcium sulfate matrix and is probably associated with the sulfate form in the FGD material. Additionally, to determine the effect of high mercury concentration FGD material on wallboard manufacture, a laboratory FGD unit was built to trap the oxidized mercury generated in a simulated flue gas. Although the laboratory prepared FGD material did not contain the mercury concentrations anticipated, further thermal tests determined that mercury begins to evolve from FGD material at 380 to 390 F, consequently dropping the drying temperature should mitigate mercury evolution if necessary. Mercury evolution is also diminished as the weight of the wallboard sample increased. Consequently, mercury evolution may not be a significant problem in wallboard manufacture.

  9. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  10. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  11. Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S. C.

    1982-08-01

    The sessile drop method was employed to examine the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops. Bromine in equilibrium with an aqueous phase and a polybromide oil phase were added to a battery cell with a ruthenized titanium electrode with the electrode surface facing up. A polybromide oil drop was placed on the electrode surface while the height of the drop was measured with a cathetometer and 35 mm photographs were taken of the drop profiles. The sessile drop was analyzed to find the interfacial tension and contact angle of the drop. Interfacial tensions were calculated which were lower than reported for two-phase systems having organic and aqueous phases. The results are regarded as significant for applications of zinc-bromine batteries, indicating that small polybromide oil phase drops can enhance the mass transfer of bromine from a polybromide to the electrode.

  12. Disposable mercury-free cell-on-a-chip devices with integrated microfabricated electrodes for the determination of trace nickel(II) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Christos; Economou, Anastasios; Raptis, Ioannis; Speliotis, Thanassis

    2008-08-01

    This work reports the fabrication of disposable three-electrode cells with integrated sputtered metal-film electrodes. The working electrode was a bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) while the reference and counter electrodes were made of Ag and Pt, respectively. The deposition of the metal layers was carried out by sputtering of the respective metals on a silicon substrate while the exact geometry of the electrodes was defined via a metal mask placed on the substrate during the deposition process. Initially, the electrodes were characterised by cyclic voltammetry. The utility of these devices was tested for the trace determination of Ni(II) by square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV) after complexation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG). The experimental variables (the presence of oxygen, the DMG concentration, the preconcentration potential, the accumulation time and the SW parameters), as well as potential interferences, were investigated. Using the selected conditions, the 3sigma limit of detection was 100 ng L(-1) for Ni(II) (for 90 s of preconcentration) and the relative standard deviation for Ni(II) was 2.3% at the 10 microg L(-1) level (n=8). Finally, the method was applied to the determination of Ni(II) in a certified river water sample.

  13. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Bannochie, C. J.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  14. Mercury and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  15. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  16. Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.

    This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.

    Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  17. Mercury Flow Through the Mercury-Containing Lamp Sector of the Economy of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This Scientific Investigations Report examines the flow of mercury through the mercury-containing lamp sector of the U.S. economy in 2001 from lamp manufacture through disposal or recycling. Mercury-containing lamps illuminate commercial and industrial buildings, outdoor areas, and residences. Mercury is an essential component in fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps (high-pressure sodium, mercury-vapor, and metal halide). A typical fluorescent lamp is composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube with electrodes located at either end. Only a very small amount of the mercury is in vapor form. The remainder of the mercury is in the form of either liquid mercury metal or solid mercury oxide (mercury oxidizes over the life of the lamp). When voltage is applied, the electrodes energize the mercury vapor and cause it to emit ultraviolet energy. The phosphor coating absorbs the ultraviolet energy, which causes the phosphor to fluoresce and emit visible light. Mercury-containing lamps provide more lumens per watt than incandescent lamps and, as a result, require from three to four times less energy to operate. Mercury is persistent and toxic within the environment. Mercury-containing lamps are of environmental concern because they are widely distributed throughout the environment and are easily broken in handling. The magnitude of lamp sector mercury emissions, estimated to be 2.9 metric tons per year (t/yr), is small compared with the estimated mercury losses of the U.S. coal-burning and chlor-alkali industries, which are about 70 t/yr and about 90 t/yr, respectively.

  18. Trace level voltammetric determination of heavy metals and total mercury in tea matrices (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Melucci, Dora; Locatelli, Marcello; Locatelli, Clinio

    2013-12-01

    An analytical procedure regarding the voltammetric determination of mercury(II), copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in matrices involved in food chain is proposed. In particular, tea leaves were analyzed as real samples. The digestion of each matrix was carried out using a concentrated HCl-HNO3-H2SO4 acidic attack mixture; 0.01 mol L(-1) EDTA-Na2+ 0.15 mol L(-1) NaCl + 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl was employed as the supporting electrolyte. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using a conventional three electrode cell, employing, as working electrodes, a gold electrode (GE) and a stationary hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The analytical procedure has been verified on the standard reference materials Spinach Leaves NIST-SRM 1570a, Tomato Leaves NIST-SRM 1573a and Apple Leaves NIST-SRM 1515. For all the elements, the precision as repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr) was of the order of 3-5%, while the trueness, expressed as relative error (e) was of the order of 3-7%. Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was applied to commercial tea leaves samples. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is also discussed.

  19. TRACE LEVEL VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL MERCURY IN TEA MATRICES (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Melucci, Dora; Locatelli, Marcello; Locatelli, Clinio

    2013-10-24

    An analytical procedure regarding the voltammetric determination of mercury(II), copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in matrices involved in food chain is proposed. In particular, tea leaves were analysed as real samples. The digestion of each matrix was carried out using a concentrated HCl-HNO3-H2SO4 acidic attack mixture; 0.01 mol L(-1) EDTA-Na2 + 0.15 mol L(-1) NaCl + 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl was employed as the supporting electrolyte. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using a conventional three electrode cell, employing, as working electrodes, a gold electrode (GE) and a stationary hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The analytical procedure has been verified on the standard reference materials Spinach Leaves NIST-SRM 1570a, Tomato Leaves NIST-SRM 1573a and Apple Leaves NIST-SRM 1515. For all the elements, the precision as repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr) was of the order of 3-5 %, while the trueness, expressed as relative error (e) was of the order of 3-7 %. Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was applied to commercial tea leaves samples. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is also discussed.

  20. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-9 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle, was the last flight of the Mercury Project. The Faith 7 spacecraft orbited the Earth 22 times in 1-1/2 days.

  1. Mercury in the Pelagic Food Web of Lake Champlain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25 to 75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 µg g−1 in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

  2. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  3. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  4. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  5. Mercury(II) trace detection by a gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry including a chloride desorption step.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Laure; Hezard, Teddy; Gros, Pierre; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Sonke, Jeroen E; Behra, Philippe; Evrard, David

    2015-08-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were deposited on a glassy carbon (GC) substrate by constant potential electrolysis and characterized by cyclic voltammetry in H2SO4 and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The modified AuNPs-GC electrode was used for low Hg(II) concentration detection using a Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) procedure which included a chloride desorption step. The comparison of the obtained results with our previous work in which no desorption step was used showed that this latter step significantly improved the analytical performances, providing a three time higher sensitivity and a limit of detection of 80pM for 300s preconcentration, as well as a lower average standard deviation. The influence of chloride concentration on the AuNPs-GC electrode response to Hg(II) trace amounts was also studied and its optimal value confirmed to be in the 10(-2)M range. Finally, the AuNPs-GC electrode was used for the determination of Hg(II) in a natural groundwater sample from south of France. By using a preconcentration time of 3000s, a Hg(II) concentration of 19±3pM was found, which compared well with the result obtained by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (22±2pM).

  6. Large charged drop levitation against gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang Kun; Hyson, Michael T.; Trinh, Eugene H.; Elleman, Daniel D.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid electrostatic-acoustic levitator that can levitate and manipulate a large liquid drop in one gravity is presented. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time such large drops (up to 4 mm in diameter in the case of water) have been levitated against 1-gravity. This makes possible, for the first time, many new experiments both in space and in ground-based laboratories, such as 1)supercooling and superheating, 2) containerless crystal growth from various salt solutions or melts, 3) drop dynamics of oscillating or rotating liquid drops, 4) drop evaporation and Rayleigh bursting, and 5) containerless material processing in space. The digital control system, liquid drop launch process, principles of electrode design, and design of a multipurpose room temperature levitation chamber are described. Preliminary results that demonstrate drop oscillation and rotation, and crystal growth from supersaturated salt solutions are presented.

  7. Got Mercury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, Torin J.; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2010-09-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed by the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may vaporize completely when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. We estimated mercury vapor releases from stowed lamps during missions lasting ≤ 30 days, whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from stowed lamps during missions lasting > 30 days and from operating lamps regardless of mission duration. The toxicity of mercury and its lack of removal have led Johnson Space Center’s Toxicology Group to recommend stringent safety controls and verifications for hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations > 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting ≤ 30 days, or concentrations > 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting > 30 days.

  8. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-07-21

    Astronaut Virgil Gus Grissom awaits America's second marned space mission, Mercury-Redstone 4 (MR-4) on July 21, 1961. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, the Liberty Bell 7 Mercury spacecraft reached an altitude of 118 miles and traveled 303 miles downrange. It was the fourth flight of the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle (MR-4), developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  9. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    Ham, a three-year-old chimpanzee, in the spacesuit he would wear for the second Mercury- Redstone (MR-2) suborbital test flight in January, 1961. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury capsule before launching the fisrt American astronaut, Alan Shepard, in May 1961. The Mercury capsule rode atop a modified Redstone rocket, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the German Rocket Team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  10. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency's (ABMA) Development Operations Division, poses with the original Mercury astronauts in ABMA's Fabrication Laboratory during a 1959 visit. Inspecting Mercury-Redstone hardware are from left to right, Alan Shepard, Donald Deke Slayton, Virgil Gus Grissom, von Braun, Gordon Cooper, Wally Schirra, John Glenn, and Scott Carpenter. Project Mercury officially began October 7, 1958 as the United States' first manned space program.

  11. Electrochemical sensor based on electrodeposited graphene-Au modified electrode and nanoAu carrier amplified signal strategy for attomolar mercury detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Guang Ming; Tang, Lin; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Yuan; He, Xiao Xiao; He, Yan

    2015-01-20

    An electrochemical sensor was developed for attomolar Hg(2+) detection. Three single-stranded DNA probes were rationally designed for selective and sensitive detection of the target, which combined T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry and the characteristic of convenient modification of electrochemical signal indicator. Graphene and nanoAu were successively electrodeposited on a glass carbon electrode surface to improve the electrode conductivity and functionalize with the 10-mer thymine-rich DNA probe (P1). NanoAu carriers functionalized with 29-mer guanine-rich DNA probe (P3) labeled methyl blue (MB-nanoAu-P 3s) were used to further strengthen signal response. In the presence of Hg(2+), a T-T mismatched dsDNA would occur between P1 and a 22-mer thymine-rich DNA probe (P2) on the electrode surface due to T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. Followed by adding the MB-nanoAu-P 3s for hybridization with P2, square wave voltammetry was executed. Under optimal conditions, Hg(2+) could be detected in the range from 1.0 aM to 100 nM with a detection limit of 0.001 aM. Selectivity measurements reveal that the sensor is specific for Hg(2+) even with interference by high concentrations of other metal ions. Three different environmental samples were analyzed by the sensor and the results were compared with that from an atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The developed sensor was demonstrated to achieve excellent detectability. It may be applied to development of ultrasensitive detection strategies.

  12. Electrochemistry in an acoustically levitated drop.

    PubMed

    Chainani, Edward T; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2013-02-19

    Levitated drops show potential as microreactors, especially when radicals are present as reactants or products. Solid/liquid interfaces are absent or minimized, avoiding adsorption and interfacial reaction of conventional microfluidics. We report amperometric detection in an acoustically levitated drop with simultaneous ballistic addition of reactant. A gold microelectrode sensor was fabricated with a lithographic process; active electrode area was defined by a photosensitive polyimide mask. The microdisk gold working electrode of radius 19 μm was characterized using ferrocenemethanol in aqueous buffer. Using cyclic voltammetry, the electrochemically active surface area was estimated by combining a recessed microdisk electrode model with the Randles-Sevcik equation. Computer-controlled ballistic introduction of reactant droplets into the levitated drop was developed. Chronoamperometric measurements of ferrocyanide added ballistically demonstrate electrochemical monitoring using the microfabricated electrode in a levitated drop. Although concentration increases with time due to drop evaporation, the extent of concentration is predictable with a linear evaporation model. Comparison of diffusion-limited currents in pendant and levitated drops show that convection arising from acoustic levitation causes an enhancement of diffusion-limited current on the order of 16%.

  13. Renewable Solid Electrodes in Microfluidics: Recovering the Electrochemical Activity without Treating the Surface.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Carlos A; Giordano, Gabriela F; Beltrame, Maisa B; Vieira, Luis C S; Gobbi, Angelo L; Lima, Renato S

    2016-11-15

    The contamination, passivation, or fouling of the detection electrodes is a serious problem undermining the analytical performance of electroanalytical devices. The methods to regenerate the electrochemical activity of the solid electrodes involve mechanical, physical, or chemical surface treatments that usually add operational time, complexity, chemicals, and further instrumental requirements to the analysis. In this paper, we describe for the first time a reproducible method for renewing solid electrodes whenever their morphology or composition are nonspecifically changed without any surface treatment. These renewable electrodes are the closest analogue to the mercury drop electrodes. Our approach was applied in microfluidics, where the downsides related to nonspecific modifications of the electrode are more critical. The renewal consisted in manually sliding metal-coated microwires across a channel with the sample. For this purpose, the chip was composed of a single piece of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with three parallel channels interconnected to one perpendicular and top channel. The microwires were inserted in each one of the parallel channels acting as working, counter, and pseudoreference electrodes for voltammetry. This assembly allowed the renewal of all the three electrodes by simply pulling the microwires. The absence of any interfaces in the chips and the elastomeric nature of the PDMS allowed us to pull the microwires without the occurrence of leakages for the electrode channels even at harsh flow rates of up to 40.0 mL min(-1). We expect this paper can assist the researchers to develop new microfluidic platforms that eliminate any steps of electrode cleaning, representing a powerful alternative for precise and robust analyses to real samples.

  14. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-01-01

    In this 1959 photograph, technicians prepare tail sections for Mercury-Redstone vehicles in Building 4706 at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone, the Mercury-Redstone launched the first two marned U.S. missions.

  15. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    The recovery operation of the Faith 7 spacecraft after the completion of the 1-1/2 day orbital flight (MA-9 mission) with Astronaut Gordon Cooper. Navy frogmen attach the flotation collar to the spacecraft. The MA-9 mission was the last flight of the Mercury Project and launched on May 15, 1963 boosted by The Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle.

  16. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-09-09

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The Freedom 7 spacecraft boosted by Mercury-Redstone vehicle for the MR-3 mission made the first marned suborbital flight and Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  17. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut Walter M. "Wally" Schirra, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-8 (Mercury-Atlas) mission with Sigma 7 spacecraft was the third marned orbital flight by the United States, and made the six orbits in 9-1/4 hours.

  18. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MR-4 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, made the second marned suborbital flight. The capsule, Liberty Bell 7, sank into the sea after the splashdown.

  19. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut John H. Glenn, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-6 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, was the first manned orbital launch by the United States, and carried Astronaut Glenn aboard the Friendship 7 spacecraft to orbit the Earth.

  20. Mercury-free sono-electroanalytical detection of lead in human blood by use of bismuth-film-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kruusma, Jaanus; Banks, Craig E; Compton, Richard G

    2004-06-01

    We report the electroanalytical determination of lead by anodic stripping voltammetry at in-situ-formed, bismuth-film-modified, boron-doped diamond electrodes. Detection limits in 0.1 mol L(-1) nitric acid solution of 9.6 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) (0.2 ppb) and 1.1 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) (2.3 ppb) were obtained after 60 and 300 s deposition times, respectively. An acoustically assisted deposition procedure was also investigated and found to result in improved limits of detection of 2.6 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) (5.4 ppb) and 8.5 x 10(-10) mol L(-1) (0.18 ppb) for 60 and 300 s accumulation times, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity obtained under quiescent and insonated conditions increased from 5.5 (quiescent) to 76.7 A mol(-1) L (insonated) for 60 s accumulation and from 25.8 (quiescent) to 317.6 A mol(-1) L (insonated) for 300 s accumulation. Investigation of the use of ultrasound with diluted blood revealed detection limits of the order of 10(-8) mol L(-1) were achievable with excellent inter- and intra-reproducibility and sensitivity of 411.9 A mol(-1) L. For the first time, electroanalytical detection of lead in diluted blood is shown to be possible by use of insonated in-situ-formed bismuth-film-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes. This method is a rapid, sensitive, and non-toxic means of clinical sensing of lead in whole human blood.

  1. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOEpatents

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-31

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  3. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  4. Lake Recovery Following Mercury Deposition Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, L.; Lohman, K.

    2009-12-01

    Changes in water column and biota mercury burden in lakes are expected to follow a nonlinear trajectory in time following step changes in deposition. Results from the Canada-U.S. METALLICUS experiment indicate a time-delayed response to watershed deposition changes due to sequestration and retardation of terrain-deposited mercury. Indications from fish samples in New England and Florida are that an initial steep drop in fish content of mercury can soon follow deposition changes. The time to reach full accommodation to changes in deposition remains uncertain. Model experiments using the Dynamic Mercury Cycling Model have tested these trajectory responses to a step change in deposition from U.S. sources overlaid on a global-source upward trend over time. The shape of the time trajectory, especially in its earliest period, is sensitive to the mixing depth of divalent mercury in lake-bottom sediments.

  5. Determination of triazine herbicides: development of an electroanalytical method utilizing a solid amalgam electrode that minimizes toxic waste residues, and a comparative study between voltammetric and chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Djenaine; de Toledo, Renata A; Galli, Andressa; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Silva, Maria R C; Garbellini, Gustavo S; Mazo, Luiz H; Avaca, Luis A; Machado, Sergio A S

    2007-03-01

    The use of a copper solid amalgam electrode (CuSAE) for the analytical determination of triazine herbicides (atrazine and ametryne) instead of the conventional hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is reported. The results obtained using electroanalytical methods utilizing each of these electrodes were also compared with those provided by the HPLC technique. The results indicated that the CuSAE electrode can be used to detect the herbicides studied, since the detection limits reached using the electrode (3.06 microg L-1 and 3.78 microg L-1 for atrazine and ametryne, respectively) are lower than the maximum values permitted by CONAMA (Brazilian National Council for the Environment) for wastewaters (50 microg L-1) and by the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency of the United States) in natural water samples (10.00 microg L-1). An electroanalytical methodology employing CuSAE and square wave voltammetry (SWV) was successfully applied to the determination of atrazine and ametryne in natural water samples, yielding good recoveries (70.30%-79.40%). This indicates that the CuSAE provides a convenient substitute for the HMDE, particularly since the CuSAE minimizes the toxic waste residues produced by the use of mercury in HDME-based analyses.

  6. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. For these data, diffusion from the upper surface of the drop is a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  7. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  8. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. For these data, diffusion from the upper surface of the drop is a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  9. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Dr. von Braun addresses a crowd celebrating in front of the Madison County Alabama Courthouse following the successful launch of Astronaut Alan Shepard (America's first astronaut in space) into space on a Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, Freedom 7. Shepard's Mercury Spacecraft, was launched from Cape Canaveral. He reached a speed of 5200 mph. His flight lasted 15-1/2 minutes. May 5, 1961 (Photo: Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  10. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    A Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle awaits test-firing in the Redstone Test Stand during the late 1950s. Between 1953 and 1960, the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama performed hundreds of test firings on the Redstone rocket, over 200 on the Mercury-Redstone vehicle configuration alone. It was this configuration which launched America's first two marned space missions, Freedom 7 and Liberty Bell 7,in 1961.

  11. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. awaits liftoff in the Freedom 7 Mercury spacecraft on May 5, 1961. This third flight of the Mercury-Redstone (MR-3) vehicle, developed by D. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama, was the first marned space mission for the United States. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, Shepard reached an altitude of 115 miles and traveled 302 miles downrange.

  12. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Alan B. Shepard, Jr., America's first astronaut, stands in front of the Freedom 7 spacecraft shortly after completion of the third flight of the Mercury-Redstone (MR-3) vehicle, May 5, 1961. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, the Freedom 7 Mercury spacecraft, launched atop a modified Redstone rocket developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama, reached an altitude of 115 miles and traveled 302 miles downrange.

  13. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  14. COD measurement based on the integrated liquid drop sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zurong; Zhang, Guoxiong; Song, Qing; Xu, Jian

    2005-02-01

    A study on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measuring method is reported, in which the COD value is measured by an integrated liquid drop monitor sensor without any reagent and chemical treatment. The integrated drop sensor consists of a liquid head, an integrated fiber sensor and a capacitor sensor. The capacitor sensor is composed of a drop head and a ring electrode. As the part of the drop head, the outline of the drop will be changed during the drop forming, which result in the variation of the capacitance. The fiber sensor is composed of two fibers that are positioned into the liquid drop. The light signal goes into the liquid drop from one fiber and out from the other one. A unique fingerprint of the liquid drop can be got by the data processing. The matching between the COD value of a liquid and the codes of the fingerprints in the database are presented and discussed.

  15. Voltammetric determination of trace levels of Hg in ayurvedic medicine and in cobalt-containing samples using a carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Satpati, A K; Reddy, A V R

    2010-01-01

    An analytical method has been described for the determination of mercury using a carbon paste electrode. Conditions for the preparation of the carbon paste electrode were optimized for low background current in order to use it for the determination of ultra trace levels of mercury. The carbon paste electrode was found to be a good electrode material for the determination of mercury. The optimized pH for the determination was in the range of 2.5 to 3.5. The three sigma detection limit of mercury was obtained as 0.095 µg L(-1). Method has been modified for determination of mercury in cobalt sulfate samples.

  16. Method and apparatus for controlling electrode gap during vacuum consumable arc remelting

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.; Maroone, J.P.; Tipping, D.W.; Zanner, F.J.

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  17. Coalescence of a Drop inside another Drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugundhan, Vivek; Jian, Zhen; Yang, Fan; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2016-11-01

    Coalescence dynamics of a pendent drop sitting inside another drop, has been studied experimentally and in numerical simulations. Using an in-house fabricated composite micro-nozzle, a smaller salt-water drop is introduced inside a larger oil drop which is pendent in a tank containing the same liquid as the inner drop. On touching the surface of outer drop, the inner drop coalesces with the surrounding liquid forming a vortex ring, which grows in time to form a mushroom-like structure. The initial dynamics at the first bridge opening up is quantified using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), while matching the refractive index of the two liquids. The phenomenon is also numerically simulated using the open-source code Gerris. The problem is fully governed by two non-dimensional parameters: the Ohnesorge number and the diameter ratios of the two drops. The validated numerical model is used to better understand the dynamics of the phenomenon. In some cases a coalescence cascade is observed with liquid draining intermittently and the inner drop reducing in size.

  18. Micro coulometric titration in a liquid drop.

    PubMed

    Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Fuekhad, Pongwasin; Grudpan, Kate

    2013-10-15

    Miniaturized coulometric titration in a liquid drop has been investigated. Assays of ascorbic acid and thiosulfate with iodine titration were chosen as models. Constant volumes of falling liquid drops containing sample or reagent are manipulated via gravimetrical force to move along a slope hydrophobic path and directed to stop or to move out from an electrode. Such manipulation is useful for delivery of sample and reagents, in a way of flow without tubing. Electrochemical generation of titrant, in this case, iodine, is started at the electrode and micro coulometric titration can be performed in a drop by applying constant current. Timing in the titration can be made via naked eye with a stopwatch or via recording with a webcam camera connecting to a computer to detect the change due to the blue color complex of the excess iodine and starch.

  19. Sensitive and stable monitoring of lead and cadmium in seawater using screen-printed electrode and electrochemical stripping analysis.

    PubMed

    Güell, Raquel; Aragay, Gemma; Fontàs, Clàudia; Anticó, Enriqueta; Merkoçi, Arben

    2008-10-10

    Sensitive and stable monitoring of heavy metals in seawater using screen-printed electrodes (SPE) is presented. The analytical performance of SPE coupled with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) for the simultaneous determination of Pb and Cd in seawater samples, in the low microgL(-1) range, is evaluated. The stripping response for the heavy metals following 2min deposition was linear over the concentration range examined (10-2000microgL(-1)) with detection limits of 1.8 and 2.9microgL(-1) for Pb and Cd, respectively. The accuracy of the method was validated by analyzing metal contents in different spiked seawater samples and comparing these results to those obtained with the well-established anodic stripping voltammetry using the hanging mercury drop electrode. Moreover, a certified reference material was also used and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  20. Determination of iodide and total iodine in estuarine waters by cathodic stripping voltammetry using a vibrating silver amalgam microwire electrode.

    PubMed

    Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Bi, Zhaoshun; Salaün, Pascal; van den Berg, Constant M G

    2017-11-01

    Iodide in natural waters is an important nutrient to aquatic organisms and its determination is of relevance to marine aquaculture. For this reason it is of interest to have a simple analytical method for determination of iodide in water samples. Iodide in seawater can be determined electrochemically by cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) with a mercury drop electrode which has environmental drawbacks. In an attempt to minimise the use of mercury in voltammetry, a vibrating silver amalgam microwire electrode is used here for the determination by CSV of iodide speciation in natural waters including seawater. Microwire electrodes were made from silver wires (diameter: 12.5µm) and electrochemically coated with mercury. The electrode surface was stable for extended periods of analyses (at least one week) and was then replaced. The optimised conditions include a pH 8, a frequency of 500Hz and a deposition time of 60s, among others. The microwire was reactivated between scans using a conditioning potential at -3 V for 1s. The detection limit for iodide in seawater was found to be 0.7nM I(-) at a deposition time of 60s. The response increased linearly with the concentration of iodide in seawater up to 100nM I(-). The method was successfully applied to various samples from the estuary of the river Mersey (Liverpool Bay). An existing procedure for iodine speciation was modified to enable determination of iodate and total iodine as well as iodide in estuarine waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury transformation behavior on a bench scale coal combustion furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Fujita, Y.; Tomura, K.; Moritomi, H.; Murakami, E.; Akimoto, A.; Ikeda, S.; Tadakuma, Y.

    2003-05-01

    The mercury release behavior in bituminous coals, and the partitioning rate of mercury in solids and gaseous in flue gases have measured to develop technologies for evaluating the partitioning of mercury in coal combustion process and develop in-situ adsorption and removal technologies using three kinds of experiment equipments - a thermo-balance, a drop-tube furnace (DTF), a bench-scale pulverized coal combustion fumace. The results showed that about 20 to 60% of the mercury in coal was released between 573K and 673K, which was the range of temperature in which the release of the volatile matter of coal began. And more than 90% of the mercury was released at 773K, the temperature at which the release of the volatile matter was completed. The rate of mercury partitioned into bottom ash in a bench-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace was the smallest irrespective of the type of coal. The rate of mercury partitioned into cyclone ash was also low for all types of coal with values generally below 10%. The rest of the mercury was partitioned into mercury in gaseous form, but the rate partitioned into dust, oxidized mercury and elemental mercury varied slightly depending on the flue gas temperature and the type of coal.

  2. Rough Gold Electrodes for Decreasing Impedance at the Electrolyte/Electrode Interface.

    PubMed

    Koklu, Anil; Sabuncu, Ahmet C; Beskok, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Electrode polarization at the electrolyte/electrode interface is often undesirable for bio-sensing applications, where charge accumulated over an electrode at constant potential causes large potential drop at the interface and low measurement sensitivity. In this study, novel rough electrodes were developed for decreasing electrical impedance at the interface. The electrodes were fabricated using electrochemical deposition of gold and sintering of gold nanoparticles. The performances of the gold electrodes were compared with platinum black electrodes. A constant phase element model was used to describe the interfacial impedance. Hundred folds of decrease in interfacial impedance were observed for fractal gold electrodes and platinum black. Biotoxicity, contact angle, and surface morphology of the electrodes were investigated. Relatively low toxicity and hydrophilic nature of the fractal and granulated gold electrodes make them suitable for bioimpedance and cell electromanipulation studies compared to platinum black electrodes which are both hydrophobic and toxic.

  3. Rough Gold Electrodes for Decreasing Impedance at the Electrolyte/Electrode Interface

    PubMed Central

    Koklu, Anil; Sabuncu, Ahmet C.; Beskok, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Electrode polarization at the electrolyte/electrode interface is often undesirable for bio-sensing applications, where charge accumulated over an electrode at constant potential causes large potential drop at the interface and low measurement sensitivity. In this study, novel rough electrodes were developed for decreasing electrical impedance at the interface. The electrodes were fabricated using electrochemical deposition of gold and sintering of gold nanoparticles. The performances of the gold electrodes were compared with platinum black electrodes. A constant phase element model was used to describe the interfacial impedance. Hundred folds of decrease in interfacial impedance were observed for fractal gold electrodes and platinum black. Biotoxicity, contact angle, and surface morphology of the electrodes were investigated. Relatively low toxicity and hydrophilic nature of the fractal and granulated gold electrodes make them suitable for bioimpedance and cell electromanipulation studies compared to platinum black electrodes which are both hydrophobic and toxic. PMID:27695132

  4. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  5. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  6. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    Astronaut John Glenn in the Friendship 7 capsule during the first manned orbital flight, the MA-6 mission. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas (intercontinental ballistic missile), the MA-6 mission lasted for 5 hours and orbited the Earth three times.

  7. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    The launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7, on February 20, 1962. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), Friendship 7 was the first U.S. marned orbital flight and carried Astronaut John H. Glenn into orbit. Astronaut Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.

  8. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-09-01

    An Atlas launch vehicle carrying the Big Joe capsule leaves its launching pad on a 2,000-mile ballistic flight to the altitude of 100 miles. The Big Joe capsule is a boilerplate model of the marned orbital capsule under NASA's Project Mercury. The capsule was recovered and studied for the effect of re-entry heat and other flight stresses.

  9. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    The group portrait of the original seven astronauts for the Mercury Project. NASA selected its first seven astronauts on April 27, 1959. Left to right at front: Walter M. Wally Schirra, Donald K. Deke Slayton, John H. Glenn, Jr., and Scott Carpenter. Left to right at rear: Alan B. Shepard, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, and L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.

  10. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  11. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-15

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  12. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The original seven astronauts for the Mercury Project pose in front of an Air Force Jet. From left to right: Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper, John H. Glenn, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, Walter M. Wally Schirra, Alan B. Shepard, and Donald K. Deke Slayton.

  13. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-01-21

    The launch of the Little Joe booster for the LJ1B mission on the launch pad from the wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, on January 21, 1960. This mission achieved the suborbital Mercury capsule test, testing of the escape system, and biomedical tests by using a monkey, named Miss Sam.

  14. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-01-21

    The Little Joe launch vehicle for the LJ1 mission on the launch pad at the wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, on January 21, 1960. This mission achieved the suborbital Mercury cupsule test, testing of the escape system, and biomedical tests by using a monkey, named Miss Sam.

  15. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  16. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan Shepard underwent a physical examination prior to the first marned suborbital flight. Freedom 7 carrying Astronaut Alan Shepard, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961. Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  17. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Alan Shepard fitted with space suit prior to the first marned suborbital flight. Freedom 7, carrying Astronaut Alan Shepard, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961. Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  18. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. during suiting for the first manned suborbital flight, MR-3 mission. The Freedom 7 spacecraft, carrying the first American, Astronaut Shepard and boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961.

  19. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    This photo depicts the recovery operations of the MR-3 mission. Astronaut Alan Shepard was picked up by a U.S. Marine helicopter after the completion of the first marned suborbital flight by MR-3 (Mercury-Redstone) with the Freedom 7 capsule.

  20. Studies of pretreatments in the determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Sb and Bi in suspended particulate matter and plankton by differential-pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry with a hanging mercury drop electrode.

    PubMed

    Gillain, G

    1982-08-01

    The determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Sb and Bi by differential-pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry has been applied to samples of plankton and suspended particulate matter after decomposition of organic matter by two methods: low-temperature ashing with microwave-activated oxygen and wet-ashing in pressurized Teflon crucibles. The loss of these elements, and contamination, were studied with a standard reference material. The relative merits of these oxidation techniques are discussed.

  1. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  2. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  3. Indicators: Sediment Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment mercury is mercury that has become embedded into the bottom substrates of aquatic ecosystems. Mercury is a common pollutant of aquatic ecosystems and it can have a substantial impact on both human and wildlife health.

  4. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  5. Dual detection of nitrate and mercury in water using disposable electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong N; Brockgreitens, John; Ahmed, Snober; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-11-15

    Here we report a disposable, cost effective electrochemical paper-based sensor for the detection of both nitrate and mercury ions in lake water and contaminated agricultural runoff. Disposable carbon paper electrodes were functionalized with selenium particles (SePs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs served as a catalyst for the reduction of nitrate ions using differential pulse voltammetry techniques. The AuNPs also served as a nucleation sites for mercury ions. The SePs further reinforced this mercury ion nucleation due to their high binding affinity to mercury. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry techniques were used to further enhance mercury ion accumulation on the modified electrode. The fabricated electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electrochemistry techniques. The obtained results show that the PEG-SH/SePs/AuNPs modified carbon paper electrode has a dual functionality in that it can detect both nitrate and mercury ions without any interference. The modified carbon paper electrode has improved the analytical sensitivity of nitrate and mercury ions with limits of detection of 8.6µM and 1.0ppb, respectively. Finally, the modified electrode was used to measure nitrate and mercury in lake water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Eye drop neurology.

    PubMed

    Bennetto, Luke; Guly, Catherine; Ormerod, Ian; Plant, Gordon T

    2014-06-01

    Eye drops can help to diagnose and prevent complications of neurological disorders. Guttae ophthalmicae (eye drops) are generally safe because the drugs rarely achieve significant systemic concentrations, although there are rare exceptions. This article covers contemporary pharmacological pupil testing; how to dilate a pupil safely; common reasons why pupils do not respond to drops; and corneal lubrication to prevent complications of weak eye closure.

  7. Drop coalescence studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anikumar, A. V.; Wang, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to understand the detailed mechanics of the coalescence of liquid drops. The experiments are being conducted in an immiscible acoustic levitator with degassed water as the host medium. Typically, a quasineutrally buoyant drop of silicon oil mixed with bromobenzene is levitated close to the velocity node of the levitator. A second drop of the same liquid is introduced, and as it slowly seeks levitation position, the drops coalesce. Coalescence is delayed until the host film between drops is completely drained. Following coalescence, the excess surface energy in the coalesced drop is dissipated through shape oscillations. The final events of film rupture followed by drop coalescence are rapid and are photographically studied with high-speed video (1000 fps). The laser-induced fluorescence technique is used to visualize the dynamics of host film drainage. The details of the coalescence mechanics are presented.

  8. Motion and shape of partially non-wetting drops on inclined surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Senthilkumar K, Vijaya; Hopfinger, E. J.; IIT Madras-LEGI Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    We study high Reynolds number (Re) motion of partially non- wetting liquid drops on inclined surfaces using (i) water on Fluoro-Alkyl Silane (FAS) coated glass and (ii) mercury on glass. The high hysteresis (35°) water drop experiments have been conducted for a range of inclination angles 26° < α <62° which give a range of Capillary numbers 0 . 0003 < Ca < 0 . 0075 and 137 < Re < 3142 . For low hysteresis (6°) mercury on glass experiments, 5 .5° < α < 14 .3° so that 0 . 0002 < Ca < 0 . 0023 and 3037 < Re < 20069 . It is shown that when Re >>103 for water and Re >> 19 for mercury, the observed velocities are accounted for by a boundary layer flow model. The dimensionless velocity in the inertial regime, Ca√{ Re } scales as the modified Bond number (Bom), while Ca Bom at low Re . We show that even at high Re , the dynamic contact angles (θd) depend only on Ca , similar to that in low Re drops. Only the model by Shikhmurzaev is consistent with the variation of dynamic contact angles in both mercury and water drops. We show that the corner transition at the rear of the mercury drop occurs at a finite, receding contact angle, which is predicted by a wedge flow model that we propose. For water drops, there is a direct transition to a rivulet from the oval shape at a critical ratio of receding to static contact angles.

  9. Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the major discoveries made by the Mariner 10 mission to the inner planets was the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment of approx. 300 nT R(sup 3, sub M). This magnetic field is sufficient to stand off the solar wind at an altitude of about 1 R(sub M) (i.e. approx. 2439 km). Hence, Mercury possesses a 'magnetosphere' from which the so]ar wind plasma is largely excluded and within which the motion of charged particles is controlled by the planetary magnetic field. Despite its small size relative to the magnetospheres of the other planets, a Mercury orbiter mission is a high priority for the space physics community. The primary reason for this great interest is that Mercury unlike all the other planets visited thus far, lacks a significant atmosphere; only a vestigial exosphere is present. This results in a unique situation where the magnetosphere interacts directly with the outer layer of the planetary crust (i.e. the regolith). At all of the other planets the topmost regions of their atmospheres become ionized by solar radiation to form ionospheres. These planetary ionospheres then couple to electrodynamically to their magnetospheres or, in the case of the weakly magnetized Venus and Mars, directly to the solar wind. This magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is mediated largely through field-aligned currents (FACs) flowing along the magnetic field lines linking the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere. Mercury is unique in that it is expected that FACS will be very short lived due to the low electrical conductivity of the regolith. Furthermore, at the earth it has been shown that the outflow of neutral atmospheric species to great altitudes is an important source of magnetospheric plasma (following ionization) whose composition may influence subsequent magnetotail dynamics. However, the dominant source of plasma for most of the terrestrial magnetosphere is the 'leakage'of solar wind across the magnetopause and more

  10. Segmented electrode hall thruster with reduced plume

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2004-08-17

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes along the channel, which make the acceleration region as localized as possible. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to minimize erosion and arcing. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to produce a substantial reduction in plume divergence. The use of electrodes made of emissive material will reduce the radial potential drop within the channel, further decreasing the plume divergence. Also disclosed is a method of arranging and powering these electrodes so as to provide variable mode operation.

  11. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  12. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob; Fan, Xiyun

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  13. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  14. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  15. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  16. Scanning drop sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  17. Scanning drop sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  18. Drag on Sessile Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Nobes, David; Sen, Debjyoti; Amirfazli, Alidad; University of Alberta Mechanical Engineering Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    We present the first ever direct measurements of the coefficient of drag on sessile drops at Reynolds numbers from the creeping flow regime up to the point of incipient motion, made using a newly developed floating element differential drag sensor. Surfaces of different wettabilities (PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic surface (SHS)), wet by water, hexadecane, and various silicone oils, are used to study the effects of drop shape, and fluid properties on drag. The relation between drag coefficient and Reynolds number (scaled by drop height) varies slightly with liquid-solid system and drop volume with results suggesting the drop experiences increased drag compared to similar shaped solid bodies due to drop oscillation influencing the otherwise laminar flow. Drops adopting more spherical shapes are seen to experience the greatest force at any given airspeed. This indicates that the relative exposed areas of drops is an important consideration in terms of force, with implications for the shedding of drops in applications such as airfoil icing and fuel cell flooding. The measurement technique used in this work can be adapted to measure drag force on other deformable, lightly adhered objects such as dust, sand, snow, vesicles, foams, and biofilms. The authours acknowledge NSERC, Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, and the Killam Trusts.

  19. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    PubMed

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  20. Mercury and health care

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries’ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now. PMID:21120080

  1. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-06-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard.

  2. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  4. Charged Water Droplets can Melt Metallic Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, Eric; Rosenberg, Ethan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    A water drop, when immersed in an insulating fluid, acquires charge when it contacts an energized electrode. Provided the electric field is strong enough, the drop will move away to the opposite electrode, acquire the opposite charge, and repeat the process, effectively 'bouncing' back and forth between the electrodes. A key implicit assumption, dating back to Maxwell, has been that the electrode remains unaltered by the charging process. Here we demonstrate that the electrode is physically deformed during each charge transfer event with an individual water droplet or other conducting object. We used optical, electron, and atomic force microscopy to characterize a variety of different metallic electrodes before and after drops were electrically bounced on them. Although the electrodes appear unchanged to the naked eye, the microscopy reveals that each charge transfer event yielded a crater approximately 1 micron wide and 50 nm deep, with the exact dimensions proportional to the applied field strength. We present evidence that the craters are formed by localized melting of the electrodes via Joule heating in the metal and concurrent dielectric breakdown of the surrounding fluid, suggesting that the electrode locally achieves temperatures exceeding 3400°C. Present address: Dept. Materials Sci. Engineering, MIT.

  5. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  6. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  7. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  8. Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu

    2006-01-01

    The geometry of drops hanging on a circular capillary can be determined by numerically solving a dimensionless differential equation that is independent on any material properties, which enables one to follow the change of the height, surface area, and contact angle of drops hanging on a particular capillary. The results show that the application…

  9. Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu

    2006-01-01

    The geometry of drops hanging on a circular capillary can be determined by numerically solving a dimensionless differential equation that is independent on any material properties, which enables one to follow the change of the height, surface area, and contact angle of drops hanging on a particular capillary. The results show that the application…

  10. Effective mercury(II) bioremoval from aqueous solution, and its electrochemical determination.

    PubMed

    Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Rodríguez-Sevilla, Erika; Esparza-Schulz, Juan Marcos; Juárez-Gómez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This work proposed mercury elimination using agricultural waste (Allium Cepa L.). The biomass removed 99.4% of mercury, following a pseudo-second order kinetics (r(2) = 0.9999). The Langmuir model was adequately fitted to the adsorption isotherm, thereby obtaining the maximum mercury adsorption capacity of 111.1 ± 0.3 mg g(-1). The biomass showed high density of strong mercury chelating groups, thus making it economically attractive. Also, the implementation of a mercury-selective electrode for continuous determination in real time is proposed; this electrode replaces techniques like atomic absorption spectroscopy, thus it can be applied to real time studies. This work therefore presents a new perspective for removing mercury(II) from contaminated water for environmental remediation.

  11. Electrohydrodynamic generation of millimetric drops and control of electrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sungchan

    2017-07-01

    We report a simple method for millimetric drop generation by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) detachment using a conventional nozzle-ring device. The EHD detachment method provides distinct features of uniform-size and controlled electrification of millimetric drops. The drop dynamics of detachment and shape oscillation are recorded using a high-speed camera and analyzed for several dc voltages applied to the electrode. Experimental studies show that an oscillation frequency can be closely related to the amount of electric charge, which can be explained based on both effective interfacial tension and inviscid Rayleigh and Lamb frequency. Furthermore, we present a concept to generate a neutral drop by adjusting the duration time of a pulse signal and discuss a drop oscillation induced by the detachment. This study can provide potential implications for drop manipulation, such as transporting, merging, and mixing, in microfluidic platforms.

  12. Mercury ion thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Matossian, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    The Mercury Ion Thruster Technology program was an investigation for improving the understanding of state-of-the-art mercury ion thrusters. Emphasis was placed on optimizing the performance and simplifying the design of the 30 cm diameter ring-cusp discharge chamber. Thruster performance was improved considerably; the baseline beam-ion production cost of the optimized configuration was reduced to Epsilon (sub i) perspective to 130 eV/ion. At a discharge propellant-utilization efficiency of 95 percent, the beam-ion production cost was reduced to about 155 eV/ion, representing a reduction of about 40 eV/ion over the corresponding value for the 30 cm diameter J-series thruster. Comprehensive Langmuir-probe surveys were obtained and compared with similar measurements for a J-series thruster. A successful volume-averaging scheme was developed to correlate thruster performance with the dominant plasma processes that prevail in the two thruster designs. The average Maxwellian electron temperature in the optimized ring-cusp design is as much as 1 eV higher than it is in the J-series thruster. Advances in ion-extraction electrode fabrication technology were made by improving materials selection criteria, hydroforming and stress-relieving tooling, and fabrications procedures. An ion-extraction performance study was conducted to assess the effect of screen aperture size on ion-optics performance and to verify the effectiveness of a beam-vectoring model for three-grid ion optics. An assessment of the technology readiness of the J-series thruster was completed, and operation of an 8 cm IAPS thruster using a simplified power processor was demonstrated.

  13. FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCURY OXIDATION IN FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves two experimental scales and a modeling effort. The team is comprised of University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studies include HCl, NOx, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 1 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the drop tube are just beginning and a new, speciated mercury analyzer is up and running. A preliminary assessment has been made for the drop tube experiments using the existing model of gas-phase kinetics.

  14. Detecting Airborne Mercury by Use of Palladium Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Kisor, Adam; Homer, Margie; Jewell, April; Manatt, Kenneth; Torres, Julia; Soler, Jessica; Taylor, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Palladium chloride films have been found to be useful as alternatives to the gold films heretofore used to detect airborne elemental mercury at concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb). Somewhat more specifically, when suitably prepared palladium chloride films are exposed to parts-per-billion or larger concentrations of airborne mercury, their electrical resistances change by amounts large enough to be easily measurable. Because airborne mercury adversely affects health, it is desirable to be able to detect it with high sensitivity, especially in enclosed environments in which there is a risk of leakage of mercury from lamps or other equipment. The detection of mercury by use of gold films involves the formation of gold/mercury amalgam. Gold films offer adequate sensitivity for detection of airborne mercury and could easily be integrated into an electronic-nose system designed to operate in the temperature range of 23 to 28 C. Unfortunately, in order to regenerate a gold-film mercury sensor, one must heat it to a temperature of 200 C for several minutes in clean flowing air. In preparation for an experiment to demonstrate the present sensor concept, palladium chloride was deposited from an aqueous solution onto sets of gold electrodes and sintered in air to form a film. Then while using the gold electrodes to measure the electrical resistance of the films, the films were exposed, at a temperature of 25 C, to humidified air containing mercury at various concentrations from 0 to 35 ppb (see figure). The results of this and other experiments have been interpreted as signifying that sensors of this type can detect mercury in room-temperature air at concentrations of at least 2.5 ppb and can readily be regenerated at temperatures <40 C.

  15. Determination of chromium in estuarine waters by catalytic cathodic stripping voltammetry using a vibrating silver amalgam microwire electrode.

    PubMed

    Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Bi, Zhaoshun; van den Berg, Constant M G

    2013-02-15

    Chromium (Cr(VI)) in water can be determined by adsorptive catalytic cathodic stripping voltammetry in the presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and nitrate on the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). Predominately Cr(VI) is detected and the water is UV-digested to convert all Cr to Cr(VI) prior to analysis. We develop here an alternative to the HMDE by using a silver amalgam electrode based on a vibrating microwire. The microwire electrodes were 12.5 μm in diameter and electrochemically coated with mercury, and were stable for a week. Conditions were re-optimised, and we used a DTPA concentration of 5mM, 30 mM acetate pH buffer (pH 5.5 in seawater and pH 5.8 in pure water), and 1.5M nitrate solution. The microwire was reactivated prior to each scan by applying a negative potential (-3V) for 2s which removed all deposited Cr. The detection limit for chromium in pH buffer was found to be 0.2 nM Cr(VI) and in seawater 0.3 nM Cr(VI) at a deposition time of 30s. The response increased linearly with the concentration of Cr(VI) up to 60 nM Cr(VI) in seawater. The limit of detection is less good than using the HMDE, but the linear range is good and the microwire electrode could form the basis of apparatus for flow-analysis. The method was successfully tested on water samples from the estuary of the river Mersey (Liverpool Bay) giving chromium concentrations between 1.48 nM and 2.29 nM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  17. Global trends in mercury management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health.

  18. New Jersey mercury regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, D.F.; Corbin, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, or quicksilver, and its major ore cinnabar (HgS) have been known for thousands of years. Health effects from mercury such as dementia were known as early as the late 19th century ({open_quotes}mad as a hatter{close_quotes}). In the 1960`s and 1970`s, reported levels of mercury in tuna reawakened public awareness of mercury pollution. In the 1970`s, major epidemics of acute mercury poisoning were reported in Japan and Iraq. These incidents highlighted the extreme health risks, such as kidney damage, birth defects, and death, associated with severe mercury poisoning. Fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable since mercury poisoning can damage growing neural tissues. Recently, the perception of mercury as a dangerous pollutant has been on the rise. Advisories warning the public to avoid or reduce the consumption of freshwater fish caught in specific waterbodies due to mercury contamination have been issued in numerous states. The discovery of mercury in {open_quotes}pristine{close_quotes} lakes in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia, remote from industry and any known mercury sources, has focused attention on atmospheric emissions of mercury as potential significant sources of mercury.

  19. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes used to treat eye diseases, such as amblyopia and inflammation. How long do dilating drops last? ... used to treat certain eye diseases, such as amblyopia and inflammation in the eye. These therapeutic dilating ...

  20. Bosnia Air Drop Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    both MREs and HDRs. Bulk food included sacks of wheat flour and sugar, pulses ( beans , peas, IH-15 lentils ), dried whole milk, canned meat, biscuits...drops will almost certainly be requested in future humanitarian assistance operations, despite ongoing debate about relative costs and benefits of such... benefit policymakers and planners in future humanitarian operations. It was this background that established the requirement to assess the air drop

  1. Orion Swing Drop 6

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-25

    Water impact test of an 18,000-pound (8,165 kilogram) test version of the Orion spacecraft at NASA's Langley Research Center. NASA is swing drop testing this Orion capsule mock-up at Langley's Hydro Impact Basin to certify the actual Orion spacecraft for water landings. In a series of tests, Orion is being dropped in a variety of different conditions to help fine-tune NASA's predictions of Orion's landing loads.

  2. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  3. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  4. Basic Information about Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposures to methylmercury than other animals in water ecosystems. Predators that eat these birds and mammals are ... Service (NPS): Effects of Air Toxics/Mercury on Ecosystems U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Mercury in the Environment ...

  5. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Christopher W.; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P.; Banks, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes l-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards l-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate. PMID:25414969

  6. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  7. The temporal nature of forces acting on metal drops in gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.A.; Eagar, T.W.; Lang, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    At moderate and high welding currents, the most important forces in gas metal arc welding acting on the molten electrode are magnetic forces arising from the interaction between the welding current and its own magnetic field. These forces drive the dynamic evolution of the drop and also depend on the instantaneous shape of the drop. In this paper, experimentally observed manifestations of magnetic forces are shown, and a technique for approximating the temporal evolution of these forces from experimentally measured drop shapes is reported. The technique provides quantitative data illustrating the large increase in the magnetic forces as a drop detaches from the electrode.

  8. Characterization and basic research investigations at PEFC electrodes and MEA

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, M.; Wagner, N.; Steinhilber, G.

    1996-12-31

    For the study of electrochemical and transport mechanisms in polymere electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) electrodes and for a further development of PEFC electrodes it is important to characterize these electrodes. The characterization of the electrodes was performed by electrochemical analytical as well as physical methods on both single electrodes and electrode-membrane assemblies (NEA). In addition to voltage-current characteristics the electrodes were electrochemically measured by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry. To determine the pore systems nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry were used. Chemical composition and microstructure of the electrodes were studied by surface science methods like scanning electron microscopy or X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of characterization are the base for theoretical simulation of fuel cells and fuel cell stacks.

  9. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  10. Dental amalgam and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Mackert, J.R. Jr. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper looks at the issues of the current amalgam controversy: the daily dose of mercury from amalgam, hypersensitivity to mercury, claims of adverse effects from amalgam mercury and alleged overnight 'cures.' In addition, the toxicity and allergenicity of the proposed alternative materials are examined with the same kind of scrutiny applied by the anti-amalgam group to dental amalgam. 100 references.

  11. Ancient Maya Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David M.

    1982-08-01

    Discovery of mercury in an ancient Maya offering at Lamanai, Belize, has stimulated examination of possible sources of the material in the Maya area. Two zones of cinnabar and native mercury deposits can be defined in the Maya highlands, and the presence of the native metal suggests that the ancient Maya collected rather than extracted the mercury from ore.

  12. Mercury in the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Lyon, W. S.; Shults, W. D.; Wallace, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Problems in assessing mercury concentrations in environmental materials are discussed. Data for situations involving air, water, rocks, soils, sediments, sludges, fossil fuels, plants, animals, foods, and man are drawn together and briefly evaluated. Details are provided regarding the toxicity of mercury along with tentative standards and guidelines for mercury in air, drinking water, and food.

  13. Liquid metal drop ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

  14. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  15. Complex Drop Impact Morphology.

    PubMed

    Grishaev, Viktor; Iorio, Carlo Saverio; Dubois, Frank; Amirfazli, A

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this work is to understand the changes in the observed phenomena during particle-laden drop impact. The impact of millimeter-size drops was investigated onto hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (polycarbonate) substrates. The drops were dispersions of water and spherical and nearly iso-dense hydrophobic particles with diameters of 200 and 500 μm. The impact was studied by side and bottom view images in the range 150 ≤ We ≤ 750 and 7100 ≤ Re ≤ 16400. The particles suppressed the appearance of singular jetting and drop partial rebound but promoted splashing, receding breakup, and rupture. The drops with 200 μm particles spread in two phases: fast and slow, caused by inertial and capillary forces, respectively. Also, the increase in volume fraction of 200 μm particle led to a linear decrease in the maximum spreading factor caused by the inertia force on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. The explanation of this reduction was argued to be the result of energy dissipation through frictional losses between particles and the substrate.

  16. Subdural Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Ronald P.; Crone, Nathan E.; Webber, W.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Subdural electrodes are frequently used to aid in the neurophysiological assessment of patients with intractable seizures. We review the indications for these, their uses for localizing epileptogenic regions and for localizing cortical regions supporting movement, sensation, and language. PMID:20573543

  17. Drum drop test report

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.

    1995-02-28

    Testing was performed to determine actual damage to drums when dropped from higher than currently stacked elevations. The drum configurations were the same as they are placed in storage; single drums and four drums banded to a pallet. Maximum drop weights were selected based on successful preliminary tests. Material was lost from each of the single drum tests while only a small amount of material was lost from one of the pelletized drums. The test results are presented in this report. This report also provides recommendations for further testing to determine the appropriate drum weight which can be stored on a fourth tier.

  18. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    PubMed

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  19. Life after Dropping Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, David E.

    Why dropouts left school, what they thought about school and teachers, what their lives have been after dropping out, and what made them return to an alternative program for school completion were questions examined in a study in progress in Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). To date, 88 early school leavers in the Job Corps have been interviewed.…

  20. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  1. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-11-28

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  2. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF - 781KB] En Español [PDF - 6.6MB] What did ATSDR find? For children, most elemental mercury exposures ... that exposed children to elemental mercury. The report did not include a review of mercury exposures from ...

  3. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  4. Mercury: The World Closest to the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Bruce M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to the geology of Mercury including the origin of Mercury's magnetism, Mercury's motions, volcanism, scarps, and Mercury's violent birth and early life. Includes a table comparing Mercury's orbital and physical data to that of earth's. (JN)

  5. Mercury: The World Closest to the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Bruce M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to the geology of Mercury including the origin of Mercury's magnetism, Mercury's motions, volcanism, scarps, and Mercury's violent birth and early life. Includes a table comparing Mercury's orbital and physical data to that of earth's. (JN)

  6. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  7. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  9. Cermet electrode

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  10. (abstract) Production and Levitation of Free Drops of Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, C. G.; Petrac, D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    We are interested in the nucleation and behavior of quantized vorticies and surface excitations in free drops of superfluid helium. We have constructed an apparatus to maintain liquid helium drops isolated from any material container in the Earth's gravitational field, and have investigated two techniques for generating and introducing liquid drops into the region of confinement. The levitation apparatus utilizes the electrostatic force acting upon a charged liquid drop to counteract the gravitational force, with drop position stability provided by a static magnetic field acting upon the helium diamagnetic moment. Electrically neutral superfluid drops have been produced with a miniature thermomechanical pump; for a given configuration the liquid initial velocity has been varied up to several centimeters per second. Liquid drops carrying either net positive or negative charge are produced by an electrode which generates a flow of ionized liquid from the bulk liquid surface. Potentials of less than one thousand volts to several thousand volts are required. The mass flow is controlled by varying duration of the ionizing voltage pulse; drops as small as 30 micrometers diameter, charged to near the Rayleigh limit, have been observed.

  11. Photoelectrochemical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The surface of a moderate band gap semiconductor such as p-type molybdenum sulfide is modified to contain an adherent film of charge mediating ionene polymer containing an electroactive unit such as bipyridimium. Electron transport between the electrode and the mediator film is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination processes are suppressed. Incorporation of particles of catalyst such as platinum within the film provides a reduction in overvoltage. The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition crosslinking. Catalyst can be predispersed in the polymer film or a salt can be impregnated into the film and reduced therein.

  12. High efficiency iron electrode and additives for use in rechargeable iron-based batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narayan, Sri R.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Aniszfeld, Robert; Manohar, Aswin; Malkhandi, Souradip; Yang, Bo

    2017-02-21

    An iron electrode and a method of manufacturing an iron electrode for use in an iron-based rechargeable battery are disclosed. In one embodiment, the iron electrode includes carbonyl iron powder and one of a metal sulfide additive or metal oxide additive selected from the group of metals consisting of bismuth, lead, mercury, indium, gallium, and tin for suppressing hydrogen evolution at the iron electrode during charging of the iron-based rechargeable battery. An iron-air rechargeable battery including an iron electrode comprising carbonyl iron is also disclosed, as is an iron-air battery wherein at least one of the iron electrode and the electrolyte includes an organosulfur additive.

  13. Drop tube technical tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

  14. Exploding Water Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly stoppered. The flask is then cooled, either by leaving it outdoors in winter or by immersing it in a cryogenic fluid, until the water freezes. As the water freezes and expands, the pressure inside the flask increases dramatically, eventually becoming sufficient to fracture the metal walls of the enclosure. A related, but much less familiar, phenomenon is the explosive fracturing of small water drops upon freezing. That water drops can fracture in this way has been known for many years, and the phenomenon has been described in detail in the atmospheric sciences literature, where it is seen as relevant to the freezing of raindrops as they fall through cold air. Carefully controlled experiments have been done documenting how the character and frequency of fracture is affected by such variables as drop size, rate of cooling, chemistry of dissolved gases, etc. Here I describe instead a simple demonstration of fracture suitable for video analysis and appropriate for study at the introductory physics level. Readers may also be interested in other characteristics of freezing and fragmenting water drops, for example, charge separation upon fracture and the appearance of spikes and bulges on the surface.

  15. Substorms on Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Ness, N. F.; Yeates, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative similarities between some of the variations in the Mercury encounter data and variations in the corresponding regions of the earth's magnetosphere during substorms are pointed out. The Mariner 10 data on Mercury show a strong interaction between the solar wind and the plant similar to a scaled down version of that for the earth's magnetosphere. Some of the features observed in the night side Mercury magnetosphere suggest time dependent processes occurring there.

  16. Thallium Mercury Laser Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu and D. W. Feldman FINAL REPORT (PHASE III) (Period between Feb. 1, 1980 and Jan. 31, 1981) 0 Contract No...Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 Approved for public release;IDistribution Unlimited 1/i;THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT * , , IS C. S./Liu tRD. W /eldman...9 ’ t4 THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu and D. W. Feldman Westinghouse R&D Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 1

  17. Electrostatic drops in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Isabel J.; Schmidt, Erin; Weislogel, Mark M.; Pettit, Donald

    2016-11-01

    We present what we think are the first intentional electrostatic orbits in the near-weightless environment of a drop tower. Classical physics problems involving Coulombic forces in orbital mechanics have traditionally been confined to thought experiments due to practical terrestrial experimental limitations, namely, the preponderance of gravity. However, the use of a drop tower as an experimental platform can overcome this challenge for brief periods. We demonstrate methanol-water droplets in orbit around a variety of charged objects- some of which can be used to validate special cases of N-body systems. Footage collected via a high-speed camera is analyzed and orbital trajectories are compared with existing theoretical predictions. Droplets of diameters 0.5 to 2mm in a variety of obits are observed. Due to the repeatability of drop tower initial conditions and effective low-g environment, such experiments may be used to construct empirical analogues and confirm analyses toward the benefit of other fields including space and planetary science. NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX12A047A, Portland State LSAMP, Robert E. McNair Scholars Program.

  18. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  19. Mercury emission from crematoria.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, Anna; Settimo, Gaetano; Dell'andrea, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study, undertaken at a cremator representing an example of current equipment and cremation practices in use in Italy, is to assess the possible mercury emitted during cremation and substantiate the current data available. This paper reports some preliminary results concerning mercury and total particulate matter emissions during three cremation processes. The obtained results gave a mercury concentration ranging from 0.005 to 0.300 mg/m3 and a mercury emission factor ranging from 0.036 to 2.140 g/corpse cremated. The total particulate matter concentration range was 1.0 to 2.4 mg/m3.

  20. Microvoltammetric Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-25

    Microvoltammetric Electrodes, J. 0. Howell, R. M. Wightman, Anal. Chem., 56, 524-529 (1984). 2. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill...Electroanal. Chem., 182, 113-122 (1985). C. List of all publications 1. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill, J. 0. Howell, R. M

  1. Elemental mercury releases attributed to antiques--New York, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-06-15

    Metallic (i.e., elemental) mercury, a heavy, silvery odorless liquid, is in common household products such as thermostats and thermometers. Lesser-known household sources of elemental mercury include certain antique or vintage items such as clocks, barometers, mirrors, and lamps. Over time, the mercury in these items can leak, particularly as seals age or when the items are damaged, dropped, or moved improperly. Vacuuming a mercury spill or vaporization from spill-contaminated surfaces such as carpets, floors, furniture, mops, or brooms can increase levels of mercury in the air, especially in enclosed spaces. Environmental sampling conducted after releases of elemental mercury have indicated substantial air concentrations that were associated with increases in blood and urine mercury levels among exposed persons. In 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) created the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, a multistate health department surveillance system designed to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hazardous substance events. This report describes antique-related mercury releases reported to HSEES, all of which occurred in New York state during 2000-2006. Although none of these spills resulted in symptoms or acute health effects, they required remediation to prevent future mercury exposure. The findings underscore the need for caution when handling antiques containing elemental mercury and the need for proper remediation of spills.

  2. Aids for eye drop administration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Isaiah; Williams, Andrew M; Muir, Kelly W

    One aspect to eye drop adherence is successful instillation of the drops; however, it is well known that many patients struggle with this task. Difficulties may include aiming their drops, extending their neck, preventing excess drop leakage, avoiding contamination of the bottle tip, and generating enough force to expel a drop from the bottle. Instillation aids are devices that aim to ameliorate one or more of these barriers. We review the literature on instillation aids to describe the options available to patients and to report evaluations of their efficacy. Most instillation aids studied improved objective or subjective outcomes of eye drop instillation, including improved rates of successful administration and increased patient satisfaction compared with standard eye-drop bottles. Although further research is warranted, instillation aids may be an underutilized resource for the many patients who struggle to administer their own eye drops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Leidenfrost Drop on a Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2008-11-01

    When deposited on a hot plate, a water droplet evaporates quickly. However, a vapor film appears under the drop above a critical temperature, called Leidenfrost temperature, which insulates the drop from its substrate. Linke & al (2006) reported a spontaneous movement of such a drop, when deposited on a ratchet. We study here the case of a flat substrate decorated with a single micrometric step. The drop is deposited on the lower part of the plate and pushed towards the step at small constant velocity. If the kinetic energy of the drop is sufficient, it can climb up the step. In that case, depending on the substrate temperature, the drop can either be decelerated or accelerated by the step. We try to understand the dynamics of these drops, especially the regime where they accelerate. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we could then build a multiple-step setup, making it possible for a Leidenfrost drop to climb stairs.

  4. Integrity Monitoring of Mercury Discharge Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury discharge lamps are critical in many trapped ion frequency standard applications. An integrity monitoring system can be implemented using end-of-life signatures observed in operational mercury discharge lamps, making it possible to forecast imminent failure and to take action to mitigate the consequences (such as switching to a redundant system). Mercury lamps are used as a source of 194-nm ultraviolet radiation for optical pumping and state selection of mercury trapped ion frequency standards. Lamps are typically fabricated using 202Hg distilled into high-purity quartz, or other 194-nm transmitting material (e.g., sapphire). A buffer gas is also placed into the bulb, typically a noble gas such as argon, neon, or krypton. The bulbs are driven by strong RF fields oscillating at .200 MHz. The lamp output may age over time by two internal mechanisms: (1) the darkening of the bulb that attenuates light transmission and (2) the loss of mercury due to migration or chemical interactions with the bulb surface. During fabrication, excess mercury is placed into a bulb, so that the loss rate is compensated with new mercury emanating from a cool tip or adjacent reservoir. The light output is nearly constant or varies slightly at a constant rate for many months/years until the mercury source is depleted. At this point, the vapor pressure abruptly falls and the total light output and atomic clock SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) decrease. After several days to weeks, the light levels decrease to a point where the atomic clock SNR is no longer sufficient to stay in lock, or the lamp self-extinguishes. This signature has been observed in four separate end-of-life lamp failures while operating in the Deep Space Network (DSN). A simple integrator circuit can observe and document steady-state lamp behavior. When the light levels drop over a predetermined time interval by a specified amount (e.g., 20 percent), an alarm is set. For critical operational applications, such as the DSN

  5. Modeling Mercury in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Parks, J M; Smith, J C

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively nontoxic, other forms such as Hg(2+) and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg(2+) can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg(2+) to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed molecular picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here, we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intraprotein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand-binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confer mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multiscale model of environmental mercury cycling. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  7. Effect of a strong interfacial electric field on the orientation of the dipole moment of thiolated aib-oligopeptides tethered to mercury on either the N- or C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Becucci, Lucia; Guryanov, Ivan; Maran, Flavio; Guidelli, Rolando

    2010-05-05

    Four oligopeptides consisting of a sequence of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) residues, thiolated at either the N- or C-terminus by means of a -(CH(2))(2)-SH anchor, were self-assembled on mercury, which is a substrate known to impart a high fluidity to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The surface dipole potential of these peptide SAMs was estimated in 0.1 M KCl aqueous solution at a negatively charged electrode, where the interfacial electric field is directed toward the metal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first estimate of the surface dipole potential of peptide SAMs in aqueous solution. The procedure adopted consisted in measuring the charge involved in the gradual expansion of a peptide-coated mercury drop and then combining the resulting information with an estimate of the charge density experienced by diffuse layer ions. The dipole moment of the tethered thiolated peptides was found to be directed toward the metal, independent of whether they were thiolated at the C- or N-terminus. This result was confirmed by the effect of these SAMs on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) redox couple. The combined outcome of these studies indicates that a strong interfacial electric field orients the dipole moment of peptide SAMs tethered to mercury, even against their "natural" dipole moment.

  8. Theory of Compound Liquid Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffren, M. M.; Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamic behavior is analyzed for drop within drop within infinite fluid. Report gives theoretical basis for understanding behavior of compound drops. Aids in planning and interpreting experiments in laboratory, spacecraft, and research aircraft. Provides insight into fabrication of target pellets for nuclear fusion.

  9. Quick don-doff electrode pastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, B.

    1969-01-01

    Evaluation of electrode pastes for use in electrocardiographs and electroencephalographs found that the one having the desired don-doff properties had to be water soluble or a water dispersible base. Poly /methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride/ or starch gels of the gum drop variety are two such bases.

  10. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  11. The observation of valence band change on resistive switching of epitaxial Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 film using removable liquid electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2015-12-01

    The resistive switching (RS) phenomenon in transition metal oxides (TMOs) has received a great deal of attention for non-volatile memory applications. Various RS mechanisms have been suggested as to explain the observed RS characteristics. Many reports suggest that changes of interface and the role of oxygen vacancies originate in RS phenomena; therefore, in this study, we use a liquid drop of mercury as the top electrode (TE), epitaxial Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO) (110) film of the perovskite manganite family for RS material, and an Nb-doped (0.7 at. %) SrTiO3 (100) single crystal as the substrate to observe changes in the interface between the TE and TMOs. The use of removable liquid electrode Hg drop as TE not only enables observation of the RS characteristic as a bipolar RS curve (counterclockwise) but also facilitates analysis of the valence band of the PCMO surface after resistive switching via photoelectron spectroscopy. The observed I-V behaviors of the low and high resistance states (HRS) are explained with an electrochemical migration model in PCMO film where accumulated oxygen vacancies at the interface between the Hg TE and PCMO (110) surface induce the HRS. The interpreted RS mechanism is directly confirmed via valence band spectrum analysis.

  12. Mercury: the forgotten planet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.

    1997-11-01

    Mercury is the neglected child of the planetary system. Only one spacecraft has every ventured near it, whereas scores have probed the moon, Venus and Mars. The scant facts available show this strange, blazingly hot planet is full of surprises: its anomalous density and magnetic field suggest that Mercury may be where to seek clues to the origin of the solar system.

  13. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  14. Mercury in the environment

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2016-07-12

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  15. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  16. Mercury and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when mercury in the air gets into water. The mercury in the air comes from natural sources (such as volcanoes) and man-made sources (such as burning coal and other pollution). You can get methylmercury in your body by ...

  17. Mercury in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2008-08-06

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  18. Mercury and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when mercury in the air gets into water. The mercury in the air comes from natural sources (such as volcanoes) and man-made sources (such as burning coal and other pollution). You can get methylmercury in your body by ...

  19. Dynamic duo captures mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, C.; Adams, B.

    2006-02-15

    There is strong evidence that the combination of wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can prove a viable and formidable combination for knocking out mercury. This article analyzes the capabilities and limitations of the SCR-FGD combination for mercury compliance, including applicability to different types of coal and issues with scrubber by-products. 3 figs.

  20. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower center of image, as it transits across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower third of image, as it transits across the face of the sun Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower left of image, as it transits across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower left, as it transits across the face of the sun Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Project Mercury - Monument

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-11

    S66-59963 (9 Nov. 1966) --- Monument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury. The Arabic number seven represents the seven original astronauts. The other figure is the astronomical symbol of the Planet Mercury. In background is the Gemini-12 Agena Target Docking Vehicle atop its Atlas launch vehicle at Cape Kennedy, Florida. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  6. Mercury poisoning in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Fairbrother, Anne; Locke, Louis N.; Hoff, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Mercury is an intriguing contaminant because it has complex chemical properties, a wide range of harmful effects, and an infinite persistence in the environment. Die-offs of wildlife due to mercury have occurred in many countries, especially before mercury seed dressings were banned. Today, most mercury problems are associated with aquatic environments. Methylmercury, the most toxic chemical form, attacks many organ systems, but damage to the central nervous system is most severe. Harmful wet-weight concentrations of mercury, as methylmercury, in the tissues of adult birds and mammals range from about 8-30 ppm in the brain, 20-60 ppm in liver, 20-60 ppm in kidney, and 15-30 ppm in muscle. Young animals may be more sensitive.

  7. Mercury Sodium Tail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This image from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft is stitched together from thousands of observations made over the past 4 years by the MASCS/UVVS instrument, which measures sunlight scattered off of Mercury tenuous atmosphere. Scattered sunlight gives the sodium a bright orange glow. This scattering process also gives sodium atoms a push - this "radiation pressure" is strong enough, during parts of Mercury's year, to strip the atmosphere and give Mercury a long glowing tail. Someone standing on Mercury's nightside at the right time of year would see a faint orange similar to a city sky illuminated by sodium lamps! Instrument: Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS)/Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19418

  8. Getting rid of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, M.S.

    2008-11-24

    Anticipating a US rule on mercury removal from coal flue gas, technology providers jockey for position. By 2013, if the federal rule imposing regulation of mercury emissions which have begun or are about to begin in 20 eastern states goes nationwide, mercury control will be big business. For the near term, utilities are adopting activated carbon to control mercury emissions. McIlvaine Co. projects the US market for activated carbon will jump from 10 million lb in 2010 to 350 million by 2013. Norit and Calgon Carbon are already increasing production of activated carbon (mainly from coal) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is building a new plant. Albermarle is developing a process to treat activated carbon with bromine; Corning has developed a sulfur impregnated activated carbon filtration brick. New catalysts are being developed to improve the oxidation of mercury for removal from flue gas. 2 photos.

  9. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  10. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Hovarongkura, A. David; Henry, Jr., Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  11. High voltage pulse ignition of mercury discharge hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A high voltage pulse generated by a capacitor discharge into a step-up transformer has been demonstrated capable of consistently igniting hollow cathode mercury discharges at propellant flows and heater power levels much below those required by conventional cathode starting. Results are presented for 3.2-mm diameter enclosed and open keeper cathodes. Starting characteristics are shown to depend on keeper voltage, mercury flow rate, heater power, keeper orifice size, emissive materials, and electrode to which the pulse is applied. This starting technique has been used to start a cathode over 10,000 times without any degradation of starting capability.

  12. Modeling of Changing Electrode Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, Geoffrey Allen

    1980-12-01

    A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

  13. Hybrid Approach for PEMFC Electrode Microstructural Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cetinbas, Firat C.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Kariuki, Nancy; De Andrade, Vincent; Sharman, Jonathan; Ferreira, Paulo J.; Rasouli, S; Myers, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    The cost and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells strongly depend on the cathode electrode due to usage of expensive platinum (Pt) group metal catalyst and sluggish reaction kinetics. Development of low Pt content high performance cathodes requires comprehensive understanding of the electrode microstructure. In this study, a new approach is presented to characterize the detailed cathode electrode microstructure from nm to μm length scales by combining information from different experimental techniques. In this context, nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) is performed to extract the secondary pore space of the electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is employed to determine primary C particle and Pt particle size distributions. X-ray scattering, with its ability to provide size distributions of orders of magnitude more particles than TEM, is used to confirm the TEM-determined size distributions. The number of primary pores that cannot be resolved by nano-CT is approximated using mercury intrusion porosimetry. An algorithm is developed to incorporate all these experimental data in one geometric representation. Upon validation of pore size distribution against gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry data, reconstructed ionomer size distribution is reported. In addition, transport related characteristics and effective properties are computed by performing simulations on the hybrid microstructure.

  14. Fundamental Studies of Surface Processes and Trace Analysis Using Solid Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    voltammetry are analyzed. Induction times are observed experimentally at solid electrodes. Two such examples are presented for cathodic stripping ...with the formation of cathodic stripping peaks at silver electrodes. The uncompensat - ad ohmic potential dro at microelectrodas under steady state...with the formation of cathodic stripping peaks at silver electrodes. The uncompensated ohmic potential drop at microelectrodes under steady state

  15. Drop tube research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the activities performed in the Drop Tube Study which The University of Alabama in Huntsville designed, fabricated and performed various low gravity experiments in materials processing from November 1, 1991 through October 30, 1992. During the performance of this contract the utilization of these ground-based containerless processing facilities has been instrumental in providing the opportunity to determine the feasibility of performing a number of solidification experiments in a simulated space environment, without the expense of a space-based experiment. A number of periodic reports have been given to the TCOR during the course of this contract hence this final report is meant only to summarize the many activities performed and not redundantly cover materials already submitted.

  16. Mercury in the ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise on the environmental dispersion of mercury emphasizes the importance of ''mercury-consciousness'' in the present-day world, where rapidly expanding metallurgical, chemical, and other industrial developments are causing widespread contamination of the atmosphere, soil, and water by this metal and its toxic organic derivatives. Concepts concerning the mechanism of mercury dispersion and methyl-mercury formation in the physico-biological ecosystem are discussed in detail and a substantial body of data on the degree and nature of the mercury contamination of various plants, fish, and land animals by industrial and urban effluents is presented. Various analytical methods for the estimation of mercury in inorganic and organic samples are presented. These serve as a ready guide to the selection of the correct method for analyzing environmental samples. This book is reference work in mercury-related studies. It is written to influence industrial policies of governments in their formulation of control measures to avoid the recurrence of human tragedies such as the well-known Minamata case in Japan, and the lesser known cases in Iraq, Pakistan, and Guatamala.

  17. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.

  18. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.

  19. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  20. The effect of gamma radiation on reference electrodes and platinum and carbon steel bare metal electrodes in a simulated waste solution. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Electrochemical potential measurements of materials in waste tanks are important in determining if the materials have a propensity for stress corrosion cracking and pitting. Potential measurement requires a reference electrode, but the effect of radiation on the potential generated by the reference electrode has been an unknown quantity. To determine the significance of the radiation effect, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted studies of five types of electrodes under gamma radiation at room temperature. The subjects were two types of silver/silver chloride reference electrodes (Fisher and Lazaran), a mercury/calomel reference electrode, a platinum ``flag,`` and a piece of A-537 carbon steel; the electrodes were exposed to a simulated caustic tank environment. The Fisher silver/silver chloride and mercury/calomel reference electrodes showed essentially no radiation effects up to a flux of 2.1E6 R/h and fluence of 9.4E8 R, indicating they would be useful reference electrodes for in-tank studies. The Lazaran{reg_sign} silver/silver chloride electrode showed serious potential deviations at fluences of 2.E8 R, but it would be the electrode of choice in many situations because it is simple to maintain. Radiation affected the open circuit potential of both the platinum and carbon steel electrodes. This effect indicates that corrosion studies without radiation may not duplicate the corrosion processes expected in a waste tank. Mixed-potential theory was used to explain the radiation effects.

  1. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    PubMed

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials.

  2. Global change and mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory activities.

  3. Thallium Mercury Laser Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-17

    AD-A9 840 WESTINGHOUSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER PITTSBU--ETC F/A 20/5 THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT .(U) APR 80 C S LIU, D W FELDMAN, J L...PACK NO001I78-C-0131 lIlrt A nEQE-WOTFX-R NL THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman and J. L. Pack FINAL REPORT (PHASE II...PERIOD COVERED Thallium Mercury Laser Development -T- Final Report (Phase II) Feb. 1, 1979 to Jan. 31, 1980 77a. w-atF. -REPORT NUMBER _,___C2-OTEX

  4. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  5. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  6. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  7. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  8. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  9. Large amplitude drop shape oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large.

  10. Investigations of levitated helium drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Dwight Lawrence

    1999-11-01

    We report on the development of two systems capable of levitating drops of liquid helium. Helium drops of ˜20 mum have been levitated with the radiation pressure from two counter-propagating Nd:YAG laser beams. Drops are produced with a submerged piezoelectric transducer, and could be held for up to three minutes in our optical trap. Calculations show that Brillouin and Raman scattering of the laser light in the liquid helium produces a negligible rate of evaporation of the drop. Evaporation caused by the enhanced vapor pressure of the curved drop surfaces appears to be a significant effect limiting the drop lifetimes. Helium drops as large as 2 cm in diameter have been suspended in the earth's gravitational field with a magnetic field. A commercial superconducting solenoid provides the necessary field, field-gradient product required to levitate the drops. Drops are cooled to 0.5 K with a helium-3 refrigerator, and can be held in the trap indefinitely. We have found that when two or more drops are levitated in the same magnetic trap, the drops often remain in a state of apparent contact without coalescing. This effect is a result of the evaporation of liquid from between the two drops, and is found to occur only for normal fluid drops. We can induce shape oscillations in charged, levitated drops with an applied ac electric field. We have measured the resonance frequencies and damping rates for the l = 2 mode of oscillation as function of temperature. We have also developed a theory to describe the small amplitude shape oscillations of a He II drop surrounded by its saturated vapor. In our theory, we have considered two sets of boundary conditions---one where the drop does not evaporate and another in which the liquid and vapor are in thermodynamic equilibrium. We have found that both solutions give a frequency that agrees well with experiment, but that the data for the damping rate agree better with the solution without evaporation.

  11. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  12. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective.

  13. Novel Process for Removal and Recovery of Vapor Phase Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwell, Collin; Roberts, Daryl L; Albiston, Jason; Stewart, Robin; Broderick, Tom

    1998-03-09

    We demonstrated in the Phase I program all key attributes of a new technology for removing mercury from flue gases, namely, a) removal of greater than 95% of both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury, both in the laboratory and in the field b) regenerability of the sorbent c) ability to scale up, and d) favorable economics. The Phase I program consisted of four tasks other than project reporting: Task I-1 Screen Sorbent Configurations in the Laboratory Task I-2 Design and Fabricate Bench-Scale Equipment Task I-3 Test Bench-Scale Equipment on Pilot Combustor Task I-4 Evaluate Economics Based on Bench-Scale Results In Task I-1, we demonstrated that the sorbents are thermally durable and are regenerable through at least 55 cycles of mercury uptake and desorption. We also demonstrated two low-pressure- drop configurations of the sorbent, namely, a particulate form and a monolithic form. We showed that the particulate form of the sorbent would take up 100% of the mercury so long as the residence time in a bed of the sorbent exceeded 0.1 seconds. In principle, the particulate form of the sorbent could be imbedded in the back side of a higher temperature bag filter in a full-scale application. With typical bag face velocities of four feet per minute, the thickness of the particulate layer would need to be about 2000 microns to accomplish the uptake of the mercury. For heat transfer efficiency, however, we believed the monolithic form of the sorbent would be the more practical in a full scale application. Therefore, we purchased commercially-available metallic monoliths and applied the sorbent to the inside of the flow channels of the monoliths. At face velocities we tested (up to 1.5 ft/sec), these monoliths had less than 0.05 inches of water pressure drop. We tested the monolithic form of the sorbent through 21 cycles of mercury sorption and desorption in the laboratory and included a test of simultaneous uptake of both mercury and mercuric chloride. Overall, in Task

  14. Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices†

    PubMed Central

    Issadore, David; Humphry, Katherine J.; Brown, Keith A.; Sandberg, Lori; Weitz, David; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30°C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature, such as PCR amplification of DNA, and can benefit from this new technique. PMID:19495453

  15. Microwave dielectric heating of drops in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Issadore, David; Humphry, Katherine J; Brown, Keith A; Sandberg, Lori; Weitz, David A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2009-06-21

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picolitre-scale drop of water, enabling very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature change of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperature changes as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature and can benefit from this new technique.

  16. The tectonics of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.; Mckinnon, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records.

  17. ULF Waves at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.-H.; Boardsen, S. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Slavin, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the observed characteristics of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at Mercury. It shows how field-aligned propagating ULF waves at Mercury can be generated by externally driven fast compressional waves (FWs) via mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Then, the chapter reviews the interpretation that the strong magnetic compressional waves near and its harmonics observed with 20 of Mercury's magnetic equator could be the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) mode. A recent statistical study of ULF waves at Mercury based on MESSENGER data reported the occurrence and polarization of the detected waves. The chapter further introduces the field line resonance and the electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves to explain such waves, and shows that both theories can partially explain the observations.

  18. The Study of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, Louise M.; Bedini, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    When the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft enters orbit about Mercury in March 2011 it will begin a new phase in an age-old scientific study of the innermost planet. Despite being visible to the unaided eye, Mercury's proximity to the Sun makes it extremely difficult to observe from Earth. Nonetheless, over the centuries man has pursued a quest to understand the elusive planet, and has teased out information about its motions in the sky, its relation to the other planets, and its physical characteristics. A great leap was made in our understanding of Mercury when the Mariner 10 spacecraft flew past it three times in the mid-1970s, providing a rich set of close-up observations. Now, three decades later, The MESSENGER spacecraft has also visited the planet three times, and is poised to add significantly to the study with a year-long orbital observation campaign.

  19. Uncratered Area on Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-08

    A dark, smooth, relatively uncratered area on Mercury was photographed two hours after NASA Mariner 10 flew by the planet. The prominent, sharp crater with a central peak is 30 kilometers 19 miles across.

  20. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, left, and NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, unveil two USPS stamps to commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions In Coal Power Plant Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Levin

    2005-12-31

    west of Kenosha. Aircraft and ground measurements support the occurrence of a reduction in the fraction of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) (with a corresponding increase in elemental mercury) as part of the Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) emitted from the Pleasant Prairie stack. This occurrence is based on comparison of the RGM concentrations in the plume (at standard conditions) compared to the RGM in the stack. There was found to be a 44% drop in the fraction of RGM between the stack exit and the first sampling arc and a 66% reduction from the stack to the 5-mile sampling arc, with no additional drop between the 5- and 10-mile arcs. Smaller-scale experiments in both test chambers and pilot-scale coal combustor exhaust streams have indicated the presence of rapid and relatively complete reduction reactions converting divalent into elemental mercury within power plant plumes prior to full dispersion in the atmosphere. These measurements, however, have been unable to identify whether the reactions occur during plume rise from physical to virtual stack height (during positive thermal buoyancy). The presence, rate, completeness, ubiquity, and dependence on source characteristics of these reactions, however, must be demonstrated in plume environments associated with fully operational power plants. That requirement, to capture either the reactions or the reaction products of chemistry that may be occurring very close to stack exits in highly turbulent environments, constrains the precision and reproducibility with which such full-scale experiments can be carried out. The work described here is one of several initial steps required to test whether, and in what direction, such rapid mercury redox reactions might be occurring in such plumes.

  2. Ecosystem conceptual model- Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Foe, Chris; Klasing, Susan; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Slotton, Darell G.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2008-01-01

    Mercury has been identified as an important contaminant in the Delta, based on elevated concentrations of methylmercury (a toxic, organic form that readily bioaccumulates) in fish and wildlife. There are health risks associated with human exposure to methylmercury by consumption of sport fish, particularly top predators such as bass species. Original mercury sources were upstream tributaries where historical mining of mercury in the Coast Ranges and gold in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath-Trinity Mountains caused contamination of water and sediment on a regional scale. Remediation of abandoned mine sites may reduce local sources in these watersheds, but much of the mercury contamination occurs in sediments stored in the riverbeds, floodplains, and the Bay- Delta, where scouring of Gold-Rush-era sediment represents an ongoing source.Conversion of inorganic mercury to toxic methylmercury occurs in anaerobic environments including some wetlands. Wetland restoration managers must be cognizant of potential effects on mercury cycling so that the problem is not exacerbated. Recent research suggests that wettingdrying cycles can contribute to mercury methylation. For example, high marshes (inundated only during the highest tides for several days per month) tend to have higher methylmercury concentrations in water, sediment, and biota compared with low marshes, which do not dry out completely during the tidal cycle. Seasonally inundated flood plains are another environment experiencing wetting and drying where methylmercury concentrations are typically elevated. Stream restoration efforts using gravel injection or other reworking of coarse sediment in most watersheds of the Central Valley involve tailings from historical gold mining that are likely to contain elevated mercury in associated fines. Habitat restoration projects, particularly those involving wetlands, may cause increases in methylmercury exposure in the watershed. This possibility should be evaluated.The DRERIP

  3. Wrinkles on Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This image mosaic from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft shows an unnamed ridge in the northern volcanic plains of Mercury. Wrinkle ridges like this are interpreted to be tectonic in origin and are usually only found in volcanic plains. Six individual MDIS images are part of this mosaic. Instruments: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Latitude: 79° Longitude: 118° E Scale: The ridge is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) long http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19413

  4. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    Boyertown Area High School astronomy teacher Peter Detterline prepares high powered binoculars with a solar filter so that his students may view the planet Mercury as it transits across the face of the sun , Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown Area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    Boyertown Area High School students, 12th grader Bransen Mackey, left, and 11th grader Nick Cioppi wear solar safety glasses and attempt to see the planet Mercury as it transits across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    Boyertown Area High School 12th grade student Ben Maurer uses his smartphone and a photographers lens with a solar filter to make a photograph of the planet Mercury transitting the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    Boyertown Area High School 12th grade student Jay Hallman looks through a photographers lens and solar filter to see the planet Mercury as it transits across the face of the sun , Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. To Mercury dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    Present significance of the study of rotation of Mercury considered as a core-mantle system arises from planned Mercury missions. New high accurate data on Mercury's structure and its physical fields are expected from BepiColombo mission (Anselmi et al., 2001). Investigation of resonant rotation of Mercury, begun by Colombo G. (1966), will play here main part. New approaches to the study of Mercury dynamics and the construction of analytical theory of its resonant rotation are suggested. Within these approaches Mercury is considered as a system of two non-spherical interacting bodies: a core and a mantle. The mantle of Mercury is considered as non-spherical, rigid (or elastic) layer. Inner shell is a liquid core, which occupies a large ellipsoidal cavity of Mercury. This Mercury system moves in the gravitational field of the Sun in resonant traslatory-rotary regime of the resonance 3:2. We take into account only the second harmonic of the force function of the Sun and Mercury. For the study of Mercury rotation we have been used specially designed canonical equations of motion in Andoyer and Poincare variables (Barkin, Ferrandiz, 2001), more convenient for the application of mentioned methods. Approximate observational and some theoretical evaluations of the two main coefficients of Mercury gravitational field J_2 and C22 are known. From observational data of Mariner-10 mission were obtained some first evaluations of these coefficients: J_2 =(8± 6)\\cdot 10-5(Esposito et al., 1977); J_2 =(6± 2)\\cdot 10-5and C22 =(1.0± 0.5)\\cdot 10-5(Anderson et al., 1987). Some theoretical evaluation of ratio of these coefficients has been obtained on the base of study of periodic motions of the system of two non-spherical gravitating bodies (Barkin, 1976). Corresponding values of coefficients consist: J_2 =8\\cdot 10-5and C22 =0.33\\cdot 10-5. We have no data about non-sphericity of inner core of Mercury. Planned missions to Mercury (BepiColombo and Messenger) promise to

  9. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  10. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  11. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  12. Mercury exposure and public health.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jack C

    2007-04-01

    Mercury is a metal that is a liquid at room temperature. Mercury has a long and interesting history deriving from its use in medicine and industry, with the resultant toxicity produced. In high enough doses, all forms of mercury can produce toxicity. The most devastating tragedies related to mercury toxicity in recent history include Minamata Bay and Niagata, Japan in the 1950s, and Iraq in the 1970s. More recent mercury toxicity issues include the extreme toxicity of the dimethylmercury compound noted in 1998, the possible toxicity related to dental amalgams, and the disproved relationship between vaccines and autism related to the presence of the mercury-containing preservative, thimerosal.

  13. Blood serum mercury test report.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E

    1977-06-01

    A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.

  14. Electrical stimulation causes rapid changes in electrode impedance of cell-covered electrodes.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Carrie; Richardson, Rachael; Millard, Rodney; Seligman, Peter; Cowan, Robert; Shepherd, Robert

    2011-06-01

    Animal and clinical observations of a reduction in electrode impedance following electrical stimulation encouraged the development of an in vitro model of the electrode-tissue interface. This model was used previously to show an increase in impedance with cell and protein cover over electrodes. In this paper, the model was used to assess the changes in electrode impedance and cell cover following application of a charge-balanced biphasic current pulse train. Following stimulation, a large and rapid drop in total impedance (Z(t)) and access resistance (R(a)) occurred. The magnitude of this impedance change was dependent on the current amplitude used, with a linear relationship determined between R(a) and the resulting cell cover over the electrodes. The changes in impedance due to stimulation were shown to be transitory, with impedance returning to pre-stimulation levels several hours after cessation of stimulation. A loss of cells over the electrode surface was observed immediately after stimulation, suggesting that the level of stimulation applied was creating localized changes to cell adhesion. Similar changes in electrode impedance were observed for in vivo and in vitro work, thus helping to verify the in vitro model, although the underlying mechanisms may differ. A change in the porosity of the cellular layer was proposed to explain the alterations in electrode impedance in vitro. These in vitro studies provide insight into the possible mechanisms occurring at the electrode-tissue interface in association with electrical stimulation.

  15. Electrical stimulation causes rapid changes in electrode impedance of cell-covered electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Carrie; Richardson, Rachael; Millard, Rodney; Seligman, Peter; Cowan, Robert; Shepherd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Animal and clinical observations of a reduction in electrode impedance following electrical stimulation encouraged the development of an in vitro model of the electrode-tissue interface. This model was used previously to show an increase in impedance with cell and protein cover over electrodes. In this paper, the model was used to assess the changes in electrode impedance and cell cover following application of a charge-balanced biphasic current pulse train. Following stimulation, a large and rapid drop in total impedance (Zt) and access resistance (Ra) occurred. The magnitude of this impedance change was dependent on the current amplitude used, with a linear relationship determined between Ra and the resulting cell cover over the electrodes. The changes in impedance due to stimulation were shown to be transitory, with impedance returning to pre-stimulation levels several hours after cessation of stimulation. A loss of cells over the electrode surface was observed immediately after stimulation suggesting that the level of stimulation applied was creating localised changes to cell adhesion. Similar changes in electrode impedance were observed for in vivo and in vitro work, thus helping to verify the in vitro model, although the underlying mechanisms may differ. A change in the porosity of the cellular layer was proposed to explain the alterations in electrode impedance in vitro. These in vitro studies provide insight into the possible mechanisms occurring at the electrode-tissue interface in association with electrical stimulation. PMID:21572219

  16. GEOCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING METHYL MERCURY PRODUCTION IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of aquatic mercury transformation processes (biotic and abiotic), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) in sedimentary environments. The greatest cause for concern regar...

  17. GEOCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING METHYL MERCURY PRODUCTION IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of aquatic mercury transformation processes (biotic and abiotic), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) in sedimentary environments. The greatest cause for concern regar...

  18. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other electrical switches. • • Mercury can ... the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other electrical switches. Mercury: • • Can ...

  19. Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

  20. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

  1. Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

  2. Magnetic control of Leidenfrost drops.

    PubMed

    Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2012-05-01

    We show how a magnetic field can influence the motion of a paramagnetic drop made of liquid oxygen in a Leidenfrost state on solids at room temperature. It is demonstrated that the trajectory can be modified in both direction and velocity and that the results can be interpreted in terms of classical mechanics as long as the drop does not get too close to the magnet. We study the deviation and report that it can easily overcome 180∘ and even diverge under certain conditions, leading to situations where a drop gets captured. In the vicinity of the magnet, another type of trapping is observed, due to the deformation of the drop in this region, which leads to a strong energy dissipation. Conversely, drops can be accelerated by moving magnets (slingshot effect).

  3. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  4. Manipulating the voltage drop in graphene nanojunctions using a gate potential.

    PubMed

    Papior, Nick; Gunst, Tue; Stradi, Daniele; Brandbyge, Mads

    2016-01-14

    Graphene is an attractive electrode material to contact nanostructures down to the molecular scale since it can be gated electrostatically. Gating can be used to control the doping and the energy level alignment in the nanojunction, thereby influencing its conductance. Here we investigate the impact of electrostatic gating in nanojunctions between graphene electrodes operating at finite bias. Using quantum transport simulations based on density functional theory, we show that the voltage drop across symmetric junctions changes dramatically and controllably in gated systems compared to non-gated junctions. In particular, for p-type(n-type) carriers the voltage drop is located close to the electrode with positive(negative) polarity, the potential of the junction is pinned to the negative(positive) electrode. We trace this behaviour back to the vanishing density of states of graphene in the proximity of the Dirac point. Due to the electrostatic gating, each electrode exposes different density of states in the bias window between the two different electrode Fermi energies, thereby leading to a non-symmetry in the voltage drop across the device. This selective pinning is found to be independent of device length when carriers are induced either by the gate or dopant atoms, indicating a general effect for electronic circuitry based on graphene electrodes. We envision this could be used to control the spatial distribution of Joule heating in graphene nanostructures, and possibly the chemical reaction rate around high potential gradients.

  5. Materials analyses and electrochemical impedance of implantable metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Matiar M R; Ul Alam, Arif; Sharma, Rahul P; Deen, M Jamal

    2015-04-21

    Implantable electrodes with high flexibility, high mechanical fixation and low electrochemical impedance are desirable for neuromuscular activation because they provide safe, effective and stable stimulation. In this paper, we report on detailed materials and electrical analyses of three metal implantable electrodes - gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and titanium (Ti) - using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning acoustic microscopy, drop shape analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We investigated the cause of changes in electrochemical impedance of long-term immersed Au, Pt and Ti electrodes on liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). We analyzed the surface wettability, surface and interface defects and the elemental depth profile of the electrode-adhesion layers on the LCP. The impedance of the electrodes decreased at lower frequencies, but increased at higher frequencies compared with that of the short-term immersion. The increase of impedances was influenced by the oxidation of the electrode/adhesion-layers that affected the double layer capacitance behavior of the electrode/PBS. The oxidation of the adhesion layer for all the electrodes was confirmed by XPS. Alkali ions (sodium) were adsorbed on the Au and Pt surfaces, but diffused into the Ti electrode and LCPs. The Pt electrode showed a higher sensitivity to surface and interface defects than that of Ti and Au electrodes. These findings may be useful when designing electrodes for long-term implantable devices.

  6. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Koehn, Patrick L.; Korth, Haje; Levi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet s miniature magnetosphere since the brief flybys of Mariner 10. Mercury s magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is among the smallest in the solar system; its magnetic field typically stands off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed drift paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts. The characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short and kinetic and fluid modes may be coupled. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to impact directly the regolith. Inductive currents in Mercury s interior may act to modify the solar wind interaction by resisting changes due to solar wind pressure variations. Indeed, observations of these induction effects may be an important source of information on the state of Mercury s interior. In addition, Mercury s magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionospheric layer. This lack of an ionosphere is probably the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short-lived, - 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 during its first traversal of Mercury s magnetic tail. Because of Mercury s proximity to the sun, 0.3 - 0.5 AU, this magnetosphere experiences the most extreme driving forces in the solar system. All of these factors are expected to produce complicated interactions involving the exchange and re-cycling of neutrals and ions between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and regolith. The electrodynamics of Mercury s magnetosphere are expected to be equally complex, with strong forcing by the solar wind, magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and in the tail, and the pick-up of planetary ions all

  7. Determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury in mercury ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahey, J.J.

    1937-01-01

    A method for the determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury on the same sample is described. The mercury minerals are volatilized in a glass tube and brought into intimate contact with granulated sodium carbonate. The chlorine is fixed as sodium chloride, determined with silver nitrate, and computed to mercurous chloride. The mercury is collected on a previously weighed gold coil and weighed.

  8. resterilizable electrode for electrosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engstrom, E. R.; Houge, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Required properties of flexibility, electrical conductivity, tensile strength, and tear resistance of electrosurgical electrodes is retained through utilization of flexible-polymer/conductive particle composites for electrodes.

  9. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  10. Mercury Study Report to Congress

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Report to Congress on Mercury provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies.

  11. Instant freezing of impacting wax drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Virot, Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    We present the impact of hot liquid drops of wax on surfaces whose temperature is below the solidifying temperature of the drops. During the fall the drops remain mostly liquid, but upon impact, their temperature quickly decreases resulting in the solidification of the drop. Depending on the impact energy, drops size and the temperature difference between the drop and the surface this results in plethora of solid shapes: simple lenses, triangular drops, spherical caps and popped popcorn shapes.

  12. Use of epoxy-embedded electrodes to integrate electrochemical detection with microchip-based analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Selimovic, Asmira; Johnson, Alicia S; Kiss, István Z; Martin, R Scott

    2011-04-01

    A new method of fabricating electrodes for microchip devices that involves the use of Teflon molds and a commercially available epoxy to embed electrodes of various sizes and compositions is described. The resulting epoxy base can be polished to generate a fresh electrode and sealed against poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based fluidic structures. Microchip-based flow injection analysis was used to characterize the epoxy-embedded electrodes. It was shown that gold electrodes can be amalgamated with liquid mercury and the resulting mercury/gold electrode is used to selectively detect glutathione from lysed red blood cells. The ability to encapsulate multiple electrode materials of differing compositions enabled the integration of microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Finally, a unique feature of this approach is that the electrode connection is made from the bottom of the epoxy base. This enables the creation of three-dimensional gold pillar electrodes (65 μm in diameter and 27 μm in height) that can be integrated within a fluidic network. As compared with the use of a flat electrode of a similar diameter, the use of the pillar electrode led to improvements in both the sensitivity (72.1 pA/μM for the pillar versus 4.2 pA/μM for the flat electrode) and limit of detection (20 nM for the pillar versus 600 nM for the flat electrode), with catechol being the test analyte. These epoxy-embedded electrodes hold promise for the creation of inexpensive microfluidic devices that can be used to electrochemically detect biologically important analytes in a manner where the electrodes can be polished and a fresh electrode surface is generated as desired. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Use of epoxy-embedded electrodes to integrate electrochemical detection with microchip-based analysis systems

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Asmira; Johnson, Alicia S.; Kiss, István Z.; Martin, R. Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new method of fabricating electrodes for microchip devices that involves the use of Teflon molds and a commercially available epoxy to embed electrodes of various size and composition is described. The resulting epoxy base can be polished to generate a fresh electrode and sealed against PDMS-based fluidic structures. Microchip-based flow injection analysis was used to characterize the epoxy-embedded electrodes. It was shown that gold electrodes can be amalgamated with liquid mercury and the resulting mercury/gold electrode used to selectively detect glutathione from lysed red blood cells. The ability to encapsulate multiple electrode materials of differing composition enabled the integration of microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Finally, a unique feature of this approach is that the electrode connection is made from the bottom of the epoxy base. This enables the creation of three-dimensional gold pillar electrodes (65 µm in diameter and 27 µm in height) that can be integrated within a fluidic network. As compared to the use of a flat electrode of a similar diameter, the use of the pillar electrode led to improvements in both the sensitivity (72.1 pA/µM for the pillar vs. 4.2 pA/µM for the flat electrode) and limit of detection (20 nM for the pillar vs. 600 nM for the flat electrode), with catechol being the test analyte. These epoxy-embedded electrodes hold promise for the creation of inexpensive microfluidic devices that can be used to electrochemically detect biologically important analytes in a manner where the electrodes can be polished and a fresh electrode surface generated as desired. PMID:21413031

  14. The observation of valence band change on resistive switching of epitaxial Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} film using removable liquid electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2015-12-07

    The resistive switching (RS) phenomenon in transition metal oxides (TMOs) has received a great deal of attention for non-volatile memory applications. Various RS mechanisms have been suggested as to explain the observed RS characteristics. Many reports suggest that changes of interface and the role of oxygen vacancies originate in RS phenomena; therefore, in this study, we use a liquid drop of mercury as the top electrode (TE), epitaxial Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (PCMO) (110) film of the perovskite manganite family for RS material, and an Nb-doped (0.7 at. %) SrTiO{sub 3} (100) single crystal as the substrate to observe changes in the interface between the TE and TMOs. The use of removable liquid electrode Hg drop as TE not only enables observation of the RS characteristic as a bipolar RS curve (counterclockwise) but also facilitates analysis of the valence band of the PCMO surface after resistive switching via photoelectron spectroscopy. The observed I-V behaviors of the low and high resistance states (HRS) are explained with an electrochemical migration model in PCMO film where accumulated oxygen vacancies at the interface between the Hg TE and PCMO (110) surface induce the HRS. The interpreted RS mechanism is directly confirmed via valence band spectrum analysis.

  15. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  16. Drop volume measurements by vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugli, Heinz; Gonzalez, Jose J.

    2000-03-01

    A specific configuration for liquid flow metrology consists of a flow of falling drops coupled with a preferred measuring method that derives the flow directly from the drop count. Given the inaccuracy of this counting method, alternative methods have been proposed that measure the volume of each falling drop. The principle consists in deriving the volume from geometric measurements obtained by vision and the basic problem can be described as the estimation of the volume of a drop from its projection. This paper reviews methods previously used and provides an analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of drop volume estimation for flow metrology. Three drop shape models and the related volume estimation methods are defined in a first part. A second part is devoted to an experimental analysis of drop shape variations. In a final experimental part, the presented methods are compared and the good performance of a volume measurement method is experimentally demonstrated. It shows a rms-error of 1% in normal measurement conditions. These figures speak for the interest of the measurement by vision and represent a good base for predicting the suitability of the method in various applications.

  17. Liquid drops on soft solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubbers, Luuk A.; Weijs, Joost H.; Das, Siddhartha; Botto, Lorenzo; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2014-03-01

    A sessile drop can elastically deform a substrate by the action of capillary forces. The typical size of the deformation is given by the ratio of surface tension and the elastic modulus, γ / E , which can reach up to 10-100 microns for soft elastomers. In this talk we theoretically show that the contact angles of drops on such a surface exhibit two transitions when increasing γ / E : (i) the microsocopic geometry of the contact line first develops a Neumann-like cusp when γ / E is of the order of few nanometers, (ii) the macroscopic angle of the drop is altered only when γ / E reaches the size of the drop. Using the same framework we then show that two neighboring drops exhibit an effective interaction, mediated by the deformation of the elastic medium. This is in analogy to the well-known Cheerios effect, where small particles at a liquid interface attract each other due to the meniscus deformations. Here we reveal the nature of drop-drop interactions on a soft substrate by combining numerical and analytical calculations.

  18. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current state of our scientific understanding the mercury cycle tells us that most of the mercury getting into fish comes from atmospheric deposition, but methylation of that mercury in aquatic systems is required for the concentrations in fish to reach harmful levels. We st...

  19. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current state of our scientific understanding the mercury cycle tells us that most of the mercury getting into fish comes from atmospheric deposition, but methylation of that mercury in aquatic systems is required for the concentrations in fish to reach harmful levels. We st...

  20. Student Exposure to Mercury Vapors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joyce

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problem of mercury vapors caused by spills in high school and college laboratories. Describes a study which compared the mercury vapor levels of laboratories in both an older and a newer building. Concludes that the mercurial contamination of chemistry laboratories presents minimal risks to the students. (TW)

  1. Mercury's magnetosphere: another look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Irene M.

    1997-01-01

    The measurements made of Mercury's magnetic field during the Mercury I flyby and the Mereury III flyby have been incorporated into models of the Hermean magnetosphere-magnetotail system. When the magnetic field data for the first half of the Mereury I flyby and all of the Mercury III flyby were incorporated into a single fit of a scaled version of the Beard ( J. Geophys. Res.84, 2118-2122, 1979) Earth magnetosphere-magnetotail system, a r.m.s. deviation of 9.3 nT for the magnetic field vector was obtained (Bergan and Engle, J. Geophys. Res.86, 1617-1620, 1981). This paper presents results of a study that employs an adaptation of that Beard model but also adopts the assumption that the incident solar wind pressure was different at the times of the two Mercury magnetosphere encounters. Resulting different stand-off distances and scaling factors for the data of the two respective flybys result directly from that single assumption. The study yields a comparable fit of reduced r.m.s. deviation of 7.1 nT and a strength of the Mercury planetary dipole moment D (before any displacement effects are incorporated) between 154 nT RM3 (Merc 1) and 182 nT RM3 (Merc 3). The corresponding standoff distances are 1.31 RM for the Merc 3 encounter and 1.08 RM for the Merc 1 encounter.

  2. Terminator View of Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Date acquired: May 05, 2014 Today's color image features both Mercury's terminator and limb. The terminator is the striking separation of night and day on Mercury. It is seen in this image with the change from dark, on the left of the image, to light. Mercury's limb is also captured, as we can see the edge between sunlit Mercury and space. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. During the first two years of orbital operations, MESSENGER acquired over 150,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Exploring Mercury Tail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-08-26

    As the MESSENGER spacecraft approached Mercury, the UVVS field of view was scanned across the planet's exospheric "tail," which is produced by the solar wind pushing Mercury's exosphere (the planet's extremely thin atmosphere) outward. This figure, recently published in Science magazine, shows a map of the distribution of sodium atoms as they stream away from the planet (see PIA10396); red and yellow colors represent a higher abundance of sodium than darker shades of blue and purple, as shown in the colored scale bar, which gives the brightness intensity in units of kiloRayleighs. The escaping atoms eventually form a comet-like tail that extends in the direction opposite that of the Sun for many planetary radii. The small squares outlined in black correspond to individual measurements that were used to create the full map. These measurements are the highest-spatial-resolution observations ever made of Mercury's tail. In less than six weeks, on October 6, 2008, similar measurements will be made during MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury. Comparing the measurements from the two flybys will provide an unprecedented look at how Mercury's dynamic exosphere and tail vary with time. Date Acquired: January 14, 2008. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11076

  4. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  5. DIME Students Witness Test Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students watch a test run on their experiment before the actual drop. They designed and built their apparatus to fit within a NASA-provided drop structure. This was part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  6. Trapping leidenfrost drops with crenelations.

    PubMed

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2011-09-09

    Drops placed on very hot solids levitate on a cushion of their own vapor, as discovered by Leidenfrost. This confers to these drops a remarkable mobility, which makes problematic their control and manipulation. Here we show how crenelated surfaces can be used to increase the friction of Leidenfrost drops by a factor on the order of 100, making them decelerate and be trapped on centimetric distances instead of the usual metric ones. We measure and characterize the friction force as a function of the design of the crenelations.

  7. High-throughput sorting of drops in microfluidic chips using electric capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Pit, Arjen M.; de Ruiter, Riëlle; Kumar, Anand; Wijnperlé, Daniel; Duits, Michèl H. G.; Mugele, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a recently introduced approach for the sorting of aqueous drops with biological content immersed in oil, using a microfluidic chip that combines the functionality of electrowetting with the high throughput of two-phase flow microfluidics. In this electrostatic sorter, three co-planar electrodes covered by a thin dielectric layer are placed directly below the fluidic channel. Switching the potential of the central electrode creates an electrical guide that leads the drop to the desired outlet. The generated force, which deflects the drop, can be tuned via the voltage. The working principle is based on a contrast in conductivity between the drop and the continuous phase, which ensures successful operation even for drops of highly conductive biological media like phosphate buffered saline. Moreover, since the electric field does not penetrate the drop, its content is protected from electrical currents and Joule heating. A simple capacitive model allows quantitative prediction of the electrostatic forces exerted on drops. The maximum achievable sorting rate is determined by a competition between electrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. Sorting speeds up to 1200 per second are demonstrated for conductive drops of 160 pl in low viscosity oil. PMID:26339316

  8. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, left, Alice Wackermann and Julie Jenkins, right, speak during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, standing left, Alice Wackermann and Julie Jenkins, standing right, speak during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  11. Enhanced mercury oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Gretta, W.J.; Wu, S.; Kikkawa, H.

    2009-06-15

    A new catalyst offers a new way to enhance mercury control from bituminous coal-fired power plants. Hitachi has developed an SCR catalyst which satisfies high Hg{sup 0} oxidation and low SO{sub 2} oxidation requirements under high temperatures (716 to 770 F). This triple action catalysts, TRAC can significantly enhance mercury oxidation and reduce or eliminate the need for additional mercury control measures such as activated carbon injection. After laboratory testing, pilot-scale tests confirmed an activity of 1.4-1.7 times higher than that of conventional SCR catalyst. The new catalyst has been successfully applied in a commercial PRB-fired boiler without the need for halogens to be added to the fuel feed or flue gas. 2 figs.

  12. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  13. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    NASA Administrator Charles Boldin speaks during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas K. Gale

    2006-06-30

    Catalysis is the key fundamental ingredient to convert elemental mercury in coal-fired power stations into its oxidized forms that are more easily captured by sorbents, ESPs, baghouses, and wet scrubbers, whether the catalyst be unburned carbon (UBC) in the ash or vanadium pentoxide in SCR catalysts. This project has investigated several different types of catalysts that enhance mercury oxidation in several different ways. The stated objective of this project in the Statement of Objectives included testing duct-injection catalysts, catalyst-sorbent hybrids, and coated low-pressure-drop screens. Several different types of catalysts were considered for duct injection, including different forms of iron and carbon. Duct-injection catalysts would have to be inexpensive catalysts, as they would not be recycled. Iron and calcium had been shown to catalyze mercury oxidation in published bench-scale tests. However, as determined from results of an on-going EPRI/EPA project at Southern Research, while iron and calcium did catalyze mercury oxidation, the activity of these catalysts was orders of magnitude below that of carbon and had little impact in the short residence times available for duct-injected catalysts or catalyst-sorbent hybrids. In fact, the only catalyst found to be effective enough for duct injection was carbon, which is also used to capture mercury and remove it from the flue gas. It was discovered that carbon itself is an effective catalyst-sorbent hybrid. Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury adsorption (a key step in the catalytic oxidation of mercury by carbon) for different forms of carbon. All carbon types investigated behaved in a similar manner with respect to mercury sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at adsorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because their internal surface area of activated carbon was

  15. Leidenfrost drops: Effect of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, L.; Brandenbourger, M.; Sobac, B.; Biance, A.-L.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2015-04-01

    A specific experimental set-up has been installed in a large centrifuge facility in order to study different aspects of Leidenfrost drops under high-gravity conditions (5, 10, 15 and 20 times the Earth gravity). In particular, the drop lifetime and more precisely the variations of drop diameter vs. time have shown to be in good agreement with previous experiments and scaling analysis (Biance A.-L. et al., Phys. Fluids, 15 (2003) 1632). Moreover, so-called chimneys are expectedly observed in the large puddles, the distance between two chimneys depending linearly on the capillary length. Finally, the Leidenfrost point, i.e. the temperature above which the Leidenfrost effect takes place, was unexpectedly found to increase slightly with gravity. A qualitative explanation based on a refined model (Sobac B. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90 (2014) 053011) recognizing the non-trivial shape of the vapor film under the drop is proposed to explain this observation.

  16. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water. Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container in the palm of ...

  17. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  18. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  19. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  20. Phytochelatin Modified Electrode Surface as a Sensitive Heavy-Metal Ion Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Vojtech; Zehnalek, Josef; Petrlova, Jitka; Potesil, David; Sures, Bernd; Trnkova, Libuse; Jelen, Frantisek; Vitecek, Jan; Kizek, Rene

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors have superior properties over other existing measurement systems because they can provide rapid, simple and low-cost on-field determination of many biological active species and a number of dangerous pollutants. In our work, we suggested a new heavy metal biosensor based on interaction of heavy metal ions (Cd2+ and Zn2+) with phytochelatin, which was adsorbed on the surface of the hanging mercury drop electrode, using adsorptive transfer stripping differential pulse voltammetry. In addition, we applied the suggested technique for the determination of heavy metals in a biological sample – human urine and platinum in a pharmaceutical drug. The detection limits (3 S/N) of Cd(II), Zn(II) and cis-platin were about 1.0, 13.3 and 1.9 pmole in 5 μl, respectively. On the basis of the obtained results, we propose that the suggested technique offers simple, rapid, and low-cost detection of heavy metals in environmental, biological and medical samples.

  1. Control of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Noyes, O R; Hamdy, M K; Muse, L A

    1976-01-01

    When a 203Ng(NO3)2 solution was kept at 25 degrees C in glass or polypropylene containers, 50 and 80% of original radioactivity was adsorbed to the containers' walls after 1 and 4 days, respectively. However, no loss in radioactivity was observed if the solution was supplemented with HgCl as carrier (100 mug Hg2+/ml) and stored in either container for 13 days. When 203Hg2+ was dissolved in glucose basal salt broth with added carrier, levels of 203Hg2+ in solution (kept in glass) decreased to 80 and 70% of original after 1 and 5 days and decreased even more if stored in polypropylene (60 and 40% of original activity after 1 and 4 days, respectively). In the absence of carrier, decreases of 203Hg2+ activities in media stored in either container were more pronounced due to chemisorption (but) not diffusion. The following factors affecting the removal of mercurials from aqueous solution stored in glass were examined: type and concentration of adsorbent (fiber glass and rubber powder); pH; pretreatment of the rubber; and the form of mercury used. Rubber was equally effective in the adsorption of organic and inorganic mercury. The pH of the aqueous 203Hg2+ solution was not a critical factor in the rate of adsorption of mercury by the rubber. In addition, the effect of soaking the rubber in water for 18 hr did not show any statistical difference when compared with nontreated rubber. It can be concluded that rubber is a very effective adsorbent of mercury and, thus, can be used as a simple method for control of mercury pollution.

  2. Examining the Earlier Drop Deadline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    Prior to fall 1993, students at California's College of the Canyons had until the 11th or 12th week of a 17 or 18 week semester to drop or withdraw from a course. In spring 1993, the state Academic Senate recommended that the drop deadline be changed to the 8th week. Students were notified of the new withdrawal deadline on the college calendar, in…

  3. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  4. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  5. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  6. Mercury Capsule Separation Tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-04-01

    Mercury capsule separation from Redstone booster in the Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT): NASA Lewis conducted full-scale separation tests of the posigrade rockets that were fired after the Redstone rockets burned out. The researchers studied the effect of the posigrade rockets firing on the Redstone booster and retrograde package. This film shows the Mercury capsule being mounted to the Redstone missile model in the Altitude Wind Tunnel. The capsule's engines are fired and it horizontally separates from the Atlas. After firing the capsule swings from an overhead crane.

  7. Water Ice on Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This orthographic projection view from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft provides a look at Mercury north polar region. The yellow regions in many of the craters mark locations that show evidence for water ice, as detected by Earth-based radar observations from Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. MESSENGER has collected compelling new evidence that the deposits are indeed water ice, including imaging within the permanently shaded interiors of some of the craters, such as Prokofiev and Fuller. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Arecibo Radar Image: In yellow (Harmon et al., 2011, Icarus 211, 37-50) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19411

  8. Retention of mercury by salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1970-01-01

    Consuming fish that have been exposed repeatedly to mercury derivatives is a potential public health hazard because fish can accumulate and retain mercury in their tissues (Rucker, 1968). Concern has been expressed in the United States because mercurials have been used extensively in industry and as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in fish hatcheries. Rucker and Amend (1969) showed that yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to mercurials accumulated excessive amounts of mercury in many tissues. Further, Rucker and Amend (1969) concluded that wild fish that ate mercury-contaminated fish also could contain high mercury levels. Although mercury was eliminated from most tissues within several months, substantial levels remained in the kidney for more than 33 weeks after the last exposure. Since high levels of mercury can be retained in the kidney for an undetermined time, it is possible that returning adult salmon exposed to mercurials as juveniles could constitute a potential hazard to public health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such fish contained high residual levels of mercury.

  9. Mercury and mercury compounds toxicology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of mercury and mercury compounds on biological systems. Mercury metal, mercury vapors, organic mercury compounds, mercury halides, and other inorganic mercury compounds are discussed. Citations include acute, chronic, environmental, metabolic, and pathological effects; and clinical biochemistry of mercury exposure. Heavy metal pollution and bioaccumulation are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  11. 18650 Li-ion cells with reference electrode and in situ characterization of electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Doughty, D. H.

    At Sandia National Laboratories, we have built 18650 Li-ion cells with Li reference electrode for in situ characterization of electrodes including impedance and other electrochemical properties. At a 200 mA (˜C/5 rate) discharge, the cell gave ˜900 mAh. Impedance measurements indicate that the anode dominates the cell impedance. For example, at 0 °C, the anode and cathode impedances at 10 mHz were around 149 and 53 mΩ, respectively, and the total cell impedance at 10 mHz was ˜203 mΩ. The three-electrode configuration also permits measurement of individual electrode voltages during charge and discharge. During discharge, while the cell voltage drops from 4.1 to 3 V, the cathode and the anode voltages change from 4.1 to 3.7 and from ˜0 to 0.7 V, respectively. During charge, the cathode and anode voltages trace back to their initial values before discharging. The voltage swing for the anode is higher than that for the cathode. This also indicates that the impedance for the anode is higher than for the cathode. Pulse measurements on the cells indicate the voltage drop of the full-cell is equal to the sum of the anode and cathode voltage drops for a 2 A discharge pulse.

  12. Electrostatic Liquid-Drop-Levitation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won Kyu; Chung, San Kun; Hyson, Michael T.; Elleman, Daniel D.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic levitator has levitated drops of liquid up to 4 mm in diameter while maintaining spherical drop shapes. Stable levitation of spherical drops valuable in experiments involving super-cooling, solidification, and crystal growth.

  13. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    DOEpatents

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  14. Scaling dependence and synchronization of forced mercury beating heart systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Animesh; Das, Dibyendu; Parmananda, P.

    2017-04-01

    We perform experiments on a nonautonomous Mercury beating heart system, which is forced to pulsate using an external square wave potential. At suitable frequencies and volumes, the drop exhibits pulsation with polygonal shapes having n corners. We find the scaling dependence of the forcing frequency νn on the volume V of the drop and establish the relationship νn∝n/√{V } . It is shown that the geometrical shape of substrate is important for obtaining closer match to these scaling relationships. Furthermore, we study synchronization of two nonidentical drops driven by the same frequency and establish that synchrony happens when the relationship n2/n1=√{V2/V1 } is satisfied.

  15. Predicting mercury in mallard ducklings from mercury in chorioallantoic membranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury has been suspected as a cause of impaired reproduction in wild birds, but the confounding effects of other environmental stressors has made it difficult to determine how much mercury in the eggs of these wild species is harmful. Even when a sample egg can be collected from the nest of a wild bird and the mercury concentration in that egg compared to the laboratory-derived thresholds for reproductive impairment, additional information on the mercury levels in other eggs from that nest would be helpful in determining whether harmful levels of mercury were present in the clutch. The measurement of mercury levels in chorioallantoic membranes offers a possible way to estimate how much mercury was in a chick that hatched from an egg, and also in the whole fresh egg itself. While an embryo is developing, wastes are collected in a sac called the chorioallantoic membranes, which often remain inside the eggshell and can be collected for contaminant analysis. We fed methylmercury to captive mallards to generate a broad range of mercury levels in eggs, allowed the eggs to hatch normally, and then compared mercury concentrations in the hatchling versus the chorioallantoic membranes left behind in the eggshell. When the data from eggs laid by mercury- treated females were expressed as common logarithms, a linear equation was created by which the concentration of mercury in a duckling could be predicted from the concentration of mercury in the chorioallantoic membranes from the same egg. Therefore, if it were not possible to collect a sample egg from a clutch of wild bird eggs, the collection of the chorioallantoic membranes could be substituted, and the mercury predicted to be in the chick or whole egg could be compared to the thresholds of mercury that have been shown to cause harm in controlled feeding studies with pheasants, chickens, and mallards.

  16. Forced Oscillations of Supported Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Edward D.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1996-01-01

    Oscillations of supported liquid drops are the subject of wide scientific interest, with applications in areas as diverse as liquid-liquid extraction, synthesis of ceramic powders, growing of pure crystals in low gravity, and measurement of dynamic surface tension. In this research, axisymmetric forced oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of viscous liquid drops of fixed volume which are pendant from or sessile on a rod with a fixed or moving contact line and surrounded by an inviscid ambient gas are induced by moving the rod in the vertical direction sinusiodally in time. In this paper, a preliminary report is made on the computational analysis of the oscillations of supported drops that have 'clean' interfaces and whose contact lines remain fixed throughout their motions. The relative importance of forcing to damping can be increased by either increasing the amplitude of rod motion A or Reynolds number Re. It is shown that as the ratio of forcing to damping rises, for drops starting from an initial rest state a sharp increase in deformation can occur when they are forced to oscillate in the vicinity of their resonance frequencies, indicating the incipience of hysteresis. However, it is also shown that the existence of a second stable limit cycle and the occurrence of hysteresis can be observed if the drop is subjected to a so-called frequency sweep, where the forcing frequency is first increased and then decreased over a suitable range. Because the change in drop deformation response is abrupt in the vicinity of the forcing frequencies where hysteresis occurs, it should be possible to exploit the phenomenon to accurately measure the viscosity and surface tension of the drop liquid.

  17. MERCURY CYCLING AND BIOMAGNIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury cycling and biomagnification was studied in man-made ponds designed for watering livestock on the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota. Multiple Hg species were quantified through multiple seasons for 2 years in total atmospheric deposition samples, surface wa...

  18. Mercury's core evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deproost, Marie-Hélène; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing data of Mercury's surface by MESSENGER indicate that Mercury formed under reducing conditions. As a consequence, silicon is likely the main light element in the core together with a possible small fraction of sulfur. Compared to sulfur, which does almost not partition into solid iron at Mercury's core conditions and strongly decreases the melting temperature, silicon partitions almost equally well between solid and liquid iron and is not very effective at reducing the melting temperature of iron. Silicon as the major light element constituent instead of sulfur therefore implies a significantly higher core liquidus temperature and a decrease in the vigor of compositional convection generated by the release of light elements upon inner core formation.Due to the immiscibility in liquid Fe-Si-S at low pressure (below 15 GPa), the core might also not be homogeneous and consist of an inner S-poor Fe-Si core below a thinner Si-poor Fe-S layer. Here, we study the consequences of a silicon-rich core and the effect of the blanketing Fe-S layer on the thermal evolution of Mercury's core and on the generation of a magnetic field.

  19. Mercury Redstone 3 imagery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    JSC2007-E-046476 (1961) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., one of three NASA astronauts chosen for the Project Mercury first manned suborbital flight, prepares for testing in a capsule of the U.S. Navy's centrifuge at Johnsville, Pennsylvania. Original photo number was 61-MR3-19. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  20. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    From left, NASA Deputy Director, Planetary Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, Jim Adams, NASA Kennedy Space Center Director of Education and External Relations Cheryl Hurst, United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, NASA Administrator Charles Boldin, Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Alice Wackermann, Laura Shepard Churchley, and Julie Jenkins, and NASA Kennedy Space Center Director Robert Cabana pose for a photograph during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  2. Hazards of Mercury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Research, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  3. MERCURY SPECIATION AND CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements are to be proposed by December 2003 and finali...

  4. Mercury Retrorocket Tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-04-01

    The retrorockets, which would be fired to return the Mercury Capsule to earth's atmosphere, were tested inside the Altitude Wind Tunnel in April 1960. A retrograde thrust stand was erected in the C corner in the wide end of the Altitude Wind Tunnel. This film contains footage from above and the side of the retrorockets firing.

  5. Mercury Heavily Cratered Surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-07

    As NASA Mariner 10 approached Mercury at nearly seven miles per second on March 29, 1974, its TV camera took this picture from an altitude of 35,000 kilometers 21,700 miles The picture shows a heavily-cratered surface with many low hills

  6. Mercury and the kidney.

    PubMed

    George, Charles R P

    2011-01-01

    Humans have had a history of association with mercury since the earliest records. This relationship has had many quixotic elements, but has on many occasions and in many ways impinged upon the kidneys. Arabic physicians used mercury to treat skin infections, urinary infections and urethral stones. The rise of syphilis in Europe in the 16th century saw its application as the primary treatment, sometimes oral and sometimes parenteral, of patients suffering from that disease until the mid-20th century. It also found various other uses. Mercurial diuretics originated from chance observations of such patients, and these received much use in the first half of the 20th century until safer and more efficacious nonmercurial diuretics replaced them. Many physicians viewed mercury as a panacea, but others challenged their views. Its use was always recognised to have potential complications, but realisation of its ability to cause acute kidney injury, chronic renal impairment and nephrotic syndrome gradually evolved, and it was phased out of therapeutics. A further contribution it made to nephrology lay in the manufacture of thermometers, sphygmomanometers and cystoscopes.

  7. Mercury: The Kuiper Melt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Date acquired: April 05, 2013 This striking image of Kuiper shows the crater in a new perspective. This image highlights the crater's smooth impact melt and central peaks. Kuiper, first seen by Mariner 10, is an easily identifiable feature on Mercury's surface due to its bright rays, similar to Hokusai. This image was acquired as a high-resolution targeted observation. Targeted observations are images of a small area on Mercury's surface at resolutions much higher than the 200-meter/pixel morphology base map. It is not possible to cover all of Mercury's surface at this high resolution, but typically several areas of high scientific interest are imaged in this mode each week. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. During the first two years of orbital operations, MESSENGER acquired over 150,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

  8. MERCURY SPECIATION AND CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements are to be proposed by December 2003 and finali...

  9. MERCURY CEMS: TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the technologies involved with continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for mercury (Hg) which are receiving incresed attention and focus. Their potential use as a compliance assurance tool is of particular interest. While Hg CEMs are currently used in Europe for com...

  10. MERCURY CYCLING AND BIOMAGNIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury cycling and biomagnification was studied in man-made ponds designed for watering livestock on the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota. Multiple Hg species were quantified through multiple seasons for 2 years in total atmospheric deposition samples, surface wa...

  11. Hazards of Mercury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Research, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  12. Mercury emissions from coal combustion: modeling and comparison of Hg capture in a fabric filter versus an electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Scala, Fabrizio; Clack, Herek L

    2008-04-01

    Mercury emissions from coal combustion must be reduced, in response to new air quality regulations in the U.S. Although the most mature control technology is adsorption across a dust cake of powdered sorbent in a fabric filter (FF), most particulate control in the U.S. associated with coal combustion takes the form of electrostatic precipitation (ESP). Using recently developed models of mercury adsorption within an ESP and within a growing sorbent bed in a FF, parallel analyses of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) uptake have been conducted. The results show little difference between an ESP and a FF in absolute mercury removal for a low-capacity sorbent, with a high-capacity sorbent achieving better performance in the FF. Comparisons of fractional mercury uptake per-unit-pressure-drop provide a means for incorporating and comparing the impact of the much greater pressure drop of a FF as compared to an ESP. On a per-unit-pressure-drop basis, mercury uptake within an ESP exhibited better performance, particularly for the low-capacity sorbent and high mass loadings of both sorbents.

  13. Modeling of mercury sorption by activated carbon in a confined, a semi-fluidized, and a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Ho, T C; Kobayashi, N; Lee, Y K; Lin, C J; Hopper, J R

    2002-01-01

    A process model was developed to simulate elemental mercury sorption by activated carbon in three distinct beds, namely a confined, a semi-fluidized, and a fluidized bed. The model involved the coupling of a kinetic model based on the mechanisms of surface equilibrium and external mass transfer, and a material balance model based on the tank-in-series approach. For surface equilibrium, three different equilibrium laws were used in the model, namely the Henry's Law, the Langmuir isotherm and the Freundlich isotherm. Literature mercury sorption data were used to determine the best-fit values of parameters for these equilibrium expressions. The parameter-fitted model was then used to simulate mercury sorption processes in the three distinct beds. The simulation parameters were mercury concentration, gas flow rate, adsorption temperature and the degree of semi-fluidization. The simulation results have indicated that the model is capable of describing the literature available mercury sorption data. All the three surface equilibrium laws appear to simulate the adsorption profiles equally well mainly because the sorption process occurs in an extremely low concentration range. The simulation results for the three distinct beds have suggested that the confined bed has the best mercury control performance; however, it generates the highest pressure-drop across the bed. A fluidized bed creates the least pressure drop; however, its sorption performance is poor. A semi-fluidized bed offers acceptable performance with affordable pressure-drops and can be a practical candidate for the process.

  14. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  15. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  16. Controlled porosity in electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Bae, Chang-Jun; Halloran, John William; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Erdonmez, Can K.

    2015-06-23

    Porous electrodes in which the porosity has a low tortuosity are generally provided. In some embodiments, the porous electrodes can be designed to be filled with electrolyte and used in batteries, and can include low tortuosity in the primary direction of ion transport during charge and discharge of the battery. In some embodiments, the electrodes can have a high volume fraction of electrode active material (i.e., low porosity). The attributes outlined above can allow the electrodes to be fabricated with a higher energy density, higher capacity per unit area of electrode (mAh/cm.sup.2), and greater thickness than comparable electrodes while still providing high utilization of the active material in the battery during use. Accordingly, the electrodes can be used to produce batteries with high energy densities, high power, or both compared to batteries using electrodes of conventional design with relatively highly tortuous pores.

  17. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  18. Micromachined electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  19. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  20. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  1. Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  2. Drop spreading with random viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2016-10-01

    We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid's viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop's motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop's effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated viscosity within the precursor film to hinder spreading. A low-order model provides explicit predictions of the variances in spreading rate and drop location, which are validated against simulations.

  3. Modeling nanofluid sessile drop evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, William J.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.

    2017-07-01

    Modeling predictions for the evaporation of nanofluid pinned sessile drops are reported. Drops of fluids containing suspended nanoparticles have reduced evaporation rates relative to their pure fluid counterparts due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles at the surface resulting in a reduction in available liquid at the drop surface for evaporation. The present model implements a mechanism for the reduction in the surface concentration of the evaporating liquid based on the fractal geometry of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoparticle packing near the drop pinned contact line results in regions where a maximum nanoparticle volume fraction is attained, leading to significant reductions in the evaporative mass flux. Model predictions for the evaporation rate of pure ethanol and ethanol containing suspended aluminum nanoparticles are compared to experiments from the literature with excellent agreement for the reduction in evaporation rate due to nanoparticle loading and in reasonable quantitative agreement for the evaporation rate. The maximum allowable nanoparticle volume fraction is shown to be an important parameter in governing the evaporation rate of nanofluid sessile drops.

  4. Static Magnetowetting of Ferrofluid Drops.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Carlo; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Talbot, Delphine; Massart, René; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Abou-Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    We report results of a comprehensive study of the wetting properties of sessile drops of ferrofluid water solutions at various concentrations deposited on flat substrates and subjected to the action of permanent magnets of different sizes and strengths. The amplitude and the gradient of the magnetic field experienced by the ferrofluid are changed by varying the magnets and their distance to the surface. Magnetic forces up to 100 times the gravitational one and magnetic gradients up to 1 T/cm are achieved. A rich phenomenology is observed, ranging from flattened drops caused by the magnetic attraction to drops extended normally to the substrate because of the normal traction of the magnetic field. We find that the former effect can be conveniently described in terms of an effective Bond number that compares the effective drop attraction with the capillary force, whereas the drop's vertical elongation is effectively expressed by a dimensionless number S, which compares the pressure jump at the ferrofluid interface because of the magnetization with the capillary pressure.

  5. Exposure to mercury in the mine of Almadén

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Klink, José Diego Caballero; Boffetta, Paolo; Español, Santiago; Sällsten, Gerd; Quintana, Javier Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To describe the process for obtaining mercury and the historical exposure of Almadén miners to mercury. Methods Information on every workplace and historical data on production, technological changes in the productive process and biological and environmental values of mercury was collected. A job‐exposure matrix was built with these values and the exposure to inorganic mercury was estimated quantitatively as μg/l of urine mercury. A cumulative exposure index was calculated for every worker by adding the estimates for every year in the different workplaces. Results In the mine, the highest exposures occurred during drilling, with values up to 2.26 mg/m3 in air, 2194 μg/l in urine and 374 μg/l in blood. Furnace operation and cleaning were the tasks with the highest values in metallurgy, peaking up to 3.37 mg/m3. The filling of bottles with mercury by free fall gave values within a range of 1.13–2.43 mg/m3 in air; these values dropped to 0.32–0.83 mg/m3 after introducing a new ventilation system. The toxicity effects of high doses of inorganic mercury on the central nervous and urinary systems have been known for decades. Conclusions The exposure of the workers in Almadén mines to mercury has been very high. The extremely high content cinnabar ore of the mine explains the increased concentrations of mercury in air at the work places. This, together with inadequate working conditions, explains the high mercury levels found in blood and urine during the study period. PMID:17227836

  6. Uptake of mercury by the hair of methylmercury-treated newborn mice

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Chenyang; Lane, A.T.; Clarkson, T.W. )

    1990-04-01

    Human hair has unique advantages in monitoring environmental exposures to methyl-mercury. Using newborn Balb/c mice as a model system, the incorporation of methylmercury into the hair was studied and compared with methylmercury distributions in other tissues. Newborn mice were given intraperitoneal injections of {sup 203}Hg-labeled methylmercury at designated times according to hair growth stages of the mouse. Animals were sacrificed 2 days after dosing. Distribution of mercury in pelt and other tissues was measured. The level of mercury in pelt was found to correlate with hair growth. The amount of mercury in pelt peaked when hair growth was most rapid and the total amount of mercury in pelt was significantly higher than that in other tissues, constituting 40% of the whole body burden. However, when the hair ceased growing, the amount of mercury in pelt dramatically dropped to 4% of whole body burden and mercury concentrations in other tissues except brain were elevated. Autoradiographic studies with tritium-labeled methylmercury demonstrated that methylmercury concentrated in hair follicles in the skin. Within hair follicles and hairs, methylmercury accumulated in regions that are rich in high-sulfur proteins. The uptake of inorganic mercury (administered as HgCl{sub 2}) by pelt was also compared with that of methylmercury. The amount of inorganic mercury found in pelt was less than one-half that of methylmercury in animals with growing hair. Cessation of hair growth did not decrease the inorganic mercury level in pelt to the same extent as in the case of methylmercury.

  7. Is Mercury's Magnetosphere Driven By Flux Transfer Events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury's magnetosphere closely resembles that of Earth in terms of its topology and structure, but major differences are found when their dynamics are compared. The strong interplanetary magnetic fields at 0.3 to 0.5 AU result in low Alfven Mach numbers, weak bow shocks and low plasma β magnetosheaths at Mercury. These conditions support the development of strong plasma depletion layers adjacent to the magnetopause and intense magnetopause reconnection. MESSENGER observations indicate that reconnection occurs for all non-zero shear angles across the magnetopause with magnetosheat β being the primary factor controlling its rate. Flux transfer events (FTEs) with ~ 1-2 s durations and flux rope topology are observed during nearlly all magnetopause crossings. In contrast with the Earth where FTEs are typically observed every ~ 8 min, FTE ecounters at Mercury are separated on average by only ~ 10 s. At lower altitudes near the cusp MESSENGER observes ~1-2-s-long strong decreases in mgnetic field intensity that are termed cusp plasma filaments. These filaments are beleived to be formed by the inflow of magnetosheath plasma associated with flux transfer events. Mercury's magnetotail exhibits magnetic flux loading/unloading events similar to those observed at Earth during substorms. The Dungey cycle durations and lobe flux loading amplitudes are ~ 2 - 3 min and ~ 30 to 50% at Mercury as compared to ~ 1 - 2 hr and ~ 10 to 25% at Earth. However, FTEs at Earth account for only a few per cent of the magnetic flux carried by the Dungey cycle, while the contribution of FTEs at Mercury is estimated to be ~ 30 to 50%. Mercury also differs from Earth in that it lacks an ionosphere, but possesses a large, highly conducting iron core. The strong IMF and lack of an ionosphere results in a relatively large dawn-to-dusk cross-magnetosphere potential drop of ~ 30 kV at Mercury. Inductive coupling between Mercury's magnetosphere and its large iron core stiffens the dayside

  8. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C.

    2009-07-15

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  10. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-08-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  11. Evolution of Mercury's Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yseboodt, M.; Margot, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    Mercury has a near-zero obliquity, i.e. its spin axis is nearly perpendicular to its orbital plane. In order to constrain the size of the planet's core with the framework suggested by Peale (1976), the obliquity must be known precisely. Rambaux and Bois (2004) have suggested that Mercury's obliquity varies on thousand-year timescales due to planetary perturbations, potentially ruining the feasibility of Peale's experiment. We use a Hamiltonian approach (free of energy dissipation) to study the spin-orbit evolution of Mercury subject to planetary perturbations. We can reproduce an obliquity evolution similar to that of Rambaux and Bois (2004) if we introduce the planetary perturbations abruptly, i.e. by a step function. But if we introduce the planetary effects smoothly starting from an equilibrium position corresponding to the Cassini state (where the spin axis, the normal to the invariable plane and the normal to the orbital plane are aligned), the thousand-year oscillations in the obliquity do not appear. We find an equilibrium value for the obliquity of ˜1.6 arcmin for (B-A)/C = 1.2 10-4 and (C-A)/C = 2.4 10-4, which are combinations of the moments of inertia corresponding to the Mariner 10 gravity data. Our results indicate that planetary perturbations do not force short-period oscillations in Mercury's obliquity, even though such oscillations may appear in numerical integrations involving artificial departures from the Cassini state or the sudden onset of perturbations. Peale (2004) has shown that the periods of damping of the free motions (free precession or free libration) are short compared to the age of the solar system, such that oscillations in obliquity are expected to decay. In the absence of excitation processes, Mercury's obliquity will remain constant, suggesting that one of the important conditions for the success of Peale's experiment is realized.

  12. Review: mercury in waste incineration.

    PubMed

    van Veizen, Daniel; Langenkamp, Heinrich; Herb, Georg

    2002-12-01

    The paper investigates the sources of mercury (Hg) in municipal/industrial waste and the consequences of the presence of this pollutant for the incineration of this waste. About 1990 the average mercury concentration of the feed stream to incinerators was about 4 mg kg(-1). The concentration decreased considerably during the last decade thanks to a considerable reduction of the application of mercury and to the introduction of effective battery return systems. Presently the mercury concentration in municipal SOLID waste is approximately 2 mg kg(-1). During incineration mercury passes practically for 100% in the flue gas. The techniques for mercury removal from flue gases are discussed at the hand of practical examples. It is concluded that there are a number of processes which guarantee mercury concentrations of <50 microg Nm(-3) in the clean gas, the present emission limit concentration. All mercury control processes produce a new solid or liquid waste stream that contains the mercury removed from the flue gas. This stream has to be disposed of as hazardous waste in a qualified landfill. The flue gas from waste incinerators undergoes very rapid dispersion and dilution after leaving the incinerator stack. It follows that the maximum mercury concentration in the ambient air will remain at least five to six orders of magnitude below the lowest MAC value (=Maximum Admissible Concentration in work spaces) and that public health will not be threatened.

  13. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  14. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  15. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  16. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  17. MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin. James A.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER'S second flyby of Mercury on October 6,2008, very intense reconnection was observed between the planet's magnetic field and a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The dawn magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field normal to its surface, approx.14 nT, that implies a rate of reconnection approx.10 times the typical rate at Earth and a cross-magnetospheric electric potential drop of approx.30 kV. The highest magnetic field observed during this second flyby, approx.160 nT, was found at the core of a large dayside flux transfer event (FTE). This FTE is estimated to contain magnetic flux equal to approx.5% that of Mercury's magnetic tail or approximately one order of magnitude higher fraction of the tail flux than is typically found for FTEs at Earth. Plasmoid and traveling compression region (TCR) signatures were observed throughout MESSENGER'S traversal of Mercury's magnetotail with a repetition rate comparable to the Dungey cycle time of approx.2 min. The TCR signatures changed from south-north, indicating tailward motion, to north-south, indicating sunward motion, at a distance approx.2.6 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius) behind the terminator indicating that the near-Mercury magnetotail neutral line was crossed at that point. Overall, these new MESSENGER observations suggest that magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause is very intense relative to what is found at Earth and other planets, while reconnection in Mercury's tail is similar to that in other planetary magnetospheres, but with a very short Dungey cycle time.

  18. High performance cermet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  19. Isoelectric focusing in a drop.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noah G; Hayes, Mark A; Garcia, Antonio A; Ansari, Rafat R

    2011-01-04

    A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split-resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3-10) in ampholyte buffers, and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by noninvasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady-state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop, and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements.

  20. Drop stability in wind: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungyon

    2015-11-01

    Water drops may remain pinned on a solid substrate against external forcing due to contact angle hysteresis. Schmucker and White investigated this phenomenon experimentally in a high Reynolds number regime, by measuring the critical wind velocity at which partially wetting water drops depin inside a wind tunnel. Due to the unsteady turbulent boundary layer, droplets are observed to undergo vortex-shedding induced oscillations. By contrast, the overall elongation of the drop prior to depinning occurs on a much slower timescale with self-similar droplet shapes at the onset. Based on these observations, a simple, quasi-static model of depinning droplet is developed by implementing the phenomenological description of the boundary layer. The resultant model successfully captures the critical onset of droplet motion and is the first of on-going studies that connect the classical boundary layer theory with droplet dynamics.

  1. Bubble trajectories in rotating drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brone, D.; Cole, R.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation summarized in this paper describes recent normal gravity experiments involving the behavior of compound drops in rotating flows and in particular, the subsequent migration of the less dense phase (air bubble) toward the rotation axis. The data are compared to two models. The first was developed to predict the trajectory of a fluid particle in an infinitely large drop in the presence of both gravitational and rotational fields at the limit of quasi-steady creeping flow. The second predicts the trajectory of a fluid particle in a compound drop in the presence of a rotational field and at the limit of creeping flow. Gravity has not yet been incorporated into this second model.

  2. Surface catalyzed mercury transformation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Patanjali

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with five different oxidation catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 mug

  3. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    PubMed

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  4. Modified Electrodes Used for Electrochemical Detection of Metal Ions in Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    March, Gregory; Nguyen, Tuan Dung; Piro, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells. PMID:25938789

  5. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  6. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  7. MERCURY DEPOSITION AND LAKE QUALITY TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed factors influence the differing trends in mercury residue levels. Fish mercury concentrations show positive correlations with water color, methylmercury concentrations, and plankton mercury, and negative correlations with pH and alkalinity.

  8. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  9. Indirect Determination of Mercury Ion by Inhibition of a Glucose Biosensor Based on ZnO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Chey, Chan Oeurn; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    A potentiometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) has been developed for the indirect determination of environmental mercury ions. The ZnO-NRs were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) approach. Glucose oxidase in conjunction with a chitosan membrane and a glutaraldehyde (GA) were immobilized on the surface of the ZnO-NRs using a simple physical adsorption method and then used as a potentiometric working electrode. The potential response of the biosensor between the working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was measured in a 1mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The detection limit of the mercury ion sensor was found to be 0.5 nM. The experimental results provide two linear ranges of the inhibition from 0.5 × 10−6 mM to 0.5 × 10−4 mM, and from 0.5 × 10−4 mM to 20 mM of mercury ion for fixed 1 mM of glucose concentration in the solution. The linear range of the inhibition from 10−3 mM to 6 mM of mercury ion was also acquired for a fixed 10 mM of glucose concentration. The working electrode can be reactivated by more than 70% after inhibition by simply dipping the used electrode in a 10 mM PBS solution for 7 min. The electrodes retained their original enzyme activity by about 90% for more than three weeks. The response to mercury ions was highly sensitive, selective, stable, reproducible, and interference resistant, and exhibits a fast response time. The developed glucose biosensor has a great potential for detection of mercury with several advantages such as being inexpensive, requiring minimum hardware and being suitable for unskilled users. PMID:23202200

  10. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  11. Combined oxidative leaching and electrowinning process for mercury recovery from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Cihan; Coskun, Sezen; Akcil, Ata; Beyhan, Mehmet; Üncü, Ismail Serkan; Civelekoglu, Gokhan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, oxidative leaching and electrowinnig processes were performed to recovery of mercury from spent tubular fluorescent lamps. Hypochlorite was found to be effectively used for the leaching of mercury to the solution. Mercury could be leached with an efficiency of 96% using 0.5M/0.2M NaOCl/NaCl reagents at 50°C and pH 7.5 for 2-h. Electrowinning process was conducted on the filtered leaching solutions and over the 81% of mercury was recovered at the graphite electrode using citric acid as a reducing agent. The optimal process conditions were observed as a 6A current intensity, 30g/L of reducing agent concentration, 120min. electrolysis time and pH of 7 at the room temperature. It was found that current intensity and citric acid amount had positive effect for mercury reduction. Recovery of mercury in its elemental form was confirmed by SEM/EDX. Oxidative leaching with NaOCl/NaCl reagent was followed by electrowinning process can be effectively used for the recovery of mercury from spent fluorescent lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Volatilization of Mercury By Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Magos, L.; Tuffery, A. A.; Clarkson, T. W.

    1964-01-01

    Volatilization of mercury has been observed from various biological media (tissue homogenates, infusion broth, plasma, urine) containing mercuric chloride. That micro-organisms were responsible was indicated by the finding that the rates of volatilization were highly variable, that a latent period often preceded volatilization, that toluene inhibited the process, and that the capacity to volatilize mercury could be transferred from one biological medium to another. Two species of bacteria when isolated and cultured from these homogenates were able to volatilize mercury. Two other bacteria, one of which was isolated from the local water supply, were also highly active. The volatile mercury was identified as mercury vapour. The importance of these findings in relation to the storage of urine samples prior to mercury analysis is discussed. PMID:14249899

  13. 49 CFR 178.1045 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.1045 Section 178.1045... Containers § 178.1045 Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all... subpart. (b) Special preparation for the drop test. Flexible Bulk Containers must be filled to...

  14. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.603 Section 178.603 Transportation... Packagings and Packages § 178.603 Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the... than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically over the point...

  15. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of cysteine using silver and copper solid amalgam electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yosypchuk, B; Novotný, L

    2002-04-01

    Silver and copper solid amalgam electrodes (modified with mercury meniscus and based on amalgamation of fine metallic powder) have been successfully tested for cathodic stripping voltammetry of cysteine. In the case of the silver solid amalgam electrode AgSAE the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the detection limit (3 SD) reached +/-2.3% and 3x10(-9) mol l(-1) cysteine, respectively.

  16. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  17. Which Disposable Chest Electrode?

    PubMed Central

    Hubner, P. J. B.

    1969-01-01

    Chest electrodes are preferred to limb electrodes for cardiac monitoring, as limb movements are not restricted and produce less interference of the E.C.G. trace. Eight types of disposable chest electrodes were investigated to compare their performance, skin reactions, cost, ease of application, size, and skin–electrode impedance. Elema-Schonander electrodes were found to be the most efficient and the most expensive. In their application care was required to avoid severe skin reactions. Dracard electrodes were simple to attach, worked well without severe skin reactions, and were cheap. They are recommended for routine use. Smith and Nephew electrodes, a type of “multipoint electrodes” which do not require electrode jelly, frequently produced severe skin reactions, making them unsuitable for monitoring for periods exceeding 12 hours. PMID:5801347

  18. Corrugated battery electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

  19. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  20. Improved biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Newly designed electrode is prefilled, disposable, electrolyte-saturated spong. New design permits longe periods of storage without deterioration, and readiness in matter of seconds. Electrodes supply signals for electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram.

  1. Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Rickert, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Mercury has been well known as an environmental pollutant for several decades. As early as the 1950's it was established that emissions of mercury to the environment could have serious effects on human health. These early studies demonstrated that fish and other wildlife from various ecosystems commonly attain mercury levels of toxicological concern when directly affected by mercury-containing emissions from human-related activities. Human health concerns arise when fish and wildlife from these ecosystems are consumed by humans. During the past decade, a new trend has emerged with regard to mercury pollution. Investigations initiated in the late 1980's in the northern-tier states of the U.S., Canada, and Nordic countries found that fish, mainly from nutrient-poor lakes and often in very remote areas, commonly have high levels of mercury. More recent fish sampling surveys in other regions of the U.S. have shown widespread mercury contamination in streams, wet-lands, reservoirs, and lakes. To date, 33 states have issued fish consumption advisories because of mercury contamination. These continental to global scale occurrences of mercury contamination cannot be linked to individual emissions of mercury, but instead are due to widespread air pollution. When scientists measure mercury levels in air and surface water, however, the observed levels are extraordinarily low. In fact, scientists have to take extreme precautions to avoid direct contact with water samples or sample containers, to avert sample contamination (Fig 3). Herein lies an apparent discrepancy: Why do fish from some remote areas have elevated mercury concentrations, when contamination levels in the environment are so low?

  2. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products

  3. The lubrication force between two viscous drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert H.; Schonberg, Jeffrey A.; Rallison, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The present determination of the hydrodynamic force resisting the relative motion of two unequal drops moving in Stokes flow conditions along their line of centers assumes that the drops are in near-contact, and possess sufficiently high interfacial tension to remain spherical. Depending on the ratio of drop viscosity to that of the continuous phase, as well as on the ratio of the distance between drops to their reduced radius, three possible flow situations arise: these correspond to nearly-rigid drops, drops with partially mobile interfaces, and drops with fully mobile interfaces.

  4. The CMG Nickel Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaul, R. A.; Gutridge, I.

    1981-01-01

    The development and design of the Controlled Microgeometry electrode are described. Advantages of the electrode over others in existance include a higher number of ampere hours per kilogram and the ability to make them over a wide range of thicknesses. The parameters that control the performance of the electrode can be individually controlled over a wide range. Therefore, the electrode may be designed to give the optimum performance for a given duty cycle.

  5. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  6. Low resistance fuel electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nichols J.; Folser, George R.

    1989-01-01

    An electrode 6 bonded to a solid, ion conducting electrolyte 5 is made, where the electrode 6 comprises a ceramic metal oxide 18, metal particles 17, and heat stable metal fibers 19, where the metal fibers provide a matrix structure for the electrode. The electrolyte 5 can be bonded to an air electrode cathode 4, to provide an electrochemical cell 2, preferably of tubular design.

  7. Method - Pressure drop tests for fuel system components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    Techniques are presented for testing components and improving the accuracy of such tests to meet the requirements of MIL-F-8615 or equivalent specifications. Pressure-drop tests for individual components are described generally including the single and double piezometer-tube methods, and many of the suggested improvements apply to these techniques. The test setup is presented graphically, and the procedural conditions are described. The suggestions for improving the test results include notes regarding air bubbles, pumping-source pulsations, attachment fittings, overshooting the flow rate, and the importance of precise calibration. Diagrams are given for the double piezometer-tube, the mercury-manometer, and the fuel-manometer tests, and the arithmetic computation is described for the data-reduction equation.

  8. Getting the Drop on Sediment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindez, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In this exercise, students examine Aristotle's weight hypothesis by testing variously shaped marble chips. These chips are weighed and dropped down a water tube. Average fall times and weights are recorded and graphed. Students are asked to apply this information to rock and soil deposition by streams. (MA)

  9. Grade Dropping: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    It is a popular practice among college professors to drop the lowest component grade in computing the course grade. A benefit of this practice is the elimination of the need to evaluate excuses or administer make-up exams. The author uses data from a controlled experiment to examine the impact of such a policy on student behavior and course…

  10. Egg Drop: An Invention Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to stimulate elementary and junior high students to become actively engaged in thinking creatively rather than only analytically, convergently, or repetitively. The activity requires students to devise means of dropping an egg from a height without it breaking. (JR)

  11. Dispersion in Spherical Water Drops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliason, John C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a laboratory exercise simulating the paths of light rays through spherical water drops by applying principles of ray optics and geometry. Describes four parts: determining the output angles, computer simulation, explorations, model testing, and solutions. Provides a computer program and some diagrams. (YP)

  12. ``Quantum'' interference with bouncing drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens

    2013-11-01

    In a series of recent papers (most recently) Yves Couder and collaborators have explored the dynamics of walking drops on the surface of a vibrated bath of silicon oil and have demonstrated a close analogy to quantum phenomena. The bouncing drop together with the surface wave that it excites seems to be very similar to the pilot wave envisaged by de Broglie for quantum particles. In particular, have studied a double slit experiment with walking drops, where an interference pattern identical to the quantum version is found even though it is possible to follow the orbits of the drops and unambigously determine which slit it goes through, something which in quantum mechanics would be ruled out by the Heisenberg uncertainly relations. We have repeated the experiment and present a somewhat more complicated picture. Theoretically, we study a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localised ``particle'' being simultaneously guided by the wave. We present simple solutions to such a field theory and discuss the fundamental difficulties met by such a theory in order to comply with quantum mechanics.

  13. Drops spreading on flexible fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somszor, Katarzyna; Boulogne, François; Sauret, Alban; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are encountered in many engineered systems such as textile, paper and insulating materials. In most of these materials, fibers are randomly oriented and form a complex network in which drops of wetting liquid tend to accumulate at the nodes of the network. Here we investigate the role of the fiber flexibility on the spreading of a small volume of liquid on a pair of crossed flexible fibers. A drop of silicone oil is dispensed at the point of contact of the fibers and we characterize the liquid morphologies as we vary the volume of liquid, the angle between the fibers, and the length and bending modulus of the fibers. Drop morphologies previously reported for rigid fibers, i.e. a drop, a column and a mixed morphology, are also observed on flexible fibers with modified domains of existence. Moreover, at small inclination angles of the fibers, a new behavior is observed: the fibers bend and collapse. Depending on the volume, the liquid can adopt a column or a mixed morphology on the collapsed fibers. We rationalize our observations with a model based on energetic considerations. Our study suggests that the fiber flexibility adds a rich variety of behaviors that can be crucial for industrial applications.

  14. Dispersion in Spherical Water Drops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliason, John C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a laboratory exercise simulating the paths of light rays through spherical water drops by applying principles of ray optics and geometry. Describes four parts: determining the output angles, computer simulation, explorations, model testing, and solutions. Provides a computer program and some diagrams. (YP)

  15. Getting the Drop on Sediment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindez, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In this exercise, students examine Aristotle's weight hypothesis by testing variously shaped marble chips. These chips are weighed and dropped down a water tube. Average fall times and weights are recorded and graphed. Students are asked to apply this information to rock and soil deposition by streams. (MA)

  16. Recent Advances in Mercury Research

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Finley, Ebany J.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic, non-essential, naturally occurring metal with a variety of uses. Mercury is not required for any known biological process and its presence in the human body may be detrimental, especially to the nervous system. Both genetic and behavioral studies suggest that mercury levels, age (both of exposure and at testing), and genetic background determine disease processes and outcome. The metal receptors and genes responsible for mercury metabolism also appear to play a pivotal role in the etiology of mercury-induced pathology. This review presents information about the latest advances in mercury research, with particular focus on low-level exposures and the contribution of genetics to toxic outcome. Future studies should address the contribution of genetics and low-level mercury exposure to disease, namely gene x environment interactions, taking into consideration age of exposure as developing animals are exquisitely more sensitive to this metal. In addition to recent advances in understanding the pathology associated with mercury exposure, the review highlights transport mechanisms, cellular distribution and detoxification of mercury species in the body. PMID:28018837

  17. Toxicity of mercury and mercury compounds. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of mercury and mercury compounds on biological systems. The citations examine mercury halides, organic mercury compounds, mercury metal, and mercury vapor. Metabolism, toxicology, occupational exposure, symptoms of exposure, mechanisms of interaction with biological systems, demographics of mercury accumulation and poisoning, and case reports are considered. Heavy metal pollution and bioaccumulation are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg [East Lansing, MI; Fischer, Anne [Arlington, VA; Bennett, Jason [Lansing, MI; Lowe, Michael [Holt, MI

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  19. Aerospace electrode line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    1980-04-01

    A facility which produces electrodes for spacecraft power supplies is described. The electrode assembly procedures are discussed. A number of design features in the production process are reported including a batch operation mode and an independent equipment module design approach for transfering the electrode materials from process tank to process tank.

  20. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.