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Sample records for drosophila mitochondrial genes

  1. Drosophila Erect wing (Ewg) controls mitochondrial fusion during muscle growth and maintenance by regulation of the Opa1-like gene.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mamta; Katti, Prasanna; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis and morphological changes are associated with tissue-specific functional demand, but the factors and pathways that regulate these processes have not been completely identified. A lack of mitochondrial fusion has been implicated in various developmental and pathological defects. The spatiotemporal regulation of mitochondrial fusion in a tissue such as muscle is not well understood. Here, we show in Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFMs) that the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial inner membrane fusion gene, Opa1-like, is regulated in a spatiotemporal fashion by the transcription factor/co-activator Erect wing (Ewg). In IFMs null for Ewg, mitochondria undergo mitophagy and/or autophagy accompanied by reduced mitochondrial functioning and muscle degeneration. By following the dynamics of mitochondrial growth and shape in IFMs, we found that mitochondria grow extensively and fuse during late pupal development to form the large tubular mitochondria. Our evidence shows that Ewg expression during early IFM development is sufficient to upregulate Opa1-like, which itself is a requisite for both late pupal mitochondrial fusion and muscle maintenance. Concomitantly, by knocking down Opa1-like during early muscle development, we show that it is important for mitochondrial fusion, muscle differentiation and muscle organization. However, knocking down Opa1-like, after the expression window of Ewg did not cause mitochondrial or muscle defects. This study identifies a mechanism by which mitochondrial fusion is regulated spatiotemporally by Ewg through Opa1-like during IFM differentiation and growth.

  2. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, URF2, and three tRNAs in Drosophila mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Clary, D O; Wolstenholme, D R

    1983-01-01

    Genes for URF2, tRNAtrp, tRNAcys, tRNAtyr and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) have been identified within a sequenced segment of the Drosophila yakuba mtDNA molecule. The five genes are arranged in the order given. Transcription of the tRNAcys and tRNAtyr genes is in the same direction as replication, while transcription of the URF2, tRNAtrp and COI genes is in the opposite direction. A similar arrangement of these genes is found in mammalian mtDNA except that in the latter, the tRNAala and tRNAasn genes are located between the tRNAtrp and tRNAcys genes. Also, a sequence found between the tRNAasn and tRNAcys genes in mammalian mtDNA, which is associated with the initiation of second strand DNA synthesis, is not found in this region of the D. yakuba mtDNA molecule. As the D. yakuba COI gene lacks a standard translation initiation codon, we consider the possibility that the quadruplet ATAA may serve this function. As in other D. yakuba mitochondrial polypeptide genes, AGA codons in the URF2 and COI genes do not correspond in position to arginine-specifying codons in the equivalent genes of mouse and yeast mtDNAs, but do most frequently correspond to serine-specifying codons. PMID:6314262

  3. Rapamycin increases mitochondrial efficiency by mtDNA-dependent reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Holmbeck, Marissa A; Rand, David M

    2014-05-15

    Downregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by its inhibitor rapamycin is emerging as a potential pharmacological intervention that mimics the beneficial effects of dietary restriction. Modulation of mTOR has diverse effects on mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis, but the role of the mitochondrial genotype in mediating these effects remains unknown. Here, we use novel mitochondrial genome replacement strains in Drosophila to test the hypothesis that genes encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influence the mTOR pathway. We show that rapamycin increases mitochondrial respiration and succinate dehydrogenase activity, decreases H2O2 production and generates distinct shifts in the metabolite profiles of isolated mitochondria versus whole Drosophila. These effects are disabled when divergent mitochondrial genomes from D. simulans are placed into a common nuclear background, demonstrating that the benefits of rapamycin to mitochondrial metabolism depend on genes encoded in the mtDNA. Rapamycin is able to enhance mitochondrial respiration when succinate dehydrogenase activity is blocked, suggesting that the beneficial effects of rapamycin on these two processes are independent. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for a link between mitochondrial genotype and the effects of rapamycin on mitochondrial metabolic pathways. PMID:24610944

  4. Unraveling Selection in the Mitochondrial Genome of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, JWO.; Kreitman, M.

    1994-01-01

    We examine mitochondrial DNA variation at the cytochrome b locus within and between three species of Drosophila to determine whether patterns of variation conform to the predictions of neutral molecular evolution. The entire 1137-bp cytochrome b locus was sequenced in 16 lines of Drosophila melanogaster, 18 lines of Drosophila simulans and 13 lines of Drosophila yakuba. Patterns of variation depart from neutrality by several test criteria. Analysis of the evolutionary clock hypothesis shows unequal rates of change along D. simulans lineages. A comparison within and between species of the ratio of amino acid replacement change to synonymous change reveals a relative excess of amino acid replacement polymorphism compared to the neutral prediction, suggestive of slightly deleterious or diversifying selection. There is evidence for excess homozygosity in our world wide sample of D. melanogaster and D. simulans alleles, as well as a reduction in the number of segregating sites in D. simulans, indicative of selective sweeps. Furthermore, a test of neutrality for codon usage shows the direction of mutations at third positions differs among different topological regions of the gene tree. The analyses indicate that molecular variation and evolution of mtDNA are governed by many of the same selective forces that have been shown to govern nuclear genome evolution and suggest caution be taken in the use of mtDNA as a ``neutral'' molecular marker. PMID:7851772

  5. Mitochondrial RNA granules: Compartmentalizing mitochondrial gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, Alexis A.; Boehm, Erik; Maundrell, Kinsey

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, DNA replication, gene expression, and RNA degradation machineries coexist within a common nondelimited space, raising the question of how functional compartmentalization of gene expression is achieved. Here, we discuss the recently characterized “mitochondrial RNA granules,” mitochondrial subdomains with an emerging role in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:26953349

  6. Preparation of Mitochondrial Enriched Fractions for Metabolic Analysis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Rand, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Since mitochondria play roles in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and fatty acid oxidation, defects in mitochondrial function often compromise the lives of those who suffer from these complex diseases. Detecting mitochondrial metabolic changes is vital to the understanding of mitochondrial disorders and mitochondrial responses to pharmacological agents. Although mitochondrial metabolism is at the core of metabolic regulation, the detection of subtle changes in mitochondrial metabolism may be hindered by the overrepresentation of other cytosolic metabolites obtained using whole organism or whole tissue extractions. Here we describe an isolation method that detected pronounced mitochondrial metabolic changes in Drosophila that were distinct between whole-fly and mitochondrial enriched preparations. To illustrate the sensitivity of this method, we used a set of Drosophila harboring genetically diverse mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNA) and exposed them to the drug rapamycin. Using this method we showed that rapamycin modifies mitochondrial metabolism in a mitochondrial-genotype-dependent manner. However, these changes are much more distinct in metabolomics studies when metabolites were extracted from mitochondrial enriched fractions. In contrast, whole tissue extracts only detected metabolic changes mediated by the drug rapamycin independently of mtDNAs. PMID:26485391

  7. Expression and Purification of Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase and Transcription Factor A from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, John P; Arnold, Jamie J; Salminen, Tiina S; Kaguni, Laurie S; Cameron, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial gene expression is essential in all organisms. Our understanding of mitochondrial transcription on a biochemical level has been limited by the inability to purify the individual protein components involved in mitochondrial gene expression. Recently, new systems have been identified that permit purification of these proteins from bacteria. However, the generalizability of these systems is not clear. Here, we have applied the technology from the Cameron lab to express and purify mitochondrial RNA polymerase and transcription factor A from Drosophila melanogaster. We show that the use of SUMO system to produce SUMO fusion proteins in bacteria is effective not only for the human and mouse proteins, but also for the fly proteins. The application of this system to produce the mitochondrial proteins from other organisms should permit detailed understanding of mitochondrial transcription from any organism.

  8. Neutral and Non-Neutral Evolution of Drosophila Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rand, D. M.; Dorfsman, M.; Kann, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    To test hypotheses of neutral evolution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), nucleotide sequences were determined for 1515 base pairs of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene in the mitochondrial DNA of 29 lines of Drosophila melanogaster and 9 lines of its sibling species Drosophila simulans. In contrast to the patterns for nuclear genes, where D. melanogaster generally exhibits much less nucleotide polymorphism, the number of segregating sites was slightly higher in a global sample of nine ND5 sequences in D. melanogaster (s = 8) than in the nine lines of D. simulans (s = 6). When compared to variation at nuclear loci, the mtDNA variation in D. melanogaster does not depart from neutral expectations. The ND5 sequences in D. simulans, however, show fewer than half the number of variable sites expected under neutrality when compared to sequences from the period locus. While this reduction in variation is not significant at the 5% level, HKA tests with published restriction data for mtDNA in D. simulans do show a significant reduction of variation suggesting a selective sweep of variation in the mtDNA in this species. Tests of neutral evolution based on the ratios of synonymous and replacement polymorphism and divergence are generally consistent with neutral expectations, although a significant excess of amino acid polymorphism within both species is localized in one region of the protein. The rate of mtDNA evolution has been faster in D. melanogaster than in D. simulans and the population structure of mtDNA is distinct in these species. The data reveal how different rates of mtDNA evolution between species and different histories of neutral and adaptive evolution within species can compromise historical inferences in population and evolutionary biology. PMID:7851771

  9. Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP1 Activates the Mitochondrial UPR and Extends Healthspan in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Baqri, Rehan M.; Pietron, Arielle V.; Gokhale, Rewatee H.; Turner, Brittany A.; Kaguni, Laurie S.; Shingleton, Alexander W.; Kunes, Sam; Miller, Kyle E.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms influencing healthspan are unclear but mitochondrial function, resistance to oxidative stress and proteostasis are recurring themes. Tumor necrosis factor Receptor Associated Protein 1 (TRAP1), the mitochondrial analogue of Hsp75, regulates levels of reactive oxygen species in vitro and is found expressed at higher levels in tumor cells where it is thought to play a pro-survival role. While TRAP1-directed compartmentalized protein folding is a promising target for cancer therapy, its role at the organismal level is unclear. Here we report that overexpression of TRAP1 in Drosophila extends healthspan by enhancing stress resistance, locomotor activity and fertility while depletion of TRAP1 has the opposite effect, with little effect on lifespan under both conditions. In addition, modulating TRAP1 expression promotes the nuclear translocation of homeobox protein Dve and increases expression of genes associated with the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), indicating an activation of this proteostasis pathway. Notably, independent genetic knockdown of components of the UPRmt pathway dampen the enhanced stress resistance observed in TRAP1 overexpression flies. Together these studies suggest that TRAP1 regulates healthspan, potentially through activation of the UPRmt. PMID:25265088

  10. DmTTF, a novel mitochondrial transcription termination factor that recognises two sequences of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, Marina; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Bruni, Francesco; Musicco, Clara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2003-01-01

    Using a combination of bioinformatic and molecular biology approaches a Drosophila melanogaster protein, DmTTF, has been identified, which exhibits sequence and structural similarity with two mitochondrial transcription termination factors, mTERF (human) and mtDBP (sea urchin). Import/processing assays indicate that DmTTF is synthesised as a precursor of 410 amino acids and is imported into mitochondria, giving rise to a mature product of 366 residues. Band-shift and DNase I protection experiments show that DmTTF binds two homologous, short, non-coding sequences of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA, located at the 3′ end of blocks of genes transcribed on opposite strands. The location of the target sequences coincides with that of two of the putative transcription termination sites previously hypothesised. These results indicate that DmTTF is the termination factor of mitochondrial transcription in Drosophila. The existence of two DmTTF binding sites might serve not only to stop transcription but also to control the overlapping of a large number of transcripts generated by the peculiar transcription mechanism operating in this organism. PMID:12626700

  11. Direct estimation of the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Haag-Liautard, Cathy; Coffey, Nicole; Houle, David; Lynch, Michael; Charlesworth, Brian; Keightley, Peter D

    2008-08-19

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants are widely used in evolutionary genetics as markers for population history and to estimate divergence times among taxa. Inferences of species history are generally based on phylogenetic comparisons, which assume that molecular evolution is clock-like. Between-species comparisons have also been used to estimate the mutation rate, using sites that are thought to evolve neutrally. We directly estimated the mtDNA mutation rate by scanning the mitochondrial genome of Drosophila melanogaster lines that had undergone approximately 200 generations of spontaneous mutation accumulation (MA). We detected a total of 28 point mutations and eight insertion-deletion (indel) mutations, yielding an estimate for the single-nucleotide mutation rate of 6.2 x 10(-8) per site per fly generation. Most mutations were heteroplasmic within a line, and their frequency distribution suggests that the effective number of mitochondrial genomes transmitted per female per generation is about 30. We observed repeated occurrences of some indel mutations, suggesting that indel mutational hotspots are common. Among the point mutations, there is a large excess of G-->A mutations on the major strand (the sense strand for the majority of mitochondrial genes). These mutations tend to occur at nonsynonymous sites of protein-coding genes, and they are expected to be deleterious, so do not become fixed between species. The overall mtDNA mutation rate per base pair per fly generation in Drosophila is estimated to be about 10x higher than the nuclear mutation rate, but the mitochondrial major strand G-->A mutation rate is about 70x higher than the nuclear rate. Silent sites are substantially more strongly biased towards A and T than nonsynonymous sites, consistent with the extreme mutation bias towards A+T. Strand-asymmetric mutation bias, coupled with selection to maintain specific nonsynonymous bases, therefore provides an explanation for the extreme base composition of the

  12. The MitoDrome database annotates and compares the OXPHOS nuclear genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Domenica; Catalano, Domenico; Licciulli, Flavio; Turi, Antonio; Tripoli, Gaetano; Porcelli, Damiano; Saccone, Cecilia; Caggese, Corrado

    2006-10-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the primary energy-producing process of all aerobic organisms and the only cellular function under the dual control of both the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes. Functional characterization and evolutionary study of the OXPHOS system is of great importance for the understanding of many as yet unclear aspects of nucleus-mitochondrion genomic co-evolution and co-regulation gene networks. The MitoDrome database is a web-based database which provides genomic annotations about nuclear genes of Drosophila melanogaster encoding for mitochondrial proteins. Recently, MitoDrome has included a new section annotating genomic information about OXPHOS genes in Drosophila pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae and their comparative analysis with their Drosophila melanogaster and human counterparts. The introduction of this new comparative annotation section into MitoDrome is expected to be a useful resource for both functional and structural genomics related to the OXPHOS system.

  13. Drosophila melanogaster LRPPRC2 is involved in coordination of mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Francesca; Bratic, Ana; Mourier, Arnaud; Kauppila, Timo E S; Tain, Luke S; Kukat, Christian; Habermann, Bianca; Partridge, Linda; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-12-16

    Members of the pentatricopeptide repeat domain (PPR) protein family bind RNA and are important for post-transcriptional control of organelle gene expression in unicellular eukaryotes, metazoans and plants. They also have a role in human pathology, as mutations in the leucine-rich PPR-containing (LRPPRC) gene cause severe neurodegeneration. We have previously shown that the mammalian LRPPRC protein and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog DmLRPPRC1 (also known as bicoid stability factor) are necessary for mitochondrial translation by controlling stability and polyadenylation of mRNAs. We here report characterization of DmLRPPRC2, a second fruit fly homolog of LRPPRC, and show that it has a predominant mitochondrial localization and interacts with a stem-loop interacting RNA binding protein (DmSLIRP2). Ubiquitous downregulation of DmLrpprc2 expression causes respiratory chain dysfunction, developmental delay and shortened lifespan. Unexpectedly, decreased DmLRPPRC2 expression does not globally affect steady-state levels or polyadenylation of mitochondrial transcripts. However, some mitochondrial transcripts abnormally associate with the mitochondrial ribosomes and some products are dramatically overproduced and other ones decreased, which, in turn, results in severe deficiency of respiratory chain complexes. The function of DmLRPPRC2 thus seems to be to ensure that mitochondrial transcripts are presented to the mitochondrial ribosomes in an orderly fashion to avoid poorly coordinated translation. PMID:25428350

  14. The Drosophila termination factor DmTTF regulates in vivo mitochondrial transcription

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, Marina; Bruni, Francesco; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2006-01-01

    DmTTF is a Drosophila mitochondrial DNA-binding protein, which recognizes two sequences placed at the boundary of clusters of genes transcribed in opposite directions. To obtain in vivo evidences on the role of DmTTF, we characterized a DmTTF knock-down phenotype obtained by means of RNA interference in D.Mel-2 cells. By a combination of RNase protection and real-time RT–PCR experiments we found that knock-down determines remarkable changes in mitochondrial transcription. In particular, protein depletion increases not only the level of (+) and (−)strand RNAs mapping immediately after of the two protein-binding site, but also that of transcripts located further downstream. Unexpectedly, depletion of the protein also causes the decrease in the content of those transcripts mapping upstream of the protein target sites, including the two rRNAs. The changes in transcript level do not depend on a variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, since mtDNA copy number is unaffected by DmTTF depletion. This work shows conclusively that DmTTF arrests in vivo the progression of the mitochondrial RNA polymerase; this is the first ever-obtained evidence for an in vivo role of an animal mitochondrial transcription termination factor. In addition, the reported data provide interesting insights into the involvement of DmTTF in transcription initiation in Drosophila mitochondria. PMID:16648357

  15. Mitochondrial Contagion Induced by Parkin Deficiency in Drosophila Hearts and Its Containment by Suppressing Mitofusin

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Poonam; Song, Moshi; Chen, Yun; Burelle, Yan; Dorn, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Dysfunctional Parkin-mediated mitophagic culling of senescent or damaged mitochondria is a major pathological process underlying Parkinson disease and a potential genetic mechanism of cardiomyopathy. Despite epidemiological associations between Parkinson disease and heart failure, the role of Parkin and mitophagic quality control in maintaining normal cardiac homeostasis is poorly understood. Objective We used germline mutants and cardiac-specific RNA interference to interrogate Parkin regulation of cardiomyocyte mitochondria and examine functional crosstalk between mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila heart tubes. Methods and Results Transcriptional profiling of Parkin knockout mouse hearts revealed compensatory upregulation of multiple related E3 ubiquitin ligases. Because Drosophila lack most of these redundant genes, we examined heart tubes of parkin knockout flies and observed accumulation of enlarged hollow donut mitochondria with dilated cardiomyopathy, which could be rescued by cardiomyocyte-specific Parkin expression. Identical abnormalities were induced by cardiomyocyte-specific Parkin suppression using 2 different inhibitory RNAs. Parkin-deficient cardiomyocyte mitochondria exhibited dysmorphology, depolarization, and reactive oxygen species generation without calcium cycling abnormalities, pointing to a primary mitochondrial defect. Suppressing cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fusion in Parkin-deficient fly heart tubes completely prevented the cardiomyopathy and corrected mitochondrial dysfunction without normalizing mitochondrial dysmorphology, demonstrating a central role for mitochondrial fusion in the cardiomyopathy provoked by impaired mitophagy. Conclusions Parkin deficiency and resulting mitophagic disruption produces cardiomyopathy in part by contamination of the cardiomyocyte mitochondrial pool through fusion between improperly retained dysfunctional/senescent and normal mitochondria. Limiting mitochondrial contagion by

  16. Gene Regulation Networks for Modeling Drosophila Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, E.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster.

  17. Sequential adaptive introgression of the mitochondrial genome in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila santomea

    PubMed Central

    Llopart, Ana; Herrig, Danielle; Brud, Evgeny; Stecklein, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization provides the unique opportunity for species to tap into genetic variation present in a closely related species and potentially take advantage of beneficial alleles. It has become increasingly clear that when hybridization occurs, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) often crosses species boundaries, raising the possibility that it could serve as a recurrent target of natural selection and source of species' adaptations. Here we report the sequences of 46 complete mitochondrial genomes of Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila santomea, two sister species known to produce hybrids in nature (∼3%). At least two independent events of mtDNA introgression are uncovered in this study, including an early invasion of the D. yakuba mitochondrial genome that fully replaced the D. santomea mtDNA native haplotypes and a more recent, ongoing event centred in the hybrid zone. Interestingly, this recent introgression event bears the signature of Darwinian natural selection, and the selective haplotype can be found at low frequency in Africa mainland populations of D. yakuba. We put forward the possibility that, because the effective population size of D. santomea is smaller than that of D. yakuba, the faster accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations associated with Muller's ratchet in the former species may have facilitated the replacement of the mutationally loaded mitochondrial genome of D. PMID:24460929

  18. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of flower-breeding Drosophila incompta (Diptera, Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    De Ré, F C; Wallau, G L; Robe, L J; Loreto, E L S

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila incompta belongs to the flavopilosa group of Drosophila, and has a restricted ecology, being adapted to flowers of Cestrum as feeding and oviposition sites. We sequenced, assembled, and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of D. incompta. In addition, we performed phylogenomic and polymorphism analyses to assess evolutionary diversification of this species. Our results suggest that this genome is syntenic with the other published mtDNA of Drosophila. This molecule contains 15,641 bp and encompasses two rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein-coding genes. Regarding nucleotide composition, we found a high A-T bias (76.6 %). The recovered phylogenies indicate D. incompta in the virilis-repleta radiation, as sister to the virilis or repleta groups. The most interesting result is the high degree of polymorphism found throughout the D. incompta mitogenome, revealing pronounced intrapopulational variation. Furthermore, intraspecific nucleotide diversity levels varied between different regions of the genome, thus allowing the use of different mitochondrial molecular markers for analysis of population structure of this species.

  19. Incomplete Maternal Transmission of Mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, R.; Satta, Y.; Matsuura, E. T.; Ishiwa, H.; Takahata, N.; Chigusa, S. I.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of incomplete maternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Drosophila, previously suggested by the presence of heteroplasmy, was examined by intra- and interspecific backcrosses of Drosophila simulans and its closest relative, Drosophila mauritiana. mtDNAs of offspring in these crosses were characterized by Southern hybridization with two α-(32)P-labeled probes that are specific to paternal mtDNAs. This method could detect as little as 0.03% paternal mtDNA, if present, in a sample. Among 331 lines that had been backcrossed for ten generations, four lines from the interspecific cross D. simulans (female) X D. mauritiana (male) showed clear evidence for paternal leakage of mtDNA. In three of these the maternal type was completely replaced while the fourth was heteroplasmic. Since in this experiment the total number of fertilization is known to be 331 X 10 = 3310, the proportion of paternal mtDNA per fertilization was estimated as about 0.1%. The mechanisms and evolutionary significance for paternal leakage are discussed in light of this finding. PMID:2249764

  20. Effect of myonuclear number and mitochondrial fusion on Drosophila indirect flight muscle organization and size

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Mamta; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2013-10-15

    Mechanisms involved in establishing the organization and numbers of fibres in a muscle are not completely understood. During Drosophila indirect flight muscle (IFM) formation, muscle growth is achieved by both incorporating hundreds of nuclei, and hypertrophy. As a result, IFMs provide a good model with which to understand the mechanisms that govern overall muscle organization and growth. We present a detailed analysis of the organization of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs), a subset of the IFMs. We show that each DLM is similar to a vertebrate fascicle and consists of multiple muscle fibres. However, increased fascicle size does not necessarily change the number of constituent fibres, but does increase the number of myofibrils packed within the fibres. We also find that altering the number of myoblasts available for fusion changes DLM fascicle size and fibres are loosely packed with myofibrils. Additionally, we show that knock down of genes required for mitochondrial fusion causes a severe reduction in the size of DLM fascicles and fibres. Our results establish the organization levels of DLMs and highlight the importance of the appropriate number of nuclei and mitochondrial fusion in determining the overall organization, growth and size of DLMs. - Highlights: • Drosophila dorsal longitudinal muscles are similar to vertebrate skeletal muscles. • A threshold number of myoblasts governs the organization of a fibre and its size. • Mitochondrial fusion defect leads to abnormal fibre growth and organization.

  1. Expression of the Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX) in Drosophila complements defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ayala, Daniel J M; Sanz, Alberto; Vartiainen, Suvi; Kemppainen, Kia K; Babusiak, Marek; Mustalahti, Eero; Costa, Rodolfo; Tuomela, Tea; Zeviani, Massimo; Chung, Jongkyeong; O'Dell, Kevin M C; Rustin, Pierre; Jacobs, Howard T

    2009-05-01

    Defects in mitochondrial OXPHOS are associated with diverse and mostly intractable human disorders. The single-subunit alternative oxidase (AOX) found in many eukaryotes, but not in arthropods or vertebrates, offers a potential bypass of the OXPHOS cytochrome chain under conditions of pathological OXPHOS inhibition. We have engineered Ciona intestinalis AOX for conditional expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous AOX expression produced no detrimental phenotype in wild-type flies. However, mitochondrial suspensions from AOX-expressing flies exhibited a significant cyanide-resistant substrate oxidation, and the flies were partially resistant to both cyanide and antimycin. AOX expression was able to complement the semilethality of partial knockdown of both cyclope (COXVIc) and the complex IV assembly factor Surf1. It also rescued the locomotor defect and excess mitochondrial ROS production of flies mutated in dj-1beta, a Drosophila homolog of the human Parkinson's disease gene DJ1. AOX appears to offer promise as a wide-spectrum therapeutic tool in OXPHOS disorders. PMID:19416715

  2. Knockout of Drosophila RNase ZL impairs mitochondrial transcript processing, respiration and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xie; Dubrovsky, Edward B

    2015-12-01

    RNase Z(L) is a highly conserved tRNA 3'-end processing endoribonuclease. Similar to its mammalian counterpart, Drosophila RNase Z(L) (dRNaseZ) has a mitochondria targeting signal (MTS) flanked by two methionines at the N-terminus. Alternative translation initiation yields two protein forms: the long one is mitochondrial, and the short one may localize in the nucleus or cytosol. Here, we have generated a mitochondria specific knockout of the dRNaseZ gene. In this in vivo model, cells deprived of dRNaseZ activity display impaired mitochondrial polycistronic transcript processing, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a switch to aerobic glycolysis compensating for cellular ATP. Damaged mitochondria impose a cell cycle delay at the G2 phase disrupting cell proliferation without affecting cell viability. Antioxidants attenuate genotoxic stress and rescue cell proliferation, implying a critical role for ROS. We suggest that under a low-stress condition, ROS activate tumor suppressor p53, which modulates cell cycle progression and promotes cell survival. Transcriptional profiling of p53 targets confirms upregulation of antioxidant and cycB-Cdk1 inhibitor genes without induction of apoptotic genes. This study implicates Drosophila RNase Z(L) in a novel retrograde signaling pathway initiated by the damage in mitochondria and manifested in a cell cycle delay before the mitotic entry.

  3. Knockout of Drosophila RNase ZL impairs mitochondrial transcript processing, respiration and cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xie; Dubrovsky, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    RNase ZL is a highly conserved tRNA 3′-end processing endoribonuclease. Similar to its mammalian counterpart, Drosophila RNase ZL (dRNaseZ) has a mitochondria targeting signal (MTS) flanked by two methionines at the N-terminus. Alternative translation initiation yields two protein forms: the long one is mitochondrial, and the short one may localize in the nucleus or cytosol. Here, we have generated a mitochondria specific knockout of the dRNaseZ gene. In this in vivo model, cells deprived of dRNaseZ activity display impaired mitochondrial polycistronic transcript processing, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a switch to aerobic glycolysis compensating for cellular ATP. Damaged mitochondria impose a cell cycle delay at the G2 phase disrupting cell proliferation without affecting cell viability. Antioxidants attenuate genotoxic stress and rescue cell proliferation, implying a critical role for ROS. We suggest that under a low-stress condition, ROS activate tumor suppressor p53, which modulates cell cycle progression and promotes cell survival. Transcriptional profiling of p53 targets confirms upregulation of antioxidant and cycB-Cdk1 inhibitor genes without induction of apoptotic genes. This study implicates Drosophila RNase ZL in a novel retrograde signaling pathway initiated by the damage in mitochondria and manifested in a cell cycle delay before the mitotic entry. PMID:26553808

  4. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the melanogaster species subgroup of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Solignac, M; Monnerot, M; Mounolou, J C

    1986-01-01

    Detailed restriction maps (40 cleavage sites on average) of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from the eight species of the melanogaster species subgroup of Drosophila were established. Comparison of the cleavage sites allowed us to build a phylogenetic tree based on the matrix of nucleotide distances and to select the most parsimonious network. The two methods led to similar results, which were compared with those in the literature obtained from nuclear characters. The three chromosomally homosequential species D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia are mitochondrially very related, but exhibit complex phylogenetic relationships. D. melanogaster is their closest relative, and the four species form a monophyletic group (the D. melanogaster complex), which is confirmed by the shared unusual length of their mt genomes (18-19 kb). The other four species of the subgroup (D. yakuba, D. teissieri, D. erecta, and D. orena) are characterized by a much shorter mt genome (16-16.5 kb). The monophyletic character of the D. yakuba complex, however, is questionable. Two species of this complex, D. yakuba and D. teissieri, are mitochondrially indistinguishable (at the level of our investigation) in spite of their noticeable allozymic and chromosomal divergence. Finally, mtDNA distances were compared with the nuclear-DNA distances thus far established. These sequences seem to evolve at rather similar rates, the mtDNA rate being barely double that of nuclear DNA.

  5. The oxen gene of Drosophila encodes a homolog of subunit 9 of yeast ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex: evidence for modulation of gene expression in response to mitochondrial activity.

    PubMed

    Frolov, M V; Benevolenskaya, E V; Birchler, J A

    2000-12-01

    A P-element insertion in the oxen gene, ox(1), has been isolated in a search for modifiers of white gene expression. The mutation preferentially exerts a negative dosage effect upon the expression of three genes encoding ABC transporters involved in pigment precursor transport, white, brown, and scarlet. A precise excision of the P element reverts the mutant phenotype. Five different transcription units were identified around the insertion site. To distinguish a transcript responsible for the mutant phenotype, a set of deletions within the oxen region was generated. Analysis of gene expression within the oxen region in the case of deletions as well as generation of transgenic flies allowed us to identify the transcript responsible for oxen function. It encodes a 6.6-kD homolog of mitochondrial ubiquinol cytochrome c oxidoreductase (QCR9), subunit 9 of the bc(1) complex in yeast. In addition to white, brown, and scarlet, oxen regulates the expression of three of seven tested genes. Thus, our data provide additional evidence for a cellular response to changes in mitochondrial function. The oxen mutation provides a model for the genetic analysis in multicellular organisms of the effect of mitochondrial activity on nuclear gene expression. PMID:11102369

  6. Drosophila RNase Z processes mitochondrial and nuclear pre-tRNA 3′ ends in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovsky, Edward B.; Dubrovskaya, Veronica A.; Levinger, Louis; Schiffer, Steffen; Marchfelder, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Although correct tRNA 3′ ends are crucial for protein biosynthesis, generation of mature tRNA 3′ ends in eukaryotes is poorly understood and has so far only been investigated in vitro. We report here for the first time that eukaryotic tRNA 3′ end maturation is catalysed by the endonuclease RNase Z in vivo. Silencing of the JhI-1 gene (RNase Z homolog) in vivo with RNAi in Drosophila S2 cultured cells causes accumulation of nuclear and mitochondrial pre-tRNAs, suggesting that JhI-1 encodes both forms of the tRNA 3′ endonuclease RNase Z, and establishing its biological role in endonucleolytic tRNA 3′ end processing. In addition our data show that in vivo 5′ processing of nuclear and mitochondrial pre-tRNAs occurs before 3′ processing. PMID:14715923

  7. The Congested-like Tracheae Gene of Drosophila Melanogaster Encodes a Member of the Mitochondrial Carrier Family Required for Gas-Filling of the Tracheal System and Expansion of the Wings after Eclosion

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, K.; Sinha, P.; Mishra, A.; Schenkel, H.; Torok, I.; Mechler, B. M.

    1997-01-01

    A recessive semi-lethal mutation resulting from the insertion of a P-lacW transposon at the cytological position 23A on the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster was found to affect the unfolding and expansion of the wings resulting in a loss of venation and a marked decrease in their size. Lethality was polyphasic with numerous animals dying during early larval development and displaying apparently collapsed tracheal trees. The gene was therefore designated as congested-like tracheae, or colt. The colt mutation resulted from the insertion of a P-lacW transposon within the coding region of a 1.4-kb transcript. Wild-type function was restored by inducing a precise excision of the P-lacW transposon, while a deletion of the colt locus, produced by imprecise excision of the P element, showed a phenotype similar to that of the original P insert. The colt gene consists of a single exon and encodes a protein of 306 amino acids made of three tandem repeats, each characterized by two predicted transmembrane segments and a loop domain. The COLT protein shares extensive homology with proteins in the mitochondrial carrier family and particularly with the DIF-1 protein of Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been shown to be maternally required for embryonic tissue differentiation. Our analysis revealed that zygotic colt function is dispensable for normal embryonic morphogenesis but is required for gas-filling of the tracheal system at hatching time of the embryo and for normal epithelial morphogenesis of the wings. PMID:9409834

  8. Dissociation of mitochondrial from sarcoplasmic reticular stress in Drosophila cardiomyopathy induced by molecularly distinct mitochondrial fusion defects

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Poonam; Song, Moshi; Dorn, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamism (fusion and fission) is responsible for remodeling interconnected mitochondrial networks in some cell types. Adult cardiac myocytes lack mitochondrial networks, and their mitochondria are inherently “fragmented”. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is so infrequent in cardiomyocytes as to not be observable under normal conditions, suggesting that mitochondrial dynamism may be dispensable in this cell type. However, we previously observed that cardiomyocyte-specific genetic suppression of mitochondrial fusion factors optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) and mitofusin/MARF evokes cardiomyopathy in Drosophila hearts. We posited that fusion-mediated remodeling of mitochondria may be critical for cardiac homeostasis, although never directly observed. Alternately, we considered that inner membrane Opa1 and outer membrane mitofusin/MARF might have other as-yet poorly described roles that affect mitochondrial and cardiac function. Here we compared heart tube function in three models of mitochondrial fragmentation in Drosophila cardiomyocytes: Drp1 expression, Opa1 RNAi, and mitofusin MARF RNA1. Mitochondrial fragmentation evoked by enhanced Drp1-mediated fission did not adversely impact heart tube function. In contrast, RNAi-mediated suppression of either Opa1 or mitofusin/MARF induced cardiac dysfunction associated with mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production. Inhibiting ROS by overexpressing superoxide dismutase (SOD) or suppressing ROMO1 prevented mitochondrial and heart tube dysfunction provoked by Opa1 RNAi, but not by mitofusin/MARF RNAi. In contrast, enhancing the ability of endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum to handle stress by expressing Xbp1 rescued the cardiomyopathy of mitofusin/MARF insufficiency without improving that caused by Opa1 deficiency. We conclude that decreased mitochondrial size is not inherently detrimental to cardiomyocytes. Rather, preservation of mitochondrial function by Opa1 located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and

  9. Drosophila mitoferrin is essential for male fertility: evidence for a role of mitochondrial iron metabolism during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mammals and Drosophila melanogaster share some striking similarities in spermatogenesis. Mitochondria in spermatids undergo dramatic morphological changes and syncytial spermatids are stripped from their cytoplasm and then individually wrapped by single membranes in an individualization process. In mammalian and fruit fly testis, components of the mitochondrial iron metabolism are expressed, but so far their function during spermatogenesis is unknown. Here we investigate the role of Drosophila mitoferrin (dmfrn), which is a mitochondrial carrier protein with an established role in the mitochondrial iron metabolism, during spermatogenesis. Results We found that P-element insertions into the 5'-untranslated region of the dmfrn gene cause recessive male sterility, which was rescued by a fluorescently tagged transgenic dmfrn genomic construct (dmfrnvenus). Testes of mutant homozygous dmfrnSH115 flies were either small with unorganized content or contained some partially elongated spermatids, or testes were of normal size but lacked mature sperm. Testis squashes indicated that spermatid elongation was defective and electron micrographs showed mitochondrial defects in elongated spermatids and indicated failed individualization. Using a LacZ reporter and the dmfrnvenus transgene, we found that dmfrn expression in testes was highest in spermatids, coinciding with the stages that showed defects in the mutants. Dmfrn-venus protein accumulated in mitochondrial derivatives of spermatids, where it remained until most of it was stripped off during individualization and disposed of in waste bags. Male sterility in flies with the hypomorph alleles dmfrnBG00456 and dmfrnEY01302 over the deletion Df(3R)ED6277 was increased by dietary iron chelation and suppressed by iron supplementation of the food, while male sterility of dmfrnSH115/Df(3R)ED6277 flies was not affected by food iron levels. Conclusions In this work, we show that mutations in the Drosophila mitoferrin gene

  10. Gene family evolution across 12 Drosophila genomes.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Matthew W; Han, Mira V; Han, Sang-Gook

    2007-11-01

    Comparison of whole genomes has revealed large and frequent changes in the size of gene families. These changes occur because of high rates of both gene gain (via duplication) and loss (via deletion or pseudogenization), as well as the evolution of entirely new genes. Here we use the genomes of 12 fully sequenced Drosophila species to study the gain and loss of genes at unprecedented resolution. We find large numbers of both gains and losses, with over 40% of all gene families differing in size among the Drosophila. Approximately 17 genes are estimated to be duplicated and fixed in a genome every million years, a rate on par with that previously found in both yeast and mammals. We find many instances of extreme expansions or contractions in the size of gene families, including the expansion of several sex- and spermatogenesis-related families in D. melanogaster that also evolve under positive selection at the nucleotide level. Newly evolved gene families in our dataset are associated with a class of testes-expressed genes known to have evolved de novo in a number of cases. Gene family comparisons also allow us to identify a number of annotated D. melanogaster genes that are unlikely to encode functional proteins, as well as to identify dozens of previously unannotated D. melanogaster genes with conserved homologs in the other Drosophila. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the apparent stasis in total gene number among species has masked rapid turnover in individual gene gain and loss. It is likely that this genomic revolving door has played a large role in shaping the morphological, physiological, and metabolic differences among species.

  11. A novel Drosophila mitochondrial carrier protein acts as a Mg(2+) exporter in fine-tuning mitochondrial Mg(2+) homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yixian; Zhao, Shanke; Wang, Xudong; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The homeostasis of magnesium (Mg(2+)), an abundant divalent cation indispensable for many biological processes including mitochondrial functions, is underexplored. In yeast, the mitochondrial Mg(2+) homeostasis is accurately controlled through the combined effects of importers, Mrs2 and Lpe10, and an exporter, Mme1. However, little is known about this Mg(2+) homeostatic process in multicellular organisms. Here, we identified the first mitochondrial Mg(2+) transporter in Drosophila, the orthologue of yeast Mme1, dMme1, by homologous comparison and functional complementation. dMme1 can mediate the exportation of mitochondrial Mg(2+) when heterologously expressed in yeast. Altering the expression of dMme1, although only resulting in about a 10% change in mitochondrial Mg(2+) levels in either direction, led to a significant survival reduction in Drosophila. Furthermore, the reduced survival resulting from dMme1 expression changes could be completely rescued by feeding the dMME1-RNAi flies Mg(2+)-restricted food or the dMME1-over-expressing flies the Mg(2+)-supplemented diet. Our studies therefore identified the first Drosophila mitochondrial Mg(2+) exporter, which is involved in the precise control of mitochondrial Mg(2+) homeostasis to ensure an optimal state for survival.

  12. Mitochondrial fusion is regulated by Reaper to modulate Drosophila programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Thomenius, M; Freel, C D; Horn, S; Krieser, R; Abdelwahid, E; Cannon, R; Balasundaram, S; White, K; Kornbluth, S

    2011-01-01

    In most multicellular organisms, the decision to undergo programmed cell death in response to cellular damage or developmental cues is typically transmitted through mitochondria. It has been suggested that an exception is the apoptotic pathway of Drosophila melanogaster, in which the role of mitochondria remains unclear. Although IAP antagonists in Drosophila such as Reaper, Hid and Grim may induce cell death without mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, it is surprising that all three localize to mitochondria. Moreover, induction of Reaper and Hid appears to result in mitochondrial fragmentation during Drosophila cell death. Most importantly, disruption of mitochondrial fission can inhibit Reaper and Hid-induced cell death, suggesting that alterations in mitochondrial dynamics can modulate cell death in fly cells. We report here that Drosophila Reaper can induce mitochondrial fragmentation by binding to and inhibiting the pro-fusion protein MFN2 and its Drosophila counterpart dMFN/Marf. Our in vitro and in vivo analyses reveal that dMFN overexpression can inhibit cell death induced by Reaper or γ-irradiation. In addition, knockdown of dMFN causes a striking loss of adult wing tissue and significant apoptosis in the developing wing discs. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of work describing a role for mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery in the decision of cells to die. PMID:21475305

  13. Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA: completion of the nucleotide sequence and evolutionary comparisons.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D L; Farr, C L; Kaguni, L S

    1995-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the regions flanking the A+T region of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been determined. Included are the genes encoding the transfer RNAs for valine, isoleucine, glutamine and methionine, the small ribosomal RNA and the 5'-coding sequences of the large ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit II. This completes the nucleotide sequence of the D. melanogaster mitochondrial genome. The circular mtDNA of D. melanogaster varies in size among different populations largely due to length differences in the control region (Fauron & Wolstenholme, 1976; Fauron & Wolstenholme, 1980a, b); the mtDNA region we have sequenced, combined with those sequenced by others, yields a composite genome that is 19,517 bp in length as compared to 16,019 bp for the mtDNA of D. yakuba. D. melanogaster mtDNA exhibits an extreme bias in base composition; it comprises 82.2% deoxyadenylate and thymidylate residues as compared to 78.6% in D. yakuba mtDNA. All genes encoded in the mtDNA of both species are in identical locations and orientations. Nucleotide substitution analysis reveals that tRNA and rRNA genes evolve at less than half the rate of protein coding genes.

  14. The 5S genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Artavanis-Tsakonas, S; Schedl, P; Tschudi, C; Pirrotta, V; Steward, R; Gehring, W J

    1977-12-01

    We have cloned embryonic Drosophila DNA using the poly (dA-DT) connector method (Lobban and Kaiser, 1973) and the ampicillin-resistant plasmid pSF2124 (So, Gill and Falkow, 1975) as a cloning vehicle. Two clones, containing hybrid plasmids with sequences complementary to a 5S RNA probe isolated from Drosophila tissue culture cells, were identified by the Grunstein and Hogness (1975) colony hybridization procedure. One hybrid plasmid has a Drosophila insert which is comprised solely of tandem repeats of the 5S gene plus spacer sequences. The other plasmid contains an insert which has about 20 tandem 5S repeat units plus an additional 4 kilobases of adjacent sequences. The size of the 5S repeat unit was determined by gel electrophoresis and was found to be approximately 375 base pairs. We present a restriction map of both plasmids, and a detailed map of of the5S repeat unit. The 5S repat unit shows slight length and sequence heterogeneity. We present evidence suggesting that the 5S genes in Drosophila melanogaster may be arranged in a single continuous cluster. PMID:413625

  15. Imprinted control of gene activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Golic, K G; Golic, M M; Pimpinelli, S

    1998-11-19

    Genetic imprinting is defined as a reversible, differential marking of genes or chromosomes that is determined by the sex of the parent from whom the genetic material is inherited [1]. Imprinting was first observed in insects where, in some species, most notably among the coccoids (scale insects and allies), the differential marking of paternally and maternally transmitted chromosome sets leads to inactivation or elimination of paternal chromosomes [2]. Imprinting is also widespread in plants and mammals [3,4], in which paternally and maternally inherited alleles may be differentially expressed. Despite imprinting having been discovered in insects, clear examples of parental imprinting are scarce in the model insect species Drosophila melanogaster. We describe a case of imprint-mediated control of gene expression in Drosophila. The imprinted gene - the white+ eye-color gene - is expressed at a low level when transmitted by males, and at a high level when transmitted by females. Thus, in common with coccoids, Drosophila is capable of generating an imprint, and can respond to that imprint by silencing the paternal allele. PMID:9822579

  16. Neofunctionalization of young duplicate genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Assis, Raquel; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-10-22

    Gene duplication is a key source of genetic innovation that plays a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity. Although several evolutionary processes can result in the long-term retention of duplicate genes, their relative contributions in nature are unknown. Here we develop a phylogenetic approach for comparing genome-wide expression profiles of closely related species to quantify the roles of conservation, neofunctionalization, subfunctionalization, and specialization in the preservation of duplicate genes. Application of our method to pairs of young duplicates in Drosophila shows that neofunctionalization, the gain of a novel function in one copy, accounts for the retention of almost two-thirds of duplicate genes. Surprisingly, novel functions nearly always originate in younger (child) copies, whereas older (parent) copies possess functions similar to those of ancestral genes. Further examination of such pairs reveals a strong bias toward RNA-mediated duplication events, implicating asymmetric duplication and positive selection in the evolution of new functions. Moreover, we show that young duplicate genes are expressed primarily in testes and that their expression breadth increases over evolutionary time. This finding supports the "out-of-testes" hypothesis, which posits that testes are a catalyst for the emergence of new genes that ultimately evolve functions in other tissues. Thus, our study highlights the importance of neofunctionalization and positive selection in the retention of young duplicates in Drosophila and illustrates how duplicates become incorporated into novel functional networks over evolutionary time.

  17. New genes in Drosophila quickly become essential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sidi; Zhang, Yong E; Long, Manyuan

    2010-12-17

    To investigate the origin and evolution of essential genes, we identified and phenotyped 195 young protein-coding genes, which originated 3 to 35 million years ago in Drosophila. Knocking down expression with RNA interference showed that 30% of newly arisen genes are essential for viability. The proportion of genes that are essential is similar in every evolutionary age group that we examined. Under constitutive silencing of these young essential genes, lethality was high in the pupal stage and also found in the larval stages. Lethality was attributed to diverse cellular and developmental defects, such as organ formation and patterning defects. These data suggest that new genes frequently and rapidly evolve essential functions and participate in development.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence in the Melanogaster and oriental species subgroups of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nigro, L; Solignac, M; Sharp, P M

    1991-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a segment of the mitochondrial DNA from three Drosophila species (D. erecta, D. eugracilis, and D. takahashii), belonging to different subgroups of the melanogaster group has been determined. The segment encompasses three complete tRNA genes (tRNAtrp, tRNAcys, and tRNAtyr) and portions of two protein-coding genes: the subunit 2 of the NADH dehydrogenase (ND2) and the subunit 1 of the cytochrome oxidase (COI). Comparisons also involve homologous sequences already known for four other Drosophila species of the melanogaster group. Length differences were confined in the intergenic region where a long stretch of AT repeats was observed in one of the species analyzed. The three tRNA genes exhibit very different evolutionary rates, the most slowly evolving one, tRNAtyr, is adjacent to the 5' end of COI; tRNAs in similar positions have been previously shown to evolve slowly because they are probably involved in transcript processing. Although the rate of synonymous substitutions was very similar between ND2 and COI genes there were strong discrepancies between them in terms of the number of nonsynonymous substitutions. Differences have also been found in G + C content of the genes, which are likely to be linked to different selective pressures. There is a reduction in G + C content in the region where selective constraints are reduced. This suggests the existence of different levels of constraints along the sequenced segment. An overall analysis of the types of substitutions showed a decrease in A + T content during the course of evolution of the species.

  19. Mitochondrial-Nuclear Interactions Mediate Sex-Specific Transcriptional Profiles in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Jim A.; Tross, Jennifer G.; Li, Nan; Wu, Zhijin; Rand, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The assembly and function of mitochondria require coordinated expression from two distinct genomes, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in either genome can be a source of phenotypic variation, yet their coexpression has been largely overlooked as a source of variation, particularly in the emerging paradigm of mitochondrial replacement therapy. Here we tested how the transcriptome responds to mtDNA and nDNA variation, along with mitonuclear interactions (mtDNA × nDNA) in Drosophila melanogaster. We used two mtDNA haplotypes that differ in a substantial number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, with >100 amino acid differences. We placed each haplotype on each of two D. melanogaster nuclear backgrounds and tested for transcription differences in both sexes. We found that large numbers of transcripts were differentially expressed between nuclear backgrounds, and that mtDNA type altered the expression of nDNA genes, suggesting a retrograde, trans effect of mitochondrial genotype. Females were generally more sensitive to genetic perturbation than males, and males demonstrated an asymmetrical effect of mtDNA in each nuclear background; mtDNA effects were nuclear-background specific. mtDNA-sensitive genes were not enriched in male- or female-limited expression space in either sex. Using a variety of differential expression analyses, we show the responses to mitonuclear covariation to be substantially different between the sexes, yet the mtDNA genes were consistently differentially expressed across nuclear backgrounds and sexes. Our results provide evidence that the main mtDNA effects can be consistent across nuclear backgrounds, but the interactions between mtDNA and nDNA can lead to sex-specific global transcript responses. PMID:27558138

  20. Genie—Gene Finding in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Martin G.; Kulp, David; Tammana, Hari; Haussler, David

    2000-01-01

    A hidden Markov model-based gene-finding system called Genie was applied to the genomic Adh region in Drosophila melanogaster as a part of the Genome Annotation Assessment Project (GASP). Predictions from three versions of the Genie gene-finding system were submitted, one based on statistical properties of coding genes, a second included EST alignment information, and a third that integrated protein sequence homology information. All three programs were trained on the provided Drosophila training data. In addition, promoter assignments from an integrated neural network were submitted. The gene assignments overlapped >90% of the 222 annotated genes and 26 possibly novel genes were predicted, of which some might be overpredictions. The system correctly identified the exon boundaries of 70% of the exons in cDNA-confirmed genes and 77% of the exons with the addition of EST sequence alignments. The best of the three Genie submissions predicted 19 of the annotated 43 gene structures entirely correct (44%). In the promoter category, only 30% of the transcription start sites could be detected, but by integrating this program as a sensor into Genie the false-positive rate could be dropped to 1/16,786 (0.006%). The results of the experiment on the long contiguous genomic sequence revealed some problems concerning gene assembly in Genie. The results were used to improve the system. We show that Genie is a robust hidden Markov model system that allows for a generalized integration of information from different sources such as signal sensors (splice sites, start codon, etc.), content sensors (exons, introns, intergenic) and alignments of mRNA, EST, and peptide sequences. The assessment showed that Genie could effectively be used for the annotation of complete genomes from higher organisms. PMID:10779493

  1. Comparison of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) nuclear genes in the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Tripoli, Gaetano; D'Elia, Domenica; Barsanti, Paolo; Caggese, Corrado

    2005-01-01

    Background In eukaryotic cells, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) uses the products of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes to generate cellular ATP. Interspecies comparative analysis of these genes, which appear to be under strong functional constraints, may shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms that act on a set of genes correlated by function and subcellular localization of their products. Results We have identified and annotated the Drosophila melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae orthologs of 78 nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation by a comparative analysis of their genomic sequences and organization. We have also identified 47 genes in these three dipteran species each of which shares significant sequence homology with one of the above-mentioned OXPHOS orthologs, and which are likely to have originated by duplication during evolution. Gene structure and intron length are essentially conserved in the three species, although gain or loss of introns is common in A. gambiae. In most tissues of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae the expression level of the duplicate gene is much lower than that of the original gene, and in D. melanogaster at least, its expression is almost always strongly testis-biased, in contrast to the soma-biased expression of the parent gene. Conclusions Quickly achieving an expression pattern different from the parent genes may be required for new OXPHOS gene duplicates to be maintained in the genome. This may be a general evolutionary mechanism for originating phenotypic changes that could lead to species differentiation. PMID:15693940

  2. Optogenetic Control of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yick-Bun; Alekseyenko, Olga V.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    To study the molecular mechanism of complex biological systems, it is important to be able to artificially manipulate gene expression in desired target sites with high precision. Based on the light dependent binding of cryptochrome 2 and a cryptochrome interacting bHLH protein, we developed a split lexA transcriptional activation system for use in Drosophila that allows regulation of gene expression in vivo using blue light or two-photon excitation. We show that this system offers high spatiotemporal resolution by inducing gene expression in tissues at various developmental stages. In combination with two-photon excitation, gene expression can be manipulated at precise sites in embryos, potentially offering an important tool with which to examine developmental processes. PMID:26383635

  3. Tissue-Specific Expression Phenotypes of Hawaiian Drosophila Adh Genes in Drosophila Melanogaster Transformants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C. Y.; Mote-Jr., J.; Brennan, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Interspecific differences in the tissue-specific patterns of expression displayed by the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes within the Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila represent a rich source of evolutionary variation in gene regulation. Study of the cis-acting elements responsible for regulatory differences between Adh genes from various species is greatly facilitated by analyzing the behavior of the different Adh genes in a homogeneous background. Accordingly, the Adh gene from Drosophila grimshawi was introduced into the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster by means of P element-mediated transformation, and transformants carrying this gene were compared to transformants carrying the Adh genes from Drosophila affinidisjuncta and Drosophila hawaiiensis. The results indicate that the D. affinidisjuncta and D. grimshawi genes have relatively higher levels of expression and broader tissue distribution of expression than the D. hawaiiensis gene in larvae. All three genes are expressed at similar overall levels in adults, with differences in tissue distribution of enzyme activity corresponding to the pattern in the donor species. However, certain systematic differences between Adh gene expression in transformants and in the Hawaiian Drosophila are noted along with tissue-specific position effects in some cases. The implications of these findings for the understanding of evolved regulatory variation are discussed. PMID:2165967

  4. Molecular Evolution of Drosophila Metallothionein Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lange, B. W.; Langley, C. H.; Stephan, W.

    1990-01-01

    The metallothionein genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Mtn and Mto, may play an important role in heavy metal detoxification. Several different tandem duplications of Mtn have been shown to increase cadmium and copper tolerance, as well as Mtn expression. In order to investigate the possibility of increased selection for duplications of these genes in natural populations exposed to high levels of heavy metals, we compared the frequencies of such duplications among flies collected from metal-contaminated and non-contaminated orchards in Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Georgia. Restriction enzyme analysis was used to screen 1666 wild third chromosomes for Mtn duplications and a subset (327) of these lines for Mto duplications. The frequency of pooled Mtn duplications found ranged from 0% to 20%, and was not significantly higher at the contaminated sites. No Mto duplications were identified. Estimates of sequence diversity at the Mtn locus among a subsample (92) of the duplication survey were obtained using four-cutter analysis. This analysis revealed a low level of polymorphism, consistent with both selection at the Mtn locus, and a fairly recent origin for the duplications. To further examine this hypothesis, we sequenced an Mtn allele of Drosophila simulans and measured the amount of nucleotide sequence divergence between D. simulans and its sibling species D. melanogaster. The levels of silent nucleotide polymorphism and divergence in the Mtn region were compared with those in the Adh region, using the neutrality test of R. R. Hudson, M. Kreitman and M. Aguade. PMID:1981765

  5. A novel, tissue-specific, Drosophila homeobox gene.

    PubMed Central

    Barad, M; Jack, T; Chadwick, R; McGinnis, W

    1988-01-01

    The homeobox gene family of Drosophila appears to control a variety of position-specific patterning decisions during embryonic and imaginal development. Most of these patterning decisions determine groups of cells on the anterior-posterior axis of the Drosophila germ band. We have isolated a novel homeobox gene from Drosophila, designated H2.0. H2.0 has the most diverged homeobox so far characterized in metazoa, and, in contrast to all previously isolated homeobox genes, H2.0 exhibits a tissue-specific pattern of expression. The cells that accumulate transcripts for this novel gene correspond to the visceral musculature and its anlagen. Images PMID:2901348

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and its Consequences for Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    How mitochondria process DNA damage and whether a change in the steady-state level of mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction are questions that fuel burgeoning areas of research into aging and disease pathogenesis. Over the past decade, researchers have identified and measured various forms of endogenous and environmental mtDNA damage and have elucidated mtDNA repair pathways. Interestingly, mitochondria do not appear to contain the full range of DNA repair mechanisms that operate in the nucleus, although mtDNA contains types of damage that are targets of each nuclear DNA repair pathway. The reduced repair capacity may, in part, explain the high mutation frequency of the mitochondrial chromosome. Since mtDNA replication is dependent on transcription, mtDNA damage may alter mitochondrial gene expression at three levels: by causing DNA polymerase γ nucleotide incorporation errors leading to mutations, by interfering with the priming of mtDNA replication by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, or by inducing transcriptional mutagenesis or premature transcript termination. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA damage, its repair, and its effects on mtDNA integrity and gene expression. PMID:22728831

  7. Functional requirements driving the gene duplication in 12 Drosophila species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene duplication supplies the raw materials for novel gene functions and many gene families arisen from duplication experience adaptive evolution. Most studies of young duplicates have focused on mammals, especially humans, whereas reports describing their genome-wide evolutionary patterns across the closely related Drosophila species are rare. The sequenced 12 Drosophila genomes provide the opportunity to address this issue. Results In our study, 3,647 young duplicate gene families were identified across the 12 Drosophila species and three types of expansions, species-specific, lineage-specific and complex expansions, were detected in these gene families. Our data showed that the species-specific young duplicate genes predominated (86.6%) over the other two types. Interestingly, many independent species-specific expansions in the same gene family have been observed in many species, even including 11 or 12 Drosophila species. Our data also showed that the functional bias observed in these young duplicate genes was mainly related to responses to environmental stimuli and biotic stresses. Conclusions This study reveals the evolutionary patterns of young duplicates across 12 Drosophila species on a genomic scale. Our results suggest that convergent evolution acts on young duplicate genes after the species differentiation and adaptive evolution may play an important role in duplicate genes for adaption to ecological factors and environmental changes in Drosophila. PMID:23945147

  8. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aditya; Kalvakuri, Sreehari; Bodmer, Rolf; Cox, Rachel T

    2015-06-01

    Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin (Park), either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu), a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control.

  9. The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes.

    PubMed Central

    Spradling, A C; Stern, D; Beaton, A; Rhem, E J; Laverty, T; Mozden, N; Misra, S; Rubin, G M

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental goal of genetics and functional genomics is to identify and mutate every gene in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster. The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) gene disruption project generates single P-element insertion strains that each mutate unique genomic open reading frames. Such strains strongly facilitate further genetic and molecular studies of the disrupted loci, but it has remained unclear if P elements can be used to mutate all Drosophila genes. We now report that the primary collection has grown to contain 1045 strains that disrupt more than 25% of the estimated 3600 Drosophila genes that are essential for adult viability. Of these P insertions, 67% have been verified by genetic tests to cause the associated recessive mutant phenotypes, and the validity of most of the remaining lines is predicted on statistical grounds. Sequences flanking >920 insertions have been determined to exactly position them in the genome and to identify 376 potentially affected transcripts from collections of EST sequences. Strains in the BDGP collection are available from the Bloomington Stock Center and have already assisted the research community in characterizing >250 Drosophila genes. The likely identity of 131 additional genes in the collection is reported here. Our results show that Drosophila genes have a wide range of sensitivity to inactivation by P elements, and provide a rationale for greatly expanding the BDGP primary collection based entirely on insertion site sequencing. We predict that this approach can bring >85% of all Drosophila open reading frames under experimental control. PMID:10471706

  10. Quantitative Evaluation of the Mitochondrial Proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster Adapted to Extreme Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Songyue; Xue, Jin; Sun, Haidan; Wen, Bo; Wang, Quanhui; Perkins, Guy; Zhao, Huiwen W.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Hsiao, Yu-hsin; Yin, Liang; Xie, Yingying; Hou, Guixue; Zi, Jin; Lin, Liang; Haddad, Gabriel G.; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively), examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional) in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells. PMID:24069262

  11. A screen for fast evolving genes from Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Schmid, K J; Tautz, D

    1997-09-01

    In an attempt to quantify the rates of protein sequence divergence in Drosophila, we have devised a screen to differentiate between slow and fast evolving genes. We find that over one-third of randomly drawn cDNAs from a Drosophila melanogaster library do not cross-hybridize with Drosophila virilis DNA, indicating that they evolve with a very high rate. To determine the evolutionary characteristics of such protein sequences, we sequenced their homologs from a more closely related species (Drosophila yakuba). The amino acid substitution rates among these cDNAs are among the fastest known and several are only about 2-fold lower than the corresponding values for silent substitutions. An analysis of within-species polymorphisms for one of these sequences reveals an exceptionally high number of polymorphic amino acid positions, indicating that the protein is not under strong negative selection. We conclude that the Drosophila genome harbors a substantial proportion of genes with a very high divergence rate.

  12. Evolution of mitochondrial gene order in Annelida.

    PubMed

    Weigert, Anne; Golombek, Anja; Gerth, Michael; Schwarz, Francine; Struck, Torsten H; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Annelida is a highly diverse animal group with over 21,000 described species. As part of Lophotrochozoa, the vast majority of annelids are currently classified into two groups: Errantia and Sedentaria, together forming Pleistoannelida. Besides these taxa, Sipuncula, Amphinomidae, Chaetopteridae, Oweniidae and Magelonidae can be found branching at the base of the tree. Comparisons of mitochondrial genomes have been used to investigate phylogenetic relationship within animal taxa. Complete annelid mitochondrial genomes are available for some Sedentaria and Errantia and in most cases exhibit a highly conserved gene order. Only two complete genomes have been published from the basal branching lineages and these are restricted to Sipuncula. We describe the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences for all other basal branching annelid families: Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae), Magelona mirabilis (Magelonidae), Eurythoe complanata (Amphinomidae), Chaetopterus variopedatus and Phyllochaetopterus sp. (Chaetopteridae). The mitochondrial gene order of all these taxa is substantially different from the pattern found in Pleistoannelida. Additionally, we report the first mitochondrial genomes in Annelida that encode genes on both strands. Our findings demonstrate that the supposedly highly conserved mitochondrial gene order suggested for Annelida is restricted to Pleistoannelida, representing the ground pattern of this group. All investigated basal branching annelid taxa show a completely different arrangement of genes than observed in Pleistoannelida. The gene order of protein coding and ribosomal genes in Magelona mirabilis differs only in two transposition events from a putative lophotrochozoan ground pattern and might be the closest to an ancestral annelid pattern. The mitochondrial genomes of Myzostomida show the conserved pattern of Pleistoannelida, thereby supporting their inclusion in this taxon.

  13. Gene Expression During the Life Cycle of Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeitman, Michelle N.; Furlong, Eileen E. M.; Imam, Farhad; Johnson, Eric; Null, Brian H.; Baker, Bruce S.; Krasnow, Mark A.; Scott, Matthew P.; Davis, Ronald W.; White, Kevin P.

    2002-09-01

    Molecular genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster have led to profound advances in understanding the regulation of development. Here we report gene expression patterns for nearly one-third of all Drosophila genes during a complete time course of development. Mutations that eliminate eye or germline tissue were used to further analyze tissue-specific gene expression programs. These studies define major characteristics of the transcriptional programs that underlie the life cycle, compare development in males and females, and show that large-scale gene expression data collected from whole animals can be used to identify genes expressed in particular tissues and organs or genes involved in specific biological and biochemical processes.

  14. Characterization of the mus308 gene in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, E.A.; Henderson, D.S.; Rinehart, J.E.; Boyd, J.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Among the available mutagen-sensitive mutations in Drosophila, those at the mus3O8 locus are unique in conferring hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents but not to monofunctional agents. Those mutations are also associated with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations, altered DNA metabolism and the modification of a deoxyribonuclease. This spectrum of phenotypes is shared with selected mammalian mutations including Fanconi anemia in humans. In anticipation of the molecular characterization of the mus3O8 gene, it has been localized cytogenetically to 87C9-87D1,2 on the right arm of chromosome three. Nine new mutant alleles of the gene have been generated by X-ray mutagenesis and one was recovered following hybrid dysgenesis. Characterization of these new alleles has uncovered additional phenotypes of mutations at this locus. Homozygous mus3O8 flies that have survived moderate mutagen treatment exhibit an altered wing position that is correlated with reduced flight ability and an altered mitochondrial morphology. In addition, observations of elevated embryo mortality are potentially explained by an aberrant distribution of nuclear material in early embryos which is similar to that seen in the mutant giant nuclei.

  15. Characterization of the Mus308 Gene in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, E. A.; Henderson, D. S.; Rinehart, J. E.; Boyd, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Among the available mutagen-sensitive mutations in Drosophila, those at the mus308 locus are unique in conferring hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents but not to monofunctional agents. Those mutations are also associated with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations, altered DNA metabolism and the modification of a deoxyribonuclease. This spectrum of phenotypes is shared with selected mammalian mutations including Fanconi anemia in humans. In anticipation of the molecular characterization of the mus308 gene, it has been localized cytogenetically to 87C9-87D1,2 on the right arm of chromosome three. Nine new mutant alleles of the gene have been generated by X-ray mutagenesis and one was recovered following hybrid dysgenesis. Characterization of these new alleles has uncovered additional phenotypes of mutations at this locus. Homozygous mus308 flies that have survived moderate mutagen treatment exhibit an altered wing position that is correlated with reduced flight ability and an altered mitochondrial morphology. In addition, observations of elevated embryo mortality are potentially explained by an aberrant distribution of nuclear material in early embryos which is similar to that seen in the mutant giant nuclei. PMID:8417992

  16. Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial DNA complete control region in the Drosophila subobscura subgroup.

    PubMed

    Brehm, A; Harris, D J; Hernández, M; Cabrera, V M; Larruga, J M; Pinto, F M; González, A M

    2001-12-01

    The complete A + T-rich region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been cloned and sequenced in the species of the Drosophila subobscura subgroup D. subobscura, D. madeirensis and D. guanche. Comparative analysis of these sequences with others already published has identified new sequence motifs that are conserved in Drosophila and other insects. A putative bi-directional promoter and a stop signal are proposed to be involved in the primary mtDNA strand replication of Drosophila. This region strongly resolves relationships of the species included in a phylogenetic analysis, both for closely related species and also at deeper phylogenetic levels when only the left and central domains are taken into account. PMID:11903626

  17. Evolution of mitochondrial cell death pathway: Proapoptotic role of HtrA2/Omi in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Igaki, Tatsushi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Tokushige, Naoko; Aonuma, Hiroka; Takahashi, Ryosuke . E-mail: ryosuket@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miura, Masayuki . E-mail: miura@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-05-18

    Despite the essential role of mitochondria in a variety of mammalian cell death processes, the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in Drosophila cell death has remained unclear. To address this, we cloned and characterized DmHtrA2, a Drosophila homolog of a mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi. We show that DmHtrA2 normally resides in mitochondria and is up-regulated by UV-irradiation. Upon receipt of apoptotic stimuli, DmHtrA2 is translocated to extramitochondrial compartment; however, unlike its mammalian counterpart, the extramitochondrial DmHtrA2 does not diffuse throughout the cytosol but stays near the mitochondria. RNAi-mediated knock-down of DmHtrA2 in larvae or adult flies results in a resistance to stress stimuli. DmHtrA2 specifically cleaves Drosophila inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), a cellular caspase inhibitor, and induces cell death both in vitro and in vivo as potent as other fly cell death proteins. Our observations suggest that DmHtrA2 promotes cell death through a cleavage of DIAP1 in the vicinity of mitochondria, which may represent a prototype of mitochondrial cell death pathway in evolution.

  18. Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein genes: Selection for duplications

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    The metallothionein genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Mtn and Mto, may play an important role in heavy-metal detoxification. In order to investigate the possibility of increased selection for duplications of these genes in natural populations exposed to high levels of heavy metals, I compared the frequencies of such duplications among flies collected from metal-contaminated and non-contaminated orchards in Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Georgia. Contaminated of collection sites and of local flies was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrosphotometry. Six-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis was used to screen 1666 wild third chromosomes for Mtn duplications. A subset (327) of these lines was screened for Mto duplications: none were found. Cadmium tolerance test performed on F{sub 2} progeny of wild females failed to detect a difference in tolerance levels between flies from contaminated orchards and flies from control orchards. Estimates of sequence diversity among a subsample (92) of the chromosomes used in the duplication survey, including all 27 Mtn duplication chromosomes, were obtained using four-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis.

  19. Mitochondrial Mislocalization Underlies Aβ42-Induced Neuronal Dysfunction in a Drosophila Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Iijima-Ando, Kanae; Hearn, Stephen A.; Shenton, Christopher; Gatt, Anthony; Zhao, LiJuan; Iijima, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms by which Aβ42 induces neuronal dysfunction and degeneration remain elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are implicated in AD brains. Whether mitochondrial dysfunctions are merely a consequence of AD pathology, or are early seminal events in AD pathogenesis remains to be determined. Here, we show that Aβ42 induces mitochondrial mislocalization, which contributes to Aβ42-induced neuronal dysfunction in a transgenic Drosophila model. In the Aβ42 fly brain, mitochondria were reduced in axons and dendrites, and accumulated in the somata without severe mitochondrial damage or neurodegeneration. In contrast, organization of microtubule or global axonal transport was not significantly altered at this stage. Aβ42-induced behavioral defects were exacerbated by genetic reductions in mitochondrial transport, and were modulated by cAMP levels and PKA activity. Levels of putative PKA substrate phosphoproteins were reduced in the Aβ42 fly brains. Importantly, perturbations in mitochondrial transport in neurons were sufficient to disrupt PKA signaling and induce late-onset behavioral deficits, suggesting a mechanism whereby mitochondrial mislocalization contributes to Aβ42-induced neuronal dysfunction. These results demonstrate that mislocalization of mitochondria underlies the pathogenic effects of Aβ42 in vivo. PMID:20016833

  20. New progress in snake mitochondrial gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nian; Zhao, Shujin

    2009-08-01

    To further understand the evolution of snake mitochondrial genomes, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from two snake families: the Many-banded krait, the Banded krait, the Chinese cobra, the King cobra, the Hundred-pace viper, the Short-tailed mamushi, and the Chain viper. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22-23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNAPro gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. These results from the gene rearrangement comparisons confirm the correctness of traditional classification schemes and validate the utility of comparing complete mtDNA sequences for snake phylogeny reconstruction. PMID:19479623

  1. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB

    PubMed Central

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro–Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

  2. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB.

    PubMed

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B; Gorski, Sharon M

    2014-05-26

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro-Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo.

  3. Mitochondrial iron supply is required for the developmental pulse of ecdysone biosynthesis that initiates metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jose V; Metzendorf, Christoph; Missirlis, Fanis; Lind, Maria I

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of ecdysone, the key hormone that signals the termination of larval growth and the initiation of metamorphosis in insects, is carried out in the prothoracic gland by an array of iron-containing cytochrome P450s, encoded by the halloween genes. Interference, either with iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the prothoracic gland or with the ferredoxins that supply electrons for steroidogenesis, causes a block in ecdysone synthesis and developmental arrest in the third instar larval stage. Here we show that mutants in Drosophila mitoferrin (dmfrn), the gene encoding a mitochondrial carrier protein implicated in mitochondrial iron import, fail to grow and initiate metamorphosis under dietary iron depletion or when ferritin function is partially compromised. In mutant dmfrn larvae reared under iron replete conditions, the expression of halloween genes is increased and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the active form of ecdysone, is synthesized. In contrast, addition of an iron chelator to the diet of mutant dmfrn larvae disrupts 20E synthesis. Dietary addition of 20E has little effect on the growth defects, but enables approximately one-third of the iron-deprived dmfrn larvae to successfully turn into pupae and, in a smaller percentage, into adults. This partial rescue is not observed with dietary supply of ecdysone's precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. The findings reported here support the notion that a physiological supply of mitochondrial iron for the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and heme is required in the prothoracic glands of insect larvae for steroidogenesis. Furthermore, mitochondrial iron is also essential for normal larval growth. PMID:26468126

  4. Mitochondrial iron supply is required for the developmental pulse of ecdysone biosynthesis that initiates metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jose V; Metzendorf, Christoph; Missirlis, Fanis; Lind, Maria I

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of ecdysone, the key hormone that signals the termination of larval growth and the initiation of metamorphosis in insects, is carried out in the prothoracic gland by an array of iron-containing cytochrome P450s, encoded by the halloween genes. Interference, either with iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the prothoracic gland or with the ferredoxins that supply electrons for steroidogenesis, causes a block in ecdysone synthesis and developmental arrest in the third instar larval stage. Here we show that mutants in Drosophila mitoferrin (dmfrn), the gene encoding a mitochondrial carrier protein implicated in mitochondrial iron import, fail to grow and initiate metamorphosis under dietary iron depletion or when ferritin function is partially compromised. In mutant dmfrn larvae reared under iron replete conditions, the expression of halloween genes is increased and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the active form of ecdysone, is synthesized. In contrast, addition of an iron chelator to the diet of mutant dmfrn larvae disrupts 20E synthesis. Dietary addition of 20E has little effect on the growth defects, but enables approximately one-third of the iron-deprived dmfrn larvae to successfully turn into pupae and, in a smaller percentage, into adults. This partial rescue is not observed with dietary supply of ecdysone's precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. The findings reported here support the notion that a physiological supply of mitochondrial iron for the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and heme is required in the prothoracic glands of insect larvae for steroidogenesis. Furthermore, mitochondrial iron is also essential for normal larval growth.

  5. Mitochondrial gene arrangement of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L.: conservation of major features among arthropod classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staton, J. L.; Daehler, L. L.; Brown, W. M.; Jacobs, D. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Numerous complete mitochondrial DNA sequences have been determined for species within two arthropod groups, insects and crustaceans, but there are none for a third, the chelicerates. Most mitochondrial gene arrangements reported for crustaceans and insect species are identical or nearly identical to that of Drosophila yakuba. Sequences across 36 of the gene boundaries in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a representative chelicerate. Limulus polyphemus L., also reveal an arrangement like that of Drosophila yakuba. Only the position of the tRNA(LEU)(UUR) gene differs; in Limulus it is between the genes for tRNA(LEU)(CUN) and ND1. This positioning is also found in onychophorans, mollusks, and annelids, but not in insects and crustaceans, and indicates that tRNA(LEU)(CUN)-tRNA(LEU)(UUR)-ND1 was the ancestral gene arrangement for these groups, as suggested earlier. There are no differences in the relative arrangements of protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes between Limulus and Drosophila, and none have been observed within arthropods. The high degree of similarity of mitochondrial gene arrangements within arthropods is striking, since some taxa last shared a common ancestor before the Cambrian, and contrasts with the extensive mtDNA rearrangements occasionally observed within some other metazoan phyla (e.g., mollusks and nematodes).

  6. Gene flow between Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila santomea in subunit V of cytochrome c oxidase: A potential case of cytonuclear cointrogression

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Emily A.; Thompson, Aaron C.; Sharbrough, Joel; Brud, Evgeny; Llopart, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introgression is the effective exchange of genetic information between species through natural hybridization. Previous genetic analyses of the Drosophila yakuba—D. santomea hybrid zone showed that the mitochondrial genome of D. yakuba had introgressed into D. santomea and completely replaced its native form. Since mitochondrial proteins work intimately with nuclear‐encoded proteins in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway, we hypothesized that some nuclear genes in OXPHOS cointrogressed along with the mitochondrial genome. We analyzed nucleotide variation in the 12 nuclear genes that form cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in 33 Drosophila lines. COX is an OXPHOS enzyme composed of both nuclear‐ and mitochondrial‐encoded proteins and shows evidence of cytonuclear coadaptation in some species. Using maximum‐likelihood methods, we detected significant gene flow from D. yakuba to D. santomea for the entire COX complex. Interestingly, the signal of introgression is concentrated in the three nuclear genes composing subunit V, which shows population migration rates significantly greater than the background level of introgression in these species. The detection of introgression in three proteins that work together, interact directly with the mitochondrial‐encoded core, and are critical for early COX assembly suggests this could be a case of cytonuclear cointrogression. PMID:26155926

  7. Paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA as an integral part of mitochondrial inheritance in metapopulations of Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    Wolff, J N; Nafisinia, M; Sutovsky, P; Ballard, J W O

    2013-01-01

    Maternal inheritance is one of the hallmarks of animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and central to its success as a molecular marker. This mode of inheritance and subsequent lack of heterologous recombination allows us to retrace evolutionary relationships unambiguously down the matriline and without the confounding effects of recombinant genetic information. Accumulating evidence of biparental inheritance of mtDNA (paternal leakage), however, challenges our current understanding of how this molecule is inherited. Here, using Drosophila simulans collected from an East African metapopulation exhibiting recurring mitochondrial heteroplasmy, we conducted single fly matings and screened F1 offspring for the presence of paternal mtDNA using allele-specific PCR assays (AS-PCR). In all, 27 out of 4092 offspring were identified as harboring paternal mtDNA, suggesting a frequency of 0.66% paternal leakage in this species. Our findings strongly suggest that recurring mtDNA heteroplasmy as observed in natural populations of Drosophila simulans is most likely caused by repeated paternal leakage. Our findings further suggest that this phenomenon to potentially be an integral part of mtDNA inheritance in these populations and consequently of significance for mtDNA as a molecular marker.

  8. Reducing Lissencephaly-1 levels augments mitochondrial transport and has a protective effect in adult Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Hoffmann, Patrick C.; Bullock, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defective transport of mitochondria in axons is implicated in the pathogenesis of several age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, the regulation and function of axonal mitochondrial motility during normal ageing is poorly understood. Here, we use novel imaging procedures to characterise axonal transport of these organelles in the adult Drosophila wing nerve. During early adult life there is a boost and progressive decline in the proportion of mitochondria that are motile, which is not due to general changes in cargo transport. Experimental inhibition of the mitochondrial transport machinery specifically in adulthood accelerates the appearance of focal protein accumulations in ageing axons, which is suggestive of defects in protein homeostasis. Unexpectedly, lowering levels of Lissencephaly-1 (Lis1), a dynein motor co-factor, augments axonal mitochondrial transport in ageing wing neurons. Lis1 mutations suppress focal protein accumulations in ageing neurons, including those caused by interfering with the mitochondrial transport machinery. Our data provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial motility in adult neurons in vivo, identify Lis1 as a negative regulator of transport of these organelles, and provide evidence of a link between mitochondrial movement and neuronal protein homeostasis. PMID:26598558

  9. Transcript length mediates developmental timing of gene expression across Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Artieri, Carlo G; Fraser, Hunter B

    2014-11-01

    The time required to transcribe genes with long primary transcripts may limit their ability to be expressed in cells with short mitotic cycles, a phenomenon termed intron delay. As such short cycles are a hallmark of the earliest stages of insect development, we tested the impact of intron delay on the Drosophila developmental transcriptome. We find that long zygotically expressed genes show substantial delay in expression relative to their shorter counterparts, which is not observed for maternally deposited transcripts. Patterns of RNA-seq coverage along transcripts show that this delay is consistent with their inability to completely transcribe long transcripts, but not with transcriptional initiation-based regulatory control. We further show that highly expressed zygotic genes maintain compact transcribed regions across the Drosophila phylogeny, allowing conservation of embryonic expression patterns. We propose that the physical constraints of intron delay affect patterns of expression and the evolution of gene structure of a substantial portion of the Drosophila transcriptome.

  10. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2010-01-01

    FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digital library repository software system, EPrints (http://eprints.org/software/), and provides both web-based search and browse interfaces, and programmatic access via an SQL dump, OAI-PMH and SPARQL. FlyTED is available at http://www.fly-ted.org/. PMID:19934263

  11. Fipronil induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathways in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoyan; Xu, Zhiping; Zhang, Yixi; Shao, Xusheng; Xu, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Jiaogao; Li, Zhong

    2015-03-01

    Fipronil is the first phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in controlling pests, including pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. It is generally accepted that fipronil elicits neurotoxicity via interactions with GABA and glutamate receptors, although alternative mechanisms have recently been proposed. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of fipronil and its likely mode of action in Drosophila S2 cells, as an in vitro model. Fipronil administrated the concentration- and time-dependent S2 cell proliferation. Intracellular biochemical assays showed that fipronil-induced S2 cell apoptosis coincided with a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase reactive oxygen species generation, a significant decrease of Bcl-2 and DIAP1, and a marked augmentation of Cyt c and caspase-3. Because caspase-3 is the major executioner caspase downstream of caspase-9 in Drosophila, enzyme activity assays were used to determine the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Our results indicated that fipronil effectively induced apoptosis in Drosophila S2 cells through caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathways.

  12. Genetic mosaic analysis of a deleterious mitochondrial DNA mutation in Drosophila reveals novel aspects of mitochondrial regulation and function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Qi, Yun; French, Stephanie; Zhang, Guofeng; Garcia, Raúl Covian; Balaban, Robert; Xu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Various human diseases are associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, but heteroplasmy—the coexistence of mutant and wild-type mtDNA—complicates their study. We previously isolated a temperature-lethal mtDNA mutation in Drosophila, mt:CoIT300I, which affects the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CoI) locus. In the present study, we found that the decrease in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity was ascribable to a temperature-dependent destabilization of cytochrome a heme. Consistently, the viability of homoplasmic flies at 29°C was fully restored by expressing an alternative oxidase, which specifically bypasses the cytochrome chains. Heteroplasmic flies are fully viable and were used to explore the age-related and tissue-specific phenotypes of mt:CoIT300I. The proportion of mt:CoIT300I genome remained constant in somatic tissues along the aging process, suggesting a lack of quality control mechanism to remove defective mitochondria containing a deleterious mtDNA mutation. Using a genetic scheme that expresses a mitochondrially targeted restriction enzyme to induce tissue-specific homoplasmy in heteroplasmic flies, we found that mt:CoIT300I homoplasmy in the eye caused severe neurodegeneration at 29°C. Degeneration was suppressed by improving mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, suggesting that Ca2+ mishandling contributed to mt:CoIT300I pathogenesis. Our results demonstrate a novel approach for Drosophila mtDNA genetics and its application in modeling mtDNA diseases. PMID:25501370

  13. Cardiomyopathy Is Associated with Ribosomal Protein Gene Haplo-Insufficiency in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Michelle E.; Abraham, Dennis; Kim, Il-Man; Frangakis, Stephan; Dong, Brian; Lin, Na; Wolf, Matthew J.; Rockman, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    The Minute syndrome in Drosophila melanogaster is characterized by delayed development, poor fertility, and short slender bristles. Many Minute loci correspond to disruptions of genes for cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins, and therefore the phenotype has been attributed to alterations in translational processes. Although protein translation is crucial for all cells in an organism, it is unclear why Minute mutations cause effects in specific tissues. To determine whether the heart is sensitive to haplo-insufficiency of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, we measured heart function of Minute mutants using optical coherence tomography. We found that cardiomyopathy is associated with the Minute syndrome caused by haplo-insufficiency of genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. While mutations of genes encoding non-Minute cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins are homozygous lethal, heterozygous deficiencies spanning these non-Minute genes did not cause a change in cardiac function. Deficiencies of genes for non-Minute mitochondrial ribosomal proteins also did not show abnormal cardiac function, with the exception of a heterozygous disruption of mRpS33. We demonstrate that cardiomyopathy is a common trait of the Minute syndrome caused by haplo-insufficiency of genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. In contrast, most cases of heterozygous deficiencies of genes encoding non-Minute ribosomal proteins have normal heart function in adult Drosophila. PMID:21890737

  14. An evolutionary analysis of orphan genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Domazet-Loso, Tomislav; Tautz, Diethard

    2003-10-01

    Orphan genes are protein-coding regions that have no recognizable homolog in distantly related species. A substantial fraction of coding regions in any genome sequenced consists of orphan genes, but the evolutionary and functional significance of orphan genes is not understood. We present a reanalysis of the Drosophila melanogaster proteome that shows that there are still between 26% and 29% of all proteins without a significant match with noninsect sequences, and that these orphans are underrepresented in genetic screens. To analyze the characteristics of orphan genes in Drosophila, we used sequence comparisons between cDNAs retrieved from two Drosophila yakuba libraries and their corresponding D. melanogaster orthologs. We find that a cDNA library from adults yields twice as many orphan genes as such a library from embryos. The orphan genes evolve on average more than three times faster than nonorphan genes, although the width of the evolutionary rate distribution is similar for the two classes. In particular, some orphan genes show very low substitution rates that are comparable to otherwise highly conserved genes. We propose a model suggesting that orphans may be involved in the evolution of adaptive traits, and that slow-evolving orphan genes may be particularly interesting candidate genes for identifying lineage-specific adaptations.

  15. Cardiac gene regulatory networks in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bryantsev, Anton L.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila system has proven a powerful tool to help unlock the regulatory processes that occur during specification and differentiation of the embryonic heart. In this review, we focus upon a temporal analysis of the molecular events that result in heart formation in Drosophila, with a particular emphasis upon how genomic and other cuttingedge approaches are being brought to bear upon the subject. We anticipate that systemslevel approaches will contribute greatly to our comprehension of heart development and disease in the animal kingdom. PMID:18849017

  16. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew G; Eisen, Michael B; Smith, Douglas R; Bergman, Casey M; Oliver, Brian; Markow, Therese A; Kaufman, Thomas C; Kellis, Manolis; Gelbart, William; Iyer, Venky N; Pollard, Daniel A; Sackton, Timothy B; Larracuente, Amanda M; Singh, Nadia D; Abad, Jose P; Abt, Dawn N; Adryan, Boris; Aguade, Montserrat; Akashi, Hiroshi; Anderson, Wyatt W; Aquadro, Charles F; Ardell, David H; Arguello, Roman; Artieri, Carlo G; Barbash, Daniel A; Barker, Daniel; Barsanti, Paolo; Batterham, Phil; Batzoglou, Serafim; Begun, Dave; Bhutkar, Arjun; Blanco, Enrico; Bosak, Stephanie A; Bradley, Robert K; Brand, Adrianne D; Brent, Michael R; Brooks, Angela N; Brown, Randall H; Butlin, Roger K; Caggese, Corrado; Calvi, Brian R; Bernardo de Carvalho, A; Caspi, Anat; Castrezana, Sergio; Celniker, Susan E; Chang, Jean L; Chapple, Charles; Chatterji, Sourav; Chinwalla, Asif; Civetta, Alberto; Clifton, Sandra W; Comeron, Josep M; Costello, James C; Coyne, Jerry A; Daub, Jennifer; David, Robert G; Delcher, Arthur L; Delehaunty, Kim; Do, Chuong B; Ebling, Heather; Edwards, Kevin; Eickbush, Thomas; Evans, Jay D; Filipski, Alan; Findeiss, Sven; Freyhult, Eva; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Garcia, Ana C L; Gardiner, Anastasia; Garfield, David A; Garvin, Barry E; Gibson, Greg; Gilbert, Don; Gnerre, Sante; Godfrey, Jennifer; Good, Robert; Gotea, Valer; Gravely, Brenton; Greenberg, Anthony J; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Gross, Samuel; Guigo, Roderic; Gustafson, Erik A; Haerty, Wilfried; Hahn, Matthew W; Halligan, Daniel L; Halpern, Aaron L; Halter, Gillian M; Han, Mira V; Heger, Andreas; Hillier, LaDeana; Hinrichs, Angie S; Holmes, Ian; Hoskins, Roger A; Hubisz, Melissa J; Hultmark, Dan; Huntley, Melanie A; Jaffe, David B; Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Jeck, William R; Johnson, Justin; Jones, Corbin D; Jordan, William C; Karpen, Gary H; Kataoka, Eiko; Keightley, Peter D; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kirkness, Ewen F; Koerich, Leonardo B; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kudrna, Dave; Kulathinal, Rob J; Kumar, Sudhir; Kwok, Roberta; Lander, Eric; Langley, Charles H; Lapoint, Richard; Lazzaro, Brian P; Lee, So-Jeong; Levesque, Lisa; Li, Ruiqiang; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Lin, Michael F; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Llopart, Ana; Long, Manyuan; Low, Lloyd; Lozovsky, Elena; Lu, Jian; Luo, Meizhong; Machado, Carlos A; Makalowski, Wojciech; Marzo, Mar; Matsuda, Muneo; Matzkin, Luciano; McAllister, Bryant; McBride, Carolyn S; McKernan, Brendan; McKernan, Kevin; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Minx, Patrick; Mollenhauer, Michael U; Montooth, Kristi; Mount, Stephen M; Mu, Xu; Myers, Eugene; Negre, Barbara; Newfeld, Stuart; Nielsen, Rasmus; Noor, Mohamed A F; O'Grady, Patrick; Pachter, Lior; Papaceit, Montserrat; Parisi, Matthew J; Parisi, Michael; Parts, Leopold; Pedersen, Jakob S; Pesole, Graziano; Phillippy, Adam M; Ponting, Chris P; Pop, Mihai; Porcelli, Damiano; Powell, Jeffrey R; Prohaska, Sonja; Pruitt, Kim; Puig, Marta; Quesneville, Hadi; Ram, Kristipati Ravi; Rand, David; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Reed, Laura K; Reenan, Robert; Reily, Amy; Remington, Karin A; Rieger, Tania T; Ritchie, Michael G; Robin, Charles; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Rohde, Claudia; Rozas, Julio; Rubenfield, Marc J; Ruiz, Alfredo; Russo, Susan; Salzberg, Steven L; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Saranga, David J; Sato, Hajime; Schaeffer, Stephen W; Schatz, Michael C; Schlenke, Todd; Schwartz, Russell; Segarra, Carmen; Singh, Rama S; Sirot, Laura; Sirota, Marina; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Smith, Chris D; Smith, Temple F; Spieth, John; Stage, Deborah E; Stark, Alexander; Stephan, Wolfgang; Strausberg, Robert L; Strempel, Sebastian; Sturgill, David; Sutton, Granger; Sutton, Granger G; Tao, Wei; Teichmann, Sarah; Tobari, Yoshiko N; Tomimura, Yoshihiko; Tsolas, Jason M; Valente, Vera L S; Venter, Eli; Venter, J Craig; Vicario, Saverio; Vieira, Filipe G; Vilella, Albert J; Villasante, Alfredo; Walenz, Brian; Wang, Jun; Wasserman, Marvin; Watts, Thomas; Wilson, Derek; Wilson, Richard K; Wing, Rod A; Wolfner, Mariana F; Wong, Alex; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wu, Chung-I; Wu, Gabriel; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yang, Hsiao-Pei; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Yorke, James A; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Zhang, Peili; Zhang, Yu; Zimin, Aleksey V; Baldwin, Jennifer; Abdouelleil, Amr; Abdulkadir, Jamal; Abebe, Adal; Abera, Brikti; Abreu, Justin; Acer, St Christophe; Aftuck, Lynne; Alexander, Allen; An, Peter; Anderson, Erica; Anderson, Scott; Arachi, Harindra; Azer, Marc; Bachantsang, Pasang; Barry, Andrew; Bayul, Tashi; Berlin, Aaron; Bessette, Daniel; Bloom, Toby; Blye, Jason; Boguslavskiy, Leonid; Bonnet, Claude; Boukhgalter, Boris; Bourzgui, Imane; Brown, Adam; Cahill, Patrick; Channer, Sheridon; Cheshatsang, Yama; Chuda, Lisa; Citroen, Mieke; Collymore, Alville; Cooke, Patrick; Costello, Maura; D'Aco, Katie; Daza, Riza; De Haan, Georgius; DeGray, Stuart; DeMaso, Christina; Dhargay, Norbu; Dooley, Kimberly; Dooley, Erin; Doricent, Missole; Dorje, Passang; Dorjee, Kunsang; Dupes, Alan; Elong, Richard; Falk, Jill; Farina, Abderrahim; Faro, Susan; Ferguson, Diallo; Fisher, Sheila; Foley, Chelsea D; Franke, Alicia; Friedrich, Dennis; Gadbois, Loryn; Gearin, Gary; Gearin, Christina R; Giannoukos, Georgia; Goode, Tina; Graham, Joseph; Grandbois, Edward; Grewal, Sharleen; Gyaltsen, Kunsang; Hafez, Nabil; Hagos, Birhane; Hall, Jennifer; Henson, Charlotte; Hollinger, Andrew; Honan, Tracey; Huard, Monika D; Hughes, Leanne; Hurhula, Brian; Husby, M Erii; Kamat, Asha; Kanga, Ben; Kashin, Seva; Khazanovich, Dmitry; Kisner, Peter; Lance, Krista; Lara, Marcia; Lee, William; Lennon, Niall; Letendre, Frances; LeVine, Rosie; Lipovsky, Alex; Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Jinlei; Liu, Shangtao; Lokyitsang, Tashi; Lokyitsang, Yeshi; Lubonja, Rakela; Lui, Annie; MacDonald, Pen; Magnisalis, Vasilia; Maru, Kebede; Matthews, Charles; McCusker, William; McDonough, Susan; Mehta, Teena; Meldrim, James; Meneus, Louis; Mihai, Oana; Mihalev, Atanas; Mihova, Tanya; Mittelman, Rachel; Mlenga, Valentine; Montmayeur, Anna; Mulrain, Leonidas; Navidi, Adam; Naylor, Jerome; Negash, Tamrat; Nguyen, Thu; Nguyen, Nga; Nicol, Robert; Norbu, Choe; Norbu, Nyima; Novod, Nathaniel; O'Neill, Barry; Osman, Sahal; Markiewicz, Eva; Oyono, Otero L; Patti, Christopher; Phunkhang, Pema; Pierre, Fritz; Priest, Margaret; Raghuraman, Sujaa; Rege, Filip; Reyes, Rebecca; Rise, Cecil; Rogov, Peter; Ross, Keenan; Ryan, Elizabeth; Settipalli, Sampath; Shea, Terry; Sherpa, Ngawang; Shi, Lu; Shih, Diana; Sparrow, Todd; Spaulding, Jessica; Stalker, John; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Stavropoulos, Sharon; Stone, Catherine; Strader, Christopher; Tesfaye, Senait; Thomson, Talene; Thoulutsang, Yama; Thoulutsang, Dawa; Topham, Kerri; Topping, Ira; Tsamla, Tsamla; Vassiliev, Helen; Vo, Andy; Wangchuk, Tsering; Wangdi, Tsering; Weiand, Michael; Wilkinson, Jane; Wilson, Adam; Yadav, Shailendra; Young, Geneva; Yu, Qing; Zembek, Lisa; Zhong, Danni; Zimmer, Andrew; Zwirko, Zac; Jaffe, David B; Alvarez, Pablo; Brockman, Will; Butler, Jonathan; Chin, CheeWhye; Gnerre, Sante; Grabherr, Manfred; Kleber, Michael; Mauceli, Evan; MacCallum, Iain

    2007-11-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of sequence divergence across taxa can illuminate evolutionary processes on a genomic scale. These genome sequences augment the formidable genetic tools that have made Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental research on mechanisms of development, cell biology, genetics, disease, neurobiology, behaviour, physiology and evolution. Despite remarkable similarities among these Drosophila species, we identified many putatively non-neutral changes in protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA genes, and cis-regulatory regions. These may prove to underlie differences in the ecology and behaviour of these diverse species.

  17. Temperature-dependent selection in the transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, E T; Niki, Y; Chigusa, S I

    1993-04-01

    We previously reported a selective mode of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transmission in mtDNA heteroplasmy that was induced artificially in Drosophila melanogaster; the transmission bias appeared to depend on the particular temperature at which heteroplasmic lines were maintained. Here we report investigations of the temperature-dependent mode of mtDNA transmission in heteroplasmic lines for intra- and interspecific combinations maintained separately at 22.5 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 29 degrees C for 20 generations. We have examined a selection model for mitochondrial transmission, similar to genetic selection in haploid organisms. Changes in the relative proportions of two types of mtDNA fit the expectations from the model well. The intensity of selection estimated as a selection coefficient depends on temperature. Temperature-sensitive processes thus appear to be involved in the transmission and maintenance of mitochondria.

  18. Drosophila Mitochondrial Genetics: Evolution of Heteroplasmy through Germ Line Cell Divisions

    PubMed Central

    Solignac, Michel; Génermont, Jean; Monnerot, Monique; Mounolou, Jean-Claude

    1987-01-01

    The mitochondrial genotype of all F1 female offspring (426 individuals) of a single Drosophila mauritiana female, heteroplasmic for two types of mtDNA (a short and a long genome), was established. All descendants were heteroplasmic. The earliest eggs laid by this female show the cytoplasmic genetic structure of ovariole stem cells at the end of development. Cohorts of females from the eggs laid day after day by this female, throughout the 31 days of its life, provide information on the evolution of the mitochondrial genotypes in the course of successive divisions of stem cells. An increase of the percentage of long DNA in offspring was observed as the female aged. Moreover, the variance of the genotypes increases as rounds of stem cell division progress. These results are supported by observations based on the adults issued from the early and late eggs, for three additional heteroplasmic females. PMID:17246410

  19. Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter during Development Impairs Memory in Adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Drago, Ilaria; Davis, Ronald L

    2016-09-01

    The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn)-a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation-causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect. The behavioral impairment was associated with structural defects in MBn, including a decrease in synaptic vesicles and an increased length in the axons of the αβ MBn. Our results reveal an in vivo developmental role for the mitochondrial uniporter complex in establishing the necessary structural and functional neuronal substrates for normal memory formation in the adult organism. PMID:27568554

  20. Higher plant mitochondrial DNA: Genomes, genes, mutants, transcription, translation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains brief summaries of 63 presentations given at the International Workshop on Higher Plant Mitochondrial DNA. The presentations are organized into topical discussions addressing plant genomes, mitochondrial genes, cytoplasmic male sterility, transcription, translation, plasmids and tissue culture. (DT)

  1. The cyclope gene of Drosophila encodes a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog.

    PubMed

    Szuplewski, S; Terracol, R

    2001-08-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. In eukaryotes, the enzyme is composed of 3 mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits and 7-10 (in mammals) nuclear DNA-encoded subunits. This enzyme has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast but, in Drosophila, very little is known and no mutant has been described so far. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of mutations in cyclope (cype) and the cloning of the gene encoding a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog. cype is an essential gene whose mutations are lethal and show pleiotropic phenotypes. The 77-amino acid peptide encoded by cype is 46% identical and 59% similar to the human subunit (75 amino acids). The transcripts are expressed maternally and throughout development in localized regions. They are found predominantly in the central nervous system of the embryo; in the central region of imaginal discs; in the germarium, follicular, and nurse cells of the ovary; and in testis. A search in the Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila revealed the absence of subunit VIIb and the presence of 9 putative nuclear cytochrome c oxidase subunits with high identity scores when compared to the 10 human subunits. PMID:11514451

  2. The cyclope gene of Drosophila encodes a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog.

    PubMed Central

    Szuplewski, S; Terracol, R

    2001-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. In eukaryotes, the enzyme is composed of 3 mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits and 7-10 (in mammals) nuclear DNA-encoded subunits. This enzyme has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast but, in Drosophila, very little is known and no mutant has been described so far. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of mutations in cyclope (cype) and the cloning of the gene encoding a cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc homolog. cype is an essential gene whose mutations are lethal and show pleiotropic phenotypes. The 77-amino acid peptide encoded by cype is 46% identical and 59% similar to the human subunit (75 amino acids). The transcripts are expressed maternally and throughout development in localized regions. They are found predominantly in the central nervous system of the embryo; in the central region of imaginal discs; in the germarium, follicular, and nurse cells of the ovary; and in testis. A search in the Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila revealed the absence of subunit VIIb and the presence of 9 putative nuclear cytochrome c oxidase subunits with high identity scores when compared to the 10 human subunits. PMID:11514451

  3. Combinatorial Gene Regulatory Functions Underlie Ultraconserved Elements in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Warnefors, Maria; Hartmann, Britta; Thomsen, Stefan; Alonso, Claudio R.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraconserved elements (UCEs) are discrete genomic elements conserved across large evolutionary distances. Although UCEs have been linked to multiple facets of mammalian gene regulation their extreme evolutionary conservation remains largely unexplained. Here, we apply a computational approach to investigate this question in Drosophila, exploring the molecular functions of more than 1,500 UCEs shared across the genomes of 12 Drosophila species. Our data indicate that Drosophila UCEs are hubs for gene regulatory functions and suggest that UCE sequence invariance originates from their combinatorial roles in gene control. We also note that the gene regulatory roles of intronic and intergenic UCEs (iUCEs) are distinct from those found in exonic UCEs (eUCEs). In iUCEs, transcription factor (TF) and epigenetic factor binding data strongly support iUCE roles in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. In contrast, analyses of eUCEs indicate that they are two orders of magnitude more likely than the expected to simultaneously include protein-coding sequence, TF-binding sites, splice sites, and RNA editing sites but have reduced roles in transcriptional or epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, we use a Drosophila cell culture system and transgenic Drosophila embryos to validate the notion of UCE combinatorial regulatory roles using an eUCE within the Hox gene Ultrabithorax and show that its protein-coding region also contains alternative splicing regulatory information. Taken together our experiments indicate that UCEs emerge as a result of combinatorial gene regulatory roles and highlight common features in mammalian and insect UCEs implying that similar processes might underlie ultraconservation in diverse animal taxa. PMID:27247329

  4. Combinatorial Gene Regulatory Functions Underlie Ultraconserved Elements in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Warnefors, Maria; Hartmann, Britta; Thomsen, Stefan; Alonso, Claudio R

    2016-09-01

    Ultraconserved elements (UCEs) are discrete genomic elements conserved across large evolutionary distances. Although UCEs have been linked to multiple facets of mammalian gene regulation their extreme evolutionary conservation remains largely unexplained. Here, we apply a computational approach to investigate this question in Drosophila, exploring the molecular functions of more than 1,500 UCEs shared across the genomes of 12 Drosophila species. Our data indicate that Drosophila UCEs are hubs for gene regulatory functions and suggest that UCE sequence invariance originates from their combinatorial roles in gene control. We also note that the gene regulatory roles of intronic and intergenic UCEs (iUCEs) are distinct from those found in exonic UCEs (eUCEs). In iUCEs, transcription factor (TF) and epigenetic factor binding data strongly support iUCE roles in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. In contrast, analyses of eUCEs indicate that they are two orders of magnitude more likely than the expected to simultaneously include protein-coding sequence, TF-binding sites, splice sites, and RNA editing sites but have reduced roles in transcriptional or epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, we use a Drosophila cell culture system and transgenic Drosophila embryos to validate the notion of UCE combinatorial regulatory roles using an eUCE within the Hox gene Ultrabithorax and show that its protein-coding region also contains alternative splicing regulatory information. Taken together our experiments indicate that UCEs emerge as a result of combinatorial gene regulatory roles and highlight common features in mammalian and insect UCEs implying that similar processes might underlie ultraconservation in diverse animal taxa. PMID:27247329

  5. Human Intellectual Disability Genes Form Conserved Functional Modules in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Oortveld, Merel A. W.; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Oti, Martin; Nijhof, Bonnie; Fernandes, Ana Clara; Kochinke, Korinna; Castells-Nobau, Anna; van Engelen, Eva; Ellenkamp, Thijs; Eshuis, Lilian; Galy, Anne; van Bokhoven, Hans; Habermann, Bianca; Brunner, Han G.; Zweier, Christiane; Verstreken, Patrik; Huynen, Martijn A.; Schenck, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual Disability (ID) disorders, defined by an IQ below 70, are genetically and phenotypically highly heterogeneous. Identification of common molecular pathways underlying these disorders is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of cognition and for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. To systematically establish their functional connectivity, we used transgenic RNAi to target 270 ID gene orthologs in the Drosophila eye. Assessment of neuronal function in behavioral and electrophysiological assays and multiparametric morphological analysis identified phenotypes associated with knockdown of 180 ID gene orthologs. Most of these genotype-phenotype associations were novel. For example, we uncovered 16 genes that are required for basal neurotransmission and have not previously been implicated in this process in any system or organism. ID gene orthologs with morphological eye phenotypes, in contrast to genes without phenotypes, are relatively highly expressed in the human nervous system and are enriched for neuronal functions, suggesting that eye phenotyping can distinguish different classes of ID genes. Indeed, grouping genes by Drosophila phenotype uncovered 26 connected functional modules. Novel links between ID genes successfully predicted that MYCN, PIGV and UPF3B regulate synapse development. Drosophila phenotype groups show, in addition to ID, significant phenotypic similarity also in humans, indicating that functional modules are conserved. The combined data indicate that ID disorders, despite their extreme genetic diversity, are caused by disruption of a limited number of highly connected functional modules. PMID:24204314

  6. Faster-X evolution of gene expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Richard P; Malone, John H; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequences on X chromosomes often have a faster rate of evolution when compared to similar loci on the autosomes, and well articulated models provide reasons why the X-linked mode of inheritance may be responsible for the faster evolution of X-linked genes. We analyzed microarray and RNA-seq data collected from females and males of six Drosophila species and found that the expression levels of X-linked genes also diverge faster than autosomal gene expression, similar to the "faster-X" effect often observed in DNA sequence evolution. Faster-X evolution of gene expression was recently described in mammals, but it was limited to the evolutionary lineages shortly following the creation of the therian X chromosome. In contrast, we detect a faster-X effect along both deep lineages and those on the tips of the Drosophila phylogeny. In Drosophila males, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds the X chromosome, creating a unique chromatin environment that promotes the hyper-expression of X-linked genes. We find that DCC binding, chromatin environment, and breadth of expression are all predictive of the rate of gene expression evolution. In addition, estimates of the intraspecific genetic polymorphism underlying gene expression variation suggest that X-linked expression levels are not under relaxed selective constraints. We therefore hypothesize that the faster-X evolution of gene expression is the result of the adaptive fixation of beneficial mutations at X-linked loci that change expression level in cis. This adaptive faster-X evolution of gene expression is limited to genes that are narrowly expressed in a single tissue, suggesting that relaxed pleiotropic constraints permit a faster response to selection. Finally, we present a conceptional framework to explain faster-X expression evolution, and we use this framework to examine differences in the faster-X effect between Drosophila and mammals.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies in natural and experimental populations of Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed Central

    García-Martínez, J; Castro, J A; Ramón, M; Latorre, A; Moya, A

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of Drosophila subobscura mitochondrial DNA has been studied in experimental populations, founded with flies from a natural population from Esporles (Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). This population, like other European ones, is characterized by the presence of two very common (>96%) mitochondrial haplotypes (called I and II) and rare and endemic haplotypes that appear at very low frequencies. There is no statistical evidence of positive Darwinian selection acting on the mitochondrial DNA variants according to Tajima's neutrality test. Two experimental populations, with one replicate each, were established with flies having a heterogeneous nuclear genetic background, which was representative of the composition of the natural population. Both populations were started with the two most frequent mitochondrial haplotypes, but at different initial frequencies. After 13 to 16 generations, haplotype II reached fixation in three cages and its frequency was 0.89 by generation 25 in the fourth cage. Random drift can be rejected as the force responsible for the observed changes in haplotype frequencies. There is not only statistical evidence of a linear trend favoring a mtDNA (haploid) fitness effect, but also of a significant nonlinear deviation that could be due to a nuclear component. PMID:9649527

  8. TSPO, a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein, Controls Ethanol-Related Behaviors in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ran; Rittenhouse, Danielle; Sweeney, Katelyn; Potluri, Prasanth; Wallace, Douglas C

    2015-08-01

    The heavy consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol use disorders (AUDs) which impact patients, their families, and societies. Yet the genetic and physiological factors that predispose humans to AUDs remain unclear. One hypothesis is that alterations in mitochondrial function modulate neuronal sensitivity to ethanol exposure. Using Drosophila genetics we report that inactivation of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, affects ethanol sedation and tolerance in male flies. Knockdown of dTSPO in adult male neurons results in increased sensitivity to ethanol sedation, and this effect requires the dTSPO depletion-mediated increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of caspase activity in fly heads. Systemic loss of dTSPO in male flies blocks the development of tolerance to repeated ethanol exposures, an effect that is not seen when dTSPO is only inactivated in neurons. Female flies are naturally more sensitive to ethanol than males, and female fly heads have strikingly lower levels of dTSPO mRNA than males. Hence, mitochondrial TSPO function plays an important role in ethanol sensitivity and tolerance. Since a large array of benzodiazepine analogues have been developed that interact with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, the mitochondrial TSPO might provide an important new target for treating AUDs.

  9. Drosophila melanogaster Hsp22: a mitochondrial small heat shock protein influencing the aging process

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Geneviève; Tanguay, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in many key cellular processes and therefore need to rely on good protein quality control (PQC). Three types of mechanisms are in place to insure mitochondrial protein integrity: reactive oxygen species scavenging by anti-oxidant enzymes, protein folding/degradation by molecular chaperones and proteases and clearance of defective mitochondria by mitophagy. Drosophila melanogaster Hsp22 is part of the molecular chaperone axis of the PQC and is characterized by its intra-mitochondrial localization and preferential expression during aging. As a stress biomarker, the level of its expression during aging has been shown to partially predict the remaining lifespan of flies. Since over-expression of this small heat shock protein increases lifespan and resistance to stress, Hsp22 most likely has a positive effect on mitochondrial integrity. Accordingly, Hsp22 has recently been implicated in the mitochondrial unfolding protein response of flies. This review will summarize the key findings on D. melanogaster Hsp22 and emphasis on its links with the aging process. PMID:25852752

  10. Drosophila GRAIL: An intelligent system for gene recognition in Drosophila DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ying; Einstein, J.R.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Helt, G.; Rubin, G.

    1995-06-01

    An AI-based system for gene recognition in Drosophila DNA sequences was designed and implemented. The system consists of two main modules, one for coding exon recognition and one for single gene model construction. The exon recognition module finds a coding exon by recognition of its splice junctions (or translation start) and coding potential. The core of this module is a set of neural networks which evaluate an exon candidate for the possibility of being a true coding exon using the ``recognized`` splice junction (or translation start) and coding signals. The recognition process consists of four steps: generation of an exon candidate pool, elimination of improbable candidates using heuristic rules, candidate evaluation by trained neural networks, and candidate cluster resolution and final exon prediction. The gene model construction module takes as input the clustered exon candidates and builds a ``best`` possible single gene model using an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. 129 Drosophila sequences consisting of 441 coding exons including 216358 coding bases were extructed from GenBank and used to build statistical matrices and to train the neural networks. On this training set the system recognized 97% of the coding messages and predicted only 5% false messages. Among the ``correctly`` predicted exons, 68% match the actual exon exactly and 96% have at least one edge predicted correctly. On an independent test set consisting of 30 Drosophila sequences, the system recognized 96% of the coding messages and predicted 7% false messages.

  11. big bang gene modulates gut immune tolerance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bonnay, François; Cohen-Berros, Eva; Hoffmann, Martine; Kim, Sabrina Y.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L.; Hoffmann, Jules A.; Matt, Nicolas; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestine is detrimental to mammals. Similarly, constant activation of the immune response in the gut by the endogenous flora is suspected to be harmful to Drosophila. Therefore, the innate immune response in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster is tightly balanced to simultaneously prevent infections by pathogenic microorganisms and tolerate the endogenous flora. Here we describe the role of the big bang (bbg) gene, encoding multiple membrane-associated PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain-containing protein isoforms, in the modulation of the gut immune response. We show that in the adult Drosophila midgut, BBG is present at the level of the septate junctions, on the apical side of the enterocytes. In the absence of BBG, these junctions become loose, enabling the intestinal flora to trigger a constitutive activation of the anterior midgut immune response. This chronic epithelial inflammation leads to a reduced lifespan of bbg mutant flies. Clearing the commensal flora by antibiotics prevents the abnormal activation of the gut immune response and restores a normal lifespan. We now provide genetic evidence that Drosophila septate junctions are part of the gut immune barrier, a function that is evolutionarily conserved in mammals. Collectively, our data suggest that septate junctions are required to maintain the subtle balance between immune tolerance and immune response in the Drosophila gut, which represents a powerful model to study inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:23378635

  12. big bang gene modulates gut immune tolerance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bonnay, François; Cohen-Berros, Eva; Hoffmann, Martine; Kim, Sabrina Y; Boulianne, Gabrielle L; Hoffmann, Jules A; Matt, Nicolas; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2013-02-19

    Chronic inflammation of the intestine is detrimental to mammals. Similarly, constant activation of the immune response in the gut by the endogenous flora is suspected to be harmful to Drosophila. Therefore, the innate immune response in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster is tightly balanced to simultaneously prevent infections by pathogenic microorganisms and tolerate the endogenous flora. Here we describe the role of the big bang (bbg) gene, encoding multiple membrane-associated PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain-containing protein isoforms, in the modulation of the gut immune response. We show that in the adult Drosophila midgut, BBG is present at the level of the septate junctions, on the apical side of the enterocytes. In the absence of BBG, these junctions become loose, enabling the intestinal flora to trigger a constitutive activation of the anterior midgut immune response. This chronic epithelial inflammation leads to a reduced lifespan of bbg mutant flies. Clearing the commensal flora by antibiotics prevents the abnormal activation of the gut immune response and restores a normal lifespan. We now provide genetic evidence that Drosophila septate junctions are part of the gut immune barrier, a function that is evolutionarily conserved in mammals. Collectively, our data suggest that septate junctions are required to maintain the subtle balance between immune tolerance and immune response in the Drosophila gut, which represents a powerful model to study inflammatory bowel diseases.

  13. big bang gene modulates gut immune tolerance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bonnay, François; Cohen-Berros, Eva; Hoffmann, Martine; Kim, Sabrina Y; Boulianne, Gabrielle L; Hoffmann, Jules A; Matt, Nicolas; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2013-02-19

    Chronic inflammation of the intestine is detrimental to mammals. Similarly, constant activation of the immune response in the gut by the endogenous flora is suspected to be harmful to Drosophila. Therefore, the innate immune response in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster is tightly balanced to simultaneously prevent infections by pathogenic microorganisms and tolerate the endogenous flora. Here we describe the role of the big bang (bbg) gene, encoding multiple membrane-associated PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain-containing protein isoforms, in the modulation of the gut immune response. We show that in the adult Drosophila midgut, BBG is present at the level of the septate junctions, on the apical side of the enterocytes. In the absence of BBG, these junctions become loose, enabling the intestinal flora to trigger a constitutive activation of the anterior midgut immune response. This chronic epithelial inflammation leads to a reduced lifespan of bbg mutant flies. Clearing the commensal flora by antibiotics prevents the abnormal activation of the gut immune response and restores a normal lifespan. We now provide genetic evidence that Drosophila septate junctions are part of the gut immune barrier, a function that is evolutionarily conserved in mammals. Collectively, our data suggest that septate junctions are required to maintain the subtle balance between immune tolerance and immune response in the Drosophila gut, which represents a powerful model to study inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:23378635

  14. Drosophila Paf1 modulates chromatin structure at actively transcribed genes.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Karen; Wei, Wenxiang; Ardehali, M Behfar; Werner, Janis; Zhu, Bing; Reinberg, Danny; Lis, John T

    2006-01-01

    The Paf1 complex in yeast has been reported to influence a multitude of steps in gene expression through interactions with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and chromatin-modifying complexes; however, it is unclear which of these many activities are primary functions of Paf1 and are conserved in metazoans. We have identified and characterized the Drosophila homologs of three subunits of the yeast Paf1 complex and found striking differences between the yeast and Drosophila Paf1 complexes. We demonstrate that although Drosophila Paf1, Rtf1, and Cdc73 colocalize broadly with actively transcribing, phosphorylated Pol II, and all are recruited to activated heat shock genes with similar kinetics; Rtf1 does not appear to be a stable part of the Drosophila Paf1 complex. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of Paf1 or Rtf1 leads to defects in induction of Hsp70 RNA, but tandem RNAi-chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that loss of neither Paf1 nor Rtf1 alters the density or distribution of phosphorylated Pol II on the active Hsp70 gene. However, depletion of Paf1 reduces trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 in the Hsp70 promoter region and significantly decreases the recruitment of chromatin-associated factors Spt6 and FACT, suggesting that Paf1 may manifest its effects on transcription through modulating chromatin structure. PMID:16354696

  15. Drosophila Myc is required for normal DREF gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Thi Phuong Thao; Seto, Hirokazu; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila DNA replication-related element-binding factor (dDREF) is required for the expression of many proliferation-related genes carrying the DRE sequence, 5'-TATCGATA. Finding a canonical E-box, 5'-CACGTG, in the dDREF gene promoter prompted us to explore the possibility that the dDREF gene is a target of Drosophila Myc (dMyc). Luciferase transient expression assays combined with RNA interference in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that knockdown of dmyc reduced dDREF gene promoter activity by 35% to 82%, an effect at least partly mediated by the E-box in the promoter. dm{sup 4}/Y hemizygous mutant larvae demonstrated no maternal dMyc and severe impairment of dDREF mRNA transcription. dMyc loss of function in dm{sup 2}/dm{sup 2} homozygous mutant follicle cell clones also resulted in loss of anti-dDREF immunostaining in nuclei. In contrast, co-expression of dMyc-dMax up-regulated dDREF promoter activity in S2 cells. Furthermore, dMyc over-expressing clones exhibited a high level of dDREF gene expression in wing and eye discs. These results taken together indicate that dMyc is indeed required for dDREF gene expression.

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus and gene evolution of cruciferous mitochondrial types.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Wang, Yankun; Gu, Bingchao; He, Jianbo; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2013-03-20

    To explore the mitochondrial genes of the Cruciferae family, the mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus (sat) was sequenced and annotated. The circular mitochondrial genome of sat is 239,723 bp and includes 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 17 tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains a pair of large repeat sequences 5.9 kb in length, which may mediate genome reorganization into two sub-genomic circles, with predicted sizes of 124.8 kb and 115.0 kb, respectively. Furthermore, gene evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Cruciferae family was analyzed using sat mitochondrial type (mitotype), together with six other reported mitotypes. The cruciferous mitochondrial genomes have maintained almost the same set of functional genes. Compared with Cycas taitungensis (a representative gymnosperm), the mitochondrial genomes of the Cruciferae have lost nine protein-coding genes and seven mitochondrial-like tRNA genes, but acquired six chloroplast-like tRNAs. Among the Cruciferae, to maintain the same set of genes that are necessary for mitochondrial function, the exons of the genes have changed at the lowest rates, as indicated by the numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function in the cruciferous genomes are not conserved. Evolutionary events, such as mutations, genome reorganizations and sequence insertions or deletions (indels), have resulted in the non-conserved ORFs in the cruciferous mitochondrial genomes, which is becoming significantly different among mitotypes. This work represents the first phylogenic explanation of the evolution of genes of known function in the Cruciferae family. It revealed significant variation in ORFs and the causes of such variation.

  17. Tick-box for 3'-end formation of mitochondrial transcripts in Ixodida, basal chelicerates and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Sassera, Davide; Griggio, Francesca; Epis, Sara; Bandi, Claudio; Gissi, Carmela

    2012-01-01

    According to the tRNA punctuation model, the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of mammals and arthropods is transcribed as large polycistronic precursors that are maturated by endonucleolytic cleavage at tRNA borders and RNA polyadenylation. Starting from the newly sequenced mtDNA of Ixodes ricinus and using a combination of mitogenomics and transcriptional analyses, we found that in all currently-sequenced tick lineages (Prostriata, Metastriata and Argasidae) the 3'-end of the polyadenylated nad1 and rrnL transcripts does not follow the tRNA punctuation model and is located upstream of a degenerate 17-bp DNA motif. A slightly different motif is also present downstream the 3'-end of nad1 transcripts in the primitive chelicerate Limulus polyphemus and in Drosophila species, indicating the ancient origin and the evolutionary conservation of this motif in arthropods. The transcriptional analyses suggest that this motif directs the 3'-end formation of the nad1/rrnL mature RNAs, likely working as a transcription termination signal or a processing signal of precursor transcripts. Moreover, as most regulatory elements, this motif is characterized by a taxon-specific evolution. Although this signal is not exclusive of ticks, making a play on words it has been named "Tick-Box", since it is a check mark that has to be verified for the 3'-end formation of some mt transcripts, and its consensus sequence has been here carefully characterized in ticks. Indeed, in the whole mtDNA of all ticks, the Tick-Box is always present downstream of nad1 and rrnL, mainly in non-coding regions (NCRs) and occasionally within trnL(CUN). However, some metastriates present a third Tick-Box at an intriguing site--inside the small NCR located at one end of a 3.4 kb translocated region, the other end of which exhibits the nad1 Tick-Box--hinting that this motif could have been involved in metastriate gene order rearrangements. PMID:23077630

  18. Age-associated decline in mitochondrial respiration and electron transport in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of the present study was to identify specific alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions during the aging process. Respiration rates and the activities of electron transport chain complexes were measured at various ages in mitochondria isolated from thoraces of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which consist primarily of flight muscles. The rates of state 3 respiration (ADP-stimulated), RCRs (respiratory control ratios) and uncoupled respiration rates decreased significantly as a function of age, using either NAD+- or FAD-linked substrates; however, there were no differences in state 4 respiration (ADP-depleted) rates. There was also a significant age-related decline in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), but not of the other mitochondrial oxidoreductases examined. Exposure of mitochondria isolated from young flies to low doses of KCN or NaAz (sodium azide), complex IV inhibitors, decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity and increased the production of H2O2. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that impairment of mitochondrial respiration may be a causal factor in the aging process, and that such impairment may result from and contribute to increased H2O2 production in vivo. PMID:15853766

  19. Echinochrome A Increases Mitochondrial Mass and Function by Modulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis Regulatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In-Sung; Noh, Su Jin; Marquez, Jubert; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Echinochrome A (Ech A) is a natural pigment from sea urchins that has been reported to have antioxidant properties and a cardio protective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury. In this study, we ascertained whether Ech A enhances the mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation in rat cardio myoblast H9c2 cells. To study the effects of Ech A on mitochondrial biogenesis, we measured mitochondrial mass, level of oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory gene expression. Ech A treatment did not induce cytotoxicity. However, Ech A treatment enhanced oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial ATP level. Likewise, Ech A treatment increased mitochondrial contents in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, Ech A treatment up-regulated biogenesis of regulatory transcription genes, including proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1α, estrogen-related receptor (ERR)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR)-γ, and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-1 and such mitochondrial transcription regulatory genes as mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M), mitochondrial DNA direct polymerase (POLMRT), single strand binding protein (SSBP) and Tu translation elongation factor (TUFM). In conclusion, these data suggest that Ech A is a potentiated marine drug which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25196935

  20. The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2004-01-13

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

  1. The BDGP gene disruption project: single transposon insertions associated with 40% of Drosophila genes.

    PubMed Central

    Bellen, Hugo J; Levis, Robert W; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P Robin; Schulze, Karen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Hoskins, Roger A; Spradling, Allan C

    2004-01-01

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in >30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39%). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene misexpression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool. PMID:15238527

  2. Prediction of gene expression in embryonic structures of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, Anastasia A; Niranjan, Mahesan; Russell, Steven; Brazma, Alvis

    2007-07-01

    Understanding how sets of genes are coordinately regulated in space and time to generate the diversity of cell types that characterise complex metazoans is a major challenge in modern biology. The use of high-throughput approaches, such as large-scale in situ hybridisation and genome-wide expression profiling via DNA microarrays, is beginning to provide insights into the complexities of development. However, in many organisms the collection and annotation of comprehensive in situ localisation data is a difficult and time-consuming task. Here, we present a widely applicable computational approach, integrating developmental time-course microarray data with annotated in situ hybridisation studies, that facilitates the de novo prediction of tissue-specific expression for genes that have no in vivo gene expression localisation data available. Using a classification approach, trained with data from microarray and in situ hybridisation studies of gene expression during Drosophila embryonic development, we made a set of predictions on the tissue-specific expression of Drosophila genes that have not been systematically characterised by in situ hybridisation experiments. The reliability of our predictions is confirmed by literature-derived annotations in FlyBase, by overrepresentation of Gene Ontology biological process annotations, and, in a selected set, by detailed gene-specific studies from the literature. Our novel organism-independent method will be of considerable utility in enriching the annotation of gene function and expression in complex multicellular organisms.

  3. Gene Expression During Drosophila Wing Morphogenesis and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Nan; Zhu, Chunming; Lee, Haeryun; Adler, Paul N.

    2005-01-01

    The simple cellular composition and array of distally pointing hairs has made the Drosophila wing a favored system for studying planar polarity and the coordination of cellular and tissue level morphogenesis. We carried out a gene expression screen to identify candidate genes that functioned in wing and wing hair morphogenesis. Pupal wing RNA was isolated from tissue prior to, during, and after hair growth and used to probe Affymetrix Drosophila gene chips. We identified 435 genes whose expression changed at least fivefold during this period and 1335 whose expression changed at least twofold. As a functional validation we chose 10 genes where genetic reagents existed but where there was little or no evidence for a wing phenotype. New phenotypes were found for 9 of these genes, providing functional validation for the collection of identified genes. Among the phenotypes seen were a delay in hair initiation, defects in hair maturation, defects in cuticle formation and pigmentation, and abnormal wing hair polarity. The collection of identified genes should be a valuable data set for future studies on hair and bristle morphogenesis, cuticle synthesis, and planar polarity. PMID:15998724

  4. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster: purification, subunit structure, and partial characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, C.M.; Kaguni, L.S.

    1986-11-05

    The mitochondrial DNA polymerase has been purified to near-homogeneity from early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the highly purified enzyme reveals two polypeptides with molecular masses of 125,000 and 35,000 daltons, in a ratio of 1:1. The enzyme has a sedimentation coefficient of 7.6 S and a stokes radius of 51 A. Taken together, the data suggest that the D. melanogaster DNA polymerase ..gamma.. is a heterodimer. DNA polymerase activity gel analysis has allowed the assignment of the DNA polymerization function to the large subunit. The DNA polymerase exhibits a remarkable ability to utilize efficiently a variety of template-primers including gapped DNA, poly(rA).oligo(dT) and singly primed phiX174 DNA. Both the crude and the highly purified enzymes are stimulated by KCl, and inhibited by dideoxythymidine triphosphate and by N-ethylmaleimide. Thus, the catalytic properties of the near-homogeneous Drosophila enzyme are consistent with those of DNA polymerase ..gamma.. as partially purified from several vertebrates.

  5. Evolution of alternative splicing in newly evolved genes of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zubing; Ren, Juan; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Ruoping; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Wen

    2011-01-01

    New gene origination is a fundamental process underlying evolution of biological diversity. Although new genes usually evolve rapidly in sequences, structure and expression, the evolutionary pattern of alternative splicing (AS) in new genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in this alternation remain to be explored. Here, we used the new genes identified in the Drosophila melanogaster lineage to study alternation of AS and the possible functional consequences of these genes. We found that new genes tended to exhibit low degree of AS, though a few new genes were alternatively spliced. Interestingly loss of introns in retroposed new genes can only account for one third of the low-level AS in new genes, while partial gene duplication without AS exons and mutations in the duplicated AS exons/introns together have resulted in two-third AS losses in new genes, indicating that reducing the degree of AS is a general trend in all categories of new genes. Further investigations on tissue expression patterns of these new genes showed that those with AS alternation had a relatively lower expression level, were expressed in fewer tissues and tended to be more likely expressed in testis than their parental genes. All these observations imply that these new genes may have gained diverged structures and expression patterns from their parental genes after AS alternation.

  6. Two Drosophila melanogaster tropomyosin genes: structural and functional aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Karlik, C C; Fyrberg, E A

    1986-01-01

    We compared the structure and function of the two Drosophila melanogaster tropomyosin genes. The most striking structural aspect was their size disparity. Codons 1 through 257 of gene 2 occupied 833 nucleotides and contained only one intron, whereas the corresponding region of gene 1 occupied 17.5 kilobases and was interrupted by eight introns. The intron-exon arrangement of gene 1 reflected evolutionary expansion of tropomyosin via 42- and 49-residue duplications, which are probably actin-binding domains. Functionally, gene 1 was considerably more complex than gene 2; it was active in both muscle and nonmuscle cell lineages, had at least five variable exons, and specified a minimum of five developmentally regulated isoforms. Two of these isoforms, which accumulated only in flight muscles, were unprecedented fusion proteins in which the tropomyosin sequence was joined to a carboxy-terminal proline-rich domain. Images PMID:3097506

  7. A family of putative potassium channel genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Butler, A; Wei, A G; Baker, K; Salkoff, L

    1989-02-17

    Mutant flies in which the gene coding for the Shaker potassium channel is deleted still have potassium currents similar to those coded by the Shaker gene. This suggests the presence of a family of Shaker-like genes in Drosophila. By using a Shaker complementary DNA probe and low-stringency hybridization, three additional family members have now been isolated, Shab, Shaw, and Shal. The Shaker family genes are not clustered in the genome. The deduced proteins of Shab, Shaw, and Shal have high homology to the Shaker protein; the sequence identity of the integral membrane portions is greater than 50 percent. These genes are organized similarly to Shaker in that only a single homology domain containing six presumed membrane-spanning segments common to all voltage-gated ion channels is coded by each messenger RNA. Thus, potassium channel diversity could result from an extended gene family, as well as from alternate splicing of the Shaker primary transcript.

  8. Analysis of mitochondrial respiratory-related genes reveals nuclear and mitochondrial genome cooperation in allotetraploid hybrid.

    PubMed

    Peng, L-Y; Wang, J; Tao, M; You, C-P; Ye, L; Xiao, J; Zhang, C; Liu, Y; Liu, S-J

    2014-01-01

    An allotetraploid hybrid lineage derived from the distant hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n =100) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂, 2n =100) was investigated for its mitochondrial and nuclear genome inheritance patterns. Based on liver transcriptomic data for this hybrid, red crucian carp, and common carp, we identified 94, 136, and 86 contigs corresponding to 41, 46, and 37 mitochondrial respiratory chain nuclear genes, respectively. Mitochondrial respiratory chain nuclear gene sequences from red crucian carp and common carp were both detected in the allotetraploid hybrid, indicating that both parental nuclear genomes were participated in the synthesis of mitochondrial respiratory protein complexes in the hybrid. For mitochondrial respiratory related genes, high sequence similarity (>90%) and a low nucleotide divergence rate (<0.2) between red crucian carp and common carp could be a critical factor allowing cooperation of the three genomes (red crucian carp mitochondrial genome, red crucian and common carp nuclear genomes) in the allotetraploid hybrid lineage. Interestingly, gene duplication events were identified in the allotetraploid hybrid, red crucian and common carp, as confirmed by analysis of orthologous gene trees for these fish. Our findings provide valuable information with which to study cooperation between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of other hybrids, and will provide basic genetic information of relevance to mitochondrial-related diseases in humans and animals.

  9. Drosophila X-Linked Genes Have Lower Translation Rates than Autosomal Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenguo; Presgraves, Daven C

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, X-linked and autosomal genes achieve comparable expression at the mRNA level. Whether comparable X-autosome gene expression is realized at the translational and, ultimately, the protein levels is, however, unknown. Previous studies suggest the possibility of higher translation rates for X-linked genes owing to stronger usage of preferred codons. In this study, we use public ribosome profiling data from Drosophila melanogaster to infer translation rates on the X chromosome versus the autosomes. We find that X-linked genes have consistently lower ribosome densities than autosomal genes in S2 cells, early embryos, eggs, and mature oocytes. Surprisingly, the lower ribosome densities of X-linked genes are not consistent with faster translation elongation but instead imply slower translation initiation. In particular, X-linked genes have sequence features known to slow translation initiation such as stronger mRNA structure near start codons and longer 5'-UTRs. Comparison to outgroup species suggests that stronger mRNA structure is an evolved feature of Drosophila X chromosomes. Finally, we find that the magnitude of the X-autosome difference in ribosome densities is smaller for genes encoding members of protein complexes, suggesting that stoichiometry constrains the evolution of translation rates. In sum, our analyses suggest that Drosophila X-linked genes have evolved lower translation rates than autosomal genes despite stronger usage of preferred codons.

  10. Drosophila X-Linked Genes Have Lower Translation Rates than Autosomal Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenguo; Presgraves, Daven C

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, X-linked and autosomal genes achieve comparable expression at the mRNA level. Whether comparable X-autosome gene expression is realized at the translational and, ultimately, the protein levels is, however, unknown. Previous studies suggest the possibility of higher translation rates for X-linked genes owing to stronger usage of preferred codons. In this study, we use public ribosome profiling data from Drosophila melanogaster to infer translation rates on the X chromosome versus the autosomes. We find that X-linked genes have consistently lower ribosome densities than autosomal genes in S2 cells, early embryos, eggs, and mature oocytes. Surprisingly, the lower ribosome densities of X-linked genes are not consistent with faster translation elongation but instead imply slower translation initiation. In particular, X-linked genes have sequence features known to slow translation initiation such as stronger mRNA structure near start codons and longer 5'-UTRs. Comparison to outgroup species suggests that stronger mRNA structure is an evolved feature of Drosophila X chromosomes. Finally, we find that the magnitude of the X-autosome difference in ribosome densities is smaller for genes encoding members of protein complexes, suggesting that stoichiometry constrains the evolution of translation rates. In sum, our analyses suggest that Drosophila X-linked genes have evolved lower translation rates than autosomal genes despite stronger usage of preferred codons. PMID:26486873

  11. The Evolution of Olfactory Gene Families in Drosophila and the Genomic Basis of chemical-Ecological Adaptation in Drosophila suzukii

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Sukanya; Ometto, Lino; Crava, Cristina M.; Revadi, Santosh; Kaur, Rupinder; Horner, David S.; Pisani, Davide; Dekker, Teun; Anfora, Gianfranco; Rota-Stabelli, Omar

    2016-01-01

    How the evolution of olfactory genes correlates with adaption to new ecological niches is still a debated topic. We explored this issue in Drosophila suzukii, an emerging model that reproduces on fresh fruit rather than in fermenting substrates like most other Drosophila. We first annotated the repertoire of odorant receptors (ORs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), and antennal ionotropic receptors (aIRs) in the genomes of two strains of D. suzukii and of its close relative Drosophila biarmipes. We then analyzed these genes on the phylogeny of 14 Drosophila species: whereas ORs and OBPs are characterized by higher turnover rates in some lineages including D. suzukii, aIRs are conserved throughout the genus. Drosophila suzukii is further characterized by a non-random distribution of OR turnover on the gene phylogeny, consistent with a change in selective pressures. In D. suzukii, we found duplications and signs of positive selection in ORs with affinity for short-chain esters, and loss of function of ORs with affinity for volatiles produced during fermentation. These receptors—Or85a and Or22a—are characterized by divergent alleles in the European and American genomes, and we hypothesize that they may have been replaced by some of the duplicated ORs in corresponding neurons, a hypothesis reciprocally confirmed by electrophysiological recordings. Our study quantifies the evolution of olfactory genes in Drosophila and reveals an array of genomic events that can be associated with the ecological adaptations of D. suzukii. PMID:27435796

  12. Common genes regulate food and ethanol intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Morgan L; Lamina, Omoteniola; Hogan, Kerry E; Kliethermes, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    The abuse liability of alcohol (ethanol) is believed to result in part from its actions on neurobiological substrates that underlie the motivation toward food and other natural reinforcers, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these substrates are broadly conserved among animal phyla. Understanding the extent to which the substrates regulating ethanol and food intake overlap is an important step toward developing therapeutics that selectively reduce ethanol intake. In the current experiments, we measured food and ethanol intake in Recombinant Inbred (RI) lines of Drosophila melanogaster using several assays, and then calculated genetic correlations to estimate the degree to which common genes might underlie behavior in these assays. We found that food intake and ethanol intake as measured in the capillary assay are genetically correlated traits in D. melanogaster, as well as in a panel of 11 Drosophila species that we tested subsequently. RI line differences in food intake in a dyed food assay were genetically unrelated to ethanol intake in the capillary assay or to ethanol preference measured using an olfactory trap apparatus. Using publicly available gene expression data, we found that expression profiles across the RI lines of a number of genes (including the D2-like dopamine receptor, DOPA decarboxylase, and fruitless) correlated with the RI line differences in food and ethanol intake we measured, while the expression profiles of other genes, including NPF, and the NPF and 5-HT2 receptors, correlated only with ethanol intake or preference. Our results suggest that food and ethanol intake are regulated by some common genes in Drosophila, but that other genes regulate ethanol intake independently of food intake. These results have implications toward the development of therapeutics that preferentially reduce ethanol intake. PMID:27286934

  13. On the evolution of Yeti, a Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin gene.

    PubMed

    Moschetti, Roberta; Celauro, Emanuele; Cruciani, Fulvio; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is a ubiquitous and still unveiled component of eukaryotic genomes, within which it comprises large portions. Although constitutive heterochromatin is generally considered to be transcriptionally silent, it contains a significant variety of sequences that are expressed, among which about 300 single-copy coding genes have been identified by genetic and genomic analyses in the last decades. Here, we report the results of the evolutionary analysis of Yeti, an essential gene of Drosophila melanogaster located in the deep pericentromeric region of chromosome 2R. By FISH, we showed that Yeti maintains a heterochromatin location in both D. simulans and D. sechellia species, closely related to D. melanogaster, while in the more distant species e.g., D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis, it is found within euchromatin, in the syntenic chromosome Muller C, that corresponds to the 2R arm of D. melanogaster chromosome 2. Thus, over evolutionary time, Yeti has been resident on the same chromosomal element, but it progressively moved closer to the pericentric regions. Moreover, in silico reconstruction of the Yeti gene structure in 19 Drosophila species and in 5 non-drosophilid dipterans shows a rather stable organization during evolution. Accordingly, by PCR analysis and sequencing, we found that the single intron of Yeti does not undergo major intraspecies or interspecies size changes, unlike the introns of other essential Drosophila heterochromatin genes, such as light and Dbp80. This implicates diverse evolutionary forces in shaping the structural organization of genes found within heterochromatin. Finally, the results of dS - dN tests show that Yeti is under negative selection both in heterochromatin and euchromatin, and indicate that the change in genomic location did not affected significantly the molecular evolution of the gene. Together, the results of this work contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of constitutive

  14. On the Evolution of Yeti, a Drosophila melanogaster Heterochromatin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Moschetti, Roberta; Celauro, Emanuele; Cruciani, Fulvio; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is a ubiquitous and still unveiled component of eukaryotic genomes, within which it comprises large portions. Although constitutive heterochromatin is generally considered to be transcriptionally silent, it contains a significant variety of sequences that are expressed, among which about 300 single-copy coding genes have been identified by genetic and genomic analyses in the last decades. Here, we report the results of the evolutionary analysis of Yeti, an essential gene of Drosophila melanogaster located in the deep pericentromeric region of chromosome 2R. By FISH, we showed that Yeti maintains a heterochromatin location in both D. simulans and D. sechellia species, closely related to D. melanogaster, while in the more distant species e.g., D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis, it is found within euchromatin, in the syntenic chromosome Muller C, that corresponds to the 2R arm of D. melanogaster chromosome 2. Thus, over evolutionary time, Yeti has been resident on the same chromosomal element, but it progressively moved closer to the pericentric regions. Moreover, in silico reconstruction of the Yeti gene structure in 19 Drosophila species and in 5 non-drosophilid dipterans shows a rather stable organization during evolution. Accordingly, by PCR analysis and sequencing, we found that the single intron of Yeti does not undergo major intraspecies or interspecies size changes, unlike the introns of other essential Drosophila heterochromatin genes, such as light and Dbp80. This implicates diverse evolutionary forces in shaping the structural organization of genes found within heterochromatin. Finally, the results of dS - dN tests show that Yeti is under negative selection both in heterochromatin and euchromatin, and indicate that the change in genomic location did not affected significantly the molecular evolution of the gene. Together, the results of this work contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of constitutive

  15. Mitochondrial DNA content of mature spermatozoa and oocytes in the genetic model Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonci Nikolai; Sutovsky, Peter; Ballard, John William Oman

    2013-07-01

    Although crucial to the success of fertilization and embryogenesis, little is known about the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of mature spermatozoa and oocytes across taxa and across different fertilization systems. Oocytes are assumed to hold a large population of mtDNAs that populate emerging cells during early embryogenesis, whereas spermatozoa harbor only a limited pool of mtDNAs that is believed to sustain functionality but fails to contribute paternal mtDNA to the zygote. Recent work suggests that mature sperm of the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster lack mtDNA, questioning the significance of zygotic mechanisms for the selective elimination of paternal mtDNA and their necessity for fertilization success. This finding further contradicts previous observations of the inheritance of paternal mtDNA in drosophilids. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we estimate the mtDNA content of several laboratory strains of D. melanogaster and D. simulans to shed light on this discrepancy and to describe the mitochondrial/mtDNA load of gametes within this system. These measurements led to an average estimate of 22.91±4.61 mtDNA molecules/copies per spermatozoon across both species and to 1.07E+07±2.71E+06 molecules/copies per oocyte for D. simulans. As a consequence, the ratio of paternal and maternal mtDNA in the zygote was estimated at 1:4.65E+05.

  16. Remodelling of a homeobox gene cluster by multiple independent gene reunions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carolus; Jayasekera, Suvini; Kao, Bryant; Páramo, Moisés; von Grotthuss, Marcin; Ranz, José M

    2015-01-01

    Genome clustering of homeobox genes is often thought to reflect arrangements of tandem gene duplicates maintained by advantageous coordinated gene regulation. Here we analyse the chromosomal organization of the NK homeobox genes, presumed to be part of a single cluster in the Bilaterian ancestor, across 20 arthropods. We find that the ProtoNK cluster was extensively fragmented in some lineages, showing that NK clustering in Drosophila species does not reflect selectively maintained gene arrangements. More importantly, the arrangement of NK and neighbouring genes across the phylogeny supports that, in two instances within the Drosophila genus, some cluster remnants became reunited via large-scale chromosomal rearrangements. Simulated scenarios of chromosome evolution indicate that these reunion events are unlikely unless the genome neighbourhoods harbouring the participating genes tend to colocalize in the nucleus. Our results underscore how mechanisms other than tandem gene duplication can result in paralogous gene clustering during genome evolution. PMID:25739651

  17. A Mitochondrial ATP synthase Subunit Interacts with TOR Signaling to Modulate Protein Homeostasis and Lifespan in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoping; Wheeler, Charles T.; Yolitz, Jason; Laslo, Mara; Alberico, Thomas; Sun, Yaning; Song, Qisheng; Zou, Sige

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Diet composition is a critical determinant of lifespan and nutrient imbalance is detrimental health. However, how nutrients interact with genetic factors to modulate lifespan remains elusive. We investigated how diet composition influences mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit d (ATPsyn-d) in modulating lifespan in Drosophila. ATPsyn-d knockdown extended lifespan in females fed low carbohydrate-to-protein (C:P) diets, but not the high C:P ratio diet. This extension was associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress, transcriptional changes in metabolism, proteostasis and immune genes, reduced protein damage and aggregation, and reduced phosphorylation of S6K and ERK in TOR and MAPK signaling, respectively. ATPsyn-d knockdown did not extend lifespan in females with reduced TOR signaling induced genetically by Tsc2 overexpression or pharmacologically by rapamycin. Our data reveal a link among diet, mitochondria, MAPK and TOR signaling in aging and stresses the importance of considering genetic background and diet composition in implementing interventions for promoting healthy aging. PMID:25220459

  18. The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Barry, William E; Thummel, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Although mutations in HNF4A were identified as the cause of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young 1 (MODY1) two decades ago, the mechanisms by which this nuclear receptor regulates glucose homeostasis remain unclear. Here we report that loss of Drosophila HNF4 recapitulates hallmark symptoms of MODY1, including adult-onset hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). These defects are linked to a role for dHNF4 in promoting mitochondrial function as well as the expression of Hex-C, a homolog of the MODY2 gene Glucokinase. dHNF4 is required in the fat body and insulin-producing cells to maintain glucose homeostasis by supporting a developmental switch toward oxidative phosphorylation and GSIS at the transition to adulthood. These findings establish an animal model for MODY1 and define a developmental reprogramming of metabolism to support the energetic needs of the mature animal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11183.001 PMID:27185732

  19. Validation of Mitochondrial Gene Delivery in Liver and Skeletal Muscle via Hydrodynamic Injection Using an Artificial Mitochondrial Reporter DNA Vector.

    PubMed

    Yasuzaki, Yukari; Yamada, Yuma; Ishikawa, Takuya; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-12-01

    For successful mitochondrial transgene expression, two independent processes, i.e., developing a mitochondrial gene delivery system and construction of DNA vector to achieve mitochondrial gene expression, are required. To date, very few studies dealing with mitochondrial gene delivery have been reported and, in most cases, transgene expression was not validated, because the construction of a reporter DNA vector for mitochondrial gene expression is the bottleneck. In this study, mitochondrial transgene expression by the in vivo mitochondrial gene delivery of an artificial mitochondrial reporter DNA vector via hydrodynamic injection is demonstrated. In the procedure, a large volume of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) is rapidly injected. We designed and constructed pHSP-mtLuc (CGG) as a mitochondrial reporter DNA vector that possesses a mitochondrial heavy strand promoter (HSP) and an artificial mitochondrial genome with the reporter NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system. We delivered the pDNA into mouse liver mitochondria by hydrodynamic injection, and detected exogenous mRNA in the liver using reverse transcription PCR analysis. The hydrodynamic injection of pHSP-mtLuc (CGG) resulted in the expression of the Nluc luciferase protein in liver and skeletal muscle. Our mitochondrial transgene expression reporter system would contribute to mitochondrial gene therapy and further studies directed at mitochondrial molecular biology.

  20. Codon usage bias and base composition of nuclear genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, E N; Hartl, D L

    1993-07-01

    The nuclear genes of Drosophila evolve at various rates. This variation seems to correlate with codon-usage bias. In order to elucidate the determining factors of the various evolutionary rates and codon-usage bias in the Drosophila nuclear genome, we compared patterns of codon-usage bias with base compositions of exons and introns. Our results clearly show the existence of selective constraints at the translational level for synonymous (silent) sites and, on the other hand, the neutrality or near neutrality of long stretches of nucleotide sequence within noncoding regions. These features were found for comparisons among nuclear genes in a particular species (Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila virilis) as well as in a particular gene (alcohol dehydrogenase) among different species in the genus Drosophila. The patterns of evolution of synonymous sites in Drosophila are more similar to those in the prokaryotes than they are to those in mammals. If a difference in the level of expression of each gene is a main reason for the difference in the degree of selective constraint, the evolution of synonymous sites of Drosophila genes would be sensitive to the level of expression among genes and would change as the level of expression becomes altered in different species. Our analysis verifies these predictions and also identifies additional selective constraints at the translational level in Drosophila.

  1. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Prud`homme, N.; Gans, M.; Masson, M.; Terzian, C.; Bucheton, A.

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is table and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovo{sup D1} female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovo{sup D1} reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. 40 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, N; Gans, M; Masson, M; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is stable and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovoD1 female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovoD1 reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. PMID:7713426

  3. Misexpression screen for genes altering the olfactory map in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhou, Weiguang; Yin, Chong; Chen, Weitao; Ozawa, Rie; Ang, Lay-Hong; Anandan, Lavanya; Aigaki, Toshiro; Hing, Huey

    2006-04-01

    Despite the identification of a number of guidance molecules, a comprehensive picture has yet to emerge to explain the precise anatomy of the olfactory map. From a misexpression screen of 1,515 P{GS} lines, we identified 23 genes that, when forcibly expressed in the olfactory receptor neurons, disrupted the stereotyped anatomy of the Drosophila antennal lobes. These genes, which have not been shown previously to control olfactory map development, encode novel proteins as well as proteins with known roles in axonal outgrowth and cytoskeletal remodeling. We analyzed Akap200, which encodes a Protein Kinase A-binding protein. Overexpression of Akap200 resulted in fusion of the glomeruli, while its loss resulted in misshapen and ectopic glomeruli. The requirement of Akap200 validates our screen as an effective approach for recovering genes controlling glomerular map patterning. Our finding of diverse classes of genes reveals the complexity of the mechanisms that underlie olfactory map development.

  4. Mitochondrial retrograde signaling regulates neuronal function

    PubMed Central

    Cagin, Umut; Duncan, Olivia F.; Gatt, Ariana P.; Dionne, Marc S.; Sweeney, Sean T.; Bateman, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly linked to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Mitochondria communicate their bioenergetic status to the cell via mitochondrial retrograde signaling. To investigate the role of mitochondrial retrograde signaling in neurons, we induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the Drosophila nervous system. Neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction causes reduced viability, defects in neuronal function, decreased redox potential, and reduced numbers of presynaptic mitochondria and active zones. We find that neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction stimulates a retrograde signaling response that controls the expression of several hundred nuclear genes. We show that the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIFα) ortholog Similar (Sima) regulates the expression of several of these retrograde genes, suggesting that Sima mediates mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Remarkably, knockdown of Sima restores neuronal function without affecting the primary mitochondrial defect, demonstrating that mitochondrial retrograde signaling is partly responsible for neuronal dysfunction. Sima knockdown also restores function in a Drosophila model of the mitochondrial disease Leigh syndrome and in a Drosophila model of familial Parkinson’s disease. Thus, mitochondrial retrograde signaling regulates neuronal activity and can be manipulated to enhance neuronal function, despite mitochondrial impairment. PMID:26489648

  5. Correlated evolution among six gene families in Drosophila revealed by parallel change of gene numbers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Proteins involved in a pathway are likely to evolve in a correlated fashion, and coevolving gene families tend to undergo complementary gains and losses. Accordingly, gene copy numbers (i.e., repertoire size) tend to show parallel changes during the evolution of coevolving gene families. To test and verify this hypothesis, here we describe positive correlations among the repertoire sizes of six gene families, that is, trypsin-like serine protease, odorant-binding protein, odorant receptor, gustatory receptor, cytochrome P450, and glutathione S-transferase after excluding the possibility of phylogenetic constraint and random drift. The observed correlations are indicative of parallel changes in the repertoire sizes of the six gene families that are due to similar demands for the quantity of these different genes in different lineages of Drosophila. In conclusion, we propose that the correlated evolution among these six gene families in Drosophila is a signature of a parallel response to ecological adaptation.

  6. NF-Y transcriptionally regulates the Drosophila p53 gene.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Trong; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2011-02-15

    The p53 protein is important in multicellular organisms, where it regulates the cell cycle and thus functions as a tumor suppressor that contributes to preventing cancer. However, molecular regulation of p53 gene expression is not fully understood. NF-YA is a subunit of the NF-Y trimeric complex, a transcription factor that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions of a variety of genes playing key roles in cell cycle regulation. We have identified four potential Drosophila NF-Y (dNF-Y)-binding sites located in the 5'-flanking region of the Drosophila p53 (dmp53) gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses using anti-dNF-YA antibodies confirmed that dNF-YA binds specifically to the genomic region containing CCAAT boxes in the dmp53 gene promoter in vivo. Furthermore, the thorax disclosed phenotype of dNF-YA knockdown flies can be enhanced by dmp53 mutation. In addition, the level of dmp53 mRNA was found to be decreased in the dNF-YA knockdown cells and transient expression of the luciferase gene revealed that wild-type dmp53 gene promoter activity is much stronger than mutated promoter activity in S2 cells. The requirement of CCAAT boxes for dmp53 promoter activity was further confirmed by expression of EGFP in various tissues from transgenic flies carrying wild-type and CCAAT box-mutated versions of dmp53 promoter-GFP fusion genes. These results taken together indicate that dNF-Y is necessary for dmp53 gene promoter activity.

  7. Genes encoding vitamin-K epoxide reductase are present in Drosophila and trypanosomatid protists.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Hugh M

    2004-10-01

    Vitamin-K epoxide reductase is encoded by the VKORC1 gene in mammals and other vertebrates, which also have a paralog, VKORC1L1. Single homologs are present in basal deuterostome and insect genomes, including Drosophila, and three trypanosomatid protists. VKOR is therefore an ancient gene/protein that can be studied in the Drosophila model system.

  8. Smellblind: A Gene Required for Drosophila Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, M.; Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this article we define and characterize the smellblind gene (sbl). We show that two mutants, sbl and olfD(x9), both isolated by virtue of their olfactory phenotypes and analyzed extensively by others with respect to courtship behavior, contain mutations at a single locus. Meiotic recombination, duplication, and deficiency mapping are used to localize this gene, sbl, to cytogenetic position 14F6-15A2-3 on the X chromosome. Mutations of the locus are shown to produce severe defects not only in larval olfactory response to several volatile chemicals, but also in larval contact chemosensory response. Both sbl and olfD(x9) give a robust response, however, in a new test of larval phototactic response, which we describe here. Both alleles are shown to be heat-sensitive lethals. Four additional recessive lethal alleles, two EMS-induced, one dysgenic, and one spontaneous, are also described. PMID:2106470

  9. Two rapidly evolving genes contribute to male fitness in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Josephine A; Jones, Corbin D

    2013-12-01

    Purifying selection often results in conservation of gene sequence and function. The most functionally conserved genes are also thought to be among the most biologically essential. These observations have led to the use of sequence conservation as a proxy for functional conservation. Here we describe two genes that are exceptions to this pattern. We show that lack of sequence conservation among orthologs of CG15460 and CG15323-herein named jean-baptiste (jb) and karr, respectively-does not necessarily predict lack of functional conservation. These two Drosophila melanogaster genes are among the most rapidly evolving protein-coding genes in this species, being nearly as diverged from their D. yakuba orthologs as random sequences are. jb and karr are both expressed at an elevated level in larval males and adult testes, but they are not accessory gland proteins and their loss does not affect male fertility. Instead, knockdown of these genes in D. melanogaster via RNA interference caused male-biased viability defects. These viability effects occur prior to the third instar for jb and during late pupation for karr. We show that putative orthologs to jb and karr are also expressed strongly in the testes of other Drosophila species and have similar gene structure across species despite low levels of sequence conservation. While standard molecular evolution tests could not reject neutrality, other data hint at a role for natural selection. Together these data provide a clear case where a lack of sequence conservation does not imply a lack of conservation of expression or function.

  10. Variable rates of evolution among Drosophila opsin genes.

    PubMed

    Carulli, J P; Hartl, D L

    1992-09-01

    DNA sequences and chromosomal locations of four Drosophila pseudoobscura opsin genes were compared with those from Drosophila melanogaster, to determine factors that influence the evolution of multigene families. Although the opsin proteins perform the same primary functions, the comparisons reveal a wide range of evolutionary rates. Amino acid identities for the opsins range from 90% for Rh2 to more than 95% for Rh1 and Rh4. Variation in the rate of synonymous site substitution is especially striking: the major opsin, encoded by the Rh1 locus, differs at only 26.1% of synonymous sites between D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster, while the other opsin loci differ by as much as 39.2% at synonymous sites. Rh3 and Rh4 have similar levels of synonymous nucleotide substitution but significantly different amounts of amino acid replacement. This decoupling of nucleotide substitution and amino acid replacement suggests that different selective pressures are acting on these similar genes. There is significant heterogeneity in base composition and codon usage bias among the opsin genes in both species, but there are no consistent relationships between these factors and the rate of evolution of the opsins. In addition to exhibiting variation in evolutionary rates, the opsin loci in these species reveal rearrangements of chromosome elements.

  11. Drosophila cyclin D/Cdk4 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and aging and sensitizes animals to hypoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Icreverzi, Amalia; Flor de la Cruz, Aida; Van Voorhies, Wayne A

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila cyclin D (CycD) is the single fly ortholog of the mammalian cyclin D1 and promotes both cell cycle progression and cellular growth. However, little is known about how CycD promotes cell growth. We show here that CycD/Cdk4 hyperactivity leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis), mitochondrial mass, NRF-1 activity (Tfam transcript levels) and metabolic activity in Drosophila, whereas loss of CycD/Cdk4 activity has the opposite effects. Surprisingly, both CycD/Cdk4 addition and loss of function increase mitochondrial superoxide production and decrease lifespan, indicating that an imbalance in mitobiogenesis may lead to oxidative stress and aging. In addition, we provide multiple lines of evidence indicating that CycD/Cdk4 activity affects the hypoxic status of cells and sensitizes animals to hypoxia. Both mitochondrial and hypoxia-related effects can be detected at global transcriptional level. We propose that mitobiogenesis and the hypoxic stress response have an antagonistic relationship, and that CycD/Cdk4 levels regulate mitobiogenesis contemporaneous to the cell cycle, such that only when cells are sufficiently oxygenated can they proliferate. PMID:22293404

  12. Histone Gene Multiplicity and Position Effect Variegation in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Gerald D.; Sinclair, Donald A.; Grigliatti, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    The histone genes of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster are reiterated 100–150 times per haploid genome and are located in the segment of chromosome 2 that corresponds to polytene bands 39D2-3 to E1-2. The influence of altered histone gene multiplicity on chromatin structure has been assayed by measuring modification of the gene inactivation associated with position effect variegation in genotypes bearing deletions of the 39D-E segment. The proportion of cells in which a variegating gene is active is increased in genotypes that are heterozygous for a deficiency that removes the histone gene complex. Deletions that remove segments adjacent to the histone gene complex have no effect on the expression of variegating genes. Suppression of position effect variegation associated with reduction of histone gene multiplicity applies to both X-linked and autosomal variegating genes. Position effects exerted by both autosomal and sex-chromosome heterochromatin were suppressible by deletions of the histone gene complex. The suppression was independent of the presence of the Y chromosome. A deficiency that deletes only the distal portion of the histone gene complex also has the ability to suppress position effect variegation. Duplication of the histone gene complex did not enhance position effect variegation. Deletion or duplication of the histone gene complex in the maternal genome had no effect on the extent of variegation in progeny whose histone gene multiplicity was normal. These results are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the organization of the histone gene complex and control of its expression. PMID:17246163

  13. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Erokhin, Maksim; Davydova, Anna; Kyrchanova, Olga; Parshikov, Alexander; Georgiev, Pavel; Chetverina, Darya

    2011-09-01

    Chromatin insulators are regulatory elements involved in the modulation of enhancer-promoter communication. The 1A2 and Wari insulators are located immediately downstream of the Drosophila yellow and white genes, respectively. Using an assay based on the yeast GAL4 activator, we have found that both insulators are able to interact with their target promoters in transgenic lines, forming gene loops. The existence of an insulator-promoter loop is confirmed by the fact that insulator proteins could be detected on the promoter only in the presence of an insulator in the transgene. The upstream promoter regions, which are required for long-distance stimulation by enhancers, are not essential for promoter-insulator interactions. Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription.

  14. Context-dependent effects of Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplotype on male locomotive activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dean, R; Lemos, B; Dowling, D K

    2015-10-01

    Some regions of the genome exhibit sexual asymmetries in inheritance and are thus subjected to sex-biased evolutionary forces. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) enables mtDNA mutations harmful to males, but not females, to accumulate. In the face of male-harmful mtDNA mutation accumulation, selection will favour the evolution of compensatory modifiers in the nuclear genome that offset fitness losses to males. The Y chromosome is a candidate to host these modifiers, because it is paternally inherited, known to harbour an abundance of genetic variation for male fertility, and therefore likely to be under strong selection to uphold male viability. Here, we test for intergenomic interactions involving mtDNA and Y chromosomes in male Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we examine effects of each of these genomic regions, and their interaction, on locomotive activity, across different environmental contexts--both dietary and social. We found that both the mtDNA haplotype and Y chromosome haplotype affected activity in males assayed in an environment perceived as social. These effects, however, were not evident in males assayed in perceived solitary environments, and neither social nor solitary treatments revealed evidence for intergenomic interactions. Finally, the magnitude and direction of these genetic effects was further contingent on the diet treatment of the males. Thus, genes within the mtDNA and Y chromosome are involved in genotype-by-environment interactions. These interactions might contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation within these asymmetrically inherited gene regions and complicate the dynamics of genetic interactions between the mtDNA and the Y chromosome.

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial genes for inferring Trichuris phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Rocío; Cutillas, Cristina; Nadler, Steven A

    2015-12-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene (624 bp) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) gene (520 bp) were obtained by PCR and evaluated for utility in inferring the phylogenetic relationships among Trichuris species. Published sequences of one other nuclear gene (18S or SSU rRNA, 1816-1846 bp) and one additional mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene (cytochrome oxidase 1, cox1, 342 bp) were also analyzed. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were used to infer phylogenies for each gene separately but also for the combined mitochondrial data (two genes), the combined nuclear data (two genes), and the total evidence (four gene) dataset. Few Trichuris clades were uniformly resolved across separate analyses of individual genes. For the mtDNA, the cob gene trees had greater phylogenetic resolution and tended to have higher support values than the cox1 analyses. For nuclear genes, the SSU gene trees had slightly greater resolution and support values than the TPI analyses, but TPI was the only gene with reliable support for the deepest nodes in the tree. Combined analyses of genes yielded strongly supported clades in most cases, with the exception of the relationship among Trichuris clades 1, 2, and 3, which showed conflicting results between nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Both the TPI and cob genes proved valuable for inferring Trichuris relationships, with greatest resolution and support values achieved through combined analysis of multiple genes. Based on the phylogeny of the combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, parsimony mapping of definitive host utilization depicts artiodactyls as the ancestral hosts for these Trichuris, with host-shifts into primates, rodents, and Carnivora.

  16. Molecular evolution of sex-biased genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Hambuch, Tina M; Parsch, John

    2004-11-01

    Studies of morphology, interspecific hybridization, protein/DNA sequences, and levels of gene expression have suggested that sex-related characters (particularly those involved in male reproduction) evolve rapidly relative to non-sex-related characters. Here we report a general comparison of evolutionary rates of sex-biased genes using data from cDNA microarray experiments and comparative genomic studies of Drosophila. Comparisons of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rates (d(N)/d(S)) between species of the D. melanogaster subgroup revealed that genes with male-biased expression had significantly faster rates of evolution than genes with female-biased or unbiased expression. The difference was caused primarily by a higher d(N) in the male-biased genes. The same pattern was observed for comparisons among more distantly related species. In comparisons between D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura, genes with highly biased male expression were significantly more divergent than genes with highly biased female expression. In many cases, orthologs of D. melanogaster male-biased genes could not be identified in D. pseudoobscura through a Blast search. In contrast to the male-biased genes, there was no clear evidence for accelerated rates of evolution in female-biased genes, and most comparisons indicated a reduced rate of evolution in female-biased genes relative to unbiased genes. Male-biased genes did not show an increased ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous polymorphism within D. melanogaster, and comparisons of polymorphism/divergence ratios suggest that the rapid evolution of male-biased genes is caused by positive selection.

  17. Rapid evolution of male-biased gene expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Meiklejohn, Colin D; Parsch, John; Ranz, José M; Hartl, Daniel L

    2003-08-19

    A number of genes associated with sexual traits and reproduction evolve at the sequence level faster than the majority of genes coding for non-sex-related traits. Whole genome analyses allow this observation to be extended beyond the limited set of genes that have been studied thus far. We use cDNA microarrays to demonstrate that this pattern holds in Drosophila for the phenotype of gene expression as well, but in one sex only. Genes that are male-biased in their expression show more variation in relative expression levels between conspecific populations and two closely related species than do female-biased genes or genes with sexually monomorphic expression patterns. Additionally, elevated ratios of interspecific expression divergence to intraspecific expression variation among male-biased genes suggest that differences in rates of evolution may be due in part to natural selection. This finding has implications for our understanding of the importance of sexual dimorphism for speciation and rates of phenotypic evolution.

  18. Drosophila duplicate genes evolve new functions on the fly.

    PubMed

    Assis, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication is thought to play a key role in phenotypic innovation. While several processes have been hypothesized to drive the retention and functional evolution of duplicate genes, their genomic contributions have never been determined. We recently developed the first genome-wide method to classify these processes by comparing distances between expression profiles of duplicate genes and their ancestral single-copy orthologs. Application of our approach to spatial gene expression profiles in two Drosophila species revealed that a majority of young duplicate genes possess new functions, and that new functions are acquired rapidly-often within a few million years. Surprisingly, new functions tend to arise in younger copies of duplicate gene pairs. Moreover, we found that young duplicates are often specifically expressed in testes, whereas old duplicates are broadly expressed across several tissues, providing strong support for the hypothetical "out-of-testes" origin of new genes. In this Extra View, I discuss our findings in the context of theoretical predictions about gene duplication, with a particular emphasis on the importance of natural selection in the evolution of novel phenotypes.

  19. Visualization of Drosophila melanogaster chorion genes undergoing amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Osheim, Y.N.; Miller, O.L. Jr.; Beyer, A.L.

    1988-07-01

    The authors visualized by electron microscopy the preferential amplification of Drosophila chorion genes in late-stage follicle cells. Chromatin spreads revealed large clusters of actively transcribed genes of the appropriate size, spacing, and orientation for chorion genes that were expressed with the correct temporal specificity. Occasionally the active genes were observed within or contiguous with intact replicons and replication forks. In every case, our micrographs are consistent with the hypothesis that the central region of each chorion domain contains a replication origin(s) used during the amplification event. In one case, a small replication bubble was observed precisely at the site of the essential region of the X chromosome amplification control element. The micrographs also suggest that forks at either end of a replicon frequently progress very different distances, presumably due to different times in initiation or different rates of movement. It appears that all chorion genes (even those coding for minor proteins) are transcribed in a ''fully on'' condition, albeit for varied durations, and that if replication fork passage does inactivate a promoter, it does so very transiently. Furthermore, a DNA segment containing one active gene is likely to have an additional active gene(s). Surprisingly, during the time frame of expected maximum activity, approximately half of the chorion sequences appear transciptionally inactive.

  20. Neurally expressed Drosophila genes encoding homologs of the NSF and SNAP secretory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, R W; Pallanck, L; Ganetzky, B

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have now converged to indicate that the neurotransmitter release apparatus is formed by assembly of cytosolic proteins with proteins of the synaptic vesicle and presynaptic terminal membranes. We are undertaking a genetic approach in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of two types of cytosolic proteins thought to function in this complex: N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and the soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs). We have identified Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate and yeast NSF and SNAP genes. Both Drosophila genes encode polypeptides that closely resemble their vertebrate counterparts and are expressed in the nervous system; neither appears to be in a family of closely related Drosophila genes. These results indicate that the Drosophila NSF and SNAP genes are excellent candidates for mutational analysis of neurotransmitter release. Images PMID:8202553

  1. Human Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein MRPL12 Interacts Directly with Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase to Modulate Mitochondrial Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhibo; Cotney, Justin; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2008-01-01

    The core human mitochondrial transcription machinery comprises a single subunit bacteriophage-related RNA polymerase, POLRMT, the high mobility group box DNA-binding protein h-mtTFA/TFAM, and two transcriptional co-activator proteins, h-mtTFB1 and h-mtTFB2 that also have rRNA methyltransferase activity. Recapitulation of specific initiation of transcription in vitro can be achieved by a complex of POLRMT, h-mtTFA, and either h-mtTFB1 or h-mtTFB2. However, the nature of mitochondrial transcription complexes in vivo and the potential involvement of additional proteins in the transcription process in human mitochondria have not been extensively investigated. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription and translation are physically coupled via the formation of a multiprotein complex nucleated by the binding of Nam1p to the amino-terminal domain of mtRNA polymerase (Rpo41p). This model system paradigm led us to search for proteins that interact with POLRMT to regulate mitochondrial gene expression in humans. Using an affinity capture strategy to identify POLRMT-binding proteins, we identified mitochondrial ribosomal protein L7/L12 (MRPL12) as a protein in HeLa mitochondrial extracts that interacts specifically with POLRMT in vitro. Purified recombinant MRPL12 binds to POLRMT and stimulates mitochondrial transcription activity in vitro, demonstrating that this interaction is both direct and functional. Finally, from HeLa cells that overexpress FLAG epitope-tagged MRPL12, increased steady-state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts are observed and MRPL12-POLRMT complexes can be co-immunoprecipitated, providing strong evidence that this interaction enhances mitochondrial transcription or RNA stability in vivo. We speculate that the MRPL12 interaction with POLRMT is likely part of a novel regulatory mechanism that coordinates mitochondrial transcription with translation and/or ribosome biogenesis during human mitochondrial gene expression. PMID:17337445

  2. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  3. Trainable Gene Regulation Networks with Applications to Drosophila Pattern Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2000-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. For details the reader is referred to the papers introduced below. It will then introduce a new gene regulation network model which can describe promoter-level substructure in gene regulation. As described in chapter 2, gene regulation may be thought of as a combination of cis-acting regulation by the extended promoter of a gene (including all regulatory sequences) by way of the transcription complex, and of trans-acting regulation by the transcription factor products of other genes. If we simplify the cis-action by using a phenomenological model which can be tuned to data, such as a unit or other small portion of an artificial neural network, then the full transacting interaction between multiple genes during development can be modelled as a larger network which can again be tuned or trained to data. The larger network will in general need to have recurrent (feedback) connections since at least some real gene regulation networks do. This is the basic modeling approach taken, which describes how a set of recurrent neural networks can be used as a modeling language for multiple developmental processes including gene regulation within a single cell, cell-cell communication, and cell division. Such network models have been called "gene circuits", "gene regulation networks", or "genetic regulatory networks", sometimes without distinguishing the models from the actual modeled systems.

  4. Global analysis of patterns of gene expression during Drosophila embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tomancak, Pavel; Berman, Benjamin P; Beaton, Amy; Weiszmann, Richard; Kwan, Elaine; Hartenstein, Volker; Celniker, Susan E; Rubin, Gerald M

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell and tissue specific gene expression is a defining feature of embryonic development in multi-cellular organisms. However, the range of gene expression patterns, the extent of the correlation of expression with function, and the classes of genes whose spatial expression are tightly regulated have been unclear due to the lack of an unbiased, genome-wide survey of gene expression patterns. Results We determined and documented embryonic expression patterns for 6,003 (44%) of the 13,659 protein-coding genes identified in the Drosophila melanogaster genome with over 70,000 images and controlled vocabulary annotations. Individual expression patterns are extraordinarily diverse, but by supplementing qualitative in situ hybridization data with quantitative microarray time-course data using a hybrid clustering strategy, we identify groups of genes with similar expression. Of 4,496 genes with detectable expression in the embryo, 2,549 (57%) fall into 10 clusters representing broad expression patterns. The remaining 1,947 (43%) genes fall into 29 clusters representing restricted expression, 20% patterned as early as blastoderm, with the majority restricted to differentiated cell types, such as epithelia, nervous system, or muscle. We investigate the relationship between expression clusters and known molecular and cellular-physiological functions. Conclusion Nearly 60% of the genes with detectable expression exhibit broad patterns reflecting quantitative rather than qualitative differences between tissues. The other 40% show tissue-restricted expression; the expression patterns of over 1,500 of these genes are documented here for the first time. Within each of these categories, we identified clusters of genes associated with particular cellular and developmental functions. PMID:17645804

  5. Using Drosophila melanogaster to identify chemotherapy toxicity genes.

    PubMed

    King, Elizabeth G; Kislukhin, Galina; Walters, Kelli N; Long, Anthony D

    2014-09-01

    The severity of the toxic side effects of chemotherapy shows a great deal of interindividual variability, and much of this variation is likely genetically based. Simple DNA tests predictive of toxic side effects could revolutionize the way chemotherapy is carried out. Due to the challenges in identifying polymorphisms that affect toxicity in humans, we use Drosophila fecundity following oral exposure to carboplatin, gemcitabine and mitomycin C as a model system to identify naturally occurring DNA variants predictive of toxicity. We use the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource (DSPR), a panel of recombinant inbred lines derived from a multiparent advanced intercross, to map quantitative trait loci affecting chemotoxicity. We identify two QTL each for carboplatin and gemcitabine toxicity and none for mitomycin. One QTL is associated with fly orthologs of a priori human carboplatin candidate genes ABCC2 and MSH2, and a second QTL is associated with fly orthologs of human gemcitabine candidate genes RRM2 and RRM2B. The third, a carboplatin QTL, is associated with a posteriori human orthologs from solute carrier family 7A, INPP4A&B, and NALCN. The fourth, a gemcitabine QTL that also affects methotrexate toxicity, is associated with human ortholog GPx4. Mapped QTL each explain a significant fraction of variation in toxicity, yet individual SNPs and transposable elements in the candidate gene regions fail to singly explain QTL peaks. Furthermore, estimates of founder haplotype effects are consistent with genes harboring several segregating functional alleles. We find little evidence for nonsynonymous SNPs explaining mapped QTL; thus it seems likely that standing variation in toxicity is due to regulatory alleles.

  6. An enhanced gene targeting toolkit for Drosophila: Golic+.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Min; Huang, Yaling; Pfeiffer, Barret D; Yao, Xiaohao; Lee, Tzumin

    2015-03-01

    Ends-out gene targeting allows seamless replacement of endogenous genes with engineered DNA fragments by homologous recombination, thus creating designer "genes" in the endogenous locus. Conventional gene targeting in Drosophila involves targeting with the preintegrated donor DNA in the larval primordial germ cells. Here we report G: ene targeting during O: ogenesis with L: ethality I: nhibitor and C: RISPR/Cas (Golic+), which improves on all major steps in such transgene-based gene targeting systems. First, donor DNA is integrated into precharacterized attP sites for efficient flip-out. Second, FLP, I-SceI, and Cas9 are specifically expressed in cystoblasts, which arise continuously from female germline stem cells, thereby providing a continual source of independent targeting events in each offspring. Third, a repressor-based lethality selection is implemented to facilitate screening for correct targeting events. Altogether, Golic+ realizes high-efficiency ends-out gene targeting in ovarian cystoblasts, which can be readily scaled up to achieve high-throughput genome editing. PMID:25555988

  7. An Enhanced Gene Targeting Toolkit for Drosophila: Golic+

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Min; Huang, Yaling; Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Yao, Xiaohao; Lee, Tzumin

    2015-01-01

    Ends-out gene targeting allows seamless replacement of endogenous genes with engineered DNA fragments by homologous recombination, thus creating designer “genes” in the endogenous locus. Conventional gene targeting in Drosophila involves targeting with the preintegrated donor DNA in the larval primordial germ cells. Here we report gene targeting during oogenesis with lethality inhibitor and CRISPR/Cas (Golic+), which improves on all major steps in such transgene-based gene targeting systems. First, donor DNA is integrated into precharacterized attP sites for efficient flip-out. Second, FLP, I-SceI, and Cas9 are specifically expressed in cystoblasts, which arise continuously from female germline stem cells, thereby providing a continual source of independent targeting events in each offspring. Third, a repressor-based lethality selection is implemented to facilitate screening for correct targeting events. Altogether, Golic+ realizes high-efficiency ends-out gene targeting in ovarian cystoblasts, which can be readily scaled up to achieve high-throughput genome editing. PMID:25555988

  8. The fungal mitochondrial genome project: evolution of fungal mitochondrial genomes and their gene expression.

    PubMed

    Paquin, B; Laforest, M J; Forget, L; Roewer, I; Wang, Z; Longcore, J; Lang, B F

    1997-05-01

    The goal of the fungal mitochondrial genome project (FMGP) is to sequence complete mitochondrial genomes for a representative sample of the major fungal lineages; to analyze the genome structure, gene content, and conserved sequence elements of these sequences; and to study the evolution of gene expression in fungal mitochondria. By using our new sequence data for evolutionary studies, we were able to construct phylogenetic trees that provide further solid evidence that animals and fungi share a common ancestor to the exclusion of chlorophytes and protists. With a database comprising multiple mitochondrial gene sequences, the level of support for our mitochondrial phylogenies is unprecedented, in comparison to trees inferred with nuclear ribosomal RNA sequences. We also found several new molecular features in the mitochondrial genomes of lower fungi, including: (1) tRNA editing, which is the same type as that found in the mitochondria of the amoeboid protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii; (2) two novel types of putative mobile DNA elements, one encoding a site-specific endonuclease that confers mobility on the element, and the other constituting a class of highly compact, structured elements; and (3) a large number of introns, which provide insights into intron origins and evolution. Here, we present an overview of these results, and discuss examples of the diversity of structures found in the fungal mitochondrial genome.

  9. Global identification of bursicon-regulated genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    An, Shiheng; Wang, Songjie; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Beerntsen, Brenda; Ellersieck, Mark; Song, Qisheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Bursicon is a heterodimer neuropeptide responsible for regulating cuticle sclerotization and wing expansion in several insect species. Recent studies indicate that the action of bursicon is mediated by a specific G protein-coupled receptor DLGR2 and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. However, little is known regarding the genes that are regulated by bursicon. The identification of bursicon-regulated genes is the focus of this investigation. Results We used DNA microarray analysis to identify bursicon-regulated genes in neck-ligated flies (Drosophila melanogaster) that received recombinant bursicon (r-bursicon). Fifty four genes were found to be regulated by bursicon 1 h post r-bursicon injection, 52 being up-regulated and 2 down-regulated while 33 genes were influenced by r-bursicon 3 h post-injection (24 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated genes). Analysis of these genes by inference from the fly database revealed that these genes encode proteins with diverse functions, including cell signaling, gene transcription, DNA/RNA binding, ion trafficking, proteolysis-peptidolysis, metabolism, cytoskeleton formation, immune response and cell-adhesion. Twenty eight genes randomly selected from the microarray-identified list were verified by real time PCR (qPCR) which supported the microarray data. Temporal response studies of 13 identified and verified genes by qPCR revealed that the temporal expression patterns of these genes are consistent with the microarray data. Conclusion Using r-bursicon, we identified 87 genes that are regulated by bursicon, 30 of which have no previously known function. Most importantly, all genes randomly selected from the microarray-identified list were verified by real time PCR. Temporal analysis of 13 verified genes revealed that the expression of these genes was indeed induced by bursicon and correlated well with the cuticle sclerotization process. The composite data suggest that these genes play important roles in regulating the

  10. Epistatic partners of neurogenic genes modulate Drosophila olfactory behavior.

    PubMed

    He, X; Zhou, S; St Armour, G E; Mackay, T F C; Anholt, R R H

    2016-02-01

    The extent to which epistasis affects the genetic architecture of complex traits is difficult to quantify, and identifying variants in natural populations with epistatic interactions is challenging. Previous studies in Drosophila implicated extensive epistasis between variants in genes that affect neural connectivity and contribute to natural variation in olfactory response to benzaldehyde. In this study, we implemented a powerful screen to quantify the extent of epistasis as well as identify candidate interacting variants using 203 inbred wild-derived lines with sequenced genomes of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We crossed the DGRP lines to P[GT1]-element insertion mutants in Sema-5c and neuralized (neur), two neurodevelopmental loci which affect olfactory behavior, and to their coisogenic wild-type control. We observed significant variation in olfactory responses to benzaldehyde among F1 genotypes and for the DGRP line by mutant genotype interactions for both loci, showing extensive nonadditive genetic variation. We performed genome-wide association analyses to identify the candidate modifier loci. None of these polymorphisms were in or near the focal genes; therefore, epistasis is the cause of the nonadditive genetic variance. Candidate genes could be placed in interaction networks. Several candidate modifiers are associated with neural development. Analyses of mutants of candidate epistatic partners with neur (merry-go-round (mgr), prospero (pros), CG10098, Alhambra (Alh) and CG12535) and Sema-5c (CG42540 and bruchpilot (brp)) showed aberrant olfactory responses compared with coisogenic controls. Thus, integrating genome-wide analyses of natural variants with mutations at defined genomic locations in a common coisogenic background can unmask specific epistatic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26678546

  11. Paralogous genes involved in juvenile hormone action in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Aaron; Barry, Joshua; Wang, Shaoli; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Wilson, Thomas G

    2010-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is critical for multiple aspects of insect development and physiology. Although roles for the hormone have received considerable study, an understanding of the molecules necessary for JH action in insects has been frustratingly slow to evolve. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in Drosophila melanogaster fulfills many of the requirements for a hormone receptor gene. A paralogous gene, germ-cell expressed (gce), possesses homology and is a candidate as a Met partner in JH action. Expression of gce was found to occur at multiple times and in multiple tissues during development, similar to that previously found for Met. To probe roles of this gene in JH action, we carried out in vivo gce over- and underexpression studies. We show by overexpression studies that gce can substitute in vivo for Met, alleviating preadult but not adult phenotypic characters. We also demonstrate that RNA interference-driven knockdown of gce expression in transgenic flies results in preadult lethality in the absence of MET. These results show that (1) unlike Met, gce is a vital gene and shows functional flexibility and (2) both gene products appear to promote JH action in preadult but not adult development.

  12. Molecular Population Genetics of Drosophila Immune System Genes

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. G.; Wang, L.

    1997-01-01

    A striking aspect of many vertebrate immune system genes is the exceptionally high level of polymorphism they harbor. A convincing case can be made that this polymorphism is driven by the diversity of pathogens that face selective pressures to evade attack by the host immune system. Different organisms accomplish a defense against diverse pathogens through mechanisms that differ widely in their requirements for specific recognition. It has recently been shown that innate defense mechanisms, which use proteins with broad-spectrum bactericidal properties, are common to both primitive and advanced organisms. In this study we characterize DNA sequence variation in six pathogen defense genes of Drosophila melanogaster and D. mauritiana, including Andropin; cecropin genes CecA1, CecA2, CecB, and CecC; and Diptericin. The necessity for protection against diverse pathogens, which themselves may evolve resistance to insect defenses, motivates a population-level analysis. Estimates of variation levels show that the genes are not exceptionally polymorphic, but Andropin and Diptericin have patterns of variation that differ significantly from neutrality. Patterns of interpopulation and interspecific differentiation also reveal differences among the genes in evolutionary forces. PMID:9335607

  13. Mitochondrial medicine: to a new era of gene therapy for mitochondrial DNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Cwerman-Thibault, Hélène; Sahel, José-Alain; Corral-Debrinski, Marisol

    2011-04-01

    Mitochondrial disorders can no longer be ignored in most medical disciplines. Such disorders include specific and widespread organ involvement, with tissue degeneration or tumor formation. Primary or secondary actors, mitochondrial dysfunctions also play a role in the aging process. Despite progresses made in identification of their molecular bases, nearly everything remains to be done as regards therapy. Research dealing with mitochondrial physiology and pathology has >20 years of history around the world. We are involved, as are many other laboratories, in the challenge of finding ways to fight these diseases. However, our main limitation is the scarcety of animal models required for both understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the diseases and evaluating therapeutic strategies. This is especially true for diseases due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), since an authentic genetic model of mtDNA mutations is technically a very difficult task due to both the inability of manipulating the mitochondrial genome of living mammalian cells and to its multicopy nature. This has led researchers in the field to consider the prospect of gene therapy approaches that can roughly be divided into three groups: (1) import of wild-type copies or relevant sections of DNA or RNA into mitochondria, (2) manipulation of mitochondrial genetic content, and (3) rescue of a defect by expression of an engineered gene product from the nucleus (allotopic or xenotropic expression). We briefly introduce these concepts and indicate where promising progress has been made in the last decade.

  14. Genome structure and gene content in protist mitochondrial DNAs.

    PubMed

    Gray, M W; Lang, B F; Cedergren, R; Golding, G B; Lemieux, C; Sankoff, D; Turmel, M; Brossard, N; Delage, E; Littlejohn, T G; Plante, I; Rioux, P; Saint-Louis, D; Zhu, Y; Burger, G

    1998-02-15

    Although the collection of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes is expanding rapidly, only recently has a phylogenetically broad representation of mtDNA sequences from protists (mostly unicellular eukaryotes) become available. This review surveys the 23 complete protist mtDNA sequences that have been determined to date, commenting on such aspects as mitochondrial genome structure, gene content, ribosomal RNA, introns, transfer RNAs and the genetic code and phylogenetic implications. We also illustrate the utility of a comparative genomics approach to gene identification by providing evidence that orfB in plant and protist mtDNAs is the homolog of atp8 , the gene in animal and fungal mtDNA that encodes subunit 8 of the F0portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Although several protist mtDNAs, like those of animals and most fungi, are seen to be highly derived, others appear to be have retained a number of features of the ancestral, proto-mitochondrial genome. Some of these ancestral features are also shared with plant mtDNA, although the latter have evidently expanded considerably in size, if not in gene content, in the course of evolution. Comparative analysis of protist mtDNAs is providing a new perspective on mtDNA evolution: how the original mitochondrial genome was organized, what genes it contained, and in what ways it must have changed in different eukaryotic phyla.

  15. Molecular population genetics of Drosophila immune system genes.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Wang, L

    1997-10-01

    A striking aspect of many vertebrate immune system is the exceptionally high level of polymorphism they harbor. A convincing case can be made that this polymorphism is driven by the diversity of pathogens that face selective pressures to evade attack by the host immune system. Different organisms accomplish a defense against diverse pathogens through mechanisms that differ widely in their requirements for specific recognition. It has recently been shown that innate defense mechanisms, which use proteins with broad-spectrum bactericidal properties, are common to both primitive and advanced organisms. In this study we characterize DNA sequence variation in six pathogen defense genes of Drosophila melanogaster and D. mauritiana, including Andropin; cecropin genes CecA1, CecA2, CecB, and CecC; and Diptericin. The necessity for protection against diverse pathogens, which themselves may evolve resistance to insect defenses, motivates a population-level analysis. Estimates of variation levels show that the genes are not exceptionally polymorphic, but Andropin and Diptericin have patterns of variation that differ significantly from neutrality. Patterns of interpopulation and interspecific differentiation also reveal differences among the genes in evolutionary forces.

  16. GLAD: an Online Database of Gene List Annotation for Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanhui; Comjean, Aram; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Perrimon, Norbert; Mohr, Stephanie E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a resource of high quality lists of functionally related Drosophila genes, e.g. based on protein domains (kinases, transcription factors, etc.) or cellular function (e.g. autophagy, signal transduction). To establish these lists, we relied on different inputs, including curation from databases or the literature and mapping from other species. Moreover, as an added curation and quality control step, we asked experts in relevant fields to review many of the lists. The resource is available online for scientists to search and view, and is editable based on community input. Annotation of gene groups is an ongoing effort and scientific need will typically drive decisions regarding which gene lists to pursue. We anticipate that the number of lists will increase over time; that the composition of some lists will grow and/or change over time as new information becomes available; and that the lists will benefit the scientific community, e.g. at experimental design and data analysis stages. Based on this, we present an easily updatable online database, available at www.flyrnai.org/glad, at which gene group lists can be viewed, searched and downloaded. PMID:26157507

  17. Epistatic Partners of Neurogenic Genes Modulate Drosophila Olfactory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    St. Armour, Genevieve E.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Anholt, Robert R. H.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which epistasis affects the genetic architecture of complex traits is difficult to quantify, and identifying variants in natural populations with epistatic interactions is challenging. Previous studies in Drosophila implicated extensive epistasis between variants in genes that affect neural connectivity and contribute to natural variation in olfactory response to benzaldehyde. Here, we implemented a powerful screen to quantify the magnitude of epistasis as well as identify candidate interacting variants using 203 inbred wild-derived lines with sequenced genomes of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We crossed the DGRP lines to P[GT1]-element insertion mutants in Sema-5c and neuralized (neur), two neurodevelopmental loci which affect olfactory behavior, and to their co-isogenic wild type control. We observed significant variation in olfactory responses to benzaldehyde among F1 genotypes and for the DGRP line by mutant genotype interactions for both loci, revealing extensive non-additive genetic variation. We performed genome-wide association analyses to identify the candidate modifier loci. None of these polymorphisms were in or near the focal genes; therefore, epistasis is the cause of the non-additive genetic variance. The candidate epistatic partners form interaction networks enriched for functions in neural development. Analyses of mutants of candidate epistatic partners with neur (merry-go-round (mgr), prospero (pros), CG10098, Alhambra (Alh) and CG12535) and Sema-5c (CG42540 and bruchpilot (brp)) showed aberrant olfactory responses compared to co-isogenic controls. Thus, integrating genome-wide analyses of natural variants with mutations at defined genomic locations in a common co-isogenic background can unmask specific epistatic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26678546

  18. Mitochondrial and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Aged Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Gregory P.; Sepe, Joseph J.; McKiernan, Susan H.; Aiken, Judd M.; Diffee, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cardiac function. Exercise intervention has been suggested as a way to improve this decrement. Age-related decline in cardiac function is associated with decreases in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. The molecular mechanisms involved with age-related changes in mitochondrial function and substrate metabolism are poorly understood. We determined gene expression differences in hearts of Young (6 mo), Old (33 mo), and old exercise trained (Old + EXE) (34 mo) FBN rats, using Qiagen PCR arrays for Glucose, Fatty acid, and Mitochondrial metabolism. Old rats demonstrated decreased (p < 0.05) expression for key genes in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMPK signaling. There were no differences in the expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism with age. These gene expression changes occurred prior to altered protein translation as we found no differences in the protein content of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, coactivators 1 alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and AMPKα2 between young and old hearts. Four months of exercise training did not attenuate the decline in the gene expression in aged hearts. Despite this lack of change in gene expression, exercise-trained rats demonstrated increased exercise capacity compared to their sedentary counterparts. Taken together, our results show that differential expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism, AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function decrease in the aging heart which may play a role in age-related declines in fatty acid oxidation, AMPK activity, and mitochondrial function in the heart. PMID:27601998

  19. Mitochondrial and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Aged Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Gregory P.; Sepe, Joseph J.; McKiernan, Susan H.; Aiken, Judd M.; Diffee, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cardiac function. Exercise intervention has been suggested as a way to improve this decrement. Age-related decline in cardiac function is associated with decreases in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. The molecular mechanisms involved with age-related changes in mitochondrial function and substrate metabolism are poorly understood. We determined gene expression differences in hearts of Young (6 mo), Old (33 mo), and old exercise trained (Old + EXE) (34 mo) FBN rats, using Qiagen PCR arrays for Glucose, Fatty acid, and Mitochondrial metabolism. Old rats demonstrated decreased (p < 0.05) expression for key genes in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMPK signaling. There were no differences in the expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism with age. These gene expression changes occurred prior to altered protein translation as we found no differences in the protein content of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, coactivators 1 alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and AMPKα2 between young and old hearts. Four months of exercise training did not attenuate the decline in the gene expression in aged hearts. Despite this lack of change in gene expression, exercise-trained rats demonstrated increased exercise capacity compared to their sedentary counterparts. Taken together, our results show that differential expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism, AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function decrease in the aging heart which may play a role in age-related declines in fatty acid oxidation, AMPK activity, and mitochondrial function in the heart.

  20. Mitochondrial and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Aged Rat Heart.

    PubMed

    Barton, Gregory P; Sepe, Joseph J; McKiernan, Susan H; Aiken, Judd M; Diffee, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cardiac function. Exercise intervention has been suggested as a way to improve this decrement. Age-related decline in cardiac function is associated with decreases in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. The molecular mechanisms involved with age-related changes in mitochondrial function and substrate metabolism are poorly understood. We determined gene expression differences in hearts of Young (6 mo), Old (33 mo), and old exercise trained (Old + EXE) (34 mo) FBN rats, using Qiagen PCR arrays for Glucose, Fatty acid, and Mitochondrial metabolism. Old rats demonstrated decreased (p < 0.05) expression for key genes in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMPK signaling. There were no differences in the expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism with age. These gene expression changes occurred prior to altered protein translation as we found no differences in the protein content of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, coactivators 1 alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and AMPKα2 between young and old hearts. Four months of exercise training did not attenuate the decline in the gene expression in aged hearts. Despite this lack of change in gene expression, exercise-trained rats demonstrated increased exercise capacity compared to their sedentary counterparts. Taken together, our results show that differential expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism, AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function decrease in the aging heart which may play a role in age-related declines in fatty acid oxidation, AMPK activity, and mitochondrial function in the heart. PMID:27601998

  1. Two Rare Human Mitofusin 2 Mutations Alter Mitochondrial Dynamics and Induce Retinal and Cardiac Pathology in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Bhandari, Poonam; Zhao, Peter; Jowdy, Casey C.; Engelhard, John T.; Dorn, Gerald W.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial fusion is essential to organelle homeostasis and organ health. Inexplicably, loss of function mutations of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) specifically affect neurological tissue, causing Charcot Marie Tooth syndrome (CMT) and atypical optic atrophy. As CMT-linked Mfn2 mutations are predominantly within the GTPase domain, we postulated that Mfn2 mutations in other functional domains might affect non-neurological tissues. Here, we defined in vitro and in vivo consequences of rare human mutations in the poorly characterized Mfn2 HR1 domain. Human exome sequencing data identified 4 rare non-synonymous Mfn2 HR1 domain mutations, two bioinformatically predicted as damaging. Recombinant expression of these (Mfn2 M393I and R400Q) in Mfn2-null murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) revealed incomplete rescue of characteristic mitochondrial fragmentation, compared to wild-type human Mfn2 (hMfn2); Mfn2 400Q uniquely induced mitochondrial fragmentation in normal MEFs. To compare Mfn2 mutation effects in neurological and non-neurological tissues in vivo, hMfn2 and the two mutants were expressed in Drosophila eyes or heart tubes made deficient in endogenous fly mitofusin (dMfn) through organ-specific RNAi expression. The two mutants induced similar Drosophila eye phenotypes: small eyes and an inability to rescue the eye pathology induced by suppression of dMfn. In contrast, Mfn2 400Q induced more severe cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fragmentation and cardiac phenotypes than Mfn2 393I, including heart tube dilation, depressed fractional shortening, and progressively impaired negative geotaxis. These data reveal a central functional role for Mfn2 HR1 domains, describe organ-specific effects of two Mfn2 HR1 mutations, and strongly support prospective studies of Mfn2 400Q in heritable human heart disease of unknown genetic etiology. PMID:22957060

  2. Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lossky, M.; Wensink, P.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the expression of the genes for yolk protein of Drosophila melanogaster and the tissue specific function of the regulatory element which activates transcription in vivo. 70 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew J; Haouchar, Dalal; Pratt, Renae C; Gibb, Gillian C; Bunce, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus) and M. (Osphranter), as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus). A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby) into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby) within M. (Osphranter) rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus). Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression.

  4. Inferring Kangaroo Phylogeny from Incongruent Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew J.; Haouchar, Dalal; Pratt, Renae C.; Gibb, Gillian C.; Bunce, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus) and M. (Osphranter), as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus). A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby) into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby) within M. (Osphranter) rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus). Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression. PMID:23451266

  5. K+ current diversity is produced by an extended gene family conserved in Drosophila and mouse.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Covarrubias, M; Butler, A; Baker, K; Pak, M; Salkoff, L

    1990-05-01

    The Drosophila Shaker gene on the X chromosome has three sister genes, Shal, Shab, and Shaw, which map to the second and third chromosomes. This extended gene family encodes voltage-gated potassium channels with widely varying kinetics (rate of macroscopic current activation and inactivation) and voltage sensitivity of steady-state inactivation. The differences in the currents of the various gene products are greater than the differences produced by alternative splicing of the Shaker gene. In Drosophila, the transient (A current) subtype of the potassium channel (Shaker and Shal) and the delayed-rectifier subtype (Shab and Shaw) are encoded by homologous genes, and there is more than one gene for each subtype of channel. Homologs of Shaker, Shal, Shab, and Shaw are present in mammals; each Drosophila potassium-channel gene may be represented as a multigene subfamily in mammals.

  6. Systematically fragmented genes in a multipartite mitochondrial genome

    PubMed Central

    Vlcek, Cestmir; Marande, William; Teijeiro, Shona; Lukeš, Julius; Burger, Gertraud

    2011-01-01

    Arguably, the most bizarre mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is that of the euglenozoan eukaryote Diplonema papillatum. The genome consists of numerous small circular chromosomes none of which appears to encode a complete gene. For instance, the cox1 coding sequence is spread out over nine different chromosomes in non-overlapping pieces (modules), which are transcribed separately and joined to a contiguous mRNA by trans-splicing. Here, we examine how many genes are encoded by Diplonema mtDNA and whether all are fragmented and their transcripts trans-spliced. Module identification is challenging due to the sequence divergence of Diplonema mitochondrial genes. By employing most sensitive protein profile search algorithms and comparing genomic with cDNA sequence, we recognize a total of 11 typical mitochondrial genes. The 10 protein-coding genes are systematically chopped up into three to 12 modules of 60–350 bp length. The corresponding mRNAs are all trans-spliced. Identification of ribosomal RNAs is most difficult. So far, we only detect the 3′-module of the large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA); it does not trans-splice with other pieces. The small subunit rRNA gene remains elusive. Our results open new intriguing questions about the biochemistry and evolution of mitochondrial trans-splicing in Diplonema. PMID:20935050

  7. Developmental Analysis of the Ovarian Tumor Gene during Drosophila Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, C.; Geyer, P. K.; Patton, J. S.; Bae, E.; Nagoshi, R. N.

    1995-01-01

    Severe alleles of the ovarian tumor (otu) and ovo genes result in female sterility in Drosophila melanogaster, producing adult ovaries that completely lack egg chambers. We examined the developmental stage in which the agametic phenotype first becomes apparent. Germ cell development in embryos was studied using a strategy that allowed simultaneous labeling of pole cells with the determination of embryonic genotype. We found that ovo(-) or otu(-) XX embryonic germ cells were indistinguishable in number and morphology from those present in wild-type siblings. The effects of the mutations were not consistently manifested in the female germline until pupariation, and there was no evidence that either gene was required for germ cell viability at earlier stages of development. The requirement for otu function in the pupal and adult ovary is supported by temperature-shift experiments using a heat-inducible otu gene construct. We demonstrate that otu activity limited to prepupal stages was not sufficient to support oogenesis, while induction during the pupal and adult periods caused suppression of the otu mutant phenotype. PMID:8536967

  8. Drosophila ref(2)P is required for the parkin-mediated suppression of mitochondrial dysfunction in pink1 mutants.

    PubMed

    de Castro, I P; Costa, A C; Celardo, I; Tufi, R; Dinsdale, D; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L M

    2013-10-24

    Autophagy is a critical regulator of organellar homeostasis, particularly of mitochondria. Upon the loss of membrane potential, dysfunctional mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy through recruitment of the E3 ligase Parkin by the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and subsequent ubiquitination of mitochondrial membrane proteins. Mammalian sequestrome-1 (p62/SQSTM1) is an autophagy adaptor, which has been proposed to shuttle ubiquitinated cargo for autophagic degradation downstream of Parkin. Here, we show that loss of ref(2)P, the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian P62, results in abnormalities, including mitochondrial defects and an accumulation of mitochondrial DNA with heteroplasmic mutations, correlated with locomotor defects. Furthermore, we show that expression of Ref(2)P is able to ameliorate the defects caused by loss of Pink1 and that this depends on the presence of functional Parkin. Finally, we show that both the PB1 and UBA domains of Ref(2)P are crucial for mitochondrial clustering. We conclude that Ref(2)P is a crucial downstream effector of a pathway involving Pink1 and Parkin and is responsible for the maintenance of a viable pool of cellular mitochondria by promoting their aggregation and autophagic clearance.

  9. The N-terminal Domain of the Drosophila Mitochondrial Replicative DNA Helicase Contains an Iron-Sulfur Cluster and Binds DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Stiban, Johnny; Farnum, Gregory A.; Hovde, Stacy L.; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    The metazoan mitochondrial DNA helicase is an integral part of the minimal mitochondrial replisome. It exhibits strong sequence homology with the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein primase-helicase (T7 gp4). Both proteins contain distinct N- and C-terminal domains separated by a flexible linker. The C-terminal domain catalyzes its characteristic DNA-dependent NTPase activity, and can unwind duplex DNA substrates independently of the N-terminal domain. Whereas the N-terminal domain in T7 gp4 contains a DNA primase activity, this function is lost in metazoan mtDNA helicase. Thus, although the functions of the C-terminal domain and the linker are partially understood, the role of the N-terminal region in the metazoan replicative mtDNA helicase remains elusive. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of Drosophila melanogaster mtDNA helicase coordinates iron in a 2Fe-2S cluster that enhances protein stability in vitro. The N-terminal domain binds the cluster through conserved cysteine residues (Cys68, Cys71, Cys102, and Cys105) that are responsible for coordinating zinc in T7 gp4. Moreover, we show that the N-terminal domain binds both single- and double-stranded DNA oligomers, with an apparent Kd of ∼120 nm. These findings suggest a possible role for the N-terminal domain of metazoan mtDNA helicase in recruiting and binding DNA at the replication fork. PMID:25023283

  10. The N-terminal domain of the Drosophila mitochondrial replicative DNA helicase contains an iron-sulfur cluster and binds DNA.

    PubMed

    Stiban, Johnny; Farnum, Gregory A; Hovde, Stacy L; Kaguni, Laurie S

    2014-08-29

    The metazoan mitochondrial DNA helicase is an integral part of the minimal mitochondrial replisome. It exhibits strong sequence homology with the bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein primase-helicase (T7 gp4). Both proteins contain distinct N- and C-terminal domains separated by a flexible linker. The C-terminal domain catalyzes its characteristic DNA-dependent NTPase activity, and can unwind duplex DNA substrates independently of the N-terminal domain. Whereas the N-terminal domain in T7 gp4 contains a DNA primase activity, this function is lost in metazoan mtDNA helicase. Thus, although the functions of the C-terminal domain and the linker are partially understood, the role of the N-terminal region in the metazoan replicative mtDNA helicase remains elusive. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of Drosophila melanogaster mtDNA helicase coordinates iron in a 2Fe-2S cluster that enhances protein stability in vitro. The N-terminal domain binds the cluster through conserved cysteine residues (Cys(68), Cys(71), Cys(102), and Cys(105)) that are responsible for coordinating zinc in T7 gp4. Moreover, we show that the N-terminal domain binds both single- and double-stranded DNA oligomers, with an apparent Kd of ∼120 nm. These findings suggest a possible role for the N-terminal domain of metazoan mtDNA helicase in recruiting and binding DNA at the replication fork.

  11. Restriction of glucose and fructose causes mild oxidative stress independently of mitochondrial activity and reactive oxygen species in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rovenko, Bohdana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Gospodaryov, Dmytro V; Yurkevych, Ihor S; Sanz, Alberto; Lushchak, Oleh V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-09-01

    Our recent study showed different effects of glucose and fructose overconsumption on the development of obese phenotypes in Drosophila. Glucose induced glucose toxicity due to the increase in circulating glucose, whereas fructose was more prone to induce obesity promoting accumulation of reserve lipids and carbohydrates (Rovenko et al., Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 2015, 180, 75-85). Searching for mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes in this study, we analyzed mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial density, mtROS production, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in fruit flies fed 0.25%, 4% and 10% glucose or fructose. It is shown that there is a complex interaction between dietary monosaccharide concentrations, mitochondrial activity and oxidative modifications to proteins and lipids. Glucose at high concentration (10%) reduced mitochondrial protein density and consequently respiration in flies, while fructose did not affect these parameters. The production of ROS by mitochondria did not reflect activities of mitochondrial complexes. Moreover, there was no clear connection between mtROS production and antioxidant defense or between antioxidant defense and developmental survival, shown in our previous study (Rovenko et al., Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 2015, 180, 75-85). Instead, mtROS and antioxidant machinery cooperated to maintain a redox state that determined survival rates, and paradoxically, pro-oxidant conditions facilitated larva survival independently of the type of carbohydrate. It seems that in this complex system glucose controls the amount of oxidative modification regulating mitochondrial activity, while fructose regulates steady-state mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Restriction of glucose and fructose causes mild oxidative stress independently of mitochondrial activity and reactive oxygen species in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rovenko, Bohdana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Gospodaryov, Dmytro V; Yurkevych, Ihor S; Sanz, Alberto; Lushchak, Oleh V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-09-01

    Our recent study showed different effects of glucose and fructose overconsumption on the development of obese phenotypes in Drosophila. Glucose induced glucose toxicity due to the increase in circulating glucose, whereas fructose was more prone to induce obesity promoting accumulation of reserve lipids and carbohydrates (Rovenko et al., Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 2015, 180, 75-85). Searching for mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes in this study, we analyzed mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial density, mtROS production, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in fruit flies fed 0.25%, 4% and 10% glucose or fructose. It is shown that there is a complex interaction between dietary monosaccharide concentrations, mitochondrial activity and oxidative modifications to proteins and lipids. Glucose at high concentration (10%) reduced mitochondrial protein density and consequently respiration in flies, while fructose did not affect these parameters. The production of ROS by mitochondria did not reflect activities of mitochondrial complexes. Moreover, there was no clear connection between mtROS production and antioxidant defense or between antioxidant defense and developmental survival, shown in our previous study (Rovenko et al., Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 2015, 180, 75-85). Instead, mtROS and antioxidant machinery cooperated to maintain a redox state that determined survival rates, and paradoxically, pro-oxidant conditions facilitated larva survival independently of the type of carbohydrate. It seems that in this complex system glucose controls the amount of oxidative modification regulating mitochondrial activity, while fructose regulates steady-state mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25941153

  13. Spatiotemporal gene expression targeting with the TARGET and gene-switch systems in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Sean E; Mao, Zhengmei; Davis, Ronald L

    2004-02-17

    Targeted gene expression has become a standard technique for the study of biological questions in Drosophila. Until recently, transgene expression could be targeted in the dimension of either time or space, but not both. Several new systems have recently been developed to direct transgene expression simultaneously in both time and space. We describe here two such systems that we developed in our laboratory. The first system provides a general method for temporal and regional gene expression targeting (TARGET) with the conventional GAL4-upstream activator sequence (UAS) system and a temperature-sensitive GAL80 molecule, which represses GAL4 transcriptional activity at permissive temperatures. The second system, termed Gene-Switch, is based on a GAL4-progesterone receptor chimera that is hormone-inducible. We have used both systems for simultaneous spatial and temporal rescue of memory dysfunction in the rutabaga (rut) memory mutant of Drosophila. In this protocol, we provide guidelines for the use of these two novel systems, which should have general utility in studying Drosophila biology and in using the fly as a model for human disease. PMID:14970377

  14. Dopamine Dynamics and Signaling in Drosophila: An Overview of Genes, Drugs and Behavioral Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Seto, Elaine S.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in dopamine (DA) signaling have been implicated in a number of human neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Similarly, defects in DA signaling in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have also been associated with several behavioral defects. As most genes involved in DA synthesis, transport, secretion, and signaling are conserved between species, Drosophila is a powerful genetic model organism to study the regulation of DA signaling in vivo. In this review, we will provide an overview of the genes and drugs that regulate DA biology in Drosophila. Furthermore, we will discuss the behavioral paradigms that are regulated by DA signaling in flies. By analyzing the genes and neuronal circuits that govern such behaviors using sophisticated genetic, pharmacologic, electrophysiologic, and imaging approaches in Drosophila, we will likely gain a better understanding about how this neuromodulator regulates motor tasks and cognition in humans. PMID:24770636

  15. Genes involved in Drosophila glutamate receptor expression and localization

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Faith LW; Featherstone, David E

    2005-01-01

    Background A clear picture of the mechanisms controlling glutamate receptor expression, localization, and stability remains elusive, possibly due to an incomplete understanding of the proteins involved. We screened transposon mutants generated by the ongoing Drosophila Gene Disruption Project in an effort to identify the different types of genes required for glutamate receptor cluster development. Results To enrich for non-silent insertions with severe disruptions in glutamate receptor clustering, we identified and focused on homozygous lethal mutants in a collection of 2185 BG and KG transposon mutants generated by the BDGP Gene Disruption Project. 202 lethal mutant lines were individually dissected to expose glutamatergic neuromuscular junctions, stained using antibodies that recognize neuronal membrane and the glutamate receptor subunit GluRIIA, and viewed using laser-scanning confocal microscopy. We identified 57 mutants with qualitative differences in GluRIIA expression and/or localization. 84% of mutants showed loss of receptors and/or clusters; 16% of mutants showed an increase in receptors. Insertion loci encode a variety of protein types, including cytoskeleton proteins and regulators, kinases, phosphatases, ubiquitin ligases, mucins, cell adhesion proteins, transporters, proteins controlling gene expression and protein translation, and proteins of unknown/novel function. Expression pattern analyses and complementation tests, however, suggest that any single mutant – even if a mutant gene is uniquely tagged – must be interpreted with caution until the mutation is validated genetically and phenotypically. Conclusion Our study identified 57 transposon mutants with qualitative differences in glutamate receptor expression and localization. Despite transposon tagging of every insertion locus, extensive validation is needed before one can have confidence in the role of any individual gene. Alternatively, one can focus on the types of genes identified, rather

  16. Molecular Polymorphism in the Period Gene of Drosophila Simulans

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, E.; Peixoto, A. A.; Barbujani, G.; Costa, R.; Kyriacou, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    The threonine-glycine (Thr-Gly) repeat region of the period (per) gene of eight natural populations of Drosophila simulans from Europe and North Africa was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and heteroduplex formation. Five different length alleles encoding 21, 23, 25 and two different kinds of 24 Thr-Gly pairs in the uninterrupted repeat were found. In the 3' region flanking the repeat 6 nucleotide substitutions (3 synonymous, 3 replacement) were observed in three different combinations that we called haplotypes I, II and III. The complete linkage disequilibrium observed between the haplotypes and these length variants allowed us to infer from the repeat length, the DNA sequence at the 3' polymorphic sites. The haplotypes were homogeneously distributed across Europe and North Africa. The data show statistically significant departures from neutral expectations according to the Tajima test. The results suggest that balancing selection might have played a role in determining the observed levels and patterns of genetic diversity at the per gene in D. simulans. PMID:7851767

  17. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, W J; Hoskote, A; Roberts, I J; Jackson, S; Forte, M

    2001-01-01

    One of the best understood signal transduction pathways activated by receptors containing seven transmembrane domains involves activation of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes containing Gs(alpha), the subsequent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, production of cAMP, activation of protein kinase A (PKA), and the phosphorylation of substrates that control a wide variety of cellular responses. Here, we report the identification of "loss-of-function" mutations in the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene (dgs). Seven mutants have been identified that are either complemented by transgenes representing the wild-type dgs gene or contain nucleotide sequence changes resulting in the production of altered Gs(alpha) protein. Examination of mutant alleles representing loss-of-Gs(alpha) function indicates that the phenotypes generated do not mimic those created by mutational elimination of PKA. These results are consistent with the conclusion reached in previous studies that activation of PKA, at least in these developmental contexts, does not depend on receptor-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP, in contrast to the predictions of models developed primarily on the basis of studies in cultured cells. PMID:11454767

  18. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 gene: the longest mitochondrial gene and the largest reservoir of mitochondrial group i introns.

    PubMed

    Férandon, Cyril; Moukha, Serge; Callac, Philippe; Benedetto, Jean-Pierre; Castroviejo, Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2010-11-18

    In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp) are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II) according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a "Homing Endonuclease Gene" (heg) encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration ("homing") and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain) is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt) and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote.

  19. Mental retardation genes in drosophila: New approaches to understanding and treating developmental brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Linda L

    2005-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron resolution, are helping to reveal the cellular bases of faulty brain development caused by MR gene mutations. Drosophila fragile X mental retardation 1 (dfmr1) is the fly counterpart of the human gene whose malfunction causes fragile X syndrome. Research on the fly gene is leading the field in molecular mechanisms of the gene product's biological function and in pharmacological rescue of brain and behavioral phenotypes. Future work holds the promise of using genetic pathway analysis and primary neuronal culture methods in Drosophila as tools for drug discovery for a wide range of MR and related disorders. PMID:16240406

  20. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 Gene: The Longest Mitochondrial Gene and the Largest Reservoir of Mitochondrial Group I Introns

    PubMed Central

    Férandon, Cyril; Moukha, Serge; Callac, Philippe; Benedetto, Jean-Pierre; Castroviejo, Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp) are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II) according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a “Homing Endonuclease Gene” (heg) encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration (“homing”) and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain) is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt) and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote. PMID:21124976

  1. Dosage compensation of the Drosophila pseudoobscura Hsp82 gene and the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene at ectopic sites in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Sass, H; Meselson, M

    1991-01-01

    Measurements were made of the amounts of larval RNA transcribed from the autosomal Adh gene of Drosophila melanogaster and the X chromosomal Hsp82 gene of Drosophila pseudoobscura carried on the same P-element transposon inserted at various sites in the D. melanogaster genome. Both genes were fully compensated at sites in euchromatic regions of the X chromosome but neither was compensated at a site in the centric beta-heterochromatin of the X chromosome. No compensation of the D. pseudoobscura Hsp82 gene was found at any of 10 autosomal insertion sites tested. The compensation behavior of the transposed genes was, therefore, not determined by closely linked sequences but instead was determined in each case by their new chromosomal environment. Images PMID:1907376

  2. The Selfish Segregation Distorter Gene Complex of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Larracuente, Amanda M.; Presgraves, Daven C.

    2012-01-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is an autosomal meiotic drive gene complex found worldwide in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. During spermatogenesis, SD induces dysfunction of SD+ spermatids so that SD/SD+ males sire almost exclusively SD-bearing progeny rather than the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio. SD is thus evolutionarily “selfish,” enhancing its own transmission at the expense of its bearers. Here we review the molecular and evolutionary genetics of SD. Genetic analyses show that the SD is a multilocus gene complex involving two key loci—the driver, Segregation distorter (Sd), and the target of drive, Responder (Rsp)—and at least three upward modifiers of distortion. Molecular analyses show that Sd encodes a truncated duplication of the gene RanGAP, whereas Rsp is a large pericentromeric block of satellite DNA. The Sd–RanGAP protein is enzymatically wild type but mislocalized within cells and, for reasons that remain unclear, appears to disrupt the histone-to-protamine transition in drive-sensitive spermatids bearing many Rsp satellite repeats but not drive-insensitive spermatids bearing few or no Rsp satellite repeats. Evolutionary analyses show that the Sd–RanGAP duplication arose recently within the D. melanogaster lineage, exploiting the preexisting and considerably older Rsp satellite locus. Once established, the SD haplotype collected enhancers of distortion and suppressors of recombination. Further dissection of the molecular genetic and cellular basis of SD-mediated distortion seems likely to provide insights into several important areas currently understudied, including the genetic control of spermatogenesis, the maintenance and evolution of satellite DNAs, the possible roles of small interfering RNAs in the germline, and the molecular population genetics of the interaction of genetic linkage and natural selection. PMID:22964836

  3. The selfish Segregation Distorter gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Larracuente, Amanda M; Presgraves, Daven C

    2012-09-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is an autosomal meiotic drive gene complex found worldwide in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. During spermatogenesis, SD induces dysfunction of SD(+) spermatids so that SD/SD(+) males sire almost exclusively SD-bearing progeny rather than the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio. SD is thus evolutionarily "selfish," enhancing its own transmission at the expense of its bearers. Here we review the molecular and evolutionary genetics of SD. Genetic analyses show that the SD is a multilocus gene complex involving two key loci--the driver, Segregation distorter (Sd), and the target of drive, Responder (Rsp)--and at least three upward modifiers of distortion. Molecular analyses show that Sd encodes a truncated duplication of the gene RanGAP, whereas Rsp is a large pericentromeric block of satellite DNA. The Sd-RanGAP protein is enzymatically wild type but mislocalized within cells and, for reasons that remain unclear, appears to disrupt the histone-to-protamine transition in drive-sensitive spermatids bearing many Rsp satellite repeats but not drive-insensitive spermatids bearing few or no Rsp satellite repeats. Evolutionary analyses show that the Sd-RanGAP duplication arose recently within the D. melanogaster lineage, exploiting the preexisting and considerably older Rsp satellite locus. Once established, the SD haplotype collected enhancers of distortion and suppressors of recombination. Further dissection of the molecular genetic and cellular basis of SD-mediated distortion seems likely to provide insights into several important areas currently understudied, including the genetic control of spermatogenesis, the maintenance and evolution of satellite DNAs, the possible roles of small interfering RNAs in the germline, and the molecular population genetics of the interaction of genetic linkage and natural selection.

  4. Deciphering the combinatorial architecture of a Drosophila homeotic gene enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Drewell, Robert A.; Nevarez, Michael J.; Kurata, Jessica S.; Winkler, Lauren N.; Li, Lily; Dresch, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In Drosophila, the 330 kb bithorax complex regulates cellular differentiation along the anterio-posterior axis during development in the thorax and abdomen and is comprised of three homeotic genes: Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A, and Abdominal-B. The expression of each of these genes is in turn controlled through interactions between transcription factors and a number of cis-regulatory modules in the neighboring intergenic regions. In this study, we examine how the sequence architecture of transcription factor binding sites mediates the functional activity of one of these cis-regulatory modules. Using computational, mathematical modeling and experimental molecular genetic approaches we investigate the IAB7b enhancer, which regulates Abdominal-B expression specifically in the presumptive seventh and ninth abdominal segments of the early embryo. A cross-species comparison of the IAB7b enhancer reveals an evolutionarily conserved signature motif containing two FUSHI-TARAZU activator transcription factor binding sites. We find that the transcriptional repressors KNIRPS, KRUPPEL and GIANT are able to restrict reporter gene expression to the posterior abdominal segments, using different molecular mechanisms including short-range repression and competitive binding. Additionally, we show the functional importance of the spacing between the two FUSHI-TARAZU binding sites and discuss the potential importance of cooperativity for transcriptional activation. Our results demonstrate that the transcriptional output of the IAB7b cis-regulatory module relies on a complex set of combinatorial inputs mediated by specific transcription factor binding and that the sequence architecture at this enhancer is critical to maintain robust regulatory function. PMID:24514265

  5. Gene disruptions using P transposable elements: An integral component of the Drosophila genome project

    SciTech Connect

    Spradling, A.C.; Stern, D.M.; Kiss, I.

    1995-11-21

    Biologists require genetic as well as molecular tools to decipher genomic information and ultimately to understand gene function. The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project is addressing these needs with a massive gene disruption project that uses individual, genetically engineered P transposable elements to target open reading frames throughout the Drosophila genome DNA flanking the insertions is sequenced thereby placing and extensive series of genetic markers on the physical genomic map and associating insertions with specific open reading frames and genes. Insertions from the collection now lie within or near most Drosophila genes, greatly reducing the time required to identify new mutations and analyze gene functions. Information revealed from these studies about P element site specificity is being used to target the remaining open reading frames. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Intervening sequences in ribosomal RNA genes and bobbed phenotype in Drosophila hydei.

    PubMed

    Franz, G; Kunz, W

    1981-08-13

    The "bobbed' (bb) mutation in Drosophila is represented phenotypically by shortened and abnormally thin scutellar bristles and by delayed development. There is a direct correlation between bristle size and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, and the bb mutation was at first explained as a deficiency of rRNA genes (rDNA). However, the bb phenotype can occur in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila hydei with high rDNA content, while phenotypically wild-type flies are known with few rRNA genes, suggesting that what matters is not the number of rRNA genes but their transcriptional activity. In D. melanogaster, it has recently emerged that rRNA genes interrupted by an intervening sequence are not transcribed. We now report that in D. hydei, the length of the scutellar bristle is directly proportional to the number of rRNA genes without this intervening sequence.

  7. Reinforcement can overcome gene flow during speciation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matute, Daniel R

    2010-12-21

    Reinforcement, the strengthening of prezygotic reproductive isolation by natural selection in response to maladaptive hybridization [1-3], is one of the few processes in which natural selection directly favors the evolution of species as discrete groups (e.g., [4-7]). The evolution of reproductive barriers via reinforcement is expected to evolve in regions where the ranges of two species overlap and hybridize as an evolutionary solution to avoiding the costs of maladaptive hybridization [2,3,8]. The role of reinforcement in speciation has, however, been highly controversial because population-genetic theory suggests that the process is severely impeded by both hybridization [8-11] and migration of individuals from outside the contact zone [12,13]. To determine whether reinforcement could strengthen the reproductive barriers between two sister species of Drosophila in the face of these impediments, I initiated experimental populations of these two species that allowed different degrees of hybridization, as well as migration from outside populations. Surprisingly, even in the face of gene flow, reinforcement could promote the evolution of reproductive isolation within only five generations. As theory predicts, high levels of hybridization (and/or strong selection against hybrids) and migration impeded this evolution. These results suggest that reinforcement can help complete the process of speciation.

  8. Comparative genome sequencing of Drosophila pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, gene, and cis-element evolution

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Stephen; Liu, Yue; Bettencourt, Brian R.; Hradecky, Pavel; Letovsky, Stan; Nielsen, Rasmus; Thornton, Kevin; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Chen, Rui; Meisel, Richard P.; Couronne, Olivier; Hua, Sujun; Smith, Mark A.; Zhang, Peili; Liu, Jing; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; van Batenburg, Marinus F.; Howells, Sally L.; Scherer, Steven E.; Sodergren, Erica; Matthews, Beverly B.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Schroeder, Andrew J.; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Rives, Catharine M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Havlak, Paul; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Gill, Rachel; Hume, Jennifer; Morgan, Margaret B.; Miner, George; Hamilton, Cerissa; Huang, Yanmei; Waldron, Lenée; Verduzco, Daniel; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Dubchak, Inna; Noor, Mohamed A.F.; Anderson, Wyatt; White, Kevin P.; Clark, Andrew G.; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Gelbart, William; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    We have sequenced the genome of a second Drosophila species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, and compared this to the genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster, a primary model organism. Throughout evolution the vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same chromosome arm, but within each arm gene order has been extensively reshuffled, leading to a minimum of 921 syntenic blocks shared between the species. A repetitive sequence is found in the D. pseudoobscura genome at many junctions between adjacent syntenic blocks. Analysis of this novel repetitive element family suggests that recombination between offset elements may have given rise to many paracentric inversions, thereby contributing to the shuffling of gene order in the D. pseudoobscura lineage. Based on sequence similarity and synteny, 10,516 putative orthologs have been identified as a core gene set conserved over 25–55 million years (Myr) since the pseudoobscura/melanogaster divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome-wide average, consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than random and nearby sequences between the species—but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a pattern of repeat-mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high coadaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence between these species of Drosophila. PMID:15632085

  9. Inferring the History of Interchromosomal Gene Transposition in Drosophila Using n-Dimensional Parsimony

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mira V.; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transposition puts a new gene copy in a novel genomic environment. Moreover, genes moving between the autosomes and the X chromosome experience change in several evolutionary parameters. Previous studies of gene transposition have not utilized the phylogenetic framework that becomes possible with the availability of whole genomes from multiple species. Here we used parsimonious reconstruction on the genomic distribution of gene families to analyze interchromosomal gene transposition in Drosophila. We identified 782 genes that have moved chromosomes within the phylogeny of 10 Drosophila species, including 87 gene families with multiple independent movements on different branches of the phylogeny. Using this large catalog of transposed genes, we detected accelerated sequence evolution in duplicated genes that transposed when compared to the parental copy at the original locus. We also observed a more refined picture of the biased movement of genes from the X chromosome to the autosomes. The bias of X-to-autosome movement was significantly stronger for RNA-based movements than for DNA-based movements, and among DNA-based movements there was an excess of genes moving onto the X chromosome as well. Genes involved in female-specific functions moved onto the X chromosome while genes with male-specific functions moved off the X. There was a significant overrepresentation of proteins involving chromosomal function among transposed genes, suggesting that genetic conflict between sexes and among chromosomes may be a driving force behind gene transposition in Drosophila. PMID:22095076

  10. The development of next-generation sequencing assays for the mitochondrial genome and 108 nuclear genes associated with mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Dames, Shale; Chou, Lan-Szu; Xiao, Ye; Wayman, Tyler; Stocks, Jennifer; Singleton, Marc; Eilbeck, Karen; Mao, Rong

    2013-07-01

    Sanger sequencing of multigenic disorders can be technically challenging, time consuming, and prohibitively expensive. High-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) can provide a cost-effective method for sequencing targeted genes associated with multigenic disorders. We have developed a NGS clinical targeted gene assay for the mitochondrial genome and for 108 selected nuclear genes associated with mitochondrial disorders. Mitochondrial disorders have a reported incidence of 1 in 5000 live births, encompass a broad range of phenotypes, and are attributed to mutations in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Approximately 20% of mitochondrial disorders result from mutations in mtDNA, with the remaining 80% found in nuclear genes that affect mtDNA levels or mitochondrion protein assembly. In our NGS approach, the 16,569-bp mtDNA is enriched by long-range PCR and the 108 nuclear genes (which represent 1301 amplicons and 680 kb) are enriched by RainDance emulsion PCR. Sequencing is performed on Illumina HiSeq 2000 or MiSeq platforms, and bioinformatics analysis is performed using commercial and in-house developed bioinformatics pipelines. A total of 16 validation and 13 clinical samples were examined. All previously reported variants associated with mitochondrial disorders were found in validation samples, and 5 of the 13 clinical samples were found to have mutations associated with mitochondrial disorders in either the mitochondrial genome or the 108 nuclear genes. All variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

  11. The evolution of small gene clusters: evidence for an independent origin of the maltase gene cluster in Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vieira, C P; Vieira, J; Hartl, D L

    1997-10-01

    We analyzed a 5,770-bp genomic region of Drosophila virilis that contains a cluster of two maltase genes showing sequence similarity with genes in a cluster of three maltase genes previously identified in Drosophila melanogaster. The D. virilis maltase genes are designated Mav1 and Mav2. In addition to being different in gene number, the cluster of genes in D. virilis differs dramatically in intron-exon structure from the maltase genes in D. melanogaster, the transcriptional orientation of the genes in the cluster also differs between the species. Our findings support a model in which the maltase gene cluster in D. virilis and D. melanogaster evolved independently. Furthermore, while in D. melanogaster the maltase gene cluster lies only 10 kb distant from the larval cuticle gene cluster, the maltase and larval cuticle gene clusters in D. virilis are located very far apart and on a different chromosome than that expected from the known chromosome arm homologies between D. virilis and D. melanogaster. A region of the genome containing the maltase and larval cuticle gene clusters appears to have been relocated between nonhomologous chromosomes.

  12. Gene duplication and speciation in Drosophila: evidence from the Odysseus locus.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chau-Ti; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Sun, Sha; Browne, William E; Chen, Yung-Chia; Patel, Nipam H; Wu, Chung-I

    2004-08-17

    The importance of gene duplication in evolution has long been recognized. Because duplicated genes are prone to diverge in function, gene duplication could plausibly play a role in species differentiation. However, experimental evidence linking gene duplication with speciation is scarce. Here, we show that a hybrid-male sterility gene, Odysseus (OdsH), arose by gene duplication in the Drosophila genome. OdsH has evolved at a very high rate, whereas its most immediate paralog, unc-4, is nearly identical among species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. The disparity in their sequence evolution is echoed by the divergence in their expression patterns in both soma and reproductive tissues. We suggest that duplicated genes that have yet to evolve a stable function at the time of speciation may be candidates for "speciation genes," which is broadly defined as genes that contribute to differential adaptation between species.

  13. Molecular characterization of neurally expressing genes in the para sodium channel gene cluster of Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Chang-Sook; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. 76 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  15. Birth of a new gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Vicoso, Beatriz; Russo, Claudia A M; Swenor, Bonnielin; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Contrary to the pattern seen in mammalian sex chromosomes, where most Y-linked genes have X-linked homologs, the Drosophila X and Y chromosomes appear to be unrelated. Most of the Y-linked genes have autosomal paralogs, so autosome-to-Y transposition must be the main source of Drosophila Y-linked genes. Here we show how these genes were acquired. We found a previously unidentified gene (flagrante delicto Y, FDY) that originated from a recent duplication of the autosomal gene vig2 to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Four contiguous genes were duplicated along with vig2, but they became pseudogenes through the accumulation of deletions and transposable element insertions, whereas FDY remained functional, acquired testis-specific expression, and now accounts for ∼20% of the vig2-like mRNA in testis. FDY is absent in the closest relatives of D. melanogaster, and DNA sequence divergence indicates that the duplication to the Y chromosome occurred ∼2 million years ago. Thus, FDY provides a snapshot of the early stages of the establishment of a Y-linked gene and demonstrates how the Drosophila Y has been accumulating autosomal genes.

  16. Dynamics of Wolbachia pipientis Gene Expression Across the Drosophila melanogaster Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gutzwiller, Florence; Carmo, Catarina R.; Miller, Danny E.; Rice, Danny W.; Newton, Irene L. G.; Hawley, R. Scott; Teixeira, Luis; Bergman, Casey M.

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions between microbes and their multicellular hosts have manifold biological consequences. To better understand how bacteria maintain symbiotic associations with animal hosts, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression for the endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis across the entire life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. We found that the majority of Wolbachia genes are expressed stably across the D. melanogaster life cycle, but that 7.8% of Wolbachia genes exhibit robust stage- or sex-specific expression differences when studied in the whole-organism context. Differentially-expressed Wolbachia genes are typically up-regulated after Drosophila embryogenesis and include many bacterial membrane, secretion system, and ankyrin repeat-containing proteins. Sex-biased genes are often organized as small operons of uncharacterized genes and are mainly up-regulated in adult Drosophila males in an age-dependent manner. We also systematically investigated expression levels of previously-reported candidate genes thought to be involved in host-microbe interaction, including those in the WO-A and WO-B prophages and in the Octomom region, which has been implicated in regulating bacterial titer and pathogenicity. Our work provides comprehensive insight into the developmental dynamics of gene expression for a widespread endosymbiont in its natural host context, and shows that public gene expression data harbor rich resources to probe the functional basis of the Wolbachia-Drosophila symbiosis and annotate the transcriptional outputs of the Wolbachia genome. PMID:26497146

  17. Dynamics of Wolbachia pipientis Gene Expression Across the Drosophila melanogaster Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Florence; Carmo, Catarina R; Miller, Danny E; Rice, Danny W; Newton, Irene L G; Hawley, R Scott; Teixeira, Luis; Bergman, Casey M

    2015-10-23

    Symbiotic interactions between microbes and their multicellular hosts have manifold biological consequences. To better understand how bacteria maintain symbiotic associations with animal hosts, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression for the endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis across the entire life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. We found that the majority of Wolbachia genes are expressed stably across the D. melanogaster life cycle, but that 7.8% of Wolbachia genes exhibit robust stage- or sex-specific expression differences when studied in the whole-organism context. Differentially-expressed Wolbachia genes are typically up-regulated after Drosophila embryogenesis and include many bacterial membrane, secretion system, and ankyrin repeat-containing proteins. Sex-biased genes are often organized as small operons of uncharacterized genes and are mainly up-regulated in adult Drosophila males in an age-dependent manner. We also systematically investigated expression levels of previously-reported candidate genes thought to be involved in host-microbe interaction, including those in the WO-A and WO-B prophages and in the Octomom region, which has been implicated in regulating bacterial titer and pathogenicity. Our work provides comprehensive insight into the developmental dynamics of gene expression for a widespread endosymbiont in its natural host context, and shows that public gene expression data harbor rich resources to probe the functional basis of the Wolbachia-Drosophila symbiosis and annotate the transcriptional outputs of the Wolbachia genome.

  18. Birth of a new gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Vicoso, Beatriz; Russo, Claudia A M; Swenor, Bonnielin; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Contrary to the pattern seen in mammalian sex chromosomes, where most Y-linked genes have X-linked homologs, the Drosophila X and Y chromosomes appear to be unrelated. Most of the Y-linked genes have autosomal paralogs, so autosome-to-Y transposition must be the main source of Drosophila Y-linked genes. Here we show how these genes were acquired. We found a previously unidentified gene (flagrante delicto Y, FDY) that originated from a recent duplication of the autosomal gene vig2 to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Four contiguous genes were duplicated along with vig2, but they became pseudogenes through the accumulation of deletions and transposable element insertions, whereas FDY remained functional, acquired testis-specific expression, and now accounts for ∼20% of the vig2-like mRNA in testis. FDY is absent in the closest relatives of D. melanogaster, and DNA sequence divergence indicates that the duplication to the Y chromosome occurred ∼2 million years ago. Thus, FDY provides a snapshot of the early stages of the establishment of a Y-linked gene and demonstrates how the Drosophila Y has been accumulating autosomal genes. PMID:26385968

  19. Maternal inheritance of transcripts from three Drosophila src-related genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, S C; Madhavan, K; Bilodeau-Wentworth, D

    1985-01-01

    The Drosophila genome contains three major sequences related to the v-src gene. Previously published molecular studies have confirmed the structural homology between v-src and two of the Drosophila sequences. We have sequenced a portion of the third v-src-related Drosophila gene and found that it also shares structural homology with vertebrate and Drosophila src-family genes. RNA sequences from each of the src genes are present in pre-blastoderm embryos indicating that they are of maternal origin. As embryogenesis proceeds, the levels of each of the src RNA sequences decline. The pre-blastoderm src gene transcripts contain poly(A) and are present on polyribosomes suggesting that they are functional mRNAs. Since the Drosophila src transcripts were maternally inherited, we also investigated their distribution in adult females. The majority of the src transcripts in adult females were contained in ovaries. Only low levels of the transcripts were detected in males. These results strongly suggest that an abundant supply of src protein is required during early embryogenesis, perhaps at the time of cellularization of the blastoderm nuclei. Images PMID:3923437

  20. Role of metabolic rate and DNA-repair in Drosophila aging Implications for the mitochondrial mutation theory of aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J.; Binnard, R.; Fleming, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The notion that injury to mitochondrial DNA is a cause of intrinsic aging was tested by correlating the different respiration rates of several wild strains of Drosophila melanogaster with the life-spans. Respiration rate and aging in a mutant of D. melanogaster deficient in postreplication repair were also investigated. In agreement with the rate of living theory, there was an inverse relation between oxygen consumption and median life-span in flies having normal DNA repair. The mutant showed an abnormally low life-span as compared to the controls and also exhibited significant deficiency in mating fitness and a depressed metabolic rate. Therefore, the short life-span of the mutant may be due to the congenital condition rather than to accelerated aging.

  1. Natural variation of the Y chromosome suppresses sex ratio distortion and modulates testis-specific gene expression in Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    Branco, A T; Tao, Y; Hartl, D L; Lemos, B

    2013-07-01

    X-linked sex-ratio distorters that disrupt spermatogenesis can cause a deficiency in functional Y-bearing sperm and a female-biased sex ratio. Y-linked modifiers that restore a normal sex ratio might be abundant and favored when a X-linked distorter is present. Here we investigated natural variation of Y-linked suppressors of sex-ratio in the Winters systems and the ability of these chromosomes to modulate gene expression in Drosophila simulans. Seventy-eight Y chromosomes of worldwide origin were assayed for their resistance to the X-linked sex-ratio distorter gene Dox. Y chromosome diversity caused males to sire ∼63% to ∼98% female progeny. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed hundreds of genes differentially expressed between isogenic males with sensitive (high sex ratio) and resistant (low sex ratio) Y chromosomes from the same population. Although the expression of about 75% of all testis-specific genes remained unchanged across Y chromosomes, a subset of post-meiotic genes was upregulated by resistant Y chromosomes. Conversely, a set of accessory gland-specific genes and mitochondrial genes were downregulated in males with resistant Y chromosomes. The D. simulans Y chromosome also modulated gene expression in XXY females in which the Y-linked protein-coding genes are not transcribed. The data suggest that the Y chromosome might exert its regulatory functions through epigenetic mechanisms that do not require the expression of protein-coding genes. The gene network that modulates sex ratio distortion by the Y chromosome is poorly understood, other than that it might include interactions with mitochondria and enriched for genes expressed in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis.

  2. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Drosophila obscura group, on the basis of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Barrio, E; Latorre, A; Moya, A; Ayala, F J

    1992-07-01

    We have constructed restriction-site maps of the mtDNAs in 13 species and one subspecies of the Drosophila obscura group. The traditional division of this group into two subgroups (affinis and obscura) does not correspond to the phylogeny of the group, which shows two well-defined clusters (the Nearctic affinis and pseudoobscura subgroups) plus a very heterogeneous set of anciently diverged species (the Palearctic obscura subgroup). The mtDNA of Drosophila exhibits a tendency to evolve toward high A+T values. This leads to a "saturation" effect that (1) begets an apparent decrease in the rate of evolution as the time since the divergence of taxa increases and (2) reduces the value that mtDNA restriction analysis has for the phylogenetic reconstruction of Drosophila species that are not closely related.

  3. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh; Godbole, Madan M.

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  4. Mental Retardation Genes in Drosophila: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Developmental Brain Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restifo, Linda L.

    2005-01-01

    "Drosophila melanogaster" is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron…

  5. Deletion of Siah-Interacting Protein gene in Drosophila causes cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Michelle E.; Yu, Lin; Daniels, Joseph P.; Wolf, Matthew J.; Rockman, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila is a useful model organism in which to study the genetics of human diseases, including recent advances in identification of the genetics of heart development and disease in the fly. To identify novel genes that cause cardiomyopathy, we performed a deficiency screen in adult Drosophila. Using optical coherence tomography to phenotype cardiac function in awake adult Drosophila, we identified Df(1)Exel6240 as having cardiomyopathy. Using a number of strategies including customized smaller deletions, screening of mutant alleles, and transgenic rescue, we identified CG3226 as the causative gene for this deficiency. CG3226 is an uncharacterized gene in Drosophila possessing homology to the mammalian Siah-interacting-protein (SIP) gene. Mammalian SIP functions as an adaptor protein involved in one of the β-catenin degradation complexes. To investigate the effects of altering β-catenin/Armadillo signaling in the adult fly, we measured heart function in flies expressing either constitutively active Armadillo or transgenic constructs that block Armadillo signaling, specifically in the heart. While increasing Armadillo signaling in the heart did not have an effect on adult heart function, decreasing Armadillo signaling in the fly heart caused the significant reduction in heart chamber size. In summary, we show that deletion of CG3226, which has homology to mammalian SIP, causes cardiomyopathy in adult Drosophila. Alterations in Armadillo signaling during development lead to important changes in the size and function of the adult heart. PMID:22398840

  6. Genes and languages in Europe: an analysis of mitochondrial lineages.

    PubMed

    Sajantila, A; Lahermo, P; Anttinen, T; Lukka, M; Sistonen, P; Savontaus, M L; Aula, P; Beckman, L; Tranebjaerg, L; Gedde-Dahl, T; Issel-Tarver, L; DiRienzo, A; Pääbo, S

    1995-08-01

    When mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is analyzed from a sample of 637 individuals in 14 European populations, most populations show little differentiation with respect to each other. However, the Saami distinguish themselves by a comparatively large amount of sequence difference when compared with the other populations, by a different distribution of sequence diversity within the population, and by the occurrence of particular sequence motifs. Thus, the Saami seem to have a long history distinct from other European populations. Linguistic affiliations are not reflected in the patterns of relationships of mitochondrial lineages in European populations, whereas prior studies of nuclear gene frequencies have shown a correlation between genetic and linguistic evolution. It is argued that this apparent contradiction is attributable to the fact that genetic lineages and gene frequencies reflect different time perspectives on population history, the latter being more in concordance with linguistic evolution.

  7. Expression of human Gaucher disease gene GBA generates neurodevelopmental defects and ER stress in Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Shimoda, Masami; Ito, Kumpei; Hanai, Shuji; Aizawa, Hidenobu; Kato, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Yamaguchi, Terumi; Ryoo, Hyung Don; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Tsuji, Shoji; Ishida, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders and is caused by defects in the GBA gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GlcCerase). The accumulation of its substrate, glucocylceramide (GlcCer) is considered the main cause of GD. We found here that the expression of human mutated GlcCerase gene (hGBA) that is associated with neuronopathy in GD patients causes neurodevelopmental defects in Drosophila eyes. The data indicate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was elevated in Drosophila eye carrying mutated hGBAs by using of the ER stress markers dXBP1 and dBiP. We also found that Ambroxol, a potential pharmacological chaperone for mutated hGBAs, can alleviate the neuronopathic phenotype through reducing ER stress. We demonstrate a novel mechanism of neurodevelopmental defects mediated by ER stress through expression of mutants of human GBA gene in the eye of Drosophila.

  8. Clinical and ethical implications of mitochondrial gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Wolf, Don P

    2014-01-01

    Inherited diseases caused by mitochondrial gene (mtDNA) mutations affect at least 1 in 5000-10,000 children and are associated with severe clinical symptoms. Novel reproductive techniques designed to replace mutated mtDNA in oocytes or early embryos have been proposed to prevent transmission of disease from parents to their children. Here we review the efficacy and safety of these approaches and their associated ethical and regulatory issues.

  9. The Response of Dopa Decarboxylase Activity to Variations in Gene Dosage in Drosophila: A Possible Location of the Structural Gene

    PubMed Central

    Hodgetts, Ross B.

    1975-01-01

    A location of the structural gene(s) for dopa decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.26) is proposed on the basis of enzyme determinations in a set of duplication-bearing aneuploids, which revealed only one dosage-sensitive region in the Drosophila genome. This region lies between 36EF and 37D on the left arm of chromosome 2. PMID:1126620

  10. Molecular mechanisms of extensive mitochondrial gene rearrangementin plethodontid salamanders

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-06-01

    Extensive gene rearrangement is reported in the mitochondrial genomes of lungless salamanders (Plethodontidae). In each genome with a novel gene order, there is evidence that the rearrangement was mediated by duplication of part of the mitochondrial genome, including the presence of both pseudogenes and additional, presumably functional, copies of duplicated genes. All rearrangement-mediating duplications include either the origin of light strand replication and the nearby tRNA genes or the regions flanking the origin of heavy strand replication. The latter regions comprise nad6, trnE, cob, trnT, an intergenic spacer between trnT and trnP and, in some genomes, trnP, the control region, trnF, rrnS, trnV, rrnL, trnL1, and nad1. In some cases, two copies of duplicated genes, presumptive regulatory regions, and/or sequences with no assignable function have been retained in the genome following the initial duplication; in other genomes, only one of the duplicated copies has been retained. Both tandem and non-tandem duplications are present in these genomes, suggesting different duplication mechanisms. In some of these mtDNAs, up to 25 percent of the total length is composed of tandem duplications of non-coding sequence that includes putative regulatory regions and/or pseudogenes of tRNAs and protein-coding genes along with otherwise unassignable sequences. These data indicate that imprecise initiation and termination of replication, slipped-strand mispairing, and intra-molecular recombination may all have played a role in generating repeats during the evolutionary history of plethodontid mitochondrial genomes.

  11. Evolutionary Genomics of Genes Involved in Olfactory Behavior in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Group

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Nicolás; Serra, François; Arbiza, Leonardo; Dopazo, Hernán; Hasson, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Previous comparative genomic studies of genes involved in olfactory behavior in Drosophila focused only on particular gene families such as odorant receptor and/or odorant binding proteins. However, olfactory behavior has a complex genetic architecture that is orchestrated by many interacting genes. In this paper, we present a comparative genomic study of olfactory behavior in Drosophila including an extended set of genes known to affect olfactory behavior. We took advantage of the recent burst of whole genome sequences and the development of powerful statistical tools to analyze genomic data and test evolutionary and functional hypotheses of olfactory genes in the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species group for which whole genome sequences are available. Our study reveals widespread purifying selection and limited incidence of positive selection on olfactory genes. We show that the pace of evolution of olfactory genes is mostly independent of the life cycle stage, and of the number of life cycle stages, in which they participate in olfaction. However, we detected a relationship between evolutionary rates and the position that the gene products occupy in the olfactory system, genes occupying central positions tend to be more constrained than peripheral genes. Finally, we demonstrate that specialization to one host does not seem to be associated with bursts of adaptive evolution in olfactory genes in D. sechellia and D. erecta, the two specialists species analyzed, but rather different lineages have idiosyncratic evolutionary histories in which both historical and ecological factors have been involved. PMID:22346339

  12. A Genetic Strategy to Measure Circulating Drosophila Insulin Reveals Genes Regulating Insulin Production and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangbin; Alfa, Ronald W.; Topper, Sydni M.; Kim, Grace E. S.; Kockel, Lutz; Kim, Seung K.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a major regulator of metabolism in metazoans, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest a genetic basis for reductions of both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, phenotypes commonly observed in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify molecular functions of genes linked to T2DM risk, we developed a genetic tool to measure insulin-like peptide 2 (Ilp2) levels in Drosophila, a model organism with superb experimental genetics. Our system permitted sensitive quantification of circulating Ilp2, including measures of Ilp2 dynamics during fasting and re-feeding, and demonstration of adaptive Ilp2 secretion in response to insulin receptor haploinsufficiency. Tissue specific dissection of this reduced insulin signaling phenotype revealed a critical role for insulin signaling in specific peripheral tissues. Knockdown of the Drosophila orthologues of human T2DM risk genes, including GLIS3 and BCL11A, revealed roles of these Drosophila genes in Ilp2 production or secretion. Discovery of Drosophila mechanisms and regulators controlling in vivo insulin dynamics should accelerate functional dissection of diabetes genetics. PMID:25101872

  13. Divergence of the gene aly in experimentally evolved cytoraces, the members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Radhika, P N; Ramachandra, N B

    2014-08-01

    We generated cytoraces by crossing the chromosomal races (Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans) of the nasuta subgroup of Drosophila and maintained the offspring over many generations through sibling mating. These cytoraces, along with their parents, are members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila. The gene always early (aly) is one of the rapidly evolving genes in the genus Drosophila and plays a central role in regulating meiosis. Here we examined the rate of molecular evolution of aly in cytoraces of Drosophila and demonstrated that the rate of substitutions amongst cytoraces is around eight times greater than their parents and even amongst species of subgenera. Thus, the presence of positive selection in the laboratory-derived cytoraces based on the analysis of the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates of aly suggests the rapid evolution in cytoraces.

  14. LHON/MELAS overlap syndrome associated with a mitochondrial MTND1 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Emma L; de Silva, Rajith; King, Andrew; Schwarzer, Verena; Harrower, Tim; Dawidek, Gervase; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    Pathogenic point mutations in the mitochondrial MTND1 gene have previously been described in association with two distinct clinical phenotypes -- Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Here we report the first heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutation (3376G>A) in the MTND1 gene associated with an overlap syndrome comprising the clinical features of both LHON and MELAS. Muscle histochemistry revealed subtle mitochondrial abnormalities, while biochemical analysis showed an isolated complex I deficiency. Our findings serve to highlight the growing importance of mutations in mitochondrial complex I structural genes in MELAS and its associated overlap syndromes.

  15. The evolution of courtship behaviors through the origination of a new gene in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongzheng; Chen, Ying; Chen, Sidi; Mao, Qiyan; Kennedy, David; Landback, Patrick; Eyre-Walker, Adam; Du, Wei; Long, Manyuan

    2008-05-27

    New genes can originate by the combination of sequences from unrelated genes or their duplicates to form a chimeric structure. These chimeric genes often evolve rapidly, suggesting that they undergo adaptive evolution and may therefore be involved in novel phenotypes. Their functions, however, are rarely known. Here, we describe the phenotypic effects of a chimeric gene, sphinx, that has recently evolved in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that a knockout of this gene leads to increased male-male courtship in D. melanogaster, although it leaves other aspects of mating behavior unchanged. Comparative studies of courtship behavior in other closely related Drosophila species suggest that this mutant phenotype of male-male courtship is the ancestral condition because these related species show much higher levels of male-male courtship than D. melanogaster. D. melanogaster therefore seems to have evolved in its courtship behaviors by the recruitment of a new chimeric gene.

  16. Digital gene expression profiling (DGE) of cadmium-treated Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Guan, Delong; Mo, Fei; Han, Yan; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is highly toxic and can cause oxidative damage, metabolic disorders, and reduced lifespan and fertility in animals. In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium in Drosophila melanogaster, performing transcriptome analysis by using tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. Among 1970 candidate genes, 1443 were up-regulated and 527 were down-regulated following cadmium exposure. Using Gene Ontology analysis, we found that cadmium stress affects three processes: transferase activity, stress response, and the cell cycle. Furthermore, we identified five differentially expressed genes (confirmed by real-time PCR) involved in all three processes: Ald, Cdc2, skpA, tefu, and Pvr. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were involved in the cell cycle pathway and fat digestion and absorption pathway. This study reveals the gene expression response to cadmium stress in Drosophila, it provides insights into the mechanisms of this response, and it could contribute to our understanding of cadmium toxicity in humans.

  17. The Armc10/SVH gene: genome context, regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and protection against Aβ-induced mitochondrial fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Serrat, R; Mirra, S; Figueiro-Silva, J; Navas-Pérez, E; Quevedo, M; López-Doménech, G; Podlesniy, P; Ulloa, F; Garcia-Fernàndez, J; Trullas, R; Soriano, E

    2014-04-10

    Mitochondrial function and dynamics are essential for neurotransmission, neural function and neuronal viability. Recently, we showed that the eutherian-specific Armcx gene cluster (Armcx1-6 genes), located in the X chromosome, encodes for a new family of proteins that localise to mitochondria, regulating mitochondrial trafficking. The Armcx gene cluster evolved by retrotransposition of the Armc10 gene mRNA, which is present in all vertebrates and is considered to be the ancestor gene. Here we investigate the genomic organisation, mitochondrial functions and putative neuroprotective role of the Armc10 ancestor gene. The genomic context of the Armc10 locus shows considerable syntenic conservation among vertebrates, and sequence comparisons and CHIP-data suggest the presence of at least three conserved enhancers. We also show that the Armc10 protein localises to mitochondria and that it is highly expressed in the brain. Furthermore, we show that Armc10 levels regulate mitochondrial trafficking in neurons, but not mitochondrial aggregation, by controlling the number of moving mitochondria. We further demonstrate that the Armc10 protein interacts with the KIF5/Miro1-2/Trak2 trafficking complex. Finally, we show that overexpression of Armc10 in neurons prevents Aβ-induced mitochondrial fission and neuronal death. Our data suggest both conserved and differential roles of the Armc10/Armcx gene family in regulating mitochondrial dynamics in neurons, and underscore a protective effect of the Armc10 gene against Aβ-induced toxicity. Overall, our findings support a further degree of regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in the brain of more evolved mammals.

  18. Structure and expression of the Drosophila ubiquitin-52-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, H L; Barrio, R; Arribas, C

    1992-01-01

    Ubiquitin belongs to a multigene family. In Drosophila two members of this family have been previously described. We report here the organization and expression of a third member, the DUb52 gene, isolated by screening a Drosophila melanogaster genomic library. This gene encodes an ubiquitin monomer fused to a 52-amino acid extension protein. There are no introns interrupting the coding sequence. Recently, it has been described that this extension encodes a ribosomal protein in Saccharomyces, Dictyostelium, and Arabidopsis. The present results show that the 5' regulatory region of DUb52 shares common features with the ribosomal protein genes of Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse, including GC- and pyrimidine-rich regions. Moreover, sequences similar to the consensus Ribo-box in Neurospora crassa have been identified. Furthermore, a sequence has been found that is similar to the binding site for the TFIIIA distal element factor from Xenopus laevis. The DUb52 gene is transcribed to a 0.9 kb mRNA that is expressed constitutively throughout development and is particularly abundant in ovaries. In addition, the DUb52 gene has been found to be preferentially transcribed in exponentially growing Drosophila cells. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1381584

  19. Tumor suppressor gene OSCP1/NOR1 regulates apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and ROS generation during eye development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Huu, Nguyen Tho; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2015-12-01

    OSCP1/NOR1 (organic solute carrier partner 1/oxidored nitrodomain-containing protein 1) is a known tumor suppressor protein. OSCP1 has been reported to mediate transport of various organic solutes into cells; however, its role during development has not yet been addressed. Here we report the results of studies on dOSCP1 (the Drosophila ortholog of hOSCP1) to elucidate the role of OSCP1/NOR1 during development. Knockdown of dOSCP1 in the eye imaginal discs induced a rough-eye phenotype in adult flies. This phenotype resulted from induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis followed by a compensatory cell proliferation and generation of reactive oxygen species in eye imaginal discs. The induction of apoptosis appears to be associated with down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Buffy gene and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Debcl gene. These effects of knockdown of dOSCP1 lead to mitochondrial fragmentation, degradation, and a shortfall in ATP production. We also found that knockdown of dOSCP1 causes a defect in cone cell and pigment cell differentiation in pupal retinae. Moreover, mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor pathway-related genes, such as Spitz and Drk, enhanced the rough-eye phenotype induced by dOSCP1 knockdown. These results suggest that dOSCP1 positively regulates the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Overall, our findings indicate that dOSCP1 plays multiple roles during eye development in Drosophila.

  20. Decrypting the Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Modern Panamanians

    PubMed Central

    Angerhofer, Norman; Ekins, Jayne E.; Olivieri, Anna; Woodward, Scott R.; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Cooke, Richard; Motta, Jorge; Achilli, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The Isthmus of Panama–the narrow neck of land connecting the northern and southern American landmasses–was an obligatory corridor for the Paleo-Indians as they moved into South America. Archaeological evidence suggests an unbroken link between modern natives and their Paleo-Indian ancestors in some areas of Panama, even if the surviving indigenous groups account for only 12.3% of the total population. To evaluate if modern Panamanians have retained a larger fraction of the native pre-Columbian gene pool in their maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome, DNA samples and historical records were collected from more than 1500 volunteer participants living in the nine provinces and four indigenous territories of the Republic. Due to recent gene-flow, we detected ∼14% African mitochondrial lineages, confirming the demographic impact of the Atlantic slave trade and subsequent African immigration into Panama from Caribbean islands, and a small European (∼2%) component, indicating only a minor influence of colonialism on the maternal side. The majority (∼83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%). These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians. Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama. PMID:22675545

  1. High levels of gene expression explain the strong evolutionary constraint of mitochondrial protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Nabholz, Benoit; Ellegren, Hans; Wolf, Jochen B W

    2013-02-01

    The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution has been widely accepted as the guiding principle for understanding how selection affects gene sequence evolution. One of its central predictions is that the rate at which proteins evolve should negatively scale with effective population size (N(e)). In contrast to the expectation of reduced selective constraint in the mitochondrial genome following from its lower N(e), we observe what can be interpreted as the opposite: for a taxonomically diverse set of organisms (birds, mammals, insects, and nematodes), mitochondrially encoded protein-coding genes from the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (mtOXPHOS; n = 12-13) show markedly stronger signatures of purifying selection (illustrated by low d(N)/d(S)) than their nuclear counterparts interacting in the same pathway (nuOXPHOS; n: ∼75). To understand these unexpected evolutionary dynamics, we consider a number of structural and functional parameters including gene expression, hydrophobicity, transmembrane position, gene ontology, GC content, substitution rate, proportion of amino acids in transmembrane helices, and protein-protein interaction. Across all taxa, unexpectedly large differences in gene expression levels (RNA-seq) between nuclear and mitochondrially encoded genes, and to a lower extent hydrophobicity, explained most of the variation in d(N)/d(S). Similarly, differences in d(N)/d(S) between functional OXPHOS protein complexes could largely be explained by gene expression differences. Overall, by including gene expression and other functional parameters, the unexpected mitochondrial evolutionary dynamics can be understood. Our results not only reaffirm the link between gene expression and protein evolution but also open new questions about the functional role of expression level variation between mitochondrial genes. PMID:23071102

  2. High levels of gene expression explain the strong evolutionary constraint of mitochondrial protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Nabholz, Benoit; Ellegren, Hans; Wolf, Jochen B W

    2013-02-01

    The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution has been widely accepted as the guiding principle for understanding how selection affects gene sequence evolution. One of its central predictions is that the rate at which proteins evolve should negatively scale with effective population size (N(e)). In contrast to the expectation of reduced selective constraint in the mitochondrial genome following from its lower N(e), we observe what can be interpreted as the opposite: for a taxonomically diverse set of organisms (birds, mammals, insects, and nematodes), mitochondrially encoded protein-coding genes from the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (mtOXPHOS; n = 12-13) show markedly stronger signatures of purifying selection (illustrated by low d(N)/d(S)) than their nuclear counterparts interacting in the same pathway (nuOXPHOS; n: ∼75). To understand these unexpected evolutionary dynamics, we consider a number of structural and functional parameters including gene expression, hydrophobicity, transmembrane position, gene ontology, GC content, substitution rate, proportion of amino acids in transmembrane helices, and protein-protein interaction. Across all taxa, unexpectedly large differences in gene expression levels (RNA-seq) between nuclear and mitochondrially encoded genes, and to a lower extent hydrophobicity, explained most of the variation in d(N)/d(S). Similarly, differences in d(N)/d(S) between functional OXPHOS protein complexes could largely be explained by gene expression differences. Overall, by including gene expression and other functional parameters, the unexpected mitochondrial evolutionary dynamics can be understood. Our results not only reaffirm the link between gene expression and protein evolution but also open new questions about the functional role of expression level variation between mitochondrial genes.

  3. A screen for immunity genes evolving under positive selection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jiggins, F M; Kim, K W

    2007-05-01

    Genes involved in the immune system tend to have higher rates of adaptive evolution than other genes in the genome, probably because they are coevolving with pathogens. We have screened a sample of Drosophila genes to identify those evolving under positive selection. First, we identified rapidly evolving immunity genes by comparing 140 loci in Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba. Secondly, we resequenced 23 of the fastest evolving genes from the independent species pair D. melanogaster and D. simulans, and identified those under positive selection using a McDonald-Kreitman test. There was strong evidence of adaptive evolution in two serine proteases (persephone and spirit) and a homolog of the Anopheles serpin SRPN6, and weaker evidence in another serine protease and the death domain protein dFADD. These results add to mounting evidence that immune signalling pathway molecules often evolve rapidly, possibly because they are sites of host-parasite coevolution.

  4. Origins and evolution of microRNA genes in Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Masafumi; Miura, Sayaka; Nei, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. To obtain some insights into the origins and evolutionary patterns of miR genes, we have identified miR genes in the genomes of 12 Drosophila species by bioinformatics approaches and examined their evolutionary changes. The results showed that the extant and ancestral Drosophila species had more than 100 miR genes and frequent gains and losses of miR genes have occurred during evolution. Although many miR genes appear to have originated from random hairpin structures in intronic or intergenic regions, duplication of miR genes has also contributed to the generation of new miR genes. Estimating the rate of nucleotide substitution of miR genes, we have found that newly arisen miR genes have a substitution rate similar to that of synonymous nucleotide sites in protein-coding genes and evolve almost neutrally. This suggests that most new miR genes have not acquired any important function and would become inactive. By contrast, old miR genes show a substitution rate much lower than the synonymous rate. Moreover, paired and unpaired nucleotide sites of miR genes tend to remain unchanged during evolution. Therefore, once miR genes acquired their functions, they appear to have evolved very slowly, maintaining essentially the same structures for a long time.

  5. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Adams, Keith L; Thomason, Brendan; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2003-07-10

    Horizontal gene transfer--the exchange of genes across mating barriers--is recognized as a major force in bacterial evolution. However, in eukaryotes it is prevalent only in certain phagotrophic protists and limited largely to the ancient acquisition of bacterial genes. Although the human genome was initially reported to contain over 100 genes acquired during vertebrate evolution from bacteria, this claim was immediately and repeatedly rebutted. Moreover, horizontal transfer is unknown within the evolution of animals, plants and fungi except in the special context of mobile genetic elements. Here we show, however, that standard mitochondrial genes, encoding ribosomal and respiratory proteins, are subject to evolutionarily frequent horizontal transfer between distantly related flowering plants. These transfers have created a variety of genomic outcomes, including gene duplication, recapture of genes lost through transfer to the nucleus, and chimaeric, half-monocot, half-dicot genes. These results imply the existence of mechanisms for the delivery of DNA between unrelated plants, indicate that horizontal transfer is also a force in plant nuclear genomes, and are discussed in the contexts of plant molecular phylogeny and genetically modified plants.

  6. Further Studies on Gene Polymorphism in the Mainbody and Geographically Isolated Populations of DROSOPHILA PSEUDOOBSCURA

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya

    1977-01-01

    We have examined polymorphism at 22 additional loci in the populations from the mainbody of Drosophila pseudoobscura and an isolated population from Bogotá, Colombia, which also shows partial reproductive isolation from mainbody populations. These studies extend our previous observations of reduced gene polymorphism and apparent lack of unique allele in the Bogotá population. PMID:863242

  7. Gene expression profile change and growth inhibition in Drosophila larvae treated with azadirachtin.

    PubMed

    Lai, Duo; Jin, Xiaoyong; Wang, Hao; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Hanhong

    2014-09-20

    Azadirachtin is a botanical insecticide that affects various biological processes. The effects of azadirachtin on the digital gene expression profile and growth inhibition in Drosophila larvae have not been investigated. In this study, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to detect the differentially expressed genes of Drosophila larvae regulated by azadirachtin. A total of 15,322 genes were detected, and 28 genes were found to be significantly regulated by azadirachtin. Biological process and pathway analysis showed that azadirachtin affected starch and sucrose metabolism, defense response, signal transduction, instar larval or pupal development, and chemosensory behavior processes. The genes regulated by azadirachtin were mainly enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism. This study provided a general digital gene expression profile of dysregulated genes in response to azadirachtin and showed that azadirachtin provoked potent growth inhibitory effects in Drosophila larvae by regulating the genes of cuticular protein, amylase, and odorant-binding protein. Finally, we propose a potential mechanism underlying the dysregulation of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway by azadirachtin. PMID:24956222

  8. Molecular Evolution of Drosophila Germline Stem Cell and Neural Stem Cell Regulating Genes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Young; Aquadro, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we study the molecular evolution of a near complete set of genes that had functional evidence in the regulation of the Drosophila germline and neural stem cell. Some of these genes have previously been shown to be rapidly evolving by positive selection raising the possibility that stem cell genes as a group have elevated signatures of positive selection. Using recent Drosophila comparative genome sequences and population genomic sequences of Drosophila melanogaster, we have investigated both long- and short-term evolution occurring across these two different stem cell systems, and compared them with a carefully chosen random set of genes to represent the background rate of evolution. Our results showed an excess of genes with evidence of a recent selective sweep in both germline and neural stem cells in D. melanogaster. However compared with their control genes, both stem cell systems had no significant excess of genes with long-term recurrent positive selection in D. melanogaster, or across orthologous sequences from the melanogaster group. The evidence of long-term positive selection was limited to a subset of genes with specific functions in both the germline and neural stem cell system. PMID:26507797

  9. Tenm, a Drosophila gene related to tenascin, is a new pair-rule gene.

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, S; Martin, D; Hagios, C; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R

    1994-01-01

    We describe the molecular characterization of the Drosophila gene tenm, a large transcription unit spanning > 110 kb of DNA. tenm encodes a large extracellular protein of 2515 amino acids related to the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin. The Tenm protein is found in seven stripes during the blastoderm stage, and each stripe overlaps with the even-skipped stripes. tenm mutants show a phenotype resembling that of odd-paired (opa), a member of the pair-rule class of segmentation genes. Thus, Tenm is the first example of a pair-rule gene product acting from outside the cell. While the Tenm protein is under the control of fushi tarazu and even-skipped, but not of opa, at least two pair-rule genes, paired (prd) and sloppy paired (slp), and all segment-polarity genes analysed to date are under the control of tenm. Our data suggest that Tenm initiates a signal transduction cascade which acts, via or in concert with opa, on downstream targets such as prd, slp, gooseberry, engrailed and wingless, leading to an opa-like phenotype. Images PMID:8070401

  10. The first mitochondrial genome from Mysida (Crustacea: Malacostraca) reveals an unusual gene arrangement.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Sun, Ming An; Tian, Mei; Zhao, Fang Qing; Chu, Ka Hou

    2015-04-01

    This is the first report to present the Neomysis orientalis mitochondrial genome as a representative from the order Mysida. While mitochondrial protein-coding genes (PCGs) commonly use several alternatives to ATN as start codons, all 13 PCGs in N. orientalis mitochondrial genome initiate with ATG or ATA. Five PCGs (atp6. atp8. cob. nad4 and nad4L) start with ATG, while the other genes (cox1-3. nad1-3. nad5 and nad6) start with ATA. Only two PCGs (cox2 and nad2) in the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome end with incomplete stop codons (T- or TA-), and all the remaining ones have TAA or TAG stop codon. Only one PCG (nad4L) is encoded on the light strand and all other 12 PCGs are located at the heavy strand. Both rRNAs (srRNA and lrRNA) are encoded on the light strand. In common with 15 of the other 18 mitochondrial genomes from Peracarida, the major gene arrangement in the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome is different from the pancrustacean ground pattern. The largest conserved gene block in N. orientalis only contains two genes but those in the other 18 peracarid mitochondrial genomes contain more than five genes. Thus, the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome, as the first mitochondrial genome from the order Mysida, reveals an unusual gene arrangement that is unique compared with the other malacostracan mitochondrial genomes.

  11. Biogenesis of mitochondria: the mitochondrial gene (aap1) coding for mitochondrial ATPase subunit 8 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Macreadie, I G; Novitski, C E; Maxwell, R J; John, U; Ooi, B G; McMullen, G L; Lukins, H B; Linnane, A W; Nagley, P

    1983-01-01

    A mitochondrial gene (denoted aap1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis of a region of mtDNA between the oxi3 and oli2 genes. The reading frame of the aap1 gene specifies a hydrophobic polypeptide containing 48 amino acids. The functional nature of this reading frame was established by sequence analysis of a series of mit- mutants and revertants. Evidence is presented that the aap1 gene codes for a mitochondrially synthesized polypeptide associated with the mitochondrial ATPase complex. This polypeptide (denoted subunit 8) is a proteolipid whose size has been previously assumed to be 10 kilodaltons based on its mobility on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, but the sequence of the aap1 gene predicts a molecular weight of 5,815 for this protein. PMID:6223276

  12. Mitochondrial and Ion Channel Gene Alterations in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Moyra; Flodman, Pamela L.; Gargus, John J.; Simon, Mariella T; Verrell, Kimberley; Haas, Richard; Reiner, Gail E.; Naviaux, Robert; Osann, Katherine; Spence, M. Anne; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential importance in autistic subjects of copy number variants (CNVs) that alter genes of relevance to bioenergetics, ionic metabolism, and synaptic function, we conducted a detailed microarray analysis of 69 autism probands and 35 parents, compared to 89 CEU HapMap controls. This revealed that the frequency CNVs of ≥ 100 kb and CNVs of ≥ 10 Kb were markedly increased in probands over parents and in probands and parents over controls. Evaluation of CNVs ≥ 1 Mb by chromosomal FISH confirmed the molecular identity of a subset of the CNVs, some of which were associated with chromosomal rearrangements. In a number of the cases, CNVs were found to alter the copy number of genes that are important in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), ion and especially calcium transport, and synaptic structure. Hence, autism might result from alterations in multiple bioenergetic and metabolic genes required for mental function. PMID:22538295

  13. Mapping Linked Genes in "Drosophila Melanogaster" Using Data from the F2 Generation of a Dihybrid Cross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    "Drosophila melanogaster" is a commonly utilized organism for testing hypotheses about inheritance of traits. Students in both high school and university labs study the genetics of inheritance by analyzing offspring of appropriate "Drosophila" crosses to determine inheritance patterns, including gene linkage. However, most genetics investigations…

  14. The Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster: structural gene for acetylcholinesterase with an unusual 5' leader.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, L M; Spierer, P

    1986-01-01

    The Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster has been mapped at the molecular level. cDNA clones from the locus have been isolated and their sequence determined, confirming that Ace forms the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The cDNAs have a 1950 nucleotide open reading frame from which the complete amino acid sequence of AChE has been deduced. The Drosophila enzyme is found to have extensive homology to the known sequence of Torpedo AChE. Ace cDNAs have an unusual structure with a long 5' leader and several short upstream open reading frames. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3024971

  15. Functional evolution of cis-regulatory modules at a homeotic gene in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ho, Margaret C W; Johnsen, Holly; Goetz, Sara E; Schiller, Benjamin J; Bae, Esther; Tran, Diana A; Shur, Andrey S; Allen, John M; Rau, Christoph; Bender, Welcome; Fisher, William W; Celniker, Susan E; Drewell, Robert A

    2009-11-01

    It is a long-held belief in evolutionary biology that the rate of molecular evolution for a given DNA sequence is inversely related to the level of functional constraint. This belief holds true for the protein-coding homeotic (Hox) genes originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of the Hox genes in Drosophila embryos is essential for body patterning and is controlled by an extensive array of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). How the regulatory modules functionally evolve in different species is not clear. A comparison of the CRMs for the Abdominal-B gene from different Drosophila species reveals relatively low levels of overall sequence conservation. However, embryonic enhancer CRMs from other Drosophila species direct transgenic reporter gene expression in the same spatial and temporal patterns during development as their D. melanogaster orthologs. Bioinformatic analysis reveals the presence of short conserved sequences within defined CRMs, representing gap and pair-rule transcription factor binding sites. One predicted binding site for the gap transcription factor KRUPPEL in the IAB5 CRM was found to be altered in Superabdominal (Sab) mutations. In Sab mutant flies, the third abdominal segment is transformed into a copy of the fifth abdominal segment. A model for KRUPPEL-mediated repression at this binding site is presented. These findings challenge our current understanding of the relationship between sequence evolution at the molecular level and functional activity of a CRM. While the overall sequence conservation at Drosophila CRMs is not distinctive from neighboring genomic regions, functionally critical transcription factor binding sites within embryonic enhancer CRMs are highly conserved. These results have implications for understanding mechanisms of gene expression during embryonic development, enhancer function, and the molecular evolution of eukaryotic regulatory modules.

  16. Vitellogenin family gene expression does not increase Drosophila lifespan or fecundity.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yingxue; Hughes, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    One of the most striking patterns in comparative biology is the negative correlation between lifespan and fecundity observed in comparisons among species. This pattern is consistent with the idea that organisms need to allocate a fixed energy budget among competing demands of growth, development, reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, exceptions to this pattern have been observed in many social insects, including ants, bees, and termites.  In honey bees ( Apis mellifera), Vitellogenin ( Vg), a yolk protein precursor, has been implicated in mediating the long lifespan and high fecundity of queen bees. To determine if Vg-like proteins can regulate lifespan in insects generally, we examined the effects of expression of Apis Vg and Drosophila CG31150 (a Vg-like gene recently identified as cv-d) on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan and fecundity using the RU486-inducible GeneSwitch system. For all genotypes tested, overexpression of Vg and CG31150 decreased Drosophila lifespan and did not affect total or age-specific fecundity. We also detected an apparent effect of the GeneSwitch system itself, wherein RU486 exposure (or the GAL4 expression it induces) led to a significant increase in longevity and decrease in fecundity in our fly strains. This result is consistent with the pattern reported in a recent meta-analysis of Drosophila aging studies, where transgenic constructs of the UAS/GAL4 expression system that should have no effect (e.g. an uninduced GeneSwitch) significantly extended lifespan in some genetic backgrounds. Our results suggest that Vg-family genes are not major regulators of Drosophila life history traits, and highlight the importance of using appropriate controls in aging studies. PMID:25110583

  17. The pink gene encodes the Drosophila orthologue of the human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 (HPS5) gene.

    PubMed

    Syrzycka, Monika; McEachern, Lori A; Kinneard, Jennifer; Prabhu, Kristel; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen; Schulze, Sandra; Rawls, John M; Lloyd, Vett K; Sinclair, Donald A R; Honda, Barry M

    2007-06-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) consists of a set of human autosomal recessive disorders, with symptoms resulting from defects in genes required for protein trafficking in lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. A number of human HPS genes and rodent orthologues have been identified whose protein products are key components of 1 of 4 different protein complexes (AP-3 or BLOC-1, -2, and -3) that are key participants in the process. Drosophila melanogaster has been a key model organism in demonstrating the in vivo significance of many genes involved in protein trafficking pathways; for example, mutations in the "granule group" genes lead to changes in eye colour arising from improper protein trafficking to pigment granules in the developing eye. An examination of the chromosomal positioning of Drosophila HPS gene orthologues suggested that CG9770, the Drosophila HPS5 orthologue, might correspond to the pink locus. Here we confirm this gene assignment, making pink the first eye colour gene in flies to be identified as a BLOC complex gene. PMID:17632576

  18. The role of mammalian PPR domain proteins in the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rackham, Oliver; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) domain proteins are a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are involved in the maturation and translation of organelle transcripts in eukaryotes. They were first identified in plant organelles and their important role in mammalian mitochondrial gene regulation is now emerging. Mammalian PPR proteins, like their plant counterparts, have diverse roles in mitochondrial transcription, RNA metabolism and translation and consequently are important for mitochondrial function and cell health. Here we discuss the current knowledge about the seven mammalian PPR proteins identified to date and their roles in the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression. Furthermore we discuss the mitochondrial RNA targets of the mammalian PPR proteins and methods to investigate the RNA targets of these mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Gene Expression.

  19. Rapid evolution of a cyclin A inhibitor gene, roughex, in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Avedisov, S N; Rogozin, I B; Koonin, E V; Thomas, B J

    2001-11-01

    The recent sequencing of the complete genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has yielded about 30% of the predicted genes with no obvious counterparts in other organisms. These rapidly evolving genes remain largely unexplored. Here, we present evidence for a striking variability in an important Drosophila cell cycle regulator encoded by the gene roughex (rux) in closely related fly species. The unusual level of Rux protein variability indicates that there are very low overall constraints on amino acid substitutions. Despite the lack of sequence similarity, certain common features, including the presence of a C-terminal nuclear localization signal and a functionally important N-terminal RXL cyclin-binding motif, exist between Rux and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors of the Cip/Kip family. These results indicate that even some genes involved in key regulatory processes in eukaryotes evolve at extremely high rates.

  20. Using mutants, knockdowns, and transgenesis to investigate gene function in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The sophisticated genetic techniques available in Drosophila are largely responsible for its success as a model organism. One of the most important of these is the ability to disrupt gene function in vivo and observe the resulting phenotypes. This review considers the ever-increasing repertoire of approaches for perturbing the functions of specific genes in flies, ranging from classical and transposon-mediated mutageneses to newer techniques, such as homologous recombination and RNA interference. Since most genes are used over and over again in different contexts during development, many important advances have depended on being able to interfere with gene function at specific times or places in the developing animal, and a variety of approaches are now available to do this. Most of these techniques rely on being able to create genetically modified strains of Drosophila and the different methods for generating lines carrying single copy transgenic constructs will be described, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  1. The Molecular Evolution of Cytochrome P450 Genes within and between Drosophila Species

    PubMed Central

    Good, Robert T.; Gramzow, Lydia; Battlay, Paul; Sztal, Tamar; Batterham, Philip; Robin, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We map 114 gene gains and 74 gene losses in the P450 gene family across the phylogeny of 12 Drosophila species by examining the congruence of gene trees and species trees. Although the number of P450 genes varies from 74 to 94 in the species examined, we infer that there were at least 77 P450 genes in the ancestral Drosophila genome. One of the most striking observations in the data set is the elevated loss of P450 genes in the Drosophila sechellia lineage. The gain and loss events are not evenly distributed among the P450 genes—with 30 genes showing no gene gains or losses whereas others show as many as 20 copy number changes among the species examined. The P450 gene clades showing the fewest number of gene gain and loss events tend to be those evolving with the most purifying selection acting on the protein sequences, although there are exceptions, such as the rapid rate of amino acid replacement observed in the single copy phantom (Cyp306a1) gene. Within D. melanogaster, we observe gene copy number polymorphism in ten P450 genes including multiple cases of interparalog chimeras. Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) has been associated with deleterious mutations in humans, but here we provide a second possible example of an NAHR event in insect P450s being adaptive. Specifically, we find that a polymorphic Cyp12a4/Cyp12a5 chimera correlates with resistance to an insecticide. Although we observe such interparalog exchange in our within-species data sets, we have little evidence of it between species, raising the possibility that such events may occur more frequently than appreciated but are masked by subsequent sequence change. PMID:24751979

  2. Gene Deletion Screen for Cardiomyopathy in Adult Drosophila Identifies a New Notch Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Man; Wolf, Matthew J.; Rockman, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Drosophila has been recognized as a model to study human cardiac diseases. Objective Despite these findings, and the wealth of tools that are available to the fly community, forward genetic screens for adult heart phenotypes have been rarely performed due to the difficulty in accurately measuring cardiac function in adult Drosophila. Methods and Results Using optical coherence tomography to obtain real-time analysis of cardiac function in awake Drosophila, we performed a genomic deficiency screen in adult flies. Based on multiple complementary approaches, we identified CG31665 as a novel gene causing dilated cardiomyopathy. CG31665, which we name weary (wry), has structural similarities to members of the Notch family. Using cell aggregation assays and γ-secretase inhibitors we show that Wry is a novel Notch ligand that can mediate cellular adhesion with Notch expressing cells and transactivates Notch to promote signaling and nuclear transcription. Importantly, Wry lacks a DSL (Delta-Serrate-Lag) domain that is common feature to the other Drosophila Notch ligands. We further show that Notch signaling is critically important for the maintenance of normal heart function of the adult fly. Conclusions In conclusion, we identify a previously unknown Notch ligand in Drosophila that when deleted causes cardiomyopathy. Our study suggests that Notch signaling components may be a therapeutic target for dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:20203305

  3. Dosage Effects of a Drosophila Sodium Channel Gene on Behavior and Axonal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Stern, M.; Kreber, R.; Ganetzky, B.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of para mutations on behavior and axonal excitability in Drosophila suggested that para specifically affects sodium channels. This hypothesis was confirmed by molecular analysis of the para locus, which demonstrates that the encoded para product is a sodium channel polypeptide. Here we characterize the effects of altered para(+) dosage on behavior and axonal excitability, both in an otherwise wild-type background and in combination with two other mutations: nap(ts), which also affects sodium channels, and Sh(KS133), which specifically affects potassium channels. Whereas it was previously shown that decreased dosage of para(+) is unconditionally lethal in a .nap(ts) background, we find that increased dosage of para(+) suppresses nap(ts). Similarly, we find that para hypomorphs or decreased dosage of para(+) suppresses Sh(KS133), whereas increased dosage of para(+) enhances Sh(KS133). The electrophysiological basis for these effects is investigated. Other genes in Drosophila that have sequence homology to sodium channels do not show such dosage effects, which suggests that the para(+) product has a function distinct from that of other putative Drosophila sodium channel genes. We conclude that the number of sodium channels present in at least some Drosophila neurons can be affected by changes in para(+) gene dosage, and that the level of para(+) expression can strongly influence neuronal excitability. PMID:2155153

  4. Interspecific sequence comparison of the muscle-myosin heavy-chain genes from Drosophila hydei and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miedema, K; Harhangi, H; Mentzel, S; Wilbrink, M; Akhmanova, A; Hooiveld, M; Bindels, P; Hennig, W

    1994-10-01

    The muscle-myosin heavy-chain (mMHC) gene of Drosophila hydei has been sequenced completely (size 23.3 kb). The sequence comparison with the D. melanogaster mMHC gene revealed that the exon-intron pattern is identical. The protein coding regions show a high degree of conservation (97%). The alternatively spliced exons (3a-b, 7a-d, 9a-c, 11a-e, and 15a-b) display more variations in the number of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions than the common exons (2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, and 19). The base composition at synonymous sites of fourfold degenerate codons (third position) is not biased in the alternative exons. In the common exons there exists a bias for C and against A. These findings imply that the alternative exons of the Drosophila mMHC gene evolve at a different, in several cases higher, rate than the common ones. The 5' splice junctions and 5' and 3' untranslated regions show a high level of similarity, indicating a functional constraint on these sequences. The intron regions vary considerably in length within one species, but the corresponding introns are very similar in length between the two species and all contain stretches of sequence similarity. A particular example is the first intron, which contains multiple regions of similarity. In the conserved regions of intron 12 (head-tail border) sequences were found which have the potential to direct another smaller mMHC transcript.

  5. DNA damage-responsive Drosophila melanogaster gene is also induced by heat shock

    SciTech Connect

    Vivino, A.A.; Smith, M.D.; Minton, K.W.

    1986-12-01

    A gene isolated by screening Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells for DNA damage regulation was also found to be regulated by heat shock. After UV irradiation or heat shock, induction is at the transcriptional level and results in the accumulation of a 1.0-kilobase polyadenylated transcript. The restriction map of the clone bears no resemblance to the known heat shock genes, which are shown to be uninduced by UV irradiation.

  6. Disorders of phospholipid metabolism: an emerging class of mitochondrial disease due to defects in nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-Wen; Claypool, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The human nuclear and mitochondrial genomes co-exist within each cell. While the mitochondrial genome encodes for a limited number of proteins, transfer RNAs, and ribosomal RNAs, the vast majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome. Of the multitude of mitochondrial disorders known to date, only a fifth are maternally inherited. The recent characterization of the mitochondrial proteome therefore serves as an important step toward delineating the nosology of a large spectrum of phenotypically heterogeneous diseases. Following the identification of the first nuclear gene defect to underlie a mitochondrial disorder, a plenitude of genetic variants that provoke mitochondrial pathophysiology have been molecularly elucidated and classified into six categories that impact: (1) oxidative phosphorylation (subunits and assembly factors); (2) mitochondrial DNA maintenance and expression; (3) mitochondrial protein import and assembly; (4) mitochondrial quality control (chaperones and proteases); (5) iron-sulfur cluster homeostasis; and (6) mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion). Here, we propose that an additional class of genetic variant be included in the classification schema to acknowledge the role of genetic defects in phospholipid biosynthesis, remodeling, and metabolism in mitochondrial pathophysiology. This seventh class includes a small but notable group of nuclear-encoded proteins whose dysfunction impacts normal mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism. The resulting human disorders present with a diverse array of pathologic consequences that reflect the variety of functions that phospholipids have in mitochondria and highlight the important role of proper membrane homeostasis in mitochondrial biology.

  7. Disorders of phospholipid metabolism: an emerging class of mitochondrial disease due to defects in nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ya-Wen; Claypool, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The human nuclear and mitochondrial genomes co-exist within each cell. While the mitochondrial genome encodes for a limited number of proteins, transfer RNAs, and ribosomal RNAs, the vast majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome. Of the multitude of mitochondrial disorders known to date, only a fifth are maternally inherited. The recent characterization of the mitochondrial proteome therefore serves as an important step toward delineating the nosology of a large spectrum of phenotypically heterogeneous diseases. Following the identification of the first nuclear gene defect to underlie a mitochondrial disorder, a plenitude of genetic variants that provoke mitochondrial pathophysiology have been molecularly elucidated and classified into six categories that impact: (1) oxidative phosphorylation (subunits and assembly factors); (2) mitochondrial DNA maintenance and expression; (3) mitochondrial protein import and assembly; (4) mitochondrial quality control (chaperones and proteases); (5) iron–sulfur cluster homeostasis; and (6) mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion). Here, we propose that an additional class of genetic variant be included in the classification schema to acknowledge the role of genetic defects in phospholipid biosynthesis, remodeling, and metabolism in mitochondrial pathophysiology. This seventh class includes a small but notable group of nuclear-encoded proteins whose dysfunction impacts normal mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism. The resulting human disorders present with a diverse array of pathologic consequences that reflect the variety of functions that phospholipids have in mitochondria and highlight the important role of proper membrane homeostasis in mitochondrial biology. PMID:25691889

  8. 2mit, an Intronic Gene of Drosophila melanogaster timeless2, Is Involved in Behavioral Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Benna, Clara; Leonardi, Emanuela; Romoli, Ottavia; Cognolato, Moira; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.; Costa, Rodolfo; Sandrelli, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Background Intronic genes represent ~6% of the total gene complement in Drosophila melanogaster and ~85% of them encode for proteins. We recently characterized the D. melanogaster timeless2 (tim2) gene, showing its active involvement in chromosomal stability and light synchronization of the adult circadian clock. The protein coding gene named 2mit maps on the 11th tim2 intron in the opposite transcriptional orientation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the molecular and functional characterization of 2mit. The 2mit gene is expressed throughout Drosophila development, localizing mainly in the nervous system during embryogenesis and mostly in the mushroom bodies and ellipsoid body of the central complex in the adult brain. In silico analyses revealed that 2mit encodes a putative leucine-Rich Repeat transmembrane receptor with intrinsically disordered regions, harboring several fully conserved functional interaction motifs in the cytosolic side. Using insertional mutations, tissue-specific over-expression, and down-regulation approaches, it was found that 2mit is implicated in adult short-term memory, assessed by a courtship conditioning assay. In D. melanogaster, tim2 and 2mit do not seem to be functionally related. Bioinformatic analyses identified 2MIT orthologs in 21 Drosophilidae, 4 Lepidoptera and in Apis mellifera. In addition, the tim2-2mit host-nested gene organization was shown to be present in A. mellifera and maintained among Drosophila species. Within the Drosophilidae 2mit-hosting tim2 intron, in silico approaches detected a neuronal specific transcriptional binding site which might have contributed to preserve the specific host-nested gene association across Drosophila species. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results indicate that 2mit, a gene mainly expressed in the nervous system, has a role in the behavioral plasticity of the adult Drosophila. The presence of a putative 2mit regulatory enhancer within the 2mit-hosting tim2

  9. Drosophila evolution challenges postulated redundancy in the E(spl) gene complex.

    PubMed

    Maier, D; Marte, B M; Schäfer, W; Yu, Y; Preiss, A

    1993-06-15

    The Enhancer of split [E(spl)] gene complex belongs to the class of neurogenic loci, which, in a concerted action, govern neurogenesis in Drosophila. Two genetically distinct functions, vital and neurogenic, reside within the complex defined by lethal mutations in the l(3) gro gene and by the typical neurogenic phenotype of deletions, respectively. Such deletions always affect several of the many embryonically active genes in the region, which cannot be mutated separately to lethality. Seven of these genes are extremely similar at the transcription and sequence level sharing the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif of transcriptional regulators. While these E(spl) bHLH genes seem to be required collectively for neurogenesis, they are nonessential individually, suggesting functional redundancy of the encoded gene products. No specific functions could yet be ascribed to any of the other genes located within the complex. One might expect these apparently dispensable genes, as well as the supposedly redundant bHLH genes, to be under little evolutionary constraint and, thus, to evolve most rapidly. However, we find the entire E(spl) gene complex highly conserved during Drosophila evolution, indicating that all the genes as well as their organization are of functional importance.

  10. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex

    PubMed Central

    Arbeitman, Michelle N.; New, Felicia N.; Fear, Justin M.; Howard, Tiffany S.; Dalton, Justin E.; Graze, Rita M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues. We also examine gene expression in doublesex (dsx) mutant strains to determine which sex-differentially expressed genes are regulated by DSX, and the mode by which DSX regulates expression. We find substantial variation in sex-differential expression. The sets of genes with sexually dimorphic expression in each strain show little overlap. The prevalence of different DSX regulatory modes also varies between the two strains. Neither the patterns of DSX DNA occupancy, nor mode of DSX regulation explain why some genes show consistent sex-differential expression across strains. We find that the genes identified as regulated by DSX in this study are enriched with known sites of DSX DNA occupancy. Finally, we find that sex-differentially expressed genes and genes regulated by DSX are highly enriched on the fourth chromosome. These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation. PMID:27172187

  11. On the rate of DNA sequence evolution in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sharp, P M; Li, W H

    1989-05-01

    Analysis of the rate of nucleotide substitution at silent sites in Drosophila genes reveals three main points. First, the silent rate varies (by a factor of two) among nuclear genes; it is inversely related to the degree of codon usage bias, and so selection among synonymous codons appears to constrain the rate of silent substitution in some genes. Second, mitochondrial genes may have evolved only as fast as nuclear genes with weak codon usage bias (and two times faster than nuclear genes with high codon usage bias); this is quite different from the situation in mammals where mitochondrial genes evolve approximately 5-10 times faster than nuclear genes. Third, the absolute rate of substitution at silent sites in nuclear genes in Drosophila is about three times higher than the average silent rate in mammals.

  12. Regulation of chromatin organization and inducible gene expression by a Drosophila insulator.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ashley M; Van Bortle, Kevin; Ramos, Edward; Takenaka, Naomi; Rohrbaugh, Margaret; Jones, Brian C; Jones, Keith C; Corces, Victor G

    2011-10-01

    Insulators are multiprotein-DNA complexes thought to affect gene expression by mediating inter- and intrachromosomal interactions. Drosophila insulators contain specific DNA-binding proteins plus common components, such as CP190, that facilitate these interactions. Here, we examine changes in the distribution of Drosophila insulator proteins during the heat-shock and ecdysone responses. We find that CP190 recruitment to insulator sites is the main regulatable step in controlling insulator function during heat shock. In contrast, both CP190 and DNA-binding protein recruitment are regulated during the ecdysone response. CP190 is necessary to stabilize specific chromatin loops and for proper activation of transcription of genes regulated by this hormone. These findings suggest that cells may regulate recruitment of insulator proteins to DNA to activate insulator activity at specific sites and create distinct patterns of nuclear organization that are necessary to achieve proper gene expression in response to different stimuli. PMID:21981916

  13. Functional conservation of the Drosophila gooseberry gene and its evolutionary alleles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xue, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila Pax gene gooseberry (gsb) is required for development of the larval cuticle and CNS, survival to adulthood, and male fertility. These functions can be rescued in gsb mutants by two gsb evolutionary alleles, gsb-Prd and gsb-Pax3, which express the Drosophila Paired and mouse Pax3 proteins under the control of gooseberry cis-regulatory region. Therefore, both Paired and Pax3 proteins have conserved all the Gsb functions that are required for survival of embryos to fertile adults, despite the divergent primary sequences in their C-terminal halves. As gsb-Prd and gsb-Pax3 uncover a gsb function involved in male fertility, construction of evolutionary alleles may provide a powerful strategy to dissect hitherto unknown gene functions. Our results provide further evidence for the essential role of cis-regulatory regions in the functional diversification of duplicated genes during evolution.

  14. Drosophila left/right asymmetry establishment is controlled by the Hox gene abdominal-B.

    PubMed

    Coutelis, Jean-Baptiste; Géminard, Charles; Spéder, Pauline; Suzanne, Magali; Petzoldt, Astrid Gerlinde; Noselli, Stéphane

    2013-01-14

    In Drosophila, left/right (LR) asymmetry is apparent in the directional looping of the gut and male genitalia. The dextral orientation of the organs depends on the activity of a single gene, MyosinID (myoID), whose mutation leads to a fully inverted LR axis, thus revealing the activity of a recessive sinistral pathway. Here, we present the identification of the Hox gene Abdominal-B (Abd-B) as an upstream regulator of LR determination. This role appears distinct from its function in anteroposterior patterning. We show that the Abd-Bm isoform binds to regulatory sequences of myoID and controls MyoID expression in the organ LR organizer. Abd-Bm is also required for the sinistral pathway. Thus, when Abd-B activity is missing, no symmetry breaking occurs and flies develop symmetrically. These findings identify the Hox gene Abd-B as directing the earliest events of LR asymmetry establishment in Drosophila.

  15. From vestigial to vestigial-like: the Drosophila gene that has taken wing.

    PubMed

    Simon, Emilie; Faucheux, Corinne; Zider, Alain; Thézé, Nadine; Thiébaud, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The members of the vestigial-like gene family have been identified as homologs of the Drosophila vestigial, which is essential to wing formation. All members of the family are characterized by the presence of the TONDU domain, a highly conserved sequence that mediates their interaction with the transcription factors of the TEAD family. Mammals possess four vestigial-like genes that can be subdivided into two classes, depending on the number of Tondu domains present. While vestigial proteins have been studied in great depth in Drosophila, we still have sketchy knowledge of the functions of vestigial-like proteins in vertebrates. Recent studies have unveiled unexpected functions for some of these members and reveal the role they play in the Hippo pathway. Here, we present the current knowledge about vestigial-like family gene members and their functions, together with their identification in different taxa.

  16. Identification and characterization of kraken, a gene encoding a putative hydrolytic enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Edwin Chan, H Y; Harris, S J; O'Kane, C J

    1998-11-19

    Kraken, a novel Drosophila gene isolated from a 4-8-h-old Drosophila embryo cDNA library, shows homology to a family of serine hydrolases whose common feature is that they all catalyse breakage of substrates with a carbonyl-containing group. It is a single-copy gene with at least two introns and maps to position 21D on polytene chromosomes. kraken is a member of a conserved gene family. Messenger RNA of kraken is expressed ubiquitously in early embryogenesis. Later, it is concentrated in the foregut and the posterior midgut primordium. Towards the end of embryogenesis, expression of kraken is confined to the gastric caeca. During the third-instar larval stage, kraken is expressed at low levels in the gastric caeca and parts of the gut, and at higher levels in the fat body. We suggest a role for Kraken in detoxification and digestion during embryogenesis and larval development. PMID:9831651

  17. Fast protein evolution and germ line expression of a Drosophila parental gene and its young retroposed paralog.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Esther; Bai, Yongsheng; Motiwale, Mansi

    2006-11-01

    This is the first detailed study of the evolution, phylogenetic distribution, and transcription of one young retroposed gene, CG13732, and its parental gene CG15645, whose functions are unknown. CG13732 is a recognizable retroposed copy of CG15645 retaining the signals of this process. We name the parental gene Cervantes and the retrogene Quijote. To determine when this duplication occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of Quijote, we employed polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and the available information on sequenced Drosophila genomes. Interestingly, these analyses revealed that Quijote is present only in 4 species of Drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila mauritiana) and that retroposed copies of Cervantes have also originated in the lineages leading to Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila erecta independently in the 3 instances. We name the new retrogene in the D. yakuba lineage Rocinante and the new retrogene in the D. erecta lineage Sancho. In this work, we present data on Quijote and its parental gene Cervantes. Polymorphism analysis of the derived gene and divergence data for both parental and derived genes were used to determine that both genes likely produce functional proteins and that they are changing at a fast rate (KA/KS approximately 0.38). The negative value of H of Fay and Wu in the non-African sample reveals an excess of derived variants at high frequency. This could be explained either by positive selection in the region or by demographic effects. The comparative expression pattern shows that both genes express in the same adult tissues (male and female germ line) in D. melanogaster. Quijote is also expressed in male and female in D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. We argue that the fast rate of evolution of these genes could be related to their putative germ line function and are further studying the independent recruitment of Cervantes-derived retrogenes in

  18. Detection of gene-anchored amplification polymorphism (GAAP) in the vicinity of plant mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Loridon, K; Saumitou-Laprade, P

    2002-05-01

    A simple, semi-automatable method was established for assessing polymorphism in plant mitochondrial genome. A set of 41 mitochondrial markers based on the published Arabidopsis thaliana sequence was developed in Brassicaceae using a gene-anchored amplification polymorphism (GAAP) strategy. PCR primers were selected based on conserved coding regions of mitochondrial genes and used to amplify the corresponding 5' and/or 3' non-coding flanking regions in order to maximise sequence variability between haplotypes. The variations in fragment size were analysed on a LiCor DNA sequencer, but the methodology is compatible with various sequencing systems using denaturing polyacrylamide gels. One advantage of the method is that GAAP products can be directly sequenced (without any cloning steps) through labelled M13 consensus sequences. Mitochondrial GAAP loci gave clear and simple patterns (one or two bands) that were easy to score and highly reproducible. Nearly all mitochondrial loci examined in A. thaliana were conserved within the Brassicaceae family, and half of the primers generated products when DNA from a distant species, Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae), was used as template. The GAAP markers revealed low levels of polymorphism within species but exhibited a high level of polymorphism among genera and families. Our results showed some discrepancies with respect to the published mtDNA sequence of A. thaliana. PMID:12073035

  19. Regulation of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brown, T A; Evangelista, C; Trumpower, B L

    1995-12-01

    Selection for mutants which release glucose repression of the CYB2 gene was used to identify genes which regulate repression of mitochondrial biogenesis. We have identified two of these as the previously described GRR1/CAT80 and ROX3 genes. Mutations in these genes not only release glucose repression of CYB2 but also generally release respiration of the mutants from glucose repression. In addition, both mutants are partially defective in CYB2 expression when grown on nonfermentable carbon sources, indicating a positive regulatory role as well. ROX3 was cloned by complementation of a glucose-inducible flocculating phenotype of an amber mutant and has been mapped as a new leftmost marker on chromosome 2. The ROX3 mutant has only a modest defect in glucose repression of GAL1 but is substantially compromised in galactose induction of GAL1 expression. This mutant also has increased SUC2 expression on nonrepressing carbon sources. We have also characterized the regulation of CYB2 in strains carrying null mutation in two other glucose repression genes, HXK2 and SSN6, and show that HXK2 is a negative regulator of CYB2, whereas SSN6 appears to be a positive effector of CYB2 expression.

  20. Chromosomal localization of three mouse diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) genes: Genes sharing sequence homology to the Drosophila retinal degeneration A (rdgA) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pilz, A.; Hunt, D.; Fitzgibbon, J.

    1995-04-10

    There is growing evidence to support some form of light-activated phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway in the mammalian retina. Although this pathway plays no obvious role in mammalian phototransduction, mutations in this pathway cause retinal degenerations in Drosophila. These include the retinal-degeneration A mutant, which is caused by an alteration in an eye-specific diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) gene. In our efforts to consider genes mutated in Drosophila as candidates for mammalian eye disease, we have initially determined the map position of three DAGK genes in the mouse. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Adaptive evolution of recently duplicated accessory gland protein genes in desert Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Bradley J; Begun, David J

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between animal mating system variation and patterns of protein polymorphism and divergence is poorly understood. Drosophila provides an excellent system for addressing this issue, as there is abundant interspecific mating system variation. For example, compared to D. melanogaster subgroup species, repleta group species have higher remating rates, delayed sexual maturity, and several other interesting differences. We previously showed that accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) of Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae evolve more rapidly than Acp's in the D. melanogaster subgroup and that adaptive Acp protein evolution is likely more common in D. mojavensis/D. arizonae than in D. melanogaster/D. simulans. These findings are consistent with the idea that greater postcopulatory selection results in more adaptive evolution of seminal fluid proteins in the repleta group flies. Here we report another interesting evolutionary difference between the repleta group and the D. melanogaster subgroup Acp's. Acp gene duplications are present in D. melanogaster, but their high sequence divergence indicates that the fixation rate of duplicated Acp's has been low in this lineage. Here we report that D. mojavensis and D. arizonae genomes contain several very young duplicated Acp's and that these Acp's have experienced very rapid, adaptive protein divergence. We propose that rapid remating of female desert Drosophila generates selection for continuous diversification of the male Acp complement to improve male fertilization potential. Thus, mating system variation may be associated with adaptive protein divergence as well as with duplication of Acp's in Drosophila.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudocellus pearsei (Chelicerata: Ricinulei) and a comparison of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in Arachnida

    PubMed Central

    Fahrein, Kathrin; Talarico, Giovanni; Braband, Anke; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are widely utilized for phylogenetic and population genetic analyses among animals. In addition to sequence data the mitochondrial gene order and RNA secondary structure data are used in phylogenetic analyses. Arachnid phylogeny is still highly debated and there is a lack of sufficient sequence data for many taxa. Ricinulei (hooded tickspiders) are a morphologically distinct clade of arachnids with uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Results The first complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a member of the Ricinulei, Pseudocellus pearsei (Arachnida: Ricinulei) was sequenced using a PCR-based approach. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular duplex DNA molecule with a size of 15,099 bp, showing the complete set of genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. Five tRNA genes (trnW, trnY, trnN, trnL(CUN), trnV) show different relative positions compared to other Chelicerata (e.g. Limulus polyphemus, Ixodes spp.). We propose that two events led to this derived gene order: (1) a tandem duplication followed by random deletion and (2) an independent translocation of trnN. Most of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern except tRNA-Glu where the TψC-arm is missing. In phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference) using concatenated amino acid and nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes the basal relationships of arachnid orders remain unresolved. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses (ML, MP, BI) of arachnid mitochondrial genomes fail to resolve interordinal relationships of Arachnida and remain in a preliminary stage because there is still a lack of mitogenomic data from important taxa such as Opiliones and Pseudoscorpiones. Gene order varies considerably within Arachnida – only eight out of 23 species have retained the putative arthropod ground pattern. Some gene order changes are valuable characters in phylogenetic analysis of intraordinal

  3. Relationship between organization and function of ribosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Karpen, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    In most eukaryotic organisms, the genes that encode the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNAs (rDNA genes) are tandemly repeated, and are located in constitutive heterochromatin and/or centromeric or telomeric regions. P-element mediated transformation was used to investigate the relationship between rDNA organization and function in Drosophila melanogaster. Tritiated-uridine incorporation under heat shock conditions and in situ hybridization to rRNA were used to demonstrate that a single rDNA gene inserted into euchromatin can be transcribed at a high rate, in polytene nuclei. P-element-mediated transformation of a single Drosophila rDNA gene was also utilized to investigate the ability of ribosomal DNA to organize a nucleolus. Cytological approaches demonstrated that structures resembling the endogenous nucleoli were preferentially associated with four different sites of rDNA insertion, in polytene nuclei. These mini-nucleoli also contained components specific to the nucleolus, as shown by in situ hybridization to rRNA and indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody that binds to Drosophila nucleoli. The transformed genes were able to partially rescue mutant phenotypes due to a deficiency of rDNA, indicating that the mini-nucleoli were functional.

  4. Eliminate mitochondrial diseases by gene editing in germ-line cells and embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Yi, Fei; Qu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Nuclease-based gene editing technologies have opened up opportunities for correcting human genetic diseases. For the first time, scientists achieved targeted gene editing of mitochondrial DNA in mouse oocytes fused with patient cells. This fascinating progression may encourage the development of novel therapy for human maternally inherent mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26081469

  5. Higher frequency of intron loss from the promoter proximally paused genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Li, Xue-Nan; Niu, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Although intron losses have been widely reported, it is not clear whether they are neutral and therefore random or driven by positive selection. Intron transcription and splicing are time-consuming and can delay the expression of its host gene. For genes that must be activated quickly to respond to physiological or stress signals, intron delay may be deleterious. Promoter proximally paused (PPP) genes are a group of rapidly expressed genes. To respond quickly to activation signals, they generally initiate transcription competently but stall after synthesizing a short RNA. In this study, performed in Drosophila melanogaster, the PPP genes were found to have a significantly higher rate of intron loss than control genes. However, further analysis did not find more significant shrinkage of intron size in PPP genes. Referring to previous studies on the rates of transcription and splicing and to the time saved by deletion of the introns from mouse gene Hes7, it is here suggested that transcription delay is comparable to splicing delay only when the intron is 28.5 kb or larger, which is greater in size than 95% of vertebrate introns, 99.5% of Drosophila introns, and all the annotated introns of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Delays in intron splicing are probably a selective force, promoting intron loss from quickly expressed genes. In other genes, it may have been an exaptation during the emergency of developmental clocks.

  6. Genes for Drosophila small heat shock proteins are regulated differently by ecdysterone

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, J.; Voellmy, R. ); Mestril, R. )

    1991-12-01

    Genes for small heat shock proteins (hsp27 to hsp22) are activated in late third-instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster in the absence of heat stress. This regulation has been stimulated in cultured Drosophila cells in which the genes are activated by the addition of ecdysterone. Sequence elements (HERE) involved in ecdysterone regulation of the hsp27 and hsp23 genes have been defined by transfection studies and have recently been identified as binding sites for ecdysterone receptor. The authors report here that the shp27 and hsp23 genes are regulated differently by ecdysterone. The hsp27 gene is activated rapidly by ecdysterone, even in the absence of protein synthesis. In contrast, high-level expression of the hsp23 gene begins only after a lag of about 6 h, is dependent on the continuous presence of ecdysterone, and is sensitive to low concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors. Transfection experiments with reported constructs show that this difference in regulation is at the transcriptional level. Synthetic hsp27 or hsp23 HERE sequences confer hsp27- or hsp23-type ecdysterone regulation on a basal promoter. These findings indicate that the hsp27 gene is primary, and the hsp23 gene is mainly a secondary, hormone-responsive gene. Ecdysterone receptor is implied to play a role in the regulation of both genes.

  7. Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression to restrict RNA viral infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Debasis; Pascual-Garcia, Pau; Dunagin, Margaret; Tudor, Matthew; Hopkins, Kaycie C.; Xu, Jie; Gold, Beth; Raj, Arjun; Capelson, Maya; Cherry, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In response to infection, the innate immune system rapidly activates an elaborate and tightly orchestrated gene expression program to induce critical antimicrobial genes. While many key players in this program have been identified in disparate biological systems, it is clear that there are additional uncharacterized mechanisms at play. Our previous studies revealed that a rapidly-induced antiviral gene expression program is active against disparate human arthropod-borne viruses in Drosophila. Moreover, one-half of this program is regulated at the level of transcriptional pausing. Here we found that Nup98, a virus-induced gene, was antiviral against a panel of viruses both in cells and adult flies since its depletion significantly enhanced viral infection. Mechanistically, we found that Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression in Drosophila at the level of transcription. Expression profiling revealed that the virus-induced activation of 36 genes was abrogated upon loss of Nup98; and we found that a subset of these Nup98-dependent genes were antiviral. These Nup98-dependent virus-induced genes are Cdk9-dependent and translation-independent suggesting that these are rapidly induced primary response genes. Biochemically, we demonstrate that Nup98 is directly bound to the promoters of virus-induced genes, and that it promotes occupancy of the initiating form of RNA polymerase II at these promoters, which are rapidly induced on viral infection to restrict human arboviruses in insects. PMID:25197089

  8. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 (MCUR1) regulates the calcium threshold for the mitochondrial permeability transition

    PubMed Central

    Artiga, Daniel J.; Abiria, Sunday A.; Clapham, David E.

    2016-01-01

    During the mitochondrial permeability transition, a large channel in the inner mitochondrial membrane opens, leading to the loss of multiple mitochondrial solutes and cell death. Key triggers include excessive reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial calcium overload, factors implicated in neuronal and cardiac pathophysiology. Examining the differential behavior of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload in Drosophila versus human cells allowed us to identify a gene, MCUR1, which, when expressed in Drosophila cells, conferred permeability transition sensitive to electrophoretic Ca2+ uptake. Conversely, inhibiting MCUR1 in mammalian cells increased the Ca2+ threshold for inducing permeability transition. The effect was specific to the permeability transition induced by Ca2+, and such resistance to overload translated into improved cell survival. Thus, MCUR1 expression regulates the Ca2+ threshold required for permeability transition. PMID:26976564

  9. [Evolutionary fate and expression patterns of chimeric new genes in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zu-Bing; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Ruo-Ping; Wang, Wen

    2011-12-01

    Origin and evolution of new genes contribute a lot to genome diversity. New genes usually form chimeric gene structures through DNA-based exon shuffling and generate proteins with novel functions. We investigated polymorphism of 14 chimeric new genes in Drosophila melanogaster populations and found that eight have premature stop codons in some individuals while six are intact in the population, four of which are under negative selection, suggesting the two evolutionary fates of new chimeric genes after origination: accumulate premature stop codons and pseudolize, or acquire functions and get fixed by natural selection. Different from new genes originated through RNA-based duplication (retroposition) which are usually testis-specific or male-specific expressed, the expression patterns of these new genes through DNA-based exon shuffling are temporally and spatially diverse, implying that they may have the potential to evolve various biological functions despite that they may become pseudogenes or non-protein-coding RNA genes.

  10. Physella acuta: atypical mitochondrial gene order among panpulmonates (Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Nolan, Journey R; Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Adema, Coen M

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) sequences are frequently used for phylogenetic reconstruction and for identification of species of molluscs. This study expands the phylogenetic range of Hygrophila (Panpulmonata) for which such sequence data are available by characterizing the full mt genome of the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Physidae). The mt genome sequences of two P. acuta isolates from Stubblefield Lake, New Mexico, USA, differed in length (14,490 vs 14,314 bp) and showed 11.49% sequence divergence, whereas ITS1 and ITS2 sequences from the nuclear genome differed by 1.75%. The mt gene order of P. acuta (cox1, P, nad6, nad5, nad1, D, F, cox2, Y, W, nad4L, C, Q, atp6, R, E, rrnS, M, T, cox3, I, nad2, K, V, rrnL, L1, A, cytb, G, H, L2, atp8, N, nad2, S1, S2, nad4) differs considerably from the relatively conserved gene order within Panpulmonata. Phylogenetic trees show that the 13 protein-encoding mt gene sequences (equivalent codons) of P. acuta group according to gastropod phylogeny, yet branch lengths and dN/dS ratios for P. acuta indicate elevated amino acid substitutions relative to other gastropods. This study indicates that mt sequences of P. acuta are phylogenetically informative despite a considerable intraspecific divergence and the atypical gene order in its mt genome.

  11. Physella acuta: atypical mitochondrial gene order among panpulmonates (Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Journey R.; Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Adema, Coen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) sequences are frequently used for phylogenetic reconstruction and for identification of species of molluscs. This study expands the phylogenetic range of Hygrophila (Panpulmonata) for which such sequence data are available by characterizing the full mt genome of the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Physidae). The mt genome sequences of two P. acuta isolates from Stubblefield Lake, New Mexico, USA, differed in length (14,490 vs 14,314 bp) and showed 11.49% sequence divergence, whereas ITS1 and ITS2 sequences from the nuclear genome differed by 1.75%. The mt gene order of P. acuta (cox1, P, nad6, nad5, nad1, D, F, cox2, Y, W, nad4L, C, Q, atp6, R, E, rrnS, M, T, cox3, I, nad2, K, V, rrnL, L1, A, cytb, G, H, L2, atp8, N, nad2, S1, S2, nad4) differs considerably from the relatively conserved gene order within Panpulmonata. Phylogenetic trees show that the 13 protein-encoding mt gene sequences (equivalent codons) of P. acuta group according to gastropod phylogeny, yet branch lengths and dN/dS ratios for P. acuta indicate elevated amino acid substitutions relative to other gastropods. This study indicates that mt sequences of P. acuta are phylogenetically informative despite a considerable intraspecific divergence and the atypical gene order in its mt genome. PMID:25368439

  12. Ethanol-Regulated Genes That Contribute to Ethanol Sensitivity and Rapid Tolerance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eric C.; Allouche, Lorien; Chapot, Paul A.; Vranizan, Karen; Moore, Monica S.; Heberlein, Ulrike; Wolf, Fred W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased ethanol intake, a major predictor for the development of alcohol use disorders, is facilitated by the development of tolerance to both the aversive and pleasurable effects of the drug. The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol tolerance development are complex and are not yet well understood. Methods To identify genetic mechanisms that contribute to ethanol tolerance, we examined the time course of gene expression changes elicited by a single sedating dose of ethanol in Drosophila, and completed a behavioral survey of strains harboring mutations in ethanol-regulated genes. Results Enrichment for genes in metabolism, nucleic acid binding, olfaction, regulation of signal transduction, and stress suggests that these biological processes are coordinately affected by ethanol exposure. We also detected a coordinate up-regulation of genes in the Toll and Imd innate immunity signal transduction pathways. A multi-study comparison revealed a small set of genes showing similar regulation, including increased expression of 3 genes for serine biosynthesis. A survey of Drosophila strains harboring mutations in ethanol-regulated genes for ethanol sensitivity and tolerance phenotypes revealed roles for serine biosynthesis, olfaction, transcriptional regulation, immunity, and metabolism. Flies harboring deletions of the genes encoding the olfactory co-receptor Or83b or the sirtuin Sir2 showed marked changes in the development of ethanol tolerance. Conclusions Our findings implicate novel roles for these genes in regulating ethanol behavioral responses. PMID:19951294

  13. Translocation of Y-Linked Genes to the Dot Chromosome in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Larracuente, Amanda M.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most striking cases of sex chromosome reorganization in Drosophila occurred in the lineage ancestral to Drosophila pseudoobscura, where there was a translocation of Y-linked genes to an autosome. These genes went from being present only in males, never recombining, and having an effective population size of 0.5N to a state of autosomal linkage, where they are passed through both sexes, may recombine, and their effective population size has quadrupled. These genes appear to be functional, and they underwent a drastic reduction in intron size after the translocation. A Y-autosome translocation may pose problems in meiosis if the rDNA locus responsible for X–Y pairing had also moved to an autosome. In this study, we demonstrate that the Y-autosome translocation moved Y-linked genes onto the dot chromosome, a small, mainly heterochromatic autosome with some sex chromosome–like properties. The rDNA repeats occur exclusively on the X chromosome in D. pseudoobscura, but we found that the new Y chromosome of this species harbors four clusters bearing only the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the rDNA repeats. This arrangement appears analogous to the situation in Drosophila simulans, where X-rDNA to Y-IGS pairing could be responsible for X–Y chromosome pairing. We postulate that the nascent D. pseudoobscura Y chromosome acquired and amplified copies of the IGS, suggesting a potential mechanism for X–Y pairing in D. pseudoobscura. PMID:20147437

  14. Gene Expression Variation in Drosophila melanogaster Due to Rare Transposable Element Insertion Alleles of Large Effect

    PubMed Central

    Cridland, Julie M.; Thornton, Kevin R.; Long, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements are a common source of genetic variation that may play a substantial role in contributing to gene expression variation. However, the contribution of transposable elements to expression variation thus far consists of a handful of examples. We used previously published gene expression data from 37 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to perform a genome-wide assessment of the effects of transposable elements on gene expression. We found thousands of transcripts with transposable element insertions in or near the transcript and that the presence of a transposable element in or near a transcript is significantly associated with reductions in expression. We estimate that within this example population, ∼2.2% of transcripts have a transposable element insertion, which significantly reduces expression in the line containing the transposable element. We also find that transcripts with insertions within 500 bp of the transcript show on average a 0.67 standard deviation decrease in expression level. These large decreases in expression level are most pronounced for transposable element insertions close to transcripts and the effect diminishes for more distant insertions. This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of gene expression variation due to transposable elements and suggests that transposable elements are an important class of mutation underlying expression variation in Drosophila and likely in other systems, given the ubiquity of these mobile elements in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:25335504

  15. The two small introns of the Drosophila affinidisjuncta Adh gene are required for normal transcription.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, R W; Brennan, M D

    1996-01-01

    All Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes sequenced to date contain two small introns within the coding region. These are conserved in location and, to some extent, in sequence between the various species analyzed. To determine if these introns play a role in Adh gene expression, derivatives of the Drosophila affinidisjuncta Adh gene lacking one or both introns were constructed and analyzed by germline and transient transformation of Drosophila melanogaster. Removal of both introns lowered expression, whether measured by enzyme activity or by RNA levels. The decrease was seen in both germline transformed and transiently transformed larvae, with the effect being larger for germline transformants. Similar decreases (averaging 5-fold) were also seen at the embryonic and adult stages for germline transformants. Nuclear run-off transcription with nuclei from germline transformed embryos indicated that the reduction in RNA levels is due to decreased transcription. However, LacZ fusion constructs designed to test for the presence of a classical enhancer in the introns provided no evidence for such a mechanism. Removal of each intron individually resulted in more complex phenotypes. The introns have smaller, additive effects on expression in adults. In larvae, removal of the upstream intron significantly increases RNA levels but modestly decreases enzyme activity. Removal of the downstream intron lowers expression in both germline and transiently transformed larvae, but also increases position effects in germline transformants. Therefore, the small introns are clearly needed for optimal transcription of this Adh gene, but multiple mechanisms are involved. PMID:8836194

  16. Identification of murine homologues of the Drosophila son of sevenless gene: potential activators of ras.

    PubMed Central

    Bowtell, D; Fu, P; Simon, M; Senior, P

    1992-01-01

    Several findings suggest that signals from tyrosine kinases are transduced, at least in part, through ras proteins. These findings include (i) blockage of the transforming activity of constitutively active tyrosine kinases by inhibiting ras function and (ii) genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Drosophila that identified ras genes as downstream effectors of tyrosine kinases. The recently isolated Drosophila gene Son of sevenless (Sos) is postulated to act as a positive regulatory link between tyrosine kinase and ras proteins by catalyzing exchange of GDP for GTP on ras protein. Such exchange proteins have been reported in extracts of mammalian cells but have not been previously characterized at a molecular level. As Sos appears to function in this role in Drosophila, we sought to isolate a vertebrate counterpart(s). We have characterized two widely expressed murine genes with a high degree of homology to Sos. Hybridization with human DNA and RNA indicates a high degree of conservation of these genes in other vertebrates. Images PMID:1631150

  17. Induced overexpression of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase extends the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingtao; Folk, Donna; Bradley, Timothy J; Tower, John

    2002-01-01

    A transgenic system ("FLP-out") based on yeast FLP recombinase allowed induced overexpression of MnSOD enzyme in adult Drosophila melanogaster. With FLP-out a brief heat pulse (HP) of young, adult flies triggered the rearrangement and subsequent expression of a MnSOD transgene throughout the adult life span. Control (no HP) and overexpressing (HP) flies had identical genetic backgrounds. The amount of MnSOD enzyme overexpression achieved varied among six independent transgenic lines, with increases up to 75%. Life span was increased in proportion to the increase in enzyme. Mean life span was increased by an average of 16%, with some lines showing 30-33% increases. Maximum life span was increased by an average of 15%, with one line showing as much as 37% increase. Simultaneous overexpression of catalase with MnSOD had no added benefit, consistent with previous observations that catalase is present in excess in the adult fly with regard to life span. Cu/ZnSOD overexpression also increases mean and maximum life span. For both MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD lines, increased life span was not associated with decreased metabolic activity, as measured by O2 consumption. PMID:12072463

  18. Multiple Cis-Acting Sequences Contribute to Evolved Regulatory Variation for Drosophila Adh Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, X. M.; Brennan, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Drosophila affinidisjuncta and Drosophila hawaiiensis are closely related species that display distinct tissue-specific expression patterns for their homologous alcohol dehydrogenase genes (Adh genes). In Drosophila melanogaster transformants, both genes are expressed at high levels in the larval and adult fat bodies, but the D. affinidisjuncta gene is expressed 10-50-fold more strongly in the larval and adult midguts and Malpighian tubules. The present study reports the mapping of cis-acting sequences contributing to the regulatory differences between these two genes in transformants. Chimeric genes were constructed and introduced into the germ line of D. melanogaster. Stage- and tissue-specific expression patterns were determined by measuring steady-state RNA levels in larvae and adults. Three portions of the promoter region make distinct contributions to the tissue-specific regulatory differences between the native genes. Sequences immediately upstream of the distal promoter have a strong effect in the adult Malpighian tubules, while sequences between the two promoters are relatively important in the larval Malpighian tubules. A third gene segment, immediately upstream of the proximal promoter, influences levels of the proximal Adh transcript in all tissues and developmental stages examined, and largely accounts for the regulatory difference in the larval and adult midguts. However, these as well as other sequences make smaller contributions to various aspects of the tissue-specific regulatory differences. In addition, some chimeric genes display aberrant RNA levels for the whole organism, suggesting close physical association between sequences involved in tissue-specific regulatory differences and those important for Adh expression in the larval and adult fat bodies. PMID:1644276

  19. Evolutionary Techniques for Image Processing a Large Dataset of Early Drosophila Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirov, Alexander; Holloway, David M.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding how genetic networks act in embryonic development requires a detailed and statistically significant dataset integrating diverse observational results. The fruit fly ( Drosophila melanogaster) is used as a model organism for studying developmental genetics. In recent years, several laboratories have systematically gathered confocal microscopy images of patterns of activity (expression) for genes governing early Drosophila development. Due to both the high variability between fruit fly embryos and diverse sources of observational errors, some new nontrivial procedures for processing and integrating the raw observations are required. Here we describe processing techniques based on genetic algorithms and discuss their efficacy in decreasing observational errors and illuminating the natural variability in gene expression patterns. The specific developmental problem studied is anteroposterior specification of the body plan.

  20. Testing for asymmetrical gene flow in a Drosophila melanogaster body-size cline.

    PubMed Central

    Kennington, W Jason; Gockel, Julia; Partridge, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetrical gene flow is an important, but rarely examined genetic parameter. Here, we develop a new method for detecting departures from symmetrical migration between two populations using microsatellite data that are based on the difference in the proportion of private alleles. Application of this approach to data collected from wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster along a latitudinal body-size cline in eastern Australia revealed that asymmetrical gene flow could be detected, but was uncommon, nonlocalized, and occurred in both directions. We also show that, in contrast to the findings of a previous study, there is good evidence to suggest that the cline experiences significant levels of gene flow between populations. PMID:14573478

  1. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of heterochromatin gene models in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrizio; Moschetti, Roberta; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Corradini, Nicoletta; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2007-02-01

    In the past decade, genome-sequencing projects have yielded a great amount of information on DNA sequences in several organisms. The release of the Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin sequence by the Drosophila Heterochromatin Genome Project (DHGP) has greatly facilitated studies of mapping, molecular organization, and function of genes located in pericentromeric heterochromatin. Surprisingly, genome annotation has predicted at least 450 heterochromatic gene models, a figure 10-fold above that defined by genetic analysis. To gain further insight into the locations and functions of D. melanogaster heterochromatic genes and genome organization, we have FISH mapped 41 gene models relative to the stained bands of mitotic chromosomes and the proximal divisions of polytene chromosomes. These genes are contained in eight large scaffolds, which together account for approximately 1.4 Mb of heterochromatic DNA sequence. Moreover, developmental Northern analysis showed that the expression of 15 heterochromatic gene models tested is similar to that of the vital heterochromatic gene Nipped-A, in that it is not limited to specific stages, but is present throughout all development, despite its location in a supposedly "silent" region of the genome. This result is consistent with the idea that genes resident in heterochromatin can encode essential functions.

  2. Adaptive Evolution of Genes Duplicated from the Drosophila pseudoobscura neo-X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Richard P.; Hilldorfer, Benedict B.; Koch, Jessica L.; Lockton, Steven; Schaeffer, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila X chromosomes are disproportionate sources of duplicated genes, and these duplications are usually the result of retrotransposition of X-linked genes to the autosomes. The excess duplication is thought to be driven by natural selection for two reasons: X chromosomes are inactivated during spermatogenesis, and the derived copies of retroposed duplications tend to be testis expressed. Therefore, autosomal derived copies of retroposed genes provide a mechanism for their X-linked paralogs to “escape” X inactivation. Once these duplications have fixed, they may then be selected for male-specific functions. Throughout the evolution of the Drosophila genus, autosomes have fused with X chromosomes along multiple lineages giving rise to neo-X chromosomes. There has also been excess duplication from the two independent neo-X chromosomes that have been examined—one that occurred prior to the common ancestor of the willistoni species group and another that occurred along the lineage leading to Drosophila pseudoobscura. To determine what role natural selection plays in the evolution of genes duplicated from the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome, we analyzed DNA sequence divergence between paralogs, polymorphism within each copy, and the expression profiles of these duplicated genes. We found that the derived copies of all duplicated genes have elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism, suggesting that they are under relaxed selective constraints. The derived copies also tend to have testis- or male-biased expression profiles regardless of their chromosome of origin. Genes duplicated from the neo-X chromosome appear to be under less constraints than those duplicated from other chromosome arms. We also find more evidence for historical adaptive evolution in genes duplicated from the neo-X chromosome, suggesting that they are under a unique selection regime in which elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism provides a large reservoir of functional variants, some of which are

  3. An experimental test for lineage-specific position effects on alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.; Hartl, Daniel L.

    1998-01-01

    Independent transgene insertions differ in expression based on their location in the genome; these position effects are of interest because they reflect the influence of genome organization on gene regulation. Position effects also represent potentially insurmountable obstacles to the rigorous functional comparison of homologous genes from different species because (i) quantitative variation in expression of each gene across genomic positions (generalized position effects, or GPEs) may overwhelm differences between the genes of interest, or (ii) divergent genes may be differentially sensitive to position effects, reflecting unique interactions between each gene and its genomic milieu (lineage-specific position effects, or LSPEs). We have investigated both types of position-effect variation by applying our method of transgene coplacement, which allows comparisons of transgenes in the same position in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report an experimental test for LSPE in Drosophila. The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes of D. melanogaster and Drosophila affinidisjuncta differ in both tissue distribution and amounts of ADH activity. Despite this striking regulatory divergence, we found a very high correlation in overall ADH activity between the genes of the two species when placed in the same genomic position as assayed in otherwise Adh-null adults and larvae. These results argue against the influence of LSPE for these sequences, although the effects of GPE are significant. Our new findings validate the coplacement approach and show that it greatly magnifies the power to detect differences in expression between transgenes. Transgene coplacement thus dramatically extends the range of functional and evolutionary questions that can be addressed by transgenic technology. PMID:9861000

  4. Temperature Stress Mediates Decanalization and Dominance of Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Nolte, Viola; Schlötterer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory architecture of gene expression remains an area of active research. Here, we studied how the interplay of genetic and environmental variation affects gene expression by exposing Drosophila melanogaster strains to four different developmental temperatures. At 18°C we observed almost complete canalization with only very few allelic effects on gene expression. In contrast, at the two temperature extremes, 13°C and 29°C a large number of allelic differences in gene expression were detected due to both cis- and trans-regulatory effects. Allelic differences in gene expression were mainly dominant, but for up to 62% of the genes the dominance swapped between 13 and 29°C. Our results are consistent with stabilizing selection causing buffering of allelic expression variation in non-stressful environments. We propose that decanalization of gene expression in stressful environments is not only central to adaptation, but may also contribute to genetic disorders in human populations. PMID:25719753

  5. Genes of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Romero, Alejandro; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress.

  6. The contribution of E2F-regulated transcription to Drosophila PCNA gene function.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Stephen A; Bonnette, Peter C; Duronio, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    E2F proteins control cell cycle progression by predominantly acting as either activators or repressors of transcription. How the antagonizing activities of different E2Fs are integrated by cis-acting control regions into a final transcriptional output in an intact animal is not well understood. E2F function is required for normal development in many species, but it is not completely clear for which genes E2F-regulated transcription provides an essential biological function. To address these questions, we have characterized the control region of the Drosophila PCNA gene. A single E2F binding site within a 100-bp enhancer is necessary and sufficient to direct the correct spatiotemporal program of G1-S-regulated PCNA expression during development. This dynamic program requires both E2F-mediated transcriptional activation and repression, which, in Drosophila, are thought to be carried out by two distinct E2F proteins. Our data suggest that functional antagonism between these different E2F proteins can occur in vivo by competition for the same binding site. An engineered PCNA gene with mutated E2F binding sites supports a low level of expression that can partially rescue the lethality of PCNA null mutants. Thus, E2F regulation of PCNA is dispensable for viability, but is nonetheless important for normal Drosophila development. PMID:12526745

  7. Functional characterisation of human synaptic genes expressed in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Zografos, Lysimachos; Tang, Joanne; Hesse, Franziska; Wanker, Erich E; Li, Ka Wan; Smit, August B; Davies, R Wayne; Armstrong, J Douglas

    2016-05-15

    Drosophila melanogaster is an established and versatile model organism. Here we describe and make available a collection of transgenic Drosophila strains expressing human synaptic genes. The collection can be used to study and characterise human synaptic genes and their interactions and as controls for mutant studies. It was generated in a way that allows the easy addition of new strains, as well as their combination. In order to highlight the potential value of the collection for the characterisation of human synaptic genes we also use two assays, investigating any gain-of-function motor and/or cognitive phenotypes in the strains in this collection. Using these assays we show that among the strains made there are both types of gain-of-function phenotypes investigated. As an example, we focus on the three strains expressing human tyrosine protein kinase Fyn, the small GTPase Rap1a and human Arc, respectively. Of the three, the first shows a cognitive gain-of-function phenotype while the second a motor gain-of-function phenotype. By contrast, Arc, which has no Drosophila ortholog, shows no gain-of-function phenotype.

  8. Functional characterisation of human synaptic genes expressed in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Zografos, Lysimachos; Tang, Joanne; Hesse, Franziska; Wanker, Erich E.; Li, Ka Wan; Smit, August B.; Davies, R. Wayne; Armstrong, J. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila melanogaster is an established and versatile model organism. Here we describe and make available a collection of transgenic Drosophila strains expressing human synaptic genes. The collection can be used to study and characterise human synaptic genes and their interactions and as controls for mutant studies. It was generated in a way that allows the easy addition of new strains, as well as their combination. In order to highlight the potential value of the collection for the characterisation of human synaptic genes we also use two assays, investigating any gain-of-function motor and/or cognitive phenotypes in the strains in this collection. Using these assays we show that among the strains made there are both types of gain-of-function phenotypes investigated. As an example, we focus on the three strains expressing human tyrosine protein kinase Fyn, the small GTPase Rap1a and human Arc, respectively. Of the three, the first shows a cognitive gain-of-function phenotype while the second a motor gain-of-function phenotype. By contrast, Arc, which has no Drosophila ortholog, shows no gain-of-function phenotype. PMID:27069252

  9. Drosophila Gene Expression Pattern Annotation Using Sparse Features and Term-Term Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shuiwang; Yuan, Lei; Li, Ying-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Kumar, Sudhir; Ye, Jieping

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila gene expression pattern images document the spatial and temporal dynamics of gene expression and they are valuable tools for explicating the gene functions, interaction, and networks during Drosophila embryogenesis. To provide text-based pattern searching, the images in the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) study are annotated with ontology terms manually by human curators. We present a systematic approach for automating this task, because the number of images needing text descriptions is now rapidly increasing. We consider both improved feature representation and novel learning formulation to boost the annotation performance. For feature representation, we adapt the bag-of-words scheme commonly used in visual recognition problems so that the image group information in the BDGP study is retained. Moreover, images from multiple views can be integrated naturally in this representation. To reduce the quantization error caused by the bag-of-words representation, we propose an improved feature representation scheme based on the sparse learning technique. In the design of learning formulation, we propose a local regularization framework that can incorporate the correlations among terms explicitly. We further show that the resulting optimization problem admits an analytical solution. Experimental results show that the representation based on sparse learning outperforms the bag-of-words representation significantly. Results also show that incorporation of the term-term correlations improves the annotation performance consistently. PMID:21614142

  10. A regulatory circuit for piwi by the large Maf gene traffic jam in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kuniaki; Inagaki, Sachi; Mituyama, Toutai; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Ono, Yukiteru; Sakota, Eri; Kotani, Hazuki; Asai, Kiyoshi; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C

    2009-10-29

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence retrotransposons in Drosophila germ lines by associating with the PIWI proteins Argonaute 3 (AGO3), Aubergine (Aub) and Piwi. piRNAs in Drosophila are produced from intergenic repetitive genes and piRNA clusters by two systems: the primary processing pathway and the amplification loop. The amplification loop occurs in a Dicer-independent, PIWI-Slicer-dependent manner. However, primary piRNA processing remains elusive. Here we analysed piRNA processing in a Drosophila ovarian somatic cell line where Piwi, but not Aub or AGO3, is expressed; thus, only the primary piRNAs exist. In addition to flamenco, a Piwi-specific piRNA cluster, traffic jam (tj), a large Maf gene, was determined as a new piRNA cluster. piRNAs arising from tj correspond to the untranslated regions of tj messenger RNA and are sense-oriented. piRNA loading on to Piwi may occur in the cytoplasm. zucchini, a gene encoding a putative cytoplasmic nuclease, is required for tj-derived piRNA production. In tj and piwi mutant ovaries, somatic cells fail to intermingle with germ cells and Fasciclin III is overexpressed. Loss of tj abolishes Piwi expression in gonadal somatic cells. Thus, in gonadal somatic cells, tj gives rise simultaneously to two different molecules: the TJ protein, which activates Piwi expression, and piRNAs, which define the Piwi targets for silencing. PMID:19812547

  11. Repeated evolution of testis-specific new genes: the case of telomere-capping genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Marais, Gabriel A B; Loppin, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis has allowed the identification of various mechanisms involved in gene birth. However, understanding the evolutionary forces driving new gene origination still represents a major challenge. In particular, an intriguing and not yet fully understood trend has emerged from the study of new genes: many of them show a testis-specific expression pattern, which has remained poorly understood. Here we review the case of such a new gene, which involves a telomere-capping gene family in Drosophila. hiphop and its testis-specific paralog K81 are critical for the protection of chromosome ends in somatic cells and male gametes, respectively. Two independent functional studies recently proposed that these genes evolved under a reproductive-subfunctionalization regime. The 2011 release of new Drosophila genome sequences from the melanogaster group of species allowed us to deepen our phylogenetic analysis of the hiphop/K81 family. This work reveals an unsuspected dynamic of gene birth and death within the group, with recurrent duplication events through retroposition mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the plausibility of different evolutionary scenarios that could explain the diversification of this gene family. PMID:22844639

  12. Repeated Evolution of Testis-Specific New Genes: The Case of Telomere-Capping Genes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Marais, Gabriel A. B.; Loppin, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis has allowed the identification of various mechanisms involved in gene birth. However, understanding the evolutionary forces driving new gene origination still represents a major challenge. In particular, an intriguing and not yet fully understood trend has emerged from the study of new genes: many of them show a testis-specific expression pattern, which has remained poorly understood. Here we review the case of such a new gene, which involves a telomere-capping gene family in Drosophila. hiphop and its testis-specific paralog K81 are critical for the protection of chromosome ends in somatic cells and male gametes, respectively. Two independent functional studies recently proposed that these genes evolved under a reproductive-subfunctionalization regime. The 2011 release of new Drosophila genome sequences from the melanogaster group of species allowed us to deepen our phylogenetic analysis of the hiphop/K81 family. This work reveals an unsuspected dynamic of gene birth and death within the group, with recurrent duplication events through retroposition mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the plausibility of different evolutionary scenarios that could explain the diversification of this gene family. PMID:22844639

  13. Repeated evolution of testis-specific new genes: the case of telomere-capping genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Marais, Gabriel A B; Loppin, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis has allowed the identification of various mechanisms involved in gene birth. However, understanding the evolutionary forces driving new gene origination still represents a major challenge. In particular, an intriguing and not yet fully understood trend has emerged from the study of new genes: many of them show a testis-specific expression pattern, which has remained poorly understood. Here we review the case of such a new gene, which involves a telomere-capping gene family in Drosophila. hiphop and its testis-specific paralog K81 are critical for the protection of chromosome ends in somatic cells and male gametes, respectively. Two independent functional studies recently proposed that these genes evolved under a reproductive-subfunctionalization regime. The 2011 release of new Drosophila genome sequences from the melanogaster group of species allowed us to deepen our phylogenetic analysis of the hiphop/K81 family. This work reveals an unsuspected dynamic of gene birth and death within the group, with recurrent duplication events through retroposition mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the plausibility of different evolutionary scenarios that could explain the diversification of this gene family.

  14. The four aldehyde oxidases of Drosophila melanogaster have different gene expression patterns and enzyme substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Marelja, Zvonimir; Dambowsky, Miriam; Bolis, Marco; Georgiou, Marina L; Garattini, Enrico; Missirlis, Fanis; Leimkühler, Silke

    2014-06-15

    In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, four genes coding for aldehyde oxidases (AOX1-4) were identified on chromosome 3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AOX gene cluster evolved via independent duplication events in the vertebrate and invertebrate lineages. The functional role and the substrate specificity of the distinct Drosophila AOX enzymes is unknown. Two loss-of-function mutant alleles in this gene region, low pyridoxal oxidase (Po(lpo)) and aldehyde oxidase-1 (Aldox-1(n1)) are associated with a phenotype characterized by undetectable AOX enzymatic activity. However, the genes involved and the corresponding mutations have not yet been identified. In this study we characterized the activities, substrate specificities and expression profiles of the four AOX enzymes in D. melanogaster. We show that the Po(lpo)-associated phenotype is the consequence of a structural alteration of the AOX1 gene. We identified an 11-bp deletion in the Po(lpo) allele, resulting in a frame-shift event, which removes the molybdenum cofactor domain of the encoded enzyme. Furthermore, we show that AOX2 activity is detectable only during metamorphosis and characterize a Minos-AOX2 insertion in this developmental gene that disrupts its activity. We demonstrate that the Aldox-1(n1) phenotype maps to the AOX3 gene and AOX4 activity is not detectable in our assays.

  15. The four aldehyde oxidases of Drosophila melanogaster have different gene expression patterns and enzyme substrate specificities

    PubMed Central

    Marelja, Zvonimir; Dambowsky, Miriam; Bolis, Marco; Georgiou, Marina L.; Garattini, Enrico; Missirlis, Fanis; Leimkühler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, four genes coding for aldehyde oxidases (AOX1–4) were identified on chromosome 3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AOX gene cluster evolved via independent duplication events in the vertebrate and invertebrate lineages. The functional role and the substrate specificity of the distinct Drosophila AOX enzymes is unknown. Two loss-of-function mutant alleles in this gene region, low pyridoxal oxidase (Polpo) and aldehyde oxidase-1 (Aldox-1n1) are associated with a phenotype characterized by undetectable AOX enzymatic activity. However, the genes involved and the corresponding mutations have not yet been identified. In this study we characterized the activities, substrate specificities and expression profiles of the four AOX enzymes in D. melanogaster. We show that the Polpo-associated phenotype is the consequence of a structural alteration of the AOX1 gene. We identified an 11-bp deletion in the Polpo allele, resulting in a frame-shift event, which removes the molybdenum cofactor domain of the encoded enzyme. Furthermore, we show that AOX2 activity is detectable only during metamorphosis and characterize a Minos-AOX2 insertion in this developmental gene that disrupts its activity. We demonstrate that the Aldox-1n1 phenotype maps to the AOX3 gene and AOX4 activity is not detectable in our assays. PMID:24737760

  16. Structure and expression of the Drosophila ubiquitin-80-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, R; del Arco, A; Cabrera, H L; Arribas, C

    1994-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila, as in all eukaryotes examined so far, some ubiquitin-coding sequences appear fused to unrelated open reading frames. Two of these fusion genes have been previously described (the homologues of UBI1-UBI2 and UBI4 in yeast), and we report here the organization and expression of a third one, the DUb80 gene (the homologue of UBI3 in yeast). This gene encodes a ubiquitin monomer fused to an 80-amino-acid extension which is homologous with the ribosomal protein encoded by the UB13 gene. The 5' regulatory region of DUb80 shares common features with another ubiquitin fusion gene, DUb52, and with the ribosomal protein genes of Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse. We also find helix-loop-helix protein-binding sequences (E-boxes). The DUb80 gene is transcribed to a 0.9 kb mRNA which is particularly abundant under conditions of high protein synthesis, such as in ovaries and exponentially growing cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8068011

  17. A genetic and molecular characterization of the garnet gene of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, V K; Sinclair, D A; Wennberg, R; Warner, T S; Honda, B M; Grigliatti, T A

    1999-12-01

    The garnet gene was one of the first genes to be identified in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations in the garnet gene affect both of the biochemically distinct types of pigments in the eye and disrupt pigmentation of other organs. As an initial step in the analysis of this gene, we have analyzed the pigmentation defects in several of the garnet alleles. We have also cloned the gene and examined its expression in various tissues and at different stages of development. The garnet gene is expressed throughout development and in all tissues examined. Structurally related sequences can be detected in a variety of other eukaryotes. The predicted protein sequence of the garnet product resembles clathrin and nonclathrin adaptin proteins and is highly similar to the delta subunit of the newly isolated mammalian AP-3 adaptin complex, which is associated with the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. This suggests that garnet encodes a protein that acts in the intracellular sorting and trafficking of vesicles from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes, and related specialized organelles such as the pigment granule. This finding provides an explanation for the phenotype of garnet mutations and predicts that other Drosophila eye-colour genes will be a rich resource for the genetic dissection of intracellular vesicle transport. PMID:10659786

  18. Patterns of Amino Acid Evolution in the Drosophila ananassae Chimeric Gene, siren, Parallel Those of Other Adh-Derived Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hung-Jui; Jones, Corbin D.

    2008-01-01

    siren1 and siren2 are novel alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh)-derived chimeric genes in the Drosophila bipectinata complex. D. ananassae, however, harbors a single homolog of these genes. Like other Adh-derived chimeric genes, siren evolved adaptively shortly after it was formed. These changes likely shifted the catalytic activity of siren. PMID:18780749

  19. Inventory of the Human Mitochondrial Gene Expression Machinery with Links to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shutt, Timothy E.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA encodes thirty-seven essential genes required for ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation, instability or misregulation of which is associated with human diseases and aging. Other than the mtDNA-encoded RNA species (thirteen mRNAs, 12S and 16S rRNAs, and twenty-two tRNAs), the many remaining factors needed for mitochondrial gene expression (i.e. transcription, RNA processing/modification and translation), including a dedicated set of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, are products of nuclear genes that are imported into the mitochondrial matrix. Herein, we inventory the human mitochondrial gene expression machinery, and while doing so highlight specific associations of these regulatory factors with human disease. Major new breakthroughs have been made recently in this burgeoning area that set the stage for exciting future studies on the key outstanding issue of how mitochondrial gene expression is regulated differentially in vivo. This should promote a greater understanding of why mtDNA mutations and dysfunction cause the complex and tissue-specific pathology characteristic of mitochondrial disease states and how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to more common human pathology and aging. PMID:20544879

  20. The inconstant gut microbiota of Drosophila species revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Adam C-N; Chaston, John M; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    The gut microorganisms in some animals are reported to include a core microbiota of consistently associated bacteria that is ecologically distinctive and may have coevolved with the host. The core microbiota is promoted by positive interactions among bacteria, favoring shared persistence; its retention over evolutionary timescales is evident as congruence between host phylogeny and bacterial community composition. This study applied multiple analyses to investigate variation in the composition of gut microbiota in drosophilid flies. First, the prevalence of five previously described gut bacteria (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) in individual flies of 21 strains (10 Drosophila species) were determined. Most bacteria were not present in all individuals of most strains, and bacterial species pairs co-occurred in individual flies less frequently than predicted by chance, contrary to expectations of a core microbiota. A complementary pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the gut microbiota of 11 Drosophila species identified 209 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with near-saturating sampling of sequences, but none of the OTUs was common to all host species. Furthermore, in both of two independent sets of Drosophila species, the gut bacterial community composition was not congruent with host phylogeny. The final analysis identified no common OTUs across three wild and four laboratory samples of D. melanogaster. Our results yielded no consistent evidence for a core microbiota in Drosophila. We conclude that the taxonomic composition of gut microbiota varies widely within and among Drosophila populations and species. This is reminiscent of the patterns of bacterial composition in guts of some other animals, including humans. PMID:23719154

  1. The inconstant gut microbiota of Drosophila species revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Adam C-N; Chaston, John M; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-10-01

    The gut microorganisms in some animals are reported to include a core microbiota of consistently associated bacteria that is ecologically distinctive and may have coevolved with the host. The core microbiota is promoted by positive interactions among bacteria, favoring shared persistence; its retention over evolutionary timescales is evident as congruence between host phylogeny and bacterial community composition. This study applied multiple analyses to investigate variation in the composition of gut microbiota in drosophilid flies. First, the prevalence of five previously described gut bacteria (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) in individual flies of 21 strains (10 Drosophila species) were determined. Most bacteria were not present in all individuals of most strains, and bacterial species pairs co-occurred in individual flies less frequently than predicted by chance, contrary to expectations of a core microbiota. A complementary pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the gut microbiota of 11 Drosophila species identified 209 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with near-saturating sampling of sequences, but none of the OTUs was common to all host species. Furthermore, in both of two independent sets of Drosophila species, the gut bacterial community composition was not congruent with host phylogeny. The final analysis identified no common OTUs across three wild and four laboratory samples of D. melanogaster. Our results yielded no consistent evidence for a core microbiota in Drosophila. We conclude that the taxonomic composition of gut microbiota varies widely within and among Drosophila populations and species. This is reminiscent of the patterns of bacterial composition in guts of some other animals, including humans.

  2. Optimising homing endonuclease gene drive performance in a semi-refractory species: the Drosophila melanogaster experience.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuk-Sang; Huen, David S; Glauert, Ruth; Whiteway, Eleanor; Russell, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Homing endonuclease gene (HEG) drive is a promising insect population control technique that employs meganucleases to impair the fitness of pest populations. Our previous studies showed that HEG drive was more difficult to achieve in Drosophila melanogaster than Anopheles gambiae and we therefore investigated ways of improving homing performance in Drosophila. We show that homing in Drosophila responds to increased expression of HEGs specifically during the spermatogonia stage and this could be achieved through improved construct design. We found that 3'-UTR choice was important to maximise expression levels, with HEG activity increasing as we employed Hsp70, SV40, vasa and βTub56D derived UTRs. We also searched for spermatogonium-specific promoters and found that the Rcd-1r promoter was able to drive specific expression at this stage. Since Rcd-1 is a regulator of differentiation in other species, it suggests that Rcd-1r may serve a similar role during spermatogonial differentiation in Drosophila. Contrary to expectations, a fragment containing the entire region between the TBPH gene and the bgcn translational start drove strong HEG expression only during late spermatogenesis rather than in the germline stem cells and spermatogonia as expected. We also observed that the fraction of targets undergoing homing was temperature-sensitive, falling nearly four-fold when the temperature was lowered to 18°C. Taken together, this study demonstrates how a few simple measures can lead to substantial improvements in the HEG-based gene drive strategy and reinforce the idea that the HEG approach may be widely applicable to a variety of insect control programs.

  3. Dietary fatty acids affect mitochondrial phospholipid compositions and mitochondrial gene expression of rainbow trout liver at different ages.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; De Santis, C; Rubio-Mejía, O L; Tocher, D R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are among the first responders to various stressors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL), particularly cardiolipin (CL), and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, liver mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, lipid peroxidation, and mtDNA gene expression were analyzed in rainbow trout fed three diets with the same base formulation but with lipid supplied either by fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), or high DHA oil (DHA) during 6 weeks. Specifically, two feeding trials were performed using fish from the same population of two ages (1 and 3 years), and PL class compositions of liver mitochondria, fatty acid composition of individual PL classes, TBARS content, and mtDNA expression were determined. Dietary fatty acid composition strongly affected mitochondrial membrane composition from trout liver but observed changes did not fully reflect the diet, particularly when it contained high DHA. The changes were PL specific, CL being particularly resistant to changes in DHA. Some significant differences observed in expression of mtDNA with diet may suggest long-term dietary effects in mitochondrial gene expression which could affect electron transport chain function. All the changes were influenced by fish age, which could be related to the different growth rates observed between 1- and 3-year-old trout but that could also indicate age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes.

  4. Whole Cell Formaldehyde Cross-Linking Simplifies Purification of Mitochondrial Nucleoids and Associated Proteins Involved in Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Nina; Hensen, Fenna; Wessels, Hans J. C. T.; Ives, Daniel; Gloerich, Jolein; Spelbrink, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA/protein complexes (nucleoids) appear as discrete entities inside the mitochondrial network when observed by live-cell imaging and immunofluorescence. This somewhat trivial observation in recent years has spurred research towards isolation of these complexes and the identification of nucleoid-associated proteins. Here we show that whole cell formaldehyde crosslinking combined with affinity purification and tandem mass-spectrometry provides a simple and reproducible method to identify potential nucleoid associated proteins. The method avoids spurious mitochondrial isolation and subsequent multifarious nucleoid enrichment protocols and can be implemented to allow for label-free quantification (LFQ) by mass-spectrometry. Using expression of a Flag-tagged Twinkle helicase and appropriate controls we show that this method identifies many previously identified nucleoid associated proteins. Using LFQ to compare HEK293 cells with and without mtDNA, but both expressing Twinkle-FLAG, identifies many proteins that are reduced or absent in the absence of mtDNA. This set not only includes established mtDNA maintenance proteins but also many proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism and translation and therefore represents what can be considered an mtDNA gene expression proteome. Our data provides a very valuable resource for both basic mitochondrial researchers as well as clinical geneticists working to identify novel disease genes on the basis of exome sequence data. PMID:25695250

  5. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this 'Mother's Curse', their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COII(G177S), a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COII(G177S) represents one of the clearest examples of a 'male-harming' mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COII(G177S) might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COII(G177S) -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. PMID:27481326

  6. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this 'Mother's Curse', their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COII(G177S), a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COII(G177S) represents one of the clearest examples of a 'male-harming' mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COII(G177S) might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COII(G177S) -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations.

  7. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this ‘Mother’s Curse’, their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COIIG177S, a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COIIG177S represents one of the clearest examples of a ‘male-harming’ mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COIIG177S might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COIIG177S -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16923.001 PMID:27481326

  8. A Drosophila Adh gene can be activated in trans by an enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, I; Hotaling, E; Sofer, W

    1991-01-01

    The ability of a segment of the Drosophila Adh gene to produce ADH activity in larvae is dependent upon the presence of a 53 bp sequence (called NS1) located between 289 and 341 bp upstream of the larval transcription start site. This sequence behaves like an enhancer in that it can stimulate gene activity when it is placed at various distances from, or on either side of, an Adh gene. Like a typical enhancer, NS1 does not ordinarily function in trans. However, when an Adh gene lacking NS1 is placed on one plasmid, and a second gene carrying NS1 is placed on another, and the two plasmids are interlocked in a catenane, both genes are active. This finding supports the mechanism of loop-mediated enhancer action. Images PMID:1945848

  9. Immunological method for mapping genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Langer-Safer, P R; Levine, M; Ward, D C

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for localizing DNA sequences hybridized in situ to Drosophila polytene chromosomes. This procedure utilizes a biotin-labeled analog of TTP that can be incorporated enzymatically into DNA probes by nick-translation. After hybridization in situ, the biotin molecules in the probe serve as antigens which bind affinity-purified rabbit antibiotin antibodies. The site of hybridization is then detected either fluorimetrically, by using fluorescein-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, or cytochemically, by using an anti-rabbit IgG antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. When combined with Giemsa staining, the immunoperoxidase detection method provides a permanent record that is suitable for detailed cytogenetic analysis. This immunological approach offers four advantages over conventional autoradiographic procedures for detecting in situ hybrids: (i) the time required to determine the site of hybridization is decreased markedly, (ii) biotin-labeled probes are chemically stable and give reproducible results for many months; (iii) biotin-labeled probes appear to produce less background noise than do radiolabeled probes; and (iv) the resolving power is equal to and often greater than that achieved autoradiographically. Images PMID:6812046

  10. graal: a Drosophila gene coding for several mosaic serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Munier, Anne Isabelle; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Janeway, Charles A; Doucet, Daniel; Capovilla, Maria; Lagueux, Marie

    2004-10-01

    Serine proteases play vital roles in several biological processes such as development and immunity. We have characterized Graal, a large multi-domain serine protease from Drosophila. Graal is spliced in at least three transcripts that are present throughout development. The domains found in Graal proteins are: chitin-binding domains (CBD), scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains, low density lipoprotein receptor cysteine-rich (LDLR-CR) domains, histidine and proline-rich domains, a NGGYQPP-repeat domain and a serine protease domain. The last 2370 nucleotides of these RNAs are identical and encode a His-rich domain, two SRCR domains, two LDLR-CR domains and a protease domain. The transcription of graal is upregulated after fungal or bacterial infection. Analysis of the Iso1 (y;cn,sp,bw) strain shows that graal transcription is impaired in this fly line due to the insertion of a retrotransposon in the sixth exon. However, no phenotype could be observed consecutive to the absence of graal full length transcripts, particularly in the context of an immune challenge.

  11. Characterization of Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome P450 genes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Henry; Sztal, Tamar; Pasricha, Shivani; Sridhar, Mohan; Batterham, Philip; Daborn, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s form a large and diverse family of heme-containing proteins capable of carrying out many different enzymatic reactions. In both mammals and plants, some P450s are known to carry out reactions essential for processes such as hormone synthesis, while other P450s are involved in the detoxification of environmental compounds. In general, functions of insect P450s are less well understood. We characterized Drosophila melanogaster P450 expression patterns in embryos and 2 stages of third instar larvae. We identified numerous P450s expressed in the fat body, Malpighian (renal) tubules, and in distinct regions of the midgut, consistent with hypothesized roles in detoxification processes, and other P450s expressed in organs such as the gonads, corpora allata, oenocytes, hindgut, and brain. Combining expression pattern data with an RNA interference lethality screen of individual P450s, we identify candidate P450s essential for developmental processes and distinguish them from P450s with potential functions in detoxification. PMID:19289821

  12. Clustering of Drosophila melanogaster Immune Genes in Interplay with Recombination Rate

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, K. Mathias

    2008-01-01

    Background Gene order in eukaryotic chromosomes is not random and has been linked to coordination of gene expression, chromatin structure and also recombination rate. The evolution of recombination rate is especially relevant for genes involved in immunity because host-parasite co-evolution could select for increased recombination rate (Red Queen hypothesis). To identify patterns left by the intimate interaction between hosts and parasites, I analysed the genomic parameters of the immune genes from 24 gene families/groups of Drosophila melanogaster. Principal Findings Immune genes that directly interact with the pathogen (i.e. recognition and effector genes) clustered in regions of higher recombination rates. Out of these, clustered effector genes were transcribed fastest indicating that transcriptional control might be one major cause for cluster formation. The relative position of clusters to each other, on the other hand, cannot be explained by transcriptional control per se. Drosophila immune genes that show epistatic interactions can be found at an average distance of 15.44±2.98 cM, which is considerably closer than genes that do not interact (30.64±1.95 cM). Conclusions Epistatically interacting genes rarely belong to the same cluster, which supports recent models of optimal recombination rates between interacting genes in antagonistic host-parasite co-evolution. These patterns suggest that formation of local clusters might be a result of transcriptional control, but that in the condensed genome of D. melanogaster relative position of these clusters may be a result of selection for optimal rather than maximal recombination rates between these clusters. PMID:18665272

  13. A piggyBac transposon gene trap for the analysis of gene expression and function in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Christopher P; Mann, Richard S

    2004-01-01

    P-element-based gene and enhancer trap strategies have provided a wealth of information on the expression and function of genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we present a new vector that utilizes the simple insertion requirements of the piggyBac transposon, coupled to a splice acceptor (SA) site fused to the sequence encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and a transcriptional terminator. Mobilization of the piggyBac splice site gene trap vector (PBss) was accomplished by heat-shock-induced expression of piggyBac transposase (PBase). We show that insertion of PBss into genes leads to fusions between the gene's mRNA and the PBss-encoded EGFP transcripts. As heterozygotes, these fusions report the normal pattern of expression of the trapped gene. As homozygotes, these fusions can inactivate the gene and lead to lethality. Molecular characterization of PBss insertion events shows that they are single copy, that they always occur at TTAA sequences, and that splicing utilizes the engineered splice site in PBss. In those instances where protein-EGFP fusions are predicted to occur, the subcellular localization of the wild-type protein can be inferred from the localization of the EGFP fusion protein. These experiments highlight the utility of the PBss system for expanding the functional genomics tools that are available in Drosophila. PMID:15342518

  14. Quantitative analysis of bristle number in Drosophila mutants identifies genes involved in neural development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norga, Koenraad K.; Gurganus, Marjorie C.; Dilda, Christy L.; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Lyman, Richard F.; Patel, Prajal H.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Mackay, Trudy F.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of the function of all genes that contribute to specific biological processes and complex traits is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. One approach is to employ forward genetic screens in genetically tractable model organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, P element-mediated insertional mutagenesis is a versatile tool for the dissection of molecular pathways, and there is an ongoing effort to tag every gene with a P element insertion. However, the vast majority of P element insertion lines are viable and fertile as homozygotes and do not exhibit obvious phenotypic defects, perhaps because of the tendency for P elements to insert 5' of transcription units. Quantitative genetic analysis of subtle effects of P element mutations that have been induced in an isogenic background may be a highly efficient method for functional genome annotation. RESULTS: Here, we have tested the efficacy of this strategy by assessing the extent to which screening for quantitative effects of P elements on sensory bristle number can identify genes affecting neural development. We find that such quantitative screens uncover an unusually large number of genes that are known to function in neural development, as well as genes with yet uncharacterized effects on neural development, and novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish the use of quantitative trait analysis for functional genome annotation through forward genetics. Similar analyses of quantitative effects of P element insertions will facilitate our understanding of the genes affecting many other complex traits in Drosophila.

  15. Repression of the Drosophila proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene promoter by zerknuellt protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Hirose, Fumiko; Nishida, Yasuyoshi; Matsukage, Akio )

    1991-10-01

    A 631-bp fragment containing the 5{prime}-flanking region of the Drosophila melanogaster proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene of a CAT vector. A transient expression assay of CAT activity in Drosophila Kc cells transfected with this plasmid and a set of 5{prime}-deletion derivatives revealed that the promoter function resided within a 192-bp region. Cotransfection with a zerknuellt (zen)-expressing plasmid specifically repressed CAT expression. However, cotransfection with expression plasmids for a nonfunctional zen mutation, even skipped, or bicoid showed no significant effect on CAT expression. RNase protection analysis revealed that the repression by zen was at the transcription step. The target sequence of zen was mapped within the 34-bp region of the PCNA gene promoter, even though it lacked zen protein-binding sites. Transgenic flies carrying the PCNA gene regulatory region fused with lacZ were established. These results indicate that zen indirectly represses PCNA gene expression, probably by regulating the expression of some transcription factor(s) that binds to the PCNA gene promoter.

  16. Regulation of larval hematopoiesis in Drosophila melanogaster: a role for the multi sex combs gene.

    PubMed Central

    Remillieux-Leschelle, Nathalie; Santamaria, Pedro; Randsholt, Neel B

    2002-01-01

    Drosophila larval hematopoietic organs produce circulating hemocytes that ensure the cellular host defense by recognizing and neutralizing non-self or noxious objects through phagocytosis or encapsulation and melanization. Hematopoietic lineage specification as well as blood cell proliferation and differentiation are tightly controlled. Mutations in genes that regulate lymph gland cell proliferation and hemocyte numbers in the body cavity cause hematopoietic organ overgrowth and hemocyte overproliferation. Occasionally, mutant hemocytes invade self-tissues, behaving like neoplastic malignant cells. Two alleles of the Polycomb group (PcG) gene multi sex combs (mxc) were previously isolated as such lethal malignant blood neoplasm mutations. PcG genes regulate Hox gene expression in vertebrates and invertebrates and participate in mammalian hematopoiesis control. Hence we investigated the need for mxc in Drosophila hematopoietic organs and circulating hemocytes. We show that mxc-induced hematopoietic hyperplasia is cell autonomous and that mxc mainly controls plasmatocyte lineage proliferation and differentiation in lymph glands and circulating hemocytes. Loss of the Toll pathway, which plays a similar role in hematopoiesis, counteracted mxc hemocyte proliferation but not mxc hemocyte differentiation. Several PcG genes tested in trans had no effects on mxc hematopoietic phenotypes, whereas the trithorax group gene brahma is important for normal and mutant hematopoiesis control. We propose that mxc provides one of the regulatory inputs in larval hematopoiesis that control normal rates of plasmatocyte and crystal lineage proliferation as well as normal rates and timing of hemocyte differentiation. PMID:12454071

  17. Comparative genome sequencing of drosophila pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, gene and cis-element evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Stephen; Liu, Yue; Bettencourt, Brian R.; Hradecky, Pavel; Letovsky, Stan; Nielsen, Rasmus; Thornton, Kevin; Todd, Melissa J.; Chen, Rui; Meisel, Richard P.; Couronne, Olivier; Hua, Sujun; Smith, Mark A.; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; van Batenburg, Marinus F.; Howells, Sally L.; Scherer, Steven E.; Sodergren, Erica; Matthews, Beverly B.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Schroeder, Andrew J.; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Rives, Catherine M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Havlak, Paul; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Gill, Rachel; Hume, Jennifer; Morgan, Margaret B.; Miner, George; Hamilton, Cerissa; Huang, Yanmei; Waldron, Lenee; Verduzco, Daniel; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Dubchak, Inna; Noor, Mohamed A.F.; Anderson, Wyatt; White, Kevin P.; Clark, Andrew G.; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Gelbart, William; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2004-04-01

    The genome sequence of a second fruit fly, D. pseudoobscura, presents an opportunity for comparative analysis of a primary model organism D. melanogaster. The vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same arm, but within each arm gene order has been extensively reshuffled leading to the identification of approximately 1300 syntenic blocks. A repetitive sequence is found in the D. pseudoobscura genome at many junctions between adjacent syntenic blocks. Analysis of this novel repetitive element family suggests that recombination between offset elements may have given rise to many paracentric inversions, thereby contributing to the shuffling of gene order in the D. pseudoobscura lineage. Based on sequence similarity and synteny, 10,516 putative orthologs have been identified as a core gene set conserved over 35 My since divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome wide average consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than control sequences between the species but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a picture of repeat mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high co-adaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence between these species of Drosophila.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Opisthopatus cinctipes (Peripatopsidae) reflects the ancestral mitochondrial gene arrangement of Panarthropoda and Ecdysozoa.

    PubMed

    Braband, Anke; Cameron, Stephen L; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Daniels, Savel R; Mayer, Georg

    2010-10-01

    The ancestral genome composition in Onychophora (velvet worms) is unknown since only a single species of Peripatidae has been studied thus far, which shows a highly derived gene order with numerous translocated genes. Due to this lack of information from Onychophora, it is difficult to infer the ancestral mitochondrial gene arrangement patterns for Panarthropoda and Ecdysozoa. Hence, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Opisthopatus cinctipes, a representative of Peripatopsidae. Our data show that O. cinctipes possesses a highly conserved gene order, similar to that found in various arthropods. By comparing our results to those from different outgroups, we reconstruct the ancestral gene arrangement in Panarthropoda and Ecdysozoa. Our phylogenetic analysis of protein-coding gene sequences from 60 protostome species (including outgroups) provides some support for the sister group relationship of Onychophora and Arthropoda, which was not recovered by using a single species of Peripatidae, Epiperipatus biolleyi, in a previous study. A comparison of the strand-specific bias between onychophorans, arthropods, and a priapulid suggests that the peripatid E. biolleyi is less suitable for phylogenetic analyses of Ecdysozoa using mitochondrial genomic data than the peripatopsid O. cinctipes. PMID:20493270

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Opisthopatus cinctipes (Peripatopsidae) reflects the ancestral mitochondrial gene arrangement of Panarthropoda and Ecdysozoa.

    PubMed

    Braband, Anke; Cameron, Stephen L; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Daniels, Savel R; Mayer, Georg

    2010-10-01

    The ancestral genome composition in Onychophora (velvet worms) is unknown since only a single species of Peripatidae has been studied thus far, which shows a highly derived gene order with numerous translocated genes. Due to this lack of information from Onychophora, it is difficult to infer the ancestral mitochondrial gene arrangement patterns for Panarthropoda and Ecdysozoa. Hence, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Opisthopatus cinctipes, a representative of Peripatopsidae. Our data show that O. cinctipes possesses a highly conserved gene order, similar to that found in various arthropods. By comparing our results to those from different outgroups, we reconstruct the ancestral gene arrangement in Panarthropoda and Ecdysozoa. Our phylogenetic analysis of protein-coding gene sequences from 60 protostome species (including outgroups) provides some support for the sister group relationship of Onychophora and Arthropoda, which was not recovered by using a single species of Peripatidae, Epiperipatus biolleyi, in a previous study. A comparison of the strand-specific bias between onychophorans, arthropods, and a priapulid suggests that the peripatid E. biolleyi is less suitable for phylogenetic analyses of Ecdysozoa using mitochondrial genomic data than the peripatopsid O. cinctipes.

  20. Expression of Genes Involved in Drosophila Wing Morphogenesis and Vein Patterning Are Altered by Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Imaginal wing discs of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) defined during embryogenesis ultimately result in mature wings of stereotyped (specific) venation patterning. Major regulators of wing disc development are the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF), Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Wingless (Wg), and Dpp signaling pathways. Highly stereotyped vascular patterning is also characteristic of tissues in other organisms flown in space such as the mouse retina and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and other adaptations of vascular patterning to space environmental factors have not yet been systematically quantified, despite widespread recognition of their critical importance for terrestrial and microgravity applications. Here we report changes in gene expression with space flight related to Drosophila wing morphogenesis and vein patterning. In addition, genetically modified phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the Drosophila wing1 were analyzed by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2. Our goal is to further develop insightful vascular mappings associated with bioinformatic dimensions of genetic or other molecular phenotypes for correlation with genetic and other molecular profiling relevant to NASA's GeneLab and other Space Biology exploration initiatives.

  1. Expression of a Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholine receptor-related gene in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, S.C.; Rosenthal, L.S.; Kammermeyer, K.L.; Potter, M.B.; Nelson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    The authors isolated Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequences with nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology to subunits of vertebrate acetylcholine receptor by hybridization with a Torpedo acetylcholine receptor subunit cDNA probe. Five introns are present in the portion of the Drosophila gene encoding the unprocessed protein and are positionally conserved relative to the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit gene. The Drosophila genomic clone hybridized to salivary gland polytene chromosome 3L within region 64B and was termed AChR64B. A 3-kilobasae poly(A)-containing transcript complementary to the AChR64B clone was readily detectable by RNA blot hybridizations during midembryogenesis, during metamorphosis, and in newly enclosed adults. AChR64B transcripts were localized to the cellular regions of the central nervous system during embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages of development. During metamorphosis, a temporal relationship between the morphogenesis of the optic lobe and expression of AChR64B transcripts was observed.

  2. Genetic Interactions between the Drosophila Tumor Suppressor Gene ept and the stat92E Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, M. Melissa; Beam, Carolyn K.; Robinson, Brian S.; Moberg, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tumor Susceptibility Gene-101 (TSG101) promotes the endocytic degradation of transmembrane proteins and is implicated as a mutational target in cancer, yet the effect of TSG101 loss on cell proliferation in vertebrates is uncertain. By contrast, Drosophila epithelial tissues lacking the TSG101 ortholog erupted (ept) develop as enlarged undifferentiated tumors, indicating that the gene can have anti-growth properties in a simple metazoan. A full understanding of pathways deregulated by loss of Drosophila ept will aid in understanding potential links between mammalian TSG101 and growth control. Principal Findings We have taken a genetic approach to the identification of pathways required for excess growth of Drosophila eye-antennal imaginal discs lacking ept. We find that this phenotype is very sensitive to the genetic dose of stat92E, the transcriptional effector of the Jak-Stat signaling pathway, and that this pathway undergoes strong activation in ept mutant cells. Genetic evidence indicates that stat92E contributes to cell cycle deregulation and excess cell size phenotypes that are observed among ept mutant cells. In addition, autonomous Stat92E hyper-activation is associated with altered tissue architecture in ept tumors and an effect on expression of the apical polarity determinant crumbs. Conclusions These findings identify ept as a cell-autonomous inhibitor of the Jak-Stat pathway and suggest that excess Jak-Stat signaling makes a significant contribution to proliferative and tissue architectural phenotypes that occur in ept mutant tissues. PMID:19787055

  3. Gene expression variations during Drosophila metamorphosis in real and simulated gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, R.; Leandro-García, L. J.; Benguría, A.; Herranz, R.; Zeballos, A.; Gassert, G.; van Loon, J. J.; Medina, F. J.

    Establishing the extent and significance of the effects of the exposure to microgravity of complex living organisms is a critical piece of information if the long-term exploration of near-by planets involving human beings is going to take place in the Future As a first step in this direction we have started to look into the patterns of gene expression during Drosophila development in real and simulated microgravity using microarray analysis of mRNA isolated from samples exposed to different environmental conditions In these experiments we used Affymetrix chips version 1 0 containing probes for more than 14 000 genes almost the complete Drosophila genome 55 of which are tagged with some molecular or functional designation while 45 are still waiting to be identified in functional terms The real microgravity exposure was imposed on the samples during the crew exchanging Soyuz 8 Mission to the ISS in October 2003 when after 11 days in Microgravity the Spanish-born astronaut Pedro Duque returned in the Soyuz 7 capsule carrying the experiments prepared by our Team Due to the constraints in the current ISS experiments in these Missions we limited the stages explored in our experiment to the developmental processes occurring during Drosophila metamorphosis As the experimental conditions at the launch site Baikonour were fairly limited we prepared the experiment in Madrid Toulouse and transp o rted the samples at 15 C in a temperature controlled container to slow down the developmental process a

  4. Three mutant genes cooperatively induce brain tumor formation in Drosophila malignant brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Riede, I

    1996-09-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster strain Malignant Brain Tumor reveals temperature-sensitive transformation of the larval brain tissue. Genetic analysis shows that three gene defects, spzMBT, yetiMBT, and tldMBT, cooperatively induce brain tumor formation. Whereas spz and tld belong to the genes inducing differentiation patterns in the embryo, yeti induces cell overgrowth. spzMBT-, yetiMBT-, and tldMBT-containing animals are larval lethal, whereas Malignant Brain Tumor is kept as a homozygous strain at a permissive temperature. This reveals that this tumor-forming strain is the result of a number of adaptive mutation events.

  5. Pleiohomeotic Interacts with the Core Transcription Elongation Factor Spt5 to Regulate Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    The early elongation checkpoint regulated by Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) is a critical control point for the expression of many genes. Spt5 interacts directly with RNA polymerase II and has an essential role in establishing this checkpoint, and also for further transcript elongation. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila Spt5 interacts both physically and genetically with the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho), and the majority of Pho binding sites overlap with Spt5 binding sites across the genome in S2 cells. Our results indicate that Pho can interact with Spt5 to regulate transcription elongation in a gene specific manner. PMID:23894613

  6. Efficient gene knock-out and knock-in with transgenic Cas9 in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaoyu; Ren, Mengda; Wu, Menghua; Dai, Junbiao; Rong, Yikang S; Gao, Guanjun

    2014-03-21

    Bacterial Cas9 nuclease induces site-specific DNA breaks using small gRNA as guides. Cas9 has been successfully introduced into Drosophila for genome editing. Here, we improve the versatility of this method by developing a transgenic system that expresses Cas9 in the Drosophila germline. Using this system, we induced inheritable knock-out mutations by injecting only the gRNA into embryos, achieved highly efficient mutagenesis by expressing gRNA from the promoter of a novel non-coding RNA gene, and recovered homologous recombination-based knock-in of a fluorescent marker at a rate of 4.5% by co-injecting gRNA with a circular DNA donor.

  7. Mutations in the midway gene disrupt a Drosophila acyl coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Buszczak, Michael; Lu, Xiaohui; Segraves, William A; Chang, Ta Yuan; Cooley, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, defective or unwanted egg chambers are eliminated during mid-oogenesis by programmed cell death. In addition, final cytoplasm transport from nurse cells to the oocyte depends upon apoptosis of the nurse cells. To study the regulation of germline apoptosis, we analyzed the midway mutant, in which egg chambers undergo premature nurse cell death and degeneration. The midway gene encodes a protein similar to mammalian acyl coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), which converts diacylglycerol (DAG) into triacylglycerol (TAG). midway mutant egg chambers contain severely reduced levels of neutral lipids in the germline. Expression of midway in insect cells results in high levels of DGAT activity in vitro. These results show that midway encodes a functional DGAT and that changes in acylglycerol lipid metabolism disrupt normal egg chamber development in Drosophila. PMID:11973306

  8. Evolution of the mitochondrial genome in snakes: Gene rearrangements and phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Li, Hongdan; Zhou, Kaiya

    2008-01-01

    Background Snakes as a major reptile group display a variety of morphological characteristics pertaining to their diverse behaviours. Despite abundant analyses of morphological characters, molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear genes are limited. As a result, the phylogeny of snakes remains controversial. Previous studies on mitochondrial genomes of snakes have demonstrated duplication of the control region and translocation of trnL to be two notable features of the alethinophidian (all serpents except blindsnakes and threadsnakes) mtDNAs. Our purpose is to further investigate the gene organizations, evolution of the snake mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic relationships among several major snake families. Results The mitochondrial genomes were sequenced for four taxa representing four different families, and each had a different gene arrangement. Comparative analyses with other snake mitochondrial genomes allowed us to summarize six types of mitochondrial gene arrangement in snakes. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (BI, ML, MP, NJ) arrived at a similar topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene arrangements in snakes. Conclusion The phylogenetic relationships among the major families of snakes are in accordance with the mitochondrial genomes in terms of gene arrangements. The gene arrangement in Ramphotyphlops braminus mtDNA is inferred to be ancestral for snakes. After the divergence of the early Ramphotyphlops lineage, three types of rearrangements occurred. These changes involve translocations within the IQM tRNA gene cluster and the duplication of the CR. All phylogenetic methods support the placement of Enhydris plumbea outside of the (Colubridae + Elapidae) cluster, providing mitochondrial genomic evidence for the familial rank of Homalopsidae. PMID:19038056

  9. Extensive mitochondrial gene rearrangement in a genus of plant parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nematodes Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are two of the only animals known to have multipartite mitochondrial genomes. In such genomes, mitochondrial genes are distributed on multiple circles. The entire sequence of a nematode (Radopholus similis) that belongs to the same superfamily (...

  10. Extensive mitochondrial gene arrangements in coleoid Cephalopoda and their phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Akasaki, Tetsuya; Nikaido, Masato; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Segawa, Susumu; Hasegawa, Masami; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-03-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genomes of five cephalopods of the Subclass Coleoidea (Suborder Oegopsida: Watasenia scintillans, Todarodes pacificus, Suborder Myopsida: Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Order Sepiida: Sepia officinalis, and Order Octopoda: Octopus ocellatus) and used them to infer phylogenetic relationships. In our Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree, sepiids (cuttlefish) are at the most basal position of all decapodiformes, and oegopsids and myopsids form a monophyletic clade, thus supporting the traditional classification of the Order Teuthida. We detected extensive gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of broad cephalopod groups. It is likely that the arrangements of mitochondrial genes in Oegopsida and Sepiida were derived from those of Octopoda, which is thought to be the ancestral order, by entire gene duplication and random gene loss. Oegopsida in particular has undergone long-range gene duplications. We also found that the mitochondrial gene arrangement of Sepioteuthis lessoniana differs from that of Loligo bleekeri, although they belong to the same family. Analysis of both the phylogenetic tree and mitochondrial gene rearrangements of coleoid Cephalopoda suggests that each mitochondrial gene arrangement was acquired after the divergence of each lineage.

  11. The Drosophila gene collection: Identification of putative full-length cDNAs for 70 percent of D. melanogaster genes

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, Mark; Liao, Guochun; Brokstein, Peter; Hong, Ling; Carninci, Piero; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Champe, Mark; Pacleb, Joanne; Wan, Ken; Yu, Charles; Carlson, Joe; George, Reed; Celniker, Susan; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2002-08-12

    Collections of full-length nonredundant cDNA clones are critical reagents for functional genomics. The first step toward these resources is the generation and single-pass sequencing of cDNA libraries that contain a high proportion of full-length clones. The first release of the Drosophila Gene Collection Release 1 (DGCr1) was produced from six libraries representing various tissues, developmental stages, and the cultured S2 cell line. Nearly 80,000 random 5prime expressed sequence tags (EST) from these libraries were collapsed into a nonredundant set of 5849 cDNAs, corresponding to {approx}40 percent of the 13,474 predicted genes in Drosophila. To obtain cDNA clones representing the remaining genes, we have generated an additional 157,835 5prime ESTs from two previously existing and three new libraries. One new library is derived from adult testis, a tissue we previously did not exploit for gene discovery; two new cap-trapped normalized libraries are derived from 0-22hr embryos and adult heads. Taking advantage of the annotated D. melanogaster genome sequence, we clustered the ESTs by aligning them to the genome. Clusters that overlap genes not already represented by cDNA clones in the DGCr1 were analyzed further, and putative full-length clones were selected for inclusion in the new DGC. This second release of the DGC (DGCr2) contains 5061 additional clones, extending the collection to 10,910 cDNAs representing >70 percent of the predicted genes in Drosophila.

  12. Interaction between genes Mos and mwh expressed in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, N.Ya.; Zakharov, I.K.

    1995-07-01

    Gene Mosaic (Mos) of chromosome 3 of Drosophila melanogaster was located by means of dominant markers Ly, Sb, and Dr. This gene was shown to be located between Ly and Sb in the centromeric region (45-50 map units). An analysis of interaction between Mos and mwh genes in cis- and trans-heterozygotes showed a significant effect of the Mos gene on mutability (recombinogenesis) of chromosome mwh in somatic cells. In the cis heterozygote mwh Mos/++, the frequency of small mutant clones on wings of flies increased. In mwh/Mos heterozygotes, the Mos gene caused a significant reduction of dorsocentral and scutellar bristles (78% in mwh/Mos, 85% in mwh +/+ Mos, and 98% in mwh Mos/mwh +). 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery.

    PubMed

    Reis, Micael; Silva, Ana C; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes. PMID:27172221

  14. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Micael; Silva, Ana C.; Vieira, Cristina P.; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes. PMID:27172221

  15. Mitochondrial disease genetic diagnostics: optimized whole-exome analysis for all MitoCarta nuclear genes and the mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Falk, Marni J; Pierce, Eric A; Consugar, Mark; Xie, Michael H; Guadalupe, Moraima; Hardy, Owen; Rappaport, Eric F; Wallace, Douglas C; LeProust, Emily; Gai, Xiaowu

    2012-12-01

    Discovering causative genetic variants in individual cases of suspected mitochondrial disease requires interrogation of both the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genomes. Whole-exome sequencing can support simultaneous dual-genome analysis, although currently available capture kits do not target the mtDNA genome and provide insufficient capture for some nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. To optimize interrogation of nuclear and mtDNA genes relevant to mitochondrial biology and disease, a custom SureSelect "Mito-Plus" whole-exome library was formulated by blending RNA "baits" from three separate designs: (A) Agilent Technologies SureSelectXT 50 Mb All Exon PLUS Targeted Enrichment Kit, (B) 16-gene nuclear panel targeting sequences for known MitoCarta proteins not included in the 50 Mb All Exon design, and (C) sequences targeting the entire mtDNA genome. The final custom formulations consisted of a 1:1 ratio of nuclear baits to which a 1 to 1,000-fold diluted ratio of mtDNA genome baits were blended. Patient sample capture libraries were paired-end sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 system using v3.0 SBS chemistry. mtDNA genome coverage varied depending on the mtDNA:nuclear blend ratio, where a 1:100 ratio provided optimal dual-genome coverage with 10X coverage for over 97.5% of all targeted nuclear regions and 1,000X coverage for 99.8% of the mtDNA genome. mtDNA mutations were reliably detected to at least an 8% heteroplasmy level, as discriminated both from sequencing errors and potential contamination from nuclear mtDNA transcripts (Numts). The "1:100 Mito-Plus Whole-Exome" Agilent capture kit offers an optimized tool for whole-exome analysis of nuclear and mtDNA genes relevant to the diagnostic evaluation of mitochondrial disease.

  16. X-linked genes evolve higher codon bias in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nadia D; Davis, Jerel C; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2005-09-01

    Comparing patterns of molecular evolution between autosomes and sex chromosomes (such as X and W chromosomes) can provide insight into the forces underlying genome evolution. Here we investigate patterns of codon bias evolution on the X chromosome and autosomes in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis. We demonstrate that X-linked genes have significantly higher codon bias compared to autosomal genes in both Drosophila and Caenorhabditis. Furthermore, genes that become X-linked evolve higher codon bias gradually, over tens of millions of years. We provide several lines of evidence that this elevation in codon bias is due exclusively to their chromosomal location and not to any other property of X-linked genes. We present two possible explanations for these observations. One possibility is that natural selection is more efficient on the X chromosome due to effective haploidy of the X chromosomes in males and persistently low effective numbers of reproducing males compared to that of females. Alternatively, X-linked genes might experience stronger natural selection for higher codon bias as a result of maladaptive reduction of their dosage engendered by the loss of the Y-linked homologs.

  17. Effects of sister chromatid cohesion proteins on cut gene expression during wing development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dorsett, Dale; Eissenberg, Joel C.; Misulovin, Ziva; Martens, Andrew; Redding, Bethany; McKim, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Summary The cohesin protein complex is a conserved structural component of chromosomes. Cohesin binds numerous sites along interphase chromosomes and is essential for sister chromatid cohesion and DNA repair. Here, we test the idea that cohesin also regulates gene expression. This idea arose from the finding that the Drosophila Nipped-B protein, a functional homolog of the yeast Scc2 factor that loads cohesin onto chromosomes, facilitates the transcriptional activation of certain genes by enhancers located many kilobases away from their promoters. We find that cohesin binds between a remote wing margin enhancer and the promoter at the cut locus in cultured cells, and that reducing the dosage of the Smc1 cohesin subunit increases cut expression in the developing wing margin. We also find that cut expression is increased by a unique pds5 gene mutation that reduces the binding of cohesin to chromosomes. On the basis of these results, we posit that cohesin inhibits long-range activation of the Drosophila cut gene, and that Nipped-B facilitates activation by regulating cohesin-chromosome binding. Such effects of cohesin on gene expression could be responsible for many of the developmental deficits that occur in Cornelia de Lange syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the human homolog of Nipped-B. PMID:16207752

  18. Mutations that alter the timing and pattern of cubitus interruptus gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Slusarski, D.C.; Motzny, C.K.; Holmgren, R.

    1995-01-01

    The cubitus interruptus (ci) gene is a member of the Drosophila segment polarity gene family and encodes a protein with a zinc finger domain homologous to the vertebrate Gli genes and the nematode tra-1 gene. Three classes of existing mutations in the ci locus alter the regulation of ci expression and can be used to examine ci function during development. The first class of ci mutations causes interruptions in wing veins four and five due to inappropriate expression of the ci product in the posterior compartment of imaginal discs. The second class of mutations eliminates ci protein early in embryogenesis and causes the deletion of structures that are derived from the region including and adjacent to the engrailed expressing cells. The third class of mutations eliminates ci protein later in embryogenesis and blocks the formation of the ventral naked cuticle. The loss of ci expression at these two different stages in embryonic development correlates with the subsequent elimination of wingless expression. Adults heterozygous for the unique ci{sup Ce} mutation have deletions between wing veins three and four. A similar wing defect is present in animals mutant for the segment polarity gene fused that encodes a putative serine/threonine kinase. In ci{sup Ce}/+ and fused mutants, the deletions between wing veins three and four correlate with increased ci protein levels in the anterior compartment. Thus, proper regulation of both the ci mRNA and protein appears to be critical for normal Drosophila development. 47 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates the accumulation of translatable yolk polypeptide gene transcript in adult male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shirk, P D; Minoo, P; Postlethwait, J H

    1983-01-01

    Yolk polypeptide (YP) synthesis is hormonally stimulated during maturation of adult female Drosophila melanogaster. Synthesis of the three YPs is sex specific and occurs in fat body cells and follicle cells of adult females. However, males have been shown to produce YPs when treated with the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). By using a cell-free translation system as an assay for YP mRNA, we found that 20-HE also causes the accumulation of translatable YP message in males. In addition, hybridization of cloned copies of genes for both YP1 and YP3 to total RNA from males showed that 20-HE caused the appearance of YP gene transcripts in males. Eight hours after treatment of males with 20-HE, YP gene transcript levels had increased at least 25-fold to approximately 2.7 x 10(6) copies of YP1 gene transcript per adult male fly. In normal adult females, there were 42 x 10(6) copies per fly by 24 hr. There was neither detectable YP synthesis nor translatable YP gene transcript in either normal 1- to 3-day-old males or 24-hr-old males treated with a juvenile hormone analogue. This evidence shows that 20-HE acts to regulate the levels of translatable YP mRNA in male Drosophila.

  20. Genome-Wide Gene Expression in relation to Age in Large Laboratory Cohorts of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kimberly A.; Gardner, Kylee; Pashaj, Anjeza; Carlson, Darby J.; Yu, Fang; Eudy, James D.; Zhang, Chi; Harshman, Lawrence G.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a complex process characterized by a steady decline in an organism's ability to perform life-sustaining tasks. In the present study, two cages of approximately 12,000 mated Drosophila melanogaster females were used as a source of RNA from individuals sampled frequently as a function of age. A linear model for microarray data method was used for the microarray analysis to adjust for the box effect; it identified 1,581 candidate aging genes. Cluster analyses using a self-organizing map algorithm on the 1,581 significant genes identified gene expression patterns across different ages. Genes involved in immune system function and regulation, chorion assembly and function, and metabolism were all significantly differentially expressed as a function of age. The temporal pattern of data indicated that gene expression related to aging is affected relatively early in life span. In addition, the temporal variance in gene expression in immune function genes was compared to a random set of genes. There was an increase in the variance of gene expression within each cohort, which was not observed in the set of random genes. This observation is compatible with the hypothesis that D. melanogaster immune function genes lose control of gene expression as flies age. PMID:26090231

  1. The Drosophila Clathrin Heavy Chain Gene: Clathrin Function Is Essential in a Multicellular Organism

    PubMed Central

    Bazinet, C.; Katzen, A. L.; Morgan, M.; Mahowald, A. P.; Lemmon, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The clathrin heavy chain (HC) is the major structural polypeptide of the cytoplasmic surface lattice of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. As a genetic approach to understanding the role of clathrin in cellular morphogenesis and developmental signal transduction, a clathrin heavy chain (Chc) gene of Drosophila melanogaster has been identified by a combination of molecular and classical genetic approaches. Using degenerate primers based on mammalian and yeast clathrin HC sequences, a small fragment of the HC gene was amplified from genomic Drosophila DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic and cDNA clones from phage libraries were isolated and analyzed using this fragment as a probe. The amino acid sequence of the Drosophila clathrin HC deduced from cDNA sequences is 80%, 57% and 49% identical, respectively, with the mammalian, Dictyostelium and yeast HCs. Hybridization in situ to larval polytene chromosomes revealed a single Chc locus at position 13F2 on the X chromosome. A 13-kb genomic Drosophila fragment including the Chc transcription unit was reintroduced into the Drosophila genome via P element-mediated germline transformation. This DNA complemented a group of EMS-induced lethal mutations mapping to the same region of the X chromosome, thus identifying the Chc complementation group. Mutant individuals homozygous or hemizygous for the Chc(1), Chc(2) or Chc(3) alleles developed to a late stage of embryogenesis, but failed to hatch to the first larval stage. A fourth allele, Chc(4), exhibited polyphasic lethality, with a significant number of homozygous and hemizygous offspring surviving to adulthood. Germline clonal analysis of Chc mutant alleles indicated that the three tight lethal alleles were autonomous cell-lethal mutations in the female germline. In contrast, Chc(4) germline clones were viable at a rate comparable to wild type, giving rise to viable adult progeny. However, hemizygous Chc(4) males were invariably sterile. The sterility was

  2. Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit (MRPS) genes: A putative role in human disease.

    PubMed

    Gopisetty, Gopal; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are prominently understood as power houses producing ATP the primary energy currency of the cell. However, mitochondria are also known to play an important role in apoptosis and autophagy, and mitochondrial dysregulation can lead to pathological outcomes. Mitochondria are known to contain 1500 proteins of which only 13 are coded by mitochondrial DNA and the rest are coded by nuclear genes. Protein synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial ribosomes which are 55-60S particles and are composed of small 28S and large 39S subunits. A feature of mammalian mitoribosome which differentiate it from bacterial ribosomes is the increased protein content. The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) gene family comprises of 30 genes which code for mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit and 50 genes for the large subunit. The present review focuses on the mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit genes (MRPS), presents an overview of the literature and data gleaned from publicly available gene and protein expression databases. The survey revealed aberrations in MRPS gene expression patterns in varied human diseases indicating a putative role in their etiology. PMID:27170550

  3. Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit (MRPS) genes: A putative role in human disease.

    PubMed

    Gopisetty, Gopal; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are prominently understood as power houses producing ATP the primary energy currency of the cell. However, mitochondria are also known to play an important role in apoptosis and autophagy, and mitochondrial dysregulation can lead to pathological outcomes. Mitochondria are known to contain 1500 proteins of which only 13 are coded by mitochondrial DNA and the rest are coded by nuclear genes. Protein synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial ribosomes which are 55-60S particles and are composed of small 28S and large 39S subunits. A feature of mammalian mitoribosome which differentiate it from bacterial ribosomes is the increased protein content. The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) gene family comprises of 30 genes which code for mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit and 50 genes for the large subunit. The present review focuses on the mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit genes (MRPS), presents an overview of the literature and data gleaned from publicly available gene and protein expression databases. The survey revealed aberrations in MRPS gene expression patterns in varied human diseases indicating a putative role in their etiology.

  4. Mitochondrial Genomes of Kinorhyncha: trnM Duplication and New Gene Orders within Animals

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Olga V.; Mikhailov, Kirill V.; Nikitin, Mikhail A.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Penin, Aleksey A.; Muntyan, Maria S.; Kedrova, Olga S.; Petrov, Nikolai B.; Panchin, Yuri V.

    2016-01-01

    Many features of mitochondrial genomes of animals, such as patterns of gene arrangement, nucleotide content and substitution rate variation are extensively used in evolutionary and phylogenetic studies. Nearly 6,000 mitochondrial genomes of animals have already been sequenced, covering the majority of animal phyla. One of the groups that escaped mitogenome sequencing is phylum Kinorhyncha—an isolated taxon of microscopic worm-like ecdysozoans. The kinorhynchs are thought to be one of the early-branching lineages of Ecdysozoa, and their mitochondrial genomes may be important for resolving evolutionary relations between major animal taxa. Here we present the results of sequencing and analysis of mitochondrial genomes from two members of Kinorhyncha, Echinoderes svetlanae (Cyclorhagida) and Pycnophyes kielensis (Allomalorhagida). Their mitochondrial genomes are circular molecules approximately 15 Kbp in size. The kinorhynch mitochondrial gene sequences are highly divergent, which precludes accurate phylogenetic inference. The mitogenomes of both species encode a typical metazoan complement of 37 genes, which are all positioned on the major strand, but the gene order is distinct and unique among Ecdysozoa or animals as a whole. We predict four types of start codons for protein-coding genes in E. svetlanae and five in P. kielensis with a consensus DTD in single letter code. The mitochondrial genomes of E. svetlanae and P. kielensis encode duplicated methionine tRNA genes that display compensatory nucleotide substitutions. Two distant species of Kinorhyncha demonstrate similar patterns of gene arrangements in their mitogenomes. Both genomes have duplicated methionine tRNA genes; the duplication predates the divergence of two species. The kinorhynchs share a few features pertaining to gene order that align them with Priapulida. Gene order analysis reveals that gene arrangement specific of Priapulida may be ancestral for Scalidophora, Ecdysozoa, and even Protostomia

  5. Analysis of Sequences Regulating Larval Expression of the Adh Gene of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Shen, NLL.; Hotaling, E. C.; Subrahmanyam, G.; Martin, P. F.; Sofer, W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a series of eight, 50 base pair internal deletions in the 5' region upstream of the proximal transcription start site of the Adh gene of Drosophila melanogaster were examined in a quantitative assay. Mixtures of two plasmids, one bearing a deleted gene, the other with an intact reference gene, were injected into alcohol dehydrogenase-negative embryos. Third instar larvae of the injected generation were assayed for relative alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity. Quantitative analysis of the eight deletions indicated that two regions were required for any detectable enzyme activity and one region was required for appropriate tissue specificity. The remaining five deletions significantly decreased, but did not eliminate activity. When the deleted genes were placed on a plasmid with an intact reference gene, activities of all but one deletion were restored to levels equivalent to that of the intact reference gene (regardless of orientation). This restoration of activity did not occur when the regulatory region of the intact gene was replaced with the Hsp70 heat shock promoter nor when the 50-base pair deletion encompassed the region that includes the TATA sequence. The fact that seven of the eight deleted genes express activity in the presence of a reference gene on the same plasmid suggests that the deleted gene is controlled by regulatory elements in the reference gene. Further, these regulatory elements exhibit no preference for their own, more proximate, promoter. PMID:1752419

  6. Duplication, selection and gene conversion in a Drosophila mojavensis female reproductive protein family.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Erin S; Markow, Therese A

    2009-04-01

    Protein components of the Drosophila male ejaculate, several of which evolve rapidly, are critical modulators of reproductive success. Recent studies of female reproductive tract proteins indicate they also are extremely divergent between species, suggesting that reproductive molecules may coevolve between the sexes. Our current understanding of intersexual coevolution, however, is severely limited by the paucity of genetic and evolutionary studies on the female molecules involved. Physiological evidence of ejaculate-female coadaptation, paired with a promiscuous mating system, makes Drosophila mojavensis an exciting model system in which to study the evolution of reproductive proteins. Here we explore the evolutionary dynamics of a five-paralog gene family of female reproductive proteases within populations of D. mojavensis and throughout the repleta species group. We show that the proteins have experienced ongoing gene duplication and adaptive evolution and further exhibit dynamic patterns of pseudogenation, copy number variation, gene conversion, and selection within geographically isolated populations of D. mojavensis. The integration of these patterns in a single gene family has never before been documented in a reproductive protein.

  7. Vectors and parameters that enhance the efficacy of RNAi-mediated gene disruption in transgenic Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Haley, Benjamin; Foys, Bryon; Levine, Michael

    2010-06-22

    Whole-genome transgenic RNAi libraries permit systematic genetic screens in individual tissues of Drosophila. However, there is a high incidence of nonspecific phenotypes because of off-target effects. To minimize such effects, it is essential to obtain a deeper understanding of the specificity of action of RNAi. Here, in vivo assays are used to determine the minimum, contiguous nucleotide pairing required between an siRNA and a target mRNA to generate a phenotype. We observe that as few as 16 nucleotides of contiguous homology are sufficient to attenuate gene activity. This finding provides an explanation for the high incidence of off-target effects observed in RNAi-based genetic screens. Toward improving the efficacy of RNAi-induced phenotypes in vivo, we describe siRNA expression vectors that allow coexpression of one or more siRNAs with a fluorescent reporter gene in cultured cells or transgenic flies. This expression system makes use of the small intron from the ftz segmentation gene to provide efficient processing of synthetic siRNAs from a reporter transcript. These studies provide a foundation for the specific and effective use of gene silencing in transgenic Drosophila. PMID:20534445

  8. Duplication, Selection and Gene Conversion in a Drosophila mojavensis Female Reproductive Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Erin S.; Markow, Therese A.

    2009-01-01

    Protein components of the Drosophila male ejaculate, several of which evolve rapidly, are critical modulators of reproductive success. Recent studies of female reproductive tract proteins indicate they also are extremely divergent between species, suggesting that reproductive molecules may coevolve between the sexes. Our current understanding of intersexual coevolution, however, is severely limited by the paucity of genetic and evolutionary studies on the female molecules involved. Physiological evidence of ejaculate–female coadaptation, paired with a promiscuous mating system, makes Drosophila mojavensis an exciting model system in which to study the evolution of reproductive proteins. Here we explore the evolutionary dynamics of a five-paralog gene family of female reproductive proteases within populations of D. mojavensis and throughout the repleta species group. We show that the proteins have experienced ongoing gene duplication and adaptive evolution and further exhibit dynamic patterns of pseudogenation, copy number variation, gene conversion, and selection within geographically isolated populations of D. mojavensis. The integration of these patterns in a single gene family has never before been documented in a reproductive protein. PMID:19204376

  9. Shaped singular spectrum analysis for quantifying gene expression, with application to the early Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Shlemov, Alex; Golyandina, Nina; Holloway, David; Spirov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of automated microscopy technologies, the volume and complexity of image data on gene expression have increased tremendously. The only way to analyze quantitatively and comprehensively such biological data is by developing and applying new sophisticated mathematical approaches. Here, we present extensions of 2D singular spectrum analysis (2D-SSA) for application to 2D and 3D datasets of embryo images. These extensions, circular and shaped 2D-SSA, are applied to gene expression in the nuclear layer just under the surface of the Drosophila (fruit fly) embryo. We consider the commonly used cylindrical projection of the ellipsoidal Drosophila embryo. We demonstrate how circular and shaped versions of 2D-SSA help to decompose expression data into identifiable components (such as trend and noise), as well as separating signals from different genes. Detection and improvement of under- and overcorrection in multichannel imaging is addressed, as well as the extraction and analysis of 3D features in 3D gene expression patterns.

  10. Effect of spaceflight on the circadian rhythm, lifespan and gene expression of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingling; Ma, Jun; Xu, Kanyan

    2015-01-01

    Space travelers are reported to experience circadian rhythm disruption during spaceflight. However, how the space environment affects circadian rhythm is yet to be determined. The major focus of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the Drosophila circadian clock at both the behavioral and molecular level. We used China's Shenzhou-9 spaceship to carry Drosophila. After 13 days of spaceflight, behavior tests showed that the flies maintained normal locomotor activity rhythm and sleep pattern. The expression level and rhythm of major clock genes were also unaffected. However, expression profiling showed differentially regulated output genes of the circadian clock system between space flown and control flies, suggesting that spaceflight affected the circadian output pathway. We also investigated other physiological effects of spaceflight such as lipid metabolism and lifespan, and searched genes significantly affected by spaceflight using microarray analysis. These results provide new information on the effects of spaceflight on circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and lifespan. Furthermore, we showed that studying the effect of spaceflight on gene expression using samples collected at different Zeitgeber time could obtain different results, suggesting the importance of appropriate sampling procedures in studies on the effects of spaceflight.

  11. Shaped Singular Spectrum Analysis for Quantifying Gene Expression, with Application to the Early Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, David

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of automated microscopy technologies, the volume and complexity of image data on gene expression have increased tremendously. The only way to analyze quantitatively and comprehensively such biological data is by developing and applying new sophisticated mathematical approaches. Here, we present extensions of 2D singular spectrum analysis (2D-SSA) for application to 2D and 3D datasets of embryo images. These extensions, circular and shaped 2D-SSA, are applied to gene expression in the nuclear layer just under the surface of the Drosophila (fruit fly) embryo. We consider the commonly used cylindrical projection of the ellipsoidal Drosophila embryo. We demonstrate how circular and shaped versions of 2D-SSA help to decompose expression data into identifiable components (such as trend and noise), as well as separating signals from different genes. Detection and improvement of under- and overcorrection in multichannel imaging is addressed, as well as the extraction and analysis of 3D features in 3D gene expression patterns. PMID:25945341

  12. Effect of Spaceflight on the Circadian Rhythm, Lifespan and Gene Expression of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kanyan

    2015-01-01

    Space travelers are reported to experience circadian rhythm disruption during spaceflight. However, how the space environment affects circadian rhythm is yet to be determined. The major focus of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the Drosophila circadian clock at both the behavioral and molecular level. We used China’s Shenzhou-9 spaceship to carry Drosophila. After 13 days of spaceflight, behavior tests showed that the flies maintained normal locomotor activity rhythm and sleep pattern. The expression level and rhythm of major clock genes were also unaffected. However, expression profiling showed differentially regulated output genes of the circadian clock system between space flown and control flies, suggesting that spaceflight affected the circadian output pathway. We also investigated other physiological effects of spaceflight such as lipid metabolism and lifespan, and searched genes significantly affected by spaceflight using microarray analysis. These results provide new information on the effects of spaceflight on circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and lifespan. Furthermore, we showed that studying the effect of spaceflight on gene expression using samples collected at different Zeitgeber time could obtain different results, suggesting the importance of appropriate sampling procedures in studies on the effects of spaceflight. PMID:25798821

  13. Gene silencing triggered by non-LTR retrotransposons in the female germline of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Stéphanie; Chambeyron, Séverine; Bucheton, Alain; Busseau, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have recently shown that the activity of some eukaryotic transposable elements is sensitive to the presence of homologous transgenes, suggesting the involvement of homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanisms in their regulation. Here we provide data indicating that two non-LTR retrotransposons of Drosophila melanogaster are themselves natural triggers of homology-dependent gene silencing. We show that, in the female germline of D. melanogaster, fragments from the R1 or from the I retrotransposons can mediate silencing of chimeric transcription units into which they are inserted. This silencing is probably mediated by sequence identity with endogenous copies of the retrotransposons because it does not occur with a fragment from the divergent R1 elements of Bombyx mori, and, when a fragment of I is used, it occurs only in females containing functional copies of the I element. This silencing is not accompanied by cosuppression of the endogenous gene homologous to the chimeric transcription unit, which contrasts to some other silencing mechanisms in Drosophila. These observations suggest that in the female germline of D. melanogaster the R1 and I retrotransposons may self-regulate their own activity and their copy number by triggering homology-dependent gene silencing. PMID:12807773

  14. Compensatory evolution of a precursor messenger RNA secondary structure in the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for the evolutionary maintenance of a hairpin structure possibly involved in intron processing had been found in intron 1 of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) in diverse Drosophila species. In this study, the putative hairpin structure was evaluated systematically in Drosophila melanogaster by elimination of either side of the stem using site-directed mutagenesis. The effects of these mutations and the compensatory double mutant on intron splicing efficiency and ADH protein production were assayed in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider L2 cells and germ-line transformed adult flies. Mutations that disrupt the putative hairpin structure right upstream of the intron branch point were found to cause a significant reduction in both splicing efficiency and ADH protein production. In contrast, the compensatory double mutant that restores the putative hairpin structure was indistinguishable from the WT in both splicing efficiency and ADH level. It was also observed by mutational analysis that a more stable secondary structure (with a longer stem) in this intron decreases both splicing efficiency and ADH protein production. Implications for RNA secondary structure and intron evolution are discussed. PMID:12972637

  15. Rapid evolution of the male-specific antibacterial protein andropin gene in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Date-Ito, Atsuko; Kasahara, Kumiko; Sawai, Hiromi; Chigusa, Sadao I

    2002-05-01

    Andropin, which encodes an antibacterial protein, is closely linked to the Cecropin gene cluster of D. melanogaster. Andropin and Cecropins are considered to have originated from one common ancestor. However, the expression pattern of Andropin is distinct from that of Cecropins, being restricted to the adult male ejaculatory duct. To elucidate the evolutionary process of Andropin, we have sequenced Andropin genes from D. melanogaster and its closely related species. In D. melanogaster, the nucleotide diversity of Andropin is remarkably low compared to that of Cecropin. In contrast, nonsynonymous substitutions of Andropin are conspicuously frequent between species. From genomic Southern analysis, Andropin-like genes are present in at least the melanogaster species subgroup. The series of present results suggests that Andropin was born in the course of constructing the Drosophila Cecropin gene family and then started to evolve rapidly, in contrast to Cecropins.

  16. Frequent recent origination of brain genes shaped the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sidi; Spletter, Maria; Ni, Xiaochun; White, Kevin P; Luo, Liqun; Long, Manyuan

    2012-02-23

    The evolution of the brain and behavior are coupled puzzles. The genetic bases for brain evolution are widely debated, yet whether newly evolved genes impact the evolution of the brain and behavior is vaguely understood. Here, we show that during recent evolution in Drosophila, new genes have frequently acquired neuronal expression, particularly in the mushroom bodies. Evolutionary signatures combined with expression profiling showed that natural selection influenced the evolution of young genes expressed in the brain, notably in mushroom bodies. Case analyses showed that two young retrogenes are expressed in the olfactory circuit and facilitate foraging behavior. Comparative behavioral analysis revealed divergence in foraging behavior between species. Our data suggest that during adaptive evolution, new genes gain expression in specific brain structures and evolve new functions in neural circuits, which might contribute to the phenotypic evolution of animal behavior.

  17. An essential cell cycle regulation gene causes hybrid inviability in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Nitin; Baker, EmilyClare P; Cooper, Jacob C; Frizzell, Kimberly A; Hsieh, Emily; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob O; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-12-18

    Speciation, the process by which new biological species arise, involves the evolution of reproductive barriers, such as hybrid sterility or inviability between populations. However, identifying hybrid incompatibility genes remains a key obstacle in understanding the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. We devised a genomic screen, which identified a cell cycle-regulation gene as the cause of male inviability in hybrids resulting from a cross between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Ablation of the D. simulans allele of this gene is sufficient to rescue the adult viability of hybrid males. This dominantly acting cell cycle regulator causes mitotic arrest and, thereby, inviability of male hybrid larvae. Our genomic method provides a facile means to accelerate the identification of hybrid incompatibility genes in other model and nonmodel systems.

  18. Gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to an insecticidal extract of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen R; Scott, Ian M; Sims, Steve; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John Thor

    2006-02-22

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), has insecticidal properties and could potentially be utilized as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. Piperine extracted from P. nigrum has a biphasic effect upon cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity with an initial suppression followed by induction. In this study, an ethyl acetate extract of P. nigrum seeds was tested for insecticidal activity toward adult Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. The effect of this same P. nigrum extract upon differential gene expression in D. melanogaster was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis of 7380 genes. Treatment of D. melanogaster with P. nigrum extract led to a greater than 2-fold upregulation of transcription of the cytochrome P450 phase I metabolism genes Cyp 6a8, Cyp 9b2, and Cyp 12d1 as well as the glutathione-S-transferase phase II metabolism gene Gst-S1. These data suggests a complex effect of P. nigrum upon toxin metabolism.

  19. An essential cell cycle regulation gene causes hybrid inviability in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Nitin; Baker, EmilyClare P; Cooper, Jacob C; Frizzell, Kimberly A; Hsieh, Emily; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob O; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-12-18

    Speciation, the process by which new biological species arise, involves the evolution of reproductive barriers, such as hybrid sterility or inviability between populations. However, identifying hybrid incompatibility genes remains a key obstacle in understanding the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. We devised a genomic screen, which identified a cell cycle-regulation gene as the cause of male inviability in hybrids resulting from a cross between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Ablation of the D. simulans allele of this gene is sufficient to rescue the adult viability of hybrid males. This dominantly acting cell cycle regulator causes mitotic arrest and, thereby, inviability of male hybrid larvae. Our genomic method provides a facile means to accelerate the identification of hybrid incompatibility genes in other model and nonmodel systems. PMID:26680200

  20. Frequent Recent Origination of Brain Genes Shaped the Evolution of Foraging Behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sidi; Spletter, Maria; Ni, Xiaochun; White, Kevin; Luo, Liqun; Long, Manyuan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the brain and behavior are coupled puzzles. The genetic bases for brain evolution are widely debated, yet whether new genes impact the evolution of the brain and behavior is vaguely understood. Here we show that during recent evolution in Drosophila, new genes have frequently acquired neuronal expression, particularly in the mushroom bodies. Evolutionary signatures combined with expression profiling showed that natural selection influenced the evolution of young genes expressed in the brain, notably in mushroom bodies. Case analyses showed that two young retrogenes are expressed in the olfactory circuit and facilitate foraging behavior. Comparative behavioral analysis revealed divergence in foraging behavior between species. Our data suggest that during adaptive evolution new genes gain expression in specific brain structures and evolve new functions in neural circuits, which might contribute to the phenotypic evolution of animal behavior. PMID:22832161

  1. An essential cell cycle regulation gene causes hybrid inviability in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Phadnis, Nitin; Baker, EmilyClare P.; Cooper, Jacob C.; Frizzell, Kimberly A.; Hsieh, Emily; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A.; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob O.; Malik, Harmit S.

    2015-01-01

    Speciation, the process by which new biological species arise, involves the evolution of reproductive barriers such as hybrid sterility or inviability between populations. However, identifying hybrid incompatibility genes remains a key obstacle in understanding the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. We devised a genomic screen, which identified a cell cycle regulation gene as the cause of male inviability in hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Ablation of the D. simulans allele of this gene is sufficient to rescue the adult viability of hybrid males. This dominantly acting cell cycle regulator causes mitotic arrest and, thereby, inviability of male hybrid larvae. Our genomic method provides a facile means to accelerate the identification of hybrid incompatibility genes in other model and non-model systems. PMID:26680200

  2. Regulation of Aggression by Obesity-Linked Genes TfAP-2 and Twz Through Octopamine Signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Goergen, Philip; Rajendran, Jayasimman; Klockars, Anica; Kasagiannis, Anna; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, the monoamine octopamine, through mechanisms that are not completely understood, regulates both aggression and mating behavior. Interestingly, our study demonstrates that the Drosophila obesity-linked homologs Transcription factor AP-2 (TfAP-2; TFAP2B in humans) and Tiwaz (Twz; KCTD15 in humans) interact to modify male behavior by controlling the expression of Tyramine β-hydroxylase and Vesicular monanime transporter, genes necessary for octopamine production and secretion. Furthermore, we reveal that octopamine in turn regulates aggression through the Drosophila cholecystokinin satiation hormone homolog Drosulfakinin (Dsk). Finally, we establish that TfAP-2 is expressed in octopaminergic neurons known to control aggressive behavior and that TfAP-2 requires functional Twz for its activity. We conclude that genetically manipulating the obesity-linked homologs TfAP-2 and Twz is sufficient to affect octopamine signaling, which in turn modulates Drosophila male behavior through the regulation of the satiation hormone Dsk. PMID:24142897

  3. Gene differences between third-chromosome inversions of Drosophila pseudobscura.

    PubMed

    Prakash, S

    1976-12-01

    Associations of alleles of the acid phosphatase-3 locus with the different third-chromosome inversions from different populations of D. pseudoobscura are described. We observe only the allele AP-3(1.0) in the Standard and Arrowhead inversions and the allele AP-3.98 in the Santa Cruz, Treeline, Cuernavaca and the Pikes Peak arrangements. The Chiricahua gene arrangement is polymorphic.

  4. Identification of Genes Associated with Resilience/Vulnerability to Sleep Deprivation and Starvation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Thimgan, Matthew S.; Seugnet, Laurent; Turk, John; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: Flies mutant for the canonical clock protein cycle (cyc01) exhibit a sleep rebound that is ∼10 times larger than wild-type flies and die after only 10 h of sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, when starved, cyc01 mutants can remain awake for 28 h without demonstrating negative outcomes. Thus, we hypothesized that identifying transcripts that are differentially regulated between waking induced by sleep deprivation and waking induced by starvation would identify genes that underlie the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation and/or protect flies from the negative consequences of waking. Design: We used partial complementary DNA microarrays to identify transcripts that are differentially expressed between cyc01 mutants that had been sleep deprived or starved for 7 h. We then used genetics to determine whether disrupting genes involved in lipid metabolism would exhibit alterations in their response to sleep deprivation. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation and starvation. Measurements and Results: We identified 84 genes with transcript levels that were differentially modulated by 7 h of sleep deprivation and starvation in cyc01 mutants and were confirmed in independent samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Several of these genes were predicted to be lipid metabolism genes, including bubblegum, cueball, and CG4500, which based on our data we have renamed heimdall (hll). Using lipidomics we confirmed that knockdown of hll using RNA interference significantly decreased lipid stores. Importantly, genetically modifying bubblegum, cueball, or hll resulted in sleep rebound alterations following sleep deprivation compared to genetic background controls. Conclusions: We have identified a set of genes that may confer resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation and demonstrate that genes involved in lipid metabolism modulate sleep homeostasis. Citation: Thimgan MS

  5. A systematic phenotypic screen of F-box genes through a tissue-specific RNAi-based approach in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dui, Wen; Lu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Jiao, Renjie

    2012-08-20

    F-box proteins are components of the SCF (SkpA-Cullin 1-F-box) E3 ligase complexes, acting as the specificity-determinants in targeting substrate proteins for ubiquitination and degradation. In humans, at least 22 out of 75 F-box proteins have experimentally documented substrates, whereas in Drosophila 12 F-box proteins have been characterized with known substrates. To systematically investigate the genetic and molecular functions of F-box proteins in Drosophila, we performed a survey of the literature and databases. We identified 45 Drosophila genes that encode proteins containing at least one F-box domain. We collected publically available RNAi lines against these genes and used them in a tissue-specific RNAi-based phenotypic screen. Here, we present our systematic phenotypic dataset from the eye, the wing and the notum. This dataset is the first of its kind and represents a useful resource for future studies of the molecular and genetic functions of F-box genes in Drosophila. Our results show that, as expected, F-box genes in Drosophila have regulatory roles in a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, cell growth, signal transduction, and cellular and animal survival.

  6. A Screen for Genes Expressed in the Olfactory Organs of Drosophila melanogaster Identifies Genes Involved in Olfactory Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall, Narelle E.; Herr, Anabel; de Bruyne, Marien; Warr, Coral G.

    2012-01-01

    Background For insects the sense of smell and associated olfactory-driven behaviours are essential for survival. Insects detect odorants with families of olfactory receptor proteins that are very different to those of mammals, and there are likely to be other unique genes and genetic pathways involved in the function and development of the insect olfactory system. Methodology/Principal Findings We have performed a genetic screen of a set of 505 Drosophila melanogaster gene trap insertion lines to identify novel genes expressed in the adult olfactory organs. We identified 16 lines with expression in the olfactory organs, many of which exhibited expression of the trapped genes in olfactory receptor neurons. Phenotypic analysis showed that six of the lines have decreased olfactory responses in a behavioural assay, and for one of these we showed that precise excision of the P element reverts the phenotype to wild type, confirming a role for the trapped gene in olfaction. To confirm the identity of the genes trapped in the lines we performed molecular analysis of some of the insertion sites. While for many lines the reported insertion sites were correct, we also demonstrated that for a number of lines the reported location of the element was incorrect, and in three lines there were in fact two pGT element insertions. Conclusions/Significance We identified 16 new genes expressed in the Drosophila olfactory organs, the majority in neurons, and for several of the gene trap lines demonstrated a defect in olfactory-driven behaviour. Further characterisation of these genes and their roles in olfactory system function and development will increase our understanding of how the insect olfactory system has evolved to perform the same essential function to that of mammals, but using very different molecular genetic mechanisms. PMID:22530061

  7. Fine-Tuning of PI3K/AKT Signalling by the Tumour Suppressor PTEN Is Required for Maintenance of Flight Muscle Function and Mitochondrial Integrity in Ageing Adult Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Lawrence B.; Davison, Claire; Fan, Shih-Jung; Morris, John F.; Goberdhan, Deborah C. I.; Wilson, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), acting primarily through the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT kinase signalling cassette, plays key evolutionarily conserved regulatory roles in nutrient homeostasis, growth, ageing and longevity. The dysfunction of this pathway has been linked to several age-related human diseases including cancer, Type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains unclear whether minor defects in IIS can independently induce the age-dependent functional decline in cells that accompany some of these diseases or whether IIS alters the sensitivity to other aberrant signalling. We identified a novel hypomorphic allele of PI3K’s direct antagonist, Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (Pten), in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Adults carrying combinations of this allele, Pten5, combined with strong loss-of-function Pten mutations exhibit subtle or no increase in mass, but are highly susceptible to a wide range of stresses. They also exhibit dramatic upregulation of the oxidative stress response gene, GstD1, and a progressive loss of motor function that ultimately leads to defects in climbing and flight ability. The latter phenotype is associated with mitochondrial disruption in indirect flight muscles, although overall muscle structure appears to be maintained. We show that the phenotype is partially rescued by muscle-specific expression of the Bcl-2 homologue Buffy, which in flies, maintains mitochondrial integrity, modulates energy homeostasis and suppresses cell death. The flightless phenotype is also suppressed by mutations in downstream IIS signalling components, including those in the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, suggesting that elevated IIS is responsible for functional decline in flight muscle. Our data demonstrate that IIS levels must be precisely regulated by Pten in adults to maintain the function of the highly metabolically active indirect flight muscles

  8. FlyBase: establishing a Gene Group resource for Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Attrill, Helen; Falls, Kathleen; Goodman, Joshua L; Millburn, Gillian H; Antonazzo, Giulia; Rey, Alix J; Marygold, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Many publications describe sets of genes or gene products that share a common biology. For example, genome-wide studies and phylogenetic analyses identify genes related in sequence; high-throughput genetic and molecular screens reveal functionally related gene products; and advanced proteomic methods can determine the subunit composition of multi-protein complexes. It is useful for such gene collections to be presented as discrete lists within the appropriate Model Organism Database (MOD) so that researchers can readily access these data alongside other relevant information. To this end, FlyBase (flybase.org), the MOD for Drosophila melanogaster, has established a 'Gene Group' resource: high-quality sets of genes derived from the published literature and organized into individual report pages. To facilitate further analyses, Gene Group Reports also include convenient download and analysis options, together with links to equivalent gene groups at other databases. This new resource will enable researchers with diverse backgrounds and interests to easily view and analyse acknowledged D. melanogaster gene sets and compare them with those of other species.

  9. Dysfunctional chloroplasts up-regulate the expression of mitochondrial genes in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jo-Chien; Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Tseng, Ching-Chih; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2016-02-01

    Chloroplasts and mitochondria play important roles in maintaining metabolic and energy homeostasis in the plant cell. The interactions between these two organelles, especially photosynthesis and respiration, have been intensively studied. Still, little is known about the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by chloroplasts and vice versa. The gene expression machineries in chloroplasts and mitochondria rely heavily on the nuclear genome. Thus, the interactions between nucleus and these organelles, including anterograde and retrograde regulation, have been actively investigated in the last two decades. Norflurazon (NF) and lincomycin (Lin) are two commonly used inhibitors to study chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling in plants. We used NF and Lin to block the development and functions of chloroplasts and examined their effects on mitochondrial gene expression, RNA editing and splicing. The editing of most mitochondrial transcripts was not affected, but the editing extents of nad4-107, nad6-103, and ccmFc-1172 decreased slightly in NF- and Lin-treated seedlings. While the splicing of mitochondrial transcripts was not significantly affected, steady-state mRNA levels of several mitochondrial genes increased significantly in NF- and Lin-treated seedlings. Moreover, Lin seemed to have more profound effects than NF on the expression of mitochondrial genes, indicating that signals derived from these two inhibitors might be distinct. NF and Lin also significantly induced the expression of nuclear genes encoding subunits of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. Thus, dysfunctional chloroplasts may coordinately up-regulate the expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of respiratory complexes.

  10. Molecular Structure of Frizzled, a Drosophila Tissue Polarity Gene

    PubMed Central

    Adler, P. N.; Vinson, C.; Park, W. J.; Conover, S.; Klein, L.

    1990-01-01

    The function of the frizzled (fz) locus is required to coordinate the cytoskeletons of pupal epidermal cells so that a parallel array of cuticular hairs and bristles is produced. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of the fz locus. The locus is very large. Mutations that inactivate the gene are spread over 100 kb of genomic DNA. The major mRNA product of the gene is a 4-kb RNA that is encoded by 5 exons spread over more than 90 kb of genomic DNA. Conceptual translation of this mRNA indicates that it encodes an integral membrane protein that is likely to contain both extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. PMID:2174014

  11. Identifying sleep regulatory genes using a Drosophila model of insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Thimgan, Matthew; Donlea, Jeff; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Gottschalk, Laura; Duntley, Steve P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that sleep must serve an essential biological function, little is known about molecules that underlie sleep regulation. Given that insomnia is a common sleep disorder that disrupts the ability to initiate and maintain restorative sleep, a better understanding of its molecular underpinning may provide crucial insights into sleep regulatory processes. Thus, we created a line of flies using laboratory selection that share traits with human insomnia. After 60 generations insomnia-like (ins-l) flies sleep 60 min a day, exhibit difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and show evidence of daytime cognitive impairment. ins-l flies are also hyperactive and hyper responsive to environmental perturbations. In addition they have difficulty maintaining their balance, have elevated levels of dopamine, are short-lived and show increased levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. While their core molecular clock remains intact, ins-l flies lose their ability to sleep when placed into constant darkness. Whole genome profiling identified genes that are modified in ins-l flies. Among those differentially expressed transcripts genes involved in metabolism, neuronal activity, and sensory perception constituted over-represented categories. We demonstrate that two of these genes are upregulated in human subjects following acute sleep deprivation. Together these data indicate that the ins-l flies are a useful tool that can be used to identify molecules important for sleep regulation and may provide insights into both the causes and long-term consequences of insomnia. PMID:19494137

  12. The relationship between the flamenco gene and gypsy in Drosophila: how to tame a retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Bucheton, A

    1995-09-01

    For a long time, retroviruses have been considered to be restricted to vertebrates. However, the genome of insects contains elements like gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster that are strikingly similar to vertebrate proviruses of retroviruses, which were considered to be transposable elements. Recent results indicate that gypsy has infective properties and is therefore a retrovirus, the first to be identified in invertebrates. It is normally repressed by a host gene called flamenco, which apparently controls the transposition and infective properties of gypsy. This provides an exceptional experimental model to investigate the genetic relationships between retroviruses and their hosts. PMID:7482786

  13. A Single Gene Causes an Interspecific Difference in Pigmentation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H.; Sweigart, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of species differences remains understudied. Studies in insects have contributed significantly to our understanding of morphological evolution. Pigmentation traits in particular have received a great deal of attention and several genes in the insect pigmentation pathway have been implicated in inter- and intraspecific differences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about many of the genes in this pathway and their potential role in understudied taxa. Here we genetically analyze the puparium color difference between members of the virilis group of Drosophila. The puparium of Drosophila virilis is black, while those of D. americana, D. novamexicana, and D. lummei are brown. We used a series of backcross hybrid populations between D. americana and D. virilis to map the genomic interval responsible for the difference between this species pair. First, we show that the pupal case color difference is caused by a single Mendelizing factor, which we ultimately map to an ∼11-kb region on chromosome 5. The mapped interval includes only the first exon and regulatory region(s) of the dopamine N-acetyltransferase gene (Dat). This gene encodes an enzyme that is known to play a part in the insect pigmentation pathway. Second, we show that this gene is highly expressed at the onset of pupation in light brown taxa (D. americana and D. novamexicana) relative to D. virilis, but not in the dark brown D. lummei. Finally, we examine the role of Dat in adult pigmentation between D. americana (heavily melanized) and D. novamexicana (lightly melanized) and find no discernible effect of this gene in adults. Our results demonstrate that a single gene is entirely or almost entirely responsible for a morphological difference between species. PMID:25769982

  14. A single gene causes an interspecific difference in pigmentation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2015-05-01

    The genetic basis of species differences remains understudied. Studies in insects have contributed significantly to our understanding of morphological evolution. Pigmentation traits in particular have received a great deal of attention and several genes in the insect pigmentation pathway have been implicated in inter- and intraspecific differences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about many of the genes in this pathway and their potential role in understudied taxa. Here we genetically analyze the puparium color difference between members of the virilis group of Drosophila. The puparium of Drosophila virilis is black, while those of D. americana, D. novamexicana, and D. lummei are brown. We used a series of backcross hybrid populations between D. americana and D. virilis to map the genomic interval responsible for the difference between this species pair. First, we show that the pupal case color difference is caused by a single Mendelizing factor, which we ultimately map to an ∼11-kb region on chromosome 5. The mapped interval includes only the first exon and regulatory region(s) of the dopamine N-acetyltransferase gene (Dat). This gene encodes an enzyme that is known to play a part in the insect pigmentation pathway. Second, we show that this gene is highly expressed at the onset of pupation in light brown taxa (D. americana and D. novamexicana) relative to D. virilis, but not in the dark brown D. lummei. Finally, we examine the role of Dat in adult pigmentation between D. americana (heavily melanized) and D. novamexicana (lightly melanized) and find no discernible effect of this gene in adults. Our results demonstrate that a single gene is entirely or almost entirely responsible for a morphological difference between species.

  15. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans as Discovery Platforms for Genes Involved in Human Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grotewiel, Mike; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the profound clinical significance and strong heritability of alcohol use disorder (AUD), we do not yet have a comprehensive understanding of the naturally occurring genetic variance within the human genome that drives its development. This lack of understanding is likely to be due in part to the large phenotypic and genetic heterogeneities that underlie human AUD. As a complement to genetic studies in humans, many laboratories are using the invertebrate model organisms (iMOs) Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode worm) to identify genetic mechanisms that influence the effects of alcohol (ethanol) on behavior. While these extremely powerful models have identified many genes that influence the behavioral responses to alcohol, in most cases it has remained unclear whether results from behavioral–genetic studies in iMOs are directly applicable to understanding the genetic basis of human AUD. Methods In this review, we critically evaluate the utility of the fly and worm models for identifying genes that influence AUD in humans. Results Based on results published through early 2015, studies in flies and worms have identified 91 and 50 genes, respectively, that influence 1 or more aspects of behavioral responses to alcohol. Collectively, these fly and worm genes correspond to 293 orthologous genes in humans. Intriguingly, 51 of these 293 human genes have been implicated in AUD by at least 1 study in human populations. Conclusions Our analyses strongly suggest that the Drosophila and C. elegans models have considerable utility for identifying orthologs of genes that influence human AUD. PMID:26173477

  16. Map position and expression of the genes in the 38 region of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, H; Levine, S; Wang, X; Bonyadi, S; Fu, G; Lasko, P; Suter, B; Doerig, R

    2001-01-01

    With the completion of the Drosophila genome sequence, an important next step is to extract its biological information by systematic functional analysis of genes. We have produced a high-resolution genetic map of cytological region 38 of Drosophila using 41 deficiency stocks that provide a total of 54 breakpoints within the region. Of a total of 45 independent P-element lines that mapped by in situ hybridization to the region, 14 targeted 7 complementation groups within the 38 region. Additional EMS, X-ray, and spontaneous mutations define a total of 17 complementation groups. Because these two pools partially overlap, the completed analysis revealed 21 distinct complementation groups defined by point mutations. Seven additional functions were defined by trans-heterozygous combinations of deficiencies, resulting in a total of 28 distinct functions. We further produced a developmental expression profile for the 760 kb from 38B to 38E. Of 135 transcription units predicted by GENSCAN, 22 have at least partial homology to mobile genetic elements such as transposons and retroviruses and 17 correspond to previously characterized genes. We analyzed the developmental expression pattern of the remaining genes using poly(A)(+) RNA from ovaries, early and late embryos, larvae, males, and females. We discuss the correlation between GENSCAN predictions and experimentally confirmed transcription units, the high number of male-specific transcripts, and the alignment of the genetic and physical maps in cytological region 38. PMID:11514449

  17. Functional evidence that a recently evolved Drosophila sperm-specific gene boosts sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shu-Dan; Do, Tiffanie; Chan, Carolus; Cordova, Adriana; Carranza, Francisco; Yamamoto, Eugene A; Abbassi, Mashya; Gandasetiawan, Kania A; Librado, Pablo; Damia, Elisabetta; Dimitri, Patrizio; Rozas, Julio; Hartl, Daniel L; Roote, John; Ranz, José M

    2012-02-01

    In many species, both morphological and molecular traits related to sex and reproduction evolve faster in males than in females. Ultimately, rapid male evolution relies on the acquisition of genetic variation associated with differential reproductive success. Many newly evolved genes are associated with novel functions that might enhance male fitness. However, functional evidence of the adaptive role of recently originated genes in males is still lacking. The Sperm dynein intermediate chain multigene family, which encodes a Sperm dynein intermediate chain presumably involved in sperm motility, originated from complex genetic rearrangements in the lineage that leads to Drosophila melanogaster within the last 5.4 million years since its split from Drosophila simulans. We deleted all the members of this multigene family resident on the X chromosome of D. melanogaster by chromosome engineering and found that, although the deletion does not result in a reduction of progeny number, it impairs the competence of the sperm in the presence of sperm from wild-type males. Therefore, the Sperm dynein intermediate chain multigene family contributes to the differential reproductive success among males and illustrates precisely how quickly a new gene function can be incorporated into the genetic network of a species.

  18. Origin and evolution of a new gene descended from alcohol dehydrogenase in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Begun, D J

    1997-02-01

    Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) is highly conserved in size, organization, and amino acid sequence. Adh-psi was hypothesized to be a pseudogene derived from an Adh duplication in the repleta group of Drosophila; however, several results from molecular analyses of this gene conflict with currently held notions of molecular evolution. Perhaps the most difficult observations to reconcile with the pseudogene hypothesis are that the hypothetical replacement sites of Adh-psi evolve only slightly more quickly than replacement sites of closely related, functional Adh genes, and that the replacement sites of the pseudogenes evolve considerably more slowly than neighboring silent sites. The data have been presented as a paradox that challenges our understanding of the mechanisms underlying DNA sequence divergence. Here I show that Adh-psi is actually a new, functional gene recently descended from an Adh duplication. This descendant recruited approximately 60 new N-terminal amino acids, is considerably more basic than ADH, and is evolving at a faster rate than Adh. Furthermore, though the descendant is clearly functional, as inferred from molecular evolution and population genetic data, it retains no obvious ADH activity. This probably reflects functional divergence from its Adh ancestor.

  19. Effect of anthranilic acid on the catabolite repression of a Drosophila amylase gene in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.M.; Moehring, J.M.; Chernin, M.I.

    1987-05-01

    A Drosophila pseudoobscura amylase pseudogene cloned in Escherichia coli is expressed at high levels. The expression of this pseudogene is repressed when glucose (0.5% final conc) is added to a starch minimal medium culture of E. coli cells that contain the amylase plasmid pAMY17F. Addition of anthranilic acid (7 mM final conc.) to catabolite repressed cells acts like adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by derepressing the amylase pseudogene at the promoter. This is consistent with the Metabolite Gene Regulation (MGR) model proposed by Kline et al. which suggests that small molecules can circumvent the necessity for cAMP. Catabolite repression of the amylase structural gene of D. pseudoobscura has been previously shown. This would suggest that the amylase pseudogene expression in E. coli is either from a Drosophila structural gene promoter co-cloned with the pseudogene or a catabolite repressible E. coli promoter placed in the proper orientation and reading frame during the rearrangement of pAMY17F.

  20. [Male reproductive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster strains with different alleles of the flamenco gene].

    PubMed

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Karpova, N N; Iuneva, A O; Kim, A I

    2003-05-01

    The allelic state of gene flamenco has been determined in a number of Drosophila melanogaster strains using the ovoD test. The presence of an active copy of gypsy in these strains was detected by restriction analysis. Then male reproduction behavior was studied in the strains carrying a mutation in gene flamenco. In these experiments mating success has been experimentally estimated in groups of flies. It has been demonstrated that the presence of mutant allele flamMS decreases male mating activity irrespective of the presence or absence of mutation white. The active copy of gypsy does not affect mating activity in the absence of the mutation in gene flamenco. Individual analysis has demonstrated that that mutation flamMS results in characteristic changes in courtship: flamMS males exhibit a delay in the transition from the orientation stage to the vibration stage (the so-called vibration delay). The role of locus flamenco in the formation of male mating behavior in Drosophila is discussed. PMID:12838614

  1. A Maternal Screen for Genes Regulating Drosophila Oocyte Polarity Uncovers New Steps in Meiotic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Vitor; Kimm, Naomi; Lehmann, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Meiotic checkpoints monitor chromosome status to ensure correct homologous recombination, genomic integrity, and chromosome segregation. In Drosophila, the persistent presence of double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) activates the ATR/Mei-41 checkpoint, delays progression through meiosis, and causes defects in DNA condensation of the oocyte nucleus, the karyosome. Checkpoint activation has also been linked to decreased levels of the TGFα-like molecule Gurken, which controls normal eggshell patterning. We used this easy-to-score eggshell phenotype in a germ-line mosaic screen in Drosophila to identify new genes affecting meiotic progression, DNA condensation, and Gurken signaling. One hundred eighteen new ventralizing mutants on the second chromosome fell into 17 complementation groups. Here we describe the analysis of 8 complementation groups, including Kinesin heavy chain, the SR protein kinase cuaba, the cohesin-related gene dPds5/cohiba, and the Tudor-domain gene montecristo. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that checkpoint activation upon persistent DSBs is exclusively mediated by ATR/Mei-41 kinase and instead reveal a more complex network of interactions that link DSB formation, checkpoint activation, meiotic delay, DNA condensation, and Gurken protein synthesis. PMID:17507684

  2. Gain-of-function screen for genes that affect Drosophila muscle pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Nicole; Molitor, Andreas; Somogyi, Kalman; Mata, Juan; Curado, Silvia; Eulenberg, Karsten; Meise, Martin; Siegmund, Thomas; Häder, Thomas; Hilfiker, Andres; Brönner, Günter; Ephrussi, Anne; Rørth, Pernille; Cohen, Stephen M; Fellert, Sonja; Chung, Ho-Ryun; Piepenburg, Olaf; Schäfer, Ulrich; Jäckle, Herbert; Vorbrüggen, Gerd

    2005-10-01

    This article reports the production of an EP-element insertion library with more than 3,700 unique target sites within the Drosophila melanogaster genome and its use to systematically identify genes that affect embryonic muscle pattern formation. We designed a UAS/GAL4 system to drive GAL4-responsive expression of the EP-targeted genes in developing apodeme cells to which migrating myotubes finally attach and in an intrasegmental pattern of cells that serve myotubes as a migration substrate on their way towards the apodemes. The results suggest that misexpression of more than 1.5% of the Drosophila genes can interfere with proper myotube guidance and/or muscle attachment. In addition to factors already known to participate in these processes, we identified a number of enzymes that participate in the synthesis or modification of protein carbohydrate side chains and in Ubiquitin modifications and/or the Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of proteins, suggesting that these processes are relevant for muscle pattern formation.

  3. Drosophila topo IIIα is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial genome and male germ-line stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhong; Feng, Liping; Hsieh, Tao-shih

    2010-01-01

    Topoisomerase IIIα (topo IIIα), a member of the conserved Type IA subfamily of topoisomerases, is required for the cell proliferation in mitotic tissues, but has a lesser effect on DNA endoreplication. The top3α gene encodes two forms of protein by utilizing alternative translation initiation sites: one (short form) with the nuclear localization signal only, exclusively localized in the nuclei, and the other (long form), retaining a mitochondrial import sequence at the N-terminus and the nuclear localization sequence at the C-terminus, localized primarily in the mitochondria, though with a small portion in the nuclei. Both forms of topo IIIα can rescue the viability of null mutants of top3α. No apparent defect is associated with the flies rescued by the long form; short-form-rescued flies (referred to as M1L), however, exhibit defects in fertilities. M1L females are sterile. They can lay eggs but with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and ATP content decreased by 20- and 2- to 3-fold, respectively, and they fail to hatch. Of the newly eclosed M1L males, 33% are completely sterile, whereas the rest have residual fertilities that are quickly lost in 6 days. The fertility loss of M1L males is caused by the disruption of the individualization complex and a progressive loss of germ-line stem cells. This study implicates topo IIIα in the maintenance of mtDNA and male germ-line stem cells, and thus is a causative candidate for genetic disorders associated with mtDNA depletion. PMID:20308575

  4. Extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice (Phthiraptera: Insecta).

    PubMed

    Covacin, C; Shao, R; Cameron, S; Barker, S C

    2006-02-01

    The arrangement of genes in the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of most insects is the same, or near-identical, to that inferred to be ancestral for insects. We sequenced the entire mt genome of the small pigeon louse, Campanulotes bidentatus compar, and part of the mt genomes of nine other species of lice. These species were from six families and the three main suborders of the order Phthiraptera. There was no variation in gene arrangement among species within a family but there was much variation in gene arrangement among the three suborders of lice. There has been an extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice!

  5. Mutations in the SPG7 gene cause chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia through disordered mitochondrial DNA maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, Gerald; Gorman, Gráinne S; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Blakely, Emma L.; Wilson, Ian; Sitarz, Kamil; Moore, David; Murphy, Julie L.; Alston, Charlotte L.; Pyle, Angela; Coxhead, Jon; Payne, Brendan; Gorrie, George H.; Longman, Cheryl; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; McConville, John; Dick, David; Imam, Ibrahim; Hilton, David; Norwood, Fiona; Baker, Mark R.; Jaiser, Stephan R.; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Farrell, Michael; McCarthy, Allan; Lynch, Timothy; McFarland, Robert; Schaefer, Andrew M.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Horvath, Rita; Taylor, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a canonical presenting feature of mitochondrial disease, the genetic basis of progressive external ophthalmoplegia remains unknown in a large proportion of patients. Here we show that mutations in SPG7 are a novel cause of progressive external ophthalmoplegia associated with multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions. After excluding known causes, whole exome sequencing, targeted Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis were used to study 68 adult patients with progressive external ophthalmoplegia either with or without multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. Nine patients (eight probands) were found to carry compound heterozygous SPG7 mutations, including three novel mutations: two missense mutations c.2221G>A; p.(Glu741Lys), c.2224G>A; p.(Asp742Asn), a truncating mutation c.861dupT; p.Asn288*, and seven previously reported mutations. We identified a further six patients with single heterozygous mutations in SPG7, including two further novel mutations: c.184-3C>T (predicted to remove a splice site before exon 2) and c.1067C>T; p.(Thr356Met). The clinical phenotype typically developed in mid-adult life with either progressive external ophthalmoplegia/ptosis and spastic ataxia, or a progressive ataxic disorder. Dysphagia and proximal myopathy were common, but urinary symptoms were rare, despite the spasticity. Functional studies included transcript analysis, proteomics, mitochondrial network analysis, single fibre mitochondrial DNA analysis and deep re-sequencing of mitochondrial DNA. SPG7 mutations caused increased mitochondrial biogenesis in patient muscle, and mitochondrial fusion in patient fibroblasts associated with the clonal expansion of mitochondrial DNA mutations. In conclusion, the SPG7 gene should be screened in patients in whom a disorder of mitochondrial DNA maintenance is suspected when spastic ataxia is prominent. The complex neurological phenotype is likely a result of the clonal

  6. Effects of Gene Dose, Chromatin, and Network Topology on Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hangnoh; Cho, Dong-Yeon; Whitworth, Cale; Eisman, Robert; Phelps, Melissa; Roote, John; Kaufman, Thomas; Cook, Kevin; Russell, Steven; Przytycka, Teresa; Oliver, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Deletions, commonly referred to as deficiencies by Drosophila geneticists, are valuable tools for mapping genes and for genetic pathway discovery via dose-dependent suppressor and enhancer screens. More recently, it has become clear that deviations from normal gene dosage are associated with multiple disorders in a range of species including humans. While we are beginning to understand some of the transcriptional effects brought about by gene dosage changes and the chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with them, much of this work relies on isolated examples. We have systematically examined deficiencies of the left arm of chromosome 2 and characterize gene-by-gene dosage responses that vary from collapsed expression through modest partial dosage compensation to full or even over compensation. We found negligible long-range effects of creating novel chromosome domains at deletion breakpoints, suggesting that cases of gene regulation due to altered nuclear architecture are rare. These rare cases include trans de-repression when deficiencies delete chromatin characterized as repressive in other studies. Generally, effects of breakpoints on expression are promoter proximal (~100bp) or in the gene body. Effects of deficiencies genome-wide are in genes with regulatory relationships to genes within the deleted segments, highlighting the subtle expression network defects in these sensitized genetic backgrounds. PMID:27599372

  7. The evolutionary analysis of "orphans" from the Drosophila genome identifies rapidly diverging and incorrectly annotated genes.

    PubMed

    Schmid, K J; Aquadro, C F

    2001-10-01

    In genome projects of eukaryotic model organisms, a large number of novel genes of unknown function and evolutionary history ("orphans") are being identified. Since many orphans have no known homologs in distant species, it is unclear whether they are restricted to certain taxa or evolve rapidly, either because of a lack of constraints or positive Darwinian selection. Here we use three criteria for the selection of putatively rapidly evolving genes from a single sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. Thirteen candidate genes were chosen from the Adh region on the second chromosome and 1 from the tip of the X chromosome. We succeeded in obtaining sequence from 6 of these in the closely related species D. simulans and D. yakuba. Only 1 of the 6 genes showed a large number of amino acid replacements and in-frame insertions/deletions. A population survey of this gene suggests that its rapid evolution is due to the fixation of many neutral or nearly neutral mutations. Two other genes showed "normal" levels of divergence between species. Four genes had insertions/deletions that destroy the putative reading frame within exons, suggesting that these exons have been incorrectly annotated. The evolutionary analysis of orphan genes in closely related species is useful for the identification of both rapidly evolving and incorrectly annotated genes.

  8. Patterns of evolution of genes disrupted in expression in Drosophila species hybrids.

    PubMed

    Noor, Mohamed A F

    2005-04-01

    Divergence between species in regulatory pathways may contribute to hybrid incompatibilities such as sterility. Consistent with this idea, genes involved in male fertility often evolve faster than most other genes both in amino acid sequence and in expression. Previously, we identified a panel of male-specific genes under-expressed in sterile male hybrids of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana relative to pure species, and we showed that this under-expression is associated with infertility. In a preliminary effort to assess the generalities in the patterns of evolution of these genes, I examined patterns of mRNA expression in three of these genes in sterile F 1 hybrid males of D. pseudoobscura and D. persimilis . F 1 hybrid males bearing D. persimilis X chromosomes under-expressed all these genes relative to the parental species, while hybrids bearing D. pseudoobscura X chromosomes under-expressed two of these three genes. Interestingly, the third gene, CG5762 , has undergone extensive amino acid evolution within the D. pseudoobscura species group, possibly driven by positive natural selection. We conclude that some of the same genes exhibit disruptions in expression within each of the two species groups, which could suggest commonalities in the regulatory architecture of sterility in these groups. Alternative explanations are also considered.

  9. Effects of Gene Dose, Chromatin, and Network Topology on Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hangnoh; Cho, Dong-Yeon; Roote, John; Kaufman, Thomas; Cook, Kevin; Przytycka, Teresa; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Deletions, commonly referred to as deficiencies by Drosophila geneticists, are valuable tools for mapping genes and for genetic pathway discovery via dose-dependent suppressor and enhancer screens. More recently, it has become clear that deviations from normal gene dosage are associated with multiple disorders in a range of species including humans. While we are beginning to understand some of the transcriptional effects brought about by gene dosage changes and the chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with them, much of this work relies on isolated examples. We have systematically examined deficiencies of the left arm of chromosome 2 and characterize gene-by-gene dosage responses that vary from collapsed expression through modest partial dosage compensation to full or even over compensation. We found negligible long-range effects of creating novel chromosome domains at deletion breakpoints, suggesting that cases of gene regulation due to altered nuclear architecture are rare. These rare cases include trans de-repression when deficiencies delete chromatin characterized as repressive in other studies. Generally, effects of breakpoints on expression are promoter proximal (~100bp) or in the gene body. Effects of deficiencies genome-wide are in genes with regulatory relationships to genes within the deleted segments, highlighting the subtle expression network defects in these sensitized genetic backgrounds. PMID:27599372

  10. Evidence for a gene involved in multiple and diverse rearrangements in the Drosophila genus.

    PubMed

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2014-11-01

    In Drosophila, chromosomes have been extensively reorganized during evolution, with most rearrangements affecting the gene order in chromosomal elements but not their gene content. The level of reorganization and the evidence for breakpoint reuse vary both between and within elements. The subito gene stands out as a gene involved in multiple rearrangements both because of its active single-gene transposition and because it is the nearest gene to diverse rearrangements breakpoints. Indeed, subito has undergone three single-gene transpositions and it is the nearest gene to the breakpoints of other single-gene transpositions and of two chromosomal inversions. Given that subito is involved in meiosis and therefore active in the female germ line, the high number of nearby fixed breakages might be related among others to the presumed high accessibility of the subito region to the machinery associated with double-strand breaks repair. A second important contributor would be the reduced and simple regulatory region of subito, which would imply that a fraction of the rearrangements originating from subito nearby breakages would have not affected either its pattern or timing of expression and would have, thus, not resulted in reduced fitness.

  11. An Eye on Trafficking Genes: Identification of Four Eye Color Mutations in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paaqua; Maga, Tara; Loshakov, Anna; Singhal, Rishi; Wali, Aminah; Nwankwo, Jennifer; Baron, Kaitlin; Johnson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Genes that code for proteins involved in organelle biogenesis and intracellular trafficking produce products that are critical in normal cell function . Conserved orthologs of these are present in most or all eukaryotes, including Drosophila melanogaster. Some of these genes were originally identified as eye color mutants with decreases in both types of pigments found in the fly eye. These criteria were used for identification of such genes, four eye color mutations that are not annotated in the genome sequence: chocolate, maroon, mahogany, and red Malpighian tubules were molecularly mapped and their genome sequences have been evaluated. Mapping was performed using deletion analysis and complementation tests. chocolate is an allele of the VhaAC39-1 gene, which is an ortholog of the Vacuolar H+ ATPase AC39 subunit 1. maroon corresponds to the Vps16A gene and its product is part of the HOPS complex, which participates in transport and organelle fusion. red Malpighian tubule is the CG12207 gene, which encodes a protein of unknown function that includes a LysM domain. mahogany is the CG13646 gene, which is predicted to be an amino acid transporter. The strategy of identifying eye color genes based on perturbations in quantities of both types of eye color pigments has proven useful in identifying proteins involved in trafficking and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. Mutants of these genes can form the basis of valuable in vivo models to understand these processes. PMID:27558665

  12. Gene expression changes in response to aging compared to heat stress, oxidative stress and ionizing radiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Landis, Gary; Shen, Jie; Tower, John

    2012-11-01

    Gene expression changes in response to aging, heat stress, hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, and ionizing radiation were compared using microarrays. A set of 18 genes were up-regulated across all conditions, indicating a general stress response shared with aging, including the heat shock protein (Hsp) genes Hsp70, Hsp83 and l(2)efl, the glutathione-S-transferase gene GstD2, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mUPR) gene ref(2)P. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed using quantitative PCR, Northern analysis and GstD-GFP reporter constructs. Certain genes were altered in only a subset of the conditions, for example, up-regulation of numerous developmental pathway and signaling genes in response to hydrogen peroxide. While aging shared features with each stress, aging was more similar to the stresses most associated with oxidative stress (hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, ionizing radiation) than to heat stress. Aging is associated with down-regulation of numerous mitochondrial genes, including electron-transport-chain (ETC) genes and mitochondrial metabolism genes, and a sub-set of these changes was also observed upon hydrogen peroxide stress and ionizing radiation stress. Aging shared the largest number of gene expression changes with hyperoxia. The extensive down-regulation of mitochondrial and ETC genes during aging is consistent with an aging-associated failure in mitochondrial maintenance, which may underlie the oxidative stress-like and proteotoxic stress-like responses observed during aging.

  13. Gene expression changes in response to aging compared to heat stress, oxidative stress and ionizing radiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Landis, Gary; Shen, Jie; Tower, John

    2012-11-01

    Gene expression changes in response to aging, heat stress, hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, and ionizing radiation were compared using microarrays. A set of 18 genes were up-regulated across all conditions, indicating a general stress response shared with aging, including the heat shock protein (Hsp) genes Hsp70, Hsp83 and l(2)efl, the glutathione-S-transferase gene GstD2, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mUPR) gene ref(2)P. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed using quantitative PCR, Northern analysis and GstD-GFP reporter constructs. Certain genes were altered in only a subset of the conditions, for example, up-regulation of numerous developmental pathway and signaling genes in response to hydrogen peroxide. While aging shared features with each stress, aging was more similar to the stresses most associated with oxidative stress (hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, ionizing radiation) than to heat stress. Aging is associated with down-regulation of numerous mitochondrial genes, including electron-transport-chain (ETC) genes and mitochondrial metabolism genes, and a sub-set of these changes was also observed upon hydrogen peroxide stress and ionizing radiation stress. Aging shared the largest number of gene expression changes with hyperoxia. The extensive down-regulation of mitochondrial and ETC genes during aging is consistent with an aging-associated failure in mitochondrial maintenance, which may underlie the oxidative stress-like and proteotoxic stress-like responses observed during aging. PMID:23211361

  14. Frizzled gene expression and development of tissue polarity in the Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Park, W J; Liu, J; Adler, P N

    1994-01-01

    Almost every cell in the Drosophila pupal wing forms a single, distally pointing cuticular hair. The function of the frizzled (fz) gene is essential for the elaboration of the normal wing hair pattern. In the absence of fz function hairs develop, but they display an abnormal polarity. We have examined the developmental expression of the fz gene at the RNA level via in situ hybridization and at the protein level via Western blotting. We have found that fz is expressed in all regions of the epidermis before, during, and after the fz cold sensitive period. We have also found that fz function is not required for normal fz expression. We have further found that mutations in several other tissue polarity genes do not noticeably alter the expression or the modification state of the Fz protein. PMID:7923941

  15. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  16. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  17. Sexual conflict is not counterbalanced by good genes in the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster model system.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A D; Hannes, A M; Mirzatuny, A; Rice, W R

    2008-11-01

    Sexual conflict theory is based on the observation that females of many species are harmed through their interactions with males. Direct harm to females, however, can potentially be counterbalanced by indirect genetic benefits, where females make up for a reduction in offspring quantity by an increase in offspring quality through a generic increase in offspring fitness (good genes) and/or one restricted to the context of sexual selection (sexy sons). Here, we quantify the magnitude of the good genes mechanism of indirect benefits in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that despite high-standing genetic variance for fitness, females gain at most only a modest benefit through the good genes form of indirect benefits--far too little to counterbalance the direct cost of male-induced harm. PMID:18681915

  18. The Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene is a cell autonomous genetic marker in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Nagaraja; O'Brochta, David A

    2005-07-01

    The cinnabar gene of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) encodes for kynurenine hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in ommochrome biosynthesis. This gene is commonly included as a visible genetic marker in gene vectors used to create transgenic Aedes aegypti (L.) that are homozygous for the khw allele, the mosquito homolog of cinnabar. Unexpectedly, the phenotype of cells expressing kynurenine hydroxylase in transgenic Ae. aegypti is cell autonomous as demonstrated by the recovery of insects heterozygous for the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene with mosaic eye color patterns. In addition, a transgenic gynandromorph was recovered in which one-half of the insect was expressing the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene, including one eye with red pigmentation, whereas the other half of the insect was homozygous khw and included a white eye. The cell autonomous behavior of cinnabar in transgenic Ae. aegypti is unexpected and increases the utility of this genetic marker. PMID:16119567

  19. Stochastic model for gene transcription on Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, Guilherme N.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Ramos, Alexandre F.

    2016-02-01

    We examine immunostaining experimental data for the formation of stripe 2 of even-skipped (eve) transcripts on D. melanogaster embryos. An estimate of the factor converting immunofluorescence intensity units into molecular numbers is given. The analysis of the eve dynamics at the region of stripe 2 suggests that the promoter site of the gene has two distinct regimes: an earlier phase when it is predominantly activated until a critical time when it becomes mainly repressed. That suggests proposing a stochastic binary model for gene transcription on D. melanogaster embryos. Our model has two random variables: the transcripts number and the state of the source of mRNAs given as active or repressed. We are able to reproduce available experimental data for the average number of transcripts. An analysis of the random fluctuations on the number of eves and their consequences on the spatial precision of stripe 2 is presented. We show that the position of the anterior or posterior borders fluctuate around their average position by ˜1 % of the embryo length, which is similar to what is found experimentally. The fitting of data by such a simple model suggests that it can be useful to understand the functions of randomness during developmental processes.

  20. Regulatory autonomy and molecular characterization of the Drosophila out at first gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, D.E.; Merli, C.A.; Cygan, J.A.; Shelby, R.; Blackman, R.K.

    1995-03-01

    Our previous work has shown that the expression of the Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene in imaginal disks is controlled by a 30 kb array of enhancers located 3{prime} of the dpp coding region. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of out at first (oaf), a gene located near this enhancer region. Transcription of oaf results in three classes of alternatively polyadenylated RNAs whose expression is developmentally regulated. All oaf transcripts contain two adjacent open reading frames separated by a single UGA stop codon. Suppression of the UGA codon during translation, as seen previously in Drosophila, could lead to the production of different proteins from the same RNA. During oogenesis, oaf RNA is expressed in nurse cells of all ages and maternally contributed to the egg. During embryonic development, zygotic transcription of the gene occurs in small clusters of cells in most or all segments at the time of germband extension and subsequently in a segmentally repeated pattern in the developing central nervous system. The gene is also expressed in the embryonic, larval and adult gonads of both sexes. We also characterize an enhancer trap line with its transposon inserted within the oaf gene and use it to generate six recessive oaf mutations. All six cause death near the beginning of the first larval instar, with two characterized lines showing nervous system defects. Last, we discuss our data in light of the observation that the enhancers controlling dpp expression in the imaginal disks have no effect on the relatively nearby oaf gene. 67 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Enhancer of terminal gene conversion, a new mutation in Drosophila melanogaster that induces telomere elongation by gene conversion.

    PubMed Central

    Melnikova, Larisa; Georgiev, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Telomeres of Drosophila melanogaster contain arrays of the retrotransposon-like elements HeT-A and TART. Terminally deleted chromosomes can be maintained for many generations. Thus, broken chromosome ends behave as real telomeres. It was previously shown that gene conversion may extend the broken ends. Here we found that the frequency of terminal DNA elongation by gene conversion strongly depends on the genotype. A dominant E(tc) (Enhancer of terminal gene conversion) mutation markedly increases the frequency of this event but does not significantly influence the frequency of HeT-A and TART attachment to the broken chromosome end and recombination between directly repeated sequences at the end of the truncated chromosome. The E(tc) mutation was mapped to the 91-93 region on chromosome 3. Drosophila lines that bear the E(tc) mutation for many generations have telomeres, consisting of HeT-A and TART elements, that are longer than those found in wild-type lines. Thus, the E(tc) mutation plays a significant role in the control of telomere elongation in D. melanogaster. PMID:12454074

  2. Identification of Genes That Promote or Inhibit Olfactory Memory Formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Walkinshaw, Erica; Gai, Yunchao; Farkas, Caitlin; Richter, Daniel; Nicholas, Eric; Keleman, Krystyna; Davis, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster and other organisms have been pursued to filter the genome for genetic functions important for memory formation. Such screens have employed primarily chemical or transposon-mediated mutagenesis and have identified numerous mutants including classical memory mutants, dunce and rutabaga. Here, we report the results of a large screen using panneuronal RNAi expression to identify additional genes critical for memory formation. We identified >500 genes that compromise memory when inhibited (low hits), either by disrupting the development and normal function of the adult animal or by participating in the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying memory formation. We also identified >40 genes that enhance memory when inhibited (high hits). The dunce gene was identified as one of the low hits and further experiments were performed to map the effects of the dunce RNAi to the α/β and γ mushroom body neurons. Additional behavioral experiments suggest that dunce knockdown in the mushroom body neurons impairs memory without significantly affecting acquisition. We also characterized one high hit, sickie, to show that RNAi knockdown of this gene enhances memory through effects in dopaminergic neurons without apparent effects on acquisition. These studies further our understanding of two genes involved in memory formation, provide a valuable list of genes that impair memory that may be important for understanding the neurophysiology of memory or neurodevelopmental disorders, and offer a new resource of memory suppressor genes that will aid in understanding restraint mechanisms employed by the brain to optimize resources. PMID:25644700

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis among parental inbred and crosses reveals the role of dominance gene expression in heterosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Rongni; Li, Qianqian; Bao, Haigang; Wu, Changxin

    2016-01-01

    We observed heteroses for body weight in Drosophila melanogaster after generating hybrids from three inbred lines. To better understand the mechanism for this phenomenon at the mRNA level, we compared the mRNA profiles of the parental and hybrid lines using high-throughput RNA-seq. A total of 5877 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found and about 92% of these exhibited parental expression level dominance. Genes in the dominance category were functionally characterized using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and the gene classifications offered by the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium. The analysis identified genes associated with crucial processes such as development and growth in all three crosses. Functional assignments involving aminoglycan metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism are significantly overrepresented amongst the 215 common dominance DEGs. We conclude that dominance DEGs are important in heteroses in Drosophila melanogaster and contribute specifically to body weight heterosis. PMID:26928435

  4. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Trisidos kiyoni and Potiarca pilula: Varied mitochondrial genome size and highly rearranged gene order in Arcidae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shao’e; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Trisidos kiyoni and Potiarca pilula, both important species from the family Arcidae (Arcoida: Arcacea). Typical bivalve mtDNA features were described, such as the relatively conserved gene number (36 and 37), a high A + T content (62.73% and 61.16%), the preference for A + T-rich codons, and the evidence of non-optimal codon usage. The mitogenomes of Arcidae species are exceptional for their extraordinarily large and variable sizes and substantial gene rearrangements. The mitogenome of T. kiyoni (19,614 bp) and P. pilula (28,470 bp) are the two smallest Arcidae mitogenomes. The compact mitogenomes are weakly associated with gene number and primarily reflect shrinkage of the non-coding regions. The varied size in Arcidae mitogenomes reflect a dynamic history of expansion. A significant positive correlation is observed between mitogenome size and the combined length of cox1-3, the lengths of Cytb, and the combined length of rRNAs (rrnS and rrnL) (P < 0.001). Both protein coding genes (PCGs) and tRNA rearrangements is observed in P. pilula and T. kiyoni mitogenomes. This analysis imply that the complicated gene rearrangement in mitochondrial genome could be considered as one of key characters in inferring higher-level phylogenetic relationship of Arcidae. PMID:27653979

  5. Global variability in gene expression and alternative splicing is modulated by mitochondrial content.

    PubMed

    Guantes, Raul; Rastrojo, Alberto; Neves, Ricardo; Lima, Ana; Aguado, Begoña; Iborra, Francisco J

    2015-05-01

    Noise in gene expression is a main determinant of phenotypic variability. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that genome-wide cellular constraints largely contribute to the heterogeneity observed in gene products. It is still unclear, however, which global factors affect gene expression noise and to what extent. Since eukaryotic gene expression is an energy demanding process, differences in the energy budget of each cell could determine gene expression differences. Here, we quantify the contribution of mitochondrial variability (a natural source of ATP variation) to global variability in gene expression. We find that changes in mitochondrial content can account for ∼50% of the variability observed in protein levels. This is the combined result of the effect of mitochondria dosage on transcription and translation apparatus content and activities. Moreover, we find that mitochondrial levels have a large impact on alternative splicing, thus modulating both the abundance and type of mRNAs. A simple mathematical model in which mitochondrial content simultaneously affects transcription rate and splicing site choice can explain the alternative splicing data. The results of this study show that mitochondrial content (and/or probably function) influences mRNA abundance, translation, and alternative splicing, which ultimately affects cellular phenotype.

  6. Global variability in gene expression and alternative splicing is modulated by mitochondrial content

    PubMed Central

    Guantes, Raul; Rastrojo, Alberto; Neves, Ricardo; Lima, Ana; Aguado, Begoña; Iborra, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Noise in gene expression is a main determinant of phenotypic variability. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that genome-wide cellular constraints largely contribute to the heterogeneity observed in gene products. It is still unclear, however, which global factors affect gene expression noise and to what extent. Since eukaryotic gene expression is an energy demanding process, differences in the energy budget of each cell could determine gene expression differences. Here, we quantify the contribution of mitochondrial variability (a natural source of ATP variation) to global variability in gene expression. We find that changes in mitochondrial content can account for ∼50% of the variability observed in protein levels. This is the combined result of the effect of mitochondria dosage on transcription and translation apparatus content and activities. Moreover, we find that mitochondrial levels have a large impact on alternative splicing, thus modulating both the abundance and type of mRNAs. A simple mathematical model in which mitochondrial content simultaneously affects transcription rate and splicing site choice can explain the alternative splicing data. The results of this study show that mitochondrial content (and/or probably function) influences mRNA abundance, translation, and alternative splicing, which ultimately affects cellular phenotype. PMID:25800673

  7. Global variability in gene expression and alternative splicing is modulated by mitochondrial content.

    PubMed

    Guantes, Raul; Rastrojo, Alberto; Neves, Ricardo; Lima, Ana; Aguado, Begoña; Iborra, Francisco J

    2015-05-01

    Noise in gene expression is a main determinant of phenotypic variability. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that genome-wide cellular constraints largely contribute to the heterogeneity observed in gene products. It is still unclear, however, which global factors affect gene expression noise and to what extent. Since eukaryotic gene expression is an energy demanding process, differences in the energy budget of each cell could determine gene expression differences. Here, we quantify the contribution of mitochondrial variability (a natural source of ATP variation) to global variability in gene expression. We find that changes in mitochondrial content can account for ∼50% of the variability observed in protein levels. This is the combined result of the effect of mitochondria dosage on transcription and translation apparatus content and activities. Moreover, we find that mitochondrial levels have a large impact on alternative splicing, thus modulating both the abundance and type of mRNAs. A simple mathematical model in which mitochondrial content simultaneously affects transcription rate and splicing site choice can explain the alternative splicing data. The results of this study show that mitochondrial content (and/or probably function) influences mRNA abundance, translation, and alternative splicing, which ultimately affects cellular phenotype. PMID:25800673

  8. Activity, expression and function of a second Drosophila protein kinase a catalytic subunit gene

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, A.; Li, W.; Kalderon, D.

    1995-12-01

    The DC2 was isolated previously on the basis of sequence similarity to DC0, the major Drosophila protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit gene. We show here that the 67-kD Drosophila DC2 protein behaves as a PKA catalytic subunit in vitro. DC2 is transcribed in mesodermal anlagen of early embryos. This expression depends on dorsal but on neither twist nor snail activity. DC2 transcriptional fusions mimic this embryonic expression and are also expressed in subsets of cells in the optic lamina, wing disc and leg discs of third instar larvae. A saturation screen of a small deficiency interval containing DC2 for recessive lethal mutations yielded no DC2 alleles. We therefore isolated new deficiencies to generate deficiency trans-heterozygotes that lacked DC2 activity. These animals were viable and fertile. The absence of DC2 promoter did not efficiently rescue a variety of DC0 mutant phenotypes. These observations indicate that DC2 is not an essential gene and is unlikely to be functionally redundant with DC0, which has multiple unique functions during development. 62 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Mutations of the Calcium Channel Gene cacophony Suppress Seizures in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Saras, Arunesh; Tanouye, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Bang sensitive (BS) Drosophila mutants display characteristic seizure-like phenotypes resembling, in some aspects, those of human seizure disorders such as epilepsy. The BS mutant parabss1, caused by a gain-of-function mutation of the voltage-gated Na+ channel gene, is extremely seizure-sensitive with phenotypes that have proven difficult to ameliorate by anti-epileptic drug feeding or by seizure-suppressor mutation. It has been presented as a model for intractable human epilepsy. Here we show that cacophony (cacTS2), a mutation of the Drosophila presynaptic Ca++ channel α1 subunit gene, is a particularly potent seizure-suppressor mutation, reverting seizure-like phenotypes for parabss1 and other BS mutants. Seizure-like phenotypes for parabss1 may be suppressed by as much as 90% in double mutant combinations with cacTS2. Unexpectedly, we find that parabss1 also reciprocally suppresses cacTS2 seizure-like phenotypes. The cacTS2 mutant displays these seizure-like behaviors and spontaneous high-frequency action potential firing transiently after exposure to high temperature. We find that this seizure-like behavior in cacTS2 is ameliorated by 85% in double mutant combinations with parabss1. PMID:26771829

  10. Ephemeral association between gene CG5762 and hybrid male sterility in Drosophila sibling species.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daina; Michalak, Pawel

    2011-10-01

    Interspecies divergence in regulatory pathways may result in hybrid male sterility (HMS) when dominance and epistatic interactions between alleles that are functional within one genome are disrupted in hybrid genomes. The identification of genes contributing to HMS and other hybrid dysfunctions is essential for understanding the origin of new species (speciation). Previously, we identified a panel of male-specific loci misexpressed in sterile male hybrids of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana relative to parental species. In the current work, we attempt to dissect the genetic associations between HMS and one of the genes, CG5762, a Drosophila-unique locus characterized by rapid sequence divergence within the genus, presumably driven by positive natural selection. CG5762 is underexpressed in sterile backcross males compared with their fertile brothers. In CG5762 heterozygotes, the D. mauritiana allele is consistently overexpressed on both the D. simulans and D. mauritiana backcross genomic background, suggesting a cis-acting regulation factor. There is a significant association between heterozygosity and HMS in hybrid males from early but not later backcross generations. Microsatellite markers spanning CG5762 fail to associate with HMS. These observations lead to a conclusion that CG5762 is not a causative factor of HMS. Although genetic linkage between CG5762 and a neighboring causative introgression cannot be ruled out, it seems that the pattern is most consistent with CG5762 participating in epistatic interactions that are disrupted in flies with HMS.

  11. Haplotype test reveals departure from neutrality in a segment of the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, D.A.; Stephan, W.

    1995-12-01

    Restriction map studies previously revealed extensive linkage disequilibria in the transcriptional unit of the white locus in natural Drosophila melanogaster populations. To understand the causes of these disequilibria, we sequenced a 4722-bp region of the white gene from 15 lines of D. melanogaster and 1 line of Drosophila simulans. Statistical tests applied to the entire 4722-bp region do not reject neutrality. In contrast, a test for high-frequency haplotypes ({open_quotes}Haplotype test{close_quotes}) revealed an 834-bp segment, encompassing the 3{prime} end of intron 1 to the 3{prime} end of intron 2, in which the structure of variation deviates significantly from the predictions of a neutral equilibrium model. The variants in this 834-bp segment segregate as single haplotype blocks. We propose that these unusually large haplotype blocks are due to positive selection on polymorphisms within the white gene, including a replacement polymorphism, Arg{yields}Leu, within this segment. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Insect population control by homing endonuclease-based gene drive: an evaluation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuk-Sang; Naujoks, Daniel A; Huen, David S; Russell, Steven

    2011-05-01

    Insects play a major role as vectors of human disease as well as causing significant agricultural losses. Harnessing the activity of customized homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) has been proposed as a method for spreading deleterious mutations through populations with a view to controlling disease vectors. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this method in Drosophila melanogaster, utilizing the well-characterized HEG, I-SceI. In particular, we show that high rates of homing can be achieved within spermatogonia and in the female germline. We show that homed constructs continue to exhibit HEG activity in the subsequent generation and that the ectopic homing events required for initiating the strategy occur at an acceptable rate. We conclude that the requirements for successful deployment of a HEG-based gene drive strategy can be satisfied in a model dipteran and that there is a reasonable prospect of the method working in other dipterans. In characterizing the system we measured repair outcomes at the spermatogonial, spermatocyte, and spermatid stages of spermatogenesis. We show that homologous recombination is restricted to spermatogonia and that it immediately ceases when they become primary spermatocytes, indicating that the choice of DNA repair pathway in the Drosophila testis can switch abruptly during differentiation.

  13. Brief Report: High Frequency of Biochemical Markers for Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: No Association with the Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier "SLC25A12" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Catarina; Coutinho, Ana M.; Diogo, Luisa; Grazina, Manuela; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa; Ataide, Assuncao; Almeida, Joana; Borges, Luis; Oliveira, Catarina; Oliveira, Guiomar; Vicente, Astrid M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we confirm the previously reported high frequency of biochemical markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, namely hyperlactacidemia and increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, in a significant fraction of 210 autistic patients. We further examine the involvement of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier gene ("SLC25A12") in…

  14. Identification of the Drosophila skpA gene as a novel target of the transcription factor DREF

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Thi Phuong Thao; Ida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu . E-mail: myamaguc@kit.ac.jp

    2006-11-01

    SKPa is component of a Drosophila SCF complex that functions in combination with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcD1. skpA null mutation results in centrosome overduplication, unusual chromatin condensation, defective endoreduplication and cell-cycle progression. While the molecular mechanisms that regulate expression of the skpA gene are poorly understood, the DNA replication-related element (DRE) and the DRE-binding factor (DREF) play important roles in regulating proliferation-related genes in Drosophila and DRE (5'-TATCGATA) and DRE-like (5'-CATCGATT) sequences were here found to be involved in skpA promoter activity. Thus both luciferase transient expression assays in cultured Drosophila S2 cells using skpA promoter-luciferase fusion plasmids and anti-lacZ immunostaining of various tissues from transgenic third instar larvae carrying the skpA promoter-lacZ fusion genes provided supportive evidence. Furthermore, anti-SKPa immunostaining of eye imaginal discs from flies overexpressing DREF showed ectopic expression of protein in the region posterior to the morphogenetic furrow where DREF is overexpressed. Knockdown of DREF in some tissues where SKPa distribution is well known almost completely abrogated the skpA gene expression. These findings, taken together, indicate that the Drosophila skpA gene is a novel target of the transcription factor DREF.

  15. Characterization of mitochondrial genome of sea cucumber Stichopus horrens: a novel gene arrangement in Holothuroidea.

    PubMed

    Fan, SiGang; Hu, ChaoQun; Wen, Jing; Zhang, LvPing

    2011-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence contains useful information for phylogenetic analyses of metazoa. In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of sea cucumber Stichopus horrens (Holothuroidea: Stichopodidae: Stichopus) is presented. The complete sequence was determined using normal and long PCRs. The mitochondrial genome of Stichopus horrens is a circular molecule 16257 bps long, composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. Most of these genes are coded on the heavy strand except for one protein-coding gene (nad6) and five tRNA genes (tRNA ( Ser(UCN) ), tRNA ( Gln ), tRNA ( Ala ), tRNA ( Val ), tRNA ( Asp )) which are coded on the light strand. The composition of the heavy strand is 30.8% A, 23.7% C, 16.2% G, and 29.3% T bases (AT skew=0.025; GC skew=-0.188). A non-coding region of 675 bp was identified as a putative control region because of its location and AT richness. The intergenic spacers range from 1 to 50 bp in size, totaling 227 bp. A total of 25 overlapping nucleotides, ranging from 1 to 10 bp in size, exist among 11 genes. All 13 protein-coding genes are initiated with an ATG. The TAA codon is used as the stop codon in all the protein coding genes except nad3 and nad4 that use TAG as their termination codon. The most frequently used amino acids are Leu (16.29%), Ser (10.34%) and Phe (8.37%). All of the tRNA genes have the potential to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structures. We also compared the order of the genes in the mitochondrial DNA from the five holothurians that are now available and found a novel gene arrangement in the mitochondrial DNA of Stichopus horrens.

  16. CRISPR/Cas9 and mitochondrial gene replacement therapy: promising techniques and ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Fogleman, Sarah; Santana, Casey; Bishop, Casey; Miller, Alyssa; Capco, David G

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of mothers are at risk of transmitting mitochondrial diseases to their offspring each year, with the most severe form of these diseases being fatal [1]. With no cure, transmission prevention is the only current hope for decreasing the disease incidence. Current methods of prevention rely on low mutant maternal mitochondrial DNA levels, while those with levels close to or above threshold (>60%) are still at a very high risk of transmission [2]. Two novel approaches may offer hope for preventing and treating mitochondrial disease: mitochondrial replacement therapy, and CRISPR/Cas9. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has emerged as a promising tool that has the potential to prevent transmission in patients with higher mutant mitochondrial loads. This method is the subject of many ethical concerns due its use of a donor embryo to transplant the patient’s nuclear DNA; however, it has ultimately been approved for use in the United Kingdom and was recently declared ethically permissible by the FDA. The leading-edge CRISPR/Cas9 technology exploits the principles of bacterial immune function to target and remove specific sequences of mutated DNA. This may have potential in treating individuals with disease caused by mutant mitochondrial DNA. As the technology progresses, it is important that the ethical considerations herein emerge and become more established. The purpose of this review is to discuss current research surrounding the procedure and efficacy of the techniques, compare the ethical concerns of each approach, and look into the future of mitochondrial gene replacement therapy. PMID:27725916

  17. Three-Parent IVF: Gene Replacement for the Prevention of Inherited Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Paula; Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a significant cause of a number of serious multi-organ diseases. Tissues with a high metabolic demand such as brain, heart, muscle, CNS are often affected. Mitochondrial disease can be due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial function. There is no curative treatment for patients with mitochondrial disease. Given the lack of treatments and the limitations of prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis, attention has focused on prevention of transmission of mitochondrial disease through germline gene replacement therapy. Since mtDNA is strictly maternally inherited, two approaches have been proposed. In the first, the nuclear genome from the pronuclear stage zygote of an affected woman is transferred to an enucleated donor zygote. A second technique involves transfer of the metaphase II spindle from the unfertilized oocyte of an affected woman to an enucleated donor oocyte. Our group recently reported successful spindle transfer between human oocytes resulting in blastocyst development and embryonic stem cell derivation, with very low levels of heteroplasmy. In this review, we summarize these novel assisted reproductive techniques and their use to prevent transmission of mitochondrial disorders. The promises and challenges are discussed, focusing on their potential clinical application. PMID:24382342

  18. Dietary switch reveals fast coordinated gene expression changes in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Feifei; Tatar, Marc; Helfand, Stephen L.; Neretti, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) reduces age-specific mortality and increases lifespan in many organisms. DR elicits a large number of physiological changes, however many are undoubtedly not related to longevity. Whole-genome gene expression studies have typically revealed hundreds to thousands of differentially expressed genes in response to DR, and a key open question is which subset of genes mediates longevity. Here we performed transcriptional profiling of fruit flies in a closely spaced time series immediately following a switch to the DR regime and identified four patterns of transcriptional dynamics. Most informatively we find 144 genes rapidly switched to the same level observed in the DR cohort and are hence strong candidates as proximal mediators of reduced mortality upon DR. This class was enriched for genes involved in carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism. Folate biosynthesis was the only pathway enriched for gene up-regulated upon DR. Four among the down-regulated genes are involved in key regulatory steps within the pentose phosphate pathway, which has been previously associated with lifespan extension in Drosophila. Combined analysis of dietary switch with whole-genome time-course profiling can identify transcriptional responses that are closely associated with and perhaps causal to longevity assurance conferred by dietary restriction. PMID:24864304

  19. The Influence of Whole-Arm Trisomy on Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, R. H.; Holm, D. G.; Grigliatti, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    The biochemical consequences of extensive aneuploidy in Drosophila have been examined by measuring the levels of specific proteins in larvae trisomic for entire chromosome arms. By far the most common effect is a reduction in gene product levels (per gene template) by one-third from the diploid quantity, consistent with the model that concentration-dependent repressors of these loci reside on the duplicated chromosome arms. Most loci appear sensitive to such repression in one or more of the trisomies examined, suggesting that such regulatory loci might be quite common. Repression of gene-product levels in trisomies may significantly contribute to their inviability. Few loci are activated in trisomies implying that most factors necessary for gene expression are in excess. While autosomal trisomies can repress the expression of both X-linked and autosomal loci, X-chromosomal trisomies have little effect on most autosomal genes. A family of genes coding for larval serum proteins do not respond similarly in trisomies, suggesting that regulation operates on a process which is not common to their coordinate regulation. Finally, Adh genes transposed to new chromosomal positions maintain their ability to be repressed in 3L trisomies suggesting that this response to regulation involves a closely linked cis-acting regulatory element. PMID:8608935

  20. Effects of the Maleless Mutation on X and Autosomal Gene Expression in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hiebert, J. C.; Birchler, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    The mutational effect of the maleless (mle) gene in Drosophila has been reexamined. Earlier work had suggested that mle along with other male-lethal genes was responsible for hypertranscription of the X chromosome in males to bring about dosage compensation. Prompted by studies on dosage sensitive regulatory genes, we tested for effects of mle(ts) on the phenotypes of 16 X or autosomal mutations in adult escapers of lethality. In third instar larvae, prior to the major lethal phase of mle, we examined activities of 6 X or autosomally encoded enzymes, steady state mRNA levels of 15 X-linked or autosomal genes and transcripts from two large genomic segments derived from either the X or from chromosome 2 and present in yeast artificial chromosomes. In contrast to the previously hypothesized role, we detected pronounced effects of mle on the expression of both X-linked and autosomal loci such that a large proportion of the tested genes were increased in expression, while only two X-linked loci were reduced. The most prevalent consequence was an increase of autosomal gene expression, which can explain previously observed reduced X:autosome transcription ratios. These observations suggest that if mle plays a role in the discrimination of the X and the autosomes, it may do so by modification of the effects of dosage sensitive regulatory genes. PMID:8005444

  1. An undergraduate laboratory class using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to mutate drosophila genes.

    PubMed

    Adame, Vanesa; Chapapas, Holly; Cisneros, Marilyn; Deaton, Carol; Deichmann, Sophia; Gadek, Chauncey; Lovato, TyAnna L; Chechenova, Maria B; Guerin, Paul; Cripps, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology is used in the manipulation of genome sequences and gene expression. Because of the ease and rapidity with which genes can be mutated using CRISPR/Cas9, we sought to determine if a single-semester undergraduate class could be successfully taught, wherein students isolate mutants for specific genes using CRISPR/Cas9. Six students were each assigned a single Drosophila gene, for which no mutants currently exist. Each student designed and created plasmids to encode single guide RNAs that target their selected gene; injected the plasmids into Cas9-expressing embryos, in order to delete the selected gene; carried out a three-generation cross to test for germline transmission of a mutated allele and generate a stable stock of the mutant; and characterized the mutant alleles by PCR and sequencing. Three genes out of six were successfully mutated. Pre- and post- survey evaluations of the students in the class revealed that student attitudes towards their research competencies increased, although the changes were not statistically significant. We conclude that it is feasible to develop a laboratory genome editing class, to provide effective laboratory training to undergraduate students, and to generate mutant lines for use by the broader scientific community. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:263-275, 2016.

  2. Gene Model Annotations for Drosophila melanogaster: Impact of High-Throughput Data

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Beverley B.; dos Santos, Gilberto; Crosby, Madeline A.; Emmert, David B.; St. Pierre, Susan E.; Gramates, L. Sian; Zhou, Pinglei; Schroeder, Andrew J.; Falls, Kathleen; Strelets, Victor; Russo, Susan M.; Gelbart, William M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the current status of the FlyBase annotated gene set for Drosophila melanogaster and highlight improvements based on high-throughput data. The FlyBase annotated gene set consists entirely of manually annotated gene models, with the exception of some classes of small non-coding RNAs. All gene models have been reviewed using evidence from high-throughput datasets, primarily from the modENCODE project. These datasets include RNA-Seq coverage data, RNA-Seq junction data, transcription start site profiles, and translation stop-codon read-through predictions. New annotation guidelines were developed to take into account the use of the high-throughput data. We describe how this flood of new data was incorporated into thousands of new and revised annotations. FlyBase has adopted a philosophy of excluding low-confidence and low-frequency data from gene model annotations; we also do not attempt to represent all possible permutations for complex and modularly organized genes. This has allowed us to produce a high-confidence, manageable gene annotation dataset that is available at FlyBase (http://flybase.org). Interesting aspects of new annotations include new genes (coding, non-coding, and antisense), many genes with alternative transcripts with very long 3′ UTRs (up to 15–18 kb), and a stunning mismatch in the number of male-specific genes (approximately 13% of all annotated gene models) vs. female-specific genes (less than 1%). The number of identified pseudogenes and mutations in the sequenced strain also increased significantly. We discuss remaining challenges, for instance, identification of functional small polypeptides and detection of alternative translation starts. PMID:26109357

  3. Halloween genes encode P450 enzymes that mediate steroid hormone biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2004-02-27

    Mutation of members of the Halloween gene family results in embryonic lethality. We have shown that two of these genes code for enzymes responsible for specific steps in the synthesis of ecdysone, a polyhydroxylated sterol that is the precursor of the major molting hormone of all arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. These two mitochondrial P450 enzymes, coded for by disembodied (dib) (CYP302A1) and shadow (sad) (CYP315A1), are the C22 and C2 hydroxylases, respectively, as shown by transfection of the gene into S2 cells and subsequent biochemical analysis. These are the last two enzymes in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. A third enzyme, necessary for the critical conversion of ecdysone to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the 20-monooxygenase, is encoded by shade (shd) (CYP314A1). All three enzymes are mitochondrial although shade has motifs suggesting both mitochondrial and microsomal locations. By tagging these enzymes, their subcellular location has been confirmed by confocal microscopy. Shade is present in several tissues as expected while disembodied and shadow are restricted to the ring gland. The paradigm used should allow us to define the enzymes mediating the entire ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway. PMID:15026169

  4. Halloween genes encode P450 enzymes that mediate steroid hormone biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2004-02-27

    Mutation of members of the Halloween gene family results in embryonic lethality. We have shown that two of these genes code for enzymes responsible for specific steps in the synthesis of ecdysone, a polyhydroxylated sterol that is the precursor of the major molting hormone of all arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. These two mitochondrial P450 enzymes, coded for by disembodied (dib) (CYP302A1) and shadow (sad) (CYP315A1), are the C22 and C2 hydroxylases, respectively, as shown by transfection of the gene into S2 cells and subsequent biochemical analysis. These are the last two enzymes in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. A third enzyme, necessary for the critical conversion of ecdysone to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the 20-monooxygenase, is encoded by shade (shd) (CYP314A1). All three enzymes are mitochondrial although shade has motifs suggesting both mitochondrial and microsomal locations. By tagging these enzymes, their subcellular location has been confirmed by confocal microscopy. Shade is present in several tissues as expected while disembodied and shadow are restricted to the ring gland. The paradigm used should allow us to define the enzymes mediating the entire ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway.

  5. About the origin of retroviruses and the co-evolution of the gypsy retrovirus with the Drosophila flamenco host gene.

    PubMed

    Pélisson, A; Teysset, L; Chalvet, F; Kim, A; Prud'homme, N; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified so far in invertebrates. According to phylogenetic data, gypsy belongs to the same group as the Ty3 class of LTR-retrotransposons, which suggests that retroviruses evolved from this kind of retroelements before the radiation of vertebrates. There are other invertebrate retroelements that are also likely to be endogenous retroviruses because they share with gypsy some structural and functional retroviral-like characteristics. Gypsy is controlled by a Drosophila gene called flamenco, the restrictive alleles of which maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state. In permissive strains, functional gypsy elements transpose at high frequency and produce infective particles. Defective gypsy proviruses located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of all strains seem to be very old components of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, which indicates that gypsy invaded this species, or an ancestor, a long time ago. At that time, Drosophila melanogaster presumably contained permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. One can imagine that the species survived to the increase of genetic load caused by the retroviral invasion because restrictive alleles of flamenco were selected. The characterization of a retrovirus in Drosophila, one of the most advanced model organisms for molecular genetics, provides us with an exceptional clue to study how a species can resist a retroviral invasion. PMID:9440256

  6. Uniparental Inheritance of Mitochondrial Genes in Yeast: Dependence on Input Bias of Mitochondrial DNA and Preliminary Investigations of the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Birky, C. William; Demko, Catherine A.; Perlman, Philip S.; Strausberg, Robert

    1978-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previous studies on the inheritance of mitochondrial genes controlling antibiotic resistance have shown that some crosses produce a substantial number of uniparental zygotes , which transmit to their diploid progeny mitochondrial alleles from only one parent. In this paper, we show that uniparental zygotes are formed especially when one parent (majority parent) contributes substantially more mitochondrial DNA molecules to the zygote than does the other (minority) parent. Cellular contents of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are increased in these experiments by treatment with cycloheximide, alpha-factor, or the uvsρ5 nuclear mutation. In such a biased cross, some zygotes are uniparental for mitochondrial alleles from the majority parent, and the frequency of such zygotes increases with increasing bias. In two- and three-factor crosses, the cap1, ery1, and oli1 loci behave coordinately, rather than independently; minority markers tend to be transmitted or lost as a unit, suggesting that the uniparental mechanism acts on entire mtDNA molecules rather than on individual loci. This rules out the possibility that uniparental inheritance can be explained by the conversion of minority markers to the majority alleles during recombination. Exceptions to the coordinate behavior of different loci can be explained by marker rescue via recombination. Uniparental inheritance is largely independent of the position of buds on the zygote. We conclude that it is due to the failure of minority markers to replicate in some zygotes, possibly involving the rapid enzymatic destruction of such markers. We have considered two general classes of mechanisms: (1) random selection of molecules for replication, as for example by competition for replicating sites on a membrane; and (2) differential marking of mtDNA molecules in the two parents, possibly by modification enzymes, followed by a mechanism that "counts" molecules and replicates only the majority type. These

  7. Size Regulation in the Segmentation of Drosophila: Interacting Interfaces between Localized Domains of Gene Expression Ensure Robust Spatial Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Manu; Reinitz, John; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2009-10-01

    We propose a new mechanism for robust biological patterning. The mechanism bears analogy to interface dynamics in condensed media. We apply this method to study how gene networks control segmentation of Drosophila. The proposed model is minimal involving only 4 genes and a morphogen gradient. We discuss experimental data for which developmental genes are expressed within domains spatially limited by kinks (interfaces) and the gene interaction scheme contains both weak and strong repulsion. We show how kink-kink interactions can be calculated from the gene interactions and how the gene interaction scheme ensures the control of proportions (size regulation).

  8. Rotation of photoreceptor clusters in the developing Drosophila eye requires the nemo gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, K W; Benzer, S

    1994-07-15

    The Drosophila eye consists of a reiterative hexagonal array of photoreceptor cell clusters, the ommatidia. During normal morphogenesis, the clusters in the dorsal or ventral halves of the disc rotate 90 degrees in opposite directions, forming mirror images across a dorsoventral equator. In the mutant nemo (nmo), there is an initial turning of approximately 45 degrees, but further rotation is blocked. Genetic mosaic analysis indicates that the nmo gene acts upon each cluster as a whole; normal nmo function in one or more photoreceptor cells appears to be sufficient to induce full rotation. The nmo gene sequence encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase homolog, suggesting that the kinase is required to initiate the second step of rotation. In another mutant, roulette, excessive rotation through varying angles occurs in many ommatidia. This defect is suppressed by nmo, indicating that nmo acts upstream in a rotation-regulating pathway.

  9. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; He, Y.; Sun, Y.; Jan, Y. N.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila atonal (ato) is the proneural gene of the chordotonal organs (CHOs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the larval and adult photoreceptor organs. Here, we show that ato is expressed at multiple stages during the development of a lineage of central brain neurons that innervate the optic lobes and are required for eclosion. A novel fate mapping approach shows that ato is expressed in the embryonic precursors of these neurons and that its expression is reactivated in third instar larvae (L3). In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch.

  10. Intron retention in the Drosophila melanogaster Rieske iron sulphur protein gene generated a new protein

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Alisson M.; Miguela, Veronica; Whiting, Michael F.; Woodruff, R.C.; Dominguez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Genomes can encode a variety of proteins with unrelated architectures and activities. It is known that protein-coding genes of de novo origin have significantly contributed to this diversity. However, the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary processes behind these originations are still poorly understood. Here we show that the last 102 codons of a novel gene, Noble, assembled directly from non-coding DNA following an intronic deletion that induced alternative intron retention at the Drosophila melanogaster Rieske Iron Sulphur Protein (RFeSP) locus. A systematic analysis of the evolutionary processes behind the origin of Noble showed that its emergence was strongly biased by natural selection on and around the RFeSP locus. Noble mRNA is shown to encode a bona fide protein that lacks an iron sulphur domain and localizes to mitochondria. Together, these results demonstrate the generation of a novel protein at a naturally selected site. PMID:21610726

  11. [Some behavioral features in Drosophila melanogaster lines carrying a flamenco gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, L G; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2001-11-01

    Olfactory sensitivity and locomotor activity was assayed in Drosophila melanogaster strains carrying a mutation of the flamenco gene, which controls transposition of the mobile genetic element 4 (MGE4) retrotransposon the gypsy mobile element. A change in olfactory sensitivity was detected. The reaction to the odor of acetic acid was inverted in flies of the mutator strain (MS), which carried the flam mutation and active MGE4 copies and were characterized by genetic instability. Flies of the genetically unstable strains displayed a lower locomotor activity. The behavioral changes in MS flies can be explained by the pleiotropic effect of the flam mutation or by insertion mutations which arise in behavior genes as a result of genome destabilization by MGE4. PMID:11771305

  12. How do insect nuclear and mitochondrial gene substitution patterns differ? Insights from Bayesian analyses of combined datasets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ping; Danforth, Bryan N

    2004-03-01

    We analyzed 12 combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene datasets in seven orders of insects using both equal weights parsimony (to evaluate phylogenetic utility) and Bayesian methods (to investigate substitution patterns). For the Bayesian analyses we used relatively complex models (e.g., general time reversible models with rate variation) that allowed us to quantitatively compare relative rates among genes and codon positions, patterns of rate variation among genes, and substitution patterns within genes. Our analyses indicate that nuclear and mitochondrial genes differ in a number of important ways, some of which are correlated with phylogenetic utility. First and most obviously, nuclear genes generally evolve more slowly than mitochondrial genes (except in one case), making them better markers for deep divergences. Second, nuclear genes showed universally high values of CI and (generally) contribute more to overall tree resolution than mitochondrial genes (as measured by partitioned Bremer support). Third, nuclear genes show more homogeneous patterns of among-site rate variation (higher values of alpha than mitochondrial genes). Finally, nuclear genes show more symmetrical transformation rate matrices than mitochondrial genes. The combination of low values of alpha and highly asymmetrical transformation rate matrices may explain the overall poor performance of mitochondrial genes when compared to nuclear genes in the same analysis. Our analyses indicate that some parameters are highly correlated. For example, A/T bias was positively and significantly associated with relative rate and CI was positively and significantly associated with alpha (the shape of the gamma distribution). These results provide important insights into the substitution patterns that might characterized high quality genes for phylogenetic analysis: high values of alpha, unbiased base composition, and symmetrical transformation rate matrices. We argue that insect molecular systematists should

  13. Mitochondrial Genetics of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii: Resistance Mutations Marking the Cytochrome B Gene

    PubMed Central

    Bennoun, P.; Delosme, M.; Kuck, U.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the genetic and molecular analysis of the first non-Mendelian mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resistant to myxothiazol, an inhibitor of the respiratory cytochrome bc1 complex. Using a set of seven oligonucleotide probes, restriction fragments containing the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene from C. reinhardtii were isolated from a mitochondrial DNA library. This gene is located adjacent to the gene for subunit 4 of the mitochondrial NADH-dehydrogenase (ND4), near one end of the 15.8-kb linear mitochondrial genome of C. reinhardtii. The algal cytochrome b apoprotein contains 381 amino-acid residues and exhibits a sequence similarity of about 59% with other plant cytochrome b proteins. The cyt b gene from four myxothiazol resistant mutants of C. reinhardtii was amplified for DNA sequence analysis. In comparison to the wild-type strain, all mutants contain an identical point mutation in the cyt b gene, leading to a change of a phenylalanine codon to a leucine codon at amino acid position 129 of the cytochrome b protein. Segregation analysis in tetrads from reciprocal crosses of mutants with wild type shows a strict uniparental inheritance of this mutation from the mating type minus parent (UP(-)). However, mitochondrial markers from both parents are recovered in vegetative diploids in variable proportions from one experiment to the next for a given cross. On the average, a strong bias is seen for markers inherited from the mating type minus parent. PMID:2004707

  14. Yeast PPR proteins, watchdogs of mitochondrial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Christopher J; Golik, Pawel; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    PPR proteins are a family of ubiquitous RNA-binding factors, found in all the Eukaryotic lineages, and are particularly numerous in higher plants. According to recent bioinformatic analyses, yeast genomes encode from 10 (in S. pombe) to 15 (in S. cerevisiae) PPR proteins. All of these proteins are mitochondrial and very often interact with the mitochondrial membrane. Apart from the general factors, RNA polymerase and RNase P, most yeast PPR proteins are involved in the stability and/or translation of mitochondrially encoded RNAs. At present, some information concerning the target RNA(s) of most of these proteins is available, the next challenge will be to refine our understanding of the function of the proteins and to resolve the yeast PPR-RNA-binding code, which might differ significantly from the plant PPR code.

  15. Integrating Circadian Activity and Gene Expression Profiles to Predict Chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii Response to Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Hamby, Kelly A.; Kwok, Rosanna S.; Zalom, Frank G.; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2013-01-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of D. suzukii to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where D. suzukii was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of D. suzukii appeared quite different between ‘summer’ and ‘winter’ conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the ‘summer’, D. suzukii assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the ‘winter’, activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am). We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of D. suzukii towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am), corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of D. suzukii provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as

  16. Transcriptional inhibition of the Catalase gene in phosphine-induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Fanhua; Wang, Yuejin

    2015-10-01

    Phosphine (PH3) is a toxic substance to pest insects and is therefore commonly used in pest control. The oxidative damage induced by PH3 is considered to be one of the primary mechanisms of its toxicity in pest insects; however, the precise mode of PH3 action in this process is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the responses of several oxidative biomarkers and two of the main antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), after fumigation treatment with PH3 in Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. The results showed that larvae exposed to sub-lethal levels of PH3 (0.028 mg/L) exhibited lower aerobic respiration rates and higher levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Furthermore, unlike SOD, the activity and expression of CAT and its encoding gene were downregulated by PH3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Finally, the responses of six potential transcription factors of PH3 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction to explore the regulation mechanism of DmCAT by PH3. There were no significant effects of PH3 on three nuclear factor-kappa B homologs (DORSAL, DIF, and RELISH) or two activator protein-1 genes (JUN and FOS), while dramatic inhibition of DNA replication-related element factor (DREF) expression was observed after fumigation with PH3, suggesting that PH3 could inhibit the expression of DmCAT via the DRE/DREF system. These results confirmed that PH3 induces oxidative stress and targets CAT by downregulating its encoding gene in Drosophila. Our results provide new insight into the signal transduction mechanism between PH3 and its target genes.

  17. Transcriptional inhibition of the Catalase gene in phosphine-induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Fanhua; Wang, Yuejin

    2015-10-01

    Phosphine (PH3) is a toxic substance to pest insects and is therefore commonly used in pest control. The oxidative damage induced by PH3 is considered to be one of the primary mechanisms of its toxicity in pest insects; however, the precise mode of PH3 action in this process is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the responses of several oxidative biomarkers and two of the main antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), after fumigation treatment with PH3 in Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. The results showed that larvae exposed to sub-lethal levels of PH3 (0.028 mg/L) exhibited lower aerobic respiration rates and higher levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Furthermore, unlike SOD, the activity and expression of CAT and its encoding gene were downregulated by PH3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Finally, the responses of six potential transcription factors of PH3 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction to explore the regulation mechanism of DmCAT by PH3. There were no significant effects of PH3 on three nuclear factor-kappa B homologs (DORSAL, DIF, and RELISH) or two activator protein-1 genes (JUN and FOS), while dramatic inhibition of DNA replication-related element factor (DREF) expression was observed after fumigation with PH3, suggesting that PH3 could inhibit the expression of DmCAT via the DRE/DREF system. These results confirmed that PH3 induces oxidative stress and targets CAT by downregulating its encoding gene in Drosophila. Our results provide new insight into the signal transduction mechanism between PH3 and its target genes. PMID:26453223

  18. Positive correlation between evolutionary rate and recombination rate in Drosophila genes with male-biased expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Parsch, John

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that genes that are expressed predominantly or exclusively in males tend to evolve rapidly in comparison to other genes. In most cases, however, it is unknown whether this rapid evolution is the result of increased positive (or sexual) selection on male-expressed traits or if it is due to a relaxation of selective constraints. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we analyzed the relationship between the nonsynonymous substitution rate (dN) and local recombination rate for 343 Drosophila genes that were classified as male, female, or nonsex biased in their expression. For the male-biased genes, a positive correlation between dN and recombination rate was observed. This can be explained by an increased rate of adaptive evolution in regions of higher recombination due to a reduction of Hill-Robertson interference. In contrast, the correlation between dN and recombination rate was negative for both female- and nonsex-biased genes, suggesting that these genes are primarily subject to purifying selection, which is expected to be less effective in regions of reduced recombination.

  19. Identification of the Drosophila Mes4 gene as a novel target of the transcription factor DREF

    SciTech Connect

    Suyari, Osamu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Kato, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Reina; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-05-01

    The Mes4 gene has been identified as one of the maternal Dorsal target genes in Drosophila. In the present study, we found a DNA replication-related element (DRE, 5'-TATCGATA) in the Mes4 promoter recognized by the DRE-binding factor (DREF). Luciferase transient expression assays in S2 cells using Mes4 promoter-luciferase fusion plasmids revealed that the DRE sequence is essential for Mes4 promoter activity. Requirement of DRE for Mes4 promoter activity was further confirmed by anti-{beta}-galactosidase antibody-staining of various tissues from transgenic flies carrying Mes4 promoter-lacZ fusion genes. Furthermore, wild type Mes4 promoter activity was decreased by 40% in DREF-depleted S2 cells. These results indicate that DREF positively regulates Mes4 gene expression. Band mobility shift analyses using Kc cell nuclear extracts further indicated that the DRE sequence in the Mes4 promoter is especially important for binding to DREF. Moreover, specific binding of DREF to the involved genomic region could be demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-DREF antibodies. These results, taken together, indicate that the DRE/DREF system activates transcription of the Mes4 gene. In addition, knockdown of the Mes4 gene in wing imaginal discs using the GAL4-UAS system caused an atrophied wing phenotype, suggesting that Mes4 is required for wing morphogenesis.

  20. Lifespan and Stress Resistance in Drosophila with Overexpressed DNA Repair Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Proshkina, Ekaterina; Shilova, Lyubov; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Moskalev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair declines with age and correlates with longevity in many animal species. In this study, we investigated the effects of GAL4-induced overexpression of genes implicated in DNA repair on lifespan and resistance to stress factors in Drosophila melanogaster. Stress factors included hyperthermia, oxidative stress, and starvation. Overexpression was either constitutive or conditional and either ubiquitous or tissue-specific (nervous system). Overexpressed genes included those involved in recognition of DNA damage (homologs of HUS1, CHK2), nucleotide and base excision repair (homologs of XPF, XPC and AP-endonuclease-1), and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (homologs of BRCA2, XRCC3, KU80 and WRNexo). The overexpression of different DNA repair genes led to both positive and negative effects on lifespan and stress resistance. Effects were dependent on GAL4 driver, stage of induction, sex, and role of the gene in the DNA repair process. While the constitutive/neuron-specific and conditional/ubiquitous overexpression of DNA repair genes negatively impacted lifespan and stress resistance, the constitutive/ubiquitous and conditional/neuron-specific overexpression of Hus1, mnk, mei-9, mus210, and WRNexo had beneficial effects. This study demonstrates for the first time the effects of overexpression of these DNA repair genes on both lifespan and stress resistance in D. melanogaster. PMID:26477511

  1. Lifespan and Stress Resistance in Drosophila with Overexpressed DNA Repair Genes.

    PubMed

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Proshkina, Ekaterina; Shilova, Lyubov; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Moskalev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair declines with age and correlates with longevity in many animal species. In this study, we investigated the effects of GAL4-induced overexpression of genes implicated in DNA repair on lifespan and resistance to stress factors in Drosophila melanogaster. Stress factors included hyperthermia, oxidative stress, and starvation. Overexpression was either constitutive or conditional and either ubiquitous or tissue-specific (nervous system). Overexpressed genes included those involved in recognition of DNA damage (homologs of HUS1, CHK2), nucleotide and base excision repair (homologs of XPF, XPC and AP-endonuclease-1), and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (homologs of BRCA2, XRCC3, KU80 and WRNexo). The overexpression of different DNA repair genes led to both positive and negative effects on lifespan and stress resistance. Effects were dependent on GAL4 driver, stage of induction, sex, and role of the gene in the DNA repair process. While the constitutive/neuron-specific and conditional/ubiquitous overexpression of DNA repair genes negatively impacted lifespan and stress resistance, the constitutive/ubiquitous and conditional/neuron-specific overexpression of Hus1, mnk, mei-9, mus210, and WRNexo had beneficial effects. This study demonstrates for the first time the effects of overexpression of these DNA repair genes on both lifespan and stress resistance in D. melanogaster. PMID:26477511

  2. An efficient promoter trap for detection of patterned gene expression and subsequent functional analysis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Camilla; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Hartenstein, Volker; Alexandre, Cyrille; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-21

    Transposable elements have been used in Drosophila to detect gene expression, inactivate gene function, and induce ectopic expression or overexpression. We have combined all of these features in a single construct. A promoterless GAL4 cDNA is expressed when the construct inserts within a transcriptional unit, and GAL4 activates a GFP-encoding gene present in the same transposon. In a primary screen, patterned gene expression is detected as GFP fluorescence in the live progeny of dysgenic males. Many animals expressing GFP in distinct patterns can be recovered with relatively little effort. As expected, many insertions cause loss of function. After insertion at a genomic location, specific parts of the transposon can be excised by FLP recombinase, thus allowing it to induce conditional misexpression of the tagged gene. Therefore, both gain- and loss-of-function studies can be carried out with a single insertion in a gene identified by virtue of its expression pattern. Using this promoter trap approach, we have identified a group of cells that innervate the calyx of the mushroom body and could thus define a previously unrecognized memory circuit. PMID:17093046

  3. Taste Sensitivity to Trehalose and Its Alteration by Gene Dosage in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tanimura, T.; Isono, K.; Yamamoto, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    The taste sensitivity to the disaccharide trehalose of Drosophila melanogaster is under the genetic control by the Tre gene on the X chromosome. The gene is genetically dimorphic for high and low sensitivity and is likely to be functioning in the primary step of chemoreception. We have determined the cytological localization of the Tre gene to be between 5A10 and 5B1-3 by analyzing the sensitivity to trehalose in flies which are segmentally aneuploid bearing either deficiencies or duplicated fragments of T(X;Y) translocations. We also constructed flies which are aneuploidy and thus carry different dosage of Tre and/or Tre(+) alleles in order to examine the gene dosage effect on trehalose sensitivity and to deduce the nature of the gene's action. Trehalose sensitivity decreased in females carrying half the normal dosage of a given Tre allele, but a proportional increase in sensitivity was not observed in flies bearing a duplication of the Tre alleles. The changes in sensitivity in various aneuploid flies suggest that there is an upper limit to the number of molecules that can be incorporated into the receptor membrane. Genetic evidence strongly suggests that Tre is the structural gene for the trehalose receptor. We present a model to account for the mechanism of genetical control on the sensitivity to trehalose. PMID:17246428

  4. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution II: dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Keränen, Soile VE; Fowlkes, Charless C; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L; Sudar, Damir; Knowles, David W; Malik, Jitendra; Biggin, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Background To accurately describe gene expression and computationally model animal transcriptional networks, it is essential to determine the changing locations of cells in developing embryos. Results Using automated image analysis methods, we provide the first quantitative description of temporal changes in morphology and gene expression at cellular resolution in whole embryos, using the Drosophila blastoderm as a model. Analyses based on both fixed and live embryos reveal complex, previously undetected three-dimensional changes in nuclear density patterns caused by nuclear movements prior to gastrulation. Gene expression patterns move, in part, with these changes in morphology, but additional spatial shifts in expression patterns are also seen, supporting a previously proposed model of pattern dynamics based on the induction and inhibition of gene expression. We show that mutations that disrupt either the anterior/posterior (a/p) or the dorsal/ventral (d/v) transcriptional cascades alter morphology and gene expression along both the a/p and d/v axes in a way suggesting that these two patterning systems interact via both transcriptional and morphological mechanisms. Conclusion Our work establishes a new strategy for measuring temporal changes in the locations of cells and gene expression patterns that uses fixed cell material and computational modeling. It also provides a coordinate framework for the blastoderm embryo that will allow increasingly accurate spatio-temporal modeling of both the transcriptional control network and morphogenesis. PMID:17184547

  5. A comparison of Drosophila melanogaster detoxification gene induction responses for six insecticides, caffeine and phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Lee; Chung, Henry; Lumb, Chris; Robin, Charles; Batterham, Philip; Daborn, Phillip J

    2006-12-01

    Modifications of metabolic pathways are important in insecticide resistance evolution. Mutations leading to changes in expression levels or substrate specificities of cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and esterase genes have been linked to many cases of resistance with the responsible enzyme shown to utilize the insecticide as a substrate. Many studies show that the substrates of enzymes are capable of inducing the expression of those enzymes. We investigated if this was the case for insecticides and the enzymes responsible for their metabolism. The induction responses for P450s, GSTs and esterases to six different insecticides were investigated using a custom designed microarray in Drosophila melanogaster. Even though these gene families can all contribute to insecticide resistance, their induction responses when exposed to insecticides are minimal. The insecticides spinosad, diazinon, nitenpyram, lufenuron and dicyclanil did not induce any P450, GST or esterase gene expression after a short exposure to high lethal concentrations of insecticide. DDT elicited the low-level induction of one GST and one P450. These results are in contrast to induction responses we observed for the natural plant compound caffeine and the barbituate drug phenobarbital, both of which highly induced a number of P450 and GST genes under the same short exposure regime. Our results indicate that, under the insecticide exposure conditions we used, constitutive over-expression of metabolic genes play more of a role in insect survival than induction of members of these gene families. PMID:17098168

  6. Transvection and silencing of the Scr homeotic gene of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Southworth, Jeffrey W; Kennison, James A

    2002-06-01

    The Sex combs reduced (Scr) gene specifies the identities of the labial and first thoracic segments in Drosophila melanogaster. In imaginal cells, some Scr mutations allow cis-regulatory elements on one chromosome to stimulate expression of the promoter on the homolog, a phenomenon that was named transvection by Ed Lewis in 1954. Transvection at the Scr gene is blocked by rearrangements that disrupt pairing, but is zeste independent. Silencing of the Scr gene in the second and third thoracic segments, which requires the Polycomb group proteins, is disrupted by most chromosomal aberrations within the Scr gene. Some chromosomal aberrations completely derepress Scr even in the presence of normal levels of all Polycomb group proteins. On the basis of the pattern of chromosomal aberrations that disrupt Scr gene silencing, we propose a model in which two cis-regulatory elements interact to stabilize silencing of any promoter or cis-regulatory element physically between them. This model also explains the anomalous behavior of the Scx allele of the flanking homeotic gene, Antennapedia. This allele, which is associated with an insertion near the Antennapedia P1 promoter, inactivates the Antennapedia P1 and P2 promoters in cis and derepresses the Scr promoters both in cis and on the homologous chromosome.

  7. A genetic analysis of the Drosophila closely linked interacting genes bulge, argos and soba.

    PubMed

    Wemmer, T; Klämbt, C

    1995-06-01

    The Drosophila gene argos encodes a diffusible protein that acts as a negative regulator of cell fate decisions. To define interacting gene products, we performed a genetic analysis of argos, which suggests the presence of several partially redundant gene functions in its immediate vicinity at the chromosomal position 73A. Dose titration experiments have identified two of these loci. One of them corresponds to the gene bulge. Loss of function bulge alleles suppress the rough eye phenotype associated with overexpression of argos; conversely, amorphic argos mutations suppress the eye phenotype seen in flies bearing a single dominant bulge allele. Recombination mapping localized bulge 0.15 cM distal to argos. A second gene, suppressor of bulge and argos (soba), corresponds to the recently described lethal complementation group 73Aj. soba alleles suppress the eye phenotypes seen in flies expressing either the dominant bulge allele or the hs-argos construct. soba resides 120 kb proximal to argos. In addition, we have identified one allele of a new gene, clown, which like soba suppresses the eye phenotypes associated with hs-argos and bulgeDominant. clown maps on chromosome 3 at the cytological position 68CD.

  8. Sex Chromosome-wide Transcriptional Suppression and Compensatory Cis-Regulatory Evolution Mediate Gene Expression in the Drosophila Male Germline

    PubMed Central

    Landeen, Emily L.; Muirhead, Christina A.; Meiklejohn, Colin D.; Presgraves, Daven C.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower—approximately 3-fold or more—for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution. PMID:27404402

  9. Sex Chromosome-wide Transcriptional Suppression and Compensatory Cis-Regulatory Evolution Mediate Gene Expression in the Drosophila Male Germline.

    PubMed

    Landeen, Emily L; Muirhead, Christina A; Wright, Lori; Meiklejohn, Colin D; Presgraves, Daven C

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower-approximately 3-fold or more-for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution. PMID:27404402

  10. Insertion near the mitochondrial tyrosine tRNA gene in patients with mitochondrial diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Y.; Nonaka, I.; Horai, S.

    1994-09-01

    The 3243 mutation commonly found in patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) has been occasionally detected in patients with chronic progressive external opthalmoplegia (CPEO). To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon, an extensive mitochondrial (mt) DNA study was performed on such a patient (3243-CPEO). The newly discovered insertion was located in the noncoding region between cytrochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and tyrosine tRNA. The insertion was not found in 58 or 22 CPEO patients with or without mtDNA large-scale deletion but in another 3243-CPEO patient. In addition, the insertion was present in 1 of 116 normal Japanese, who had no 3243 mutation, and in 3 of 68 3243-MELAS patients. These results raise the possibility that the phenotypic expression of the 3243 mutation could be modulated or arranged by additional mtDNA mutations.

  11. Genome Organization and Gene Expression Shape the Transposable Element Distribution in the Drosophila melanogaster Euchromatin

    PubMed Central

    Fontanillas, Pierre; Hartl, Daniel L; Reuter, Max

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of transposable elements (TEs) in a genome reflects a balance between insertion rate and selection against new insertions. Understanding the distribution of TEs therefore provides insights into the forces shaping the organization of genomes. Past research has shown that TEs tend to accumulate in genomic regions with low gene density and low recombination rate. However, little is known about the factors modulating insertion rates across the genome and their evolutionary significance. One candidate factor is gene expression, which has been suggested to increase local insertion rate by rendering DNA more accessible. We test this hypothesis by comparing the TE density around germline- and soma-expressed genes in the euchromatin of Drosophila melanogaster. Because only insertions that occur in the germline are transmitted to the next generation, we predicted a higher density of TEs around germline-expressed genes than soma-expressed genes. We show that the rate of TE insertions is greater near germline- than soma-expressed genes. However, this effect is partly offset by stronger selection for genome compactness (against excess noncoding DNA) on germline-expressed genes. We also demonstrate that the local genome organization in clusters of coexpressed genes plays a fundamental role in the genomic distribution of TEs. Our analysis shows that—in addition to recombination rate—the distribution of TEs is shaped by the interaction of gene expression and genome organization. The important role of selection for compactness sheds a new light on the role of TEs in genome evolution. Instead of making genomes grow passively, TEs are controlled by the forces shaping genome compactness, most likely linked to the efficiency of gene expression or its complexity and possibly their interaction with mechanisms of TE silencing. PMID:18081425

  12. The role of the T-box gene optomotor-blind in patterning the Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    del Alamo Rodríguez, David; Terriente Felix, Javier; Díaz-Benjumea, Fernando J

    2004-04-15

    The development of the Drosophila wing is governed by the action of two morphogens encoded by the genes decapentaplegic (dpp; a member of the BMP gene family) and wingless (wg; a member of the WNT gene family), which promote cell proliferation and pattern the wing. Along the anterior/posterior (A/P) axis, the precise expression of decapentaplegic and its receptors is required for the transcriptional regulation of specific target genes. In the present work, we analyze the function of the T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb), a decapentaplegic target gene. The wings of optomotor-blind mutants have two apparently opposite phenotypes: the central wing is severely reduced and shows massive cell death, mainly in the distal-most wing, and the lateral wing shows extra cell proliferation. Here, we present genetic evidence that optomotor-blind is required to establish the graded expression of the decapentaplegic type I receptor encoded by the gene thick veins (tkv) to repress the expression of the gene master of thick veins and also to activate the expression of spalt (sal) and vestigial (vg), two decapentaplegic target genes. optomotor-blind plays a role in wing development downstream of decapentaplegic by controlling the expression of its receptor thick veins and by mediating the activation of target genes required for the correct development of the wing. The lack of optomotor-blind produces massive cell death in its expression domain, which leads to the mis-activation of the Notch pathway and the overproliferation of lateral wing cells.

  13. Mitochondrial metagenomics: letting the genes out of the bottle.

    PubMed

    Crampton-Platt, Alex; Yu, Douglas W; Zhou, Xin; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-01-01

    'Mitochondrial metagenomics' (MMG) is a methodology for shotgun sequencing of total DNA from specimen mixtures and subsequent bioinformatic extraction of mitochondrial sequences. The approach can be applied to phylogenetic analysis of taxonomically selected taxa, as an economical alternative to mitogenome sequencing from individual species, or to environmental samples of mixed specimens, such as from mass trapping of invertebrates. The routine generation of mitochondrial genome sequences has great potential both for systematics and community phylogenetics. Mapping of reads from low-coverage shotgun sequencing of environmental samples also makes it possible to obtain data on spatial and temporal turnover in whole-community phylogenetic and species composition, even in complex ecosystems where species-level taxonomy and biodiversity patterns are poorly known. In addition, read mapping can produce information on species biomass, and potentially allows quantification of within-species genetic variation. The success of MMG relies on the formation of numerous mitochondrial genome contigs, achievable with standard genome assemblers, but various challenges for the efficiency of assembly remain, particularly in the face of variable relative species abundance and intra-specific genetic variation. Nevertheless, several studies have demonstrated the power of mitogenomes from MMG for accurate phylogenetic placement, evolutionary analysis of species traits, biodiversity discovery and the establishment of species distribution patterns; it offers a promising avenue for unifying the ecological and evolutionary understanding of species diversity.

  14. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  15. Chromosomal localization of TIL, a gene encoding a protein related to the Drosophila transmembrane receptor Toll, to human chromosome 4p14

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Takahiro; Testa, J.R.; Mitcham, J.L.; Dower, S.K.; Sims, J.E.

    1996-03-05

    This report describes the localization of the the TIL gene to human chromosome 4p14 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This gene encodes a protein which is related to the Drosophila transmembrane receptor Toll and the mammalian interleukin-1 receptor, which share similarities in structure and function. The Drosophila gene is also important during embryonic development, which makes TIL a candidate locus for human congenital malformations that are genetically linked to human chromosome 4. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  16. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-10-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control.

  17. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control. PMID:26495040

  18. Mitochondrial content is central to nuclear gene expression: Profound implications for human health

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Rebecca; Diot, Alan

    2016-01-01

    We review a recent paper in Genome Research by Guantes et al. showing that nuclear gene expression is influenced by the bioenergetic status of the mitochondria. The amount of energy that mitochondria make available for gene expression varies considerably. It depends on: the energetic demands of the tissue; the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutant load; the number of mitochondria; stressors present in the cell. Hence, when failing mitochondria place the cell in energy crisis there are major effects on gene expression affecting the risk of degenerative diseases, cancer and ageing. In 2015 the UK parliament approved a change in the regulation of IVF techniques, allowing “Mitochondrial replacement therapy” to become a reproductive choice for women at risk of transmitting mitochondrial disease to their children. This is the first time that this technique will be available. Therefore understanding the interaction between mitochondria and the nucleus has never been more important. PMID:26725055

  19. Mitochondrial content is central to nuclear gene expression: Profound implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Muir, Rebecca; Diot, Alan; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    We review a recent paper in Genome Research by Guantes et al. showing that nuclear gene expression is influenced by the bioenergetic status of the mitochondria. The amount of energy that mitochondria make available for gene expression varies considerably. It depends on: the energetic demands of the tissue; the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutant load; the number of mitochondria; stressors present in the cell. Hence, when failing mitochondria place the cell in energy crisis there are major effects on gene expression affecting the risk of degenerative diseases, cancer and ageing. In 2015 the UK parliament approved a change in the regulation of IVF techniques, allowing "Mitochondrial replacement therapy" to become a reproductive choice for women at risk of transmitting mitochondrial disease to their children. This is the first time that this technique will be available. Therefore understanding the interaction between mitochondria and the nucleus has never been more important. PMID:26725055