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Sample records for drosophila tendon cells

  1. Functional Conservation of the Glide/Gcm Regulatory Network Controlling Glia, Hemocyte, and Tendon Cell Differentiation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cattenoz, Pierre B; Popkova, Anna; Southall, Tony D; Aiello, Giuseppe; Brand, Andrea H; Giangrande, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screens allow us to understand how transcription factors trigger developmental processes, including cell specification. A major challenge is identification of their binding sites because feedback loops and homeostatic interactions may mask the direct impact of those factors in transcriptome analyses. Moreover, this approach dissects the downstream signaling cascades and facilitates identification of conserved transcriptional programs. Here we show the results and the validation of a DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) genome-wide screen that identifies the direct targets of Glide/Gcm, a potent transcription factor that controls glia, hemocyte, and tendon cell differentiation in Drosophila. The screen identifies many genes that had not been previously associated with Glide/Gcm and highlights three major signaling pathways interacting with Glide/Gcm: Notch, Hedgehog, and JAK/STAT, which all involve feedback loops. Furthermore, the screen identifies effector molecules that are necessary for cell-cell interactions during late developmental processes and/or in ontogeny. Typically, immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing proteins control cell adhesion and axonal navigation. This shows that early and transiently expressed fate determinants not only control other transcription factors that, in turn, implement a specific developmental program but also directly affect late developmental events and cell function. Finally, while the mammalian genome contains two orthologous Gcm genes, their function has been demonstrated in vertebrate-specific tissues, placenta, and parathyroid glands, begging questions on the evolutionary conservation of the Gcm cascade in higher organisms. Here we provide the first evidence for the conservation of Gcm direct targets in humans. In sum, this work uncovers novel aspects of cell specification and sets the basis for further understanding of the role of conserved Gcm gene regulatory cascades.

  2. Functional Conservation of the Glide/Gcm Regulatory Network Controlling Glia, Hemocyte, and Tendon Cell Differentiation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Popkova, Anna; Southall, Tony D.; Aiello, Giuseppe; Brand, Andrea H.; Giangrande, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screens allow us to understand how transcription factors trigger developmental processes, including cell specification. A major challenge is identification of their binding sites because feedback loops and homeostatic interactions may mask the direct impact of those factors in transcriptome analyses. Moreover, this approach dissects the downstream signaling cascades and facilitates identification of conserved transcriptional programs. Here we show the results and the validation of a DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) genome-wide screen that identifies the direct targets of Glide/Gcm, a potent transcription factor that controls glia, hemocyte, and tendon cell differentiation in Drosophila. The screen identifies many genes that had not been previously associated with Glide/Gcm and highlights three major signaling pathways interacting with Glide/Gcm: Notch, Hedgehog, and JAK/STAT, which all involve feedback loops. Furthermore, the screen identifies effector molecules that are necessary for cell-cell interactions during late developmental processes and/or in ontogeny. Typically, immunoglobulin (Ig) domain–containing proteins control cell adhesion and axonal navigation. This shows that early and transiently expressed fate determinants not only control other transcription factors that, in turn, implement a specific developmental program but also directly affect late developmental events and cell function. Finally, while the mammalian genome contains two orthologous Gcm genes, their function has been demonstrated in vertebrate-specific tissues, placenta, and parathyroid glands, begging questions on the evolutionary conservation of the Gcm cascade in higher organisms. Here we provide the first evidence for the conservation of Gcm direct targets in humans. In sum, this work uncovers novel aspects of cell specification and sets the basis for further understanding of the role of conserved Gcm gene regulatory cascades. PMID:26567182

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell applications to tendon healing

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Salma

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tendons are often subject to age related degenerative changes that coincide with a diminished regenerative capacity. Torn tendons often heal by forming scar tissue that is structurally weaker than healthy native tendon tissue, predisposing to mechanical failure. There is increasing interest in providing biological stimuli to increase the tendon reparative response. Stem cells in particular are an exciting and promising prospect as they have the potential to provide appropriate cellular signals to encourage neotendon formation during repair rather than scar tissue. Currently, a number of issues need to be investigated further before it can be determined whether stem cells are an effective and safe therapeutic option for encouraging tendon repair. This review explores the in-vitro and invivo evidence assessing the effect of stem cells on tendon healing, as well as the potential clinical applications. PMID:23738300

  4. Stem Cells for Augmenting Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gulotta, Lawrence V.; Chaudhury, Salma; Wiznia, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Tendon healing is fraught with complications such as reruptures and adhesion formation due to the formation of scar tissue at the injury site as opposed to the regeneration of native tissue. Stem cells are an attractive option in developing cell-based therapies to improve tendon healing. However, several questions remain to be answered before stem cells can be used clinically. Specifically, the type of stem cell, the amount of cells, and the proper combination of growth factors or mechanical stimuli to induce differentiation all remain to be seen. This paper outlines the current literature on the use of stem cells for tendon augmentation. PMID:22190960

  5. Amontillado is required for Drosophila Slit processing and for tendon-mediated muscle patterning

    PubMed Central

    Ordan, Elly

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Slit cleavage into N-terminal and C-terminal polypeptides is essential for restricting the range of Slit activity. Although the Slit cleavage site has been characterized previously and is evolutionally conserved, the identity of the protease that cleaves Slit remains elusive. Our previous analysis indicated that Slit cleavage is essential to immobilize the active Slit-N at the tendon cell surfaces, mediating the arrest of muscle elongation. In an attempt to identify the protease required for Slit cleavage we performed an RNAi-based assay in the ectoderm and followed the process of elongation of the lateral transverse muscles toward tendon cells. The screen led to the identification of the Drosophila homolog of pheromone convertase 2 (PC2), Amontillado (Amon), as an essential protease for Slit cleavage. Further analysis indicated that Slit mobility on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is slightly up-shifted in amon mutants, and its conventional cleavage into the Slit-N and Slit-C polypeptides is attenuated. Consistent with the requirement for amon to promote Slit cleavage and membrane immobilization of Slit-N, the muscle phenotype of amon mutant embryos was rescued by co-expressing a membrane-bound form of full-length Slit lacking the cleavage site and knocked into the slit locus. The identification of a novel protease component essential for Slit processing may represent an additional regulatory step in the Slit signaling pathway. PMID:27628033

  6. The cell biology of suturing tendons

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J.K.F.; Alyouha, S.; Kadler, K.E.; Ferguson, M.W.J.; McGrouther, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Trauma by suturing tendon form areas devoid of cells termed “acellular zones” in the matrix. This study aimed to characterise the cellular insult of suturing and acellular zone formation in mouse tendon. Acellular zone formation was evaluated using single grasping sutures placed using flexor tendons with time lapse cell viability imaging for a period of 12 h. Both tension and injury were required to induce cell death and cell movement in the formation of the acellular zone. DNA fragmentation studies and transmission electron microscopy indicated that cells necrosed. Parallel in vivo studies showed that cell-to-cell contacts were disrupted following grasping by the suture in tensioned tendon. Without tension, cell death was lessened and cell-to-cell contacts remained intact. Quantitative immunohistochemistry and 3D cellular profile mapping of wound healing markers over a one year time course showed that acellular zones arise rapidly and showed no evidence of healing whilst the wound healing response occurred in the surrounding tissues. The acellular zones were also evident in a standard modified “Kessler” clinical repair. In conclusion, the suture repair of injured tendons produces acellular zones, which may potentially cause early tendon failure. PMID:20600895

  7. Loss of Drosophila A-type lamin C initially causes tendon abnormality including disintegration of cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina in muscular defects.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Ryo; Nonaka, Yu-Ki; Horigome, Tuneyoshi; Sugiyama, Shin; Furukawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Lamins are the major components of nuclear envelope architecture, being required for both the structural and informational roles of the nuclei. Mutations of lamins cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, including muscular dystrophy. We report here that the loss of the A-type lamin gene, lamin C in Drosophila resulted in pupal metamorphic lethality caused by tendon defects, matching the characteristics of human A-type lamin revealed by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). In tendon cells lacking lamin C activity, overall cell morphology was affected and organization of the spectraplakin family cytoskeletal protein Shortstop which is prominently expressed in tendon cells gradually disintegrated, notably around the nucleus and in a manner correlating well with the degradation of musculature. Furthermore, lamin C null mutants were efficiently rescued by restoring lamin C expression to shortstop-expressing cells, which include tendon cells but exclude skeletal muscle cells. Thus the critical function of A-type lamin C proteins in Drosophila musculature is to maintain proper function and morphology of tendon cells.

  8. Famotidine suppresses osteogenic differentiation of tendon cells in vitro and pathological calcification of tendon in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenichi; Hojo, Hironori; Koshima, Isao; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2012-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification or calcification follows any type of musculoskeletal trauma and is known to occur after arthroplasties of hip, knee, shoulder, or elbow; fractures; joint dislocations; or tendon ruptures. Histamine receptor H2 (Hrh2) has been shown to be effective for reducing pain and decreasing calcification in patients with calcifying tendinitis, which suggested that H2 blockers were effective for the treatment of tendon ossification or calcification. However, the detailed mechanisms of its action on tendon remain to be clarified. We investigated the mechanisms underlying H2 blocker-mediated suppression of tendon calcification, with a focus on the direct action of the drug on tendon cells. Famotidine treatment suppressed the mRNA expressions of Col10a1 and osteocalcin, ossification markers, in a tendon-derived cell line TT-D6, as well as a preosteoblastic one MC3T3-E1. Both of the cell lines expressed Hrh2; histamine treatment induced osteocalcin expression in these cells. Famotidine administration suppressed calcification in the Achilles tendon of ttw mice, a mouse model of ectopic ossification. These data suggest that famotidine inhibits osteogenic differentiation of tendon cells in vitro, and this inhibition may underlie the anti-calcification effects of the drug in vivo. This study points to the use of H2 blockers as a promising strategy for treating heterotopic ossification or calcification in tendon, and provides evidence in support of the clinical use of famotidine.

  9. Kank Is an EB1 Interacting Protein that Localises to Muscle-Tendon Attachment Sites in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Clohisey, Sara M. R.; Dzhindzhev, Nikola S.; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how microtubules are regulated in different cell types during development. EB1 plays a central role in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. It directly binds to microtubule plus ends and recruits proteins which regulate microtubule dynamics and behaviour. We report the identification of Kank, the sole Drosophila orthologue of human Kank proteins, as an EB1 interactor that predominantly localises to embryonic attachment sites between muscle and tendon cells. Human Kank1 was identified as a tumour suppressor and has documented roles in actin regulation and cell polarity in cultured mammalian cells. We found that Drosophila Kank binds EB1 directly and this interaction is essential for Kank localisation to microtubule plus ends in cultured cells. Kank protein is expressed throughout fly development and increases during embryogenesis. In late embryos, it accumulates to sites of attachment between muscle and epidermal cells. A kank deletion mutant was generated. We found that the mutant is viable and fertile without noticeable defects. Further analysis showed that Kank is dispensable for muscle function in larvae. This is in sharp contrast to C. elegans in which the Kank orthologue VAB-19 is required for development by stabilising attachment structures between muscle and epidermal cells. PMID:25203404

  10. Novel Model of Tendon Regeneration Reveals Distinct Cell Mechanisms Underlying Regenerative and Fibrotic Tendon Healing

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Kristen; Chien, Chun; Bell, Rebecca; Laudier, Damien; Tufa, Sara F.; Keene, Douglas R.; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Huang, Alice H.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the cell and molecular mechanisms regulating tendon healing are poorly understood. Here, we establish a novel model of tendon regeneration using neonatal mice and show that neonates heal via formation of a ‘neo-tendon’ that differentiates along the tendon specific lineage with functional restoration of gait and mechanical properties. In contrast, adults heal via fibrovascular scar, aberrant differentiation toward cartilage and bone, with persistently impaired function. Lineage tracing identified intrinsic recruitment of Scx-lineage cells as a key cellular mechanism of neonatal healing that is absent in adults. Instead, adult Scx-lineage tenocytes are not recruited into the defect but transdifferentiate into ectopic cartilage; in the absence of tenogenic cells, extrinsic αSMA-expressing cells persist to form a permanent scar. Collectively, these results establish an exciting model of tendon regeneration and uncover a novel cellular mechanism underlying regenerative vs non-regenerative tendon healing. PMID:28332620

  11. Tendon synovial cells secrete fibronectin in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Banes, A.J.; Link, G.W.; Bevin, A.G.; Peterson, H.D.; Gillespie, Y.; Bynum, D.; Watts, S.; Dahners, L.

    1988-01-01

    The chemistry and cell biology of the tendon have been largely overlooked due to the emphasis on collagen, the principle structural component of the tendon. The tendon must not only transmit the force of muscle contraction to bone to effect movement, but it must also glide simultaneously over extratendonous tissues. Fibronectin is classified as a cell attachment molecule that induces cell spreading and adhesion to substratum. The external surface of intact avian flexor tendon stained positively with antibody to cellular fibronectin. However, if the surface synovial cells were first removed with collagenase, no positive reaction with antifibronectin antibody was detected. Analysis of immunologically stained frozen sections of tendon also revealed fibronectin at the tendon synovium, but little was associated with cells internal in tendon. The staining pattern with isolated, cultured synovial cells and fibroblasts from the tendon interior substantiated the histological observations. Analysis of polyacrylamide gel profiles of /sup 35/S-methionine-labeled proteins synthesized by synovial cells and internal fibroblasts indicated that fibronectin was synthesized principally by synovial cells. Fibronectin at the tendon surface may play a role in cell attachment to prevent cell removal by the friction of gliding. Alternatively, fibronectin, with its binding sites for hyaluronic acid and collagen, may act as a complex for boundary lubrication.

  12. The effect of tendon surface treatment on cell attachment for potential enhancement of tendon graft healing: an ex vivo model.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takahiro; Sun, Yu-Long; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2012-12-01

    For both tendon allografts and autografts, the surface, initially optimized for gliding, may not be ideal to facilitate tissue integration for graft healing to host tendon or bone. As a prelude to studying tendon-bone integration, we investigated the effect of surface treatments with trypsin or mechanical abrasion on cell attachment to the tendon surface in a canine ex vivo intrasynovial tendon tissue culture model. Intrasynovial tendon allograft surfaces were seeded with cells after the following treatments: (1) no treatment, (2) mechanical abrasion, (3) trypsin, and (4) abrasion and trypsin. The area covered by cells was determined using confocal laser microscopy at one and two weeks. Results were compared to untreated extrasynovial tendon. Additional tendons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. Tendons with trypsin treatment had significantly more surface coverage with cells than the other groups, after both one and two weeks of culture. In terms of the cellular shape and size, cells on tendons with trypsin treatment spread more and were more polygonal in shape, whereas tendons with mechanical abrasion with/without trypsin treatment contained smaller, more spindle-like cells. Surface roughening can affect cell behavior with topographical stimulation. Trypsin surface digestion exposes a mesh-like structure on the tendon surface, which could enhance cell adherence and, possibly, tendon/bone healing.

  13. Stem Cell Applications in Tendon Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common cause of morbidity and a significant health burden on society. Tendons are structural tissues connecting muscle to bone and are prone to tearing and tendinopathy, an overuse or degenerative condition that is characterized by failed healing and cellular depletion. Current treatments, for tendon tear are conservative, surgical repair or surgical scaffold reconstruction. Tendinopathy is treated by exercises, injection therapies, shock wave treatments or surgical tendon debridement. However, tendons usually heal with fibrosis and scar tissue, which has suboptimal tensile strength and is prone to reinjury, resulting in lifestyle changes with activity restriction. Preclinical studies show that cell therapies have the potential to regenerate rather than repair tendon tissue, a process termed tenogenesis. A number of different cell lines, with varying degrees of differentiation, have being evaluated including stem cells, tendon derived cells and dermal fibroblasts. Even though cellular therapies offer some potential in treating tendon disorders, there have been few published clinical trials to determine the ideal cell source, the number of cells to administer, or the optimal bioscaffold for clinical use. PMID:22448174

  14. The promoting effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on tendon healing involves tendon outgrowth, cell survival, and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Hsun; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Lin, Miao-Sui; Hsu, Ya-Hui; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2011-03-01

    Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, composed of 15 amino acids, is a partial sequence of body protection compound (BPC) that is discovered in and isolated from human gastric juice. Experimentally it has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of many different wounds, including transected rat Achilles tendon. This study was designed to investigate the potential mechanism of BPC 157 to enhance healing of injured tendon. The outgrowth of tendon fibroblasts from tendon explants cultured with or without BPC 157 was examined. Results showed that BPC 157 significantly accelerated the outgrowth of tendon explants. Cell proliferation of cultured tendon fibroblasts derived from rat Achilles tendon was not directly affected by BPC 157 as evaluated by MTT assay. However, the survival of BPC 157-treated cells was significantly increased under the H(2)O(2) stress. BPC 157 markedly increased the in vitro migration of tendon fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as revealed by transwell filter migration assay. BPC 157 also dose dependently accelerated the spreading of tendon fibroblasts on culture dishes. The F-actin formation as detected by FITC-phalloidin staining was induced in BPC 157-treated fibroblasts. The protein expression and activation of FAK and paxillin were determined by Western blot analysis, and the phosphorylation levels of both FAK and paxillin were dose dependently increased by BPC 157 while the total amounts of protein was unaltered. In conclusion, BPC 157 promotes the ex vivo outgrowth of tendon fibroblasts from tendon explants, cell survival under stress, and the in vitro migration of tendon fibroblasts, which is likely mediated by the activation of the FAK-paxillin pathway.

  15. Markers for the identification of tendon-derived stem cells in vitro and tendon stem cells in situ - update and future development.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-06-02

    The efficacy of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) for the promotion of tendon and tendon-bone junction repair has been reported in animal studies. Modulation of the tendon stem cell niche in vivo has also been reported to influence tendon structure. There is a need to have specific and reliable markers that can define TDSCs in vitro and tendon stem cells in situ for several reasons: to understand the basic biology of TDSCs and their subpopulations in vitro; to understand the identity, niches and functions of tendon/progenitor stem cells in vivo; to meet the governmental regulatory requirements for quality of TDSCs when translating the exciting preclinical findings into clinical trial/practice; and to develop new treatment strategies for mobilizing endogenous stem/progenitor cells in tendon. TDSCs were reported to express the common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers and some embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers, and there were attempts to use these markers to label tendon stem cells in situ. Are these stem cell markers useful for the identification of TDSCs in vitro and tracking of tendon stem cells in situ? This review aims to discuss the values of the panel of MSC, ESC and tendon-related markers for the identification of TDSCs in vitro. Important factors influencing marker expression by TDSCs are discussed. The usefulness and limitations of the panel of MSC, ESC and tendon-related markers for tracking stem cells in tendon, especially tendon stem cells, in situ are then reviewed. Future research directions are proposed.

  16. Tendon progenitor cells in injured tendons have strong chondrogenic potential: the CD105-negative subpopulation induces chondrogenic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shuji; Otsuru, Satoru; Candela, Maria Elena; Cantley, Leslie; Uchibe, Kenta; Hofmann, Ted J; Zhang, Kairui; Wapner, Keith L; Soslowsky, Louis J; Horwitz, Edwin M; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-12-01

    To study the cellular mechanism of the tendon repair process, we used a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to focus on the cells recruited to the injured site. The cells isolated from injured tendon 1 week after the surgery and uninjured tendons contained the connective tissue progenitor populations as determined by colony-forming capacity, cell surface markers, and multipotency. When the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) were transplanted into injured Achilles tendons, they were not only integrated in the regenerating area expressing tenogenic phenotype but also trans-differentiated into chondrogenic cells in the degenerative lesion that underwent ectopic endochondral ossification. Surprisingly, the micromass culture of the inTPCs rapidly underwent chondrogenic differentiation even in the absence of exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins or TGFβs. The cells isolated from human ruptured tendon tissues also showed connective tissue progenitor properties and exhibited stronger chondrogenic ability than bone marrow stromal cells. The mouse inTPCs contained two subpopulations one positive and one negative for CD105, a coreceptor of the TGFβ superfamily. The CD105-negative cells showed superior chondrogenic potential in vitro and induced larger chondroid degenerative lesions in mice as compared to the CD105-positive cells. These findings indicate that tendon progenitor cells are recruited to the injured site of tendons and have a strong chondrogenic potential and that the CD105-negative population of these cells would be the cause for chondroid degeneration in injured tendons. The newly identified cells recruited to the injured tendon may provide novel targets to develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate tendon repair.

  17. The long head of the biceps tendon is a suitable cell source for tendon tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Matthias F.; Gülecyüz, Mehmet F.; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tendon tissue engineering (TTE) tries to produce tendinous tissue of high quality to replace dysfunctional tissue. One possible application of TTE might be the replacement of ruptured tissue of the rotator cuff. Autologous tenocytes seem to be most suitable as no differentiation in vitro is necessary. Today it is still uncertain if there is a difference between tendon-derived cells (TDC) of different native tissues. Moreover, the search for suitable scaffolds is another important issue in TTE. Material and methods This study compared TDC of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB), the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the tendon of the musculus semitendinosus (TMS). The TDC were isolated using the cell migration method. Cell morphology was assessed using light microscopy and gene expression was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Afterwards, cell seeding efficiency and proliferation were tested on a collagen I scaffold using the WST-1 assay. Results were confirmed using H + E staining. Results The TDC of the LHB showed higher expression levels of collagen type I and decorin (p < 0.01) compared to TDC of other origin. Results showed efficient cell seeding and proliferation within the scaffold. Proliferation within the scaffold was not as high as when cells were cultivated without a scaffold. Conclusions The TDC of the LHB seems to be the most suitable cell source. Further research is necessary to find out if the results can be transferred to an in vivo model. The new collagen I scaffold seems to offer an opportunity to combine good biocompatibility and mechanical strength. PMID:25097592

  18. Planar cell polarity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Maung, Saw Myat Thanda W

    2011-01-01

    In all multicellular organisms, epithelial cells are not only polarized along the apical-basal axis, but also within the epithelial plane, giving cells a sense of direction. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates establishment of polarity within the plane of an epithelium. The outcomes of PCP signaling are diverse and include the determination of cell fates, the generation of asymmetric but highly aligned structures, such as the stereocilia in the human inner ear or the hairs on a fly wing, or the directional migration of cells during convergence and extension during vertebrate gastrulation. In humans, aberrant PCP signaling can result in severe developmental defects, such as open neural tubes (spina bifida), and can cause cystic kidneys. In this review, we discuss the basic mechanism and more recent findings of PCP signaling focusing on Drosophila melanogaster, the model organism in which most key PCP components were initially identified. PMID:21983142

  19. The Drosophila cyst stem cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Zoller, Richard; Schulz, Cordula

    2012-01-01

    In all animals, germline cells differentiate in intimate contact with somatic cells and interactions between germline and soma are particularly important for germline development and function. In the male gonad of Drosophila melanogaster, the developing germline cells are enclosed by somatic cyst cells. The cyst cells are derived from cyst stem cells (CySCs) of somatic origin and codifferentiate with the germline cells. The fast generation cycle and the genetic tractability of Drosophila has made the Drosophila testis an excellent model for studying both the roles of somatic cells in guiding germline development and the interdependence of two separate stem cell lineages. This review focuses on our current understanding of CySC specification, CySC self-renewing divisions, cyst cell differentiation, and soma-germline interactions. Many of the mechanisms guiding these processes in Drosophila testes are similarly essential for the development and function of tissues in other organisms, most importantly for gametogenesis in mammals. PMID:23087834

  20. Tendon cell outgrowth rates and morphology associated with kevlar-49.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Gordon, K E

    1988-12-01

    A rat tendon cell model was used to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of kevlar-49. The cell response to kevlar was compared to carbon AS-4 and nylon sutures. Three trials were run and cell growth rates were statistically similar for all the materials tested. A separate experiment was conducted in which the same fiber materials were placed in the same Petri dish. Again, the rates were similar for each material. Finally, the cells were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the three classic cell morphologies associated with this tendon cell model were observed. Also, cellular attachment to the fiber and cellular encapsulation of the fiber were identical for the three materials tested. Kevlar-49 proved to be comparable to carbon AS4 and nylon sutures in terms of cellular response and cell outgrowth rates.

  1. Effects of celecoxib on proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kairui; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Qianqian; Yang, Jun; Dong, Weiqiang; Wang, Shengnan; Cheng, Yirong; Al-Qwbani, Mohammed; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Bin

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated transcription factor. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of main tendon associated collagen. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated molecules. - Abstract: NSAIDs are often ingested to reduce the pain and improve regeneration of tendon after tendon injury. Although the effects of NSAIDs in tendon healing have been reported, the data and conclusions are not consistent. Recently, tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) have been isolated from tendon tissues and has been suggested involved in tendon repair. Our study aims to determine the effects of COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) on the proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of TDSCs. TDSCs were isolated from mice Achilles tendon and exposed to celecoxib. Cell proliferation rate was investigated at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml) of celecoxib by using hemocytometer. The mRNA expression of tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations (p > 0.05). The levels of most tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules genes expression were significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin protein expression were also significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, celecoxib inhibits tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells but has no effects on cell proliferation.

  2. Asymmetric stem cell division: lessons from Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pao-Shu; Egger, Boris; Brand, Andrea H

    2008-06-01

    Asymmetric cell division is an important and conserved strategy in the generation of cellular diversity during animal development. Many of our insights into the underlying mechanisms of asymmetric cell division have been gained from Drosophila, including the establishment of polarity, orientation of mitotic spindles and segregation of cell fate determinants. Recent studies are also beginning to reveal the connection between the misregulation of asymmetric cell division and cancer. What we are learning from Drosophila as a model system has implication both for stem cell biology and also cancer research.

  3. Effects of Lubricant and Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Augmentation on Immobilized Flexor Tendon Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Shimura, Haruhiko; Reisdorf, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test a novel treatment that carbodiimide-derivatized-hyaluronic acid-lubricin (cd-HA-lubricin) combined cell-based therapy in an immobilized flexor tendon repair in a canine model. Seventy-eight flexor tendons from 39 dogs were transected. One tendon was treated with cd-HA-lubricin plus an interpositional graft of 8 × 105 BMSCs and GDF-5. The other tendon was repaired without treatment. After 21 day of immobilization, 19 dogs were sacrificed; the remaining 20 dogs underwent a 21-day rehabilitation protocol before euthanasia. The work of flexion, tendon gliding resistance, and adhesion score in treated tendons were significantly less than the untreated tendons (p < 0.05). The failure strength of the untreated tendons was higher than the treated tendons at 21 and 42 days (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in stiffness between two groups at day 42. Histologic analysis of treated tendons showed a smooth surface and viable transplanted cells 42 days after the repair, whereas untreated tendons showed severe adhesion formation around the repair site. The combination of lubricant and cell treatment resulted in significantly improved digit function, reduced adhesion formation. This novel treatment can address the unmet needs of patients who are unable to commence an early mobilization protocol after flexor tendon repair. PMID:26177854

  4. Live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parton, Richard M; Vallés, Ana Maria; Dobbie, Ian M; Davis, Ilan

    2010-04-01

    Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster are also used by the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties with regard to keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick, hazy cytoplasm. This article outlines the major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping the cells alive. It describes various imaging and associated techniques best suited to following changes in the distribution of fluorescently labeled molecules in real time in these tissues. Imaging, in general, is a rapidly developing discipline, and recent advances in imaging technology are able to greatly extend what can be achieved with live cell imaging of Drosophila tissues. As far as possible, this article includes the latest technical developments and discusses likely future developments in imaging methods that could have an impact on research using Drosophila.

  5. Therapeutic Roles of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells in Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Lin, Yu-cheng; Rui, Yun-feng; Xu, Hong-liang; Chen, Hui; Wang, Chen; Teng, Gao-jun

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a tendon disorder characterized by activity-related pain, local edema, focal tenderness to palpation, and decreased strength in the affected area. Tendinopathy is prevalent in both athletes and the general population, highlighting the need to elucidate the pathogenesis of this disorder. Current treatments of tendinopathy are both conservative and symptomatic. The discovery of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) and erroneous differentiation of TSPCs have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. In this review, we firstly present the histopathological characteristics of tendinopathy and explore the cellular and molecular cues in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Current evidence of the depletion of the stem cell pool and altered TSPCs fate in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy has been presented. The potential regulatory factors for either tenogenic or nontenogenic differentiation of TSPCs are also summarized. The regulation of endogenous TSPCs or supplementation with exogenous TSPCs as therapeutic targets for the treatment of tendinopathy is proposed. Therefore, inhibiting the erroneous differentiation of TSPCs and regulating the differentiation of TSPCs into tendon cells might be important areas of future research and could provide new clinical treatments for tendinopathy. The current evidence suggests that TSPCs are promising therapeutic targets for the management of tendinopathy. PMID:27195010

  6. LRT, a tendon-specific leucine-rich repeat protein, promotes muscle-tendon targeting through its interaction with Robo.

    PubMed

    Wayburn, Bess; Volk, Talila

    2009-11-01

    Correct muscle migration towards tendon cells, and the adhesion of these two cell types, form the basis for contractile tissue assembly in the Drosophila embryo. While molecules promoting the attraction of muscles towards tendon cells have been described, signals involved in the arrest of muscle migration following the arrival of myotubes at their corresponding tendon cells have yet to be elucidated. Here, we describe a novel tendon-specific transmembrane protein, which we named LRT due to the presence of a leucine-rich repeat domain (LRR) in its extracellular region. Our analysis suggests that LRT acts non-autonomously to better target the muscle and/or arrest its migration upon arrival at its corresponding tendon cell. Muscles in embryos lacking LRT exhibited continuous formation of membrane extensions despite arrival at their corresponding tendon cells, and a partial failure of muscles to target their correct tendon cells. In addition, overexpression of LRT in tendon cells often stalled muscles located close to the tendon cells. LRT formed a protein complex with Robo, and we detected a functional genetic interaction between Robo and LRT at the level of muscle migration behavior. Taken together, our data suggest a novel mechanism by which muscles are targeted towards tendon cells as a result of LRT-Robo interactions. This mechanism may apply to the Robo-dependent migration of a wide variety of cell types.

  7. Dental pulp stem cells express tendon markers under mechanical loading and are a potential cell source for tissue engineering of tendon-like tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ying; He, Sheng-Teng; Yan, Fu-Hua; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Yan-Ding; Xiao, Yin; Lin, Min-Kui

    2016-12-16

    Postnatal mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. This study explored the possibility of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) for potential application in tendon tissue engineering. The expression of tendon-related markers such as scleraxis, tenascin-C, tenomodulin, eye absent homologue 2, collagens I and VI was detected in dental pulp tissue. Interestingly, under mechanical stimulation, these tendon-related markers were significantly enhanced when DPSCs were seeded in aligned polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibre scaffolds. Furthermore, mature tendon-like tissue was formed after transplantation of DPSC-PGA constructs under mechanical loading conditions in a mouse model. This study demonstrates that DPSCs could be a potential stem cell source for tissue engineering of tendon-like tissue.

  8. Dental pulp stem cells express tendon markers under mechanical loading and are a potential cell source for tissue engineering of tendon-like tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ying; He, Sheng-Teng; Yan, Fu-Hua; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Yan-Ding; Xiao, Yin; Lin, Min-Kui

    2016-01-01

    Postnatal mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. This study explored the possibility of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) for potential application in tendon tissue engineering. The expression of tendon-related markers such as scleraxis, tenascin-C, tenomodulin, eye absent homologue 2, collagens I and VI was detected in dental pulp tissue. Interestingly, under mechanical stimulation, these tendon-related markers were significantly enhanced when DPSCs were seeded in aligned polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibre scaffolds. Furthermore, mature tendon-like tissue was formed after transplantation of DPSC-PGA constructs under mechanical loading conditions in a mouse model. This study demonstrates that DPSCs could be a potential stem cell source for tissue engineering of tendon-like tissue. PMID:27811845

  9. Production of PGE(2) increases in tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading and induces differentiation of tendon stem cells into non-tenocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C

    2010-02-01

    Whether tendon inflammation is involved in the development of tendinopathy or degenerative changes of the tendon remains a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing animal and cell culture experiments to determine the production and effects of PGE(2), a major inflammatory mediator in tendons. Mouse tendons were subjected to repetitive mechanical loading via treadmill running, and the effect of PGE(2) on proliferation and differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) was assessed in vitro. Compared to levels in cage control mice, PGE(2) levels in mouse patellar and Achilles tendons were markedly increased in response to a bout of rigorous treadmill running. PGE(2) treatment of TSCs in culture decreased cell proliferation and induced both adipogenesis and osteogenesis of TSCs, as evidenced by accumulation of lipid droplets and calcium deposits, respectively. Effects of PGE(2) on both TSC proliferation and differentiation were apparently PGE(2)-dose-dependent. These findings suggest that high levels of PGE(2), which are present in tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading conditions in vivo as shown in this study, may result in degenerative changes of the tendon by decreasing proliferation of TSCs in tendons and also inducing differentiation of TSCs into adipocytes and osteocytes. The consequences of this PGE(2) effect on TSCs is the reduction of the pool of tenocytes for repair of tendons injured by mechanical loading, and production of fatty and calcified tissues within the tendon, often seen at the later stages of tendinopathy.

  10. A practical guide for the isolation and maintenance of stem cells from tendon.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can self-renew and have the ability to develop into cells of highly specialized functions. The study of stem cells holds enormous promise in the medical field ranging from their uses in cell therapies to their uses for greater understanding of tissue development and disease pathologies. Stem cells have been isolated from tendon tissue recently. These tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) are particularly relevant for tendon repair and the study of the potential roles of stem cells in tendon pathology as they are isolated from tendon tissues. This paper aims to describe the step-by-step protocol and the practical tips for the isolation and verification of stem cell characteristics of TDSCs. The cell seeding density and hence cell-cell contact has a significant impact on the isolation and expansion of TDSCs. Hence, I also describe our established protocol for the determination of the optimal seeding density for TDSC isolation and culture.

  11. Cell response to sterilized electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds to aid tendon regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Prajwal; Bosworth, Lucy A; Wong, Richard; O'brien, Marie A; Kriel, Haydn; Smit, Eugene; McGrouther, Duncan A; Wong, Jason K; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2017-02-01

    The functional replacement of tendon represents an unmet clinical need in situations of tendon rupture, tendon grafting, and complex tendon reconstruction, as usually there is a finite source of healthy tendon to use as donors. The microfibrous architecture of tendon is critical to the function of tendon. This study investigates the use of electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds as potential biomaterial substitutes for tendon grafts. We assessed the performance of two electrospinning manufacturers (small- and large-scale) and the effect of two sterilization techniques-gamma irradiation and ethanol submersion-on cell response to these electrospun scaffolds after their implantation into a murine tendon model. Cell infiltration and proliferation analyses were undertaken to determine the effect on cell response within the implant over a 6-week period. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize inflammatory response and healing characteristics (proliferation, collagen deposition, myofibroblast activity, and apoptosis). Neither the sterilization techniques nor the manufacturer was observed to significantly affect the cell response to the scaffold. At each time point, cell response was similar to the autograft control. This suggests that ethanol submersion can be used for research purposes and that the scaffold can be easily reproduced by a large-scale manufacturer. These results further imply that this electrospun scaffold may provide an alternative to autograft, thus eliminating the need for sourcing healthy tendon tissue from a secondary site. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 389-397, 2017.

  12. Lovastatin-Mediated Changes in Human Tendon Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuzma-Kuzniarska, Maria; Cornell, Hannah R; Moneke, Michael C; Carr, Andrew J; Hulley, Philippa A

    2015-10-01

    Statins are among the most widely prescribed drugs worldwide. Numerous studies have shown their beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular disease through cholesterol-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic properties. Although some statin patients may experience muscle-related symptoms, severe side effects of statin therapy are rare, primarily due to extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver. Skeletal muscles appear to be the main site of side effects; however, recently some statin-related adverse effects have been described in tendon. The mechanism behind these side effects remains unknown. This is the first study that explores tendon-specific effects of statins in human primary tenocytes. The cells were cultured with different concentrations of lovastatin for up to 1 week. No changes in cell viability or morphology were observed in tenocytes incubated with therapeutic doses. Short-term exposure to lovastatin concentrations outside the therapeutic range had no effect on tenocyte viability; however, cell migration was reduced. Simvastatin and atorvastatin, two other drug family members, also reduced the migratory properties of the cells. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of lovastatin induced changes in cytoskeleton leading to cell rounding and decreased levels of mRNA for matrix proteins, but increased BMP-2 expression. Gap junctional communication was impaired but due to cell shape change and separation rather than direct gap junction inhibition. These effects were accompanied by inhibition of prenylation of Rap1a small GTPase. Collectively, we showed that statins in a dose-dependent manner decrease migration of human tendon cells, alter their expression profile and impair the functional network, but do not inhibit gap junction function.

  13. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath with simultaneous two tendon involvement of the foot treated with excision of the tumour and reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum using tibialis posterior tendon in a paediatric patient: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivek; Ansari, Tahir; Mittal, Samarth; Sharma, Pankaj; Nalwa, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumour arising from the tendon sheath. The involvement of foot and ankle by such tumours is relatively rare. Children are not commonly afflicted by this condition. All such tumours are reported to arise either from a single tendon sheath or one joint. We report a case of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in a 12-year-old child, arising simultaneously from the tendon sheaths of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons, as well as extending into the ankle joint. It was treated by complete excision of the mass along with the tendon sheaths with reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum. The location of the tumour, age of the patient, diffuse nature of the tumour and novel technique of reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum make this case extremely rare and the first to be reported in literature.

  14. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  15. Single-cell analysis reveals a nestin+ tendon stem/progenitor cell population with strong tenogenic potentiality

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zi; Hu, Jia-jie; Yang, Long; Zheng, Ze-Feng; An, Cheng-rui; Wu, Bing-bing; Zhang, Can; Shen, Wei-Liang; Liu, Huan-huan; Chen, Jia-lin; Heng, Boon Chin; Guo, Guo-ji; Chen, Xiao; Ouyang, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The repair of injured tendons remains a formidable clinical challenge because of our limited understanding of tendon stem cells and the regulation of tenogenesis. With single-cell analysis to characterize the gene expression profiles of individual cells isolated from tendon tissue, a subpopulation of nestin+ tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) was identified within the tendon cell population. Using Gene Expression Omnibus datasets and immunofluorescence assays, we found that nestin expression was activated at specific stages of tendon development. Moreover, isolated nestin+ TSPCs exhibited superior tenogenic capacity compared to nestin− TSPCs. Knockdown of nestin expression in TSPCs suppressed their clonogenic capacity and reduced their tenogenic potential significantly both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, these findings provide new insights into the identification of subpopulations of TSPCs and illustrate the crucial roles of nestin in TSPC fate decisions and phenotype maintenance, which may assist in future therapeutic strategies to treat tendon disease. PMID:28138519

  16. Determination of Blastoderm Cells in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chan, L.-N.; Gehring, W.

    1971-01-01

    A method for culturing blastoderm cells of Drosophila in vivo has been developed that allows these cells to differentiate into larval or adult structures. By intermixture of genetically marked cells from bisected and whole embryos, it was shown that blastoderm cells are restricted in their potential for forming adult epidermal structures. Cells isolated from anterior-half embryos are determined for forming head and thoracic structures, whereas cells from posterior-half embryos are determined for forming thoracic and abdominal structures. The specificity of determination and the localization of determinative factors is discussed. Images PMID:5002429

  17. Tendon Reattachment to Bone in an Ovine Tendon Defect Model of Retraction Using Allogenic and Xenogenic Demineralised Bone Matrix Incorporated with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Tendon-bone healing following rotator cuff repairs is mainly impaired by poor tissue quality. Demineralised bone matrix promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface but its role in the treatment of tendon tears with retraction has not been investigated. We hypothesized that cortical demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells will result in improved function and restoration of the tendon-bone interface with no difference between xenogenic and allogenic scaffolds. Materials and Methods In an ovine model, the patellar tendon was detached from the tibial tuberosity and a complete distal tendon transverse defect measuring 1 cm was created. Suture anchors were used to reattach the tendon and xenogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5), or allogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5) were used to bridge the defect. Graft incorporation into the tendon and its effect on regeneration of the enthesis was assessed using histomorphometry. Force plate analysis was used to assess functional recovery. Results Compared to the xenograft, the allograft was associated with significantly higher functional weight bearing at 6 (P = 0.047), 9 (P = 0.028), and 12 weeks (P = 0.009). In the allogenic group this was accompanied by greater remodeling of the demineralised bone matrix into tendon-like tissue in the region of the defect (p = 0.015), and a more direct type of enthesis characterized by significantly more fibrocartilage (p = 0.039). No failures of tendon-bone healing were noted in either group. Conclusion Demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface in an ovine model of acute tendon retraction, with superior mechanical and histological results associated with use of an allograft. PMID:27606597

  18. Stem cell technology for tendon regeneration: current status, challenges, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification. In this review, I first recapped the challenges of tendon repair by reviewing the anatomy of tendon. Next, I discussed the advantages and limitations of using different types of stem cells compared to terminally differentiated cells for tendon tissue engineering. The safety and efficacy of application of stem cells and their modified counterparts for tendon tissue engineering were then summarized after a systematic literature search in PubMed. The challenges and future research directions to enhance, optimize, and standardize stem cell-based therapies for augmenting tendon repair were then discussed.

  19. Mechanical factors in embryonic tendon development: Potential cues for stem cell tenogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Nathan R.; Marturano, Joseph E.; Kuo, Catherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are connective tissues required for motion and are frequently injured. Poor healing and inadequate return to normal tissue structure and mechanical function make tendon a prime candidate for tissue engineering, however functional tendons have yet to be engineered. The physical environment, from substrate stiffness to dynamic mechanical loading, may regulate tenogenic stem cell differentiation. Tissue stiffness and loading parameters derived from embryonic development may enhance tenogenic stem cell differentiation and tendon tissue formation. We highlight current understanding of the mechanical environment experienced by embryonic tendons and how progenitor cells may sense and respond to physical inputs. We further discuss how mechanical factors have only recently been used to induce tenogenic fate in stem cells. PMID:23916867

  20. Mechanical factors in embryonic tendon development: potential cues for stem cell tenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Nathan R; Marturano, Joseph E; Kuo, Catherine K

    2013-10-01

    Tendons are connective tissues required for motion and are frequently injured. Poor healing and inadequate return to normal tissue structure and mechanical function make tendon a prime candidate for tissue engineering; however functional tendons have yet to be engineered. The physical environment, from substrate stiffness to dynamic mechanical loading, may regulate tenogenic stem cell differentiation. Tissue stiffness and loading parameters derived from embryonic development may enhance tenogenic stem cell differentiation and tendon tissue formation. We highlight the current understanding of the mechanical environment experienced by embryonic tendons and how progenitor cells may sense and respond to physical inputs. We further discuss how mechanical factors have only recently been used to induce tenogenic fate in stem cells.

  1. Lineage tracing of resident tendon progenitor cells during growth and natural healing.

    PubMed

    Dyment, Nathaniel A; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Matthews, Brya G; Li, Yingcui; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rowe, David W

    2014-01-01

    Unlike during embryogenesis, the identity of tissue resident progenitor cells that contribute to postnatal tendon growth and natural healing is poorly characterized. Therefore, we utilized 1) an inducible Cre driven by alpha smooth muscle actin (SMACreERT2), that identifies mesenchymal progenitors, 2) a constitutively active Cre driven by growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5Cre), a critical regulator of joint condensation, in combination with 3) an Ai9 Cre reporter to permanently label SMA9 and GDF5-9 populations and their progeny. In growing mice, SMA9+ cells were found in peritendinous structures and scleraxis-positive (ScxGFP+) cells within the tendon midsubstance and myotendinous junction. The progenitors within the tendon midsubstance were transiently labeled as they displayed a 4-fold expansion from day 2 to day 21 but reduced to baseline levels by day 70. SMA9+ cells were not found within tendon entheses or ligaments in the knee, suggesting a different origin. In contrast to the SMA9 population, GDF5-9+ cells extended from the bone through the enthesis and into a portion of the tendon midsubstance. GDF5-9+ cells were also found throughout the length of the ligaments, indicating a significant variation in the progenitors that contribute to tendons and ligaments. Following tendon injury, SMA9+ paratenon cells were the main contributors to the healing response. SMA9+ cells extended over the defect space at 1 week and differentiated into ScxGFP+ cells at 2 weeks, which coincided with increased collagen signal in the paratenon bridge. Thus, SMA9-labeled cells represent a unique progenitor source that contributes to the tendon midsubstance, paratenon, and myotendinous junction during growth and natural healing, while GDF5 progenitors contribute to tendon enthesis and ligament development. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the expansion and differentiation of these progenitors may prove crucial to improving future repair strategies.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells for tendon healing: what is on the horizon?

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Francesca; Salamanna, Francesca; Tschon, Matilde; Maglio, Melania; Nicoli Aldini, Nicolo; Fini, Milena

    2016-09-06

    Tendon injuries are a noteworthy morbidity but at present there are few effective scientifically proven treatments. In recent decades, a number of new strategies including tissue engineering with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed to enhance tendon healing. Although MSCs are an interesting and promising approach, many questions regarding their use in tendon repair remain unanswered. This descriptive overview of the literature of the last decade explores the in vivo studies on tendon healing, in small and large animal models, which used MSCs harvested from different tissues, and the state of the art in clinical applications. It was observed that there are still doubts about the optimum amount of MSCs to use and their source and the type of scaffolds to deliver the cells. Thus, further studies are needed to determine the best protocol for MSC use in tendon healing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Passage and concentration-dependent effects of Indomethacin on tendon derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Emad; Scutt, Nanette; Scutt, Andy; Rolf, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are commonly used in the treatment of tendinopathies such as tendonitis and tendinosis. Despite this, little is known of their direct actions on tendon-derived cells. As NSAIDs have been shown to delay healing in a number of mesenchymal tissues we have investigated the direct effects of indomethacin on the proliferation of tendon-derived cells. Results and Discussion The results obtained were dependent on both the type of cells used and the method of measurement. When measured using the Alamar blue assay, a common method for the measurement of cell proliferation and viability, no effect of indomethacin was seen regardless of cell source. It is likely that this lack of effect was due to a paucity of mitochondrial enzymes in tendon cells. However, when cell number was assessed using the methylene blue assay, which is a simple nuclear staining technique, an Indomethacin-induced inhibition of proliferation was seen in primary cells but not in secondary subcultures. Conclusion These results suggest that firstly, care must be taken when deciding on methodology used to investigate tendon-derived cells as these cells have a quite different metabolism to other mesenchymal derive cells. Secondly, Indomethacin can inhibit the proliferation of primary tendon derived cells and that secondary subculture selects for a population of cells that is unresponsive to this drug. PMID:19341464

  4. Biology and mechano-response of tendon cells: progress overview and perspectives†

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui B.; Schaniel, Christoph; Leong, Daniel J.; Wang, James H-C.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the group discussions on Cell Biology & Mechanics from the 2014 ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. The major discussion topics included: 1) the biology of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) and the potential of stem cell-based tendon therapy using TSPCs and other types of stem cells, namely, embryonic and/or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), 2) the biological concept and potential impact of cellular senescence on tendon aging, tendon injury repair and the development of degenerative disease, and 3) the effects of tendon cells’ mechano-response on tendon cell fate and metabolism. For each topic, a brief overview is presented which summarizes the major points discussed by the group participants. The focus of the discussions ranged from current research progress, challenges and opportunities, to future directions on these topics. In the preparation of this manuscript, authors consulted relevant references as a part of their efforts to present an accurate view on the topics discussed. PMID:25728946

  5. Assessment of stem cell carriers for tendon tissue engineering in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tendon injuries are prevalent and problematic, especially among young and otherwise healthy individuals. The inherently slow innate healing process combined with the inevitable scar tissue formation compromise functional recovery, imposing the need for the development of therapeutic strategies. The limited number of low activity/reparative capacity tendon-resident cells has directed substantial research efforts towards the exploration of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells in tendon injuries and pathophysiologies. Severe injuries require the use of a stem cell carrier to enable cell localisation at the defect site. The present study describes advancements that injectable carriers, tissue grafts, anisotropically orientated biomaterials, and cell-sheets have achieved in preclinical models as stem cell carriers for tendon repair. PMID:25157898

  6. Use of stem cells and growth factors in rotator cuff tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Engin; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we analysed the role of stem cell and growth factor therapy on rotator cuff tendon repair. The injury to the rotator cuff tendons can be sustained in numerous ways and generally causes significant pain and disability to the affected individual. Following surgical repair of ruptured rotator cuff tendons re-rupture rates can be as high as 20-60%. In order to augment this repair process and to decrease the re-rupture rates tissue engineering methods can be used. These include the use of stem cells and growth factors. Mesenchymal stem cells are stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of connective tissue cell types and can therefore be utilised in repairing tendons. So far there has only been one human study using stem cells in rotator cuff tendon repair. This study has produced a positive result but consisted of only 14 patients and lacks a control group for comparison. Similar work has also been done using growth factors. Both individual and combination growth factor therapy have been used to improve rotator cuff tendon repair. However, the results so far have been disappointing with growth factors. For the purpose of future studies better techniques should be explored with regards to the delivery of stem cells and growth factors as well as the possibility of combining growth factor and stem cell therapy to improve repair rates.

  7. Isolation and biological characterization of tendon-derived stem cells from fetal bovine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinjuan; Zhao, Qianjun; Wang, Kunfu; Liu, Hao; Ma, Caiyun; Huang, Hongmei; Liu, Yingjie

    2016-09-01

    The lack of appropriate candidates of cell sources for cell transplantation has hampered efforts to develop therapies for tendon injuries, such as tendon rupture, tendonitis, and tendinopathy. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) are a type of stem cells which may be used in the treatment of tendon injuries. In this study, TDSCs were isolated from 5-mo-old Luxi Yellow fetal bovine and cultured in vitro and further analyzed for their biological characteristics using immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. It was found that primary TDSCs could be expanded for 42 passages in vitro maintaining proliferation. The expressions of stem cell marker nucleostemin and tenocyte-related markers, such as collagen I, collagen II, collagen III, and tenascin-C, were observed on different passage cells by immunofluorescence. The results from RT-PCR show that TDSCs were positive for collagen type I, CD44, tenascin-C, and collagen type III but negative for collagen type II. Meanwhile, TDSC passage 4 was successfully induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Our results indicate that the fetal bovine TDSCs not only had strong self-renewal capacity but also possess the potential for multi-lineage differentiation. This study provides theoretical basis and experimental foundation for potential therapeutic application of the fetal bovine TDSCs in the treatment of tendon injuries.

  8. Spatial control of the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baum, B; Perrimon, N

    2001-10-01

    The actin cytoskeleton orders cellular space and transduces many of the forces required for morphogenesis. Here we combine genetics and cell biology to identify genes that control the polarized distribution of actin filaments within the Drosophila follicular epithelium. We find that profilin and cofilin regulate actin-filament formation throughout the cell cortex. In contrast, CAP-a Drosophila homologue of Adenylyl Cyclase Associated Proteins-functions specifically to limit actin-filament formation catalysed by Ena at apical cell junctions. The Abl tyrosine kinase also collaborates in this process. We therefore propose that CAP, Ena and Abl act in concert to modulate the subcellular distribution of actin filaments in Drosophila.

  9. Adult Cells Combined With Platelet-Rich Plasma for Tendon Healing

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Azpeitia, Eva; Sánchez, Pello; Delgado, Diego; Andia, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Background: The combination of cells with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may fulfill tendon deficits and help overcome the limited ability of tendons to heal. Purpose: To examine the suitability of 3 human cell types in combination with PRP and the potential impact of the tenocyte-conditioned media (CM) to enhance tendon healing. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Tenocytes, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells, and skin fibroblasts were cultured in 3-dimensional PRP hydrogels supplemented or not with CM, and cell proliferation and migration were examined. The effect of tendon-derived CM on matrix-forming phenotype and secretion of inflammatory proteins was determined through their administration to mesenchymal stem cells, tendon, and skin fibroblasts by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results: Differences were found in the matrix-forming phenotype between each of the cell types. The ratio of collagen I:collagen III was greater in bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells than in skin fibroblasts and tenocytes. The bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells expressed increased levels of cartilage-related genes than tenocytes or skin fibroblasts. The presence of the tenocyte-CM stimulated basic healing mechanisms including proliferation and chemotaxis in all cell types. In addition, the tenocyte-CM modified the matrix-forming phenotype of every cell type when cultured in PRP hydrogels. Each cell type secreted interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in PRP hydrogels, but mesenchymal stem cells secreted less interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 than tenocytes or skin fibroblasts. Conclusion: The tenocyte-CM combined with PRP stimulated tenogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells and in skin fibroblasts and reduced the secretion of inflammatory proteins. Clinical Relevance: Modifying the target tissue with PRP prior to cell

  10. Cell response to sterilized electrospun poly(ɛ‐caprolactone) scaffolds to aid tendon regeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Prajwal; Bosworth, Lucy A.; Wong, Richard; O'brien, Marie A.; Kriel, Haydn; Smit, Eugene; McGrouther, Duncan A.; Wong, Jason K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The functional replacement of tendon represents an unmet clinical need in situations of tendon rupture, tendon grafting, and complex tendon reconstruction, as usually there is a finite source of healthy tendon to use as donors. The microfibrous architecture of tendon is critical to the function of tendon. This study investigates the use of electrospun poly(ɛ‐caprolactone) scaffolds as potential biomaterial substitutes for tendon grafts. We assessed the performance of two electrospinning manufacturers (small‐ and large‐scale) and the effect of two sterilization techniques—gamma irradiation and ethanol submersion—on cell response to these electrospun scaffolds after their implantation into a murine tendon model. Cell infiltration and proliferation analyses were undertaken to determine the effect on cell response within the implant over a 6‐week period. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize inflammatory response and healing characteristics (proliferation, collagen deposition, myofibroblast activity, and apoptosis). Neither the sterilization techniques nor the manufacturer was observed to significantly affect the cell response to the scaffold. At each time point, cell response was similar to the autograft control. This suggests that ethanol submersion can be used for research purposes and that the scaffold can be easily reproduced by a large‐scale manufacturer. These results further imply that this electrospun scaffold may provide an alternative to autograft, thus eliminating the need for sourcing healthy tendon tissue from a secondary site. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 389–397, 2017. PMID:27649836

  11. Study of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal and Tendon-Derived Stem Cells Transplantation on the Regenerating Effect of Achilles Tendon Ruptures in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-ani, Mohanad Kh; Xu, Kang; Sun, Yanjun; Pan, Lianhong; Xu, ZhiLing; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Comparative therapeutic significance of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation to treat ruptured Achilles tendon was studied. Three groups of SD rats comprising 24 rats each, designated as TDSCs and BMSCs, and nontreated were studied for regenerative effects through morpho-histological evaluations and ultimate failure load. For possible mechanism in tendon repair/regeneration through TDSCs and BMSCs, we measured Collagen-I (Col-I), Col-III gene expression level by RT-PCR, and Tenascin-C expression via immunofluorescent assay. TDSCs showed higher agility in tendon healing with better appearance density and well-organized longitudinal fibrous structure, though BMSCs also showed positive effects. Initially the ultimate failure load was considerably higher in TDSCs than other two study groups during the weeks 1 and 2, but at week 4 it attained an average or healthy tendon strength of 30.2 N. Similar higher tendency in Col-I/III gene expression level during weeks 1, 2, and 4 was observed in TDSCs treated group with an upregulation of 1.5-fold and 1.1-fold than the other two study groups. Immunofluorescent assay revealed higher expression of Tenascin-C in TDSCs at week 1, while both TDSCs and BMSCs treated groups showed detectable CM-Dil-labelled cells at week 4. Compared with BMSCs, TDSCs showed higher regenerative potential while treating ruptured Achilles tendons in rats. PMID:26339252

  12. Dynamic loading of electrospun yarns guides mesenchymal stem cells towards a tendon lineage

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, L.A.; Rathbone, S.R.; Bradley, R.S.; Cartmell, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative strategies are required when autograft tissue is not sufficient or available to reconstruct damaged tendons. Electrospun fibre yarns could provide such an alternative. This study investigates the seeding of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on electrospun yarns and their response when subjected to dynamic tensile loading. Cell seeded yarns sustained 3600 cycles per day for 21 days. Loaded yarns demonstrated a thickened cell layer around the scaffold׳s exterior compared to statically cultured yarns, which would suggest an increased rate of cell proliferation and/or matrix deposition, whilst maintaining a predominant uniaxial cell orientation. Tensile properties of cell-seeded yarns increased with time compared to acellular yarns. Loaded scaffolds demonstrated an up-regulation in several key tendon genes, including collagen Type I. This study demonstrates the support of hMSCs on electrospun yarns and their differentiation towards a tendon lineage when mechanically stimulated. PMID:25129861

  13. Tendon overload results in alterations in cell shape and increased markers of inflammation and matrix degradation.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C T; Chaudhry, S; Lei, I I; Varone, A; Riley, G P; Birch, H L; Clegg, P D; Screen, H R C

    2015-08-01

    Tendon injury is thought to involve both damage accumulation within the matrix and an accompanying cell response. While several studies have characterized cell and matrix response in chronically injured tendons, few have assessed the initial response of tendon to overload-induced damage. In this study, we assessed cell response to cyclic loading. Fascicle bundles from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon were exposed to cyclic loading in vitro, designed to mimic a bout of high-intensity exercise. Changes in cell morphology and protein-level alterations in markers of matrix inflammation and degradation were investigated. Loading resulted in matrix damage, which was accompanied by cells becoming rounder. The inflammatory markers cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 were increased in loaded samples, as were matrix metalloproteinase-13 and the collagen degradation marker C1,2C. These results indicate upregulation of inflammatory and degradative pathways in response to overload-induced in vitro, which may be initiated by alterations in cell strain environment because of localized matrix damage. This provides important information regarding the initiation of tendinopathy, suggesting that inflammation may play an important role in the initial cell response to tendon damage. Full understanding of the early tenocyte response to matrix damage is critical in order to develop effective treatments for tendinopathy.

  14. TGF-beta1 Suppresses Plasmin and MMP Activity in Flexor Tendon Cells via PAI-1: Implications for Scarless Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Youssef M.; Al-Maliki, Alaa A.; Easa, Anas; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Awad, Hani A.

    2014-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries caused by deep lacerations to the hands are a challenging problem as they often result in debilitating adhesions that prevent the movement of the afflicted fingers. Evidence exists that tendon adhesions as well as scarring throughout the body are largely precipitated by the pleiotropic growth factor, TGF-β1, but the effects of TGF-β1 are poorly understood in tendon healing. Using an in vitro model of tendon healing, we previously found that TGF-β1 causes gene expression changes in tenocytes that are consistent with scar tissue and adhesion formation, including upregulation of the anti-fibrinolytic protein, PAI-1. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 contributes to scarring and adhesions by reducing the activity of proteases responsible for ECM degradation and remodeling, such as plasmin and MMPs, via upregulation of PAI-1. To test our hypothesis, we examined the effects of TGF-β1 on the protease activity of tendon cells. We found that flexor tendon tenocytes treated with TGF-β1 had significantly reduced levels of active MMP-2 and plasmin. Interestingly, the effects of TGF-β1 on protease activity were completely abolished in tendon cells from homozygous PAI-1 KO mice, which are unable to express PAI-1. Our findings support the hypothesis that TGF-β1 induces PAI-1, which suppresses plasmin and plasmin-mediated MMP activity, and provide evidence that PAI-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for preventing adhesions and promoting a scarless, regenerative repair of flexor tendon injuries. PMID:24962629

  15. Characterization and comparison of post-natal rat Achilles tendon-derived stem cells at different development stages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialin; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zeyu; Zhu, Ting; Shen, Weiliang; Ran, Jisheng; Tang, Qiaomei; Gong, Xiaonan; Backman, Ludvig J; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Xiaowen; Wen, Feiqiu; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2016-03-14

    Tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) are a potential cell source for tendon tissue engineering. The striking morphological and structural changes of tendon tissue during development indicate the complexity of TSPCs at different stages. This study aims to characterize and compare post-natal rat Achilles tendon tissue and TSPCs at different stages of development. The tendon tissue showed distinct differences during development: the tissue structure became denser and more regular, the nuclei became spindle-shaped and the cell number decreased with time. TSPCs derived from 7 day Achilles tendon tissue showed the highest self-renewal ability, cell proliferation, and differentiation potential towards mesenchymal lineage, compared to TSPCs derived from 1 day and 56 day tissue. Microarray data showed up-regulation of several groups of genes in TSPCs derived from 7 day Achilles tendon tissue, which may account for the unique cell characteristics during this specific stage of development. Our results indicate that TSPCs derived from 7 day Achilles tendon tissue is a superior cell source as compared to TSPCs derived from 1 day and 56 day tissue, demonstrating the importance of choosing a suitable stem cell source for effective tendon tissue engineering and regeneration.

  16. Nutritional regulation of stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jiwon; Gururaja-Rao, Shubha; Banerjee, Utpal

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells and their progenitors are maintained within a microenvironment, termed the niche, through local cell-cell communication. Systemic signals originating outside the niche also affect stem cell and progenitor behavior. This review summarizes studies that pertain to nutritional effects on stem and progenitor cell maintenance and proliferation in Drosophila. Multiple tissue types are discussed that utilize the insulin-related signaling pathway to convey nutritional information either directly to these progenitors or via other cell types within the niche. The concept of systemic control of these cell types is not limited to Drosophila and may be functional in vertebrate systems, including mammals. PMID:24255094

  17. Growth and Development Symposium: Stem cell therapy in equine tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Reed, S A; Leahy, E R

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries affect all levels of athletic horses and represent a significant loss to the equine industry. Accumulation of microdamage within the tendon architecture leads to formation of core lesions. Traditional approaches to tendon repair are based on an initial period of rest to limit the inflammatory process followed by a controlled reloading program designed to promote the maturation and linear arrangement of scar tissue within the lesion. However, these treatment protocols are inefficient, resulting in prolonged recovery periods and frequent recurrence. Current alternative therapies include the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and a population of nucleated cells from adipose containing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSC). Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells (UCB) have recently received attention for their increased plasticity in vitro and potential as a therapeutic aid. Both BMSC and AdMSC require expansion in culture before implantation to obtain a pure stem cell population, limiting the time frame for implantation. Collected at parturition, UCB can be cryopreserved for future use. Furthermore, the low immunogenicity of the UCB population allows for allogeneic implantation. Current research indicates that BMSC, AdMSC, and UCB can differentiate into tenocyte-like cells in vitro, increasing expression of scleraxis, tenascin c, and extracellular matrix proteins. When implanted, BMSC and AdMSC engraft into the tendon and improve tendon architecture. However, treatment with these stem cells does not decrease recovery period. Furthermore, the resulting regeneration is not optimal, as the resulting tissue is still inferior to native tendon. Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may provide an alternate source of stem cells that promote improved regeneration of tendon tissue. A more naïve cell population, these cells may have a greater rate of engraftment as well as an increased ability to secrete bioactive factors and

  18. Analysis of Cell Cycle Switches in Drosophila Oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongyu; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The study of Drosophila oogenesis provides invaluable information about signaling pathway regulation and cell cycle programming. During Drosophila oogenesis, a string of egg chambers in each ovariole progressively develops toward maturity. Egg chamber development consists of 14 stages. From stage 1 to stage 6 (mitotic cycle), main-body follicle cells undergo mitotic divisions. From stage 7 to stage 10a (endocycle), follicle cells cease mitosis but continue three rounds of endoreduplication. From stage 10b to stage 13 (gene amplification), instead of whole genome duplication, follicle cells selectively amplify specific genomic regions, mostly for chorion production. So far, Drosophila oogenesis is one of the most well studied model systems used to understand cell cycle switches, which furthers our knowledge about cell cycle control machinery and sheds new light on potential cancer treatments. Here, we give a brief summary of cell cycle switches, the associated signaling pathways and factors, and the detailed experimental procedures used to study the cell cycle switches.

  19. Engineered stem cell niche matrices for rotator cuff tendon regenerative engineering

    PubMed Central

    Peach, M. Sean; Ramos, Daisy M.; Morozowich, Nicole L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Doty, Steven B.; Allcock, Harry R.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tears represent a large proportion of musculoskeletal injuries attended to at the clinic and thereby make RC repair surgeries one of the most widely performed musculoskeletal procedures. Despite the high incidence rate of RC tears, operative treatments have provided minimal functional gains and suffer from high re-tear rates. The hypocellular nature of tendon tissue poses a limited capacity for regeneration. In recent years, great strides have been made in the area of tendonogenesis and differentiation towards tendon cells due to a greater understanding of the tendon stem cell niche, development of advanced materials, improved scaffold fabrication techniques, and delineation of the phenotype development process. Though in vitro models for tendonogenesis have shown promising results, in vivo models have been less successful. The present work investigates structured matrices mimicking the tendon microenvironment as cell delivery vehicles in a rat RC tear model. RC injuries augmented with a matrix delivering rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) showed enhanced regeneration over suture repair alone or repair with augmentation, at 6 and 12-weeks post-surgery. The local delivery of rMSCs led to increased mechanical properties and improved tissue morphology. We hypothesize that the mesenchymal stem cells function to modulate the local immune and bioactivity environment through autocrine/paracrine and/or cell homing mechanisms. This study provides evidence for improved tendon healing with biomimetic matrices and delivered MSCs with the potential for translation to larger, clinical animal models. The enhanced regenerative healing response with stem cell delivering biomimetic matrices may represent a new treatment paradigm for massive RC tendon tears. PMID:28369135

  20. Blood cells of Drosophila: cell lineages and role in host defence.

    PubMed

    Meister, Marie

    2004-02-01

    Drosophila haemopoiesis gives rise to three independent cell lineages: plasmatocytes, crystal cells and lamellocytes. The regulation of Drosophila stem cell proliferation and lineage specification involves transactivators and signalling pathways, many of which have mammalian counterparts that control haemopoietic processes. Drosophila plasmatocytes are professional phagocytes that resemble the monocyte/macrophage lineage, crystal cells play a critical role in defence-related melanisation, and lamellocytes encapsulate large invaders. Crystal cells and lamellocytes have no clear mammalian homologues. Research into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the various immune functions of Drosophila blood cells, such as non-self recognition, is now taking wing.

  1. Inter-tissue mechanical stress affects Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity in the Drosophila notum epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Olguín, Patricio; Glavic, Alvaro; Mlodzik, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Summary Frizzled/Planar Cell Polarity (Fz/PCP) signaling controls the orientation of sensory bristles and cellular hairs (trichomes) along the antero-posterior axis of the Drosophila thorax (notum) [1–4]. A subset of the trichome-producing notum cells differentiate as “tendon cells”, serving as attachment sites for the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) to the exoskeleton [5]. Through the analysis of chascon (chas), a gene identified by its ability to disrupt Fz/PCP signaling under overexpression conditions, and jitterbug (jbug)/filamin [6], we show that maintenance of antero-posterior planar polarization requires the notum epithelia to balance mechanical stress generated by the attachment of the IFMs. chas is expressed in notum tendon cells and its loss-of-function disturbs cellular orientation at and near the regions where IFMs attach to the epidermis. This effect is independent of the Fz/PCP and fat (ft)/dachsous (ds) systems [7]. The chas phenotype arises during normal shortening of the IFMs [8] and is suppressed by genetic ablation of the IFMs. chas acts through jbug/filamin and cooperates with MyosinII to modulate the mechano-response of notum tendon cells. These observations support the notion that the ability of epithelia to respond to mechanical stress generated by interaction(s) with other tissues during development/organogenesis influences the maintenance of its shape and PCP features. PMID:21276726

  2. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huaqi; Edgar, Bruce A.

    2011-11-15

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  3. Growth factor delivery vehicles for tendon injuries: Mesenchymal stem cells and Platelet Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Schmitt, Andreas; Russell, Ryan P.; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: tendon tissue shows limited regeneration potential with formation of scar tissue and inferior mechanical properties. The capacity of several growth factors to improve the healing response and decrease scar formation is described in different preclinical studies. Besides the application of isolated growth factors, current research focuses on two further strategies to improve the healing response in tendon injuries: platelet rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Objective: the present review focuses on these two options and describes their potential to improve tendon healing. Results: in vitro experiments and animal studies showed promising results for the use of PRP, however clinical controlled studies have shown a tendency of reduced pain related symptoms but no significant differences in overall clinical scores. On the other hand MSCs are not totally arrived in clinical use so that there is still a lack of randomized controlled trials. In basic research experiments they show an extraordinary paracrine activity, anti-inflammatory effect and the possibility to differentiate in tenocytes when different activating-factors are added. Conclusion: preclinical studies have shown promising results in improving tendon remodeling but the comparability of current literature is difficult due to different compositions. PRP and MSCs can act as efficient growth factor vehicles, however further studies should be performed in order to adequate investigate their clinical benefits in different tendon pathologies. PMID:25489557

  4. A systems biology approach to defining regulatory mechanisms for cartilage and tendon cell phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, A. J.; Tew, S. R.; Vasieva, O.; Clegg, P. D.; Canty-Laird, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of adult somatic cells has provided emerging avenues for the development of regenerative therapeutics. In musculoskeletal biology the mechanistic regulatory networks of genes governing the phenotypic plasticity of cartilage and tendon cells has not been considered systematically. Additionally, a lack of strategies to effectively reproduce in vitro functional models of cartilage and tendon is retarding progress in this field. De- and redifferentiation represent phenotypic transitions that may contribute to loss of function in ageing musculoskeletal tissues. Applying a systems biology network analysis approach to global gene expression profiles derived from common in vitro culture systems (monolayer and three-dimensional cultures) this study demonstrates common regulatory mechanisms governing de- and redifferentiation transitions in cartilage and tendon cells. Furthermore, evidence of convergence of gene expression profiles during monolayer expansion of cartilage and tendon cells, and the expression of key developmental markers, challenges the physiological relevance of this culture system. The study also suggests that oxidative stress and PI3K signalling pathways are key modulators of in vitro phenotypes for cells of musculoskeletal origin. PMID:27670352

  5. Biologics for tendon repair☆

    PubMed Central

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135

  6. Musculoskeletal diseases—tendon

    PubMed Central

    Sakabe, Tomoya; Sakai, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Tendons establish specific connections between muscles and the skeleton by transferring contraction forces from skeletal muscle to bone thereby allowing body movement. Tendon physiology and pathology are heavily dependent on mechanical stimuli. Tendon injuries clinically represent a serious and still unresolved problem since damaged tendon tissues heal very slowly and no surgical treatment can restore a damaged tendon to its normal structural integrity and mechanical strength. Understanding how mechanical stimuli regulate tendon tissue homeostasis and regeneration will improve the treatment of adult tendon injuries that still pose a great challenge in today's medicine. Source of data This review summarizes the current status of tendon treatment and discusses new directions from the point of view of cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine approach. We searched the available literature using PubMed for relevant original articles and reviews. Growing points Identification of tendon cell markers has enabled us to study precisely tendon healing and homeostasis. Clinically, tissue engineering for tendon injuries is an emerging technology comprising elements from the fields of cellular source, scaffold materials, growth factors/cytokines and gene delivering systems. Areas timely for developing research The clinical settings to establish appropriate microenvironment for injured tendons with the combination of these novel cellular- and molecular-based scaffolds will be critical for the treatment. PMID:21729872

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated with bovine tendon extract acquire the phenotype of mature tenocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Lívia Maria Mendonça; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Amanda; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, in tenocytes after treatment with bovine tendon extract. Methods Bovine tendons were used for preparation of the extract and were stored at −80 °C. Mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow of three donors were used for cytotoxicity tests by means of MTT and cell differentiation by means of qPCR. Results The data showed that mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated for up to 21 days in the presence of bovine tendon extract diluted at diminishing concentrations (1:10, 1:50 and 1:250) promoted activation of biglycan, collagen type I and fibromodulin expression. Conclusion Our results show that bovine tendon extract is capable of promoting differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in tenocytes. PMID:26962503

  8. Application of stem cells derived from the periodontal ligament or gingival tissue sources for tendon tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Xu, Xingtian; Chen, Chider; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shi, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    Tendon injuries are often associated with significant dysfunction and disability due to tendinous tissue’s very limited self-repair capacity and propensity for scar formation. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material present an alternative therapeutic option for tendon repair/regeneration that may be advantageous compared to other current treatment modalities. The MSC delivery vehicle is the principal determinant for successful implementation of MSC-mediated regenerative therapies. In the current study, a co-delivery system based on TGF-β3-loaded RGD-coupled alginate microspheres was developed for encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) or gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). The capacity of encapsulated dental MSCs to differentiate into tendon tissue was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulated dental-derived MSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. Our results revealed that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, PDLSCs and GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to tendon regeneration (Scx, DCn, Tnmd, and Bgy) via qPCR measurement. In a corresponding in vivo animal model, ectopic neo-tendon regeneration was observed in subcutaneous transplanted MSC-alginate constructs, as confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining for protein markers specific for tendons. Interestingly, in our quantitative PCR and in vivo histomorphometric analyses, PDLSCs showed significantly greater capacity for tendon regeneration than GMSCs or hBMMSCs (P<0.05). Altogether, these findings indicate that periodontal ligament and gingival tissues can be considered as suitable stem cell sources for tendon engineering. PDLSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in TGF-β3-loaded RGD-modified alginate microspheres are promising candidates for tendon regeneration. PMID

  9. Application of stem cells derived from the periodontal ligament or gingival tissue sources for tendon tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Xu, Xingtian; Chen, Chider; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Snead, Malcolm L; Shi, Songtao

    2014-03-01

    Tendon injuries are often associated with significant dysfunction and disability due to tendinous tissue's very limited self-repair capacity and propensity for scar formation. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material present an alternative therapeutic option for tendon repair/regeneration that may be advantageous compared to other current treatment modalities. The MSC delivery vehicle is the principal determinant for successful implementation of MSC-mediated regenerative therapies. In the current study, a co-delivery system based on TGF-β3-loaded RGD-coupled alginate microspheres was developed for encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) or gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). The capacity of encapsulated dental MSCs to differentiate into tendon tissue was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulated dental-derived MSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. Our results revealed that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, PDLSCs and GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to tendon regeneration (Scx, DCn, Tnmd, and Bgy) via qPCR measurement. In a corresponding in vivo animal model, ectopic neo-tendon regeneration was observed in subcutaneous transplanted MSC-alginate constructs, as confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining for protein markers specific for tendons. Interestingly, in our quantitative PCR and in vivo histomorphometric analyses, PDLSCs showed significantly greater capacity for tendon regeneration than GMSCs or hBMMSCs (P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings indicate that periodontal ligament and gingival tissues can be considered as suitable stem cell sources for tendon engineering. PDLSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in TGF-β3-loaded RGD-modified alginate microspheres are promising candidates for tendon regeneration.

  10. M1 and M2 macrophage recruitment during tendon regeneration induced by amniotic epithelial cell allotransplantation in ovine.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Annunziata; Russo, Valentina; Di Marcantonio, Lisa; Berardinelli, Paolo; Martelli, Alessandra; Muttini, Aurelio; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that ovine amniotic epithelial cells (oAECs) allotransplanted into experimentally induced tendon lesions are able to stimulate tissue regeneration also by reducing leukocyte infiltration. Amongst leukocytes, macrophages (Mφ) M1 and M2 phenotype cells are known to mediate inflammatory and repairing processes, respectively. In this research it was investigated if, during tendon regeneration induced by AECs allotransplantation, M1Mφ and M2Mφ phenotype cells are recruited and differently distributed within the lesion site. Ovine AECs treated and untreated (Ctr) tendons were explanted at 7, 14, and 28 days and tissue microarchitecture was analyzed together with the distribution and quantification of leukocytes (CD45 positive), Mφ (CD68 pan positive), and M1Mφ (CD86, and IL12b) and M2Mφ (CD206, YM1 and IL10) phenotype related markers. In oAEC transplanted tendons CD45 and CD68 positive cells were always reduced in the lesion site. At day 14, oAEC treated tendons began to recover their microarchitecture, contextually a reduction of M1Mφ markers, mainly distributed close to oAECs, and an increase of M2Mφ markers was evidenced. CD206 positive cells were distributed near the regenerating areas. At day 28 oAECs treated tendons acquired a healthy-like structure with a reduction of M2Mφ. Differently, Ctr tendons maintained a disorganized morphology throughout the experimental time and constantly showed high values of M1Mφ markers. These findings indicate that M2Mφ recruitment could be correlated to tendon regeneration induced by oAECs allotransplantation. Moreover, these results demonstrate oAECs immunomodulatory role also in vivo and support novel insights into their allogeneic use underlying the resolution of tendon fibrosis.

  11. Tendonitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tendon. It can occur as a result of injury, overuse, or with aging as the tendon loses elasticity. Any action that places prolonged repetitive strain on the forearm muscles can cause tendonitis. The ...

  12. Mechanical Control of Myotendinous Junction Formation and Tendon Differentiation during Development

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia, Mauricio; Vega-Macaya, Franco; Olguín, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    The development of the musculoskeletal system is a great model to study the interplay between chemical and mechanical inter-tissue signaling in cell adhesion, tissue morphogenesis and differentiation. In both vertebrates and invertebrates (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster) the formation of muscle-tendon interaction generates mechanical forces which are required for myotendinous junction maturation and tissue differentiation. In addition, these forces must be withstood by muscles and tendons in order to prevent detachment from each other, deformation or even losing their integrity. Extracellular matrix remodeling at the myotendinous junction is key to resist mechanical load generated by muscle contraction. Recent evidences in vertebrates indicate that mechanical forces generated during junction formation regulate chemical signaling leading to extracellular matrix remodeling, however, the mechanotransduction mechanisms associated to this response remains elusive. In addition to extracellular matrix remodeling, the ability of Drosophila tendon-cells to bear mechanical load depends on rearrangement of tendon cell cytoskeleton, thus studying the molecular mechanisms involved in this process is critical to understand the contribution of mechanical forces to the development of the musculoskeletal system. Here, we review recent findings regarding the role of chemical and mechanical signaling in myotendinous junction formation and tendon differentiation, and discuss molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction that may allow tendon cells to withstand mechanical load during development of the musculoskeletal system. PMID:28386542

  13. Organizer activity of the polar cells during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grammont, Muriel; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2002-11-01

    Patterning of the Drosophila egg requires the establishment of several distinct types of somatic follicle cells, as well as interactions between these follicle cells and the oocyte. The polar cells occupy the termini of the follicle and are specified by the activation of Notch. We have investigated their role in follicle patterning by creating clones of cells mutant for the Notch modulator fringe. This genetic ablation of polar cells results in cell fate defects within surrounding follicle cells. At the anterior, the border cells, the immediately adjacent follicle cell fate, are absent, as are the more distant stretched and centripetal follicle cells. Conversely, increasing the number of polar cells by expressing an activated form of the Notch receptor increases the number of border cells. At the posterior, elimination of polar cells results in abnormal oocyte localization. Moreover, when polar cells are mislocalized laterally, the surrounding follicle cells adopt a posterior fate, the oocyte is located adjacent to them, and the anteroposterior axis of the oocyte is re-oriented with respect to the ectopic polar cells. Our observations demonstrate that the polar cells act as an organizer that patterns surrounding follicle cells and establishes the anteroposterior axis of the oocyte. The origin of asymmetry during Drosophila development can thus be traced back to the specification of the polar cells during early oogenesis.

  14. The development of germline stem cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dansereau, David A; Lasko, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Germline stem cells (GSCs) in Drosophila are a valuable model to explore of how adult stem cells are regulated in vivo. Genetic dissection of this system has shown that stem cell fate is determined and maintained by the stem cell's somatic microenvironment or niche. In Drosophila gonads, the stem cell niche -- the cap cell cluster in females and the hub in males -- acts as a signaling center to recruit GSCs from among a small population of undifferentiated primordial germ cells (PGCs). Short-range signals from the niche specify and regulate stem cell fate by maintaining the undifferentiated state of the PGCs next to the niche. Germline cells that do not receive the niche signals because of their location assume the default fate and differentiate. Once GSCs are specified, adherens junctions maintain close association between the stem cells and their niche and help to orient stem cell division so that one daughter is displaced from the niche and differentiates. In females, stem cell fate depends on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals from the cap cells; in males, hub cells express the cytokine-like ligand Unpaired, which activates the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak-Stat) pathway in stem cells. Although the signaling pathways operating between the niche and stem cells are different, there are common general features in both males and females, including the arrangement of cell types, many of the genes used, and the logic of the system that maintains stem cell fate.

  15. Stem cell therapy: a promising biological strategy for tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zi-Chen; Wang, Shan-Zheng; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Lu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Tendon-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a complex process, impacting significantly on patients' prognosis. Natural tendon-bone healing usually results in fibrous scar tissue, which is of inferior quality compared to native attachment. In addition, the early formed fibrous attachment after surgery is often not reliable to support functional rehabilitation, which may lead to graft failure or unsatisfied function of the knee joint. Thus, strategies to promote tendon-bone healing are crucial for prompt and satisfactory functional recovery. Recently, a variety of biological approaches, including active substances, gene transfer, tissue engineering and stem cells, have been proposed and applied to enhance tendon-bone healing. Among these, stem cell therapy has been shown to have promising prospects and draws increasing attention. From commonly investigated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) to emerging ACL-derived CD34+ stem cells, multiple stem cell types have been proven to be effective in accelerating tendon-bone healing. This review describes the current understanding of tendon-bone healing and summarizes the current status of related stem cell therapy. Future limitations and perspectives are also discussed.

  16. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath: a rare periungual location simulating myxoid cyst*

    PubMed Central

    Minotto, Renan; Rodrigues, Camila Britto; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Furian, Roque

    2017-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumor most frequent between the third and fifth decades of life. It can mimic and make differential diagnoses with several hand tumors. Definitive diagnosis and the treatment of choice are reached with complete resection and histopathological examination. Here we describe a case with clinical presentation similar to that of a myxoid cyst. PMID:28225971

  17. IL-1β irreversibly inhibits tenogenic differentiation and alters metabolism in injured tendon-derived progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Yu, Bin; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2015-08-07

    Tendon injuries are common, and the damaged tendon often turns into scar tissue and never completely regains the original biomechanical properties. Previous studies have reported that the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β are remarkably up-regulated in injured tendons. To examine how IL-1β impacts tendon repair process, we isolated the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) from mouse injured Achilles tendons and studied the effects of IL-1β on the inTPCs in vitro. IL-1β treatment strongly reduced expression of tendon cell markers such as scleraxis and tenomodulin, and also down-regulated gene expression of collagen 1, collagen 3, biglycan and fibromodulin in inTPCs. Interestingly, IL-1β stimulated lactate production with increases in hexokinase II and lactate dehydrogenase expression and a decrease in pyruvate dehydrogenase. Inhibition of lactate production restored IL-1β-induced down-regulation of collagen1 and scleraxis expression. Furthermore, IL-1β significantly inhibited adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of inTPCs. Interestingly, inhibition of tenogenic and adipogenic differentiation was not recovered after removal of IL-1β while chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation abilities were not affected. These findings indicate that IL-1β strongly and irreversibly impairs tenogenic potential and alters glucose metabolism in tendon progenitors appearing in injured tendons. Inhibition of IL-1β may be beneficial for maintaining function of tendon progenitor cells during the tendon repair process.

  18. Regulation of tendon differentiation by scleraxis distinguishes force-transmitting tendons from muscle-anchoring tendons.

    PubMed

    Murchison, Nicholas D; Price, Brian A; Conner, David A; Keene, Douglas R; Olson, Eric N; Tabin, Clifford J; Schweitzer, Ronen

    2007-07-01

    The scleraxis (Scx) gene, encoding a bHLH transcription factor, is expressed in the progenitors and cells of all tendon tissues. To determine Scx function, we produced a mutant null allele. Scx-/- mice were viable, but showed severe tendon defects, which manifested in a drastically limited use of all paws and back muscles and a complete inability to move the tail. Interestingly, although the differentiation of all force-transmitting and intermuscular tendons was disrupted, other categories of tendons, the function of which is mainly to anchor muscles to the skeleton, were less affected and remained functional, enabling the viability of Scx-/- mutants. The force-transmitting tendons of the limbs and tail varied in the severity to which they were affected, ranging from dramatic failure of progenitor differentiation resulting in the loss of segments or complete tendons, to the formation of small and poorly organized tendons. Tendon progenitors appeared normal in Scx-/- embryos and a phenotype resulting from a failure in the condensation of tendon progenitors to give rise to distinct tendons was first detected at embryonic day (E)13.5. In the tendons that persisted in Scx-/- mutants, we found a reduced and less organized tendon matrix and disorganization at the cellular level that led to intermixing of tenocytes and endotenon cells. The phenotype of Scx-/- mutants emphasizes the diversity of tendon tissues and represents the first molecular insight into the important process of tendon differentiation.

  19. Planar Cell Polarity Signaling in the Drosophila Eye

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates the establishment of polarity within the plane of an epithelium and allows cells to obtain directional information. Its results are as diverse as the determination of cell fates, the generation of asymmetric but highly aligned structures (e.g., stereocilia in the human ear or hairs on a fly wing), or the directional migration of cells during convergent extension during vertebrate gastrulation. Aberrant PCP establishment can lead to human birth defects or kidney disease. PCP signaling is governed by the noncanonical Wnt or Fz/PCP pathway. Traditionally, PCP establishment has been best studied in Drosophila, mainly due to the versatility of the fly as a genetic model system. In Drosophila, PCP is essential for the orientation of wing and abdominal hairs, the orientation of the division axis of sensory organ precursors, and the polarization of ommatidia in the eye, the latter requiring a highly coordinated movement of groups of photoreceptor cells during the process of ommatidial rotation. Here, I review our current understanding of PCP signaling in the Drosophila eye and allude to parallels in vertebrates. PMID:20959167

  20. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a means to track mesenchymal stem cells in a large animal model of tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Alexandra; Holmes, Shannon; Thoresen, Merrilee; Mumaw, Jennifer; Stumpf, Alaina; Peroni, John

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish an SPIO-based cell-tracking method in an ovine model of tendonitis and to determine if this method may be useful for further study of cellular therapies in tendonitis in vivo. Functional assays were performed on labeled and unlabeled cells to ensure that no significant changes were induced by intracellular SPIOs. Following biosafety validation, tendon lesions were mechanically (n = 4) or chemically (n = 4) induced in four sheep and scanned ex vivo at 7 and 14 days to determine the presence and distribution of intralesional cells. Ovine MSCs labeled with 50 µg SPIOs/mL remained viable, proliferate, and undergo tri-lineage differentiation (p < 0.05). Labeled ovine MSCs remained detectable in vitro in concentrated cell numbers as low as 10 000 and in volumetric distributions as low as 100 000 cells/mL. Cells remained detectable by MRI at 7 days, as confirmed by correlative histology for dually labeled SPIO+/GFP+ cells. Histological evidence at 14 days suggested that SPIO particles remained embedded in tissue, providing MRI signal, although cells were no longer present. SPIO labeling has proven to be an effective method for cell tracking for a large animal model of tendon injury for up to 7 days post-injection. The data obtained in this study justify further investigation into the effects of MSC survival and migration on overall tendon healing and tissue regeneration.

  1. Hypoxia inhibits primary cilia formation and reduces cell-mediated contraction in stress-deprived rat tail tendon fascicles

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Oslapas, Anna N.; Gardner, Keri L.; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoxia, which is associated with chronic tendinopathy, has recently been shown to decrease the mechanosensitivity of some cells. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypoxia on the formation of elongated primary cilia (a mechanosensing organelle of tendon cells) in vitro and to determine the effect of hypoxia on cell-mediated contraction of stress-deprived rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs). Methods Tendon cells isolated from RTTfs were cultured under normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions for 24 hours. The cells were then stained for tubulin and the number of cells with elongated cilia counted. RTTfs from 1-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were also cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions for three days and tendon length measured daily. Results A significant (p=0.002) decrease in the percent of elongated cilia was found in cells maintained in hypoxic conditions (54.1%±12.2) when compared in normoxic conditions (71.7%±6.32). RTTfs in hypoxia showed a significant decrease in the amount of contraction compared to RTTfs in normoxia after two (p=0.007) and three (p=0.001) days. Conclusion The decreased incidence of elongated primary cilia in a hypoxic environment, as well as the decreased mechanoresponsiveness of tendon cells under these conditions may relate to the inability of some cases of chronic tendinopathy to respond to strain-based rehabilitation modalities (i.e. eccentric loading). PMID:27900292

  2. Scleraxis-Lineage Cells Contribute to Ectopic Bone Formation in Muscle and Tendon.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn J; Cholok, David; Peterson, Joshua; Li, John; Breuler, Christopher; Cameron Brownley, R; Hsin Sung, Hsiao; Chung, Michael T; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Li, Shuli; Zhao, Bin; Kaartinen, Vesa; Davis, Thomas A; Qureshi, Ammar T; Schipani, Ernestina; Mishina, Yuji; Levi, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    The pathologic development of heterotopic ossification (HO) is well described in patients with extensive trauma or with hyperactivating mutations of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor ACVR1. However, identification of progenitor cells contributing to this process remains elusive. Here we show that connective tissue cells contribute to a substantial amount of HO anlagen caused by trauma using postnatal, tamoxifen-inducible, scleraxis-lineage restricted reporter mice (Scx-creERT2/tdTomato(fl/fl) ). When the scleraxis-lineage is restricted specifically to adults prior to injury marked cells contribute to each stage of the developing HO anlagen and coexpress markers of endochondral ossification (Osterix, SOX9). Furthermore, these adult preinjury restricted cells coexpressed mesenchymal stem cell markers including PDGFRα, Sca1, and S100A4 in HO. When constitutively active ACVR1 (caACVR1) was expressed in scx-cre cells in the absence of injury (Scx-cre/caACVR1(fl/fl) ), tendons and joints formed HO. Postnatal lineage-restricted, tamoxifen-inducible caACVR1 expression (Scx-creERT2/caACVR1(fl/fl) ) was sufficient to form HO after directed cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. These findings suggest that cells expressing scleraxis within muscle or tendon contribute to HO in the setting of both trauma or hyperactive BMP receptor (e.g., caACVR1) activity. Stem Cells 2017;35:705-710.

  3. Isolation of Undifferentiated Female Germline Cells from Adult Drosophila Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Robyn Su May; Osato, Motomi; Kai, Toshie

    2015-08-03

    This unit describes a method for isolating undifferentiated, stem cell-like germline cells from adult Drosophila ovaries. Here, we demonstrate that this population of cells can be effectively purified from hand-dissected ovaries in considerably large quantities. Tumor ovaries with expanded populations of undifferentiated germline cells are first removed from fly abdomens and dissociated into a cell suspension with the aid of protease treatment. The target cells, which express Vasa-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein under the control of the germline-specific vasa promoter, are specifically selected from the suspension via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). These protocols can be adapted to isolate other cell types from fly ovaries, such as somatic follicle cells or escort cells, by driving GFP expression in the respective target cells.

  4. fringe and Notch specify polar cell fate during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grammont, M; Irvine, K D

    2001-06-01

    fringe encodes a glycosyltransferase that modulates the ability of the Notch receptor to be activated by its ligands. We describe studies of fringe function during early stages of Drosophila oogenesis. Animals mutant for hypomorphic alleles of fringe contain follicles with an incorrect number of germline cells, which are separated by abnormally long and disorganized stalks. Analysis of clones of somatic cells mutant for a null allele of fringe localizes the requirement for fringe in follicle formation to the polar cells, and demonstrates that fringe is required for polar cell fate. Clones of cells mutant for Notch also lack polar cells and the requirement for Notch in follicle formation appears to map to the polar cells. Ectopic expression of fringe or of an activated form of Notch can generate an extra polar cell. Our results indicate that fringe plays a key role in positioning Notch activation during early oogenesis, and establish a function for the polar cells in separating germline cysts into individual follicles.

  5. Electrophysiological Recordings from Lobula Plate Tangential Cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mauss, Alex S; Borst, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila has emerged as an important model organism for the study of the neural basis of behavior. Its main asset is the experimental accessibility of identified neurons by genetic manipulation and physiological recordings. Drosophila therefore offers the opportunity to reach an integrative understanding of the development and neural underpinnings of behavior at all processing stages, from sensing to motor control, in a single species. Here, we will provide an account of the procedures involved in recording the electrical potential of individual neurons in the visual system of adult Drosophila using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. To this end, animals are fixed to a holder and mounted below a recording chamber. The head capsule is cut open and the glial sheath covering the brain is ruptured by a combination of shearing and enzymatic digest. Neuronal somata are thus exposed and targeted by low-resistance patch electrodes. After formation of a high resistance seal, electrical access to the cell is gained by small current pulses and suction. Stable recordings of large neurons are feasible for >1 h and can be combined with controlled visual stimulation as well as genetic and pharmacological manipulation of upstream circuit elements to infer circuit function in great detail.

  6. Wallenda regulates JNK-mediated cell death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X; Xu, W; Zhang, D; Yang, Y; Li, W; Xue, L

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway plays essential roles in regulating a variety of cellular processes including proliferation, migration and survival. Previous genetic studies in Drosophila have identified numerous cell death regulating genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms for related diseases. Despite the known role of the small GTPase Rac1 in regulating cell death, the downstream components and underlying mechanism remain largely elusive. Here, we show that Rac1 promotes JNK-dependent cell death through Wallenda (Wnd). In addition, we find that Wnd triggers JNK activation and cell death via its kinase domain. Moreover, we show that both MKK4 and Hep are critical for Wnd-induced cell death. Furthermore, Wnd is essential for ectopic Egr- or Rho1-induced JNK activation and cell death. Finally, Wnd is physiologically required for loss of scribble-induced JNK-dependent cell death. Thus, our data suggest that wnd encodes a novel essential cell death regulator in Drosophila. PMID:25950467

  7. The Development of Germline Stem Cells in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, David A.; Lasko, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Summary Germline stem cells (GSCs) in Drosophila are a valuable model to explore of how adult stem cells are regulated in vivo. Genetic dissection of this system has shown that stem cell fate is determined and maintained by the stem cell’s somatic microenvironment or niche. In Drosophila gonads, the stem cell niche—the cap cell cluster in females and the hub in males—acts as a signaling center to recruit GSCs from among a small population of undifferentiated primordial germ cells (PGCs). Short-range signals from the niche specify and regulate stem cell fate by maintaining the undifferentiated state of the PGCs next to the niche. Germline cells that do not receive the niche signals because of their location assume the default fate and differentiate. Once GSCs are specified, adherens junctions maintain close association between the stem cells and their niche and help to orient stem cell division so that one daughter is displaced from the niche and differentiates. In females, stem cell fate depends on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals from the cap cells; in males, hub cells express the cytokine-like ligand Unpaired, which activates the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak-Stat) pathway in stem cells. Although the signaling pathways operating between the niche and stem cells are different, there are common general features in both males and females, including the arrangement of cell types, many of the genes used, and the logic of the system that maintains stem cell fate. PMID:18370048

  8. Bam and Bgcn in Drosophila germline stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Perinthottathil, Sreejith; Kim, Changsoo

    2011-01-01

    The female Drosophila reproductive organ, the ovary, has provided researchers with an incisive genetic system with which principle regulation of stem cell maintenance and differentiation has been delineated. An environmental niche regulates a stem cell's asymmetric self-renewal division that produces a daughter stem cell and a differentiated daughter cell, which further differentiate into eggs. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been identified that are required either for stem cell maintenance or differentiation. Bam/Bgcn complex plays a pivotal role in promoting stem cell differentiation. Recent papers suggest that Bam/Bgcn complex regulates translation of important maintenance factors and is also involved in the regulation of microRNA-dependent translational repression. Here, we focus on Bam and Bgcn repression of stem cell maintenance factors in the differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs).

  9. In situ cell-matrix mechanics in tendon fascicles and seeded collagen gels: implications for the multiscale design of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Neil A; Bruehlmann, Sabina B; Hunter, Christopher J; Shao, Xinxin; Kelly, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Designing biomaterials to mimic and function within the complex mechanobiological conditions of connective tissues requires a detailed understanding of the micromechanical environment of the cell. The objective of our study was to measure the in situ cell-matrix strains from applied tension in both tendon fascicles and cell-seeded type I collagen scaffolds using laser scanning confocal microscopy techniques. Tendon fascicles and collagen gels were fluorescently labelled to simultaneously visualise the extracellular matrix and cell nuclei under applied tensile strains of 5%. There were significant differences observed in the micromechanics at the cell-matrix scale suggesting that the type I collagen scaffold did not replicate the pattern of native tendon strains. In particular, although the overall in situ tensile strains in the matrix were quite similar (∼2.5%) between the tendon fascicles and the collagen scaffolds, there were significant differences at the cell-matrix boundary with visible shear across cell nuclei of >1 μm measured in native tendon which was not observed at all in the collagen scaffolds. Similarly, there was significant non-uniformity of intercellular strains with relative sliding observed between cell rows in tendon which again was not observed in the collagen scaffolds where the strain environment was much more uniform. If the native micromechanical environment is not replicated in biomaterial scaffolds, then the cells may receive incorrect or mixed mechanical signals which could affect their biosynthetic response to mechanical load in tissue engineering applications. This study highlights the importance of considering the microscale mechanics in the design of biomaterial scaffolds and the need to incorporate such features in computational models of connective tissues.

  10. PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLE TENDON/SCLERA PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the occurrence of natural cell death in the periocular mesenchyme of mouse embryos.

    Methods: Vital staining with LysoTracker Red and Nile blue sulphate as well as terminal nick end labeling (TUNEL) were utiliz...

  11. Drosophila dyskerin is required for somatic stem cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vicidomini, Rosario; Petrizzo, Arianna; di Giovanni, Annamaria; Cassese, Laura; Lombardi, Antonella Anna; Pragliola, Caterina; Furia, Maria

    2017-03-23

    Drosophila represents an excellent model to dissect the roles played by the evolutionary conserved family of eukaryotic dyskerins. These multifunctional proteins are involved in the formation of H/ACA snoRNP and telomerase complexes, both involved in essential cellular tasks. Since fly telomere integrity is guaranteed by a different mechanism, we used this organism to investigate the specific role played by dyskerin in somatic stem cell maintenance. To this aim, we focussed on Drosophila midgut, a hierarchically organized and well characterized model for stemness analysis. Surprisingly, the ubiquitous loss of the protein uniquely affects the formation of the larval stem cell niches, without altering other midgut cell types. The number of adult midgut precursor stem cells is dramatically reduced, and this effect is not caused by premature differentiation and is cell-autonomous. Moreover, a few dispersed precursors found in the depleted midguts can maintain stem identity and the ability to divide asymmetrically, nor show cell-growth defects or undergo apoptosis. Instead, their loss is mainly specifically dependent on defective amplification. These studies establish a strict link between dyskerin and somatic stem cell maintenance in a telomerase-lacking organism, indicating that loss of stemness can be regarded as a conserved, telomerase-independent effect of dyskerin dysfunction.

  12. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  13. Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field affects proliferation, tissue-specific gene expression, and cytokines release of human tendon cells.

    PubMed

    de Girolamo, L; Stanco, D; Galliera, E; Viganò, M; Colombini, A; Setti, S; Vianello, E; Corsi Romanelli, M M; Sansone, V

    2013-07-01

    Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has proven to be effective in the modulation of bone and cartilage tissue functional responsiveness, but its effect on tendon tissue and tendon cells (TCs) is still underinvestigated. PEMF treatment (1.5 mT, 75 Hz) was assessed on primary TCs, harvested from semitendinosus and gracilis tendons of eight patients, under different experimental conditions (4, 8, 12 h). Quantitative PCR analyses were conducted to identify the possible effect of PEMF on tendon-specific gene transcription (scleraxis, SCX and type I collagen, COL1A1); the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also assessed. Our findings show that PEMF exposure is not cytotoxic and is able to stimulate TCs' proliferation. The increase of SCX and COL1A1 in PEMF-treated cells was positively correlated to the treatment length. The release of anti-inflammatory cytokines in TCs treated with PEMF for 8 and 12 h was significantly higher in comparison with untreated cells, while the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was not affected. A dramatically higher increase of VEGF-A mRNA transcription and of its related protein was observed after PEMF exposure. Our data demonstrated that PEMF positively influence, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation, tendon-specific marker expression, and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factor in a healthy human TCs culture model.

  14. Epigenetic stability increases extensively during Drosophila follicle stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Skora, Andrew D; Spradling, Allan C

    2010-04-20

    Stem and embryonic cells facilitate programming toward multiple daughter cell fates, whereas differentiated cells resist reprogramming and oncogenic transformation. How alterations in the chromatin-based machinery of epigenetic inheritance contribute to these differences remains poorly known. We observed random, heritable changes in GAL4/UAS transgene programming during Drosophila ovarian follicle stem cell differentiation and used them to measure the stage-specific epigenetic stability of gene programming. The frequency of GAL4/UAS reprogramming declines more than 100-fold over the nine divisions comprising this stem cell lineage. Stabilization acts in cis, suggesting that it is chromatin-based, and correlates with increased S phase length. Our results suggest that stem/early progenitor cells cannot accurately transmit nongenetic information to their progeny; full epigenetic competence is acquired only gradually during early differentiation. Modulating epigenetic inheritance may be a critical process controlling transitions between the pleuripotent and differentiated states.

  15. Telomere loss in somatic cells of Drosophila causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, K; Golic, K G

    1999-01-01

    Checkpoint mechanisms that respond to DNA damage in the mitotic cell cycle are necessary to maintain the fidelity of chromosome transmission. These mechanisms must be able to distinguish the normal telomeres of linear chromosomes from double-strand break damage. However, on several occasions, Drosophila chromosomes that lack their normal telomeric DNA have been recovered, raising the issue of whether Drosophila is able to distinguish telomeric termini from nontelomeric breaks. We used site-specific recombination on a dispensable chromosome to induce the formation of a dicentric chromosome and an acentric, telomere-bearing, chromosome fragment in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. The acentric fragment is lost when cells divide and the dicentric breaks, transmitting a chromosome that has lost a telomere to each daughter cell. In the eye imaginal disc, cells with a newly broken chromosome initially experience mitotic arrest and then undergo apoptosis when cells are induced to divide as the eye differentiates. Therefore, Drosophila cells can detect and respond to a single broken chromosome. It follows that transmissible chromosomes lacking normal telomeric DNA nonetheless must possess functional telomeres. We conclude that Drosophila telomeres can be established and maintained by a mechanism that does not rely on the terminal DNA sequence. PMID:10049921

  16. Achilles Tendonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Prevent Achilles Tendonitis? Take these steps to reduce your risk of Achilles tendonitis: Stay in good shape year-round and try to keep your muscles as strong as they can be. Strong, flexible muscles work more efficiently and put less stress on your tendon. Increase the intensity and length ...

  17. Embryonic Mechanical and Soluble Cues Regulate Tendon Progenitor Cell Gene Expression as a Function of Developmental Stage and Anatomical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeffrey P; Finley, Violet G; Kuo, Catherine K

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell-based engineering strategies for tendons have yet to yield a normal functional tissue, due in part to a need for tenogenic factors. Additionally, the ability to evaluate differentiation has been challenged by a lack of markers for differentiation. We propose to inform tendon regeneration with developmental cues involved in normal tissue formation and with phenotypic markers that are characteristic of differentiating tendon progenitor cells (TPCs). Mechanical forces, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 are implicated in embryonic tendon development, yet the isolated effects of these factors on differentiating TPCs are unknown. Additionally, developmental mechanisms vary between limb and axial tendons, suggesting the respective cell types are programmed to respond uniquely to exogenous factors. To characterize developmental cues and benchmarks for differentiation toward limb vs. axial phenotypes, we dynamically loaded and treated TPCs with growth factors and assessed gene expression profiles as a function of developmental stage and anatomical origin. Based on scleraxis expression, TGFβ2 was tenogenic for TPCs at all stages, while loading was for late-stage cells only, and FGF4 had no effect despite regulation of other genes. When factors were combined, TGF 2 continued to be tenogenic, while FGF4 appeared anti-tenogenic. Various treatments elicited distinct responses by axial vs. limb TPCs of specific stages. These results identified tenogenic factors, suggest tendon engineering strategies should be customized for tissues by anatomical origin, and provide stage-specific gene expression profiles of limb and axial TPCs as benchmarks with which to monitor tenogenic differentiation of stem cells. PMID:24231248

  18. The behavior of neuronal cells on tendon-derived collagen sheets as potential substrates for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Kyle A; Hopkins, Amy M; Tang-Schomer, Min D; Kaplan, David L; Xu, Qiaobing

    2014-04-01

    Peripheral nervous system injuries result in a decreased quality of life, and generally require surgical intervention for repair. Currently, the gold standard of nerve autografting, based on the use of host tissue such as sensory nerves is suboptimal as it results in donor-site loss of function and requires a secondary surgery. Nerve guidance conduits fabricated from natural polymers such as collagen are a common alternative to bridge nerve defects. In the present work, tendon sections derived through a process named bioskiving were studied for their potential for use as a substrate to fabricate nerve guidance conduits. We show that cells such as rat Schwann cells adhere, proliferate, and align along the fibrous tendon substrate which has been shown to result in a more mature phenotype. Additionally we demonstrate that chick dorsal root ganglia explants cultured on the tendon grow to similar lengths compared to dorsal root ganglia cultured on collagen gels, but also grow in a more oriented manner on the tendon sections. These results show that tendon sections produced through bioskiving can support directional nerve growth and may be of use as a substrate for the fabrication of nerve guidance conduits.

  19. Radial shock waves effectively introduced NF-kappa B decoy into rat achilles tendon cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Kaori; Nakagawa, Koichi; Murata, Ryo; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasho, Takahisa; Arai, Momoko; Tsuruoka, Hiroaki; Ohtori, Seiji; Saisu, Takashi; Gemba, Takefumi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if radial shock waves could enhance the introduction of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) decoy oligodeoxynucleotides, which is reported to markedly inhibit NF-kappaB activation and suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, using rat Achilles tendon cells. In the presence of NF-kappaB decoy labeled with or without fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in culture media, radial shock waves were applied to the tendon cells in variable conditions and cultivated for 24 h. The transfection rate was assessed by counting FITC-positive cells, and IL-1-induced NF-kappaB activation in the cells was assessed. Radial shock waves significantly enhanced introduction of NF-kappaB decoy-FITC into the tendon cells. IL-1-induced NF-kappaB activation was significantly inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with NF-kappaB decoy combined with radial shock wave exposure. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of radial shock waves on introduction of NF-kappaB decoy into tendon cells. Radial shock wave treatment combined with local NF-kappaB decoy administration could be a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic tendinopathy.

  20. Dexamethasone inhibits the differentiation of rat tendon stem cells into tenocytes by targeting the scleraxis gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan; Tang, Hong; Zhou, Mei; Hu, Chao; Zhang, Jiqiang; Tang, Kanglai

    2015-08-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced tendon rupture is very common in clinical practice, and the overall outcome of surgical suture repair is rather poor. The mechanism remains unclear, and effective treatments are still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dexamethasone on the differentiation of rat tendon stem cells (TSCs) to tenocytes and the underlying molecular mechanisms and found that dexamethasone inhibits the differentiation of TSCs to tenocytes by analyzing the development of long, spindle-shaped cells and detecting the expression of tenocyte markers type I collagen and tenomodulin (TNMD) at both the mRNA and protein levels. We also discovered that after treatment with dexamethasone, the scleraxis expression level is downregulated in vitro and in human specimen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR showed that dexamethasone promotes glucocorticoid receptor interacted with the TGGAAGCC sequence located between -734 and -726 base pairs (bp) upstream of the start codon of the scleraxis gene. Furthermore, TSCs were transfected with scleraxis knockdown or overexpression plasmids, and the results indicated that scleraxis plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of TSCs to tenocytes. In conclusion, dexamethasone inhibits the differentiation of TSCs to tenocytes by inhibiting the scleraxis gene.

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament- and hamstring tendon-derived cells: in vitro differential properties of cells involved in ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ghebes, Corina Adriana; Kelder, Cindy; Schot, Thomas; Renard, Auke J; Pakvis, Dean F M; Fernandes, Hugo; Saris, Daniel B

    2015-03-11

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction involves the replacement of the torn ligament with a new graft, often a hamstring tendon (HT). Described as similar, the ACL and HT have intrinsic differences related to their distinct anatomical locations. From a cellular perspective, identifying these differences represents a step forward in the search for new cues that enhance recovery after the reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotype and multilineage potential of ACL- and HT-derived cells. ACL- and HT-derived cells were isolated from tissue harvest from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or ACL reconstruction. In total, three ACL and three HT donors were investigated. Cell morphology, self-renewal potential (CFU-F), surface marker profiling, expression of tendon/ligament-related markers (PCR) and multilineage potential were analysed for both cell types; both had fibroblast-like morphology and low self-renewal potential. No differences in the expression of tendon/ligament-related genes or a selected set of surface markers were observed between the two cell types. However, differences in their multilineage potential were observed: while ACL-derived cells showed a high potential to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes, but not osteoblasts, HT-derived cells showed poor potential to form adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrated that HT-derived cells have low multilineage potential compared to ACL-derived cells, further highlighting the need for extrinsic signals to fully restore the function of the ACL upon reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mechanical Actuation Systems for the Phenotype Commitment of Stem Cell-Based Tendon and Ligament Tissue Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Marco; Muscari, Claudio; Lovecchio, Joseph; Guarnieri, Carlo; Giordano, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    High tensile forces transmitted by tendons and ligaments make them susceptible to tearing or complete rupture. The present standard reparative technique is the surgical implantation of auto- or allografts, which often undergo failure.Currently, different cell types and biomaterials are used to design tissue engineered substitutes. Mechanical stimulation driven by dedicated devices can precondition these constructs to a remarkable degree, mimicking the local in vivo environment. A large number of dynamic culture instruments have been developed and many appealing results collected. Of the cells that have been used, tendon stem cells are the most promising for a reliable stretch-induced tenogenesis, but their reduced availability represents a serious limitation to upscaled production. Biomaterials used for scaffold fabrication include both biological molecules and synthetic polymers, the latter being improved by nanotechnologies which reproduce the architecture of native tendons. In addition to cell type and scaffold material, other variables which must be defined in mechanostimulation protocols are the amplitude, frequency, duration and direction of the applied strain. The ideal conditions seem to be those producing intermittent tension rather than continuous loading. In any case, all physical parameters must be adapted to the specific response of the cells used and the tensile properties of the scaffold. Tendon/ligament grafts in animals usually have the advantage of mechanical preconditioning, especially when uniaxial cyclic forces are applied to cells engineered into natural or decellularized scaffolds. However, due to the scarcity of in vivo research, standard protocols still need to be defined for clinical applications.

  3. Regeneration of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound-Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full-thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit’s activity. At 4 weeks after ultrasound-guided UCB-derived MSC injection, 7 of the 10 full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were only partial-thickness tears, and 3 remained full-thickness tendon tears. The tendon tear size and walking capacity at 4 weeks after UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance were significantly improved compared with the same parameters immediately after tendon tear. UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB-derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tear and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In this study, ultrasound-guided injection of human UCB-derived MSCs contributed to regeneration of the full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear without surgical repair. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of local injection of MSCs into the rotator cuff tendon. Significance The results of this study suggest that ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair. PMID:26371340

  4. Biased DNA segregation in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2013-01-01

    The immortal strand hypothesis, which emerged four decades ago, proposes that certain cells retain a template copy of chromosomal DNA to protect against replication-induced mutations. As the interest in stem cells rose in recent years, researchers speculated that stem cells, which must maintain proliferative capacity throughout the life of the organism, may be the population that most needs the strong protection afforded by immortal strand segregation. Alternative hypotheses have also been proposed to explain observed non-random sister chromatid segregation. We recently found that Drosophila male germline stem cells segregate sister chromatids non-randomly, but such bias was limited to the sex chromosomes. Interestingly, the biased segregation does not lead to immortal strand segregation. We will discuss the implications of this observation and molecular mechanisms, which might be applicable to non-random sister chromatid segregation in other systems as well.

  5. Analysis of chromatin boundary activity in Drosophila cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mo; Belozerov, Vladimir E; Cai, Haini N

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromatin boundaries, also known as insulators, regulate gene activity by organizing active and repressive chromatin domains and modulate enhancer-promoter interactions. However, the mechanisms of boundary action are poorly understood, in part due to our limited knowledge about insulator proteins, and a shortage of standard assays by which diverse boundaries could be compared. Results We report here the development of an enhancer-blocking assay for studying insulator activity in Drosophila cultured cells. We show that the activities of diverse Drosophila insulators including suHw, SF1, SF1b, Fab7 and Fab8 are supported in these cells. We further show that double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown of SuHw and dCTCF factors disrupts the enhancer-blocking function of suHw and Fab8, respectively, thereby establishing the effectiveness of using RNA interference in our cell-based assay for probing insulator function. Conclusion The novel boundary assay provides a quantitative and efficient method for analyzing insulator mechanism and can be further exploited in genome-wide RNAi screens for insulator components. It provides a useful tool that complements the transgenic and genetic approaches for studying this important class of regulatory elements. PMID:19077248

  6. Visualization of adult stem cells within their niches using the Drosophila germline as a model system.

    PubMed

    König, Annekatrin; Shcherbata, Halyna R

    2013-01-01

    The germaria of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster present an excellent model to study germline stem cell-niche interactions. Two to three adult stem cells are surrounded by a number of somatic cells that form the niche. Here we describe how Drosophilae germaria can be dissected and specifically immuno-stained to allow for identification and analysis of both the adult stem cells and their somatic niche cells.

  7. New Twists in Drosophila Cell Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2016-04-08

    The discovery of a handful of conserved signaling pathways that dictate most aspects of embryonic and post-embryonic development of multicellular organisms has generated a universal view of animal development (Perrimon, N., Pitsouli, C., and Shilo, B. Z. (2012)Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol.4, a005975). Although we have at hand most of the "hardware" elements that mediate cell communication events that dictate cell fate choices, we are still far from a comprehensive mechanistic understanding of these processes. One of the next challenges entails an analysis of developmental signaling pathways from the cell biology perspective. Where in the cell does signaling take place, and how do general cellular machineries and structures contribute to the regulation of developmental signaling? Another challenge is to examine these signaling pathways from a quantitative perspective, rather than as crude on/off switches. This requires more precise measurements, and incorporation of the time element to generate a dynamic sequence instead of frozen snapshots of the process. The quantitative outlook also brings up the issue of precision, and the unknown mechanisms that buffer variability in signaling between embryos, to produce a robust and reproducible output. Although these issues are universal to all multicellular organisms, they can be effectively tackled in theDrosophilamodel, by a combination of genetic manipulations, biochemical analyses, and a variety of imaging techniques. This review will present some of the recent advances that were accomplished by utilizing the versatility of theDrosophilasystem.

  8. A possible link between loading, inflammation and healing: Immune cell populations during tendon healing in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Blomgran, Parmis; Blomgran, Robert; Ernerudh, Jan; Aspenberg, Per

    2016-01-01

    Loading influences tendon healing, and so does inflammation. We hypothesized that the two are connected. 48 rats underwent Achilles tendon transection. Half of the rats received Botox injections into calf muscles to reduce mechanical loading. Cells from the regenerating tissue were analyzed by flow cytometry. In the loaded group, the regenerating tissue contained 83% leukocytes (CD45+) day 1, and 23% day 10. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio (CCR7/CD206) peaked at day 3, while T helper (CD3+CD4+) and Treg cells (CD25+ Foxp3+) increased over time. With Botox, markers associated with down-regulation of inflammation were more common day 5 (CD163, CD206, CD25, Foxp3), and M1 or M2 macrophages and Treg cells were virtually absent day 10, while still present with full loading. The primary variable, CCR7/CD206 ratio day 5, was higher with full loading (p = 0.001) and the Treg cell fraction was lower (p < 0.001). Free cage activity loading is known to increase size and strength of the tendon in this model compared to Botox. Loading now appeared to delay the switch to an M2 type of inflammation with more Treg cells. It seems a prolonged M1 phase due to loading might make the tendon regenerate bigger. PMID:27405922

  9. Development of a Drosophila cell-based error correction assay.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Jeffrey D; McGilvray, Philip T; Maresca, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Accurate transmission of the genome through cell division requires microtubules from opposing spindle poles to interact with protein super-structures called kinetochores that assemble on each sister chromatid. Most kinetochores establish erroneous attachments that are destabilized through a process called error correction. Failure to correct improper kinetochore-microtubule (kt-MT) interactions before anaphase onset results in chromosomal instability (CIN), which has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor adaptation. Thus, it is important to characterize the molecular basis of error correction to better comprehend how CIN occurs and how it can be modulated. An error correction assay has been previously developed in cultured mammalian cells in which incorrect kt-MT attachments are created through the induction of monopolar spindle assembly via chemical inhibition of kinesin-5. Error correction is then monitored following inhibitor wash out. Implementing the error correction assay in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells would be valuable because kt-MT attachments are easily visualized and the cells are highly amenable to RNAi and high-throughput screening. However, Drosophila kinesin-5 (Klp61F) is unaffected by available small molecule inhibitors. To overcome this limitation, we have rendered S2 cells susceptible to kinesin-5 inhibitors by functionally replacing Klp61F with human kinesin-5 (Eg5). Eg5 expression rescued the assembly of monopolar spindles typically caused by Klp61F depletion. Eg5-mediated bipoles collapsed into monopoles due, in part, to kinesin-14 (Ncd) activity when treated with the kinesin-5 inhibitor S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC). Furthermore, bipolar spindles reassembled and error correction was observed after STLC wash out. Importantly, error correction in Eg5-expressing S2 cells was dependent on the well-established error correction kinase Aurora B. This system provides a powerful new cell-based platform for studying error correction and CIN.

  10. Strategies to engineer tendon/ligament-to-bone interface: Biomaterials, cells and growth factors.

    PubMed

    Font Tellado, Sonia; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Van Griensven, Martijn

    2015-11-01

    Integration between tendon/ligament and bone occurs through a specialized tissue interface called enthesis. The complex and heterogeneous structure of the enthesis is essential to ensure smooth mechanical stress transfer between bone and soft tissues. Following injury, the interface is not regenerated, resulting in high rupture recurrence rates. Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for the regeneration of a functional enthesis. However, the complex structural and cellular composition of the native interface makes enthesis tissue engineering particularly challenging. Thus, it is likely that a combination of biomaterials and cells stimulated with appropriate biochemical and mechanical cues will be needed. The objective of this review is to describe the current state-of-the-art, challenges and future directions in the field of enthesis tissue engineering focusing on four key parameters: (1) scaffold and biomaterials, (2) cells, (3) growth factors and (4) mechanical stimuli.

  11. The Dynamics in Epithelial Cell Intercalation in Drosophila Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Fred; Reichl, Lars; Kong, Deqing; Zhang, Yujun; Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob; Großhans, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    Epithelial cell rearrangement is important for many processes in morphogenesis. During germband extension in early gastrulation of Drosophila embryos, exchange of neighbors is achieved by junction remodeling that follows a topological T1 process. Its first step is the constriction of dorsal-ventral junctions and fusion of two 3x vertices into a 4x vertex a process believed to be junction autonomous. We established a high throughput imaging pipeline, by which we recorded, segmented and analysed more than 1000 neighbor exchanges in drosophila embryos. Characterizing the dynamics of junction lengths we find that the constriction of cell contacts follows intriguingly simple quantitative laws. (1) The mean contact length decreases approximately as a square root of time to collapse. (2) The time dependent variance of contact lengths is proportional to the square of the mean. (3) The time dependent probability density of the contact lengths remains close to Gaussian during the entire process. These observations are sufficient to derive a stochastic differential equation for contact length that captures the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of contact collapse. Supported by the German Research Foundation.

  12. Steroid signaling promotes stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijie; Ma, Qing; Cherry, Christopher M; Matunis, Erika L

    2014-10-01

    Stem cell regulation by local signals is intensely studied, but less is known about the effects of hormonal signals on stem cells. In Drosophila, the primary steroid twenty-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) but was considered dispensable for testis GSC maintenance. Male GSCs reside in a microenvironment (niche) generated by somatic hub cells and adjacent cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show that depletion of 20E from adult males by overexpressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle (usp) causes GSC and CySC loss that is rescued by 20E feeding, uncovering a requirement for 20E in stem cell maintenance. EcR and USP are expressed, activated and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling. Global inactivation of EcR increases cell death in the testis that is rescued by expression of EcR-B2 in the CySC lineage, indicating that ecdysone signaling supports stem cell viability primarily through a specific receptor isoform. Finally, EcR genetically interacts with the NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, which we previously showed maintains CySCs. Thus, although 20E levels are lower in males than females, ecdysone signaling acts through distinct cell types and effectors to ensure both ovarian and testis stem cell maintenance.

  13. Male germline stem cell division and spermatocyte growth require insulin signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ueishi, Satoru; Shimizu, Hanako; H Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Spermatogenesis in Drosophila commences with cell division of germline stem cells (GSCs) to produce male germline cells at the tip of the testis. However, molecular mechanisms inducing division of male GSCs have not been reported. Insulin-like peptides are known to play an essential role in stimulation of proliferation and growth of somatic cells, and it has recently been reported that such peptides promote cell division in female Drosophila GSCs. However, their effects on male germline cells have not been characterized. We found that inhibition of insulin production and insulin signaling mutations resulted in decreased numbers of germline cells in Drosophila testes. GSC numbers were maintained in young mutant males, with a gradual decrease in abundance of GSCs with age. Furthermore, in mutants, fewer germline cysts originated from GSCs and a lower frequency of GSC division was seen. Insulin signaling was found to promote cell cycle progression of the male GSCs at the G(2)/M phase. The cell volume of spermatocytes increases up to 25 times before initiation of meiosis in Drosophila. We examined whether insulin signaling extrinsically induces the greatest cell growth in Drosophila diploid cells and found that spermatocyte growth was affected in mutants. The results indicate that in addition to its function in somatic cells, insulin signaling plays an essential role in cell proliferation and growth during male Drosophila gametogenesis and that sperm production is regulated by hormonal control via insulin-like peptides.

  14. Life span extension and neuronal cell protection by Drosophila nicotinamidase.

    PubMed

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F A; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-10-10

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival.

  15. Comparison of Morphology, Orientation, and Migration of Tendon Derived Fibroblasts and Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Electrochemically Aligned Collagen Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Cheng, Xingguo; Kishore, Vipuil; Uquillas, Jorge Alfredo; Akkus, Ozan

    2010-01-01

    There are approximately 33 million injuries involving musculoskeletal tissues (including tendons and ligaments) every year in the United States. In certain cases the tendons and ligaments are damaged irreversibly and require replacements that possess the natural functional properties of these tissues. As a biomaterial, collagen has been a key ingredient in tissue engineering scaffolds. The application range of collagen in tissue engineering would be greatly broadened if the assembly process could be better controlled to facilitate the synthesis of dense, oriented tissue-like constructs. An electrochemical method has recently been developed in our laboratory to form highly oriented and densely packed collagen bundles with mechanical strength approaching that of tendons. However, there is limited information whether this electrochemically aligned collagen bundle (ELAC) presents advantages over randomly oriented bundles in terms of cell response. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the biocompatibility of the collagen bundles in vitro, and compare tendon derived fibroblasts (TDFs) and bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) in terms of their ability to populate and migrate on the single and braided ELAC bundles. The results indicated that the ELAC was not cytotoxic; both cell types were able to populate and migrate on the ELAC bundles more efficiently than that observed for random collagen bundles. The braided ELAC constructs were efficiently populated by both TDFs and MSCs in vitro. Therefore, both TDFs and MSCs can be used with the ELAC bundles for tissue engineering purposes. PMID:20694974

  16. Neuralized functions cell autonomously to regulate Drosophila sense organ development.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E; Zhou, L; Rudzik, N; Boulianne, G L

    2000-09-01

    Neurogenic genes, including Notch and Delta, are thought to play important roles in regulating cell-cell interactions required for Drosophila sense organ development. To define the requirement of the neurogenic gene neuralized (neu) in this process, two independent neu alleles were used to generate mutant clones. We find that neu is required for determination of cell fates within the proneural cluster and that cells mutant for neu autonomously adopt neural fates when adjacent to wild-type cells. Furthermore, neu is required within the sense organ lineage to determine the fates of daughter cells and accessory cells. To gain insight into the mechanism by which neu functions, we used the GAL4/UAS system to express wild-type and epitope-tagged neu constructs. We show that Neu protein is localized primarily at the plasma membrane. We propose that the function of neu in sense organ development is to affect the ability of cells to receive Notch-Delta signals and thus modulate neurogenic activity that allows for the specification of non-neuronal cell fates in the sense organ.

  17. Tendon's ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon's components.

  18. Organelle Transport in Cultured Drosophila Cells: S2 Cell Line and Primary Neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

  19. Mechanisms of programmed cell death during oogenesis in Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Velentzas, Athanassios D; Nezis, Ioannis P; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Papassideri, Issidora S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2007-02-01

    We describe the features of programmed cell death occurring in the egg chambers of Drosophila virilis during mid-oogenesis and late oogenesis. During mid-oogenesis, the spontaneously degenerating egg chambers exhibit typical characteristics of apoptotic cell death. As revealed by propidium iodide, rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin staining, and the TUNEL assay, respectively, the nurse cells contain condensed chromatin, altered actin cytoskeleton, and fragmented DNA. In vitro caspase activity assays and immunostaining procedures demonstrate that the atretic egg chambers possess high levels of caspase activity. Features of autophagic cell death are also observed during D. virilis mid-oogenesis, as shown by monodansylcadaverine staining, together with an ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy. During the late stages of oogenesis in D. virilis, once again, the two mechanisms, viz., nurse cell cluster apoptosis and autophagy, operate together, manifesting features of cell death similar to those detailed above. Moreover, an altered form of cytochrome c seems to be released from the mitochondria in the nurse cells proximal to the oocyte. We propose that apoptosis and autophagy function synergistically during oogenesis in D. virilis in order to achieve a more efficient elimination of the degenerated nurse cells and abnormal egg chambers.

  20. Volumetric Measurements of Amnioserosa Cells in Developing Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashburn, David; Jayasinghe, Aroshan; Hutson, Shane

    2013-03-01

    The behavior of cells in tissue in developing Drosophila melanogaster has become increasingly clearer over the past few decades, in large part due to advances in imaging techniques, genetic markers, predictive modeling, and micromanipulation (notably laser microsurgery). We now know apical contractions in amnioserosa cells are a significant factor in large scale processes like germ band retraction and dorsal closure. Also, laser microsurgery induces cellular recoil that strongly mimics a 2D elastic sheet. Still, what we know about these processes comes entirely from the apical surface where the standard fluorescent markers like cadherin are located, but many open questions exist concerning the remaining ``dark'' portion of cells. Does cell volume remain constant during contraction or do cells leak? Also, what shape changes do cells undergo? Do they bulge, wedge, contract prismatically, or something else? By using a marker that labels the entire membrane of amnioserosa cells (Resille, 117) and adapting our watershed segmentation routines for 4D datasets, we have been able to quantify the entire volumetric region of cells in tissue through time and compare changes in apical area and volume. Preliminary results suggest a fairly constant volume over the course of a contraction cycle.

  1. A Cell-Level Biomechanical Model of Drosophila Dorsal Closure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiming; Feng, James J.; Pismen, Len M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a model describing the various stages of dorsal closure of Drosophila. Inspired by experimental observations, we represent the amnioserosa by 81 hexagonal cells that are coupled mechanically through the position of the nodes and the elastic forces on the edges. In addition, each cell has radial spokes representing actin filaments on which myosin motors can attach and exert contractile forces on the nodes, the attachment being controlled by a signaling molecule. Thus, the model couples dissipative cell and tissue motion with kinetic equations describing the myosin and signal dynamics. In the early phase, amnioserosa cells oscillate as a result of coupling among the chemical signaling, myosin attachment/detachment, and mechanical deformation of neighboring cells. In the slow phase, we test two ratcheting mechanisms suggested by experiments: an internal ratchet by the apical and junctional myosin condensates, and an external one by the supracellular actin cables encircling the amnioserosa. Within the range of parameters tested, the model predictions suggest the former as the main contributor to cell and tissue area reduction in this stage. In the fast phase of dorsal closure, cell pulsation is arrested, and the cell and tissue areas contract consistently. This is realized in the model by gradually shrinking the resting length of the spokes. Overall, the model captures the key features of dorsal closure through the three distinct phases, and its predictions are in good agreement with observations. PMID:23283225

  2. Planar cell polarity: the Dachsous/Fat system contributes differently to the embryonic and larval stages of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Pedro; Brittle, Amy; Palacios, Isabel M.; Strutt, David; Casal, José; Lawrence, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The epidermal patterns of all three larval instars (L1–L3) of Drosophila are made by one unchanging set of cells. The seven rows of cuticular denticles of all larval stages are consistently planar polarised, some pointing forwards, others backwards. In L1 all the predenticles originate at the back of the cells but, in L2 and L3, they form at the front or the back of the cell depending on the polarity of the forthcoming denticles. We find that, to polarise all rows, the Dachsous/Fat system is differentially utilised; in L1 it is active in the placement of the actin-based predenticles but is not crucial for the final orientation of the cuticular denticles, in L2 and L3 it is needed for placement and polarity. We find Four-jointed to be strongly expressed in the tendon cells and show how this might explain the orientation of all seven rows. Unexpectedly, we find that L3 that lack Dachsous differ from larvae lacking Fat and we present evidence that this is due to differently mislocalised Dachs. We make some progress in understanding how Dachs contributes to phenotypes of wildtype and mutant larvae and adults. PMID:26935392

  3. Sex, stem cells and tumors in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Salz, Helen K

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene encodes a female-specific RNA binding protein that in somatic cells globally regulates all aspects of female-specific development and behavior. Sxl also has a critical, but less well understood, role in female germ cells. Germ cells without Sxl protein can adopt a stem cell fate when housed in a normal ovary, but fail to successfully execute the self-renewal differentiation fate switch. The failure to differentiate is accompanied by the inappropriate expression of a set of male specific markers, continued proliferation, and formation of a tumor. The findings in Chau et al., (2012) identify the germline stem cell maintenance factor nanos as one of its target genes, and suggest that Sxl enables the switch from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell by posttranscriptional downregulation of nanos expression. These studies provide the basis for a new model in which Sxl directly couples sexual identity with the self-renewal differentiation decision and raises several interesting questions about the genesis of the tumor phenotype.

  4. Epithelial neoplasia in Drosophila entails switch to primitive cell states.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sumbul J; Bajpai, Anjali; Alam, Mohammad Atif; Gupta, Ram P; Harsh, Sneh; Pandey, Ravi K; Goel-Bhattacharya, Surbhi; Nigam, Aditi; Mishra, Arati; Sinha, Pradip

    2013-06-11

    Only select cell types in an organ display neoplasia when targeted oncogenically. How developmental lineage hierarchies of these cells prefigure their neoplastic propensities is not yet well-understood. Here we show that neoplastic Drosophila epithelial cells reverse their developmental commitments and switch to primitive cell states. In a context of alleviated tissue surveillance, for example, loss of Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) tumor suppressor in the wing primordium induced epithelial neoplasia in its Homothorax (Hth)-expressing proximal domain. Transcriptional profile of proximally transformed mosaic wing epithelium and functional tests revealed tumor cooperation by multiple signaling pathways. In contrast, lgl(-) clones in the Vestigial (Vg)-expressing distal wing epithelium were eliminated by cell death. Distal lgl(-) clones, however, could transform when both tissue surveillance and cell death were compromised genetically and, alternatively, when the transcription cofactor of Hippo signaling pathway, Yorkie (Yki), was activated, or when Ras/EGFR signaling was up-regulated. Furthermore, transforming distal lgl(-) clones displayed loss of Vg, suggesting reversal of their terminal cell fate commitment. In contrast, reinforcing a distal (wing) cell fate commitment in lgl(-) clones by gaining Vg arrested their neoplasia and induced cell death. We also show that neoplasia in both distal and proximal lgl(-) clones could progress in the absence of Hth, revealing Hth-independent wing epithelial neoplasia. Likewise, neoplasia in the eye primordium resulted in loss of Elav, a retinal cell marker; these, however, switched to an Hth-dependent primitive cell state. These results suggest a general characteristic of "cells-of-origin" in epithelial cancers, namely their propensity for switch to primitive cell states.

  5. Tissue growth and tumorigenesis in Drosophila: cell polarity and the Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Helena E; Portela, Marta

    2017-03-28

    Cell polarity regulation is critical for defining membrane domains required for the establishment and maintenance of the apical-basal axis in epithelial cells (apico-basal polarity), asymmetric cell divisions, planar organization of tissues (planar cell polarity), and the formation of the front-rear axis in cell migration (front-rear polarity). In the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, cell polarity regulators also interact with the Hippo tissue growth control signaling pathway. In this review we survey the recent Drosophila literature linking cell polarity regulators with the Hippo pathway in epithelial tissue growth, neural stem cell asymmetric divisions and in cell migration in physiological and tumorigenic settings.

  6. Slit/Robo signaling regulates cell fate decisions in the intestinal stem cell lineage of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Biteau, Benoît; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-26

    In order to maintain tissue homeostasis, cell fate decisions within stem cell lineages have to respond to the needs of the tissue. This coordination of lineage choices with regenerative demand remains poorly characterized. Here, we identify a signal from enteroendocrine cells (EEs) that controls lineage specification in the Drosophila intestine. We find that EEs secrete Slit, a ligand for the Robo2 receptor in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that limits ISC commitment to the endocrine lineage, establishing negative feedback control of EE regeneration. Furthermore, we show that this lineage decision is made within ISCs and requires induction of the transcription factor Prospero in ISCs. Our work identifies a function for the conserved Slit/Robo pathway in the regulation of adult stem cells, establishing negative feedback control of ISC lineage specification as a critical strategy to preserve tissue homeostasis. Our results further amend the current understanding of cell fate commitment within the Drosophila ISC lineage.

  7. Achilles Tendonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... up. Tight calf muscles or muscles that lack flexibility decrease a person's range of motion and put an extra strain on the tendon. Running or exercising on a hard or uneven surface or doing lunges or plyometrics without adequate training. A traumatic injury to the Achilles tendon. How ...

  8. Induction temperature of human heat shock factor is reprogrammed in a Drosophila cell environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clos, Joachim; Rabindran, Sridhar; Wisniewski, Jan; Wu, Carl

    1993-07-01

    HEAT shock factor (HSF)1,2, the transcriptional activator of eukaryotic heat shock genes, is induced to bind DNA by a monomer to trimer transition involving leucine zipper interactions3,4. Although this mode of regulation is shared among many eukaryotic species, there is variation in the temperature at which HSF binding activity is induced. We investigated the basis of this variation by analysing the response of a human HSF expressed in Drosophila cells and Drosophila HSF expressed in human cells. We report here that the temperature that induces DNA binding and trimerization of human HSF in Drosophila was decreased by ~10 °C to the induction temperature for the host cell, whereas Drosophila HSF expressed in human cells was constitutively active. The results indicate that the activity of HSF in vivo is not a simple function of the absolute environmental temperature.

  9. Mapping signaling pathway cross-talk in Drosophila cells

    PubMed Central

    Ammeux, Noemie; Housden, Benjamin E.; Georgiadis, Andrew; Hu, Yanhui; Perrimon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    During development and homeostasis, cells integrate multiple signals originating either from neighboring cells or systemically. In turn, responding cells can produce signals that act in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine manner. Although the nature of the signals and pathways used in cell–cell communication are well characterized, we lack, in most cases, an integrative view of signaling describing the spatial and temporal interactions between pathways (e.g., whether the signals are processed sequentially or concomitantly when two pathways are required for a specific outcome). To address the extent of cross-talk between the major metazoan signaling pathways, we characterized immediate transcriptional responses to either single- or multiple pathway stimulations in homogeneous Drosophila cell lines. Our study, focusing on seven core pathways, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Jun kinase (JNK), JAK/STAT, Notch, Insulin, and Wnt, revealed that many ligands and receptors are primary targets of signaling pathways, highlighting that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding pathway components is a major level of signaling cross-talk. In addition, we found that ligands and receptors can integrate multiple pathway activities and adjust their transcriptional responses accordingly. PMID:27528688

  10. Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair. PMID:22190961

  11. Two Drosophila retrotransposon gypsy subfamilies differ in ability to produce new DNA copies via reverse transcription in Drosophila cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lyubomirskaya, N V; Avedisov, S N; Surkov, S A; Ilyin, Y V

    1993-01-01

    Plasmid DNA constructs containing 5' end truncated retrotransposon gypsy were introduced into Drosophila cultured cells. Appearance of new complete DNA copies with reconstructed via reverse transcription 5'LTR were detected by PCR after transient expression and by Southern blot analysis of genome DNA of stably transformed cells. Two gypsy subfamilies supposed to be different in transpositional activity were analyzed in terms of their ability to produce new DNA copies via reverse transcription in D. hydei cultured cells. It was demonstrated that both gypsy variants undergo retrotransposition but with different efficiency. Images PMID:7688116

  12. The role of microvesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells in tissue regeneration; a dream for tendon repair?

    PubMed Central

    Tetta, Ciro; Consiglio, Anna Lange; Bruno, Stefania; Tetta, Emanuele; Gatti, Emanuele; Dobreva, Miryana; Cremonesi, Fausto; Camussi, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tendon injuries represent even today a challenge as repair may be exceedingly slow and incomplete. Regenerative medicine and stem cell technology have shown to be of great promise. Here, we will review the current knowledge on the mechanisms of the regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from different sources (bone marrow, fat, cord blood, placenta). More specifically, we will devote attention to the current use of MSCs that have been used experimentally and in limited numbers of clinical cases for the surgical treatment of subchondral-bone cysts, bone-fracture repair and cartilage repair. Based on the recently emerging role in regenerative mechanisms of soluble factors and of extracellular vesicles, we will discuss the potential of non-cellular therapies in horse tendon injuries. PMID:23738299

  13. Acentrosomal Drosophila epithelial cells exhibit abnormal cell division, leading to cell death and compensatory proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, John S; Cuningham, John C; Peifer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitotic spindles are critical for accurate chromosome segregation. Centrosomes, the primary microtubule nucleating centers of animal cells, play key roles in forming and orienting mitotic spindles. However, the survival of Drosophila without centrosomes suggested they are dispensable in somatic cells, challenging the canonical view. We used fly wing disc epithelia as a model to resolve these conflicting hypotheses, revealing that centrosomes play vital roles in spindle assembly, function, and orientation. Many acentrosomal cells exhibit prolonged spindle assembly, chromosome mis-segregation, DNA damage, misoriented divisions, and eventual apoptosis. We found that multiple mechanisms buffer the effects of centrosome loss, including alternative microtubule nucleation pathways and the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint. Apoptosis of acentrosomal cells is mediated by JNK signaling, which also drives compensatory proliferation to maintain tissue integrity and viability. These data reveal the importance of centrosomes in fly epithelia, but also demonstrate the robust compensatory mechanisms at the cellular and organismal level. PMID:25241934

  14. Diverse Hormone Response Networks in 41 Independent Drosophila Cell Lines

    DOE PAGES

    Stoiber, Marcus; Celniker, Susan; Cherbas, Lucy; ...

    2016-01-15

    Steroid hormones induce cascades of gene activation and repression with transformative effects on cell fate . Steroid transduction plays a major role in the development and physiology of nearly all metazoan species, and in the progression of the most common forms of cancer. Despite the paramount importance of steroids in developmental and translational biology, a complete map of transcriptional response has not been developed for any hormone . In the case of 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) in Drosophila melanogaster, these trajectories range from apoptosis to immortalization. We mapped the ecdysone transduction network in a cohort of 41 cell lines, the largest suchmore » atlas yet assembled. We found that the early transcriptional response mirrors the distinctiveness of physiological origins: genes respond in restricted patterns, conditional on the expression levels of dozens of transcription factors. Only a small cohort of genes is constitutively modulated independent of initial cell state. Ecdysone-responsive genes tend to organize into directional same-stranded units, with consecutive genes induced from the same strand. Here, we identify half of the ecdysone receptor heterodimer as the primary rate-limiting step in the response, and find that initial receptor isoform levels modulate the activated cohort of target transcription factors. In conclusion, this atlas of steroid response reveals organizing principles of gene regulation by a model type II nuclear receptor and lays the foundation for comprehensive and predictive understanding of the ecdysone transduction network in the fruit fly.« less

  15. Haemocytes control stem cell activity in the Drosophila intestine.

    PubMed

    Ayyaz, Arshad; Li, Hongjie; Jasper, Heinrich

    2015-06-01

    Coordination of stem cell activity with inflammatory responses is critical for regeneration and homeostasis of barrier epithelia. The temporal sequence of cell interactions during injury-induced regeneration is only beginning to be understood. Here we show that intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are regulated by macrophage-like haemocytes during the early phase of regenerative responses of the Drosophila intestinal epithelium. On tissue damage, haemocytes are recruited to the intestine and secrete the BMP homologue DPP, inducing ISC proliferation by activating the type I receptor Saxophone and the Smad homologue SMOX. Activated ISCs then switch their response to DPP by inducing expression of Thickveins, a second type I receptor that has previously been shown to re-establish ISC quiescence by activating MAD. The interaction between haemocytes and ISCs promotes infection resistance, but also contributes to the development of intestinal dysplasia in ageing flies. We propose that similar interactions influence pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer in humans.

  16. Diverse Hormone Response Networks in 41 Independent Drosophila Cell Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Stoiber, Marcus; Celniker, Susan; Cherbas, Lucy; Brown, Ben; Cherbas, Peter

    2016-01-15

    Steroid hormones induce cascades of gene activation and repression with transformative effects on cell fate . Steroid transduction plays a major role in the development and physiology of nearly all metazoan species, and in the progression of the most common forms of cancer. Despite the paramount importance of steroids in developmental and translational biology, a complete map of transcriptional response has not been developed for any hormone . In the case of 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) in Drosophila melanogaster, these trajectories range from apoptosis to immortalization. We mapped the ecdysone transduction network in a cohort of 41 cell lines, the largest such atlas yet assembled. We found that the early transcriptional response mirrors the distinctiveness of physiological origins: genes respond in restricted patterns, conditional on the expression levels of dozens of transcription factors. Only a small cohort of genes is constitutively modulated independent of initial cell state. Ecdysone-responsive genes tend to organize into directional same-stranded units, with consecutive genes induced from the same strand. Here, we identify half of the ecdysone receptor heterodimer as the primary rate-limiting step in the response, and find that initial receptor isoform levels modulate the activated cohort of target transcription factors. In conclusion, this atlas of steroid response reveals organizing principles of gene regulation by a model type II nuclear receptor and lays the foundation for comprehensive and predictive understanding of the ecdysone transduction network in the fruit fly.

  17. Diverse Hormone Response Networks in 41 Independent Drosophila Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Stoiber, Marcus; Celniker, Susan; Cherbas, Lucy; Brown, Ben; Cherbas, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones induce cascades of gene activation and repression with transformative effects on cell fate . Steroid transduction plays a major role in the development and physiology of nearly all metazoan species, and in the progression of the most common forms of cancer. Despite the paramount importance of steroids in developmental and translational biology, a complete map of transcriptional response has not been developed for any hormone . In the case of 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) in Drosophila melanogaster, these trajectories range from apoptosis to immortalization. We mapped the ecdysone transduction network in a cohort of 41 cell lines, the largest such atlas yet assembled. We found that the early transcriptional response mirrors the distinctiveness of physiological origins: genes respond in restricted patterns, conditional on the expression levels of dozens of transcription factors. Only a small cohort of genes is constitutively modulated independent of initial cell state. Ecdysone-responsive genes tend to organize into directional same-stranded units, with consecutive genes induced from the same strand. Here, we identify half of the ecdysone receptor heterodimer as the primary rate-limiting step in the response, and find that initial receptor isoform levels modulate the activated cohort of target transcription factors. This atlas of steroid response reveals organizing principles of gene regulation by a model type II nuclear receptor and lays the foundation for comprehensive and predictive understanding of the ecdysone transduction network in the fruit fly. PMID:26772746

  18. Stonewalling Drosophila stem cell differentiation by epigenetic controls.

    PubMed

    Maines, Jean Z; Park, Joseph K; Williams, Meredith; McKearin, Dennis M

    2007-04-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, germline stem cell (GSC) identity is maintained largely by preventing the expression of factors that promote differentiation. This is accomplished via the activity of several genes acting either in the GSC or in its niche. The translational repressors Nanos and Pumilio act in GSCs to prevent differentiation, probably by inhibiting the translation of early differentiation factors, whereas niche signals prevent differentiation by silencing transcription of the differentiation factor Bam. We have found that the DNA-associated protein Stonewall (Stwl) is also required for GSC maintenance. stwl is required cell-autonomously; clones of stwl(-) germ cells were lost by differentiation, and ectopic Stwl caused an expansion of GSCs. stwl mutants acted as Suppressors of variegation, indicating that stwl normally acts in chromatin-dependent gene repression. In contrast to several previously described GSC maintenance factors, Stwl probably functions epigenetically to prevent GSC differentiation. Stwl-dependent transcriptional repression does not target bam, but rather Stwl represses the expression of many genes, including those that may be targeted by Nanos and Pumilio translational inhibition.

  19. Molecular Evolution of Drosophila Germline Stem Cell and Neural Stem Cell Regulating Genes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Young; Aquadro, Charles F

    2015-10-27

    Here, we study the molecular evolution of a near complete set of genes that had functional evidence in the regulation of the Drosophila germline and neural stem cell. Some of these genes have previously been shown to be rapidly evolving by positive selection raising the possibility that stem cell genes as a group have elevated signatures of positive selection. Using recent Drosophila comparative genome sequences and population genomic sequences of Drosophila melanogaster, we have investigated both long- and short-term evolution occurring across these two different stem cell systems, and compared them with a carefully chosen random set of genes to represent the background rate of evolution. Our results showed an excess of genes with evidence of a recent selective sweep in both germline and neural stem cells in D. melanogaster. However compared with their control genes, both stem cell systems had no significant excess of genes with long-term recurrent positive selection in D. melanogaster, or across orthologous sequences from the melanogaster group. The evidence of long-term positive selection was limited to a subset of genes with specific functions in both the germline and neural stem cell system.

  20. High-pressure paint-gun injury of the finger simulating giant cell tumor of tendon sheath.

    PubMed

    Stefanato, Catherine M; Turner, Matthew S; Bhawan, Jag

    2005-02-01

    High-pressure paint guns deliver paint at approximately 3000 pounds per square inch. At this pressure, paint will penetrate the skin and spread quickly through fascial planes and tendon sheaths. The present case is that of a lesion from the finger of a 35-year-old white male in whom a history was initially unavailable. Histologic examination revealed diffuse fibrohistiocytic proliferation and giant cells, with numerous darkly pigmented, uniformly small-sized particles throughout the lesion. The initial impression was that of a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. However, the pigment particles were negative for Perls stain, and polariscopic examination revealed clear refractile fragments. These findings raised the possibility that the lesion was the result of a traumatic event. On further inquiry, it was revealed that the patient had sustained a high-pressure paint-gun injury 1 year earlier. The simulation, histopathologically, of a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath by a high-pressure paint-gun injury has not, to our knowledge, been reported previously, nor has the histologic finding of small, uniformly sized pigment particles and polarizable refractile fragments in this particular type of injury.

  1. Assessing in vivo microRNA function in the germline stem cells of the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kin; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2010-01-01

    A more complete understanding of the biology of adult stem cells could yield important insights toward devising effective cell-based regenerative therapies to treat disease. The germline stem cells (GSCs) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are an excellent in vivo model for the study of adult stem cell biology. There is increasing evidence from a growing field that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in controlling many aspects of stem-cell biology. Using straightforward genetic manipulations combined with well-established cell biological analysis techniques, we and others have found that the miRNA pathway regulates the cell division rate of Drosophila GSCs as well as the maintenance of the GSCs in their niche. In this chapter, we offer a detailed, self-contained description of a general method to assess the in vivo functions of miRNAs in the GSCs of the Drosophila ovary.

  2. A novel cell death gene acts to repair patterning defects in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kentaro M; Takahashi, Aya; Fuse, Naoyuki; Takano-Shimizu-Kouno, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Cell death is a mechanism utilized by organisms to eliminate excess cells during development. Here, we describe a novel regulator of caspase-independent cell death, Mabiki (Mabi), that is involved in the repair of the head patterning defects caused by extra copies of bicoid in Drosophila melanogaster. Mabiki functions together with caspase-dependent cell death mechanisms to provide robustness during development.

  3. Tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pain-free) Regional anesthesia (the local and surrounding areas are pain-free) General anesthesia (the patient ... used. If needed, tendons are reattached to the surrounding tissue. The surgeon examines the area to see ...

  4. Sequoia establishes tip-cell number in Drosophila trachea by regulating FGF levels.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Sofia J; Casanova, Jordi

    2011-07-15

    Competition and determination of leading and trailing cells during collective cell migration is a widespread phenomenon in development, wound healing and tumour invasion. Here, we analyse this issue during in vivo ganglionic branch cell migration in the Drosophila tracheal system. We identify Sequoia (Seq) as a negative transcriptional regulator of Branchless (Bnl), a Drosophila FGF homologue, and observe that modulation of Bnl levels determines how many cells will lead this migrating cluster, regardless of Notch lateral inhibition. Our results show that becoming a tip cell does not prevent others in the branch taking the same position, suggesting that leader choice does not depend only on sensing relative amounts of FGF receptor activity.

  5. Longitudinal Cell Tracking and Simultaneous Monitoring of Tissue Regeneration after Cell Treatment of Natural Tendon Disease by Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Dagmar; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin; Gittel, Claudia; Offhaus, Julia; Paebst, Felicitas; Scharner, Doreen; Burk, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of tendon disease with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is a promising option to improve tissue regeneration. To elucidate the mechanisms by which MSC support regeneration, longitudinal tracking of MSC labelled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide important insight. Nine equine patients suffering from tendon disease were treated with SPIO-labelled or nonlabelled allogeneic umbilical cord-derived MSC by local injection. Labelling of MSC was confirmed by microscopy and MRI. All animals were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographical, and low-field MRI examinations before and directly after MSC application as well as 2, 4, and 8 weeks after MSC application. Hypointense artefacts with characteristically low signal intensity were identified at the site of injection of SPIO-MSC in T1- and T2∗-weighted gradient echo MRI sequences. They were visible in all 7 cases treated with SPIO-MSC directly after injection, but not in the control cases treated with nonlabelled MSC. Furthermore, hypointense artefacts remained traceable within the damaged tendon tissue during the whole follow-up period in 5 out of 7 cases. Tendon healing could be monitored at the same time. Clinical and ultrasonographical findings as well as T2-weighted MRI series indicated a gradual improvement of tendon function and structure. PMID:26880932

  6. Longitudinal Cell Tracking and Simultaneous Monitoring of Tissue Regeneration after Cell Treatment of Natural Tendon Disease by Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Berner, Dagmar; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin; Gittel, Claudia; Offhaus, Julia; Paebst, Felicitas; Scharner, Doreen; Burk, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of tendon disease with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is a promising option to improve tissue regeneration. To elucidate the mechanisms by which MSC support regeneration, longitudinal tracking of MSC labelled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide important insight. Nine equine patients suffering from tendon disease were treated with SPIO-labelled or nonlabelled allogeneic umbilical cord-derived MSC by local injection. Labelling of MSC was confirmed by microscopy and MRI. All animals were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographical, and low-field MRI examinations before and directly after MSC application as well as 2, 4, and 8 weeks after MSC application. Hypointense artefacts with characteristically low signal intensity were identified at the site of injection of SPIO-MSC in T1- and T2 (∗) -weighted gradient echo MRI sequences. They were visible in all 7 cases treated with SPIO-MSC directly after injection, but not in the control cases treated with nonlabelled MSC. Furthermore, hypointense artefacts remained traceable within the damaged tendon tissue during the whole follow-up period in 5 out of 7 cases. Tendon healing could be monitored at the same time. Clinical and ultrasonographical findings as well as T2-weighted MRI series indicated a gradual improvement of tendon function and structure.

  7. Preparation of Drosophila S2 cells for Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Buster, Daniel W.; Nye, Jonathan; Klebba, Joseph E.; Rogers, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The ideal experimental system would be cheap and easy to maintain, amenable to a variety of techniques, and would be supported by an extensive literature and genome sequence database. Cultured Drosophila S2 cells, the product of disassociated 20-24 hour old embryos1, possess all these properties. Consequently, S2 cells are extremely well-suited for the analysis of cellular processes, including the discovery of the genes encoding the molecular components of the process or mechanism of interest. The features of S2 cells that are most responsible for their utility are the ease with which they are maintained, their exquisite sensitivity to double-stranded (ds)RNA-mediated interference (RNAi), and their tractability to fluorescence microscopy as either live or fixed cells. S2 cells can be grown in a variety of media, including a number of inexpensive, commercially-available, fully-defined, serum-free media2. In addition, they grow optimally and quickly at 21-24°C and can be cultured in a variety of containers. Unlike mammalian cells, S2 cells do not require a regulated atmosphere, but instead do well with normal air and can even be maintained in sealed flasks. Complementing the ease of RNAi in S2 cells is the ability to readily analyze experimentally-induced phenotypes by phase or fluorescence microscopy of fixed or live cells. S2 cells grow in culture as a single monolayer but do not display contact inhibition. Instead, cells tend to grow in colonies in dense cultures. At low density, S2 cultures grown on glass or tissue culture-treated plastic are round and loosely-attached. However, the cytology of S2 cells can be greatly improved by inducing them to flatten extensively by briefly culturing them on a surface coated with the lectin, concanavalin A (ConA)3. S2 cells can also be stably transfected with fluorescently-tagged markers to label structures or organelles of interest in live or fixed cells. Therefore, the usual scenario for the microscopic analysis of cells is

  8. A Systematic Cell-Based Analysis of Localization of Predicted Drosophila Peroxisomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Baron, Matthew N; Klinger, Christen M; Rachubinski, Richard A; Simmonds, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells. They perform specialized biochemical functions that vary with organism, tissue or cell type. Mutations in human genes required for the assembly of peroxisomes result in a spectrum of diseases called the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. A previous sequence-based comparison of the predicted proteome of Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) to human proteins identified 82 potential homologues of proteins involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, homeostasis or metabolism. However, the subcellular localization of these proteins relative to the peroxisome was not determined. Accordingly, we tested systematically the localization and selected functions of epitope-tagged proteins in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells to determine the subcellular localization of 82 potential Drosophila peroxisomal protein homologues. Excluding the Pex proteins, 34 proteins localized primarily to the peroxisome, 8 showed dual localization to the peroxisome and other structures, and 26 localized exclusively to organelles other than the peroxisome. Drosophila is a well-developed laboratory animal often used for discovery of gene pathways, including those linked to human disease. Our work establishes a basic understanding of peroxisome protein localization in Drosophila. This will facilitate use of Drosophila as a genetically tractable, multicellular model system for studying key aspects of human peroxisome disease.

  9. Lysyl Oxidase Activity Is Required for Ordered Collagen Fibrillogenesis by Tendon Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Herchenhan, Andreas; Uhlenbrock, Franziska; Eliasson, Pernilla; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Kadler, Karl E.; Magnusson, S. Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are a family of copper-dependent oxido-deaminases that can modify the side chain of lysyl residues in collagen and elastin, thereby leading to the spontaneous formation of non-reducible aldehyde-derived interpolypeptide chain cross-links. The consequences of LOX inhibition in producing lathyrism are well documented, but the consequences on collagen fibril formation are less clear. Here we used β-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) to inhibit LOX in tendon-like constructs (prepared from human tenocytes), which are an experimental model of cell-mediated collagen fibril formation. The improvement in structure and strength seen with time in control constructs was absent in constructs treated with BAPN. As expected, BAPN inhibited the formation of aldimine-derived cross-links in collagen, and the constructs were mechanically weak. However, an unexpected finding was that BAPN treatment led to structurally abnormal collagen fibrils with irregular profiles and widely dispersed diameters. Of special interest, the abnormal fibril profiles resembled those seen in some Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome phenotypes. Importantly, the total collagen content developed normally, and there was no difference in COL1A1 gene expression. Collagen type V, decorin, fibromodulin, and tenascin-X proteins were unaffected by the cross-link inhibition, suggesting that LOX regulates fibrillogenesis independently of these molecules. Collectively, the data show the importance of LOX for the mechanical development of early collagenous tissues and that LOX is essential for correct collagen fibril shape formation. PMID:25979340

  10. Rho1-Wnd signaling regulates loss-of-cell polarity-induced cell invasion in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Chen, Y; Zhang, S; Xu, W; Shao, Y; Yang, Y; Li, W; Li, M; Xue, L

    2016-02-18

    Both cell polarity and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity are essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and disruption of either is commonly seen in cancer progression. Despite the established connection between loss-of-cell polarity and JNK activation, much less is known about the molecular mechanism by which aberrant cell polarity induces JNK-mediated cell migration and tumor invasion. Here we show results from a genetic screen using an in vivo invasion model via knocking down cell polarity gene in Drosophila wing discs, and identify Rho1-Wnd signaling as an important molecular link that mediates loss-of-cell polarity-triggered JNK activation and cell invasion. We show that Wallenda (Wnd), a protein kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family, by forming a complex with the GTPase Rho1, is both necessary and sufficient for Rho1-induced JNK-dependent cell invasion, MMP1 activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, Wnd promotes cell proliferation and tissue growth through wingless production when apoptosis is inhibited by p35. Finally, Wnd shows oncogenic cooperation with Ras(V12) to trigger tumor growth in eye discs and causes invasion into the ventral nerve cord. Together, our data not only provides a novel mechanistic insight on how cell polarity loss contributes to cell invasion, but also highlights the value of the Drosophila model system to explore human cancer biology.

  11. Identification of a putative azadirachtin-binding complex from Drosophila Kc167 cells.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Susan L; Ni, Weiting; Dhadialla, Tarlochan S; Nisbet, Alasdair J; McCusker, Catherine; Ley, Steven V; Mordue, William; Mordue 'Luntz', A Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Cell-proliferation in Drosophila Kc167 cells was inhibited by 50% when cell cultures contained 1.7 x 10(-7) M azadirachtin for 48 h (a tertranortriterpenoid from the neem tree Azadirachta indica). Drosophila Kc167 cells exhibited direct nuclear damage within 6-h exposure to azadirachtin (5 x 10(-7) M and above) or within 24 h when lower concentrations were used (1 x 10(-9) M). Fractionation of an extract of Drosophila Kc167 cells combined with ligand overlay technique resulted in the identification of a putative azadirachtin binding complex. Identification of the members of this complex by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) and N-terminal sequencing identified heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) as one of its components.

  12. Lineage tracing quantification reveals symmetric stem cell division in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Viktoria; Inaba, Mayu; Cheng, Jun; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2013-12-01

    In the homeostatic state, adult stem cells divide either symmetrically to increase the stem cell number to compensate stem cell loss, or asymmetrically to maintain the population while producing differentiated cells. We have investigated the mode of stem cell division in the testes of Drosophila melanogaster by lineage tracing and confirm the presence of symmetric stem cell division in this system. We found that the rate of symmetric division is limited to 1-2% of total germline stem cell (GSC) divisions, but it increases with expression of a cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, or a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, Moesin, which may modulate adhesiveness of germ cells to the stem cell niche. Our results indicate that the decision regarding asymmetric vs. symmetric division is a dynamically regulated process that contributes to tissue homeostasis, responding to the needs of the tissue.

  13. Dying Cells Protect Survivors from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

  14. Runx2-Modified Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Promote Tendon Graft Integration in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Ma, Yong; Fu, Xin; Liu, Qiang; Shao, Zhenxing; Dai, Linghui; Pi, Yanbin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiying; Duan, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenqing; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-08

    Runx2 is a powerful osteo-inductive factor and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent. However, it is unknown whether Runx2-overexpressing ADSCs (Runx2-ADSCs) could promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We evaluated the effect of Runx2-ADSCs on ACL reconstruction in vitro and in vivo. mRNA expressions of osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and collagen I (COLI) increased over time in Runx2-ADSCs. Runx2 overexpression inhibited LPL and PPARγ mRNA expressions. Runx2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity markedly. In nude mice injected with Runx2-ADSCs, promoted bone formation was detected by X-rays 8 weeks after injection. The healing of tendon-to-bone in a rabbit model of ACL reconstruction treated with Runx2-ADSCs, fibrin glue only and an RNAi targeting Runx2, was evaluated with CT 3D reconstruction, histological analysis and biomechanical methods. CT showed a greater degree of new bone formation around the bone tunnel in the group treated with Runx2-ADSCs compared with the fibrin glue group and RNAi Runx2 group. Histology showed that treatment with Runx2-ADSCs led to a rapid and significant increase at the tendon-to-bone compared with the control groups. Biomechanical tests demonstrated higher tendon pullout strength in the Runx2-ADSCs group at early time points. The healing of the attachment in ACL reconstruction was enhanced by Runx2-ADSCs.

  15. Modulation of cell functions of human tendon fibroblasts by different repetitive cyclic mechanical stress patterns.

    PubMed

    Barkhausen, Tanja; van Griensven, Martijn; Zeichen, Johannes; Bosch, Ulrich

    2003-09-01

    Mechanical stress is a factor that is thought to play an essential role in tissue generation and reparation processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different repetitive cyclic longitudinal stress patterns on proliferation, apoptosis and expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 72. To perform this study, human tendon fibroblasts were seeded on flexible silicone dishes. After adherence to the dish, cells were longitudinally stressed with three different repetitive stress patterns having a frequency of 1 Hz and an amplitude of 5%. The proliferation and apoptosis rates were investigated 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after application of cyclic mechanical longitudinal strain. Expression of HSP 72 was tested after 0, 2, 4 and 8 hours. Control cells were also grown on silicone dishes, but did not receive any stress. Stress patterns applied during one day resulted in a significant increase in proliferation and a slight increase in apoptosis. HSP 72 expression was rather unchanged. A stress pattern applied during two days resulted in a reduced proliferation and apoptosis rate whereas the expression of HSP 72 showed a significant increase. This study shows that different stress patterns result in different cellular reactions dependent on the strength of applied stress. Repetitive stress applied during one day stimulated proliferation and apoptosis in contrast to an extended stress duration. The latter induced an inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis probably through an increased HSP 72 activity. This may be related to an excess of applied stress. Our results may implicate future modulation techniques for tissue reparation and tissue engineering.

  16. Regional Cell Specific RNA Expression Profiling of FACS Isolated Drosophila Intestinal Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Devanjali; Buchon, Nicolas; Xiang, Jinyi; Edgar, Bruce A

    2015-08-03

    The adult Drosophila midgut is built of five distinct cell types, including stem cells, enteroblasts, enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, and visceral muscles, and is divided into five major regions (R1 to R5), which are morphologically and functionally distinct from each other. This unit describes a protocol for the isolation of Drosophila intestinal cell populations for the purpose of cell type-specific transcriptome profiling from the five different regions. A method to select a cell type of interest labeled with green or yellow fluorescent protein (GFP, YFP) by making use of the GAL4-UAS bipartite system and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) is presented. Total RNA is isolated from the sorted cells of each region, and linear RNA amplification is used to obtain sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA for analysis by microarray, RT-PCR, or RNA sequencing. This method will be useful for quantitative transcriptome comparison across intestinal cell types in the different regions under normal and various experimental conditions.

  17. Ecdysone signaling induces two phases of cell cycle exit in Drosophila cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongfeng; Flegel, Kerry; Kumar, Jayashree; McKay, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During development, cell proliferation and differentiation must be tightly coordinated to ensure proper tissue morphogenesis. Because steroid hormones are central regulators of developmental timing, understanding the links between steroid hormone signaling and cell proliferation is crucial to understanding the molecular basis of morphogenesis. Here we examined the mechanism by which the steroid hormone ecdysone regulates the cell cycle in Drosophila. We find that a cell cycle arrest induced by ecdysone in Drosophila cell culture is analogous to a G2 cell cycle arrest observed in the early pupa wing. We show that in the wing, ecdysone signaling at the larva-to-puparium transition induces Broad which in turn represses the cdc25c phosphatase String. The repression of String generates a temporary G2 arrest that synchronizes the cell cycle in the wing epithelium during early pupa wing elongation and flattening. As ecdysone levels decline after the larva-to-puparium pulse during early metamorphosis, Broad expression plummets, allowing String to become re-activated, which promotes rapid G2/M progression and a subsequent synchronized final cell cycle in the wing. In this manner, pulses of ecdysone can both synchronize the final cell cycle and promote the coordinated acquisition of terminal differentiation characteristics in the wing. PMID:27737823

  18. A Systematic Analysis of Drosophila Regulatory Peptide Expression in Enteroendocrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Kim, Seol-Min; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-04-30

    The digestive system is gaining interest as a major regulator of various functions including immune defense, nutrient accumulation, and regulation of feeding behavior, aside from its conventional function as a digestive organ. The Drosophila midgut epithelium is completely renewed every 1-2 weeks due to differentiation of pluripotent intestinal stem cells in the midgut. Intestinal stem cells constantly divide and differentiate into enterocytes that secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients, or enteroendocrine cells that secrete regulatory peptides. Regulatory peptides have important roles in development and metabolism, but study has mainly focused on expression and functions in the nervous system, and not much is known about the roles in endocrine functions of enteroendocrine cells. We systemically examined the expression of 45 regulatory peptide genes in the Drosophila midgut, and verified that at least 10 genes are expressed in the midgut enteroendocrine cells through RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, antisera, and 25 regulatory peptide-GAL transgenes. The Drosophila midgut is highly compartmentalized, and individual peptides in enteroendocrine cells were observed to express in specific regions of the midgut. We also confirmed that some peptides expressed in the same region of the midgut are expressed in mutually exclusive enteroendocrine cells. These results indicate that the midgut enteroendocrine cells are functionally differentiated into different subgroups. Through this study, we have established a basis to study regulatory peptide functions in enteroendocrine cells as well as the complex organization of enteroendocrine cells in the Drosophila midgut.

  19. Drosophila Wnt and STAT Define Apoptosis-Resistant Epithelial Cells for Tissue Regeneration after Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae irradiated with doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that kill about half of the cells in larval imaginal discs still develop into viable adults. How surviving cells compensate for IR-induced cell death to produce organs of normal size and appearance remains an active area of investigation. We have identified a subpopulation of cells within the continuous epithelium of Drosophila larval wing discs that shows intrinsic resistance to IR- and drug-induced apoptosis. These cells reside in domains of high Wingless (Wg, Drosophila Wnt-1) and STAT92E (sole Drosophila signal transducer and activator of transcription [STAT] homolog) activity and would normally form the hinge in the adult fly. Resistance to IR-induced apoptosis requires STAT and Wg and is mediated by transcriptional repression of the pro-apoptotic gene reaper. Lineage tracing experiments show that, following irradiation, apoptosis-resistant cells lose their identity and translocate to areas of the wing disc that suffered abundant cell death. Our findings provide a new paradigm for regeneration in which it is unnecessary to invoke special damage-resistant cell types such as stem cells. Instead, differences in gene expression within a population of genetically identical epithelial cells can create a subpopulation with greater resistance, which, following damage, survive, alter their fate, and help regenerate the tissue. PMID:27584613

  20. The use of cultured Drosophila cells for studying the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Nye, Jonathan; Buster, Daniel W; Rogers, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Cultured Drosophila cell lines have been developed into a powerful tool for studying a wide variety of cellular processes. Their ability to be easily and cheaply cultured as well as their susceptibility to protein knockdown via double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) has made them the model system of choice for many researchers in the fields of cell biology and functional genomics. Here we describe basic techniques for gene knockdown, transgene expression, preparation for fluorescence microscopy, and centrosome enrichment using cultured Drosophila cells with an emphasis on studying the microtubule cytoskeleton.

  1. Aging-related viscoelasticity variation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) characterized by quartz thickness shear mode (TSM) resonators

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huiyan; Zhao, Guangyi; Zu, Hongfei; Wang, James H.-C.; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Aging not only affects the whole body performance but also alters cellular biological properties, including cell proliferation and differentiation. This study was designed to determine the effect of aging on the mechanical properties of tendon stem cells (TSCs), a newly discovered stem cell type in tendons, using quartz thickness shear mode (TSM) resonators. TSCs were isolated from both old and young rats, and allowed to grow to confluency on the surface of TSM resonators. The admittance spectrums of TSM with TSC monolayer were acquired, and a series of complex shear modulus G′ + jG″ as well as average thickness hTSC were calculated based on a two-layer-loading transmission line model (TLM) for TSM resonator sensor. The results showed an overall increase in G′, G″ and hTSC during aging process. Specifically, the storage modulus G′ of aging TSCs was over ten times than that of young, revealing an important increase in stiffness of aging TSCs. Additionally, through phase-contrast and scanning electronic microscopy, it was shown that aging TSCs were large, flat and heterogeneous in morphologies while young TSCs were uniformly elongated. Increased cell size and irregular cell shape might be associated with the dense cytoskeleton organization, which could lead to an increase in both stiffness and viscosity. These results are in agreement with previously published data using different measurement methods, indicating TSM resonator sensor as a promising tool to measure the mechanical properties of cells. PMID:26251564

  2. Gcn5 determines the fate of Drosophila germline stem cells through degradation of Cyclin A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Qi; Li, Wenqing; Mao, Feiyu; Yue, Shanshan; Liu, Sun; Liu, Xiaona; Xiao, Shan; Xia, Laixin

    2017-02-10

    The fluctuating CDK-CYCLIN complex plays a general role in cell-cycle control. Many types of stem cells use unique features of the cell cycle to facilitate asymmetric division. However, the manner in which these features are established remains poorly understood. The cell cycle of Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs) is characterized by short G1 and very long G2 phases, making it an excellent model for the study of cell cycle control in stem cell fate determination. Using a Drosophila female GSCs model, we found Gcn5, the first discovered histone acetyltransferase, to maintain germline stem cells in Drosophila ovaries. Results showed that Gcn5 is dispensable for the transcriptional silencing of bam, but interacts with Cyclin A to facilitate proper turnover in GSCs. Results also showed that Gcn5 promotes Cyclin A ubiquitination, which is dependent on its acetylating activity. Finally, results showed that knockdown of Cyclin A rescued the GSC-loss phenotype caused by lack of Gcn5. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that Gcn5 acts through acetylation to facilitate Cyclin A ubiquitination and proper turnover, thereby determining the fate of GSCs.-Liu, T., Wang, Q., Li, W., Mao, F., Yue, S., Liu, S., Liu, X., Xiao, S., Xia, L. Gcn5 determines the fate of Drosophila germline stem cells through degradation of Cyclin A.

  3. Informing tendon tissue engineering with embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Glass, Zachary A; Schiele, Nathan R; Kuo, Catherine K

    2014-06-27

    Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies have relied on adult tissue homeostatic and healing factors to influence stem cell differentiation, but have yet to achieve tissue regeneration. A novel paradigm is to use embryonic developmental factors as cues to promote tendon regeneration. Embryonic tendon progenitor cell differentiation in vivo is regulated by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. We propose that these cues will guide stem cells to recapitulate critical aspects of tenogenesis and effectively direct the cells to differentiate and regenerate new tendon. Here, we review recent efforts to identify mechanical and chemical factors of embryonic tendon development to guide stem/progenitor cell differentiation toward new tendon formation, and discuss the role this work may have in the future of tendon tissue engineering.

  4. Informing tendon tissue engineering with embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Zachary A.; Schiele, Nathan R.; Kuo, Catherine K.

    2014-01-01

    Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies have relied on adult tissue homeostatic and healing factors to influence stem cell differentiation, but have yet to achieve tissue regeneration. A novel paradigm is to use embryonic developmental factors as cues to promote tendon regeneration. Embryonic tendon progenitor cell differentiation in vivo is regulated by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. We propose that these cues will guide stem cells to recapitulate critical aspects of tenogenesis and effectively direct the cells to differentiate and regenerate new tendon. Here, we review recent efforts to identify mechanical and chemical factors of embryonic tendon development to guide stem/progenitor cell differentiation toward new tendon formation, and discuss the role this work may have in the future of tendon tissue engineering. PMID:24484642

  5. Mechanism of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of tendon stem cells induced by sirtuin 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junpeng; Han, Weifeng; Chen, Lei; Tang, Kanglai

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of sirtuin (Sirt)1 in tendon stem cells (TSCs) and to elucidate its association with osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of TSCs. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analyses were performed to detect Sirt1 mRNA and protein levels in TSCs, respectively. TSCs were positive for Sirt1 expression, which was elevated by Sirt1 activator SRT1720 in a time- and concentration- dependent manner, and decreased by Sirt1 inhibitor EX527. TSCs were treated with SRT1720 and EX527 for various time periods and resulting changes in osteogenic and adipogenic protein markers were analyzed using alizarin red and oil red O staining. According to RT-qPCR and western blot analyses, the associated factors β‑catenin, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 were elevated following increases of Sirt1 levels, while CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ were decreased. These results suggested that osteogenic differentiation capacity was enhanced, while adipogenic differentiation capacity declined. Further mechanistic study revealed that phosphoinositide‑3 kinase (PI3K) and AKT were decreased following activation of Sirt1. In conclusion, the present study suggested that Sirt1 promotes the osteogenic differentiation of TSCs through upregulating β‑catenin and Runx2 and inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of TSCs through the PI3K/AKT pathway with downregulation of CEBPα and PPARγ.

  6. Loss of Tenomodulin Results in Reduced Self-Renewal and Augmented Senescence of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alberton, Paolo; Dex, Sarah; Popov, Cvetan; Shukunami, Chisa; Schieker, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Tenomodulin (Tnmd) is a well-known gene marker for the tendon and ligament lineage, but its exact functions in these tissues still remain elusive. In this study, we investigated Tnmd loss of function in mouse tendon stem/progenitor cells (mTSPC) by implicating a previously established Tnmd knockout (KO) mouse model. mTSPC were isolated from control and Tnmd KO tail tendons and their stemness features, such as gene marker profile, multipotential, and self-renewal, were compared. Immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses for stem cell-, tenogenic-, osteogenic-, and chondrogenic-related genes confirmed their stemness and lineage specificity and demonstrated no profound differences between the two genotypes. Multipotential was not significantly affected since both cell types differentiated successfully into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. In contrast, self-renewal assays validated that Tnmd KO TSPC exhibit significantly reduced proliferative potential, which was also reflected in lower Cyclin D1 levels. When analyzing possible cellular mechanisms behind the observed decreased self-renewability of Tnmd KO TSPC, we found that cellular senescence plays a major role, starting earlier and cumulating more in Tnmd KO compared with control TSPC. This was accompanied with augmented expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p53. Finally, the proliferative effect of Tnmd in TSPC was confirmed with transient transfection of Tnmd cDNA into Tnmd KO TSPC, which rescued their proliferative deficit. Taken together, we can report that loss of Tnmd affects significantly the self-renewal and senescence properties, but not the multipotential of TSPC. PMID:25351164

  7. Guidance signalling regulates leading edge behaviour during collective cell migration of cardiac cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Raza, Qanber; Jacobs, J Roger

    2016-11-15

    Collective cell migration is the coordinated movement of cells, which organize tissues during morphogenesis, repair and some cancers. The motile cell membrane of the advancing front in collective cell migration is termed the Leading Edge. The embryonic development of the vertebrate and Drosophila hearts are both characterized by the coordinated medial migration of a bilateral cluster of mesodermal cells. In Drosophila, the cardioblasts form cohesive bilateral rows that migrate collectively as a unit towards the dorsal midline to form the dorsal vessel. We have characterized the collective cell migration of cardioblasts as an in vivo quantitative model to study the behaviour of the Leading Edge. We investigated whether guidance signalling through Slit and Netrin pathways plays a role in cell migration during heart development. Through time-lapse imaging and quantitative assessment of migratory behaviour of the cardioblasts in loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that both Slit and Netrin mediated signals are autonomously and concomitantly required to maximize migration velocity, filopodial and lamellipodial activities. Additionally, we show that another Slit and Netrin receptor, Dscam1, the role of which during heart development was previously unknown, is required for both normal migration of cardioblasts and luminal expansion. Leading edge behaviour analysis revealed a dosage dependent genetic interaction between Slit and Netrin receptors suggesting that downstream signalling through these receptors converge on a common output that increases leading edge activity of the cardioblasts. Finally, we found that guidance signalling maintains the balance between epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics of the migrating cardioblasts.

  8. Distinct modes of centromere protein dynamics during cell cycle progression in Drosophila S2R+ cells.

    PubMed

    Lidsky, Peter V; Sprenger, Frank; Lehner, Christian F

    2013-10-15

    Centromeres are specified epigenetically in animal cells. Therefore, faithful chromosome inheritance requires accurate maintenance of epigenetic centromere marks during progression through the cell cycle. Clarification of the mechanisms that control centromere protein behavior during the cell cycle should profit from the relatively simple protein composition of Drosophila centromeres. Thus we have analyzed the dynamics of the three key players Cid/Cenp-A, Cenp-C and Cal1 in S2R+ cells using quantitative microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, in combination with novel fluorescent cell cycle markers. As revealed by the observed protein abundances and mobilities, centromeres proceed through at least five distinct states during the cell cycle, distinguished in part by unexpected Cid behavior. In addition to the predominant Cid loading onto centromeres during G1, a considerable but transient increase was detected during early mitosis. A low level of Cid loading was detected in late S and G2, starting at the reported time of centromere DNA replication. Our results reveal the complexities of Drosophila centromere protein dynamics and its intricate coordination with cell cycle progression.

  9. Larval cells become imaginal cells under the control of homothorax prior to metamorphosis in the Drosophila tracheal system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Kitada, Yusuke; Tabata, Tetsuya

    2008-06-15

    In Drosophila melanogaster, one of the most derived species among holometabolous insects, undifferentiated imaginal cells that are set-aside during larval development are thought to proliferate and replace terminally differentiated larval cells to constitute adult structures. Essentially all tissues that undergo extensive proliferation and drastic morphological changes during metamorphosis are thought to derive from these imaginal cells and not from differentiated larval cells. The results of studies on metamorphosis of the Drosophila tracheal system suggested that large larval tracheal cells that are thought to be terminally differentiated may be eliminated via apoptosis and rapidly replaced by small imaginal cells that go on to form the adult tracheal system. However, the origin of the small imaginal tracheal cells has not been clear. Here, we show that large larval cells in tracheal metamere 2 (Tr2) divide and produce small imaginal cells prior to metamorphosis. In the absence of homothorax gene activity, larval cells in Tr2 become non-proliferative and small imaginal cells are not produced, indicating that homothorax is necessary for proliferation of Tr2 larval cells. These unexpected results suggest that larval cells can become imaginal cells and directly contribute to the adult tissue in the Drosophila tracheal system. During metamorphosis of less derived species of holometabolous insects, adult structures are known to be formed via cells constituting larval structures. Thus, the Drosophila tracheal system may utilize ancestral mode of metamorphosis.

  10. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.

  11. Long-Term Live Cell Imaging and Automated 4D Analysis of Drosophila Neuroblast Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Christian; Lendl, Thomas; Knoblich, Juergen A.

    2013-01-01

    The developing Drosophila brain is a well-studied model system for neurogenesis and stem cell biology. In the Drosophila central brain, around 200 neural stem cells called neuroblasts undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division. These divisions typically generate a larger self-renewing neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell that undergoes one terminal division to create two differentiating neurons. Although single mitotic divisions of neuroblasts can easily be imaged in real time, the lack of long term imaging procedures has limited the use of neuroblast live imaging for lineage analysis. Here we describe a method that allows live imaging of cultured Drosophila neuroblasts over multiple cell cycles for up to 24 hours. We describe a 4D image analysis protocol that can be used to extract cell cycle times and growth rates from the resulting movies in an automated manner. We use it to perform lineage analysis in type II neuroblasts where clonal analysis has indicated the presence of a transit-amplifying population that potentiates the number of neurons. Indeed, our experiments verify type II lineages and provide quantitative parameters for all cell types in those lineages. As defects in type II neuroblast lineages can result in brain tumor formation, our lineage analysis method will allow more detailed and quantitative analysis of tumorigenesis and asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila brain. PMID:24260257

  12. Evaluation of the Asymmetric Division of Drosophila Male Germline Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayu; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is utilized in many stem cell systems to produce two daughter cells with different cell fates. Despite the fundamental importance of ACD during development and tissue homeostasis, the nature of ACD is far from being fully understood. Step-by-step observation of events during ACD allows us to understand processes that lead to ACD. Here we describe examples of how we evaluate ACD in vivo using the Drosophila male germline stem cell system.

  13. Drosophila germline stem cells for in vitro analyses of PIWI-mediated RNAi.

    PubMed

    Niki, Yuzo; Sato, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Saisho, Ayaka; Uetake, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila piwi gene has multiple functions in soma and germ cells. An in vitro system provides a powerful tool for elucidating PIWI function in each cell type using stable cell lines originating from germline stem cells (GSCs) and ovarian soma of adult ovaries. We have described methods for the maintenance and expansion of GSCs in an established cell line (fGS/OSS) and an in situ hybridization method for analyzing piwi.

  14. Wolbachia enhance Drosophila stem cell proliferation and target the germline stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Fast, Eva M; Toomey, Michelle E; Panaram, Kanchana; Desjardins, Danielle; Kolaczyk, Eric D; Frydman, Horacio M

    2011-11-18

    Wolbachia are widespread maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that infect most insect species and are able to alter the reproduction of innumerous hosts. The cellular bases of these alterations remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Drosophila mauritiana infected with a native Wolbachia wMau strain produces about four times more eggs than the noninfected counterpart. Wolbachia infection leads to an increase in the mitotic activity of germline stem cells (GSCs), as well as a decrease in programmed cell death in the germarium. Our results suggest that up-regulation of GSC division is mediated by a tropism of Wolbachia for the GSC niche, the cellular microenvironment that supports GSCs.

  15. Discovery of progenitor cell signatures by time-series synexpression analysis during Drosophila embryonic cell immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Dequéant, Mary-Lee; Fagegaltier, Delphine; Hu, Yanhui; Spirohn, Kerstin; Simcox, Amanda; Hannon, Gregory J.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The use of time series profiling to identify groups of functionally related genes (synexpression groups) is a powerful approach for the discovery of gene function. Here we apply this strategy during RasV12 immortalization of Drosophila embryonic cells, a phenomenon not well characterized. Using high-resolution transcriptional time-series datasets, we generated a gene network based on temporal expression profile similarities. This analysis revealed that common immortalized cells are related to adult muscle precursors (AMPs), a stem cell-like population contributing to adult muscles and sharing properties with vertebrate satellite cells. Remarkably, the immortalized cells retained the capacity for myogenic differentiation when treated with the steroid hormone ecdysone. Further, we validated in vivo the transcription factor CG9650, the ortholog of mammalian Bcl11a/b, as a regulator of AMP proliferation predicted by our analysis. Our study demonstrates the power of time series synexpression analysis to characterize Drosophila embryonic progenitor lines and identify stem/progenitor cell regulators. PMID:26438832

  16. Immunostaining of germline stem cells and the niche in Drosophila ovaries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lichao; Chai, Phing Chian; Cai, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have the ability to switch between proliferative (self-renewal) and differentiation modes. The Drosophila germarium is a well-established in vivo model for the study of communication between stem cells and their niche. One commonly used technique for such study is immunostaining that allows examination of protein localization at a fixed time point. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for immunofluorescence staining of Drosophila ovaries. This protocol has been optimized to enable explicit visualization of the niche structure, as well as to maximize the degree of multiplexing for protein labeling and detection.

  17. Genotoxicity studies of methyl isocyanate in Salmonella, Drosophila, and cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Zeiger, E.; Haworth, S.; Ivett, J.; Valencia, R.

    1987-01-01

    The genotoxic effects of methyl isocyanate (MIC) were investigated using four short-term tests: the Salmonella reversion assay (Ames test), the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay, and the sister chromatic exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberration assays in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No evidence was found for the induction of mutations in either Salmonella or Drosophila. MIC did, however, induce SCEs and chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells both in the presence and absence of Aroclor-induced rat liver S-9.

  18. In Vivo Evaluation of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Delivered with a Nanofiber Scaffold for Tendon-to-Bone Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lipner, Justin; Shen, Hua; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Liu, Wenying; Havlioglu, Necat; Xia, Younan; Galatz, Leesa M.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common and cause a great deal of lost productivity, pain, and disability. Tears are typically repaired by suturing the tendon back to its bony attachment. Unfortunately, the structural (e.g., aligned collagen) and compositional (e.g., a gradient in mineral) elements that produce a robust attachment in the healthy tissue are not regenerated during healing, and the repair is prone to failure. Two features of the failed healing response are deposition of poorly aligned scar tissue and loss of bone at the repair site. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to improve tendon-to-bone healing by promoting aligned collagen deposition and increased bone formation using a biomimetic scaffold seeded with pluripotent cells. An aligned nanofibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold with a gradient in mineral content was seeded with adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and implanted at the repair site of a rat rotator cuff model. In one group, cells were transduced with the osteogenic factor bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). The healing response was examined in four groups (suture only, acellular scaffold, cellular scaffold, and cellular BMP2 scaffold) using histologic, bone morphology, and biomechanical outcomes at 14, 28, and 56 days. Histologically, the healing interface was dominated by a fibrovascular scar response in all groups. The acellular scaffold group showed a delayed healing response compared to the other groups. When examining bone morphology parameters, bone loss was evident in the cellular BMP2 group compared to other groups at 28 days. When examining repair-site mechanical properties, strength and modulus were decreased in the cellular BMP2 groups compared to other groups at 28 and 56 days. These results indicated that tendon-to-bone healing in this animal model was dominated by scar formation, preventing any positive effects of the implanted biomimetic scaffold. Furthermore, cells transduced with the osteogenic factor

  19. Mmp1 and Mmp2 cooperatively induce Drosophila fat body cell dissociation with distinct roles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qiangqiang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hanhan; Li, Sheng

    2014-12-18

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the single-cell layer of fat body tissues gradually dissociates into individual cells. Via a fat body-specific RNAi screen in this study, we found that two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), Mmp1 and Mmp2, are both required for fat body cell dissociation. As revealed through a series of cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic experiments, Mmp1 preferentially cleaves DE-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions, while Mmp2 preferentially degrades basement membrane (BM) components and thus destroy cell-BM junctions, resulting in the complete dissociation of the entire fat body tissues into individual cells. Moreover, several genetic interaction experiments demonstrated that the roles of Mmp1 and Mmp2 in this developmental process are cooperative. In conclusion, Mmp1 and Mmp2 induce fat body cell dissociation during Drosophila metamorphosis in a cooperative yet distinct manner, a finding that sheds light on the general mechanisms by which MMPs regulate tissue remodeling in animals.

  20. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT) enhances the in vitro-induced differentiation of human tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells (hTSPCs)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Laura; Raffa, Salvatore; Vetrano, Mario; Ranieri, Danilo; Malisan, Florence; Scrofani, Cristina; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Ferretti, Andrea; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Visco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive and innovative technology for the management of specific tendinopathies. In order to elucidate the ESWT-mediated clinical benefits, human Tendon-derived Stem/Progenitor cells (hTSPCs) explanted from 5 healthy semitendinosus (ST) and 5 ruptured Achilles (AT) tendons were established. While hTSPCs from the two groups showed similar proliferation rates and stem cell surface marker profiles, we found that the clonogenic potential was maintained only in cells derived from healthy donors. Interestingly, ESWT significantly accelerated hTSPCs differentiation, suggesting that the clinical benefits of ESWT may be ascribed to increased efficiency of tendon repair after injury. PMID:26843618

  1. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  2. An ABC transporter controls export of a Drosophila germ cell attractant.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Sara; Lehmann, Ruth

    2009-02-13

    Directed cell migration, which is critical for embryonic development, leukocyte trafficking, and cell metastasis, depends on chemoattraction. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase regulates the production of an attractant for Drosophila germ cells that may itself be geranylated. Chemoattractants are commonly secreted through a classical, signal peptide-dependent pathway, but a geranyl-modified attractant would require an alternative pathway. In budding yeast, pheromones produced by a-cells are farnesylated and secreted in a signal peptide-independent manner, requiring the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Ste6p. Here we show that Drosophila germ cell migration uses a similar pathway, demonstrating that invertebrate germ cells, like yeast cells, are attracted to lipid-modified peptides. Components of this unconventional export pathway are highly conserved, suggesting that this pathway may control the production of similarly modified chemoattractants in organisms ranging from yeast to humans.

  3. Automated cell tracking identifies mechanically oriented cell divisions during Drosophila axis elongation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael F Z; Hunter, Miranda V; Wang, Gang; McFaul, Christopher; Yip, Christopher M; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Embryos extend their anterior-posterior (AP) axis in a conserved process known as axis elongation. Drosophila axis elongation occurs in an epithelial monolayer, the germband, and is driven by cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and oriented cell divisions at the posterior germband. Anterior germband cells also divide during axis elongation. We developed image analysis and pattern-recognition methods to track dividing cells from confocal microscopy movies in a generally applicable approach. Mesectoderm cells, forming the ventral midline, divided parallel to the AP axis, while lateral cells displayed a uniform distribution of division orientations. Mesectoderm cells did not intercalate and sustained increased AP strain before cell division. After division, mesectoderm cell density increased along the AP axis, thus relieving strain. We used laser ablation to isolate mesectoderm cells from the influence of other tissues. Uncoupling the mesectoderm from intercalating cells did not affect cell division orientation. Conversely, separating the mesectoderm from the anterior and posterior poles of the embryo resulted in uniformly oriented divisions. Our data suggest that mesectoderm cells align their division angle to reduce strain caused by mechanical forces along the AP axis of the embryo.

  4. Mechanisms of Horizontal Cell-to-Cell Transfer of Wolbachia spp. in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    White, Pamela M; Pietri, Jose E; Debec, Alain; Russell, Shelbi; Patel, Bhavin; Sullivan, William

    2017-04-01

    Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont present in most arthropod and filarial nematode species. Transmission between hosts is primarily vertical, taking place exclusively through the female germ line, although horizontal transmission has also been documented. The results of several studies indicate that Wolbachia spp. can undergo transfer between somatic and germ line cells during nematode development and in adult flies. However, the mechanisms underlying horizontal cell-to-cell transfer remain largely unexplored. Here, we establish a tractable system for probing horizontal transfer of Wolbachia cells between Drosophila melanogaster cells in culture using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). First, we show that horizontal transfer is independent of cell-to-cell contact and can efficiently take place through the culture medium within hours. Further, we demonstrate that efficient transfer utilizes host cell phagocytic and clathrin/dynamin-dependent endocytic machinery. Lastly, we provide evidence that this process is conserved between species, showing that horizontal transfer from mosquito to Drosophila cells takes place in a similar fashion. Altogether, our results indicate that Wolbachia utilizes host internalization machinery during infection, and this mechanism is conserved across insect species.IMPORTANCE Our work has broad implications for the control and treatment of tropical diseases. Wolbachia can confer resistance against a variety of human pathogens in mosquito vectors. Elucidating the mechanisms of horizontal transfer will be useful for efforts to more efficiently infect nonnatural insect hosts with Wolbachia as a biological control agent. Further, as Wolbachia is essential for the survival of filarial nematodes, understanding horizontal transfer might provide new approaches to treating human infections by targeting Wolbachia Finally, this work provides a key first step toward the genetic manipulation of Wolbachia.

  5. MRI-Based Assessment of Intralesional Delivery of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Model of Equine Tendonitis

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Alexandra; Holmes, Shannon P.; Thoresen, Merrilee; Mumaw, Jennifer; Stumpf, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is held as the benchmark for cell delivery in tendonitis. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the immediate cell distribution following intralesional injection of MSCs. Unilateral superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) lesions were created in the forelimb of six horses and injected with 10 × 106 MSCs labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) under ultrasound guidance. Assays were performed to confirm that there were no significant changes in cell viability, proliferation, migration, or trilineage differentiation due to the presence of SPIOs. Limbs were imaged on a 1.5-tesla clinical MRI scanner postmortem before and after injection to determine the extent of tendonitis and detect SPIO MSCs. Clusters of labeled cells were visible as signal voids in 6/6 subjects. Coalescing regions of signal void were diffusely present in the peritendinous tissues. Although previous reports have determined that local injury retains cells within a small radius of the site of injection, our study shows greater than expected delocalization and relatively few cells retained within collagenous tendon compared to surrounding fascia. Further work is needed if this is a reality in vivo and to determine if directed intralesional delivery of MSCs is as critical as presently thought. PMID:27746821

  6. Germ cell comparative Drosophila mutagenesis: sensitivity and mutation pattern in chemically treated stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Houtchens, K.; Li Jia, X.; Foureman, P.

    1983-01-01

    Mutagenesis studies on Drosophila oogonial cells with methylnitrosourea, dimethylnitrosamine, and diethylnitrosamine revealed unexpectedly high rates of sex-linked recessive lethals relative to other male and female germ cell stages. Indeed, the oogonial mutation rates with chemicals are higher than with massive x-ray or neutron exposures of oogonia. Analysis of the distribution of lethals per treated female suggests most of the mutations recovered are of independent origin, with very small levels of clustering of identical mutations. In the male stem cell population (spermatogonia) on the other hand, the distribution of lethals is primarily nonrandom and highly clustered. The nature of the mutational endpoint and the different pattern of germ cell development in the two sexes are the probable causes of this difference. The oogonial sensitivity to chemical mutagens may have important bearing on strategies for assessing human hazard.

  7. Phosphatidylserine recognition and induction of apoptotic cell clearance by Drosophila engulfment receptor Draper.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tran Thanh; Nagaosa, Kaz; Fujita, Yu; Kita, Asana; Mori, Hiroki; Okada, Ryo; Nonaka, Saori; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2013-05-01

    The membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine is exposed on the cell surface during apoptosis and acts as an eat-me signal in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in mammals and nematodes. However, whether this is also true in insects was unclear. When milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8, a phosphatidylserine-binding protein of mammals, was ectopically expressed in Drosophila, the level of phagocytosis was reduced, whereas this was not the case for the same protein lacking a domain responsible for the binding to phosphatidylserine. We found that the extracellular region of Draper, an engulfment receptor of Drosophila, binds to phosphatidylserine in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-like solid-phase assay and in an assay for surface plasmon resonance. A portion of Draper containing domains EMI and NIM located close to the N-terminus was required for binding to phosphatidylserine, and a Draper protein lacking this region was not active in Drosophila. Finally, the level of tyrosine-phosphorylated Draper, indicative of the activation of Draper, in a hemocyte-derived cell line was increased after treatment with phosphatidylserine-containing liposome. These results indicated that phosphatidylserine serves as an eat-me signal in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells in Drosophila and that Draper is a phosphatidylserine-binding receptor for phagocytosis.

  8. Generation of cell diversity and segmental pattern in the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Technau, Gerhard M; Berger, Christian; Urbach, Rolf

    2006-04-01

    Development of the central nervous system (CNS) involves the transformation of a two-dimensional epithelial sheet of uniform ectodermal cells, the neuroectoderm, into a highly complex three-dimensional structure consisting of a huge variety of different neural cell types. Characteristic numbers of each cell type become arranged in reproducible spatial patterns, which is a prerequisite for the establishment of specific functional contacts. The fruitfly Drosophila is a suitable model to approach the mechanisms controlling the generation of cell diversity and pattern in the developing CNS, as it allows linking of gene function to individually identifiable cells. This review addresses aspects of the formation and specification of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in Drosophila in the light of recent studies on their segmental diversification.

  9. Odd-skipped maintains prohemocyte potency and blocks blood cell development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Studies using Drosophila have contributed significantly to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms that control stem cell fate choice. The Drosophila blood cell progenitor or prohemocyte shares important characteristics with mammalian hematopoietic stem cells, including quiescence, niche dependence, and the capacity to form all three fly blood cell types. This report extends our understanding of prohemocyte fate choice by showing that the zinc-finger protein Odd-skipped promotes multipotency and blocks differentiation. Odd-skipped was expressed in prohemocytes and downregulated in terminally differentiated plasmatocytes. Furthermore, Odd-skipped maintained the prohemocyte population and blocked differentiation of plasmatocytes and lamellocytes but not crystal cells. A previous study showed that Odd-skipped expression is downregulated by Decapentaplegic signaling. This report provides a functional basis for this regulator/target pair by suggesting that Decapentaplegic signaling limits Odd-skipped expression to promote prohemocyte differentiation. Overall, these studies are the basis for a gene regulatory model of prohemocyte cell fate choice.

  10. [Role of GAGA Factor in Drosophila Primordial Germ Cell Migration and Gonad Development].

    PubMed

    Dorogova, N V; Khrushcheva, A S; Fedorova, E V; Ogienko, A A; Baricheva, E M

    2016-01-01

    The GAGA protein of drosophila is a factor involved in epigenetic transcription regulation of a large gene group controlling developmental processes. In this paper, the role of GAGA factor in germ cell migration is demonstrated as well as its effect on the gonad development in drosophila embryogenesis. Mutations in the Trl gene, encoding GAGA factor, prematurely induces the active migration program and relocation of the primordial cells inward the embryo before the beginning of gastrulation. The germ cells that prematurely separated from the main group migrate ectopically, lose orientation, and stay out of gonad development. Expression pattern of the Trl gene suggests its activity in epithelial cells of the embryonic blastoderm, part of which contact primordial cells. Thus, GAGA factor influences migration of these cells in an indirect manner via their somatic environment.

  11. Multiple signalling pathways establish cell fate and cell number in Drosophila malpighian tubules.

    PubMed

    Wan, S; Cato, A M; Skaer, H

    2000-01-01

    A unique cell, the tip mother cell, arises in the primordium of each Drosophila Malpighian tubule by lateral inhibition within a cluster of achaete-expressing cells. This cell maintains achaete expression and divides to produce daughters of equivalent potential, of which only one, the tip cell, adopts the primary fate and continues to express achaete, while in the other, the sibling cell, achaete expression is lost (M. Hoch et al., 1994, Development 120, 3439-3450). In this paper we chart the mechanisms by which achaete expression is differentially maintained in the tip cell lineage to stabilise cell fate. First, wingless is required to maintain the expression of achaete in the tubule primordium so that wingless mutants lack tip cells. Conversely, increasing wingless expression results in the persistence of achaete expression in the cell cluster. Second, Notch signalling is restricted by the asymmetric segregation of Numb, as the tip mother cell divides, so that achaete expression is maintained only in the tip cell. In embryos mutant for Notch tip cells segregate at the expense of sibling cells, whereas in numb neither daughter cell adopts the tip cell fate resulting in tubules with two sibling cells. Conversely, when numb is overexpressed two tip cells segregate and tubules have no sibling cells. Analysis of cell proliferation in the developing tubules of embryos lacking Wingless after the critical period for tip cell allocation reveals an additional requirement for wingless for the promotion of cell division. In contrast, alteration in the expression of numb has no effect on the final tubule cell number.

  12. Achilles tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  13. Male and female Drosophila germline stem cells: two versions of immortality.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Margaret T; Spradling, Allan C

    2007-04-20

    Drosophila male and female germline stem cells (GSCs) are sustained by niches and regulatory pathways whose common principles serve as models for understanding mammalian stem cells. Despite striking cellular and genetic similarities that suggest a common evolutionary origin, however, male and female GSCs also display important differences. Comparing these two stem cells and their niches in detail is likely to reveal how a common heritage has been adapted to the differing requirements of male and female gamete production.

  14. Repair of full-thickness tendon injury using connective tissue progenitors efficiently derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shahar; Leshansky, Lucy; Zussman, Eyal; Burman, Michael; Srouji, Samer; Livne, Erella; Abramov, Natalie; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue engineering (TE) encourages scientists to design new platforms in the field of regenerative and reconstructive medicine. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been proposed to be an important cell source for cell-based TE applications as well as an exciting tool for investigating the fundamentals of human development. Here, we describe the efficient derivation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from hESC lines and fetal tissues. The CTPs were significantly expanded and induced to generate tendon tissues in vitro, with ultrastructural characteristics and biomechanical properties typical of mature tendons. We describe a simple method for engineering tendon grafts that can successfully repair injured Achilles tendons and restore the ankle joint extension movement in mice. We also show the CTP's ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat both in vitro and in vivo. This study offers evidence for the possibility of using stem cell-derived engineered grafts to replace missing tissues, and sets a basic platform for future cell-based TE applications in the fields of orthopedics and reconstructive surgery.

  15. Escargot restricts niche cell to stem cell conversion in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Voog, Justin; Sandall, Sharsti L; Hime, Gary R; Resende, Luís Pedro F; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Aslanian, Aaron; Yates, John R; Hunter, Tony; Fuller, Margaret T; Jones, D Leanne

    2014-05-08

    Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behavior. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behavior of cyst stem cells (CySCs) and germline stem cells (GSCs) and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof) mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg). Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo.

  16. Escargot restricts niche cell to stem cell conversion in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Voog, Justin; Sandall, Sharsti L.; Hime, Gary R.; Resende, Luís Pedro F.; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Aslanian, Aaron; Yates, John R.; Hunter, Tony; Fuller, Margaret T.; Jones, D. Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behaviour. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behaviour of cyst stem cells (CySCs) and germline stem cells (GSCs) and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof) mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg). Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually, CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the co-repressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo. PMID:24794442

  17. Bällchen is required for self-renewal of germline stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Herzig, Bettina; Yakulov, Toma A; Klinge, Kathrin; Günesdogan, Ufuk; Jäckle, Herbert; Herzig, Alf

    2014-05-29

    Self-renewing stem cells are pools of undifferentiated cells, which are maintained in cellular niche environments by distinct tissue-specific signalling pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, female germline stem cells (GSCs) are maintained in a somatic niche of the gonads by BMP signalling. Here we report a novel function of the Drosophila kinase Bällchen (BALL), showing that its cell autonomous role is to maintain the self-renewing capacity of female GSCs independent of BMP signalling. ball mutant GSCs are eliminated from the niche and subsequently differentiate into mature eggs, indicating that BALL is largely dispensable for differentiation. Similar to female GSCs, BALL is required to maintain self-renewal of male GSCs, suggesting a tissue independent requirement of BALL for self-renewal of germline stem cells.

  18. During Drosophila disc regeneration, JAK/STAT coordinates cell proliferation with Dilp8-mediated developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Katsuyama, Tomonori; Comoglio, Federico; Seimiya, Makiko; Cabuy, Erik; Paro, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of fragmented Drosophila imaginal discs occurs in an epimorphic manner involving local cell proliferation at the wound site. After disc fragmentation, cells at the wound site activate a restoration program through wound healing, regenerative cell proliferation, and repatterning of the tissue. However, the interplay of signaling cascades driving these early reprogramming steps is not well-understood. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of regenerating cells in the early phase within 24 h after wounding. We found that JAK/STAT signaling becomes activated at the wound site and promotes regenerative cell proliferation in cooperation with Wingless (Wg) signaling. In addition, we showed that the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (dilp8), which encodes a paracrine peptide to delay the onset of pupariation, is controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in early regenerating discs. Our findings suggest that JAK/STAT signaling plays a pivotal role in coordinating regenerative disc growth with organismal developmental timing. PMID:25902518

  19. During Drosophila disc regeneration, JAK/STAT coordinates cell proliferation with Dilp8-mediated developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Tomonori; Comoglio, Federico; Seimiya, Makiko; Cabuy, Erik; Paro, Renato

    2015-05-05

    Regeneration of fragmented Drosophila imaginal discs occurs in an epimorphic manner involving local cell proliferation at the wound site. After disc fragmentation, cells at the wound site activate a restoration program through wound healing, regenerative cell proliferation, and repatterning of the tissue. However, the interplay of signaling cascades driving these early reprogramming steps is not well-understood. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of regenerating cells in the early phase within 24 h after wounding. We found that JAK/STAT signaling becomes activated at the wound site and promotes regenerative cell proliferation in cooperation with Wingless (Wg) signaling. In addition, we showed that the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (dilp8), which encodes a paracrine peptide to delay the onset of pupariation, is controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in early regenerating discs. Our findings suggest that JAK/STAT signaling plays a pivotal role in coordinating regenerative disc growth with organismal developmental timing.

  20. Drosophila as a model for the two myeloid blood cell systems in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Katrina S.; Brückner, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Fish, mice and men rely on two coexisting myeloid blood cell systems. One is sustained by hematopoietic progenitor cells, which reside in specialized microenvironments in hematopoietic organs and give rise to cells of the monocyte lineage. The other system corresponds to the independent lineage of self-renewing tissue macrophages, which colonize organs during embryonic development and are maintained during later life by proliferation in local tissue microenvironments. However, little is known about the nature of these microenvironments and their regulation. Moreover, many vertebrate tissues contain a mix of both tissue-resident and monocyte-derived macrophages, posing a challenge to the study of lineage-specific regulatory mechanisms and function. This review highlights how research in the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster can address many of these outstanding questions in the field. Drawing parallels between hematopoiesis in Drosophila and vertebrates, we illustrate the evolutionary conservation of the two myeloid systems across animal phyla. Much like vertebrates, Drosophila possesses a lineage of self-renewing tissue-resident macrophages, as well as a ‘definitive’ lineage of macrophages that derive from hematopoiesis in the progenitor-based lymph gland. We summarize key findings from Drosophila hematopoiesis that illustrate how local microenvironments, systemic signals, immune challenges and nervous inputs regulate adaptive responses of tissue-resident macrophages and progenitor-based hematopoiesis to achieve optimal fitness of the animal. PMID:24946019

  1. Non-cell autonomous cell death caused by transmission of Huntingtin aggregates in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Daniel T; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that protein aggregates can spread between neurons in several neurodegenerative diseases but much remains unknown regarding the underlying mechanisms responsible for this spreading and its role in disease progression. We recently demonstrated that mutant Huntingtin aggregates spread between cells within the Drosophila brain resulting in non-cell autonomous loss of a pair of large neurons in the posterior protocerebrum. However, the full extent of neuronal loss throughout the brain was not determined. Here we examine the effects of driving expression of mutant Huntingtin in Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs) by using a marker for cleaved caspase activity to monitor neuronal apoptosis as a function of age. We find widespread caspase activity in various brain regions over time, demonstrating that non-cell autonomous damage is widespread. Improved understanding of which neurons are most vulnerable and why should be useful in developing treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases that involve transcellular spreading of aggregates.

  2. The behaviour of Drosophila adult hindgut stem cells is controlled by Wnt and Hh signalling.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shigeo; Mkrtchyan, Marianna; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Merriam, John R; Hartenstein, Volker

    2008-07-31

    The intestinal tract maintains proper function by replacing aged cells with freshly produced cells that arise from a population of self-renewing intestinal stem cells (ISCs). In the mammalian intestine, ISC self renewal, amplification and differentiation take place along the crypt-villus axis, and are controlled by the Wnt and hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathways. However, little is known about the mechanisms that specify ISCs within the developing intestinal epithelium, or about the signalling centres that help maintain them in their self-renewing stem cell state. Here we show that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, ISCs of the posterior intestine (hindgut) are confined to an anterior narrow segment, which we name the hindgut proliferation zone (HPZ). Within the HPZ, self renewal of ISCs, as well as subsequent proliferation and differentiation of ISC descendants, are controlled by locally emanating Wingless (Wg, a Drosophila Wnt homologue) and Hh signals. The anteriorly restricted expression of Wg in the HPZ acts as a niche signal that maintains cells in a slow-cycling, self-renewing mode. As cells divide and move posteriorly away from the Wg source, they enter a phase of rapid proliferation. During this phase, Hh signal is required for exiting the cell cycle and the onset of differentiation. The HPZ, with its characteristic proliferation dynamics and signalling properties, is set up during the embryonic phase and becomes active in the larva, where it generates all adult hindgut cells including ISCs. The mechanism and genetic control of cell renewal in the Drosophila HPZ exhibits a large degree of similarity with what is seen in the mammalian intestine. Our analysis of the Drosophila HPZ provides an insight into the specification and control of stem cells, highlighting the way in which the spatial pattern of signals that promote self renewal, growth and differentiation is set up within a genetically tractable model system.

  3. Generating a "Humanized" Drosophila S2 Cell Line Sensitive to Pharmacological Inhibition of Kinesin-5.

    PubMed

    Ye, Anna A; Maresca, Thomas J

    2016-01-20

    Kinetochores are large protein-based structures that assemble on centromeres during cell division and link chromosomes to spindle microtubules. Proper distribution of the genetic material requires that sister kinetochores on every chromosome become bioriented by attaching to microtubules from opposite spindle poles before progressing into anaphase. However, erroneous, non-bioriented attachment states are common and cellular pathways exist to both detect and correct such attachments during cell division. The process by which improper kinetochore-microtubule interactions are destabilized is referred to as error correction. To study error correction in living cells, incorrect attachments are purposely generated via chemical inhibition of kinesin-5 motor, which leads to monopolar spindle assembly, and the transition from mal-orientation to biorientation is observed following drug washout. The large number of chromosomes in many model tissue culture cell types poses a challenge in observing individual error correction events. Drosophila S2 cells are better subjects for such studies as they possess as few as 4 pairs of chromosomes. However, small molecule kinesin-5 inhibitors are ineffective against Drosophila kinesin-5 (Klp61F). Here we describe how to build a Drosophila cell line that effectively replaces Klp61F with human kinesin-5, which renders the cells sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of the motor and suitable for use in the cell-based error correction assay.

  4. Wildtype adult stem cells, unlike tumor cells, are resistant to cellular damages in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meifang; Zhao, Hang; Zhao, Hanfei; Binari, Richard; Perrimon, Norbert; Li, Zhouhua

    2016-03-15

    Adult stem cells or residential progenitor cells are critical to maintain the structure and function of adult tissues (homeostasis) throughout the lifetime of an individual. Mis-regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation often leads to diseases including cancer, however, how wildtype adult stem cells and cancer cells respond to cellular damages remains unclear. We find that in the adult Drosophila midgut, intestinal stem cells (ISCs), unlike tumor intestinal cells, are resistant to various cellular damages. Tumor intestinal cells, unlike wildtype ISCs, are easily eliminated by apoptosis. Further, their proliferation is inhibited upon autophagy induction, and autophagy-mediated tumor inhibition is independent of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, inhibition of tumorigenesis by autophagy is likely through the sequestration and degradation of mitochondria, as compromising mitochondria activity in these tumor models mimics the induction of autophagy and increasing the production of mitochondria alleviates the tumor-suppression capacity of autophagy. Together, these data demonstrate that wildtype adult stem cells and tumor cells show dramatic differences in sensitivity to cellular damages, thus providing potential therapeutic implications targeting tumorigenesis.

  5. Active JNK-dependent secretion of Drosophila Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase by loser cells recruits haemocytes during cell competition.

    PubMed

    Casas-Tintó, Sergio; Lolo, Fidel-Nicolás; Moreno, Eduardo

    2015-12-11

    Cell competition is a process by which the slow dividing cells (losers) are recognized and eliminated from growing tissues. Loser cells are extruded from the epithelium and engulfed by the haemocytes, the Drosophila macrophages. However, how macrophages identify the dying loser cells is unclear. Here we show that apoptotic loser cells secrete Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS), which is best known as a core component of the translational machinery. Secreted TyrRS is cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases generating MiniTyr and EMAP fragments. EMAP acts as a guiding cue for macrophage migration in the Drosophila larvae, as it attracts the haemocytes to the apoptotic loser cells. JNK signalling and Kish, a component of the secretory pathway, are autonomously required for the active secretion of TyrRS by the loser cells. Altogether, this mechanism guarantees effective removal of unfit cells from the growing tissue.

  6. CalpB modulates border cell migration in Drosophila egg chambers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Calpains are calcium regulated intracellular cysteine proteases implicated in a variety of physiological functions and pathological conditions. The Drosophila melanogaster genome contains only two genes, CalpA and CalpB coding for canonical, active calpain enzymes. The movement of the border cells in Drosophila egg chambers is a well characterized model of the eukaryotic cell migration. Using this genetically pliable model we can investigate the physiological role of calpains in cell motility. Results We demonstrate at the whole organism level that CalpB is implicated in cell migration, while the structurally related CalpA paralog can not fulfill the same function. The downregulation of the CalpB gene by mutations or RNA interference results in a delayed migration of the border cells in Drosophila egg chambers. This phenotype is significantly enhanced when the focal adhesion complex genes encoding for α-PS2 integrin ( if), β-PS integrin ( mys) and talin ( rhea) are silenced. The reduction of CalpB activity diminishes the release of integrins from the rear end of the border cells. The delayed migration and the reduced integrin release phenotypes can be suppressed by expressing wild-type talin-head in the border cells but not talin-headR367A, a mutant form which is not able to bind β-PS integrin. CalpB can cleave talin in vitro, and the two proteins coimmunoprecipitate from Drosophila extracts. Conclusions The physiological function of CalpB in border cell motility has been demonstrated in vivo. The genetic interaction between the CalpB and the if, mys, as well as rhea genes, the involvement of active talin head-domains in the process, and the fact that CalpB and talin interact with each other collectively suggest that the limited proteolytic cleavage of talin is one of the possible mechanisms through which CalpB regulates cell migration. PMID:22827336

  7. The Hippo signalling pathway maintains quiescence in Drosophila neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rouven; Weynans, Kevin; Bossing, Torsten; Barros, Claudia S; Berger, Christian

    2016-01-29

    Stem cells control their mitotic activity to decide whether to proliferate or to stay in quiescence. Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs) are quiescent at early larval stages, when they are reactivated in response to metabolic changes. Here we report that cell-contact inhibition of growth through the canonical Hippo signalling pathway maintains NSC quiescence. Loss of the core kinases hippo or warts leads to premature nuclear localization of the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie and initiation of growth and proliferation in NSCs. Yorkie is necessary and sufficient for NSC reactivation, growth and proliferation. The Hippo pathway activity is modulated via inter-cellular transmembrane proteins Crumbs and Echinoid that are both expressed in a nutrient-dependent way in niche glial cells and NSCs. Loss of crumbs or echinoid in the niche only is sufficient to reactivate NSCs. Finally, we provide evidence that the Hippo pathway activity discriminates quiescent from non-quiescent NSCs in the Drosophila nervous system.

  8. The Hippo signalling pathway maintains quiescence in Drosophila neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Rouven; Weynans, Kevin; Bossing, Torsten; Barros, Claudia S.; Berger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells control their mitotic activity to decide whether to proliferate or to stay in quiescence. Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs) are quiescent at early larval stages, when they are reactivated in response to metabolic changes. Here we report that cell-contact inhibition of growth through the canonical Hippo signalling pathway maintains NSC quiescence. Loss of the core kinases hippo or warts leads to premature nuclear localization of the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie and initiation of growth and proliferation in NSCs. Yorkie is necessary and sufficient for NSC reactivation, growth and proliferation. The Hippo pathway activity is modulated via inter-cellular transmembrane proteins Crumbs and Echinoid that are both expressed in a nutrient-dependent way in niche glial cells and NSCs. Loss of crumbs or echinoid in the niche only is sufficient to reactivate NSCs. Finally, we provide evidence that the Hippo pathway activity discriminates quiescent from non-quiescent NSCs in the Drosophila nervous system. PMID:26821647

  9. Effect of Hypoxia on Self-Renewal Capacity and Differentiation in Human Tendon-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Lin, Lixiang; Zhou, Yifei; Lu, Xiaolang; Shao, Xiwen; Lin, Chuanlu; Yu, Kehe; Zhang, Xiaolei; Hong, Jianjun; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypoxic conditions play roles in functioning of human tendon-derived stem cells (hTSCs). The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of various hypoxic conditions in self-renewal capacity and differentiation of TSCs. Material/Methods hTSCs was obtain from supraspinatus tendon donors. Colony formation and cell proliferation assay were used to assess the self-renewal of hTSCs. qRT-PCT and Western blot analysis were used to examine stemness and multi-differentiation potential of hTSCs. Results We found that culturing at 5% O2 is more beneficial for the self-renewal of hTSCs than the other 3 culture conditions, with larger colony size and numbers. The proliferation of hTSCs in 5%, 10%, and 20% O2 cultures increased after seeding. The number of cells in the 5% O2 condition was higher than that in other culture; however, self-renewal capacity of hTSCs in 0.5% O2 was inhibited. The expression levels of stem cell markers, including NS, Nanog, Oct-4, and SSEA-4, were highest in 0.5% O2 culture. Furthermore, hTSCs cultured in 20% O2 exhibited significantly higher expression of the 3 markers (PPAR-γ, Sox-9, and Runx-2). Conclusions Hypoxic condition of culture encouraged self-renewal capacity of hTSCs, but inhibited their multi-differentiation potential, compared to normoxic condition of culture. Moreover, excessively low oxygen concentration impaired the capacity of hTSCs. PMID:28302994

  10. RNA expression profiling from FACS-isolated cells of the Drosophila intestine.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Devanjali; Xiang, Jinyi; Edgar, Bruce A

    2013-11-13

    This unit describes a protocol for the isolation of Drosophila intestinal cell populations for the purpose of cell type-specific transcriptome profiling. A method to select a cell type of interest labeled with green or yellow fluorescent protein (GFP, YFP) by making use of the GAL4-UAS bipartite system and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) is presented. Total RNA is isolated from the sorted cells and linear RNA amplification is used to obtain sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA for analysis by microarray, RT-PCR, or RNA sequencing. This method will be useful for quantitative transcriptome comparison across intestinal cell types under normal and various experimental conditions.

  11. Reduction of Cullin-2 in somatic cells disrupts differentiation of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ayyub, Champakali; Banerjee, Kushal Kr; Joti, Prakash

    2015-09-15

    Signaling from a niche consisting of somatic cells is essential for maintenance of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the ovary of Drosophila. Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a type of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signal, emanating from the niche, is the most important signal for this process. Cullin proteins constitute the core of a multiprotein E3-ligase important for their functions viz. degradation or modification of proteins necessary for different cellular processes. We have found that a Cullin protein called Cullin-2 (Cul-2) expresses in both somatic and germline cells of the Drosophila ovary. Reduction of Cul-2 in somatic cells causes upregulation of Dpp signal and produces accumulation of extra GSC-like cells inside germarium, the anteriormost structure of the ovary. Our results suggest that Cullin-2 protein present in the somatic cells is involved in a non cell-autonomous regulation of the extent of Dpp signaling and thus controls the differentiation of GSCs to cystoblasts (CBs).

  12. Evolution of mitochondrial cell death pathway: Proapoptotic role of HtrA2/Omi in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Igaki, Tatsushi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Tokushige, Naoko; Aonuma, Hiroka; Takahashi, Ryosuke . E-mail: ryosuket@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miura, Masayuki . E-mail: miura@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-05-18

    Despite the essential role of mitochondria in a variety of mammalian cell death processes, the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in Drosophila cell death has remained unclear. To address this, we cloned and characterized DmHtrA2, a Drosophila homolog of a mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi. We show that DmHtrA2 normally resides in mitochondria and is up-regulated by UV-irradiation. Upon receipt of apoptotic stimuli, DmHtrA2 is translocated to extramitochondrial compartment; however, unlike its mammalian counterpart, the extramitochondrial DmHtrA2 does not diffuse throughout the cytosol but stays near the mitochondria. RNAi-mediated knock-down of DmHtrA2 in larvae or adult flies results in a resistance to stress stimuli. DmHtrA2 specifically cleaves Drosophila inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), a cellular caspase inhibitor, and induces cell death both in vitro and in vivo as potent as other fly cell death proteins. Our observations suggest that DmHtrA2 promotes cell death through a cleavage of DIAP1 in the vicinity of mitochondria, which may represent a prototype of mitochondrial cell death pathway in evolution.

  13. Enhancement of tendon-bone healing for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells infected with BMP-2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Zhang, Qingguo; Li, Yunxia; Jiang, Jia; Chen, Shiyi

    2012-10-22

    At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon-bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on tendon-bone healing was determined. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the BMP-2 gene was constructed and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) were infected with a lentivirus. Next, we examined the viability of the infected cells and the mRNA and protein levels of BMP-2-infected bMSCs. Gastrocnemius tendons, gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the control virus (bMSCs+Lv-Control), and gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the recombinant BMP-2 virus (bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2) were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in New Zealand white rabbits. Specimens from each group were harvested four and eight weeks postoperatively and evaluated using biomechanical and histological methods. The bMSCs were infected with the lentivirus at an efficiency close to 100%. The BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels in bMSCs were significantly increased after lentiviral infection. The bMSCs and BMP-2-infected bMSCs on the gastrocnemius tendon improved the biomechanical properties of the graft in the bone tunnel; specifically, bMSCs infected with BMP-2 had a positive effect on tendon-bone healing. In the four-week and eight-week groups, bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group exhibited significantly higher maximum loads of 29.3 ± 7.4 N and 45.5 ± 11.9 N, respectively, compared with the control group (19.9 ± 6.4 N and 21.9 ± 4.9 N) (P = 0.041 and P = 0.001, respectively). In the eight-week groups, the stiffness of the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group (32.5 ± 7.3) was significantly higher than that of the bMSCs+Lv-Control group (22.8 ± 7.4) or control groups (12.4 ± 6.0) (p = 0.036 and 0.001, respectively). Based on the histological

  14. Plasticity of both planar cell polarity and cell identity during the development of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Pedro; Vincent, Jean-Paul; Palacios, Isabel M; Lawrence, Peter A; Casal, José

    2014-02-11

    Drosophila has helped us understand the genetic mechanisms of pattern formation. Particularly useful have been those organs in which different cell identities and polarities are displayed cell by cell in the cuticle and epidermis (Lawrence, 1992; Bejsovec and Wieschaus, 1993; Freeman, 1997). Here we use the pattern of larval denticles and muscle attachments and ask how this pattern is maintained and renewed over the larval moult cycles. During larval growth each epidermal cell increases manyfold in size but neither divides nor dies. We follow individuals from moult to moult, tracking marked cells and find that, as cells are repositioned and alter their neighbours, their identities change to compensate and the pattern is conserved. Single cells adopting a new fate may even acquire a new polarity: an identified cell that makes a forward-pointing denticle in the first larval stage may make a backward-pointing denticle in the second and third larval stages. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01569.001.

  15. Therapeutics for tendon regeneration: a multidisciplinary review of tendon research for improved healing.

    PubMed

    Paredes, J J; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly

    2016-11-01

    Tendon injuries, known as tendinopathies, are common musculoskeletal injuries that affect a wide range of the population. Canonical tendon healing is characterized by fibrosis, scar formation, and the loss of tissue mechanical and structural properties. Understanding the regenerative tendon environment is an area of increasing interest in the field of musculoskeletal research. Previous studies have focused on utilizing individual elements from the fields of biomechanics, developmental biology, cell and growth factor therapy, and tissue engineering in an attempt to develop regenerative tendon therapeutics. Still, the specific mechanism for regenerative healing remains unknown. In this review, we highlight some of the current approaches of tendon therapeutics and elucidate the differences along the tendon midsubstance and enthesis, exhibiting the necessity of location-specific tendon therapeutics. Furthermore, we emphasize the necessity of further interdisciplinary research in order to reach the desired goal of fully understanding the mechanisms underlying regenerative healing.

  16. Functional assessment of gap junctions in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures of human tendon cells using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma-Kuzniarska, Maria; Yapp, Clarence; Pearson-Jones, Thomas W.; Jones, Andrew K.; Hulley, Philippa A.

    2014-01-01

    Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication influences a variety of cellular activities. In tendons, gap junctions modulate collagen production, are involved in strain-induced cell death, and are involved in the response to mechanical stimulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in healthy human tendon-derived cells using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The FRAP is a noninvasive technique that allows quantitative measurement of gap junction function in living cells. It is based on diffusion-dependent redistribution of a gap junction-permeable fluorescent dye. Using FRAP, we showed that human tenocytes form functional gap junctions in monolayer and three-dimensional (3-D) collagen I culture. Fluorescently labeled tenocytes following photobleaching rapidly reacquired the fluorescent dye from neighboring cells, while HeLa cells, which do not communicate by gap junctions, remained bleached. Furthermore, both 18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid and carbenoxolone, standard inhibitors of gap junction activity, impaired fluorescence recovery in tendon cells. In both monolayer and 3-D cultures, intercellular communication in isolated cells was significantly decreased when compared with cells forming many cell-to-cell contacts. In this study, we used FRAP as a tool to quantify and experimentally manipulate the function of gap junctions in human tenocytes in both two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D cultures.

  17. MR Imaging and US of the Wrist Tendons.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Benjamin; Sampath, Srihari C; Sampath, Srinath C; Motamedi, Kambiz

    2016-10-01

    The tendons of the wrist are commonly symptomatic. They can be injured, infected, or inflamed. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful tools for evaluating the wrist. Pathologic conditions of the wrist tendons include de Quervain tenosynovitis, extensor carpi ulnaris tendinopathy, rheumatoid tenosynovitis, infectious synovitis, tendon tears, hydroxyapatite deposition disease, intersection syndrome, tenosynovial giant cell tumor, and fibroma of the tendon sheath. In this article, we review the normal appearance of the wrist tendons, discuss relevant anatomy, and give an overview of common pathologic conditions affecting the wrist tendons. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  18. Bilateral Patellar Tendon Rupture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    within the tendon or systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus , diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, rheumatologic disease, and local or...factors for patellar tendon rupture include obesity, male gender, age 30-40, activities that increase patellar stress, systemic lupus erythematosus ...patellar tendon rupture is a rare occurrence usually associated with chronic degeneration of tendon fibers, use of steroids, or systemic illness. Our

  19. Tie-mediated signal from apoptotic cells protects stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yalan; Su, Tin Tin; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Many types of normal and cancer stem cells are resistant to killing by genotoxins, but the mechanism for this resistance is poorly understood. Here we show that adult stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster germline and midgut are resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemically induced apoptosis and dissect the mechanism for this protection. We find that upon IR the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie/Tie-2 is activated, leading to the upregulation of microRNA bantam that represses FOXO-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic Smac/DIA-BLO orthologue, Hid in germline stem cells. Knockdown of the IR-induced putative Tie ligand, Pvf1, a functional homologue of human Angiopoietin, in differentiating daughter cells renders germline stem cells sensitive to IR, suggesting that the dying daughters send a survival signal to protect their stem cells for future repopulation of the tissue. If conserved in cancer stem cells, this mechanism may provide therapeutic options for the eradication of cancer. PMID:25959206

  20. Silver nanoparticles disrupt germline stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Cynthia; Lee, Qian Ying; Cai, Yu; Liu, Xiaoli; Ding, Jun; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), one of the most popular nanomaterials, are commonly used in consumer products and biomedical devices, despite their potential toxicity. Recently, AgNP exposure was reported to be associated with male reproductive toxicity in mammalian models. However, there is still a limited understanding of the effects of AgNPs on spermatogenesis. The fruit fly Drosophila testis is an excellent in vivo model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying AgNP-induced defects in spermatogenesis, as germ lineages can be easily identified and imaged. In this study, we evaluated AgNP-mediated toxicity on spermatogenesis by feeding Drosophila with AgNPs at various concentrations. We first observed a dose-dependent uptake of AgNPs in vivo. Concomitantly, AgNP exposure caused a significant decrease in the viability and delay in the development of Drosophila in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AgNP-treated male flies showed a reduction in fecundity, and the resulting testes contained a decreased number of germline stem cells (GSCs) compared to controls. Interestingly, testes exposed to AgNPs exhibited a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species levels and showed precocious GSC differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that AgNP exposure may increase ROS levels in the Drosophila testis, leading to a reduction of GSC number by promoting premature GSC differentiation.

  1. Silver nanoparticles disrupt germline stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cynthia; Lee, Qian Ying; Cai, Yu; Liu, Xiaoli; Ding, Jun; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2016-02-05

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), one of the most popular nanomaterials, are commonly used in consumer products and biomedical devices, despite their potential toxicity. Recently, AgNP exposure was reported to be associated with male reproductive toxicity in mammalian models. However, there is still a limited understanding of the effects of AgNPs on spermatogenesis. The fruit fly Drosophila testis is an excellent in vivo model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying AgNP-induced defects in spermatogenesis, as germ lineages can be easily identified and imaged. In this study, we evaluated AgNP-mediated toxicity on spermatogenesis by feeding Drosophila with AgNPs at various concentrations. We first observed a dose-dependent uptake of AgNPs in vivo. Concomitantly, AgNP exposure caused a significant decrease in the viability and delay in the development of Drosophila in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AgNP-treated male flies showed a reduction in fecundity, and the resulting testes contained a decreased number of germline stem cells (GSCs) compared to controls. Interestingly, testes exposed to AgNPs exhibited a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species levels and showed precocious GSC differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that AgNP exposure may increase ROS levels in the Drosophila testis, leading to a reduction of GSC number by promoting premature GSC differentiation.

  2. Synthetic Lethality of Retinoblastoma Mutant Cells in the Drosophila Eye by Mutation of a Novel Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Kyle A.; Belvin, Marcia; Parks, Annette L.; Whittaker, Kellie; Mahoney, Matt B.; Nicoll, Monique; Park, Christopher C.; Winter, Christopher G.; Chen, Feng; Lickteig, Kim; Ahmad, Ferhad; Esengil, Hanife; Lorenzi, Matthew V.; Norton, Amanda; Rupnow, Brent A.; Shayesteh, Laleh; Tabios, Mariano; Young, Lynn M.; Carroll, Pamela M.; Kopczynski, Casey; Plowman, Gregory D.; Friedman, Lori S.; Francis-Lang, Helen L.

    2005-01-01

    Mutations that inactivate the retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway are common in human tumors. Such mutations promote tumor growth by deregulating the G1 cell cycle checkpoint. However, uncontrolled cell cycle progression can also produce new liabilities for cell survival. To uncover such liabilities in Rb mutant cells, we performed a clonal screen in the Drosophila eye to identify second-site mutations that eliminate Rbf− cells, but allow Rbf+ cells to survive. Here we report the identification of a mutation in a novel highly conserved peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase) that selectively eliminates Rbf− cells from the Drosophila eye. PMID:15744054

  3. Genotoxicity of two arsenic compounds in germ cells and somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Morales, P.; Rodriguez-Arnaiz, R.

    1995-12-31

    Two arsenic compounds, sodium arsenite (NaAsO{sup 2}) and sodium arsenate (Na{sub 2}HasO{sub 4}), were tested for their possible genotoxicity in germinal and somatic cells of Drosophila melanagaster. For germinal cells, the sex-linked recessive lethal test (SLRLT) and the sea chromosome loss test (SCLT) were used. In both tests, a broad scheme of 2-3-3 days was employed. Two routes of administration were used for the SLRLT: adult male injection (0.38, 0.77 mM used for Sodium arsenite; and 0.01, 0.02 mM for sodium arsenate). The the SCLT the compounds were injected into males. Controls were treated with a solution of 5% sucrose which was employed as solvent. The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was run in the w{sup +}/w eye assay as well as in the mwh +/+ flr{sup 3} wing test, employing the standard and insecticide-resistant strains. In both tests, third instar larvae were treated for 6 hr with sodium arsenite (0.38, 0.77, 1.15 mM), and sodium arsenate (0.54, 1.34, 2.69 mM). In the SLRLT, both compounds were positive, but they were negative in the SCLT. The genotoxicity of both compounds was localized mainly in somatic cells, in agreement with reports on the carcinogenic potential of arsenical compounds Solium and arsenite was an order of magnitude more toxic and mutagenic than sodium arsenate. This study confirms the reliability of the Drosophila in vivo system to test the genotoxicity of environmental compounds. 75 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. EGFR and Notch signaling respectively regulate proliferative activity and multiple cell lineage differentiation of Drosophila gastric stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenhui; Guo, Xingting; Xi, Rongwen

    2014-05-01

    Quiescent, multipotent gastric stem cells (GSSCs) in the copper cell region of adult Drosophila midgut can produce all epithelial cell lineages found in the region, including acid-secreting copper cells, interstitial cells and enteroendocrine cells, but mechanisms controlling their quiescence and the ternary lineage differentiation are unknown. By using cell ablation or damage-induced regeneration assays combined with cell lineage tracing and genetic analysis, here we demonstrate that Delta (Dl)-expressing cells in the copper cell region are the authentic GSSCs that can self-renew and continuously regenerate the gastric epithelium after a sustained damage. Lineage tracing analysis reveals that the committed GSSC daughter with activated Notch will invariably differentiate into either a copper cell or an interstitial cell, but not the enteroendocrine cell lineage, and loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies revealed that Notch signaling is both necessary and sufficient for copper cell/interstitial cell differentiation. We also demonstrate that elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, which is achieved by the activation of ligand Vein from the surrounding muscle cells and ligand Spitz from progenitor cells, mediates the regenerative proliferation of GSSCs following damage. Taken together, we demonstrate that Dl is a specific marker for Drosophila GSSCs, whose cell cycle status is dependent on the levels of EGFR signaling activity, and the Notch signaling has a central role in controlling cell lineage differentiation from GSSCs by separating copper/interstitial cell lineage from enteroendocrine cell lineage.

  5. Phagocytosis genes nonautonomously promote developmental cell death in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Allison K.; Mondragon, Albert A.; Schenkel, Claire E.; Yalonetskaya, Alla; Taylor, Jeffrey D.; Moynihan, Katherine E.; Etchegaray, Jon Iker; Meehan, Tracy L.; McCall, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is usually considered a cell-autonomous suicide program, synonymous with apoptosis. Recent research has revealed that PCD is complex, with at least a dozen cell death modalities. Here, we demonstrate that the large-scale nonapoptotic developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary occurs by an alternative cell death program where the surrounding follicle cells nonautonomously promote death of the germ line. The phagocytic machinery of the follicle cells, including Draper, cell death abnormality (Ced)-12, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), is essential for the death and removal of germ-line–derived nurse cells during late oogenesis. Cell death events including acidification, nuclear envelope permeabilization, and DNA fragmentation of the nurse cells are impaired when phagocytosis is inhibited. Moreover, elimination of a small subset of follicle cells prevents nurse cell death and cytoplasmic dumping. Developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary is an intriguing example of nonapoptotic, nonautonomous PCD, providing insight on the diversity of cell death mechanisms. PMID:26884181

  6. Insulin-independent role of adiponectin receptor signaling in Drosophila germline stem cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Laws, Kaitlin M; Sampson, Leesa L; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2015-03-15

    Adipocytes have key endocrine roles, mediated in large part by secreted protein hormones termed adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin is well known for its role in sensitizing peripheral tissues to insulin, and several lines of evidence suggest that adiponectin might also modulate stem cells/precursors. It remains unclear, however, how adiponectin signaling controls stem cells and whether this role is secondary to its insulin-sensitizing effects or distinct. Drosophila adipocytes also function as an endocrine organ and, although no obvious adiponectin homolog has been identified, Drosophila AdipoR encodes a well-conserved homolog of mammalian adiponectin receptors. Here, we generate a null AdipoR allele and use clonal analysis to demonstrate an intrinsic requirement for AdipoR in germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance in the Drosophila ovary. AdipoR null GSCs are not fully responsive to bone morphogenetic protein ligands from the niche and have a slight reduction in E-cadherin levels at the GSC-niche junction. Conversely, germline-specific overexpression of AdipoR inhibits natural GSC loss, suggesting that reduction in adiponectin signaling might contribute to the normal decline in GSC numbers observed over time in wild-type females. Surprisingly, AdipoR is not required for insulin sensitization of the germline, leading us to speculate that insulin sensitization is a more recently acquired function than stem cell regulation in the evolutionary history of adiponectin signaling. Our findings establish Drosophila female GSCs as a new system for future studies addressing the molecular mechanisms whereby adiponectin receptor signaling modulates stem cell fate.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Signaling Events in Drosophila S2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila activates a robust defense response to gram-negative bacteria through the Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway. Imd signaling proceeds through c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), NF-kB and caspase modules. The individual signaling modules act in a highly coordinated manner to yield a stereotypical response to infection. While considerable attention has focused on NF-kB-mediated antimicrobial activities, more recent studies have highlighted the involvement of JNK signaling in the Imd pathway response. JNK signaling occurs in a transitory burst and drives the expression of a number of gene products through the AP-1 transcription factor. In this report, we describe a simple method for the quantification of JNK activation by Western blot analysis or directly in tissue culture plates. PMID:18385808

  8. Germline self-renewal requires cyst stem cells and stat regulates niche adhesion in Drosophila testes.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, Judith L; Dinardo, Stephen

    2010-08-01

    Adults maintain tissue-specific stem cells through niche signals. A model for niche function is the Drosophila melanogaster testis, where a small cluster of cells called the hub produce locally available signals that allow only adjacent cells to self-renew. We show here that the principal signalling pathway implicated in this niche, chemokine activation of STAT, does not primarily regulate self-renewal of germline stem cells (GSCs), but rather governs GSC adhesion to hub cells. In fact, GSC renewal does not require hub cell contact, as GSCs can be renewed solely by contact with the second resident stem cell population, somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs), and this involves BMP signalling. These data suggest a modified paradigm whereby the hub cells function as architects of the stem cell environment, drawing into proximity cellular components necessary for niche function. Self-renewal functions are shared by the hub cells and the CySCs. This work also reconciles key differences in GSC renewal between Drosophila testis and ovary niches, and highlights how a niche can coordinate the production of distinct lineages by having one stem cell type rely on a second.

  9. Fipronil induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathways in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoyan; Xu, Zhiping; Zhang, Yixi; Shao, Xusheng; Xu, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Jiaogao; Li, Zhong

    2015-03-01

    Fipronil is the first phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in controlling pests, including pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. It is generally accepted that fipronil elicits neurotoxicity via interactions with GABA and glutamate receptors, although alternative mechanisms have recently been proposed. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of fipronil and its likely mode of action in Drosophila S2 cells, as an in vitro model. Fipronil administrated the concentration- and time-dependent S2 cell proliferation. Intracellular biochemical assays showed that fipronil-induced S2 cell apoptosis coincided with a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase reactive oxygen species generation, a significant decrease of Bcl-2 and DIAP1, and a marked augmentation of Cyt c and caspase-3. Because caspase-3 is the major executioner caspase downstream of caspase-9 in Drosophila, enzyme activity assays were used to determine the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Our results indicated that fipronil effectively induced apoptosis in Drosophila S2 cells through caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathways.

  10. Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells.

    PubMed

    Boone, Jason Q; Doe, Chris Q

    2008-08-01

    Mammalian neural stem cells generate transit amplifying progenitors that expand the neuronal population, but these type of progenitors have not been studied in Drosophila. The Drosophila larval brain contains approximately 100 neural stem cells (neuroblasts) per brain lobe, which are thought to bud off smaller ganglion mother cells (GMCs) that each produce two post-mitotic neurons. Here, we use molecular markers and clonal analysis to identify a novel neuroblast cell lineage containing "transit amplifying GMCs" (TA-GMCs). TA-GMCs differ from canonical GMCs in several ways: each TA-GMC has nuclear Deadpan, cytoplasmic Prospero, forms Prospero crescents at mitosis, and generates up to 10 neurons; canonical GMCs lack Deadpan, have nuclear Prospero, lack Prospero crescents at mitosis, and generate two neurons. We conclude that there are at least two types of neuroblast lineages: a Type I lineage where GMCs generate two neurons, and a type II lineage where TA-GMCs have longer lineages. Type II lineages allow more neurons to be produced faster than Type I lineages, which may be advantageous in a rapidly developing organism like Drosophila.

  11. Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control germline stem cell lineage development in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xing; Wang, Su; Do, Trieu; Song, Xiaoqing; Inaba, Mayu; Nishimoto, Yoshiya; Liu, Lu-ping; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ying; Li, Hui; McDowell, William; Park, Jungeun; Malanowski, Kate; Peak, Allison; Perera, Anoja; Li, Hua; Gaudenz, Karin; Haug, Jeff; Yamashita, Yukiko; Lin, Haifan; Ni, Jian-quan; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The piRNA pathway plays an important role in maintaining genome stability in the germ line by silencing transposable elements (TEs) from fly to mammals. As a highly conserved piRNA pathway component, Piwi is widely expressed in both germ cells and somatic cells in the Drosophila ovary and is required for piRNA production in both cell types. In addition to its known role in somatic cap cells to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs), this study has demonstrated that Piwi has novel functions in somatic cells and germ cells of the Drosophila ovary to promote germ cell differentiation. Piwi knockdown in escort cells causes a reduction in escort cell (EC) number and accumulation of undifferentiated germ cells, some of which show active BMP signaling, indicating that Piwi is required to maintain ECs and promote germ cell differentiation. Simultaneous knockdown of dpp, encoding a BMP, in ECs can partially rescue the germ cell differentiation defect, indicating that Piwi is required in ECs to repress dpp. Consistent with its key role in piRNA production, TE transcripts increase significantly and DNA damage is also elevated in the piwi knockdown somatic cells. Germ cell-specific knockdown of piwi surprisingly causes depletion of germ cells before adulthood, suggesting that Piwi might control primordial germ cell maintenance or GSC establishment. Finally, Piwi inactivation in the germ line of the adult ovary leads to gradual GSC loss and germ cell differentiation defects, indicating the intrinsic role of Piwi in adult GSC maintenance and differentiation. This study has revealed new germline requirement of Piwi in controlling GSC maintenance and lineage differentiation as well as its new somatic function in promoting germ cell differentiation. Therefore, Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control GSC lineage development in the Drosophila ovary.

  12. Role of cell death in the formation of sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ken-Ichi

    2011-02-01

    Currently, sex differences in behavior are believed to result from sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the central nervous system (CNS). Drosophila melanogaster is a common model organism for studying the relationship between brain structure, behavior, and genes. Recent studies of sex-specific reproductive behaviors in D. melanogaster have addressed the contribution of sexual differences in the CNS to the control of sex-specific behaviors and the development of sexual dimorphism. For example, sexually dimorphic regions of the CNS are involved in the initiation of male courtship behavior, the generation of the courtship song, and the induction of male-specific muscles in D. melanogaster. In this review, I discuss recent findings about the contribution of cell death to the formation of sexually dimorphic neural circuitry and the regulation of sex-specific cell death by two sex determination factors, Fruitless and Doublesex, in Drosophila.

  13. Pattern reorganization occurs independently of cell division during Drosophila wing disc regeneration in situ.

    PubMed

    Díaz-García, Sandra; Baonza, Antonio

    2013-08-06

    One of the most intriguing problems in developmental biology is how an organism can replace missing organs or portions of its body after injury. This capacity, known as regeneration, is conserved across different phyla. The imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster provide a particularly well-characterized model for analyzing regeneration. We have developed a unique method to study organ regeneration under physiological conditions using the imaginal discs of Drosophila. Using this method, we revisited different aspects of organ regeneration. The results presented in this report suggest that during the initial stages of regeneration, different processes occur, including wound healing, a temporary loss of markers of cell-fate commitment, and pattern reorganization. We present evidence indicating that all of these processes occur even when cell division has been arrested. Our data also suggested that Wingless is not required during the early stages of disc regeneration.

  14. Pattern reorganization occurs independently of cell division during Drosophila wing disc regeneration in situ

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-García, Sandra; Baonza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intriguing problems in developmental biology is how an organism can replace missing organs or portions of its body after injury. This capacity, known as regeneration, is conserved across different phyla. The imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster provide a particularly well-characterized model for analyzing regeneration. We have developed a unique method to study organ regeneration under physiological conditions using the imaginal discs of Drosophila. Using this method, we revisited different aspects of organ regeneration. The results presented in this report suggest that during the initial stages of regeneration, different processes occur, including wound healing, a temporary loss of markers of cell-fate commitment, and pattern reorganization. We present evidence indicating that all of these processes occur even when cell division has been arrested. Our data also suggested that Wingless is not required during the early stages of disc regeneration. PMID:23878228

  15. Loss of PI3K blocks cell-cycle progression in a Drosophila tumor model.

    PubMed

    Willecke, M; Toggweiler, J; Basler, K

    2011-09-29

    Tumorigenesis is a complex process, which requires alterations in several tumor suppressor or oncogenes. Here, we use a Drosophila tumor model to identify genes, which are specifically required for tumor growth. We found that reduction of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity resulted in very small tumors while only slightly affecting growth of wild-type tissue. The observed inhibition on tumor growth occurred at the level of cell-cycle progression. We conclude that tumor cells become dependent on PI3K function and that reduction of PI3K activity synthetically interferes with tumor growth. The results presented here broaden our insights into the intricate mechanisms underling tumorigenesis and illustrate the power of Drosophila genetics in revealing weak points of tumor progression.

  16. Proteomics meets genetics: SILAC labeling of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and cells for in vivo functional studies.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Roberta; Vaccari, Thomas; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is an established and potent method for quantitative proteomics. When combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and efficient algorithms for the analysis of quantitative MS data, SILAC has proven to be the strategy of choice for the in-depth characterization of functional states at the protein level. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used model systems for studies of genetics and developmental biology. Despite this, a global proteomic approach in Drosophila is rarely considered. Here, we describe an adaptation of SILAC for functional investigation of fruit flies by proteomics: We illustrate how to perform efficient SILAC labeling of cells in culture and whole fly larvae. The combination of SILAC, a highly accurate global protein quantification method, and of the fruit fly, the prime genetics and developmental model, represents a unique opportunity for quantitative proteomic studies in vivo.

  17. The use of nanotechnology in tendon regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Oragui, Emeka; Sachinis, Nick; Hope, Natalie; Khan, Wasim S; Adesida, Adetola

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and due to their limited capacity for self-healing, the biomechanical and functional properties of healed tendon are usually inferior to normal tissue. Tissue engineering offers the hope of regenerating tendon tissue with the same biomechanical properties of the native undamaged tissue by augmenting the regenerative process of in vivo tissue or producing a functional tissue in vitro that can be implanted into the defective tendon site. Current research on tendon tissue engineering has focused on the role of stem cell and tendon derived cell therapy, scaffolds, chemical and physical stimulation and gene-therapeutic approaches. In this review we review the important functional anatomy and pathomechanics of tendon injury and discuss the current advances in tendon tissue engineering.

  18. Growth factor-rich plasma increases tendon cell proliferation and matrix synthesis on a synthetic scaffold: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Visser, Lance C; Arnoczky, Steven P; Caballero, Oscar; Kern, Andreas; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Gardner, Keri L

    2010-03-01

    Numerous scaffolds have been proposed for use in connective tissue engineering. Although these scaffolds direct cell migration and attachment, many are biologically inert and thus lack the physiological stimulus to attract cells and induce mitogenesis and matrix synthesis. In the current study, a bioactive scaffold was created by combining a synthetic scaffold with growth factor-rich plasma (GFRP), an autologous concentration of growth factors derived from a platelet-rich plasma preparation. In vitro tendon cell proliferation and matrix synthesis on autologous GFRP-enriched scaffolds, autologous serum-enriched scaffolds, and scaffolds alone were compared. The GFRP preparation was found to have a 4.7-fold greater concentration of a sentinel growth factor (transforming growth factor-beta1) compared with serum. When combined with media containing calcium, the GFRP produced a thin fibrin matrix over and within the GFRP-enriched scaffolds. Cell proliferation assays demonstrated that GFRP-enriched scaffolds significantly enhanced cell proliferation over autologous serum and control groups at both 48 and 72 h. Analysis of the scaffolds at 14, 21, and 28 days revealed that GFRP-enriched scaffolds significantly increased the deposition of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix when compared with the other groups. These results indicate that GFRP can be used to enhance in vitro cellular population and matrix deposition of tissue-engineered scaffolds.

  19. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hee Jin; Lee, Eun-Mi; Nguyen, Long Duy; Shim, Jaekyung; Song, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis.

  20. Not4 enhances JAK/STAT pathway-dependent gene expression in Drosophila and in human cells.

    PubMed

    Grönholm, Juha; Kaustio, Meri; Myllymäki, Henna; Kallio, Jenni; Saarikettu, Juha; Kronhamn, Jesper; Valanne, Susanna; Silvennoinen, Olli; Rämet, Mika

    2012-03-01

    The JAK/STAT pathway is essential for organogenesis, innate immunity, and stress responses in Drosophila melanogaster. The JAK/STAT pathway and its associated regulators have been highly conserved in evolution from flies to humans. We have used a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells to identify regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway, and here we report the characterization of Not4 as a positive regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway. Overexpression of Not4 enhanced Stat92E-mediated gene responses in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila. Specifically, Not4 increased Stat92E-mediated reporter gene activation in S2 cells; and in flies, Not4 overexpression resulted in an 8-fold increase in Turandot M (TotM) and in a 4-fold increase in Turandot A (TotA) stress gene activation when compared to wild-type flies. Drosophila Not4 is structurally related to human CNOT4, which was found to regulate interferon-γ- and interleukin-4-induced STAT-mediated gene responses in human HeLa cells. Not4 was found to coimmunoprecipitate with Stat92E but not to affect tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat92E in Drosophila cells. However, Not4 is required for binding of Stat92E to its DNA recognition sequence in the TotM gene promoter. In summary, Not4/CNOT4 is a novel positive regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway in Drosophila and in humans.

  1. PI4KIIIα is required for cortical integrity and cell polarity during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Julie; Oh, Karen; Burgess, Jason; Hipfner, David R; Brill, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Phosphoinositides regulate myriad cellular processes, acting as potent signaling molecules in conserved signaling pathways and as organelle gatekeepers that recruit effector proteins to membranes. Phosphoinositide-generating enzymes have been studied extensively in yeast and cultured cells, yet their roles in animal development are not well understood. Here, we analyze Drosophila melanogaster phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KIIIα) during oogenesis. We demonstrate that PI4KIIIα is required for production of plasma membrane PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 and is crucial for actin organization, membrane trafficking and cell polarity. Female germ cells mutant for PI4KIIIα exhibit defects in cortical integrity associated with failure to recruit the cytoskeletal-membrane crosslinker Moesin and the exocyst subunit Sec5. These effects reflect a unique requirement for PI4KIIIα, as egg chambers from flies mutant for either of the other Drosophila PI4Ks, fwd or PI4KII, show Golgi but not plasma membrane phenotypes. Thus, PI4KIIIα is a vital regulator of a functionally distinct pool of PtdIns4P that is essential for PtdIns(4,5)P2-dependent processes in Drosophila development.

  2. Medium from γ-irradiated Escherichia coli bacteria stimulates a unique immune response in Drosophila cells.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Bo G; Oldenvi, Sandra; Steiner, Håkan

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that γ-irradiated, non-dividing bacteria can elicit potent immune responses in mammals. Compared to traditional heat or chemical inactivation of microbes, γ-irradiation likely preserves metabolic activity and antigenic features to a larger extent. We have previously shown that antimicrobial peptides are induced in Drosophila by peptidoglycan fragments secreted into the medium of exponentially growing bacterial cultures. In this study, we γ-irradiated Escherichiacoli cells at a dose that halted cell division. The temporal synthesis and release of peptidoglycan fragments were followed as well as the potential of bacterial supernatants to induce immune responses in Drosophila S2 cells. We demonstrate that peptidoglycan synthesis continues for several days post irradiation and that monomeric peptidoglycan is shed into the medium. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed a strong immune response against the bacterial medium. The response to medium taken directly post irradiation shows a large overlap to that of peptidoglycan. Medium from prolonged bacterial incubation does, however, stimulate a selective set of immune genes. A shift towards a stress response was instead observed with a striking induction of several heat shock proteins. Our findings suggest that γ-irradiated bacteria release elicitors that stimulate a novel response in Drosophila.

  3. Trehalase Regulates Neuroepithelial Stem Cell Maintenance and Differentiation in the Drosophila Optic Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbin; Luo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major hydrolases in Drosophila, trehalase (Treh) catalyzes the hydrolysis of trehalose into glucose providing energy for flight muscle activity. Treh is highly conserved from bacteria to humans, but little is known about its function during animal development. Here, we analyze the function of Treh in Drosophila optic lobe development. In the optic lobe, neuroepithelial cells (NEs) first divide symmetrically to expand the stem cell pool and then differentiate into neuroblasts, which divide asymmetrically to generate medulla neurons. We find that the knockdown of Treh leads to a loss of the lamina and a smaller medulla. Analyses of Treh RNAi-expressing clones and loss-of-function mutants indicate that the lamina and medulla phenotypes result from neuroepithelial disintegration and premature differentiation into medulla neuroblasts. Although the principal role of Treh is to generate glucose, the Treh loss-of-function phenotype cannot be rescued by exogenous glucose. Thus, our results indicate that in addition to being a hydrolase, Treh plays a role in neuroepithelial stem cell maintenance and differentiation during Drosophila optic lobe development. PMID:25003205

  4. Uncovering the link between malfunctions in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric cell division and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is a developmental process utilized by several organisms. On the most basic level, an asymmetric division produces two daughter cells, each possessing a different identity or fate. Drosophila melanogaster progenitor cells, referred to as neuroblasts, undergo asymmetric division to produce a daughter neuroblast and another cell known as a ganglion mother cell (GMC). There are several features of asymmetric division in Drosophila that make it a very complex process, and these aspects will be discussed at length. The cell fate determinants that play a role in specifying daughter cell fate, as well as the mechanisms behind setting up cortical polarity within neuroblasts, have proved to be essential to ensuring that neurogenesis occurs properly. The role that mitotic spindle orientation plays in coordinating asymmetric division, as well as how cell cycle regulators influence asymmetric division machinery, will also be addressed. Most significantly, malfunctions during asymmetric cell division have shown to be causally linked with neoplastic growth and tumor formation. Therefore, it is imperative that the developmental repercussions as a result of asymmetric cell division gone awry be understood. PMID:23151376

  5. Structure-function relationships in tendons: a review

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Kaiser, E; Milz, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current review is to highlight the structure-function relationship of tendons and related structures to provide an overview for readers whose interest in tendons needs to be underpinned by anatomy. Because of the availability of several recent reviews on tendon development and entheses, the focus of the current work is primarily directed towards what can best be described as the ‘tendon proper’ or the ‘mid-substance’ of tendons. The review covers all levels of tendon structure from the molecular to the gross and deals both with the extracellular matrix and with tendon cells. The latter are often called ‘tenocytes’ and are increasingly recognized as a defined cell population that is functionally and phenotypically distinct from other fibroblast-like cells. This is illustrated by their response to different types of mechanical stress. However, it is not only tendon cells, but tendons as a whole that exhibit distinct structure-function relationships geared to the changing mechanical stresses to which they are subject. This aspect of tendon biology is considered in some detail. Attention is briefly directed to the blood and nerve supply of tendons, for this is an important issue that relates to the intrinsic healing capacity of tendons. Structures closely related to tendons (joint capsules, tendon sheaths, pulleys, retinacula, fat pads and bursae) are also covered and the concept of a ‘supertendon’ is introduced to describe a collection of tendons in which the function of the whole complex exceeds that of its individual members. Finally, attention is drawn to the important relationship between tendons and fascia, highlighted by Wood Jones in his concept of an ‘ectoskeleton’ over half a century ago – work that is often forgotten today. PMID:18304204

  6. Cell autonomy of HIF effects in Drosophila: tracheal cells sense hypoxia and induce terminal branch sprouting.

    PubMed

    Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés; Romero, Nuria; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Gorr, Thomas A; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila tracheal terminal branches are plastic and have the capacity to sprout out projections toward oxygen-starved areas, in a process analogous to mammalian angiogenesis. This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells. Here, we show that extra sprouting depends on the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-alpha homolog Sima and on the HIF-prolyl hydroxylase Fatiga that operates as an oxygen sensor. In mild hypoxia, Sima accumulates in tracheal cells, where it induces breathless, and this induction is sufficient to provoke tracheal extra sprouting. In nontracheal cells, Sima contributes to branchless induction, whereas overexpression of Sima fails to attract terminal branch outgrowth, suggesting that HIF-independent components are also required for full induction of the ligand. We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless levels, and that this mechanism is a cardinal step in hypoxia-dependent tracheal sprouting.

  7. Drosophila male germline stem cells do not asymmetrically segregate chromosome strands.

    PubMed

    Yadlapalli, Swathi; Cheng, Jun; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2011-03-15

    Adult stem cells continuously supply differentiated cells throughout the life of organisms. This increases the risk of replicative senescence or neoplastic transformation due to mutations that accumulate over many rounds of DNA replication. The immortal strand hypothesis proposes that stem cells reduce the accumulation of replication-induced mutations by retaining the older template DNA strands. Other models have also been proposed in which stem cells asymmetrically segregate chromosome strands for other reasons, such as retention of epigenetic memories. Recently, the idea has emerged that the mother centrosome, which is stereotypically retained within some asymmetrically dividing stem cells, might be utilized as a means of asymmetrically segregating chromosome strands. We have tested this hypothesis in germline stem cells (GSCs) from Drosophila melanogaster testis, which undergo asymmetric divisions marked by the asymmetric segregation of centrosomes and the acquisition of distinct daughter cell fates (stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation). Using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling combined with direct visualization of GSC-gonialblast (differentiating daughter) pairs, we directly scored the outcome of chromosome strand segregation. Our data show that, in male GSCs in the Drosophila testis, chromosome strands are not asymmetrically segregated, despite asymmetrically segregating centrosomes. Our data demonstrate that asymmetric centrosome segregation in stem cells does not necessarily lead to asymmetric chromosome strand segregation.

  8. Stem cells and their niches: integrated units that maintain Drosophila tissues.

    PubMed

    Spradling, A C; Nystul, T; Lighthouse, D; Morris, L; Fox, D; Cox, R; Tootle, T; Frederick, R; Skora, A

    2008-01-01

    The genetic analysis of four distinct Drosophila stem cells and their niches has revealed principles of stem cell biology that are likely to apply widely. A stem cell and its niche act together as integral parts of a system that supplies replacement cells when and where they are needed within a tissue. Stem cell/niche units are highly regulated and continue to operate despite the periodic turnover and replacement of all of their component cells. To successfully respond to tissue needs, these units receive and process a wide range of local and systemic information. A stem cell alone would be no more use at this task than an isolated neuron. It is only when integrated into a system of multiple interacting cells (the niche) that stem cells achieve the capacity to serve as the fundamental units of tissue homeostasis and repair.

  9. Dynamics of cell polarity in tissue morphogenesis: a comparative view from Drosophila and Ciona.

    PubMed

    Veeman, Michael T; McDonald, Jocelyn A

    2016-01-01

    Tissues in developing embryos exhibit complex and dynamic rearrangements that shape forming organs, limbs, and body axes. Directed migration, mediolateral intercalation, lumen formation, and other rearrangements influence the topology and topography of developing tissues. These collective cell behaviors are distinct phenomena but all involve the fine-grained control of cell polarity. Here we review recent findings in the dynamics of polarized cell behavior in both the Drosophila ovarian border cells and the Ciona notochord. These studies reveal the remarkable reorganization of cell polarity during organ formation and underscore conserved mechanisms of developmental cell polarity including the Par/atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and planar cell polarity pathways. These two very different model systems demonstrate important commonalities but also key differences in how cell polarity is controlled in tissue morphogenesis. Together, these systems raise important, broader questions on how the developmental control of cell polarity contributes to morphogenesis of diverse tissues across the metazoa.

  10. Square cell packing in the Drosophila embryo through spatiotemporally regulated EGF receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Masako; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cells display dynamic and diverse morphologies during development, but the strategies by which differentiated tissues achieve precise shapes and patterns are not well understood. Here we identify a developmental program that generates a highly ordered square cell grid in the Drosophila embryo through sequential and spatially regulated cell alignment, oriented cell division, and apicobasal cell elongation. The basic leucine zipper transcriptional regulator Cnc is necessary and sufficient to produce a square cell grid in the presence of a midline signal provided by the EGF receptor ligand, Spitz. Spitz orients cell divisions through a Pins/LGN-dependent spindle positioning mechanism and controls cell shape and alignment through a transcriptional pathway that requires the Pointed ETS domain protein. These results identify a strategy for producing ordered square cell packing configurations in epithelia and reveal a molecular mechanism by which organized tissue structure is generated through spatiotemporally regulated responses to EGF receptor activation. PMID:26506305

  11. EGR1 Regulates Transcription Downstream of Mechanical Signals during Tendon Formation and Healing

    PubMed Central

    Delalande, Antony; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Background Tendon is a mechanical tissue that transmits forces generated by muscle to bone in order to allow body motion. The molecular pathways that sense mechanical forces during tendon formation, homeostasis and repair are not known. EGR1 is a mechanosensitive transcription factor involved in tendon formation, homeostasis and repair. We hypothesized that EGR1 senses mechanical signals to promote tendon gene expression. Methodology/Principal findings Using in vitro and in vivo models, we show that the expression of Egr1 and tendon genes is downregulated in 3D-engineered tendons made of mesenchymal stem cells when tension is released as well as in tendon homeostasis and healing when mechanical signals are reduced. We further demonstrate that EGR1 overexpression prevents tendon gene downregulation in 3D-engineered tendons when tension is released. Lastly, ultrasound and microbubbles mediated EGR1 overexpression prevents the downregulation of tendon gene expression during tendon healing in reduced load conditions. Conclusion/Significance These results show that Egr1 expression is sensitive to mechanical signals in tendon cells. Moreover, EGR1 overexpression prevents the downregulation of tendon gene expression in the absence of mechanical signals in 3D-engineered tendons and tendon healing. These results show that EGR1 induces a transcriptional response downstream of mechanical signals in tendon cells and open new avenues to use EGR1 to promote tendon healing in reduced load conditions. PMID:27820865

  12. A Mucin-type O-Glycosyltransferase Modulates Cell Adhesion during Drosophila Development*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Ying; Hagen, Kelly G. Ten

    2008-01-01

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are crucial during many stages of eukaryotic development. Here, we provide the first example that mucin-type O-linked glycosylation is involved in a developmentally regulated cell adhesion event in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations in one member of the evolutionarily conserved family of enzymes that initiates O-linked glycosylation alter epithelial cell adhesion in the Drosophila wing blade. A transposon insertion mutation in pgant3 or RNA interference to pgant3 resulted in blistered wings, a phenotype characteristic of genes involved in integrin-mediated cell interactions. Expression of wild type pgant3 in the mutant background rescued the wing blistering phenotype, whereas expression of another family member (pgant35A) did not, revealing a unique requirement for pgant3. pgant3 mutants displayed reduced O-glycosylation along the basal surface of larval wing imaginal discs, which was restored with wild type pgant3 expression, suggesting that reduced glycosylation of basal proteins is responsible for disruption of adhesion in the adult wing blade. Glycosylation reactions demonstrated that PGANT3 glycosylates certain extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PGANT3 glycosylates tiggrin, an ECM protein known to bind integrin. We propose that this glycosyltransferase is uniquely responsible for glycosylating tiggrin in the wing disc, thus modulating proper cell adhesion through integrin-ECM interactions. This study provides the first evidence for the role of O-glycosylation in a developmentally regulated, integrin-mediated, cell adhesion event and reveals a novel player in wing blade formation during Drosophila development. PMID:18835818

  13. Drosophila cells use nanotube-like structures to transfer dsRNA and RNAi machinery between cells

    PubMed Central

    Karlikow, Margot; Goic, Bertsy; Mongelli, Vanesa; Salles, Audrey; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Zurzolo, Chiara; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-01-01

    Tunnelling nanotubes and cytonemes function as highways for the transport of organelles, cytosolic and membrane-bound molecules, and pathogens between cells. During viral infection in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a systemic RNAi antiviral response is established presumably through the transport of a silencing signal from one cell to another via an unknown mechanism. Because of their role in cell-cell communication, we investigated whether nanotube-like structures could be a mediator of the silencing signal. Here, we describe for the first time in the context of a viral infection the presence of nanotube-like structures in different Drosophila cell types. These tubules, made of actin and tubulin, were associated with components of the RNAi machinery, including Argonaute 2, double-stranded RNA, and CG4572. Moreover, they were more abundant during viral, but not bacterial, infection. Super resolution structured illumination microscopy showed that Argonaute 2 and tubulin reside inside the tubules. We propose that nanotube-like structures are one of the mechanisms by which Argonaute 2, as part of the antiviral RNAi machinery, is transported between infected and non-infected cells to trigger systemic antiviral immunity in Drosophila. PMID:27255932

  14. Establishing and maintaining cell polarity with mRNA localization in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justinn; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Shidlovskii, Yulii; Schedl, Paul

    2016-03-01

    How cell polarity is established and maintained is an important question in diverse biological contexts. Molecular mechanisms used to localize polarity proteins to distinct domains are likely context-dependent and provide a feedback loop in order to maintain polarity. One such mechanism is the localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins, which will be the focus of this review and may play a more important role in the establishment and maintenance of polarity than is currently known. Localized translation of mRNAs encoding polarity proteins can be used to establish polarity in response to an external signal, and to maintain polarity by local production of polarity determinants. The importance of this mechanism is illustrated by recent findings, including orb2-dependent localized translation of aPKC mRNA at the apical end of elongating spermatid tails in the Drosophila testis, and the apical localization of stardust A mRNA in Drosophila follicle and embryonic epithelia.

  15. Cold-sensing regulates Drosophila growth through insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoran; Gong, Zhefeng

    2015-01-01

    Across phyla, body size is linked to climate. For example, rearing fruit flies at lower temperatures results in bigger body sizes than those observed at higher temperatures. The underlying molecular basis of this effect is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the temperature-dependent regulation of Drosophila body size depends on a group of cold-sensing neurons and insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Electrically silencing IPCs completely abolishes the body size increase induced by cold temperature. IPCs are directly innervated by cold-sensing neurons. Stimulation of these cold-sensing neurons activates IPCs, promotes synthesis and secretion of Drosophila insulin-like peptides and induces a larger body size, mimicking the effects of rearing the flies in cold temperature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neuronal circuit that mediates the effects of low temperature on fly growth. PMID:26648410

  16. Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies networks involved in intestinal stem cell regulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiankun; Han, Lili; Singh, Shree Ram; Liu, Hanhan; Neumüller, Ralph A; Yan, Dong; Hu, Yanhui; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wei; Lin, Xinhua; Hou, Steven X

    2015-02-24

    The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult animals and maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in both Drosophila and mammals. To comprehensively identify genes and pathways that regulate ISC fates, we performed a genome-wide transgenic RNAi screen in adult Drosophila intestine and identified 405 genes that regulate ISC maintenance and lineage-specific differentiation. By integrating these genes into publicly available interaction databases, we further developed functional networks that regulate ISC self-renewal, ISC proliferation, ISC maintenance of diploid status, ISC survival, ISC-to-enterocyte (EC) lineage differentiation, and ISC-to-enteroendocrine (EE) lineage differentiation. By comparing regulators among ISCs, female germline stem cells, and neural stem cells, we found that factors related to basic stem cell cellular processes are commonly required in all stem cells, and stem-cell-specific, niche-related signals are required only in the unique stem cell type. Our findings provide valuable insights into stem cell maintenance and lineage-specific differentiation.

  17. Knockout of Drosophila RNase ZL impairs mitochondrial transcript processing, respiration and cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xie; Dubrovsky, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    RNase ZL is a highly conserved tRNA 3′-end processing endoribonuclease. Similar to its mammalian counterpart, Drosophila RNase ZL (dRNaseZ) has a mitochondria targeting signal (MTS) flanked by two methionines at the N-terminus. Alternative translation initiation yields two protein forms: the long one is mitochondrial, and the short one may localize in the nucleus or cytosol. Here, we have generated a mitochondria specific knockout of the dRNaseZ gene. In this in vivo model, cells deprived of dRNaseZ activity display impaired mitochondrial polycistronic transcript processing, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a switch to aerobic glycolysis compensating for cellular ATP. Damaged mitochondria impose a cell cycle delay at the G2 phase disrupting cell proliferation without affecting cell viability. Antioxidants attenuate genotoxic stress and rescue cell proliferation, implying a critical role for ROS. We suggest that under a low-stress condition, ROS activate tumor suppressor p53, which modulates cell cycle progression and promotes cell survival. Transcriptional profiling of p53 targets confirms upregulation of antioxidant and cycB-Cdk1 inhibitor genes without induction of apoptotic genes. This study implicates Drosophila RNase ZL in a novel retrograde signaling pathway initiated by the damage in mitochondria and manifested in a cell cycle delay before the mitotic entry. PMID:26553808

  18. Tendon Vasculature in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tempfer, Herbert; Traweger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tendons represent a bradytrophic tissue which is poorly vascularized and, compared to bone or skin, heal poorly. Usually, a vascularized connective scar tissue with inferior functional properties forms at the injury site. Whether the increased vascularization is the root cause of tissue impairments such as loss of collagen fiber orientation, ectopic formation of bone, fat or cartilage, or is a consequence of these pathological changes remains unclear. This review provides an overview of the role of tendon vasculature in healthy and chronically diseased tendon tissue as well as its relevance for tendon repair. Further, the nature and the role of perivascular tendon stem/progenitor cells residing in the vascular niche will be discussed and compared to multipotent stromal cells in other tissues. PMID:26635616

  19. Centrosome-dependent asymmetric inheritance of the midbody ring in Drosophila germline stem cell division.

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Viktoria; Chen, Cuie; Chiang, C-Y Ason; Tiyaboonchai, Amita; Mayer, Michael; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2014-01-01

    Many stem cells, including Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), divide asymmetrically, producing one stem cell and one differentiating daughter. Cytokinesis is often asymmetric, in that only one daughter cell inherits the midbody ring (MR) upon completion of abscission even in apparently symmetrically dividing cells. However, whether the asymmetry in cytokinesis correlates with cell fate or has functional relevance has been poorly explored. Here we show that the MR is asymmetrically segregated during GSC divisions in a centrosome age-dependent manner: male GSCs, which inherit the mother centrosome, exclude the MR, whereas female GSCs, which we here show inherit the daughter centrosome, inherit the MR. We further show that stem cell identity correlates with the mode of MR inheritance. Together our data suggest that the MR does not inherently dictate stem cell identity, although its stereotypical inheritance is under the control of stemness and potentially provides a platform for asymmetric segregation of certain factors.

  20. Asymmetric division of Drosophila male germline stem cell shows asymmetric histone distribution.

    PubMed

    Tran, Vuong; Lim, Cindy; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xin

    2012-11-02

    Stem cells can self-renew and generate differentiating daughter cells. It is not known whether these cells maintain their epigenetic information during asymmetric division. Using a dual-color method to differentially label "old" versus "new" histones in Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs), we show that preexisting canonical H3, but not variant H3.3, histones are selectively segregated to the GSC, whereas newly synthesized histones incorporated during DNA replication are enriched in the differentiating daughter cell. The asymmetric histone distribution occurs in GSCs but not in symmetrically dividing progenitor cells. Furthermore, if GSCs are genetically manipulated to divide symmetrically, this asymmetric mode is lost. This work suggests that stem cells retain preexisting canonical histones during asymmetric cell divisions, probably as a mechanism to maintain their unique molecular properties.

  1. Two Drosophila melanogaster proteins related to intermediate filament proteins of vertebrate cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells. In indirect immunofluorescence, the group of cross reacting antibodies stained a filamentous meshwork in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells. In Kc cells the fluorescence seemed to be localized in a filamentous meshwork that became more obvious after the cells had flattened out on a surface. These cytoskeletal structures are heat-labile; the proteins in Kc or BHK cells rearrange after a brief heat shock, forming juxtanuclear cap structures. PMID:6795212

  2. Diseases of the tendons and tendon sheaths.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Adrian; Anderson, David E; Desrochers, André

    2014-03-01

    Contracted flexor tendon leading to flexural deformity is a common congenital defect in cattle. Arthrogryposis is a congenital syndrome of persistent joint contracture that occurs frequently in Europe as a consequence of Schmallenberg virus infection of the dam. Spastic paresis has a hereditary component, and affected cattle should not be used for breeding purposes. The most common tendon avulsion involves the deep digital flexor tendon. Tendon disruptions may be successfully managed by tenorrhaphy and external coaptation or by external coaptation alone. Medical management alone is unlikely to be effective for purulent tenosynovitis.

  3. Expression of a set of glial cell-specific markers in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hui Jeong; Jeon, Sang-Hak; Kim, Sang Hee

    2014-06-01

    The types of glia in the central nervous system (CNS) of the Drosophila embryo include longitudinal glia (LG), cell body glia (CBG), and peripheral glia (PG). Transcription factors, such as glial cell missing and reverse polarity, are well-established general glial cell markers. Only a few glial cell-specific markers have been identified in the Drosophila embryonic CNS, thus far. In the present study, we employed the glial cell-specific markers for LG (vir-1/CG5453 and CG31235), CBG (fabp/CG6783 and CG11902), and PG (CG2310 and moody/CG4322), and comprehensively analyzed their expression patterns, during the embryonic CNS development. Our study validated the specificity of a set of glial markers, and further revealed their spatio-temporal expression patterns, which will aid in the understanding of the developmental lineage, and investigating their role in the development and homeostasis of the Drosophila CNS in vivo.

  4. A cell-based assay for aggregation inhibitors as therapeutics of polyglutamine-repeat disease and validation in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Barbara L.; Kazantsev, Alexsey; Raffioni, Simona; Illes, Katalin; Pallos, Judit; Bodai, Laszlo; Slepko, Natalia; Bear, James E.; Gertler, Frank B.; Hersch, Steven; Housman, David E.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Michels Thompson, Leslie

    2003-05-01

    The formation of polyglutamine-containing aggregates and inclusions are hallmarks of pathogenesis in Huntington's disease that can be recapitulated in model systems. Although the contribution of inclusions to pathogenesis is unclear, cell-based assays can be used to screen for chemical compounds that affect aggregation and may provide therapeutic benefit. We have developed inducible PC12 cell-culture models to screen for loss of visible aggregates. To test the validity of this approach, compounds that inhibit aggregation in the PC12 cell-based screen were tested in a Drosophila model of polyglutamine-repeat disease. The disruption of aggregation in PC12 cells strongly correlates with suppression of neuronal degeneration in Drosophila. Thus, the engineered PC12 cells coupled with the Drosophila model provide a rapid and effective method to screen and validate compounds.

  5. Transverse Compression of Tendons.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, S T Samuel; Buckley, C Paul; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    A study was made of the deformation of tendons when compressed transverse to the fiber-aligned axis. Bovine digital extensor tendons were compression tested between flat rigid plates. The methods included: in situ image-based measurement of tendon cross-sectional shapes, after preconditioning but immediately prior to testing; multiple constant-load creep/recovery tests applied to each tendon at increasing loads; and measurements of the resulting tendon displacements in both transverse directions. In these tests, friction resisted axial stretch of the tendon during compression, giving approximately plane-strain conditions. This, together with the assumption of a form of anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model proposed previously for tendon, justified modeling the isochronal response of tendon as that of an isotropic, slightly compressible, neo-Hookean solid. Inverse analysis, using finite-element (FE) simulations of the experiments and 10 s isochronal creep displacement data, gave values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of this solid of 0.31 MPa and 0.49, respectively, for an idealized tendon shape and averaged data for all the tendons and E = 0.14 and 0.10 MPa for two specific tendons using their actual measured geometry. The compression load versus displacement curves, as measured and as simulated, showed varying degrees of stiffening with increasing load. This can be attributed mostly to geometrical changes in tendon cross section under load, varying according to the initial 3D shape of the tendon.

  6. Structure-mechanics relationships in mineralized tendons.

    PubMed

    Spiesz, Ewa M; Zysset, Philippe K

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we review the hierarchical structure and the resulting elastic properties of mineralized tendons as obtained by various multiscale experimental and computational methods spanning from nano- to macroscale. The mechanical properties of mineralized collagen fibres are important to understand the mechanics of hard tissues constituted by complex arrangements of these fibres, like in human lamellar bone. The uniaxial mineralized collagen fibre array naturally occurring in avian tendons is a well studied model tissue for investigating various stages of tissue mineralization and the corresponding elastic properties. Some avian tendons mineralize with maturation, which results in a graded structure containing two zones of distinct morphology, circumferential and interstitial. These zones exhibit different amounts of mineral, collagen, pores and a different mineral distribution between collagen fibrillar and extrafibrillar space that lead to distinct elastic properties. Mineralized tendon cells have two phenotypes: elongated tenocytes placed between fibres in the circumferential zone and cuboidal cells with lower aspect ratios in the interstitial zone. Interestingly some regions of avian tendons seem to be predestined to mineralization, which is exhibited as specific collagen cross-linking patterns as well as distribution of minor tendon constituents (like proteoglycans) and loss of collagen crimp. Results of investigations in naturally mineralizing avian tendons may be useful in understanding the pathological mineralization occurring in some human tendons.

  7. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    SciTech Connect

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nagai, Rika; Hashimoto, Reina; Suyari, Osamu; Itoh, Masanobu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-11-15

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  8. Drosophila Abelson kinase mediates cell invasion and proliferation via two distinct MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaskirat; Aaronson, Stuart A.; Mlodzik, Marek

    2010-01-01

    The Abelson (Abl) family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases plays important role in cell morphogenesis, motility and proliferation. Although the function of Abl has been extensively studied in leukemia, its role in epithelial cell invasion remains obscure. Using the Drosophila wing epithelium as an in-vivo model system, we demonstrate that overexpression (activation) of Drosophila Abl (dAbl) causes loss of epithelial apical/basal cell polarity and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, resulting in a cellular invasion and apoptosis. Our in vivo data indicate that dAbl acts downstream of the Src kinases, which are known regulators of cell adhesion and invasion. Downstream of dAbl, Rac GTPases activate two distinct MAPK pathways: JNK signaling (required for cell invasion and apoptosis) and ERK signaling (inducing cell proliferation). Activated Abl also increases the activity of Src members through a positive feedback loop leading to signal amplification. Thus targeting Src-Abl, using available dual inhibitors, could be of therapeutic importance in tumor cell metastasis. PMID:20453880

  9. Formation and function of intracardiac valve cells in the Drosophila heart.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Kay; Abeln, Bettina; Hüsken, Mirko; Lehmacher, Christine; Psathaki, Olympia Ekaterini; Alcorta, Esther; Meyer, Heiko; Paululat, Achim

    2017-03-02

    Drosophila harbors a simple tubular heart that ensures hemolymph circulation within the body. The heart is built by a few different cell types, including cardiomyocytes that define the luminal heart channel and ostia cells that constitute openings in the heart wall allowing hemolymph to enter the heart chamber. Regulation of flow directionality within a tube, such as blood flow in arteries or insect hemolymph within the heart lumen, requires a dedicated gate, valve, or flap-like structure that prevents backflow of fluids. In the Drosophila heart, intracardiac valves provide this directionality of hemolymph streaming, with one valve being present in larvae and three valves in the adult fly. Each valve is built by two specialized cardiomyocytes that exhibit a unique histology. We found that the capacity to open and close the heart lumen relies on a unique myofibrillar setting as well as on the presence of large membranous vesicles. These vesicles are of endocytic origin and probably represent unique organelles of valve cells. Moreover, we characterised the working mode of the cells in real time. Valve cells exhibit a highly flexible shape and during each heartbeat, oscillating shape changes result in closing and opening of the heart channel. Finally, we identified a set of novel valve cell markers useful for future in-depth analyses of cell differentiation in wildtype and mutant animals.

  10. Ttk69 acts as a master repressor of enteroendocrine cell specification in Drosophila intestinal stem cell lineages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenhui; Guo, Xingting; Dou, Kun; Chen, Hongyan; Xi, Rongwen

    2015-10-01

    In adult Drosophila midgut, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) periodically produce progenitor cells that undergo a binary fate choice determined primarily by the levels of Notch activity that they receive, before terminally differentiating into enterocytes (ECs) or enteroendocrine (EE) cells. Here we identified Ttk69, a BTB domain-containing transcriptional repressor, as a master repressor of EE cell specification in the ISC lineages. Depletion of ttk69 in progenitor cells induced ISC proliferation and caused all committed progenitor cells to adopt EE fate, leading to the production of supernumerary EE cells in the intestinal epithelium. Conversely, forced expression of Ttk69 in progenitor cells was sufficient to prevent EE cell specification. The expression of Ttk69 was not regulated by Notch signaling, and forced activation of Notch, which is sufficient to induce EC specification of normal progenitor cells, failed to prevent EE cell specification of Ttk69-depleted progenitors. Loss of Ttk69 led to derepression of the acheate-scute complex (AS-C) genes scute and asense, which then induced prospero expression to promote EE cell specification. These studies suggest that Ttk69 functions in parallel with Notch signaling and acts as a master repressor of EE cell specification in Drosophila ISC lineages primarily by suppressing AS-C genes.

  11. Drosophila as a model to study the role of blood cells in inflammation, innate immunity and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihui; Kounatidis, Ilias; Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila has a primitive yet effective blood system with three types of haemocytes which function throughout different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Haemocytes play essential roles in tissue modeling during embryogenesis and morphogenesis, and also in innate immunity. The open circulatory system of Drosophila makes haemocytes ideal signal mediators to cells and tissues in response to events such as infection and wounding. The application of recently developed and sophisticated genetic tools to the relatively simple genome of Drosophila has made the fly a popular system for modeling human tumorigensis and metastasis. Drosophila is now used for screening and investigation of genes implicated in human leukemia and also in modeling development of solid tumors. This second line of research offers promising opportunities to determine the seemingly conflicting roles of blood cells in tumor progression and invasion. This review provides an overview of the signaling pathways conserved in Drosophila during haematopoiesis, haemostasis, innate immunity, wound healing and inflammation. We also review the most recent progress in the use of Drosophila as a cancer research model with an emphasis on the roles haemocytes can play in various cancer models and in the links between inflammation and cancer. PMID:24409421

  12. Drosophila as a model to study the role of blood cells in inflammation, innate immunity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Kounatidis, Ilias; Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2014-01-09

    Drosophila has a primitive yet effective blood system with three types of haemocytes which function throughout different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Haemocytes play essential roles in tissue modeling during embryogenesis and morphogenesis, and also in innate immunity. The open circulatory system of Drosophila makes haemocytes ideal signal mediators to cells and tissues in response to events such as infection and wounding. The application of recently developed and sophisticated genetic tools to the relatively simple genome of Drosophila has made the fly a popular system for modeling human tumorigensis and metastasis. Drosophila is now used for screening and investigation of genes implicated in human leukemia and also in modeling development of solid tumors. This second line of research offers promising opportunities to determine the seemingly conflicting roles of blood cells in tumor progression and invasion. This review provides an overview of the signaling pathways conserved in Drosophila during haematopoiesis, haemostasis, innate immunity, wound healing and inflammation. We also review the most recent progress in the use of Drosophila as a cancer research model with an emphasis on the roles haemocytes can play in various cancer models and in the links between inflammation and cancer.

  13. Contribution of Growth and Cell Cycle Checkpoints to Radiation Survival in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jaklevic, Burnley; Uyetake, Lyle; Lemstra, Willy; Chang, Julia; Leary, William; Edwards, Anthony; Vidwans, Smruti; Sibon, Ody; Tin Su, Tin

    2006-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints contribute to survival after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) by arresting the cell cycle and permitting repair. As such, yeast and mammalian cells lacking checkpoints are more sensitive to killing by IR. We reported previously that Drosophila larvae mutant for grp (encoding a homolog of Chk1) survive IR as well as wild type despite being deficient in cell cycle checkpoints. This discrepancy could be due to differences either among species or between unicellular and multicellular systems. Here, we provide evidence that Grapes is needed for survival of Drosophila S2 cells after exposure to similar doses of IR, suggesting that multicellular organisms may utilize checkpoint-independent mechanisms to survive irradiation. The dispensability of checkpoints in multicellular organisms could be due to replacement of damaged cells by regeneration through increased nutritional uptake and compensatory proliferation. In support of this idea, we find that inhibition of nutritional uptake (by starvation or onset of pupariation) or inhibition of growth factor signaling and downstream targets (by mutations in cdk4, chico, or dmyc) reduced the radiation survival of larvae. Further, some of these treatments are more detrimental for grp mutants, suggesting that the need for compensatory proliferation is greater for checkpoint mutants. The difference in survival of grp and wild-type larvae allowed us to screen for small molecules that act as genotype-specific radiation sensitizers in a multicellular context. A pilot screen of a small molecule library from the National Cancer Institute yielded known and approved radio-sensitizing anticancer drugs. Since radiation is a common treatment option for human cancers, we propose that Drosophila may be used as an in vivo screening tool for genotype-specific drugs that enhance the effect of radiation therapy. PMID:17028317

  14. A feedback mechanism converts individual cell features into a supracellular ECM structure in Drosophila trachea.

    PubMed

    Öztürk-Çolak, Arzu; Moussian, Bernard; Araújo, Sofia J; Casanova, Jordi

    2016-02-02

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), a structure contributed to and commonly shared by many cells in an organism, plays an active role during morphogenesis. Here, we used the Drosophila tracheal system to study the complex relationship between the ECM and epithelial cells during development. We show that there is an active feedback mechanism between the apical ECM (aECM) and the apical F-actin in tracheal cells. Furthermore, we reveal that cell-cell junctions are key players in this aECM patterning and organisation and that individual cells contribute autonomously to their aECM. Strikingly, changes in the aECM influence the levels of phosphorylated Src42A (pSrc) at cell junctions. Therefore, we propose that Src42A phosphorylation levels provide a link for the ECM environment to ensure proper cytoskeletal organisation.

  15. Hh signalling is essential for somatic stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis niche.

    PubMed

    Michel, Marcus; Kupinski, Adam P; Raabe, Isabel; Bökel, Christian

    2012-08-01

    In the Drosophila testis, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs) are arranged around a group of postmitotic somatic cells, termed the hub, which produce a variety of growth factors contributing to the niche microenvironment that regulates both stem cell pools. Here we show that CySC but not GSC maintenance requires Hedgehog (Hh) signalling in addition to Jak/Stat pathway activation. CySC clones unable to transduce the Hh signal are lost by differentiation, whereas pathway overactivation leads to an increase in proliferation. However, unlike cells ectopically overexpressing Jak/Stat targets, the additional cells generated by excessive Hh signalling remain confined to the testis tip and retain the ability to differentiate. Interestingly, Hh signalling also controls somatic cell populations in the fly ovary and the mammalian testis. Our observations might therefore point towards a higher degree of organisational homology between the somatic components of gonads across the sexes and phyla than previously appreciated.

  16. Dedifferentiating spermatogonia outcompete somatic stem cells for niche occupancy in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, X Rebecca; Brawley, Crista M; Matunis, Erika L

    2009-08-07

    Differentiating cells can dedifferentiate to replace stem cells in aged or damaged tissues, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the Drosophila testis, a cluster of stromal cells called the hub creates a niche by locally activating Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) signaling in adjacent germline and somatic stem cells. Here, we establish a system to study spermatogonial dedifferentiation. Ectopically expressing the differentiation factor bag-of-marbles (Bam) removes germline stem cells from the niche. However, withdrawing ectopic Bam causes interconnected spermatogonia to fragment, move into the niche, exchange positions with resident somatic stem cells, and establish contact with the hub. Concomitantly, actin-based protrusions appear on subsets of spermatogonia, suggesting acquired motility. Furthermore, global downregulation of Jak-STAT signaling inhibits dedifferentiation, indicating that normal levels of pathway activation are required to promote movement of spermatogonia into the niche during dedifferentiation, where they outcompete somatic stem cells for niche occupancy.

  17. Human hamstring tenocytes survive when seeded into a decellularized porcine Achilles tendon extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Anke; Stoll, Christiane; Albrecht, Marit; Denner, Andreas; John, Thilo; Krüger, Kay; Ertel, Wolfgang; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2013-01-01

    Tendon ruptures and defects remain major orthopaedic challenges. Tendon healing is a time-consuming process, which results in scar tissue with an altered biomechanical competence. Using a xenogeneic tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) as a natural scaffold, which can be reseeded with autologous human tenocytes, might be a promising approach to reconstruct damaged tendons. For this purpose, the porcine Achilles (AS) tendons serving as a scaffold were histologically characterized in comparison to human cell donor tendons. AS tendons were decellularized and then reseeded with primary human hamstring tenocytes using cell centrifuging, rotating culture and cell injection techniques. Vitality testing, histology and glycosaminoglycan/DNA quantifications were performed to document the success of tendon reseeding. Porcine AS tendons were characterized by a higher cell and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content than human cell donor tendons. Complete decellularization could be achieved, but led to a wash out of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Nevertheless, porcine tendon could be recellularized with vital human tenocytes. The recellularization led to a slight increase in cell number compared to the native tendon and some glycosaminoglycan recovery. This study indicates that porcine tendon can be de- and recellularized using adult human tenocytes. Future work should optimize cell distribution within the recellularized tendon ECM and consider tendon- and donor species-dependent differences.

  18. Identification and Genetic Analysis of Wunen, a Gene Guiding Drosophila Melanogaster Germ Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, N.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, K.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a novel genetic locus, wunen (wun), required for guidance of germ cell migration in early Drosophila development. Loss of wun function does not abolish movement but disrupts the orientation of the motion causing the germ cells to disperse even though their normal target, the somatic gonad, is well formed. We demonstrate that the product of this gene enables a signal to pass from the soma to the germ line and propose that the function of this signal is to selectively stabilize certain cytoplasmic extensions resulting in oriented movement. To characterize this guidance factor, we have mapped wun to within 100 kb of cloned DNA. PMID:8807296

  19. Probing cell mechanics with subcellular laser dissection of actomyosin networks in the early developing Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Rauzi, M; Lenne, P-F

    2015-01-01

    Laser dissection is a useful tool in developmental biology to probe mechanical forces from the subcellular to the tissue/embryo scale. During tissue morphogenesis, cells are equipped with networks of actomyosin that generate forces. Here we present a technique based on near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser dissection that allows subcellular ablation of actomyosin networks. This technique allows to selectively ablate actomyosin networks while preserving cell plasma membrane. The resulting relaxation of the remaining network after laser dissection is imaged and analyzed to deduce local forces responsible for tissue morphogenesis in the developing Drosophila embryo.

  20. Live imaging of the Drosophila spermatogonial stem cell niche reveals novel mechanisms regulating germline stem cell output.

    PubMed

    Sheng, X Rebecca; Matunis, Erika

    2011-08-01

    Adult stem cells modulate their output by varying between symmetric and asymmetric divisions, but have rarely been observed in living intact tissues. Germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila testis are anchored to somatic hub cells and were thought to exclusively undergo oriented asymmetric divisions, producing one stem cell that remains hub-anchored and one daughter cell displaced out of the stem cell-maintaining micro-environment (niche). We developed extended live imaging of the Drosophila testis niche, allowing us to track individual germline cells. Surprisingly, new wild-type GSCs are generated in the niche during steady-state tissue maintenance by a previously undetected event we term 'symmetric renewal', where interconnected GSC-daughter cell pairs swivel such that both cells contact the hub. We also captured GSCs undergoing direct differentiation by detaching from the hub. Following starvation-induced GSC loss, GSC numbers are restored by symmetric renewals. Furthermore, upon more severe (genetically induced) GSC loss, both symmetric renewal and de-differentiation (where interconnected spermatogonia fragment into pairs while moving towards then establishing contact with the hub) occur simultaneously to replenish the GSC pool. Thus, stereotypically oriented stem cell divisions are not always correlated with an asymmetric outcome in cell fate, and changes in stem cell output are governed by altered signals in response to tissue requirements.

  1. Spen is required for pigment cell survival during pupal development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Querenet, Matthieu; Goubard, Valerie; Chatelain, Gilles; Davoust, Nathalie; Mollereau, Bertrand

    2015-06-15

    Apoptosis is required during development to eliminate superfluous cells and sculpt tissues; spatial and timed control of apoptosis ensures that the necessary number of cells is eliminated at a precise time in a given tissue. The elimination of supernumerary pigment or inter-ommatidial cells (IOCs) depends on cell-cell communication and is necessary for the formation of the honeycomb-like structure of the Drosophila eye. However, the mechanisms occurring during pupal development and controlling apoptosis of superfluous IOC in space and time remain unclear. Here, we found that split-ends (spen) is required for IOC survival at the time of removal of superfluous IOCs. Loss of spen function leads to abnormal removal of IOCs by apoptosis. We show that spen is required non-autonomously in cone cells for the survival of IOCs by positively regulating the Spitz/EGFR pathway. We propose that Spen is an important survival factor that ensures spatial control of the apoptotic wave that is necessary for the correct patterning and formation of the Drosophila eye.

  2. Planar cell polarity and tissue design: Shaping the Drosophila wing membrane.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Meagan; Collier, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) describes the orientation of a cell within the plane of an epithelial cell layer. During tissue development, epithelial cells normally align their PCP so that they face in the same direction. This alignment allows cells to move in a common direction, or to generate structures with a common orientation. A classic system for studying the coordination of epithelial PCP is the developing Drosophila wing. The alignment of epithelial PCP during pupal wing development allows the production of an array of cell hairs that point towards the wing tip. Multiple studies have established that the Frizzled (Fz) PCP signaling pathway coordinates wing PCP. Recently, we have found that the same pathway also controls the formation of ridges on the Drosophila wing membrane. However, in contrast to hair polarity, ridge orientation differs between the anterior and posterior wing. How can the Fz PCP pathway generate a different relationship between hair and ridge orientation in different parts of the wing? In this Extra View article, we discuss membrane ridge development drawing upon our recent PLoS Genetics paper and other, published and unpublished, data. We also speculate upon how our findings impact the ongoing debate concerning the interaction of the Fz PCP and Fat/Dachsous pathways in the control of PCP.

  3. Application of cell-specific isolation to the study of dopamine signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Eswar Prasad R; Iyer, Srividya Chandramouli; Cox, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission accounts for a number of important brain functions across species including memory formation, the anticipation of reward, cognitive facilities, and drug addiction. Despite this functional significance, relatively little is known of the cellular pathways associated with drug-induced molecular adaptations within individual neurons. Due to its genetic tractability, simplicity, and economy of scale, Drosophila melanogaster has become an important tool in the study of neurological disease states, including drug addiction. To facilitate high-resolution functional analyses of dopamine signaling, it is highly advantageous to obtain genetic material, such as RNA or protein, from a homogeneous cell source. This process can be particularly challenging in most organisms including small model system organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster. Magnetic bead-based cell sorting has emerged as a powerful tool that can be used to isolate select populations of cells, from a whole organism or tissue such as the brain, for genomic as well as proteomic expression profiling. Coupled with the temporal and spatial specificity of the GAL4/UAS system, we demonstrate the application of magnetic bead-based cell sorting towards the isolation of dopaminergic neurons from the Drosophila adult nervous system. RNA derived from these neurons is of high quality and suitable for downstream applications such as microarray expression profiling or quantitative rtPCR. The versatility of this methodology stems from the fact that the cell-specific isolation method employed can be used under a variety of experimental conditions designed to survey molecular adaptations in dopamine signaling neurons including in response to drugs of abuse.

  4. The planar polarity pathway promotes coordinated cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bastock, Rebecca; Strutt, David

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell migration is fundamental in both animal morphogenesis and disease. The migration of individual cells is relatively well-studied, however in vivo cells often remain joined by cell-cell junctions and migrate in cohesive groups. How such groups of cells coordinate their migration is poorly understood. The planar polarity pathway coordinates the polarity of non-migrating cells in epithelial sheets and is required for cell rearrangements during vertebrate morphogenesis. It is therefore a good candidate to play a role in collective migration of groups of cells. Drosophila border cell migration is a well-characterised and genetically tractable model of collective cell migration, during which a group of about 6-10 epithelial cells detaches from the anterior end of the developing egg chamber and migrates invasively towards the oocyte. We find that the planar polarity pathway promotes this invasive migration, acting both in the migrating cells themselves and in the non-migratory polar follicle cells they carry along. Disruption of planar polarity signalling causes abnormalities in actin rich processes on the cell surface and leads to less efficient migration. This is apparently due in part to loss of regulation of Rho GTPase activity by the planar polarity receptor Frizzled, which itself becomes localised to the migratory edge of the border cells. We conclude that during collective cell migration the planar polarity pathway can mediate communication between motile and non-motile cells, which enhances the efficiency of migration via the modulation of actin dynamics. PMID:17652348

  5. Cullin-4 regulates Wingless and JNK signaling-mediated cell death in the Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Meghana; Sarkar, Ankita; Bedi, Shimpi; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit

    2016-01-01

    In all multicellular organisms, the fundamental processes of cell proliferation and cell death are crucial for growth regulation during organogenesis. Strict regulation of cell death is important to maintain tissue homeostasis by affecting processes like regulation of cell number, and elimination of unwanted/unfit cells. The developing Drosophila eye is a versatile model to study patterning and growth, where complex signaling pathways regulate growth and cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of these processes is not fully understood. In a gain-of-function screen, we found that misexpression of cullin-4 (cul-4), an ubiquitin ligase, can rescue reduced eye mutant phenotypes. Previously, cul-4 has been shown to regulate chromatin remodeling, cell cycle and cell division. Genetic characterization of cul-4 in the developing eye revealed that loss-of-function of cul-4 exhibits a reduced eye phenotype. Analysis of twin-spots showed that in comparison with their wild-type counterparts, the cul-4 loss-of-function clones fail to survive. Here we show that cul-4 clones are eliminated by induction of cell death due to activation of caspases. Aberrant activation of signaling pathways is known to trigger cell death in the developing eye. We found that Wingless (Wg) and c-Jun-amino-terminal-(NH2)-Kinase (JNK) signaling are ectopically induced in cul-4 mutant clones, and these signals co-localize with the dying cells. Modulating levels of Wg and JNK signaling by using agonists and antagonists of these pathways demonstrated that activation of Wg and JNK signaling enhances cul-4 mutant phenotype, whereas downregulation of Wg and JNK signaling rescues the cul-4 mutant phenotypes of reduced eye. Here we present evidences to demonstrate that cul-4 is involved in restricting Wg signaling and downregulation of JNK signaling-mediated cell death during early eye development. Overall, our studies provide insights into a novel role of cul-4 in promoting cell

  6. A Systems-Level Interrogation Identifies Regulators of Drosophila Blood Cell Number and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Makhijani, Kalpana; Alexander, Brandy; Perrimon, Norbert; Brückner, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, cell number is typically determined by a balance of intracellular signals that positively and negatively regulate cell survival and proliferation. Dissecting these signaling networks facilitates the understanding of normal development and tumorigenesis. Here, we study signaling by the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF Receptor (Pvr) in embryonic blood cells (hemocytes) and in the related cell line Kc as a model for the requirement of PDGF/VEGF receptors in vertebrate cell survival and proliferation. The system allows the investigation of downstream and parallel signaling networks, based on the ability of Pvr to activate Ras/Erk, Akt/TOR, and yet-uncharacterized signaling pathway/s, which redundantly mediate cell survival and contribute to proliferation. Using Kc cells, we performed a genome wide RNAi screen for regulators of cell number in a sensitized, Pvr deficient background. We identified the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Insulin-like receptor (InR) as a major Pvr Enhancer, and the nuclear hormone receptors Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (usp), corresponding to mammalian Retinoid X Receptor (RXR), as Pvr Suppressors. In vivo analysis in the Drosophila embryo revealed a previously unrecognized role for EcR to promote apoptotic death of embryonic blood cells, which is balanced with pro-survival signaling by Pvr and InR. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrates distinct modes of cell number regulation by EcR and RTK signaling. We define common phosphorylation targets of Pvr and InR that include regulators of cell survival, and unique targets responsible for specialized receptor functions. Interestingly, our analysis reveals that the selection of phosphorylation targets by signaling receptors shows qualitative changes depending on the signaling status of the cell, which may have wide-reaching implications for other cell regulatory systems. PMID:25749252

  7. An Aminopeptidase in the Drosophila Testicular Niche Acts in Germline Stem Cell Maintenance and Spermatogonial Dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Cindy; Gandhi, Shiv; Biniossek, Martin L; Feng, Lijuan; Schilling, Oliver; Urban, Siniša; Chen, Xin

    2015-10-13

    Extrinsic cues from the niche are known to regulate adult stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation. Here, we report that an aminopeptidase Slamdance (Sda) acts in the Drosophila testicular niche to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs) and regulate progenitor germ cell dedifferentiation. Mutations in sda lead to dramatic testicular niche deterioration and stem cell loss. Recombinant Sda has specific aminopeptidase activity in vitro, and the in vivo function of Sda requires an intact aminopeptidase domain. Sda is required for accumulation of mature DE-cadherin, and overexpression of DE-cadherin rescues most sda mutant phenotypes, suggesting that DE-cadherin is an important target of Sda. Finally, Sda is both necessary and sufficient to promote dedifferentiation during aging and recovery from genetically manipulated depletion of GSCs. Together, our results suggest that a niche factor promotes both stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell dedifferentiation.

  8. Piwi Is a Key Regulator of Both Somatic and Germline Stem Cells in the Drosophila Testis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jacob; Qi, Hongying; Liu, Na; Lin, Haifan

    2015-07-07

    The Piwi-piRNA pathway is well known for its germline function, yet its somatic role remains elusive. We show here that Piwi is required autonomously not only for germline stem cell (GSC) but also for somatic cyst stem cell (CySC) maintenance in the Drosophila testis. Reducing Piwi activity in the testis caused defects in CySC differentiation. Accompanying this, GSC daughters expanded beyond the vicinity of the hub but failed to differentiate further. Moreover, Piwi deficient in nuclear localization caused similar defects in somatic and germ cell differentiation, which was rescued by somatic Piwi expression. To explore the underlying molecular mechanism, we identified Piwi-bound piRNAs that uniquely map to a gene key for gonadal development, Fasciclin 3, and demonstrate that Piwi regulates its expression in somatic cyst cells. Our work reveals the cell-autonomous function of Piwi in both somatic and germline stem cell types, with somatic function possibly via its epigenetic mechanism.

  9. p38 MAPK Signaling in Postnatal Tendon Growth and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Sarver, Dylan C.; Sugg, Kristoffer B.; Dzierzawski, Justin T.; Gumucio, Jonathan P.; Mendias, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon is a dynamic tissue whose structure and function is influenced by mechanical loading, but little is known about the fundamental mechanisms that regulate tendon growth and remodeling in vivo. Data from cultured tendon fibroblasts indicated that the p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in tendon fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in vitro. To gain greater insight into the mechanisms of tendon growth, and explore the role of p38 MAPK signaling in this process, we tested the hypotheses that inducing plantaris tendon growth through the ablation of the synergist Achilles tendon would result in rapid expansion of a neotendon matrix surrounding the original tendon, and that treatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 would prevent this growth. Rats were treated with vehicle or SB203580, and subjected to synergist ablation by bilateral tenectomy of the Achilles tendon. Changes in histological and biochemical properties of plantaris tendons were analyzed 3, 7, or 28 days after overload, and comparisons were made to non-overloaded animals. By 28 days after overload, tendon mass had increased by 30% compared to non-overloaded samples, and cross-sectional area (CSA) increased by around 50%, with most of the change occurring in the neotendon. The expansion in CSA initially occurred through the synthesis of a hyaluronic acid rich matrix that was progressively replaced with mature collagen. Pericytes were present in areas of active tendon growth, but never in the original tendon ECM. Inhibition of p38 MAPK resulted in a profound decrease in IL6 expression, and had a modest effect on the expression of other ECM and cell proliferation genes, but had a negligible impact on overall tendon growth. The combined results from this study provided novel insights into tendon mechanobiology, and suggest that p38 MAPK signaling does not appear to be necessary for tendon growth in vivo. PMID:25768932

  10. TGFβ/Activin signalling is required for ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in Drosophila salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Martins, Torcato; Eusebio, Nadia; Correia, Andreia; Marinho, Joana; Casares, Fernando; Pereira, Paulo S

    2017-01-01

    Signalling by TGFβ superfamily factors plays an important role in tissue growth and cell proliferation. In Drosophila, the activity of the TGFβ/Activin signalling branch has been linked to the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, but the cellular and molecular basis for these functions are not fully understood. In this study, we show that both the RII receptor Punt (Put) and the R-Smad Smad2 are strongly required for cell and tissue growth. Knocking down the expression of Put or Smad2 in salivary glands causes alterations in nucleolar structure and functions. Cells with decreased TGFβ/Activin signalling accumulate intermediate pre-rRNA transcripts containing internal transcribed spacer 1 regions accompanied by the nucleolar retention of ribosomal proteins. Thus, our results show that TGFβ/Activin signalling is required for ribosomal biogenesis, a key aspect of cellular growth control. Importantly, overexpression of Put enhanced cell growth induced by Drosophila Myc, a well-characterized inducer of nucleolar hypertrophy and ribosome biogenesis.

  11. TGFβ/Activin signalling is required for ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in Drosophila salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Eusebio, Nadia; Correia, Andreia; Marinho, Joana; Casares, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Signalling by TGFβ superfamily factors plays an important role in tissue growth and cell proliferation. In Drosophila, the activity of the TGFβ/Activin signalling branch has been linked to the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, but the cellular and molecular basis for these functions are not fully understood. In this study, we show that both the RII receptor Punt (Put) and the R-Smad Smad2 are strongly required for cell and tissue growth. Knocking down the expression of Put or Smad2 in salivary glands causes alterations in nucleolar structure and functions. Cells with decreased TGFβ/Activin signalling accumulate intermediate pre-rRNA transcripts containing internal transcribed spacer 1 regions accompanied by the nucleolar retention of ribosomal proteins. Thus, our results show that TGFβ/Activin signalling is required for ribosomal biogenesis, a key aspect of cellular growth control. Importantly, overexpression of Put enhanced cell growth induced by Drosophila Myc, a well-characterized inducer of nucleolar hypertrophy and ribosome biogenesis. PMID:28123053

  12. Drosophila S2 Schneider cells: a useful tool for rebuilding and redesigning approaches in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianying; Reth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an engineering approach to biology. A synthetic biologist wants to describe biological molecules and their subdomains as well-defined parts of a molecular machine. To achieve this goal, synthetic biologists rebuild minimal functional biological systems from well-defined parts or they design new molecules that do not exist in nature but have new and useful functions. In short, these engineering approaches can be summarized as "rebuild, alter, and understand." The Drosophila S2 Schneider cell is a useful tool for both rebuilding and redesigning approaches. S2 cells are phagocytic cells that easily take up large amounts of DNA from the cell culture. They, thus, have a high cotransfection rate, allowing the coexpression of up to 12 different proteins. We have developed a transient transfection protocol allowing the rapid and parallel analysis of wild-type and altered forms of a biological system. This chapter describes our methods to rebuild and better understand mammalian signaling systems in the evolutionary distant environment of Drosophila S2 cells.

  13. A Regulatory Transcriptional Loop Controls Proliferation and Differentiation in Drosophila Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanrui; Reichert, Heinrich; Knoblich, Juergen A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis is initiated by a set of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors that specify neural progenitors and allow them to generate neurons in multiple rounds of asymmetric cell division. The Drosophila Daughterless (Da) protein and its mammalian counterparts (E12/E47) act as heterodimerization factors for proneural genes and are therefore critically required for neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that Da can also be an inhibitor of the neural progenitor fate whose absence leads to stem cell overproliferation and tumor formation. We explain this paradox by demonstrating that Da induces the differentiation factor Prospero (Pros) whose asymmetric segregation is essential for differentiation in one of the two daughter cells. Da co-operates with the bHLH transcription factor Asense, whereas the other proneural genes are dispensible. After mitosis, Pros terminates Asense expression in one of the two daughter cells. In da mutants, pros is not expressed, leading to the formation of lethal transplantable brain tumors. Our results define a transcriptional feedback loop that regulates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in Drosophila optic lobe neuroblasts. They indicate that initiation of a neural differentiation program in stem cells is essential to prevent tumorigenesis. PMID:24804774

  14. Persistent competition among stem cells and their daughters in the Drosophila ovary germline niche.

    PubMed

    Rhiner, Christa; Díaz, Begoña; Portela, Marta; Poyatos, Juan F; Fernández-Ruiz, Irene; López-Gay, Jesús M; Gerlitz, Offer; Moreno, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Cell competition is a short-range cell-cell interaction leading to the proliferation of winner cells at the expense of losers, although either cell type shows normal growth in homotypic environments. Drosophila Myc (dMyc; Dm-FlyBase) is a potent inducer of cell competition in wing epithelia, but its role in the ovary germline stem cell niche is unknown. Here, we show that germline stem cells (GSCs) with relative lower levels of dMyc are replaced by GSCs with higher levels of dMyc. By contrast, dMyc-overexpressing GSCs outcompete wild-type stem cells without affecting total stem cell numbers. We also provide evidence for a naturally occurring cell competition border formed by high dMyc-expressing stem cells and low dMyc-expressing progeny, which may facilitate the concentration of the niche-provided self-renewal factor BMP/Dpp in metabolically active high dMyc stem cells. Genetic manipulations that impose uniform dMyc levels across the germline produce an extended Dpp signaling domain and cause uncoordinated differentiation events. We propose that dMyc-induced competition plays a dual role in regulating optimal stem cell pools and sharp differentiation boundaries, but is potentially harmful in the case of emerging dmyc duplications that facilitate niche occupancy by pre-cancerous stem cells. Moreover, competitive interactions among stem cells may be relevant for the successful application of stem cell therapies in humans.

  15. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Jennifer L; Jiang, Huaqi; Nickerson, Derek W; Edgar, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+) reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  16. Drosophila Condensin II subunit Chromosome-associated protein D3 regulates cell fate determination through non-cell-autonomous signaling

    PubMed Central

    Klebanow, Lindsey R.; Peshel, Emanuela C.; Schuster, Andrew T.; De, Kuntal; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Lenoir, Jessica J.; Moore, Adrian W.; McDonald, Jocelyn A.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of the Drosophila melanogaster adult wing is heavily influenced by the expression of proteins that dictate cell fate decisions between intervein and vein during development. dSRF (Blistered) expression in specific regions of the larval wing disc promotes intervein cell fate, whereas EGFR activity promotes vein cell fate. Here, we report that the chromatin-organizing protein CAP-D3 acts to dampen dSRF levels at the anterior/posterior boundary in the larval wing disc, promoting differentiation of cells into the anterior crossvein. CAP-D3 represses KNOT expression in cells immediately adjacent to the anterior/posterior boundary, thus blocking KNOT-mediated repression of EGFR activity and preventing cell death. Maintenance of EGFR activity in these cells depresses dSRF levels in the neighboring anterior crossvein progenitor cells, allowing them to differentiate into vein cells. These findings uncover a novel transcriptional regulatory network influencing Drosophila wing vein development, and are the first to identify a Condensin II subunit as an important regulator of EGFR activity and cell fate determination in vivo. PMID:27317808

  17. Morphogenesis of the somatic musculature in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Victoria K.; Dobi, Krista C.; Baylies, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the somatic muscle system is first formed during embryogenesis, giving rise to the larval musculature. Later during metamorphosis, this system is destroyed and replaced by an entirely new set of muscles in the adult fly. Proper formation of the larval and adult muscles is critical for basic survival functions such as hatching and crawling (in the larva), walking and flying (in the adult), and feeding (at both larval and adult stages). Myogenesis, from mononucleated muscle precursor cells to multinucleated functional muscles, is driven by a number of cellular processes that have begun to be mechanistically defined. Once themesodermal cells destined for themyogenic lineage have been specified, individual myoblasts fuse together iteratively to form syncytial myofibers. Combining cytoplasmic contents demands a level of intracellular reorganization that, most notably, leads to redistribution of the myonuclei to maximize internuclear distance. Signaling from extending myofibers induces terminal tendon cell differentiation in the ectoderm, which results in secure muscle-tendon attachments that are critical formuscle contraction. Simultaneously, muscles become innervated and undergo sarcomerogenesis to establish the contractile apparatus that will facilitate movement. The cellular mechanisms governing these morphogenetic events share numerous parallels to mammalian development, and the basic unit of all muscle, the myofiber, is conserved from flies to mammals. Thus, studies of Drosophila myogenesis and comparisons to muscle development in other systems highlight conserved regulatory programs of biomedical relevance to general muscle biology and studies of muscle disease. PMID:25758712

  18. Histogenesis of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses. An electron-microscopic, biochemical, enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, M.; Torikata, C.; Iri, H.; Mikata, A.; Kawai, T.; Hanaoka, H.; Yakumaru, K.; Kageyama, K.

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the histogenesis of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses (CCS) as well as the problem of whether or not CCS is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, studies based on various methods were performed. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans gave the same results for amelanotic CCS and synovial sarcoma, and the DOPA reaction gave the same negative results for amelanotic CCS and synovial sarcoma. However, the DOPA reaction was also negative in an amelanotic recurrent tumor of a melanotic CCS, and electron-microscopic studies revealed a close resemblance between amelanotic CCS and melanotic CCS. Further, enzyme histochemical studies showed definite differences between synovial sarcoma and amelanotic CCS but gave identical results for amelanotic and melanotic CCS. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of S-100 protein in all CCS cases, both amelanotic and melanotic. These results indicate that CCS is not a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, and that both amelanotic and melanotic CCS are of neural crest origin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6320649

  19. The pineapple eye gene is required for survival of Drosophila imaginal disc cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Stampas, Argyrios; Zapata, Cynthia; Baker, Nicholas E

    2003-01-01

    Each ommatidium of the Drosophila eye is constructed by precisely 19 specified precursor cells, generated in part during a second mitotic wave of cell divisions that overlaps early stages of ommatidial cell specification. Homozygotes for the pineapple eye mutation lack sufficient precursor cells due to apoptosis during the period of fate specification. In addition development is delayed by apoptosis during earlier imaginal disc growth. Null alleles are recessive lethal and allelic to l(2)31Ek; heteroallelic combinations can show developmental delay, abnormal eye development, and reduced fertility. Mosaic clones autonomously show extensive cell death. The pineapple eye gene was identified and predicted to encode a novel 582-amino-acid protein. The protein contains a novel, cysteine-rich domain of 270 amino acids also found in predicted proteins of unknown function from other animals. PMID:14704172

  20. Filopodia-like actin cables position nuclei in association with perinuclear actin in Drosophila nurse cells.

    PubMed

    Huelsmann, Sven; Ylänne, Jari; Brown, Nicholas H

    2013-09-30

    Controlling the position of the nucleus is vital for a number of cellular processes from yeast to humans. In Drosophila nurse cells, nuclear positioning is crucial during dumping, when nurse cells contract and expel their contents into the oocyte. We provide evidence that in nurse cells, continuous filopodia-like actin cables, growing from the plasma membrane and extending to the nucleus, achieve nuclear positioning. These actin cables move nuclei away from ring canals. When nurse cells contract, actin cables associate laterally with the nuclei, in some cases inducing nuclear turning so that actin cables become partially wound around the nuclei. Our data suggest that a perinuclear actin meshwork connects actin cables to nuclei via actin-crosslinking proteins such as the filamin Cheerio. We provide a revised model for how actin structures position nuclei in nurse cells, employing evolutionary conserved machinery.

  1. Sequoia regulates cell fate decisions in the external sensory organs of adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Hillary K; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Yamamoto, Shinya; Schulze, Karen L; Bellen, Hugo J

    2009-06-01

    The adult Drosophila external sensory organ (ESO), comprising the hair, socket, neuron, sheath and glia cells, arises through the asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs). In a mosaic screen designed to identify new components in ESO development, we isolated mutations in sequoia, which encodes a putative zinc-finger transcription factor that has previously been shown to have a role in dendritogenesis. Here, we show that adult clones mutant for seq exhibit a loss of hair cells and a gain of socket cells. We propose that the seq mutant phenotype arises, in part, owing to the loss of several crucial transcription factors known to be important in peripheral nervous system development such as D-Pax2, Prospero and Hamlet. Thus, Sequoia is a new upstream regulator of genes that orchestrates cell fate specification during development of the adult ESO lineage.

  2. A deregulated intestinal cell cycle program disrupts tissue homeostasis without affecting longevity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Petkau, Kristina; Parsons, Brendon D; Duggal, Aashna; Foley, Edan

    2014-10-10

    Recent studies illuminate a complex relationship between the control of stem cell division and intestinal tissue organization in the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Host and microbial signals drive intestinal proliferation to maintain an effective epithelial barrier. Although it is widely assumed that proliferation induces dysplasia and shortens the life span of the host, the phenotypic consequences of deregulated intestinal proliferation for an otherwise healthy host remain unexplored. To address this question, we genetically isolated and manipulated the cell cycle programs of adult stem cells and enterocytes. Our studies revealed that cell cycle alterations led to extensive cell death and morphological disruptions. Despite the extensive tissue damage, we did not observe an impact on longevity, suggesting a remarkable degree of plasticity in intestinal function.

  3. Klp10A, a stem cell centrosome-enriched kinesin, balances asymmetries in Drosophila male germline stem cell division.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuie; Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2016-11-25

    Asymmetric stem cell division is often accompanied by stereotypical inheritance of the mother and daughter centrosomes. However, it remains unknown whether and how stem cell centrosomes are uniquely regulated and how this regulation may contribute to stem cell fate. Here we identify Klp10A, a microtubule-depolymerizing kinesin of the kinesin-13 family, as the first protein enriched in the stem cell centrosome in Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs). Depletion of klp10A results in abnormal elongation of the mother centrosomes in GSCs, suggesting the existence of a stem cell-specific centrosome regulation program. Concomitant with mother centrosome elongation, GSCs form asymmetric spindle, wherein the elongated mother centrosome organizes considerably larger half spindle than the other. This leads to asymmetric cell size, yielding a smaller differentiating daughter cell. We propose that klp10A functions to counteract undesirable asymmetries that may result as a by-product of achieving asymmetries essential for successful stem cell divisions.

  4. A New Nucleolar Body Appears in Drosophila saltans Salivary Gland Cells Before Histolysis, in Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, C. C.; de Campos Bicudo, H. E. M.

    2006-01-01

    The salivary glands of Drosophila saltans (saltans group, saltans subgroup) analyzed in an advanced stage of programmed cell death showed the appearance of a single, round, nucleolar corpuscle inside the highly altered nucleus of every gland cell, at a time during which the integrity of the original nucleolus was already lost and the original nucleolar material apparently disappeared. In the same nuclei, which already had also lost the characteristic chromosome structure, some delicate chromosome threads were maintained. In many cells, the new nucleolar corpuscle and these chromosome threads are associated. These findings are novel. However, the hypothesis put forward concerning their meaning remains dependent on other studies. PMID:20307232

  5. The Cellular Biology of Flexor Tendon Adhesion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason K.F.; Lui, Yin H.; Kapacee, Zoher; Kadler, Karl E.; Ferguson, Mark W. J.; McGrouther, Duncan A.

    2009-01-01

    Intrasynovial flexor tendon injuries of the hand can frequently be complicated by tendon adhesions to the surrounding sheath, limiting finger function. We have developed a new tendon injury model in the mouse to investigate the three-dimensional cellular biology of intrasynovial flexor tendon healing and adhesion formation. We investigated the cell biology using markers for inflammation, proliferation, collagen synthesis, apoptosis, and vascularization/myofibroblasts. Quantitative immunohistochemical image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction with cell mapping was performed on labeled serial sections. Flexor tendon adhesions were also assessed 21 days after wounding using transmission electron microscopy to examine the cell phenotypes in the wound. When the tendon has been immobilized, the mouse can form tendon adhesions in the flexor tendon sheath. The cell biology of tendon healing follows the classic wound healing response of inflammation, proliferation, synthesis, and apoptosis, but the greater activity occurs in the surrounding tissue. Cells that have multiple “fibripositors” and cells with cytoplasmic protrusions that contain multiple large and small diameter fibrils can be found in the wound during collagen synthesis. In conclusion, adhesion formation occurs due to scarring between two damaged surfaces. The mouse model for flexor tendon injury represents a new platform to study adhesion formation that is genetically tractable. PMID:19834058

  6. The hypoparathyroidism-associated mutation in Drosophila Gcm compromises protein stability and glial cell formation

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiao; Lu, Lu; Zhuge, Chun-Chun; Chen, Xuebing; Zhai, Yuanfen; Cheng, Jingjing; Mao, Haian; Yang, Chang-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Lee, Yi-Nan; Chien, Cheng-Ting; Ho, Margaret S.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated neurons and glia are acquired from immature precursors via transcriptional controls exerted by factors such as proteins in the family of Glial Cells Missing (Gcm). Mammalian Gcm proteins mediate neural stem cell induction, placenta and parathyroid development, whereas Drosophila Gcm proteins act as a key switch to determine neuronal and glial cell fates and regulate hemocyte development. The present study reports a hypoparathyroidism-associated mutation R59L that alters Drosophila Gcm (Gcm) protein stability, rendering it unstable, and hyperubiquitinated via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). GcmR59L interacts with the Slimb-based SCF complex and Protein Kinase C (PKC), which possibly plays a role in its phosphorylation, hence altering ubiquitination. Additionally, R59L causes reduced Gcm protein levels in a manner independent of the PEST domain signaling protein turnover. GcmR59L proteins bind DNA, functionally activate transcription, and induce glial cells, yet at a less efficient level. Finally, overexpression of either wild-type human Gcmb (hGcmb) or hGcmb carrying the conserved hypoparathyroidism mutation only slightly affects gliogenesis, indicating differential regulatory mechanisms in human and flies. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the significance of this disease-associated mutation in controlling Gcm protein stability via UPS, hence advance our understanding on how glial formation is regulated. PMID:28051179

  7. The transcriptional diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Cherbas, Lucy; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Dayu; Yang, Li; Zou, Yi; Eads, Brian D.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Landolin, Jane M.; Kapranov, Philipp; Dumais, Jacqueline; Samsonova, Anastasia; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Roberts, Johnny; Davis, Carrie A.; Tang, Haixu; van Baren, Marijke J.; Ghosh, Srinka; Dobin, Alexander; Bell, Kim; Lin, Wei; Langton, Laura; Duff, Michael O.; Tenney, Aaron E.; Zaleski, Chris; Brent, Michael R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Andrews, Justen; Graveley, Brenton R.; Perrimon, Norbert; Celniker, Susan E.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Cherbas, Peter

    2010-12-22

    Drosophila melanogaster cell lines are important resources for cell biologists. In this article, we catalog the expression of exons, genes, and unannotated transcriptional signals for 25 lines. Unannotated transcription is substantial (typically 19% of euchromatic signal). Conservatively, we identify 1405 novel transcribed regions; 684 of these appear to be new exons of neighboring, often distant, genes. Sixty-four percent of genes are expressed detectably in at least one line, but only 21% are detected in all lines. Each cell line expresses, on average, 5885 genes, including a common set of 3109. Expression levels vary over several orders of magnitude. Major signaling pathways are well represented: most differentiation pathways are ‘‘off’’ and survival/growth pathways ‘‘on.’’ Roughly 50% of the genes expressed by each line are not part of the common set, and these show considerable individuality. Thirty-one percent are expressed at a higher level in at least one cell line than in any single developmental stage, suggesting that each line is enriched for genes characteristic of small sets of cells. Most remarkable is that imaginal disc-derived lines can generally be assigned, on the basis of expression, to small territories within developing discs. These mappings reveal unexpected stability of even fine-grained spatial determination. No two cell lines show identical transcription factor expression. We conclude that each line has retained features of an individual founder cell superimposed on a common ‘‘cell line‘‘ gene expression pattern. We report the transcriptional profiles of 25 Drosophila melanogaster cell lines, principally by whole-genome tiling microarray analysis of total RNA, carried out as part of the modENCODE project. The data produced in this study add to our knowledge of the cell lines and of the Drosophila transcriptome in several ways. We summarize the expression of previously annotated genes in each of the 25

  8. Cloning and expression of Xenopus Prickle, an orthologue of a Drosophila planar cell polarity gene.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, John B; Goto, Toshiyasu; Keller, Ray; Harland, Richard M

    2002-08-01

    We have cloned Xenopus orthologues of the Drosophila planar cell polarity (PCP) gene Prickle. Xenopus Prickle (XPk) is expressed in tissues at the dorsal midline during gastrulation and early neurulation. XPk is later expressed in a segmental pattern in the presomitic mesoderm and then in recently formed somites. XPk is also expressed in the tailbud, pronephric duct, retina, and the otic vesicle. The complex expression pattern of XPk suggests that PCP signaling is used in a diverse array of developmental processes in vertebrate embryos.

  9. Regulatory Networks that Direct the Development of Specialized Cell Types in the Drosophila Heart

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, TyAnna L.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila cardiac tube was once thought to be a simple linear structure, however research over the past 15 years has revealed significant cellular and molecular complexity to this organ. Prior reviews have focused upon the gene regulatory networks responsible for the specification of the cardiac field and the activation of cardiac muscle structural genes. Here we focus upon highlighting the existence, function, and development of unique cell types within the dorsal vessel, and discuss their correspondence to analogous structures in the vertebrate heart. PMID:27695700

  10. Fibrillins in Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Betti; Pepe, Guglielmina

    2016-01-01

    Tendons among connective tissue, mainly collagen, contain also elastic fibers (EF) made of fibrillin 1, fibrillin 2 and elastin that are broadly distributed in tendons and represent 1–2% of the dried mass of the tendon. Only in the last years, studies on structure and function of EF in tendons have been performed. Aim of this review is to revise data on the organization of EF in tendons, in particular fibrillin structure and function, and on the clinical manifestations associated to alterations of EF in tendons. Indeed, microfibrils may contribute to tendon mechanics; therefore, their alterations may cause joint hypermobility and contractures which have been found to be clinical features in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Beals syndrome. The two diseases are caused by mutations in genes FBN1 and FBN2 encoding fibrillin 1 and fibrillin 2, respectively. PMID:27812333

  11. E-cadherin is required for centrosome and spindle orientation in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Fuller, Margaret T; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2010-08-31

    Many adult stem cells reside in a special microenvironment known as the niche, where they receive essential signals that specify stem cell identity. Cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin and integrin plays a crucial role in maintaining stem cells within the niche. In Drosophila melanogaster, male germline stem cells (GSCs) are attached to niche component cells (i.e., the hub) via adherens junctions. The GSC centrosomes and spindle are oriented toward the hub-GSC junction, where E-cadherin-based adherens junctions are highly concentrated. For this reason, adherens junctions are thought to provide a polarity cue for GSCs to enable proper orientation of centrosomes and spindles, a critical step toward asymmetric stem cell division. However, understanding the role of E-cadherin in GSC polarity has been challenging, since GSCs carrying E-cadherin mutations are not maintained in the niche. Here, we tested whether E-cadherin is required for GSC polarity by expressing a dominant-negative form of E-cadherin. We found that E-cadherin is indeed required for polarizing GSCs toward the hub cells, an effect that may be mediated by Apc2. We also demonstrated that E-cadherin is required for the GSC centrosome orientation checkpoint, which prevents mitosis when centrosomes are not correctly oriented. We propose that E-cadherin orchestrates multiple aspects of stem cell behavior, including polarization of stem cells toward the stem cell-niche interface and adhesion of stem cells to the niche supporting cells.

  12. A regulatory network of Drosophila germline stem cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Neumüller, Ralph A; Buckner, Michael; Ayers, Kathleen; Li, Hua; Hu, Yanhui; Yang-Zhou, Donghui; Pan, Lei; Wang, Xiaoxi; Kelley, Colleen; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Binari, Richard; Randklev, Sakara; Perkins, Lizabeth A; Xie, Ting; Cooley, Lynn; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-02-24

    Stem cells possess the capacity to generate two cells of distinct fate upon division: one cell retaining stem cell identity and the other cell destined to differentiate. These cell fates are established by cell-type-specific genetic networks. To comprehensively identify components of these networks, we performed a large-scale RNAi screen in Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs) covering ∼25% of the genome. The screen identified 366 genes that affect GSC maintenance, differentiation, or other processes involved in oogenesis. Comparison of GSC regulators with neural stem cell self-renewal factors identifies common and cell-type-specific self-renewal genes. Importantly, we identify the histone methyltransferase Set1 as a GSC-specific self-renewal factor. Loss of Set1 in neural stem cells does not affect cell fate decisions, suggesting a differential requirement of H3K4me3 in different stem cell lineages. Altogether, our study provides a resource that will help to further dissect the networks underlying stem cell self-renewal.

  13. A regulatory network of Drosophila germline stem cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Neumüller, Ralph A.; Buckner, Michael; Ayers, Kathleen; Li, Hua; Hu, Yanhui; Yang-Zhou, Donghui; Pan, Lei; Wang, Xiaoxi; Kelley, Colleen; Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Binari, Richard; Randklev, Sakara; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Xie, Ting; Cooley, Lynn; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stem cells possess the capacity to generate two cells of distinct fate upon division; one cell retaining stem cell identity and the other cell destined to differentiate. These cell fates are established by cell-type-specific genetic networks. To comprehensively identify components of these networks, we performed a large-scale RNAi screen in Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs) covering ~25% of the genome. The screen identified 366 genes that affect GSC maintenance, differentiation or other processes involved in oogenesis. Comparison of GSC regulators with neural stem cell self-renewal factors identifies common and cell-type-specific self-renewal genes. Importantly, we identify the histone methyltransferase Set1 as a GSC specific self-renewal factor. Loss of Set1 in neural stem cells does not affect cell fate decisions, suggesting a differential requirement of H3K4me3 in different stem cell lineages. Altogether, our study provides a resource that will help to further dissect the networks underlying stem cell self-renewal. PMID:24576427

  14. MANF silencing, immunity induction or autophagy trigger an unusual cell type in metamorphosing Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Stratoulias, Vassilis; Heino, Tapio I

    2015-05-01

    Glia are abundant cells in the brain of animals ranging from flies to humans. They perform conserved functions not only in neural development and wiring, but also in brain homeostasis. Here we show that by manipulating gene expression in glia, a previously unidentified cell type appears in the Drosophila brain during metamorphosis. More specifically, this cell type appears in three contexts: (1) after the induction of either immunity, or (2) autophagy, or (3) by silencing of neurotrophic factor DmMANF in glial cells. We call these cells MANF immunoreactive Cells (MiCs). MiCs are migratory based on their shape, appearance in brain areas where no cell bodies exist and the nuclear localization of dSTAT. They are labeled with a unique set of molecular markers including the conserved neurotrophic factor DmMANF and the transcription factor Zfh1. They possess the nuclearly localized protein Relish, which is the hallmark of immune response activation. They also express the conserved engulfment receptor Draper, therefore indicating that they are potentially phagocytic. Surprisingly, they do not express any of the common glial and neuronal markers. In addition, ultrastructural studies show that MiCs are extremely rich in lysosomes. Our findings reveal critical molecular and functional components of an unusual cell type in the Drosophila brain. We suggest that MiCs resemble macrophages/hemocytes and vertebrate microglia based on their appearance in the brain upon genetically challenged conditions and the expression of molecular markers. Interestingly, macrophages/hemocytes or microglia-like cells have not been reported in the fly nervous system before.

  15. Nonrandom sister chromatid segregation of sex chromosomes in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2013-05-01

    Sister chromatids are the product of DNA replication, which is assumed to be a very precise process. Therefore, sister chromatids should be exact copies of each other. However, reports have indicated that sister chromatids are segregated nonrandomly during cell division, suggesting that sister chromatids are not the same, although their DNA sequences are the same. Researchers have speculated that stem cells may retain template strands to avoid replication-induced mutations. An alternative proposal is that cells may segregate distinct epigenetic information carried on sister chromatids. Recently, we found that Drosophila male germline stem cells segregate sister chromatids of X and Y chromosomes with a strong bias. We discuss this finding in relation to existing models for nonrandom sister chromatid segregation.

  16. The plasma membrane flattens out to fuel cell surface growth during Drosophila cellularization

    PubMed Central

    Figard, Lauren; Xu, Heng; Garcia, Hernan G.; Golding, Ido; Sokac, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cell shape change demands cell surface growth, but how growth is fueled and choreographed is still debated. Here, we use cellularization, the first complete cytokinetic event in Drosophila embryos, to show that cleavage furrow ingression is kinetically coupled to the loss of surface microvilli. We modulate furrow kinetics with RNAi against the Rho1-GTPase regulator slam, and show that furrow ingression controls the rate of microvillar depletion. Finally, we directly track microvillar membrane and see it move along the cell surface and into ingressing furrows, independent of endocytosis. Together, our results demonstrate that the kinetics of the ingressing furrow regulate the utilization of a microvillar membrane reservoir. Since the membrane of the furrow and microvilli are contiguous, we suggest that ingression drives unfolding of the microvilli and incorporation of microvillar membrane into the furrow. We conclude that plasma membrane folding/unfolding can contribute to the cell shape changes that promote embryonic morphogenesis. PMID:24316147

  17. Actin capping protein alpha maintains vestigial-expressing cells within the Drosophila wing disc epithelium.

    PubMed

    Janody, Florence; Treisman, Jessica E

    2006-09-01

    Tissue patterning must be translated into morphogenesis through cell shape changes mediated by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We have found that Capping protein alpha (Cpa) and Capping protein beta (Cpb), which prevent extension of the barbed ends of actin filaments, are specifically required in the wing blade primordium of the Drosophila wing disc. cpa or cpb mutant cells in this region, but not in the remainder of the wing disc, are extruded from the epithelium and undergo apoptosis. Excessive actin filament polymerization is not sufficient to explain this phenotype, as loss of Cofilin or Cyclase-associated protein does not cause cell extrusion or death. Misexpression of Vestigial, the transcription factor that specifies the wing blade, both increases cpa transcription and makes cells dependent on cpa for their maintenance in the epithelium. Our results suggest that Vestigial specifies the cytoskeletal changes that lead to morphogenesis of the adult wing.

  18. The Hedgehog Signalling Pathway in Cell Migration and Guidance: What We Have Learned from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Sofia J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration and guidance are complex processes required for morphogenesis, the formation of tumor metastases, and the progression of human cancer. During migration, guidance molecules induce cell directionality and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. Expression of these molecules has to be tightly regulated and their signals properly interpreted by the receiving cells so as to ensure correct navigation. This molecular control is fundamental for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and known to be crucial for normal cellular growth and differentiation throughout the animal kingdom. The relevance of Hh signaling for human disease is emphasized by its activation in many cancers. Here, I review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of the Hh pathway in cell migration and guidance during Drosophila development and discuss its implications for human cancer origin and progression. PMID:26445062

  19. Functional dissection of the Hox protein Abdominal-B in Drosophila cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Zongzhao; Yang, Xingke; Lohmann, Ingrid

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ct340 CRM was identified to be the posterior spiracle enhancer of gene cut. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ct340 is under the direct transcriptional control of Hox protein Abd-B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient cloning system was developed to assay protein-DNA interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New features of Abd-B dependent target gene regulation were detected. -- Abstract: Hox transcription factors regulate the morphogenesis along the anterior-posterior (A/P) body axis through the interaction with small cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) of their target gene, however so far very few Hox CRMs are known and have been analyzed in detail. In this study we have identified a new Hox CRM, ct340, which guides the expression of the cell type specification gene cut (ct) in the posterior spiracle under the direct control of the Hox protein Abdominal-B (Abd-B). Using the ct340 enhancer activity as readout, an efficient cloning system to generate VP16 activation domain fusion protein was developed to unambiguously test protein-DNA interaction in Drosophila cell culture. By functionally dissecting the Abd-B protein, new features of Abd-B dependent target gene regulation were detected. Due to its easy adaptability, this system can be generally used to map functional domains within sequence-specific transcriptional factors in Drosophila cell culture, and thus provide preliminary knowledge of the protein functional domain structure for further in vivo analysis.

  20. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  1. Protein composition of interband regions in polytene and cell line chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite many efforts, little is known about distribution and interactions of chromatin proteins which contribute to the specificity of chromomeric organization of interphase chromosomes. To address this issue, we used publicly available datasets from several recent Drosophila genome-wide mapping and annotation projects, in particular, those from modENCODE project, and compared molecular organization of 13 interband regions which were accurately mapped previously. Results Here we demonstrate that in interphase chromosomes of Drosophila cell lines, the interband regions are enriched for a specific set of proteins generally characteristic of the "open" chromatin (RNA polymerase II, CHRIZ (CHRO), BEAF-32, BRE1, dMI-2, GAF, NURF301, WDS and TRX). These regions also display reduced nucleosome density, histone H1 depletion and pronounced enrichment for ORC2, a pre-replication complex component. Within the 13 interband regions analyzed, most were around 3-4 kb long, particularly those where many of said protein features were present. We estimate there are about 3500 regions with similar properties in chromosomes of D. melanogaster cell lines, which fits quite well the number of cytologically observed interbands in salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Conclusions Our observations suggest strikingly similar organization of interband chromatin in polytene chromosomes and in chromosomes from cell lines thereby reflecting the existence of a universal principle of interphase chromosome organization. PMID:22093916

  2. Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Maitreyi; Martino Cortez, Yesenia; Wong-Deyrup, SiuWah; Tavares, Leticia; Schowalter, Sean; Flora, Pooja; Hill, Corinne; Nasrallah, Mohamad Ali; Chittur, Sridar; Rangan, Prashanth

    2016-03-01

    Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that dSETDB1 is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, Drosophila Wingless type mouse mammary virus integration site number 4 (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is known to repress transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genome integrity. Unexpectedly, we found that independent upregulation of TEs also downregulated dWnt4, leading to GSC differentiation defects. This suggests that dWnt4 expression is sensitive to the presence of TEs. Together our results reveal a chromatin-transposon-Wnt signaling axis that regulates stem cell fate.

  3. Drosophila TIEG Is a Modulator of Different Signalling Pathways Involved in Wing Patterning and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Acquisition of a final shape and size during organ development requires a regulated program of growth and patterning controlled by a complex genetic network of signalling molecules that must be coordinated to provide positional information to each cell within the corresponding organ or tissue. The mechanism by which all these signals are coordinated to yield a final response is not well understood. Here, I have characterized the Drosophila ortholog of the human TGF-β Inducible Early Gene 1 (dTIEG). TIEG are zinc-finger proteins that belong to the Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family and were initially identified in human osteoblasts and pancreatic tumor cells for the ability to enhance TGF-β response. Using the developing wing of Drosophila as “in vivo” model, the dTIEG function has been studied in the control of cell proliferation and patterning. These results show that dTIEG can modulate Dpp signalling. Furthermore, dTIEG also regulates the activity of JAK/STAT pathway suggesting a conserved role of TIEG proteins as positive regulators of TGF-β signalling and as mediators of the crosstalk between signalling pathways acting in a same cellular context. PMID:21494610

  4. Multiple mechanisms contribute to double-strand break repair at rereplication forks in Drosophila follicle cells

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jessica L.; Beagan, Kelly; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.; McVey, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Rereplication generates double-strand breaks (DSBs) at sites of fork collisions and causes genomic damage, including repeat instability and chromosomal aberrations. However, the primary mechanism used to repair rereplication DSBs varies across different experimental systems. In Drosophila follicle cells, developmentally regulated rereplication is used to amplify six genomic regions, two of which contain genes encoding eggshell proteins. We have exploited this system to test the roles of several DSB repair pathways during rereplication, using fork progression as a readout for DSB repair efficiency. Here we show that a null mutation in the microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ) component, polymerase θ/mutagen-sensitive 308 (mus308), exhibits a sporadic thin eggshell phenotype and reduced chorion gene expression. Unlike other thin eggshell mutants, mus308 displays normal origin firing but reduced fork progression at two regions of rereplication. We also find that MMEJ compensates for loss of nonhomologous end joining to repair rereplication DSBs in a site-specific manner. Conversely, we show that fork progression is enhanced in the absence of both Drosophila Rad51 homologs, spindle-A and spindle-B, revealing homologous recombination is active and actually impairs fork movement during follicle cell rereplication. These results demonstrate that several DSB repair pathways are used during rereplication in the follicle cells and their contribution to productive fork progression is influenced by genomic position and repair pathway competition. Furthermore, our findings illustrate that specific rereplication DSB repair pathways can have major effects on cellular physiology, dependent upon genomic context. PMID:27849606

  5. Quercetin ameliorates Aβ toxicity in Drosophila AD model by modulating cell cycle-related protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yan; Li, Ke; Fu, Tingting; Wan, Chao; Zhang, Dongdong; Song, Hang; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Na; Gan, Zhenji; Yuan, Liudi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by β amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neurofibril tangles. It has been reported that a bioflavonoid, quercetin, could ameliorate AD phenotypes in C. elegans and mice. However, the mechanism underlying the ameliorative effect of quercetin is not fully understood yet. Drosophila models could recapitulate AD-like phenotypes, such as shortened lifespan, impaired locomotive ability as well as defects in learning and memory. So in this study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on AD in Drosophila model and explored the underlying mechanisms. We found quercetin could effectively intervene in AD pathogenesis in vivo. Mechanism study showed quercetin could restore the expression of genes perturbed by Aβ accumulation, such as those involved in cell cycle and DNA replication. Cyclin B, an important cell cycle protein, was chosen to test whether it participated in the AD ameliorative effects of quercetin. We found that cyclin B RNAi in the brain could alleviate AD phenotypes. Taken together, the current study suggested that the neuroprotective effects of quercetin were mediated at least partially by targeting cell cycle-related proteins. PMID:27626494

  6. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Kenneth A.; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben R.; Neuert, Helen; Dornan, Anthony J.; Klämbt, Christian; Davies, Shireen-Anne; Dow, Julian A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell–cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis, localizing to the brush border whenever the tissue is transport competent. Genetic manipulations of Fas2 expression levels impact on both microvilli length and organization, which in turn dramatically affect stimulated rates of fluid secretion by the tissue. Consequently, we demonstrate a radically different role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border. PMID:27072072

  7. Quercetin ameliorates Aβ toxicity in Drosophila AD model by modulating cell cycle-related protein expression.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yan; Li, Ke; Fu, Tingting; Wan, Chao; Zhang, Dongdong; Song, Hang; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Na; Gan, Zhenji; Yuan, Liudi

    2016-10-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by β amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neurofibril tangles. It has been reported that a bioflavonoid, quercetin, could ameliorate AD phenotypes in C. elegans and mice. However, the mechanism underlying the ameliorative effect of quercetin is not fully understood yet. Drosophila models could recapitulate AD-like phenotypes, such as shortened lifespan, impaired locomotive ability as well as defects in learning and memory. So in this study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on AD in Drosophila model and explored the underlying mechanisms. We found quercetin could effectively intervene in AD pathogenesis in vivo. Mechanism study showed quercetin could restore the expression of genes perturbed by Aβ accumulation, such as those involved in cell cycle and DNA replication. Cyclin B, an important cell cycle protein, was chosen to test whether it participated in the AD ameliorative effects of quercetin. We found that cyclin B RNAi in the brain could alleviate AD phenotypes. Taken together, the current study suggested that the neuroprotective effects of quercetin were mediated at least partially by targeting cell cycle-related proteins.

  8. Tension, cell shape and triple-junction angle anisotropy in the Drosophila germband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Monica; Hutson, M. Shane; Meyer, Christian; McDonald, Xena

    In the field of tissue mechanics, the embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster offers many opportunities for study. One of Drosophila's most crucial morphogenetic stages is the retraction of an epithelial tissue called the germband. During retraction, the segments of the retracting germband, as well as the individual germband cells, elongate in response to forces from a connected tissue, the amnioserosa. Modeling of this elongation, based on tissue responses to laser wounding, has plotted the internal germband tension against the external amnioserosa stress, creating a phase space to determine points and regions corresponding to stable elongation. Although the resulting fits indicate a necessary opposition of internal and external forces, they are inconclusive regarding the exact balance. We will present results testing the model predictions by measuring cell shapes and the correlations between cell-edge directions and triple-junction angles. These measures resolve the ambiguity in pinpointing the internal-external force balance for each germband segment. Research was supported by NIH Grant Numbers 1R01GM099107 and 1R21AR068933.

  9. Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Stephen L; Wiedemann, Ursula; Stuurman, Nico; Vale, Ronald D

    2003-09-15

    Cell migration occurs through the protrusion of the actin-enriched lamella. Here, we investigated the effects of RNAi depletion of approximately 90 proteins implicated in actin function on lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells. Similar to in vitro reconstitution studies of actin-based Listeria movement, we find that lamellae formation requires a relatively small set of proteins that participate in actin nucleation (Arp2/3 and SCAR), barbed end capping (capping protein), filament depolymerization (cofilin and Aip1), and actin monomer binding (profilin and cyclase-associated protein). Lamellae are initiated by parallel and partially redundant signaling pathways involving Rac GTPases and the adaptor protein Nck, which stimulate SCAR, an Arp2/3 activator. We also show that RNAi of three proteins (kette, Abi, and Sra-1) known to copurify with and inhibit SCAR in vitro leads to SCAR degradation, revealing a novel function of this protein complex in SCAR stability. Our results have identified an essential set of proteins involved in actin dynamics during lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells.

  10. Bioinformatic analyses of sense and antisense expression from terminal inverted repeat transposons in Drosophila somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Andrew W; Steiniger, Mindy

    2016-01-02

    Understanding regulation of transposon movement in somatic cells is important as mobile elements can cause detrimental genomic rearrangements. Generally, transposons move via one of 2 mechanisms; retrotransposons utilize an RNA intermediate, therefore copying themselves and amplifying throughout the genome, while terminal inverted repeat transposons (TIR Tns) excise DNA sequences from the genome and integrate into a new location. Our recently published work indicates that retrotransposons in Drosophila tissue culture cells are actively transcribed in the antisense direction. Our data support a model in which convergent transcription of retrotransposons from intra element transcription start sites results in complementary RNAs that hybridize to form substrates for Dicer-2, the endogenous small interfering (esi)RNA generating enzyme. Here, we extend our previous analysis to TIR Tns. In contrast to retrotransposons, our data show that antisense TIR Tn RNAs result from transcription of intronic TIR Tns oriented antisense to their host genes. Also, disproportionately less esiRNAs are generated from TIR transcripts than from retrotransposons and transcription of very few individual TIR Tns could be confirmed. Collectively, these data support a model in which TIR Tns are regulated at the level of Transposase production while retrotransposons are regulated with esiRNA post-transcriptional mechanisms in Drosophila somatic cells.

  11. Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Maitreyi; Martino Cortez, Yesenia; Wong-Deyrup, SiuWah; Tavares, Leticia; Schowalter, Sean; Flora, Pooja; Hill, Corinne; Nasrallah, Mohamad Ali; Chittur, Sridar; Rangan, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that dSETDB1 is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, Drosophila Wingless type mouse mammary virus integration site number 4 (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is known to repress transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genome integrity. Unexpectedly, we found that independent upregulation of TEs also downregulated dWnt4, leading to GSC differentiation defects. This suggests that dWnt4 expression is sensitive to the presence of TEs. Together our results reveal a chromatin-transposon-Wnt signaling axis that regulates stem cell fate. PMID:27019121

  12. Piwi maintains germline stem cells and oogenesis in Drosophila through negative regulation of Polycomb group proteins.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jamy C; Valouev, Anton; Liu, Na; Lin, Haifan

    2016-03-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster Piwi protein regulates both niche and intrinsic mechanisms to maintain germline stem cells, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that Piwi interacts with Polycomb group complexes PRC1 and PRC2 in niche and germline cells to regulate ovarian germline stem cells and oogenesis. Piwi physically interacts with the PRC2 subunits Su(z)12 and Esc in the ovary and in vitro. Chromatin coimmunoprecipitation of Piwi, the PRC2 enzymatic subunit E(z), histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and RNA polymerase II in wild-type and piwi mutant ovaries demonstrates that Piwi binds a conserved DNA motif at ∼ 72 genomic sites and inhibits PRC2 binding to many non-Piwi-binding genomic targets and H3K27 trimethylation. Moreover, Piwi influences RNA polymerase II activities in Drosophila ovaries, likely via inhibiting PRC2. We hypothesize that Piwi negatively regulates PRC2 binding by sequestering PRC2 in the nucleoplasm, thus reducing PRC2 binding to many targets and influencing transcription during oogenesis.

  13. Endocytic and Recycling Endosomes Modulate Cell Shape Changes and Tissue Behaviour during Morphogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Ana Margarida; Gorfinkiel, Nicole; Schamberg, Sabine; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    During development tissue deformations are essential for the generation of organs and to provide the final form of an organism. These deformations rely on the coordination of individual cell behaviours which have their origin in the modulation of subcellular activities. Here we explore the role endocytosis and recycling on tissue deformations that occur during dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo. During this process the AS contracts and the epidermis elongates in a coordinated fashion, leading to the closure of a discontinuity in the dorsal epidermis of the Drosophila embryo. We used dominant negative forms of Rab5 and Rab11 to monitor the impact on tissue morphogenesis of altering endocytosis and recycling at the level of single cells. We found different requirements for endocytosis (Rab5) and recycling (Rab11) in dorsal closure, furthermore we found that the two processes are differentially used in the two tissues. Endocytosis is required in the AS to remove membrane during apical constriction, but is not essential in the epidermis. Recycling is required in the AS at early stages and in the epidermis for cell elongation, suggesting a role in membrane addition during these processes. We propose that the modulation of the balance between endocytosis and recycling can regulate cellular morphology and tissue deformations during morphogenesis. PMID:21533196

  14. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant-insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  15. Wingless signaling and the control of cell shape in Drosophila wing imaginal discs.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Thomas J; Dahmann, Christian

    2009-10-01

    The control of cell morphology is important for shaping animals during development. Here we address the role of the Wnt/Wingless signal transduction pathway and two of its target genes, vestigial and shotgun (encoding E-cadherin), in controlling the columnar shape of Drosophila wing disc cells. We show that clones of cells mutant for arrow (encoding an essential component of the Wingless signal transduction pathway), vestigial or shotgun undergo profound cell shape changes and are extruded towards the basal side of the epithelium. Compartment-wide expression of a dominant-negative form of the Wingless transducer T-cell factor (TCF/Pangolin), or double-stranded RNA targeting vestigial or shotgun, leads to abnormally short cells throughout this region, indicating that these genes act cell autonomously to maintain normal columnar cell shape. Conversely, overexpression of Wingless, a constitutively-active form of the Wingless transducer beta-catenin/Armadillo, or Vestigial, results in precocious cell elongation. Co-expression of Vestigial partially suppresses the abnormal cell shape induced by dominant-negative TCF. We conclude that Wingless signal transduction plays a cell-autonomous role in promoting and maintaining the columnar shape of wing disc cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that Wingless controls cell shape, in part, through maintaining vestigial expression.

  16. Gprk2 adjusts Fog signaling to organize cell movements in Drosophila gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Naoyuki; Yu, Fengwei; Hirose, Susumu

    2013-10-01

    Gastrulation of Drosophila melanogaster proceeds through sequential cell movements: ventral mesodermal (VM) cells are induced by secreted Fog protein to constrict their apical surfaces to form the ventral furrow, and subsequently lateral mesodermal (LM) cells involute toward the furrow. How these cell movements are organized remains elusive. Here, we observed that LM cells extended apical protrusions and then underwent accelerated involution movement, confirming that VM and LM cells display distinct cell morphologies and movements. In a mutant for the GPCR kinase Gprk2, apical constriction was expanded to all mesodermal cells and the involution movement was abolished. In addition, the mesodermal cells halted apical constriction prematurely in accordance with the aberrant accumulation of Myosin II. Epistasis analyses revealed that the Gprk2 mutant phenotypes were dependent on the fog gene. Overexpression of Gprk2 suppressed the effects of excess Cta, a downstream component of Fog signaling. Based on these findings, we propose that Gprk2 attenuates and tunes Fog-Cta signaling to prevent apical constriction in LM cells and to support appropriate apical constriction in VM cells. Thus, the two distinct cell movements in mesoderm invagination are not predetermined, but rather are organized by the adjustment of cell signaling.

  17. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery. PMID:18264850

  18. Drosophila mushroom body Kenyon cells generate spontaneous calcium transients mediated by PLTX-sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaojuan Amy; Campusano, Jorge M; Su, Hailing; O'Dowd, Diane K

    2005-07-01

    Spontaneous calcium oscillations in mushroom bodies of late stage pupal and adult Drosophila brains have been implicated in memory consolidation during olfactory associative learning. This study explores the cellular mechanisms regulating calcium dynamics in Kenyon cells, principal neurons in mushroom bodies. Fura-2 imaging shows that Kenyon cells cultured from late stage Drosophila pupae generate spontaneous calcium transients in a cell autonomous fashion, at a frequency similar to calcium oscillations in vivo (10-20/h). The expression of calcium transients is up regulated during pupal development. Although the ability to generate transients is a property intrinsic to Kenyon cells, transients can be modulated by bath application of nicotine and GABA. Calcium transients are blocked, and baseline calcium levels reduced, by removal of external calcium, addition of cobalt, or addition of Plectreurys toxin (PLTX), an insect-specific calcium channel antagonist. Transients do not require calcium release from intracellular stores. Whole cell recordings reveal that the majority of voltage-gated calcium channels in Kenyon cells are PLTX-sensitive. Together these data show that influx of calcium through PLTX-sensitive voltage-gated calcium channels mediates spontaneous calcium transients and regulates basal calcium levels in cultured Kenyon cells. The data also suggest that these calcium transients represent cellular events underlying calcium oscillations in the intact mushroom bodies. However, spontaneous calcium transients are not unique to Kenyon cells as they are present in approximately 60% of all cultured central brain neurons. This suggests the calcium transients play a more general role in maturation or function of adult brain neurons.

  19. Extreme divergence of Wolbachia tropism for the stem-cell-niche in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Michelle E; Frydman, Horacio M

    2014-12-01

    Microbial tropism, the infection of specific cells and tissues by a microorganism, is a fundamental aspect of host-microbe interactions. The intracellular bacteria Wolbachia have a peculiar tropism for the stem cell niches in the Drosophila ovary, the microenvironments that support the cells producing the eggs. The molecular underpinnings of Wolbachia stem cell niche tropism are unknown. We have previously shown that the patterns of tropism in the ovary show a high degree of conservation across the Wolbachia lineage, with closely related Wolbachia strains usually displaying the same pattern of stem cell niche tropism. It has also been shown that tropism to these structures in the ovary facilitates both vertical and horizontal transmission, providing a strong selective pressure towards evolutionary conservation of tropism. Here we show great disparity in the evolutionary conservation and underlying mechanisms of stem cell niche tropism between male and female gonads. In contrast to females, niche tropism in the male testis is not pervasive, present in only 45% of niches analyzed. The patterns of niche tropism in the testis are not evolutionarily maintained across the Wolbachia lineage, unlike what was shown in the females. Furthermore, hub tropism does not correlate with cytoplasmic incompatibility, a Wolbachia-driven phenotype imprinted during spermatogenesis. Towards identifying the molecular mechanism of hub tropism, we performed hybrid analyses of Wolbachia strains in non-native hosts. These results indicate that both Wolbachia and host derived factors play a role in the targeting of the stem cell niche in the testis. Surprisingly, even closely related Wolbachia strains in Drosophila melanogaster, derived from a single ancestor only 8,000 years ago, have significantly different tropisms to the hub, highlighting that stem cell niche tropism is rapidly diverging in males. These findings provide a powerful system to investigate the mechanisms and evolution of

  20. In vitro investigation of a tissue-engineered cell-tendon complex mimicking the transitional architecture at the ligament-bone interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Shiwu; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Xia

    2015-03-01

    Restoration of the transitional ligament-bone interface is critical for graft-bone integration. We postulated that an allogenic scaffold mimicking the fibrogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic transition gradients could physiologically promote ligament-bone incorporation. The aim of this study was to construct and characterize a composite tendon scaffold with a continuous and heterogeneous transition region mimicking a native ligament insertion site. Genetically modified heterogeneous cell populations were seeded within specific regions of decellularized rabbit Achilles tendons to fabricate a stratified scaffold containing three biofunctional regions supporting fibrogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. The observed morphology, architecture, cytocompatibility, and biomechanics of the scaffolds demonstrated their improved bio-physico-chemical properties. The formation of the transitional regions was augmented via enhanced delivery of two transcription factors, sex determining region Y-box 9 and runt-related transcription factor 2, which also triggered early up-regulated expression of cartilage- and bone-relevant markers, according to quantitative PCR and immunoblot analyses. Gradient tissue-specific matrix formation was also confirmed within the predesignated regions via histological staining and immunofluorescence assays. These results suggest that a transitional interface could be replicated on an engineered tendon through stratified tissue integration. The scaffold offers the advantages of a multitissue transition involving controlled cellular interactions and matrix heterogeneity, which can be applied for the regeneration of the ligament-bone interface.

  1. Drosophila spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Brill, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster spermatids undergo dramatic morphological changes as they differentiate from small round cells approximately 12 μm in diameter into highly polarized, 1.8 mm long, motile sperm capable of participating in fertilization. During spermiogenesis, syncytial cysts of 64 haploid spermatids undergo synchronous differentiation. Numerous changes occur at a subcellular level, including remodeling of existing organelles (mitochondria, nuclei), formation of new organelles (flagellar axonemes, acrosomes), polarization of elongating cysts and plasma membrane addition. At the end of spermatid morphogenesis, organelles, mitochondrial DNA and cytoplasmic components not needed in mature sperm are stripped away in a caspase-dependent process called individualization that results in formation of individual sperm. Here, we review the stages of Drosophila spermiogenesis and examine our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in shaping male germ cell-specific organelles and forming mature, fertile sperm. PMID:23087837

  2. spict, a cyst cell-specific gene, regulates starvation-induced spermatogonial cell death in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ason C-Y; Yang, Heiko; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2017-01-10

    Tissues are maintained in a homeostatic state by balancing the constant loss of old cells with the continued production of new cells. Tissue homeostasis can shift between high and low turnover states to cope with environmental changes such as nutrient availability. Recently, we discovered that the elimination of transit-amplifying cells plays a critical role in maintaining the stem cell population during protein starvation in the Drosophila testis. Here, we identify spict, a gene expressed specifically in differentiating cyst cells, as a regulator of spermatogonial death. Spict is upregulated in cyst cells that phagocytose dying spermatogonia. We propose that phagocytosis and subsequent clearance of dead spermatogonia, which is partly promoted by Spict, contribute to stem cell maintenance during prolonged protein starvation.

  3. spict, a cyst cell-specific gene, regulates starvation-induced spermatogonial cell death in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ason C.-Y.; Yang, Heiko; Yamashita, Yukiko M.

    2017-01-01

    Tissues are maintained in a homeostatic state by balancing the constant loss of old cells with the continued production of new cells. Tissue homeostasis can shift between high and low turnover states to cope with environmental changes such as nutrient availability. Recently, we discovered that the elimination of transit-amplifying cells plays a critical role in maintaining the stem cell population during protein starvation in the Drosophila testis. Here, we identify spict, a gene expressed specifically in differentiating cyst cells, as a regulator of spermatogonial death. Spict is upregulated in cyst cells that phagocytose dying spermatogonia. We propose that phagocytosis and subsequent clearance of dead spermatogonia, which is partly promoted by Spict, contribute to stem cell maintenance during prolonged protein starvation. PMID:28071722

  4. The receptor tyrosine phosphatase Lar regulates adhesion between Drosophila male germline stem cells and the niche.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shrividhya; Mahowald, Anthony P; Fuller, Margaret T

    2012-04-01

    The stem cell niche provides a supportive microenvironment to maintain adult stem cells in their undifferentiated state. Adhesion between adult stem cells and niche cells or the local basement membrane ensures retention of stem cells in the niche environment. Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) attach to somatic hub cells, a component of their niche, through E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions, and orient their centrosomes toward these localized junctional complexes to carry out asymmetric divisions. Here we show that the transmembrane receptor tyrosine phosphatase Leukocyte-antigen-related-like (Lar), which is best known for its function in axonal migration and synapse morphogenesis in the nervous system, helps maintain GSCs at the hub by promoting E-cadherin-based adhesion between hub cells and GSCs. Lar is expressed in GSCs and early spermatogonial cells and localizes to the hub-GSC interface. Loss of Lar function resulted in a reduced number of GSCs at the hub. Lar function was required cell-autonomously in germ cells for proper localization of Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 and E-cadherin at the hub-GSC interface and for the proper orientation of centrosomes in GSCs. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that in Lar mutants the adherens junctions between hub cells and GSCs lack the characteristic dense staining seen in wild-type controls. Thus, the Lar receptor tyrosine phosphatase appears to polarize and retain GSCs through maintenance of localized E-cadherin-based adherens junctions.

  5. The role of iron in the proliferation of Drosophila l(2)mbn cells

    SciTech Connect

    Metzendorf, Christoph; Lind, Maria I.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Establishment of a model system to study the role of iron during proliferation. {yields} Iron deprivation of insect tumorous cell line inhibits cell proliferation. {yields} Iron deprivation causes a reversible cell cycle arrest in G1/S-phase. {yields} Iron deprivation promotes decreased gene expression of cycE. -- Abstract: Iron is essential for life and is needed for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Iron deprivation results first in cell cycle arrest and then in apoptosis. The Drosophila tumorous larval hemocyte cell line l(2)mbn was used to study the sensitivity and cellular response to iron deprivation through the chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). At a concentration of 10 {mu}M DFO or more the proliferation was inhibited reversibly, while the amount of dead cells did not increase. FACS analysis showed that the cell cycle was arrested in G1/S-phase and the transcript level of cycE was decreased to less than 50% of control cells. These results show that iron chelation in this insect tumorous cell line causes a specific and coordinated cell cycle arrest.

  6. The Wnt pathway limits BMP signaling outside of the germline stem cell niche in Drosophila ovaries.

    PubMed

    Mottier-Pavie, Violaine I; Palacios, Victor; Eliazer, Susan; Scoggin, Shane; Buszczak, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms that modulate and limit the signaling output of adult stem cell niches remain poorly understood. To gain further insights into how these microenvironments are regulated in vivo, we performed a candidate gene screen designed to identify factors that restrict BMP signal production to the cap cells that comprise the germline stem cell (GSC) niche of Drosophila ovaries. Through these efforts, we found that disruption of Wnt4 and components of the canonical Wnt pathway results in a complex germ cell phenotype marked by an expansion of GSC-like cells, pre-cystoblasts and cystoblasts in young females. This phenotype correlates with an increase of decapentaplegic (dpp) mRNA levels within escort cells and varying levels of BMP responsiveness in the germline. Further genetic experiments show that Wnt4, which exhibits graded expression in somatic cells of germaria, activates the Wnt pathway in posteriorly positioned escort cells. The activation of the Wnt pathway appears to be limited by the BMP pathway itself, as loss of Mad in escort cells results in the expansion of Wnt pathway activation. Wnt pathway activity changes within germaria during the course of aging, coincident with changes in dpp production. These data suggest that mutual antagonism between the BMP and Wnt pathways in somatic cells helps to regulate germ cell differentiation.

  7. Asymmetric distribution of histones during Drosophila male germline stem cell asymmetric divisions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Vuong; Feng, Lijuan; Chen, Xin

    2013-05-01

    It has long been known that epigenetic changes are inheritable. However, except for DNA methylation, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance. Many types of stem cells undergo asymmetric cell divisions to generate self-renewed stem cells and daughter cells committed for differentiation. Still, whether and how stem cells retain their epigenetic memory remain questions to be elucidated. During the asymmetric division of Drosophila male germline stem cell (GSC), our recent studies revealed that the preexisting histone 3 (H3) are selectively segregated to the GSC, whereas newly synthesized H3 deposited during DNA replication are enriched in the differentiating daughter cell. We propose a two-step model to explain this asymmetric histone distribution. First, prior to mitosis, preexisting histones and newly synthesized histones are differentially distributed at two sets of sister chromatids. Next, during mitosis, the set of sister chromatids that mainly consist of preexisting histones are segregated to GSCs, while the other set of sister chromatids enriched with newly synthesized histones are partitioned to the daughter cell committed for differentiation. In this review, we apply current knowledge about epigenetic inheritance and asymmetric cell division to inform our discussion of potential molecular mechanisms and the cellular basis underlying this asymmetric histone distribution pattern. We will also discuss whether this phenomenon contributes to the maintenance of stem cell identity and resetting chromatin structure in the other daughter cell for differentiation.

  8. Lateral positioning at the dorsal midline: Slit and Roundabout receptors guide Drosophila heart cell migration.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Martínez, Edgardo; Soplop, Nadine H; Kramer, Sunita G

    2006-08-15

    Heart morphogenesis requires the coordinated regulation of cell movements and cell-cell interactions between distinct populations of cardiac precursor cells. Little is known about the mechanisms that organize cardiac cells into this complex structure. In this study, we analyzed the role of Slit, an extracellular matrix protein and its transmembrane receptors Roundabout (Robo) and Roundabout2 (Robo2) during morphogenesis of the Drosophila heart tube, a process analogous to early heart formation in vertebrates. During heart assembly, two types of progenitor cells align into rows and coordinately migrate to the dorsal midline of the embryo, where they merge to assemble a linear heart tube. Here we show that cardiac-specific expression of Slit is required to maintain adhesion between cells within each row during dorsal migration. Moreover, differential Robo expression determines the relative distance each row is positioned from the dorsal midline. The innermost CBs express only Robo, whereas the flanking pericardial cells express both receptors. Removal of robo2 causes pericardial cells to shift toward the midline, whereas ectopic robo2 in CBs drives them laterally, resulting in an unfused heart tube. We propose a model in which Slit has a dual role during assembly of the linear heart tube, functioning to regulate both cell positioning and adhesive interactions between migrating cardiac precursor cells.

  9. Escargot maintains stemness and suppresses differentiation in Drosophila intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Korzelius, Jerome; Naumann, Svenja K; Loza-Coll, Mariano A; Chan, Jessica SK; Dutta, Devanjali; Oberheim, Jessica; Gläßer, Christine; Southall, Tony D; Brand, Andrea H; Jones, D Leanne; Edgar, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Snail family transcription factors are expressed in various stem cell types, but their function in maintaining stem cell identity is unclear. In the adult Drosophila midgut, the Snail homolog Esg is expressed in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their transient undifferentiated daughters, termed enteroblasts (EB). We demonstrate here that loss of esg in these progenitor cells causes their rapid differentiation into enterocytes (EC) or entero-endocrine cells (EE). Conversely, forced expression of Esg in intestinal progenitor cells blocks differentiation, locking ISCs in a stem cell state. Cell type-specific transcriptome analysis combined with Dam-ID binding studies identified Esg as a major repressor of differentiation genes in stem and progenitor cells. One critical target of Esg was found to be the POU-domain transcription factor, Pdm1, which is normally expressed specifically in differentiated ECs. Ectopic expression of Pdm1 in progenitor cells was sufficient to drive their differentiation into ECs. Hence, Esg is a critical stem cell determinant that maintains stemness by repressing differentiation-promoting factors, such as Pdm1. PMID:25298397

  10. Lin-28 promotes symmetric stem cell division and drives adaptive growth in the adult Drosophila intestine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Huan; Luhur, Arthur; Sokol, Nicholas

    2015-10-15

    Stem cells switch between asymmetric and symmetric division to expand in number as tissues grow during development and in response to environmental changes. The stem cell intrinsic proteins controlling this switch are largely unknown, but one candidate is the Lin-28 pluripotency factor. A conserved RNA-binding protein that is downregulated in most animals as they develop from embryos to adults, Lin-28 persists in populations of adult stem cells. Its function in these cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we report that Lin-28 is highly enriched in adult intestinal stem cells in the Drosophila intestine. lin-28 null mutants are homozygous viable but display defects in this population of cells, which fail to undergo a characteristic food-triggered expansion in number and have reduced rates of symmetric division as well as reduced insulin signaling. Immunoprecipitation of Lin-28-bound mRNAs identified Insulin-like Receptor (InR), forced expression of which completely rescues lin-28-associated defects in intestinal stem cell number and division pattern. Furthermore, this stem cell activity of lin-28 is independent of one well-known lin-28 target, the microRNA let-7, which has limited expression in the intestinal epithelium. These results identify Lin-28 as a stem cell intrinsic factor that boosts insulin signaling in intestinal progenitor cells and promotes their symmetric division in response to nutrients, defining a mechanism through which Lin-28 controls the adult stem cell division patterns that underlie tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  11. Specification of leading and trailing cell features during collective migration in the Drosophila trachea.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Gaëlle; Casanova, Jordi

    2014-01-15

    The role of tip and rear cells in collective migration is still a matter of debate and their differences at the cytoskeletal level are poorly understood. Here, we analysed these issues in the Drosophila trachea, an organ that develops from the collective migration of clusters of cells that respond to Branchless (Bnl), a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologue expressed in surrounding tissues. We track individual cells in the migratory cluster and characterise their features and unveil two prototypical types of cytoskeletal organisation that account for tip and rear cells respectively. Indeed, once the former are specified, they remain as such throughout migration. Furthermore, we show that FGF signalling in a single tip cell can trigger the migration of the cells in the branch. Finally, we found specific Rac activation at the tip cells and analysed how FGF-independent cell features, such as adhesion and motility, act on coupling the behaviour of trailing and tip cells. Thus, the combined effect of FGF promoting leading cell behaviour and the modulation of cell properties in a cluster can account for the wide range of migratory events driven by FGF.

  12. Tre1, a G Protein-Coupled Receptor, Directs Transepithelial Migration of Drosophila Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bainton, Roland J; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    In most organisms, germ cells are formed distant from the somatic part of the gonad and thus have to migrate along and through a variety of tissues to reach the gonad. Transepithelial migration through the posterior midgut (PMG) is the first active step during Drosophila germ cell migration. Here we report the identification of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Tre1, that is essential for this migration step. Maternal tre1 RNA is localized to germ cells, and tre1 is required cell autonomously in germ cells. In tre1 mutant embryos, most germ cells do not exit the PMG. The few germ cells that do leave the midgut early migrate normally to the gonad, suggesting that this gene is specifically required for transepithelial migration and that mutant germ cells are still able to recognize other guidance cues. Additionally, inhibiting small Rho GTPases in germ cells affects transepithelial migration, suggesting that Tre1 signals through Rho1. We propose that Tre1 acts in a manner similar to chemokine receptors required during transepithelial migration of leukocytes, implying an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of transepithelial migration. Recently, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was shown to direct migration in vertebrate germ cells. Thus, germ cells may more generally use GPCR signaling to navigate the embryo toward their target. PMID:14691551

  13. Repression of the Drosophila proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene promoter by zerknuellt protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Hirose, Fumiko; Nishida, Yasuyoshi; Matsukage, Akio )

    1991-10-01

    A 631-bp fragment containing the 5{prime}-flanking region of the Drosophila melanogaster proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene of a CAT vector. A transient expression assay of CAT activity in Drosophila Kc cells transfected with this plasmid and a set of 5{prime}-deletion derivatives revealed that the promoter function resided within a 192-bp region. Cotransfection with a zerknuellt (zen)-expressing plasmid specifically repressed CAT expression. However, cotransfection with expression plasmids for a nonfunctional zen mutation, even skipped, or bicoid showed no significant effect on CAT expression. RNase protection analysis revealed that the repression by zen was at the transcription step. The target sequence of zen was mapped within the 34-bp region of the PCNA gene promoter, even though it lacked zen protein-binding sites. Transgenic flies carrying the PCNA gene regulatory region fused with lacZ were established. These results indicate that zen indirectly represses PCNA gene expression, probably by regulating the expression of some transcription factor(s) that binds to the PCNA gene promoter.

  14. Circadian and feeding cues integrate to drive rhythms of physiology in Drosophila insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Barber, Annika F; Erion, Renske; Holmes, Todd C; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-12-01

    Circadian clocks regulate much of behavior and physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so remain poorly understood. While cyclic gene expression is thought to underlie metabolic rhythms, little is known about cycles in cellular physiology. We found that Drosophila insulin-producing cells (IPCs), which are located in the pars intercerebralis and lack an autonomous circadian clock, are functionally connected to the central circadian clock circuit via DN1 neurons. Insulin mediates circadian output by regulating the rhythmic expression of a metabolic gene (sxe2) in the fat body. Patch clamp electrophysiology reveals that IPCs display circadian clock-regulated daily rhythms in firing event frequency and bursting proportion under light:dark conditions. The activity of IPCs and the rhythmic expression of sxe2 are additionally regulated by feeding, as demonstrated by night feeding-induced changes in IPC firing characteristics and sxe2 levels in the fat body. These findings indicate circuit-level regulation of metabolism by clock cells in Drosophila and support a role for the pars intercerebralis in integrating circadian control of behavior and physiology.

  15. Drosophila Sld5 is essential for normal cell cycle progression and maintenance of genomic integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, Catherine A.; Christensen, Tim W.

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Drosophila Sld5 interacts with Psf1, PPsf2, and Mcm10. {yields} Haploinsufficiency of Sld5 leads to M-phase delay and genomic instability. {yields} Sld5 is also required for normal S phase progression. -- Abstract: Essential for the normal functioning of a cell is the maintenance of genomic integrity. Failure in this process is often catastrophic for the organism, leading to cell death or mis-proliferation. Central to genomic integrity is the faithful replication of DNA during S phase. The GINS complex has recently come to light as a critical player in DNA replication through stabilization of MCM2-7 and Cdc45 as a member of the CMG complex which is likely responsible for the processivity of helicase activity during S phase. The GINS complex is made up of 4 members in a 1:1:1:1 ratio: Psf1, Psf2, Psf3, And Sld5. Here we present the first analysis of the function of the Sld5 subunit in a multicellular organism. We show that Drosophila Sld5 interacts with Psf1, Psf2, and Mcm10 and that mutations in Sld5 lead to M and S phase delays with chromosomes exhibiting hallmarks of genomic instability.

  16. Argos and Spitz group genes function to regulate midline glial cell number in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Stemerdink, C; Jacobs, J R

    1997-10-01

    The midline glia of the Drosophila embryonic nerve cord undergo a reduction in cell number after facilitating commissural tract morphogenesis. The numbers of midline glia entering apoptosis at this stage can be increased by a loss or reduction of function in genes of the spitz group or Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) pathway. Argos, a secreted molecule with an atypical EGF motif, is postulated to function as a DER antagonist. In this work, we assess the role of argos in the determination of midline glia cell number. Although all midline glia express DER, argos expression is restricted to the midline glia which do not enter apoptosis. Fewer midline glia enter apoptosis in embryos lacking argos function. Ectopic expression of argos is sufficient to remove all DER-expressing midline glia from the nerve cord, even those that already express argos. DER expression is not terminated in the midline glia after spitz group signaling triggers changes in gene expression. It is therefore likely that an attenuation of DER signaling by Argos is integrated with the augmentation of DER signaling by Spitz throughout the period of reduction of midline glia number. We suggest that signaling by Spitz but not Argos is restricted to adhesive junctions. In this manner, midline glia not forming signaling junctions remain sensitive to juxtacrine Argos signaling, while an autocrine Argos signal is excluded by the adhesive junction.

  17. Drosophila SETDB1 and caspase cooperatively fine-tune cell fate determination of sensory organ precursor.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Natsuki; Obata, Fumiaki; Zhang, Liu; Miura, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Drosophila produce a constant number of mechanosensory bristles called macrochaetae (MC), which develop from sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells within a proneural cluster (PNC). However, what ensures the precise determination of SOP cells remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted RNAi screening in PNC for genes involved in epigenetic regulation. We identified a H3K9 histone methyltransferase, SETDB1/eggless, as a regulator of SOP development. Knockdown of SETDB1 in PNC led to additional SOPs. We further tested the relationship between SETDB1 and non-apoptotic function of caspase on SOP development. Reinforcing caspase activation by heterozygous Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1) mutation rescued ectopic SOP development caused by SETDB1 knockdown. Knockdown of SETDB1, however, had little effect on caspase activity. Simultaneous loss of SETDB1 and caspase activity resulted in further increase in MC, indicating that the two components work cooperatively. Our study suggests the fine-tuning mechanisms for SOP development by epigenetic methyltransferase and non-apoptotic caspase function.

  18. putzig is required for cell proliferation and regulates notch activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Sabrina J; Nagel, Anja C

    2007-10-01

    We have identified the gene putzig (pzg) as a key regulator of cell proliferation and of Notch signaling in Drosophila. pzg encodes a Zn-finger protein that was found earlier within a macromolecular complex, including TATA-binding protein-related factor 2 (TRF2)/DNA replication-related element factor (DREF). This complex is involved in core promoter selection, where DREF functions as a transcriptional activator of replication-related genes. Here, we provide the first in vivo evidence that pzg is required for the expression of cell cycle and replication-related genes, and hence for normal developmental growth. Independent of its role in the TRF2/DREF complex, pzg acts as a positive regulator of Notch signaling that may occur by chromatin activation. Down-regulation of pzg activity inhibits Notch target gene activation, whereas Hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction and growth regulation are unaffected. Our findings uncover different modes of operation of pzg during imaginal development of Drosophila, and they provide a novel mechanism of Notch regulation.

  19. Local BMP receptor activation at adherens junctions in the Drosophila germline stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Michel, Marcus; Raabe, Isabel; Kupinski, Adam P; Pérez-Palencia, Raquel; Bökel, Christian

    2011-08-02

    According to the stem cell niche synapse hypothesis postulated for the mammalian haematopoietic system, spatial specificity of niche signals is maximized by subcellularly restricting signalling to cadherin-based adherens junctions between individual niche and stem cells. However, such a synapse has never been observed directly, in part, because tools to detect active growth factor receptors with subcellular resolution were not available. Here we describe a novel fluorescence-based reporter that directly visualizes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor activation and show that in the Drosophila testis a BMP niche signal is transmitted preferentially at adherens junctions between hub and germline stem cells, resembling the proposed synapse organization. Ligand secretion involves the exocyst complex and the Rap activator Gef26, both of which are also required for Cadherin trafficking towards adherens junctions. We, therefore, propose that local generation of the BMP signal is achieved through shared use of the Cadherin transport machinery.

  20. The Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene is a cell autonomous genetic marker in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Nagaraja; O'Brochta, David A

    2005-07-01

    The cinnabar gene of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) encodes for kynurenine hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in ommochrome biosynthesis. This gene is commonly included as a visible genetic marker in gene vectors used to create transgenic Aedes aegypti (L.) that are homozygous for the khw allele, the mosquito homolog of cinnabar. Unexpectedly, the phenotype of cells expressing kynurenine hydroxylase in transgenic Ae. aegypti is cell autonomous as demonstrated by the recovery of insects heterozygous for the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene with mosaic eye color patterns. In addition, a transgenic gynandromorph was recovered in which one-half of the insect was expressing the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene, including one eye with red pigmentation, whereas the other half of the insect was homozygous khw and included a white eye. The cell autonomous behavior of cinnabar in transgenic Ae. aegypti is unexpected and increases the utility of this genetic marker.

  1. Increased longevity mediated by yeast NDI1 expression in Drosophila intestinal stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Jae H.; Bahadorani, Sepehr; Graniel, Jacqueline; Koehler, Christopher L.; Ulgherait, Matthew; Rera, Michael; Jones, D. Leanne; Walker, David W.

    2013-01-01

    A functional decline in tissue stem cells and mitochondrial dysfunction have each been linked to aging and multiple aging-associated pathologies. However, the interplay between energy homeostasis, stem cells, and organismal aging remains poorly understood. Here, we report that expression of the single-subunit yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase, ndi1, in Drosophila intestinal stem and progenitor cells delays the onset of multiple markers of intestinal aging and extends lifespan. In addition, expression of ndi1 in the intestine increases feeding behavior and results in organismal weight gain. Consistent with increased nutrient uptake, flies expressing ndi1 in the digestive tract display a systemic reduction in the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key cellular energy sensor. Together, these results demonstrate that ndi1 expression in the intestinal epithelium is an effective strategy to delay tissue and organismal aging. PMID:24038661

  2. Drosophila starvin encodes a tissue-specific BAG-domain protein required for larval food uptake.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Michelle; Robert, Stanley; Saint, Robert

    2005-12-01

    We describe a developmental, genetic, and molecular analysis of the sole Drosophila member of the BAG family of genes, which is implicated in stress response and survival in mammalian cells. We show that the gene, termed starvin (stv), is expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner, accumulating primarily in tendon cells following germ-band retraction and later in somatic muscles and the esophagus during embryonic stage 15. We show that stv expression falls within known tendon and muscle cell transcriptional regulatory cascades, being downstream of stripe, but not of another tendon transcriptional regulator, delilah, and downstream of the muscle regulator, mef-2. We generated a series of stv alleles and, surprisingly, given the muscle and tendon-specific embryonic expression of stv, found that the gross morphology and function of somatic muscles is normal in stv mutants. Nonetheless, stv mutant larvae exhibit a striking and fully penetrant mutant phenotype of failure to grow after hatching and a severely impaired ability to take up food. Our study provides the first report of an essential, developmentally regulated BAG-family gene.

  3. Two Independent Functions of Collier/Early B Cell Factor in the Control of Drosophila Blood Cell Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Krzemień, Joanna; Morin-Poulard, Ismaël; Vincent, Alain; Crozatier, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Blood cell production in the Drosophila hematopoietic organ, the lymph gland, is controlled by intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals. Initial analysis of Collier/Early B Cell Factor function in the lymph gland revealed the role of the Posterior Signaling Center (PSC) in mounting a dedicated cellular immune response to wasp parasitism. Further, premature blood cell differentiation when PSC specification or signaling was impaired, led to assigning the PSC a role equivalent to the vertebrate hematopoietic niche. We report here that Collier is expressed in a core population of lymph gland progenitors and cell autonomously maintains this population. The PSC contributes to lymph gland homeostasis by regulating blood cell differentiation, rather than by maintaining core progenitors. In addition to PSC signaling, switching off Collier expression in progenitors is required for efficient immune response to parasitism. Our data show that two independent sites of Collier/Early B Cell Factor expression, hematopoietic progenitors and the PSC, achieve control of hematopoiesis. PMID:26866694

  4. Two Independent Functions of Collier/Early B Cell Factor in the Control of Drosophila Blood Cell Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Oyallon, Justine; Vanzo, Nathalie; Krzemień, Joanna; Morin-Poulard, Ismaël; Vincent, Alain; Crozatier, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Blood cell production in the Drosophila hematopoietic organ, the lymph gland, is controlled by intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals. Initial analysis of Collier/Early B Cell Factor function in the lymph gland revealed the role of the Posterior Signaling Center (PSC) in mounting a dedicated cellular immune response to wasp parasitism. Further, premature blood cell differentiation when PSC specification or signaling was impaired, led to assigning the PSC a role equivalent to the vertebrate hematopoietic niche. We report here that Collier is expressed in a core population of lymph gland progenitors and cell autonomously maintains this population. The PSC contributes to lymph gland homeostasis by regulating blood cell differentiation, rather than by maintaining core progenitors. In addition to PSC signaling, switching off Collier expression in progenitors is required for efficient immune response to parasitism. Our data show that two independent sites of Collier/Early B Cell Factor expression, hematopoietic progenitors and the PSC, achieve control of hematopoiesis.

  5. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Lovati, Arianna B.; Bottagisio, Marta; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution. PMID:26880985

  6. The canonical Wg signaling modulates Bsk-mediated cell death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Chen, C; Wu, C; Yang, Y; Li, W; Xue, L

    2015-01-01

    Cell death is an essential regulatory mechanism for removing unneeded cells in animal development and tissue homeostasis. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway has pivotal roles in the regulation of cell death in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic stress signals. The canonical Wingless (Wg) signaling has been implicated in cell proliferation and cell fate decisions, whereas its role in cell death remains largely elusive. Here, we report that activated Bsk (the Drosophila JNK homolog) induced cell death is mediated by the canonical Wg signaling. First, loss of Wg signaling abrogates Bsk-mediated caspase-independent cell death. Second, activation of Wg signaling promotes cell death in a caspase-independent manner. Third, activation of Bsk signaling results in upregulated transcription of wingless (wg) gene. Finally, Wg pathway participates in the physiological function of Bsk signaling in development. These findings not only reveal a previously undiscovered role of Wg signaling in Bsk-mediated cell death, but also provide a novel mechanism for the interplay between the two important signaling pathways in development. PMID:25855961

  7. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity.

  8. Subcellular localization of Suppressor of Hairless in Drosophila sense organ cells during Notch signalling.

    PubMed

    Gho, M; Lecourtois, M; Géraud, G; Posakony, J W; Schweisguth, F

    1996-06-01

    During imaginal development of Drosophila, Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that mediates intracellular signalling by the Notch (N) receptor, controls successive alternative cell fate decisions leading to the differentiation of multicellular sensory organs. We describe here the distribution of the Su(H) protein in the wing disc epithelium throughout development of adult sense organs. Su(H) was found to be evenly distributed in the nuclei of all imaginal disc cells during sensory organ precursor cells selection. Thus differential expression and/or subcellular localization of Su(H) is not essential for its function. Soon after division of the pIIa secondary precursor cell, Su(H) specifically accumulates in the nucleus of the future socket cell. At the onset of differentiation of the socket cell, Su(H) is also detected in the cytoplasm. In this differentiating cell, N and deltex participate in the cytoplasmic retention of Su(H). Still, Su(H) does not colocalize with N at the apical-lateral membranes. These observations suggest that N regulates in an indirect manner the cytoplasmic localization of Su(H) in the socket cell. Finally, the pIIb, shaft and socket cells are found to adopt invariant positions along the anteroposterior axis of the notum. This raises the possibility that tissue-polarity biases these N-mediated cell fate choices.

  9. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity. PMID:26202785

  10. Functional analysis of the Drosophila embryonic germ cell transcriptome by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Jankovics, Ferenc; Henn, László; Bujna, Ágnes; Vilmos, Péter; Spirohn, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, primordial germ cells are specified at the posterior pole of the very early embryo. This process is regulated by the posterior localized germ plasm that contains a large number of RNAs of maternal origin. Transcription in the primordial germ cells is actively down-regulated until germ cell fate is established. Bulk expression of the zygotic genes commences concomitantly with the degradation of the maternal transcripts. Thus, during embryogenesis, maternally provided and zygotically transcribed mRNAs determine germ cell development collectively. In an effort to identify novel genes involved in the regulation of germ cell behavior, we carried out a large-scale RNAi screen targeting both maternal and zygotic components of the embryonic germ line transcriptome. We identified 48 genes necessary for distinct stages in germ cell development. We found pebble and fascetto to be essential for germ cell migration and germ cell division, respectively. Our data uncover a previously unanticipated role of mei-P26 in maintenance of embryonic germ cell fate. We also performed systematic co-RNAi experiments, through which we found a low rate of functional redundancy among homologous gene pairs. As our data indicate a high degree of evolutionary conservation in genetic regulation of germ cell development, they are likely to provide valuable insights into the biology of the germ line in general.

  11. The human Smoothened inhibitor PF-04449913 induces exit from quiescence and loss of multipotent Drosophila hematopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Giangrande, Angela; Martinelli, Giovanni; Guadagnuolo, Viviana; Simonetti, Giorgia; Perini, Giovanni; Bernardoni, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The efficient treatment of hematological malignancies as Acute Myeloid Leukemia, myelofibrosis and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, requires the elimination of cancer-initiating cells and the prevention of disease relapse through targeting pathways that stimulate generation and maintenance of these cells. In mammals, inhibition of Smoothened, the key mediator of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, reduces Chronic Myeloid Leukemia progression and propagation. These findings make Smo a candidate target to inhibit maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells. In Drosophila melanogaster the same pathway maintains the hematopoietic precursor cells of the lymph gland, the hematopoietic organ that develops in the larva. Using Drosophila as an in vivo model, we investigated the mode of action of PF-04449913, a small-molecule inhibitor of the human Smo protein. Drosophila larvae fed with PF-04449913 showed traits of altered hematopoietic homeostasis. These include the development of melanotic nodules, increase of circulating hemocytes, the size increase of the lymph gland and accelerated differentiation of blood cells likely due to the exit of multi-potent precursors from quiescence. Importantly, the Smo inhibition can lead to the complete loss of hematopoietic precursors. We conclude that PF-04449913 inhibits Drosophila Smo blocking the Hh signaling pathway and causing the loss of hematopoietic precursor cells. Interestingly, this is the effect expected in patients treated with PF-04449913: number decrease of cancer initiating cells in the bone marrow to reduce the risk of leukemia relapse. Altogether our results indicate that Drosophila comprises a model system for the in vivo study of molecules that target evolutionary conserved pathways implicated in human hematological malignancies. PMID:27486815

  12. Somatic-cell mutation induced by short exposures to cigarette smoke in urate-null, oxidative stress-sensitive Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Tomoyo; Koike, Ryota; Yuma, Yoko; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Suzuki, Toshinori; Negishi, Tomoe

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that a urate-null strain of Drosophila is hypersensitive to cigarette smoke (CS), and we suggested that CS induces oxidative stress in Drosophila because uric acid is a potent antioxidant. Although the carcinogenic risk of CS exposure is widely recognized; documentation of in vivo genotoxic activity of environmental CS, especially gaseous-phase CS, remains inconclusive. To date, somatic-cell mutations in Drosophila resulting from exposure to CS have not been detected via the somatic mutation and recombination test (wing spot test) with wild-type flies, a widely used Drosophila assay for the detection of somatic-cell mutation; moreover, genotoxicity has not been documented via a DNA repair test that involves DNA repair-deficient Drosophila. In this study, we used a new Drosophila strain (y v ma-l; mwh) to examine the mutagenicity induced by gaseous-phase CS; these flies are urate-null due to a mutation in ma-l, and they are heterozygous for multiple wing hair (mwh), a mutation that functions as a marker for somatic-cell mutation. In an assay with this newly developed strain, a superoxide anion-producing weed-killer, paraquat, exhibited significant mutagenicity; in contrast, paraquat was hardly mutagenic with a wild-type strain. Drosophila larvae were exposed to CS for 2, 4 or 6h, and then kept at 25°C on instant medium until adulthood. After eclosion, mutant spots, which consisted of mutant hairs on wings, were scored. The number of mutant spots increased significantly in an exposure time-dependent manner in the urate-null females (ma-l (-/-)), but not in the urate-positive females (ma-l (+/-)). In this study, we showed that short-term exposure to CS was mutagenic in this in vivo system. In addition, we obtained suggestive data regarding reactive oxygen species production in larva after CS exposure using the fluorescence probe H2DCFDA. These results suggest that oxidative damage, which might be countered by uric acid, was partly responsible

  13. 14-3-3ε Is Required for Germ Cell Migration in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tsigkari, K. Kirki; Acevedo, Summer F.; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Although 14-3-3 proteins participate in multiple biological processes, isoform-specific specialized functions, as well as functional redundancy are emerging with tissue and developmental stage-specificity. Accordingly, the two 14-3-3ε proteins in Drosophila exhibit functional specificity and redundancy. Homozygotes for loss of function alleles of D14-3-3ε contain significantly fewer germ line cells (pole cells) in their gonads, a phenotype not shared by mutants in the other 14-3-3 gene leo. We show that although D14-3-3ε is enriched within pole cells it is required in mesodermal somatic gonad precursor cells which guide pole cells in their migration through the mesoderm and coalesce with them to form the embryonic gonad. Loss of D14-3-3ε results in defective pole cell migration, reduced pole cell number. We present evidence that D14-3-3ε loss results in reduction or loss of the transcription factor Zfh-1, one of the main regulatory molecules of the pole cell migration, from the somatic gonad precursor cells. PMID:22666326

  14. Nanotubes mediate niche-stem-cell signalling in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayu; Buszczak, Michael; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-07-16

    Stem cell niches provide resident stem cells with signals that specify their identity. Niche signals act over a short range such that only stem cells but not their differentiating progeny receive the self-renewing signals. However, the cellular mechanisms that limit niche signalling to stem cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Drosophila male germline stem cells form previously unrecognized structures, microtubule-based nanotubes, which extend into the hub, a major niche component. Microtubule-based nanotubes are observed specifically within germline stem cell populations, and require intraflagellar transport proteins for their formation. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor Tkv localizes to microtubule-based nanotubes. Perturbation of microtubule-based nanotubes compromises activation of Dpp signalling within germline stem cells, leading to germline stem cell loss. Moreover, Dpp ligand and Tkv receptor interaction is necessary and sufficient for microtubule-based nanotube formation. We propose that microtubule-based nanotubes provide a novel mechanism for selective receptor-ligand interaction, contributing to the short-range nature of niche-stem-cell signalling.

  15. Transforming Growth Factor β/activin signalling induces epithelial cell flattening during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brigaud, Isabelle; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Chlasta, Julien; Le Bail, Sandrine; Couderc, Jean-Louis; Grammont, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the regulation of epithelial morphogenesis is essential for the formation of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms, little is known about how signalling pathways control cell shape changes in space and time. In the Drosophila ovarian epithelium, the transition from a cuboidal to a squamous shape is accompanied by a wave of cell flattening and by the ordered remodelling of E-cadherin-based adherens junctions. We show that activation of the TGFβ pathway is crucial to determine the timing, the degree and the dynamic of cell flattening. Within these cells, TGFβ signalling controls cell-autonomously the formation of Actin filament and the localisation of activated Myosin II, indicating that internal forces are generated and used to remodel AJ and to promote cytoskeleton rearrangement. Our results also reveal that TGFβ signalling controls Notch activity and that its functions are partly executed through Notch. Thus, we demonstrate that the cells that undergo the cuboidal-to-squamous transition produce active cell-shaping mechanisms, rather than passively flattening in response to a global force generated by the growth of the underlying cells. Thus, our work on TGFβ signalling provides new insights into the mechanisms through which signal transduction cascades orchestrate cell shape changes to generate proper organ structure. PMID:25681395

  16. Transforming Growth Factor β/activin signalling induces epithelial cell flattening during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brigaud, Isabelle; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Chlasta, Julien; Le Bail, Sandrine; Couderc, Jean-Louis; Grammont, Muriel

    2015-02-13

    Although the regulation of epithelial morphogenesis is essential for the formation of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms, little is known about how signalling pathways control cell shape changes in space and time. In the Drosophila ovarian epithelium, the transition from a cuboidal to a squamous shape is accompanied by a wave of cell flattening and by the ordered remodelling of E-cadherin-based adherens junctions. We show that activation of the TGFβ pathway is crucial to determine the timing, the degree and the dynamic of cell flattening. Within these cells, TGFβ signalling controls cell-autonomously the formation of Actin filament and the localisation of activated Myosin II, indicating that internal forces are generated and used to remodel AJ and to promote cytoskeleton rearrangement. Our results also reveal that TGFβ signalling controls Notch activity and that its functions are partly executed through Notch. Thus, we demonstrate that the cells that undergo the cuboidal-to-squamous transition produce active cell-shaping mechanisms, rather than passively flattening in response to a global force generated by the growth of the underlying cells. Thus, our work on TGFβ signalling provides new insights into the mechanisms through which signal transduction cascades orchestrate cell shape changes to generate proper organ structure.

  17. ATM kinase inhibition in glial cells activates the innate immune response and causes neurodegeneration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Andrew J; Rimkus, Stacey A; Wassarman, David A

    2012-03-13

    To investigate the mechanistic basis for central nervous system (CNS) neurodegeneration in the disease ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), we analyzed flies mutant for the causative gene A-T mutated (ATM). ATM encodes a protein kinase that functions to monitor the genomic integrity of cells and control cell cycle, DNA repair, and apoptosis programs. Mutation of the C-terminal amino acid in Drosophila ATM inhibited the kinase activity and caused neuron and glial cell death in the adult brain and a reduction in mobility and longevity. These data indicate that reduced ATM kinase activity is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration in A-T. ATM kinase mutant flies also had elevated expression of innate immune response genes in glial cells. ATM knockdown in glial cells, but not neurons, was sufficient to cause neuron and glial cell death, a reduction in mobility and longevity, and elevated expression of innate immune response genes in glial cells, indicating that a non-cell-autonomous mechanism contributes to neurodegeneration in A-T. Taken together, these data suggest that early-onset CNS neurodegeneration in A-T is similar to late-onset CNS neurodegeneration in diseases such as Alzheimer's in which uncontrolled inflammatory response mediated by glial cells drives neurodegeneration.

  18. The lipolysis pathway sustains normal and transformed stem cells in adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Liu, Ying; Hou, Gerald; Liu, Hanhan; Hou, Steven X

    2016-10-06

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumour dormancy, relapse and the eventual death of most cancer patients. In addition, these cells are usually resistant to cytotoxic conditions. However, very little is known about the biology behind this resistance to therapeutics. Here we investigated stem-cell death in the digestive system of adult Drosophila melanogaster. We found that knockdown of the coat protein complex I (COPI)-Arf79F (also known as Arf1) complex selectively killed normal and transformed stem cells through necrosis, by attenuating the lipolysis pathway, but spared differentiated cells. The dying stem cells were engulfed by neighbouring differentiated cells through a draper-myoblast city-Rac1-basket (also known as JNK)-dependent autophagy pathway. Furthermore, Arf1 inhibitors reduced CSCs in human cancer cell lines. Thus, normal or cancer stem cells may rely primarily on lipid reserves for energy, in such a way that blocking lipolysis starves them to death. This finding may lead to new therapies that could help to eliminate CSCs in human cancers.

  19. Cytoskeletal turnover and Myosin contractility drive cell autonomous oscillations in a model of Drosophila Dorsal Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, P. F.; Blanchard, G. B.; Duque, J.; Gorfinkiel, N.

    2014-06-01

    Oscillatory behaviour in force-generating systems is a pervasive phenomenon in cell biology. In this work, we investigate how oscillations in the actomyosin cytoskeleton drive cell shape changes during the process of Dorsal Closure (DC), a morphogenetic event in Drosophila embryo development whereby epidermal continuity is generated through the pulsatile apical area reduction of cells constituting the amnioserosa (AS) tissue. We present a theoretical model of AS cell dynamics by which the oscillatory behaviour arises due to a coupling between active myosin-driven forces, actin turnover and cell deformation. Oscillations in our model are cell-autonomous and are modulated by neighbour coupling, and our model accurately reproduces the oscillatory dynamics of AS cells and their amplitude and frequency evolution. A key prediction arising from our model is that the rate of actin turnover and Myosin contractile force must increase during DC in order to reproduce the decrease in amplitude and period of cell area oscillations observed in vivo. This prediction opens up new ways to think about the molecular underpinnings of AS cell oscillations and their link to net tissue contraction and suggests the form of future experimental measurements.

  20. Efficient Genetic Method for Establishing Drosophila Cell Lines Unlocks the Potential to Create Lines of Specific Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Truesdell, Sharon; Paul, Litty; Chen, Ting; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Justiniano, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of cells in culture has made substantial contributions to biological research. The versatility and scale of in vitro manipulation and new applications such as high-throughput gene silencing screens ensure the continued importance of cell-culture studies. In comparison to mammalian systems, Drosophila cell culture is underdeveloped, primarily because there is no general genetic method for deriving new cell lines. Here we found expression of the conserved oncogene RasV12 (a constitutively activated form of Ras) profoundly influences the development of primary cultures derived from embryos. The cultures become confluent in about three weeks and can be passaged with great success. The lines have undergone more than 90 population doublings and therefore constitute continuous cell lines. Most lines are composed of spindle-shaped cells of mesodermal type. We tested the use of the method for deriving Drosophila cell lines of a specific genotype by establishing cultures from embryos in which the warts (wts) tumor suppressor gene was targeted. We successfully created several cell lines and found that these differ from controls because they are primarily polyploid. This phenotype likely reflects the known role for the mammalian wts counterparts in the tetraploidy checkpoint. We conclude that expression of RasV12 is a powerful genetic mechanism to promote proliferation in Drosophila primary culture cells and serves as an efficient means to generate continuous cell lines of a given genotype. PMID:18670627

  1. Tendon and ligament imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Grainger, A J

    2012-01-01

    MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease. PMID:22553301

  2. Cell lineage-specific expression of modulo, a dose-dependent modifier of variegation in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Garzino, V; Pereira, A; Laurenti, P; Graba, Y; Levis, R W; Le Parco, Y; Pradel, J

    1992-01-01

    Variegation in Drosophila is a manifest illustration of the important role played by chromatin structure in gene expression. We have isolated mutants of modulo (mod) and shown that this gene is a dominant suppressor of variegation. Null mutants are recessive lethal with a melanotic tumour phenotype. The mod protein directly binds DNA, which indicates that it may serve to anchor multimeric complexes promoting chromatin compaction and silencing. Using a specific monoclonal antibody we examined by immunocytochemistry the accumulation pattern of mod protein during embryogenesis. The protein is first detected before the blastoderm cellularization in all somatic nuclei, precisely when pericentromeric heterochromatin becomes visible. After the first cell division, mod protein is expressed in lineages of specific embryonic primordia. Based on its dominant phenotype, expression pattern and DNA-binding activity of its product, we propose that mod regulates chromatin structure and activity in specific cell lineages. Images PMID:1425581

  3. Identification of a new stem cell population that generates Drosophila flight muscles.

    PubMed

    Gunage, Rajesh D; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2014-08-18

    How myoblast populations are regulated for the formation of muscles of different sizes is an essentially unanswered question. The large flight muscles of Drosophila develop from adult muscle progenitor (AMP) cells set-aside embryonically. The thoracic segments are all allotted the same small AMP number, while those associated with the wing-disc proliferate extensively to give rise to over 2500 myoblasts. An initial amplification occurs through symmetric divisions and is followed by a switch to asymmetric divisions in which the AMPs self-renew and generate post-mitotic myoblasts. Notch signaling controls the initial amplification of AMPs, while the switch to asymmetric division additionally requires Wingless, which regulates Numb expression in the AMP lineage. In both cases, the epidermal tissue of the wing imaginal disc acts as a niche expressing the ligands Serrate and Wingless. The disc-associated AMPs are a novel muscle stem cell population that orchestrates the early phases of adult flight muscle development.

  4. Tafazzinsfrom Drosophila and Mammalian Cells Assemble in Large Protein Complexes with a Short Half-Life

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Malhotra, Ashim; Claypool, Steven M.; Ren, Mindong; Schlame, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tafazzin is a transacylase that affects cardiolipin fatty acid composition and mitochondrial function. Mutations in human tafazzin cause Barth syndrome yet the enzyme has mostly been characterized in yeast. To study tafazzin in higher organisms, we isolated mitochondria from Drosophila and mammalian cell cultures. Our data indicate that tafazzin binds to multiple protein complexes in these organisms, and that the interactions of tafazzin lack strong specificity. Very large tafazzin complexes could only be detected in the presence of cardiolipin, but smaller complexes remained intact even upon treatment with phospholipase A2. In mammalian cells, tafazzin had a half-life of only 3–6 h, which was much shorter than the half-life of other mitochondrial proteins. The data suggest that tafazzin is a transient resident of multiple protein complexes. PMID:25598000

  5. Epidermal cells are the primary phagocytes in the fragmentation and clearance of degenerating dendrites in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Wang, Denan; Franc, Nathalie C.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During developmental remodeling, neurites destined for pruning often degenerate on-site. Physical injury also induces degeneration of neurites distal to the injury site. Prompt clearance of degenerating neurites is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing inflammatory responses. Here we show that in both dendrite pruning and dendrite injury of Drosophila sensory neurons, epidermal cells rather than hemocytes are the primary phagocytes in clearing degenerating dendrites. Epidermal cells act via Draper-mediated recognition to facilitate dendrite degeneration and to engulf and degrade degenerating dendrites. Using multiple dendritic membrane markers to trace phagocytosis, we show that two members of the CD36 family, croquemort (crq) and debris buster (dsb), act at distinct stages of phagosome maturation for dendrite clearance. Our finding reveals the physiological importance of coordination between neurons and their surrounding epidermis, for both dendrite fragmentation and clearance. PMID:24412417

  6. Endogenous siRNAs Derived from Transposons and mRNAs in Drosophila Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghildiyal, Megha; Seitz, Hervé; Horwich, Michael D.; Li, Chengjian; Du, Tingting; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Kittler, Ellen L.W.; Zapp, Maria L.; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes. In flies, somatic cells produce siRNAs from exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a defense against viral infection. We identified endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), 21 nucleotides in length, that correspond to transposons and heterochromatic sequences in the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. We also detected endo-siRNAs complementary to messenger RNAs (mRNAs); these siRNAs disproportionately mapped to the complementary regions of overlapping mRNAs predicted to form double-stranded RNA in vivo. Normal accumulation of somatic endo-siRNAs requires the siRNA-generating ribonuclease Dicer-2 and the RNAi effector protein Argonaute2 (Ago2). We propose that endo-siRNAs generated by the fly RNAi pathway silence selfish genetic elements in the soma, much as Piwi-interacting RNAs do in the germ line. PMID:18403677

  7. An essential cell cycle regulation gene causes hybrid inviability in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Nitin; Baker, EmilyClare P; Cooper, Jacob C; Frizzell, Kimberly A; Hsieh, Emily; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob O; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-12-18

    Speciation, the process by which new biological species arise, involves the evolution of reproductive barriers, such as hybrid sterility or inviability between populations. However, identifying hybrid incompatibility genes remains a key obstacle in understanding the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. We devised a genomic screen, which identified a cell cycle-regulation gene as the cause of male inviability in hybrids resulting from a cross between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Ablation of the D. simulans allele of this gene is sufficient to rescue the adult viability of hybrid males. This dominantly acting cell cycle regulator causes mitotic arrest and, thereby, inviability of male hybrid larvae. Our genomic method provides a facile means to accelerate the identification of hybrid incompatibility genes in other model and nonmodel systems.

  8. Multiscale modeling and analysis of planar cell polarity in the Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Gilbert, David; Heiner, Monika; Liu, Fei; Maccagnola, Daniele; Tree, David

    2013-01-01

    Modeling across multiple scales is a current challenge in Systems Biology, especially when applied to multicellular organisms. In this paper, we present an approach to model at different spatial scales, using the new concept of Hierarchically Colored Petri Nets (HCPN). We apply HCPN to model a tissue comprising multiple cells hexagonally packed in a honeycomb formation in order to describe the phenomenon of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling in Drosophila wing. We have constructed a family of related models, permitting different hypotheses to be explored regarding the mechanisms underlying PCP. In addition our models include the effect of well-studied genetic mutations. We have applied a set of analytical techniques including clustering and model checking over time series of primary and secondary data. Our models support the interpretation of biological observations reported in the literature.

  9. Concentrations of individual RNA sequences in polyadenylated nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA populations of Drosophila cells.

    PubMed Central

    Biessmann, H

    1980-01-01

    Steady state concentrations of individual RNA sequences in poly(A) nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA populations of Drosophila Kc cells were determined using cloned cDNA fragments. These cDNAs represent poly(A) RNA sequences of different abundance in the cytoplasm of Kc cells, but their steady state concentrations in poly(A) hnRNA was always lower. Of ten different sequences analysed, eight showed some four-fold lower concentration in hnRNA mRNA, two were underrepresented in hnRNA relative to the others. The obvious clustering of mRNA/hnRNA ratios is discussed in relation to sequence complexity and turnover rates of these RNA populations. Images PMID:6162158

  10. Inducible protein expression in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells using the lac operator-repressor system.

    PubMed

    Wakiyama, Motoaki; Muramatsu, Reiko; Kaitsu, Yoko; Ikeda, Mariko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-01

    Schneider line 2 cells, derived from Drosophila melanogaster, can be used as a highly versatile gene expression system. Two powerful promoters derived from the actin5C (Ac5) and metallothionein (Mtn) genes are available. The Mtn promoter can be used for the inducible expression of heterologous proteins unsuitable for constitutive expression. However, to circumvent using CuSO(4) or CdCl(2) as inducers of the Mtn promoter, we created a modified Ac5 promoter, Ac5LacO, in which two short lac operator sequences are embedded. Expression from the Ac5LacO promoter was regulated with co-expression of the lac repressor and IPTG. More than 25-fold induction of firefly luciferase expression was achieved in transient transfection experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the lac operator-repressor regulatory system functioned in chromosomally integrated cell lines.

  11. The conditional inhibition of gene expression in cultured Drosophila cells by antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Bunch, T A; Goldstein, L S

    1989-01-01

    Genes producing antisense RNA are becoming important tools for the selective inhibition of gene expression. Experiments in different biological systems, targeting different mRNAs have yielded diverse results with respect to the success of the technique and its mechanism of action. We have examined the potential of three antisense genes, whose transcription is driven by a Drosophila metallothionein promoter, to inhibit the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or a microtubule associated protein (205K MAP) in cultured Drosophila cells. Expression of ADH was significantly reduced upon induction of the anti-ADH genes. The ADH mRNA does not appear to be destabilized by the presence of antisense RNA but rather exists at similar levels in hybrid form. Hybrids are detected with both spliced and unspliced ADH RNA. In contrast to these results, antisense genes producing antisense RNA in great excess to 205K MAP mRNA, which is itself far less abundant than the ADH mRNA, failed to show any inhibition of 205K MAP expression. Images PMID:2481266

  12. Evaluation of mutagenic, recombinogenic and carcinogenic potential of (+)-usnic acid in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nayane Moreira; de Rezende, Alexandre Azenha Alves; Nepomuceno, Júlio César; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Spanó, Mário Antônio

    2016-10-01

    The main of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of (+) - usnic acid (UA), using Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and the test for detecting epithelial tumor clones (wts) in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae from 72 ± 4 h from Drosophila were fed with UA (5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 mM); urethane (10.0 mM) (positive control); and solvent (Milli-Q water, 1% Tween-80 and 3% ethanol) (negative control). ST cross produced increase in total mutant spots in the individuals treated with 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 mM of UA. HB cross produced spot frequencies in the concentration of 5.0 mM that were higher than the frequency for the same concentration in the ST cross. In the highest concentrations the result was negative, which means that the difference observed can be attributed, in part, to the high levels of P450, suggesting that increasing the metabolic capacity maximized the toxic effect of these doses. In the evaluation of carcinogenesis using the wts test, the results obtained for the same concentrations of UA show a positive result for the presence of tumors when compared to the negative control. We conclude that UA has recombinogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on somatic cells in D. melanogaster.

  13. Ensconsin/Map7 promotes microtubule growth and centrosome separation in Drosophila neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gallaud, Emmanuel; Caous, Renaud; Pascal, Aude; Bazile, Franck; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Huet, Sébastien; Poirier, Guy G.; Chrétien, Denis; Richard-Parpaillon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic spindle is crucial to achieve segregation of sister chromatids. To identify new mitotic spindle assembly regulators, we isolated 855 microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) from Drosophila melanogaster mitotic or interphasic embryos. Using RNAi, we screened 96 poorly characterized genes in the Drosophila central nervous system to establish their possible role during spindle assembly. We found that Ensconsin/MAP7 mutant neuroblasts display shorter metaphase spindles, a defect caused by a reduced microtubule polymerization rate and enhanced by centrosome ablation. In agreement with a direct effect in regulating spindle length, Ensconsin overexpression triggered an increase in spindle length in S2 cells, whereas purified Ensconsin stimulated microtubule polymerization in vitro. Interestingly, ensc-null mutant flies also display defective centrosome separation and positioning during interphase, a phenotype also detected in kinesin-1 mutants. Collectively, our results suggest that Ensconsin cooperates with its binding partner Kinesin-1 during interphase to trigger centrosome separation. In addition, Ensconsin promotes microtubule polymerization during mitosis to control spindle length independent of Kinesin-1. PMID:24687279

  14. Recombinogenic activity of Pantoprazole® in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Jeyson Césary; Machado, Nayane Moreira; Saturnino, Rosiane Soares; Nepomuceno, Júlio César

    2015-01-01

    Pantoprazole® is one of the leading proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) used in the treatment of a variety of diseases related to the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, studies have shown an increased risk of developing gastric cancer, intestinal metaplasia and hyperplasia of endocrine cells with prolonged use. In the present study, the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was employed to determine the mutagenic effects of Pantoprazole on Drosophila melanogaster. Repeated treatments with Pantoprazole were performed on 72-hour larvae of the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μM. In addition, doxorubicin (DXR) was administered at 0.4 mM, as a positive control. When administered to ST descendants, total number of spots were statistically significant at 2.5 and 5.0 μM concentrations. For HB descendants, a significant increase in the total number of spots was observed among the marked transheterozygous (MH) flies. Through analysis of balancer heterozygous (BH) descendants, recombinogenic effects were observed at all concentrations in descendants of the HB cross. In view of these experimental conditions and results, it was concluded that Pantoprazole is associated with recombinogenic effects in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:25983631

  15. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events.

  16. Multipotent neural stem cells generate glial cells of the central complex through transit amplifying intermediate progenitors in Drosophila brain development.

    PubMed

    Viktorin, Gudrun; Riebli, Nadia; Popkova, Anna; Giangrande, Angela; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-08-15

    The neural stem cells that give rise to the neural lineages of the brain can generate their progeny directly or through transit amplifying intermediate neural progenitor cells (INPs). The INP-producing neural stem cells in Drosophila are called type II neuroblasts, and their neural progeny innervate the central complex, a prominent integrative brain center. Here we use genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis to show that the INPs of these type II neuroblast lineages give rise to glial cells as well as neurons during postembryonic brain development. Our data indicate that two main types of INP lineages are generated, namely mixed neuronal/glial lineages and neuronal lineages. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments show that the gcm gene is necessary and sufficient for gliogenesis in these lineages. The INP-derived glial cells, like the INP-derived neuronal cells, make major contributions to the central complex. In postembryonic development, these INP-derived glial cells surround the entire developing central complex neuropile, and once the major compartments of the central complex are formed, they also delimit each of these compartments. During this process, the number of these glial cells in the central complex is increased markedly through local proliferation based on glial cell mitosis. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel and complex form of neurogliogenesis in Drosophila involving transit amplifying intermediate progenitors. Moreover, they indicate that type II neuroblasts are remarkably multipotent neural stem cells that can generate both the neuronal and the glial progeny that make major contributions to one and the same complex brain structure.

  17. Condensin II Subunit dCAP-D3 Restricts Retrotransposon Mobilization in Drosophila Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Andrew T.; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Murphy, Eain A.; Longworth, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Retrotransposon sequences are positioned throughout the genome of almost every eukaryote that has been sequenced. As mobilization of these elements can have detrimental effects on the transcriptional regulation and stability of an organism's genome, most organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress their movement. Here, we identify a novel role for the Drosophila melanogaster Condensin II subunit, dCAP-D3 in preventing the mobilization of retrotransposons located in somatic cell euchromatin. dCAP-D3 regulates transcription of euchromatic gene clusters which contain or are proximal to retrotransposon sequence. ChIP experiments demonstrate that dCAP-D3 binds to these loci and is important for maintaining a repressed chromatin structure within the boundaries of the retrotransposon and for repressing retrotransposon transcription. We show that dCAP-D3 prevents accumulation of double stranded DNA breaks within retrotransposon sequence, and decreased dCAP-D3 levels leads to a precise loss of retrotransposon sequence at some dCAP-D3 regulated gene clusters and a gain of sequence elsewhere in the genome. Homologous chromosomes exhibit high levels of pairing in Drosophila somatic cells, and our FISH analyses demonstrate that retrotransposon-containing euchromatic loci are regions which are actually less paired than euchromatic regions devoid of retrotransposon sequences. Decreased dCAP-D3 expression increases pairing of homologous retrotransposon-containing loci in tissue culture cells. We propose that the combined effects of dCAP-D3 deficiency on double strand break levels, chromatin structure, transcription and pairing at retrotransposon-containing loci may lead to 1) higher levels of homologous recombination between repeats flanking retrotransposons in dCAP-D3 deficient cells and 2) increased retrotransposition. These findings identify a novel role for the anti-pairing activities of dCAP-D3/Condensin II and uncover a new way in which dCAP-D3/Condensin II influences local

  18. Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells

    PubMed Central

    Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S.; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

  19. Dynamic expression of the cell adhesion molecule fasciclin I during embryonic development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McAllister, L; Goodman, C S; Zinn, K

    1992-05-01

    A number of different cell surface glycoproteins expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) have been identified in insects and shown to mediate cell adhesion in tissue culture systems. The fasciclin I protein is expressed on a subset of CNS axon pathways in both grasshopper and Drosophila. It consists of four homologous 150-amino acid domains which are unrelated to other sequences in the current databases, and is tethered to the cell surface by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linkage. In this paper we examine in detail the expression of fasciclin I mRNA and protein during Drosophila embryonic development. We find that fasciclin I is expressed in several distinct patterns at different stages of development. In blastoderm embryos it is briefly localized in a graded pattern. During the germ band extended period its expression evolves through two distinct phases. Fasciclin I mRNA and protein are initially localized in a 14-stripe pattern which corresponds to segmentally repeated patches of neuroepithelial cells and neuroblasts. Expression then becomes confined to CNS and peripheral sensory (PNS) neurons. Fasciclin I is expressed on all PNS neurons, and this expression is stably maintained for several hours. In the CNS, fasciclin I is initially expressed on all commissural axons, but then becomes restricted to specific axon bundles. The early commissural expression pattern is not observed in grasshopper embryos, but the later bundle-specific pattern is very similar to that seen in grasshopper. The existence of an initial phase of expression on all commissural bundles helps to explain the loss-of-commissures phenotype of embryos lacking expression of both fasciclin I and of the D-abl tyrosine kinase. Fasciclin I is also expressed in several nonneural tissues in the embryo.

  20. Drosophila piwi mutants exhibit germline stem cell tumors that are sustained by elevated Dpp signaling.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhigang; Flynt, Alex S; Lai, Eric C

    2013-08-05

    Drosophila Piwi is the founding member of a gonadal clade of Argonaute proteins that serve as silencing effectors for ∼26-32 nt Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) [1], and piwi mutants exhibit dramatically rudimentary ovaries [2]. It was proposed that somatic Piwi maintains germline stem cells (GSCs) by promoting Dpp signaling, presumably via cap cells that form the somatic niche for GSCs [3-5]. However, we unexpectedly observed that piwi mutants exhibit high-frequency GSC-like tumors that persist throughout adult life. Multiple readouts demonstrated hyperactive Dpp signaling in piwi mutants, including the failure to express the germline differentiation factor bag-of-marbles (bam), and restoration of bam expression relieved piwi GSC-like tumors. Tissue-specific rescue and knockdown experiments indicate that Piwi is not required in cap cells, the source of niche Dpp, but instead is required in gonadal intermingled cells (ICs, the progenitor cells of escort cells). Adult-specific knockdown of dpp in escort cells substantially rescued piwi tumors, demonstrating that they are driven by excess Dpp signaling. However, the temporal requirement for piwi to restrict GSC numbers was much earlier, during the wandering third-instar larval stage. Indeed, piwi mutant larval gonads exhibited defective morphology and loss of Bam. Our data indicate that loss of Piwi causes defects in ICs and escort cells, leading to ectopic Dpp signaling and consequent blockage of GSC differentiation.

  1. The Drosophila female germline stem cell lineage acts to spatially restrict DPP function within the niche.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Lim, Tit Meng; Cai, Yu

    2010-07-27

    Maintenance of stem cells requires spatially restricted, niche-associated signals. In the Drosophila female germline stem cell (GSC) niche, Decapentaplegic (DPP) is the primary niche-associated factor and functions over a short range to promote GSC self-renewal rather than differentiation. Here, we show that the GSC lineage and, more specifically, the stem cells themselves participate in the spatial restriction of DPP function by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the surrounding somatic cells. EGFR-MAPK signaling in somatic cells repressed the expression of dally, which encodes a glypican required for DPP movement and stability. Consequently, only GSCs close to the DPP source (the somatic cells in the niche) showed high signal activation and were maintained as stem cells, whereas cystoblasts outside the niche showed low signal activation and initiated differentiation. Thus, our data reveal that the reciprocal crosstalk between the GSCs and the somatic cells defines the spatial limits of DPP action and therefore the extent of the GSC niche.

  2. An actomyosin-based barrier inhibits cell mixing at compartmental boundaries in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Monier, Bruno; Pélissier-Monier, Anne; Brand, Andrea H; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2010-01-01

    Partitioning tissues into compartments that do not intermix is essential for the correct morphogenesis of animal embryos and organs. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain compartmental cell sorting, mainly differential adhesion, but also regulation of the cytoskeleton or of cell proliferation. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that keep cells apart at boundaries remain unclear. Here we demonstrate, in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos, that actomyosin-based barriers stop cells from invading neighbouring compartments. Our analysis shows that cells can transiently invade neighbouring compartments, especially when they divide, but are then pushed back into their compartment of origin. Actomyosin cytoskeletal components are enriched at compartmental boundaries, forming cable-like structures when the epidermis is mitotically active. When MyoII (non-muscle myosin II) function is inhibited, including locally at the cable by chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI), in live embryos, dividing cells are no longer pushed back, leading to compartmental cell mixing. We propose that local regulation of actomyosin contractibility, rather than differential adhesion, is the primary mechanism sorting cells at compartmental boundaries.

  3. Frizzled signalling controls orientation of asymmetric sense organ precursor cell divisions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gho, M; Schweisguth, F

    1998-05-14

    During metazoan development, cell-fate diversity is brought about, in part, by asymmetric cell divisions. In Drosophila, bristle mechanosensory organs are composed of four different cells that originate from a single precursor cell, pI, after two rounds of asymmetric division. At each division, distinct fates are conferred on sister cells by the asymmetric segregation of Numb, a negative regulator of Notch signalling. Here we show that the orientation of the mitotic spindles and the localization of the Numb crescent follow a stereotyped pattern. Mitosis of pI is orientated parallel to the anteroposterior axis of the fly. We show that signalling mediated by the Frizzled receptor polarizes pI along this axis, thereby specifying the orientation of the mitotic spindle and positioning the Numb crescent. The mitoses of the two cells produced by mitosis of pI are orientated parallel and orthogonal, respectively, to the division axis of pI. This difference in cell-division orientation is largely independent of the identity of the secondary precursor cells, and is regulated by Frizzled-independent mechanisms.

  4. Argos induces programmed cell death in the developing Drosophila eye by inhibition of the Ras pathway.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, K; Taguchi, A; Hirota, Y; Yamada, C; Jin, M H; Okano, H

    1998-04-01

    We studied the role of Ras signaling in the regulation of cell death during Drosophila eye development. Overexpression of Argos, a diffusible inhibitor of the EGF receptor and Ras signaling, caused excessive cell death in developing eyes at pupal stages. The Argos-induced cell death was suppressed by coexpression of the anti-apoptotic genes p35, diap1, or diap2 in the eye as well as by the Df(3L)H99 chromosomal deletion that lacks three apoptosis-inducing genes, reaper, head involution defective (hid) and grim. Transient misexpression of the activated Ras1 protein (Ras1V12) later in pupal development suppressed the Argos-induced cell death. Thus, Argos-induced cell death seemed to have resulted from the suppression of the anti-apoptotic function of Ras. Conversely, cell death induced by overexpression of Hid was suppressed by gain-of-function mutations of the genes coding for MEK and ERK. These results support the idea that Ras signaling functions in two distinct processes during eye development, first triggering the recruitment of cells and later negatively regulating cell death.

  5. Regulation of Drosophila intestinal stem cell maintenance and differentiation by the transcription factor Escargot

    PubMed Central

    Loza-Coll, Mariano A; Southall, Tony D; Sandall, Sharsti L; Brand, Andrea H; Jones, D Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Tissue stem cells divide to self-renew and generate differentiated cells to maintain homeostasis. Although influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, the genetic mechanisms coordinating the decision between self-renewal and initiation of differentiation remain poorly understood. The escargot (esg) gene encodes a transcription factor that is expressed in stem cells in multiple tissues in Drosophila melanogaster, including intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Here, we demonstrate that Esg plays a pivotal role in intestinal homeostasis, maintaining the stem cell pool while influencing fate decisions through modulation of Notch activity. Loss of esg induced ISC differentiation, a decline in Notch activity in daughter enteroblasts (EB), and an increase in differentiated enteroendocrine (EE) cells. Amun, an inhibitor of Notch in other systems, was identified as a target of Esg in the intestine. Decreased expression of esg resulted in upregulation of Amun, while downregulation of Amun rescued the ectopic EE cell phenotype resulting from loss of esg. Thus, our findings provide a framework for further comparative studies addressing the conserved roles of Snail factors in coordinating self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells across tissues and species. PMID:25433031

  6. Drosophila neuroblasts as a new model for the study of stem cell self-renewal and tumour formation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Wang, Hongyan; Groth, Casper

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila larval brain stem cells (neuroblasts) have emerged as an important model for the study of stem cell asymmetric division and the mechanisms underlying the transformation of neural stem cells into tumour-forming cancer stem cells. Each Drosophila neuroblast divides asymmetrically to produce a larger daughter cell that retains neuroblast identity, and a smaller daughter cell that is committed to undergo differentiation. Neuroblast self-renewal and differentiation are tightly controlled by a set of intrinsic factors that regulate ACD (asymmetric cell division). Any disruption of these two processes may deleteriously affect the delicate balance between neuroblast self-renewal and progenitor cell fate specification and differentiation, causing neuroblast overgrowth and ultimately lead to tumour formation in the fly. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying Drosophila neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Furthermore, we highlight emerging evidence in support of the notion that defects in ACD in mammalian systems, which may play significant roles in the series of pathogenic events leading to the development of brain cancers. PMID:24965943

  7. The posterior determinant gene nanos is required for the maintenance of the adult germline stem cells during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, K M

    1999-04-01

    In a variety of tissues in eukaryotes, multipotential stem cells are responsible for maintaining a germinal population and generating a differentiated progeny. The Drosophila germline is one such tissue where a continuous supply of eggs or sperm relies on the normal functioning of stem cells. Recent studies have implicated a possible role for the posterior determinant gene nanos (nos) in stem cells. Here, I report that nanos is required in the Drosophila female germline as well as in the male germline. In the female, nos is required for the functioning of stem cells. In nos mutants, while the stem cells are specified, these cells divide only a few times at the most and then degenerate. The loss of germline stem cells in nos mutant mothers appears to be due to a progressive degeneration of the plasma membrane. Furthermore, following germ cell loss, the germaria in the nos mutant mothers appear to carry on massive mitochondrial biogenesis activity. Thus, the syncytia of such germaria are filled with mitochondria. In the male germline, the male fertility assay indicates that nos appears to be also required for the maintenance of stem cells. In these mutant males, spermatogenesis is progressively affected and these males eventually become sterile. These results indicate novel requirements for nos in the Drosophila germline.

  8. The Aqueous Extract of Rhizome of Gastrodia elata Protected Drosophila and PC12 Cells against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun-Fai; Ko, Chun-Hay; Koon, Chi-Man; Xian, Jia-Wen; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE) aqueous extract on beta-amyloid(Aβ)-induced toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic Drosophila mutants with Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in pan-neuron and ommatidia were used to determine the efficacy of GE. The antiapoptotic and antioxidative mechanisms of GE were also studied in Aβ-treated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that GE (5 mg/g Drosophila media)-treated Drosophila possessed a longer lifespan, better locomotor function, and less-degenerated ommatidia when compared with the Aβ-expressing control (all P < 0.05). In vitro studies illustrated that GE increased the cell viability of Aβ-treated PC12 cells in dose-dependent manner, probably through attenuation of Aβ-induced oxidative and apoptotic stress. GE also significantly upregulated the enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to the decrease of reactive oxidation species production and apoptotic marker caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, our current data presented the first evidence that the aqueous extract of GE was capable of reducing the Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, possibly through inhibition of apoptosis and reduction of oxidative stress. GE aqueous extract could be developed as a promising herbal agent for neuroprotection and novel adjuvant therapies for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24174977

  9. Protein synthesis and degradation are essential to regulate germline stem cell homeostasis in Drosophila testes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Lan, Xiang; Chen, Xia; Yu, Chao; Xu, Yiwen; Liu, Yujuan; Xu, Lingna; Fan, Heng-Yu; Tong, Chao

    2016-08-15

    The homeostasis of self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells is controlled by intrinsic signals and their niche. We conducted a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila testes and identified 221 genes required for germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance or differentiation. Knockdown of these genes in transit-amplifying spermatogonia and cyst cells further revealed various phenotypes. Complex analysis uncovered that many of the identified genes are involved in key steps of protein synthesis and degradation. A group of genes that are required for mRNA splicing and protein translation contributes to both GSC self-renewal and early germ cell differentiation. Loss of genes in the protein degradation pathway in cyst cells leads to testis tumors consisting of overproliferated germ cells. Importantly, in the Cullin 4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) complex, we identified multiple proteins that are crucial to GSC self-renewal: pic/DDB1, a CRL4 linker protein, is not only required for GSC self-renewal in flies but also for maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in mice.

  10. Tousled-like kinase mediated a new type of cell death pathway in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Cai, R; Zhou, R; Li, Y; Liu, L

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has an important role in sculpting organisms during development. However, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanism of PCD. We found that ectopic expression of tousled-like kinase (tlk) in Drosophila initiated a new type of cell death. Furthermore, the TLK-induced cell death is likely to be independent of the canonical caspase pathway and other known caspase-independent pathways. Genetically, atg2 RNAi could rescue the TLK-induced cell death, and this function of atg2 was likely distinct from its role in autophagy. In the developing retina, loss of tlk resulted in reduced PCD in the interommatidial cells (IOCs). Similarly, an increased number of IOCs was present in the atg2 deletion mutant clones. However, double knockdown of tlk and atg2 by RNAi did not have a synergistic effect. These results suggested that ATG2 may function downstream of TLK. In addition to a role in development, tlk and atg2 RNAi could rescue calcium overload-induced cell death. Together, our results suggest that TLK mediates a new type of cell death pathway that occurs in both development and calcium cytotoxicity.

  11. A biomechanical model for cell polarization and intercalation during Drosophila germband extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Haihan; Wang, Qiming; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Feng, James J.

    2015-10-01

    Germband extension during Drosophila development features the merging of cells along the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis and their separation along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This intercalation process involves planar cell polarity, anisotropic contractile forces along cell edges, and concerted cell deformation and movement. Although prior experiments have probed each of these factors separately, the connection among them remains unclear. This paper presents a chemo-mechanical model that integrates the three factors into a coherent framework. The model predicts the polarization of Rho-kinase, myosin and Bazooka downstream of an anisotropic Shroom distribution. In particular, myosin accumulates on cell edges along the DV axis, causing them to contract into a vertex. Subsequently, medial myosin in the cells anterior and posterior to the vertex helps to elongate it into a new edge parallel to the body axis. Thus, the tissue extends along the AP axis and narrows in the transverse direction through neighbor exchange. Model predictions of the polarity of the proteins and cell and tissue deformation are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  12. Tousled-like kinase mediated a new type of cell death pathway in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Cai, R; Zhou, R; Li, Y; Liu, L

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has an important role in sculpting organisms during development. However, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanism of PCD. We found that ectopic expression of tousled-like kinase (tlk) in Drosophila initiated a new type of cell death. Furthermore, the TLK-induced cell death is likely to be independent of the canonical caspase pathway and other known caspase-independent pathways. Genetically, atg2 RNAi could rescue the TLK-induced cell death, and this function of atg2 was likely distinct from its role in autophagy. In the developing retina, loss of tlk resulted in reduced PCD in the interommatidial cells (IOCs). Similarly, an increased number of IOCs was present in the atg2 deletion mutant clones. However, double knockdown of tlk and atg2 by RNAi did not have a synergistic effect. These results suggested that ATG2 may function downstream of TLK. In addition to a role in development, tlk and atg2 RNAi could rescue calcium overload-induced cell death. Together, our results suggest that TLK mediates a new type of cell death pathway that occurs in both development and calcium cytotoxicity. PMID:26088162

  13. pHMA, a pH-sensitive GFP reporter for cell engulfment, in Drosophila embryos, tissues, and cells.

    PubMed

    Fishilevich, Elane; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Minden, Jonathan S

    2010-02-01

    Engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis ensures the removal of unwanted and defective cells. We developed a genetically encoded marker for cell engulfment, pHMA, which consists of the pH-Sensitive derivative of GFP, pHluorin, fused to the actin-binding domain of Moesin. In healthy cells of Drosophila embryos and cultured cells, pHMA resides at the cell cortex. In dying cells, pHMA loses its cortical localization and reports a modest decrease in pH. In embryos, the dying cells lose their apical contacts, then move basally and are ultimately engulfed by neighboring cells or macrophages. The cell corpse material is strongly acidified soon after engulfment and persists in the phagocytic cell for several hours. Changes in the pHMA signal correlate well with increases or decreases in apoptosis. These data show that pHMA is a useful reporter for cell engulfment and can be used in screening for mutations that affect cell engulfment.

  14. Glycosaminoglycans in Tendon Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christina N M; Sorushanova, Anna; Lomas, Alex J; Mullen, Anne Maria; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2015-07-15

    Although glycosaminoglycans constitute a minor portion of native tissues, they play a crucial role in various physiological processes, while their abnormal expression is associated with numerous pathophysiologies. Glycosaminoglycans have become increasingly prevalent in biomaterial design for tendon repair, given their low immunogenicity and their inherent capacity to stimulate the regenerative processes, while maintaining resident cell phenotype and function. Further, their incorporation into three-dimensional scaffold conformations significantly improves their mechanical properties, while reducing the formation of peritendinous adhesions. Herein, we discuss the role of glycosaminoglycans in tendon physiology and pathophysiology and the advancements achieved to date using glycosaminoglycan-functionalized scaffolds for tendon repair and regeneration. It is evidenced that glycosaminoglycan functionalization has led to many improvements in tendon tissue engineering and it is anticipated to play a pivotal role in future reparative therapies.

  15. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Jaffer; Tiwari, Manu D; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Krahn, Michael P; Wodarz, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6), and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ). It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized baz(XR11) and baz(EH747) null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in baz(EH747) and baz(XR11) while baz(4) and baz(815) (-8) show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type.

  16. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    distal tendon. Although these findings overlap with those seen in tendinopathy , the presence of bone marrow edema at the radial tuberosity and fluid in...the bicipitoradial bursa suggests a partial tear rather than tendinopathy .3 When the distal biceps tendon tear is complete, MR imaging shows

  17. Forefoot tendon transfers.

    PubMed

    Veljkovic, Andrea; Lansang, Edward; Lau, Johnny

    2014-03-01

    Flexible forefoot deformities, such as hallux varus, clawed hallux, hammer toes, and angular lesser toe deformities, can be treated effectively with tendon transfers. Based on the presentation of the flexible forefoot deformities, tendon transfers can be used as the primary treatment or as adjuncts to bony procedures when there are components of fixed deformities.

  18. CRISPR-Cas-Induced Mutants Identify a Requirement for dSTIM in Larval Dopaminergic Cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Trayambak; Trivedi, Deepti; Hasan, Gaiti

    2017-03-10

    Molecular components of store-operated calcium entry have been identified in the recent past and consist of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-resident calcium sensor STIM and the plasma membrane-localized calcium channel Orai. The physiological function of STIM and Orai is best defined in vertebrate immune cells. However, genetic studies with RNAi strains in Drosophila suggest a role in neuronal development and function. We generated a CRISPR-Cas-mediated deletion for the gene encoding STIM in Drosophila (dSTIM), which we demonstrate is larval lethal. To study STIM function in neurons, we merged the CRISPR-Cas9 method with the UAS-GAL4 system to generate either tissue- or cell type-specific inducible STIM knockouts (KOs). Our data identify an essential role for STIM in larval dopaminergic cells. The molecular basis for this cell-specific requirement needs further investigation.

  19. CRISPR-Cas-Induced Mutants Identify a Requirement for dSTIM in Larval Dopaminergic Cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Trayambak; Trivedi, Deepti; Hasan, Gaiti

    2017-01-01

    Molecular components of store-operated calcium entry have been identified in the recent past and consist of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-resident calcium sensor STIM and the plasma membrane-localized calcium channel Orai. The physiological function of STIM and Orai is best defined in vertebrate immune cells. However, genetic studies with RNAi strains in Drosophila suggest a role in neuronal development and function. We generated a CRISPR-Cas-mediated deletion for the gene encoding STIM in Drosophila (dSTIM), which we demonstrate is larval lethal. To study STIM function in neurons, we merged the CRISPR-Cas9 method with the UAS-GAL4 system to generate either tissue- or cell type-specific inducible STIM knockouts (KOs). Our data identify an essential role for STIM in larval dopaminergic cells. The molecular basis for this cell-specific requirement needs further investigation. PMID:28131984

  20. Pak3 regulates apical-basal polarity in migrating border cells during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Felix, Martina; Chayengia, Mrinal; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sharma, Aditi; Prasad, Mohit

    2015-11-01

    Group cell migration is a highly coordinated process that is involved in a number of physiological events such as morphogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. Unlike single cells, collectively moving cells are physically attached to each other and retain some degree of apical-basal polarity during the migratory phase. Although much is known about direction sensing, how polarity is regulated in multicellular movement remains unclear. Here we report the role of the protein kinase Pak3 in maintaining apical-basal polarity in migrating border cell clusters during Drosophila oogenesis. Pak3 is enriched in border cells and downregulation of its function impedes border cell movement. Time-lapse imaging suggests that Pak3 affects protrusive behavior of the border cell cluster, specifically regulating the stability and directionality of protrusions. Pak3 functions downstream of guidance receptor signaling to regulate the level and distribution of F-actin in migrating border cells. We also provide evidence that Pak3 genetically interacts with the lateral polarity marker Scribble and that it regulates JNK signaling in the moving border cells. Since Pak3 depletion results in mislocalization of several apical-basal polarity markers and overexpression of Jra rescues the polarity of the Pak3-depleted cluster, we propose that Pak3 functions through JNK signaling to modulate apical-basal polarity of the migrating border cell cluster. We also observe loss of apical-basal polarity in Rac1-depleted border cell clusters, suggesting that guidance receptor signaling functions through Rac GTPase and Pak3 to regulate the overall polarity of the cluster and mediate efficient collective movement of the border cells to the oocyte boundary.

  1. Chloride channels in stellate cells are essential for uniquely high secretion rates in neuropeptide-stimulated Drosophila diuresis.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, Pablo; Terhzaz, Selim; Romero, Michael F; Davies, Shireen A; Blumenthal, Edward M; Dow, Julian A T

    2014-09-30

    Epithelia frequently segregate transport processes to specific cell types, presumably for improved efficiency and control. The molecular players underlying this functional specialization are of particular interest. In Drosophila, the renal (Malpighian) tubule displays the highest per-cell transport rates known and has two main secretory cell types, principal and stellate. Electrogenic cation transport is known to reside in the principal cells, whereas stellate cells control the anion conductance, but by an as-yet-undefined route. Here, we resolve this issue by showing that a plasma membrane chloride channel, encoded by ClC-a, is exclusively expressed in the stellate cell and is required for Drosophila kinin-mediated induction of diuresis and chloride shunt conductance, evidenced by chloride ion movement through the stellate cells, leading to depolarization of the transepithelial potential. By contrast, ClC-a knockdown had no impact on resting secretion levels. Knockdown of a second CLC gene showing highly abundant expression in adult Malpighian tubules, ClC-c, did not impact depolarization of transepithelial potential after kinin stimulation. Therefore, the diuretic action of kinin in Drosophila can be explained by an increase in ClC-a-mediated chloride conductance, over and above a resting fluid transport level that relies on other (ClC-a-independent) mechanisms or routes. This key segregation of cation and anion transport could explain the extraordinary fluid transport rates displayed by some epithelia.

  2. Surface apposition and multiple cell contacts promote myoblast fusion in Drosophila flight muscles

    PubMed Central

    Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Segal, Dagan; Shimoni, Eyal; Shinder, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Fusion of individual myoblasts to form multinucleated myofibers constitutes a widely conserved program for growth of the somatic musculature. We have used electron microscopy methods to study this key form of cell–cell fusion during development of the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that IFM myoblast–myotube fusion proceeds in a stepwise fashion and is governed by apparent cross talk between transmembrane and cytoskeletal elements. Our analysis suggests that cell adhesion is necessary for bringing myoblasts to within a minimal distance from the myotubes. The branched actin polymerization machinery acts subsequently to promote tight apposition between the surfaces of the two cell types and formation of multiple sites of cell–cell contact, giving rise to nascent fusion pores whose expansion establishes full cytoplasmic continuity. Given the conserved features of IFM myogenesis, this sequence of cell interactions and membrane events and the mechanistic significance of cell adhesion elements and the actin-based cytoskeleton are likely to represent general principles of the myoblast fusion process. PMID:26459604

  3. Nanotubes mediate niche-stem cell signaling in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Mayu; Buszczak, Michael; Yamashita, Yukiko M.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell niches provide resident stem cells with signals that specify their identity. Niche signals act over a short-range such that only stem cells but not their differentiating progeny receive the self-renewing signals1. However, the cellular mechanisms that limit niche signaling to stem cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) form previously unrecognized structures, microtubule-based (MT)-nanotubes, which extend into the hub, a major niche component. MT-nanotubes are observed specifically within GSC populations, and require IFT (intraflagellar transport) proteins for their formation. The BMP receptor Tkv localizes to MT-nanotubes. Perturbation of MT-nanotubes compromises activation of Dpp signaling within GSCs, leading to GSC loss. Moreover, Dpp ligand and Tkv receptor interaction is necessary and sufficient for MT-nanotube formation. We propose that MT-nanotubes provide a novel mechanism for selective receptor-ligand interaction, contributing to the short-range nature of niche-stem cell signaling. PMID:26131929

  4. Interplay of cell dynamics and epithelial tension during morphogenesis of the Drosophila pupal wing

    PubMed Central

    Etournay, Raphaël; Popović, Marko; Merkel, Matthias; Nandi, Amitabha; Blasse, Corinna; Aigouy, Benoît; Brandl, Holger; Myers, Gene; Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank; Eaton, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    How tissue shape emerges from the collective mechanical properties and behavior of individual cells is not understood. We combine experiment and theory to study this problem in the developing wing epithelium of Drosophila. At pupal stages, the wing-hinge contraction contributes to anisotropic tissue flows that reshape the wing blade. Here, we quantitatively account for this wing-blade shape change on the basis of cell divisions, cell rearrangements and cell shape changes. We show that cells both generate and respond to epithelial stresses during this process, and that the nature of this interplay specifies the pattern of junctional network remodeling that changes wing shape. We show that patterned constraints exerted on the tissue by the extracellular matrix are key to force the tissue into the right shape. We present a continuum mechanical model that quantitatively describes the relationship between epithelial stresses and cell dynamics, and how their interplay reshapes the wing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07090.001 PMID:26102528

  5. The tibialis posterior tendon.

    PubMed

    Lhoste-Trouilloud, A

    2012-02-01

    The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive "chewing gum" lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.

  6. Gut-neuron interaction via Hh signaling regulates intestinal progenitor cell differentiation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui; Pan, Chenyu; Liu, Chunying; Lv, Xiangdong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xiong, Yue; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wenqing; Han, Junhai; Zhou, Zhaocai; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their progenies. A complex autonomic nervous system spreads over posterior intestine. However, whether and how neurons regulate posterior intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. Here we report that neurons regulate Drosophila posterior intestinal homeostasis. Specifically, downregulation of neuronal Hedgehog (Hh) signaling inhibits the differentiation of ISCs toward enterocytes (ECs), whereas upregulated neuronal Hh signaling promotes such process. We demonstrate that, among multiple sources of Hh ligand, those secreted by ECs induces similar phenotypes as does neuronal Hh. In addition, intestinal JAK/STAT signaling responds to activated neuronal Hh signaling, suggesting that JAK/STAT signaling acts downstream of neuronal Hh signaling in intestine. Collectively, our results indicate that neuronal Hh signaling is essential for the determination of ISC fate.

  7. Interaction between genes Mos and mwh expressed in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, N.Ya.; Zakharov, I.K.

    1995-07-01

    Gene Mosaic (Mos) of chromosome 3 of Drosophila melanogaster was located by means of dominant markers Ly, Sb, and Dr. This gene was shown to be located between Ly and Sb in the centromeric region (45-50 map units). An analysis of interaction between Mos and mwh genes in cis- and trans-heterozygotes showed a significant effect of the Mos gene on mutability (recombinogenesis) of chromosome mwh in somatic cells. In the cis heterozygote mwh Mos/++, the frequency of small mutant clones on wings of flies increased. In mwh/Mos heterozygotes, the Mos gene caused a significant reduction of dorsocentral and scutellar bristles (78% in mwh/Mos, 85% in mwh +/+ Mos, and 98% in mwh Mos/mwh +). 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Somatic cell lineage is required for differentiation and not maintenance of germline stem cells in Drosophila testes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaclyn G Y; Fuller, Margaret T

    2012-11-06

    Adult stem cells are believed to be maintained by a specialized microenvironment, the niche, which provides short-range signals that either instruct stem cells to self-renew or inhibit execution of preprogrammed differentiation pathways. In Drosophila testes, somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs) and the apical hub form the niche for neighboring germline stem cells (GSCs), with CySCs as the proposed source of instructive self-renewal signals [Leatherman JL, Dinardo S (2010) Nat Cell Biol 12(8):806-811]. In contrast to this model, we show that early germ cells with GSC characteristics can be maintained over time after ablation of CySCs and their cyst cell progeny. Without CySCs and cyst cells, early germ cells away from the hub failed to initiate differentiation. Our results suggest that CySCs do not have a necessary instructive role in specifying GSC self-renewal and that the differentiated progeny of CySCs provide an environment necessary to trigger GSC differentiation. This work highlights the complex interaction between different stem cell populations in the same niche and how the state of one stem cell population can influence the fate of the other.

  9. Maintenance of Drosophila germline stem cell sexual identity in oogenesis and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Kulnane, Laura; Smolko, Anne Elizabeth; Salz, Helen Karen

    2015-03-15

    Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by balancing self-renewal and differentiation. In Drosophila females, germline stem cells (GSCs) require Sex lethal (Sxl) to exit the stem cell state and to enter the differentiation pathway. Without Sxl GSCs do not differentiate and instead form tumors. Previous studies have shown that these tumors are not caused by a failure in the self-renewal/differentiation switch. Here, we show that Sxl is also necessary for the cell-autonomous maintenance of germ cell female identity and demonstrate that tumors are caused by the acquisition of male characteristics. Germ cells without Sxl protein exhibit a global derepression of testis genes, including Phf7, a male germline sexual identity gene. Phf7 is a key effector of the tumor-forming pathway, as it is both necessary and sufficient for tumor formation. In the absence of Sxl protein, inappropriate Phf7 expression drives tumor formation through a cell-autonomous mechanism that includes sex-inappropriate activation of Jak/Stat signaling. Remarkably, tumor formation requires a novel response to external signals emanating from the GSC niche, highlighting the importance of interactions between mutant cells and the surrounding normal cells that make up the tumor microenvironment. Derepression of testis genes, and inappropriate Phf7 expression, is also observed in germ cell tumors arising from the loss of bag of marbles (bam), demonstrating that maintenance of female sexual identity requires the concerted actions of Sxl and bam. Our work reveals that GSCs must maintain their sexual identity as they are reprogrammed into a differentiated cell, or risk tumorigenesis.

  10. Remote Control of Intestinal Stem Cell Activity by Haemocytes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sveta; Li, Xiaoxue; Collas, Esther Jeanne; Boquete, Jean-Phillipe; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The JAK/STAT pathway is a key signaling pathway in the regulation of development and immunity in metazoans. In contrast to the multiple combinatorial JAK/STAT pathways in mammals, only one canonical JAK/STAT pathway exists in Drosophila. It is activated by three secreted proteins of the Unpaired family (Upd): Upd1, Upd2 and Upd3. Although many studies have established a link between JAK/STAT activation and tissue damage, the mode of activation and the precise function of this pathway in the Drosophila systemic immune response remain unclear. In this study, we used mutations in upd2 and upd3 to investigate the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in the systemic immune response. Our study shows that haemocytes express the three upd genes and that injury markedly induces the expression of upd3 by the JNK pathway in haemocytes, which in turn activates the JAK/STAT pathway in the fat body and the gut. Surprisingly, release of Upd3 from haemocytes upon injury can remotely stimulate stem cell proliferation and the expression of Drosomycin-like genes in the intestine. Our results also suggest that a certain level of intestinal epithelium renewal is required for optimal survival to septic injury. While haemocyte-derived Upd promotes intestinal stem cell activation and survival upon septic injury, haemocytes are dispensable for epithelium renewal upon oral bacterial infection. Our study also indicates that intestinal epithelium renewal is sensitive to insults from both the lumen and the haemocoel. It also reveals that release of Upds by haemocytes coordinates the wound-healing program in multiple tissues, including the gut, an organ whose integrity is critical to fly survival. PMID:27231872

  11. Mechanical characteristics of native tendon slices for tissue engineering scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ting-Wu; Chen, Qingshan; Sun, Yu-Long; Steinmann, Scott P.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical behavior of tendon slices with different thicknesses. Tendon slices of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm thickness were mechanically tested. The 300 μm slices were further tested for strength and modulus after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing under different applied strain levels (0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12%). The tendon slice structure, morphology, and viability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seeded onto the slices were also examined with histology, scanning electron microscopy, and vital cell labeling, respectively. Tendon slices 300 μm or more in thickness had similar ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus to the intact tendon bundle. A strain of 5% or less did not cause any structural damage, nor did it change the mechanical properties of a 300 μm-thick tendon slice after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing. BMSCs were viable between and on the tendon slices after 2 weeks in tissue culture. This study demonstrated that, if tendon slices are used as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering, slices 300 μm or more in thickness would be preferable from a mechanical strength point of view. If mechanical stimulation is performed for seeded-cell preparations, 5% strain or less would be appropriate. PMID:22323314

  12. Why Adult Stem Cell Functionality Declines with Age? Studies from the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

    2014-01-01

    Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

  13. Heparan sulfate regulates the number and centrosome positioning of Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Levings, Daniel C; Arashiro, Takeshi; Nakato, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Stem cell division is tightly controlled via secreted signaling factors and cell adhesion molecules provided from local niche structures. Molecular mechanisms by which each niche component regulates stem cell behaviors remain to be elucidated. Here we show that heparan sulfate (HS), a class of glycosaminoglycan chains, regulates the number and asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila testis. We found that GSC number is sensitive to the levels of 6-O sulfate groups on HS. Loss of 6-O sulfation also disrupted normal positioning of centrosomes, a process required for asymmetric division of GSCs. Blocking HS sulfation specifically in the niche, termed the hub, led to increased GSC numbers and mispositioning of centrosomes. The same treatment also perturbed the enrichment of Apc2, a component of the centrosome-anchoring machinery, at the hub-GSC interface. This perturbation of the centrosome-anchoring process ultimately led to an increase in the rate of spindle misorientation and symmetric GSC division. This study shows that specific HS modifications provide a novel regulatory mechanism for stem cell asymmetric division. The results also suggest that HS-mediated niche signaling acts upstream of GSC division orientation control.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of Self-Renewal in Drosophila Neural Stem Cells by Transgenic RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Neumüller, Ralph A.; Richter, Constance; Fischer, Anja; Novatchkova, Maria; Neumüller, Klaus G.; Knoblich, Juergen A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is precisely controlled to ensure tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. Here we use genome-wide transgenic RNAi to identify 620 genes potentially involved in controlling this balance in Drosophila neuroblasts. We quantify all phenotypes and derive measurements for proliferation, lineage, cell size, and cell shape. We identify a set of transcriptional regulators essential for self-renewal and use hierarchical clustering and integration with interaction data to create functional networks for the control of neuroblast self-renewal and differentiation. Our data identify key roles for the chromatin remodeling Brm complex, the spliceosome, and the TRiC/CCT-complex and show that the alternatively spliced transcription factor Lola and the transcriptional elongation factors Ssrp and Barc control self-renewal in neuroblast lineages. As our data are strongly enriched for genes highly expressed in murine neural stem cells, they are likely to provide valuable insights into mammalian stem cell biology as well. PMID:21549331

  15. Sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) induces genetic damage in postmeiotic and somatic wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Emilio Pimentel; Cruces Martínez, Martha Patricia

    2013-01-01

    There is no apparent evidence to indicate that sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) is mutagenic. The aim of the present study was thus to determine the mutagenic effect of SCC, in postmeiotic germ cells of the adult male Drosophila. This investigation was based on the ability to examine whether SCC induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutations (SLRL), as well as the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART). Four different SCC concentrations were used: 0, 45, 69, 80, and 100 mM. For SLRL, two broods were generated to test sperm and primarily spermatids. Results showed a significant frequency of recessive lethal mutations compared with control sperm cells with SCC at 69, 80, and 100 mM. In contrast, the frequency of somatic mutations rose by 0.21 only with 100 mM of SCC. These findings provide evidence that SCC is a weak mutagen in both cell lines. The differential response may be attributed to repair mechanisms that are active in somatic cells but almost absent in germ cells.

  16. Hedgehog-regulated ubiquitination controls smoothened trafficking and cell surface expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Yongbin; Shi, Qing; Yue, Tao; Wang, Bing; Jiang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Hedgehog transduces signal by promoting cell surface expression of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in Drosophila, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that Smo is downregulated by ubiquitin-mediated endocytosis and degradation, and that Hh increases Smo cell surface expression by inhibiting its ubiquitination. We find that Smo is ubiquitinated at multiple Lysine residues including those in its autoinhibitory domain (SAID), leading to endocytosis and degradation of Smo by both lysosome- and proteasome-dependent mechanisms. Hh inhibits Smo ubiquitination via PKA/CK1-mediated phosphorylation of SAID, leading to Smo cell surface accumulation. Inactivation of the ubiquitin activating enzyme Uba1 or perturbation of multiple components of the endocytic machinery leads to Smo accumulation and Hh pathway activation. In addition, we find that the non-visual β-arrestin Kurtz (Krz) interacts with Smo and acts in parallel with ubiquitination to downregulate Smo. Finally, we show that Smo ubiquitination is counteracted by the deubiquitinating enzyme UBPY/USP8. Gain and loss of UBPY lead to reciprocal changes in Smo cell surface expression. Taken together, our results suggest that ubiquitination plays a key role in the downregulation of Smo to keep Hh pathway activity off in the absence of the ligand, and that Hh-induced phosphorylation promotes Smo cell surface accumulation by inhibiting its ubiquitination, which contributes to Hh pathway activation.

  17. Heparan sulfate regulates the number and centrosome positioning of Drosophila male germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Daniel C.; Arashiro, Takeshi; Nakato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell division is tightly controlled via secreted signaling factors and cell adhesion molecules provided from local niche structures. Molecular mechanisms by which each niche component regulates stem cell behaviors remain to be elucidated. Here we show that heparan sulfate (HS), a class of glycosaminoglycan chains, regulates the number and asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila testis. We found that GSC number is sensitive to the levels of 6-O sulfate groups on HS. Loss of 6-O sulfation also disrupted normal positioning of centrosomes, a process required for asymmetric division of GSCs. Blocking HS sulfation specifically in the niche, termed the hub, led to increased GSC numbers and mispositioning of centrosomes. The same treatment also perturbed the enrichment of Apc2, a component of the centrosome-anchoring machinery, at the hub–GSC interface. This perturbation of the centrosome-anchoring process ultimately led to an increase in the rate of spindle misorientation and symmetric GSC division. This study shows that specific HS modifications provide a novel regulatory mechanism for stem cell asymmetric division. The results also suggest that HS-mediated niche signaling acts upstream of GSC division orientation control. PMID:26792837

  18. Multipotent versus differentiated cell fate selection in the developing Drosophila airways

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryo; Hosono, Chie; Samakovlis, Christos; Saigo, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Developmental potentials of cells are tightly controlled at multiple levels. The embryonic Drosophila airway tree is roughly subdivided into two types of cells with distinct developmental potentials: a proximally located group of multipotent adult precursor cells (P-fate) and a distally located population of more differentiated cells (D-fate). We show that the GATA-family transcription factor (TF) Grain promotes the P-fate and the POU-homeobox TF Ventral veinless (Vvl/Drifter/U-turned) stimulates the D-fate. Hedgehog and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cooperate with Vvl to drive the D-fate at the expense of the P-fate while negative regulators of either of these signaling pathways ensure P-fate specification. Local concentrations of Decapentaplegic/BMP, Wingless/Wnt, and Hedgehog signals differentially regulate the expression of D-factors and P-factors to transform an equipotent primordial field into a concentric pattern of radially different morphogenetic potentials, which gradually gives rise to the distal-proximal organization of distinct cell types in the mature airway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09646.001 PMID:26633813

  19. Methods of Assessing Human Tendon Metabolism and Tissue Properties in Response to Changes in Mechanical Loading.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of methodological developments have improved the opportunities to study human tendon. Microdialysis enables sampling of interstitial fluid in the peritendon tissue, while sampling of human tendon biopsies allows direct analysis of tendon tissue for gene- and protein expression as well as protein synthesis rate. Further the (14)C bomb-pulse method has provided data on long-term tissue turnover in human tendon. Non-invasive techniques allow measurement of tendon metabolism (positron emission tomography (PET)), tendon morphology (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), and tendon mechanical properties (ultrasonography combined with force measurement during movement). Finally, 3D cell cultures of human tendon cells provide the opportunity to investigate cell-matrix interactions in response to various interventions.

  20. Loss of l(3)mbt leads to acquisition of the ping-pong cycle in Drosophila ovarian somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Tetsutaro; Sato, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Iwasaki, Yuka W.; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C.

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are amplified through a PIWI slicer-dependent feed-forward loop termed the ping-pong cycle, yielding secondary piRNAs. However, the detailed mechanism remains poorly understood, largely because an ex vivo model system amenable to biochemical analyses has not been available. Here, we show that CRISPR-mediated loss of function of lethal (3) malignant brain tumor [l(3)mbt] leads to ectopic activation of the germ-specific ping-pong cycle in ovarian somatic cells. Perinuclear foci resembling nuage, the ping-pong center, appeared following l(3)mbt mutation. This activation of the ping-pong machinery in cultured cells will greatly facilitate elucidation of the mechanism underlying secondary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila. PMID:27474440

  1. MicroRNA-Dependent Transcriptional Silencing of Transposable Elements in Drosophila Follicle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mugat, Bruno; Akkouche, Abdou; Serrano, Vincent; Armenise, Claudia; Li, Blaise; Brun, Christine; Fulga, Tudor A.; Van Vactor, David; Pélisson, Alain; Chambeyron, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference-related silencing mechanisms concern very diverse and distinct biological processes, from gene regulation (via the microRNA pathway) to defense against molecular parasites (through the small interfering RNA and the Piwi-interacting RNA pathways). Small non-coding RNAs serve as specificity factors that guide effector proteins to ribonucleic acid targets via base-pairing interactions, to achieve transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Because of the small sequence complementarity required for microRNA-dependent post-transcriptional regulation, thousands of microRNA (miRNA) putative targets have been annotated in Drosophila. In Drosophila somatic ovarian cells, genomic parasites, such as transposable elements (TEs), are transcriptionally repressed by chromatin changes induced by Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that prevent them from invading the germinal genome. Here we show, for the first time, that a functional miRNA pathway is required for the piRNA-mediated transcriptional silencing of TEs in this tissue. Global miRNA depletion, caused by tissue- and stage-specific knock down of drosha (involved in miRNA biogenesis), AGO1 or gawky (both responsible for miRNA activity), resulted in loss of TE-derived piRNAs and chromatin-mediated transcriptional de-silencing of TEs. This specific TE de-repression was also observed upon individual titration (by expression of the complementary miRNA sponge) of two miRNAs (miR-14 and miR-34) as well as in a miR-14 loss-of-function mutant background. Interestingly, the miRNA defects differentially affected TE- and 3' UTR-derived piRNAs. To our knowledge, this is the first indication of possible differences in the biogenesis or stability of TE- and 3' UTR-derived piRNAs. This work is one of the examples of detectable phenotypes caused by loss of individual miRNAs in Drosophila and the first genetic evidence that miRNAs have a role in the maintenance of genome stability via piRNA-mediated TE repression. PMID

  2. Actin Cytoskeleton Contributes to the Elastic Modulus of Embryonic Tendon During Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Nathan R.; von Flotow, Friedrich; Tochka, Zachary L.; Hockaday, Laura A.; Marturano, Joseph E.; Thibodeau, Jeffrey J.; Kuo, Catherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and heal poorly. Strategies to regenerate or replace injured tendons are challenged by an incomplete understanding of normal tendon development. Our previous study showed that embryonic tendon elastic modulus increases as a function of developmental stage. Inhibition of enzymatic collagen crosslink formation abrogated increases in tendon elastic modulus at late developmental stages, but did not affect increases in elastic modulus of early stage embryonic tendons. Here, we aimed to identify potential contributors to the mechanical properties of these early stage embryonic tendons. We characterized tendon progenitor cells in early stage embryonic tendons, and the influence of actin cytoskeleton disruption on tissue elastic modulus. Cells were closely packed in embryonic tendons, and did not change in density during early development. We observed an organized network of actin filaments that seemed contiguous between adjacent cells. The actin filaments exhibited a crimp pattern with a period and amplitude that matched the crimp of collagen fibers at each developmental stage. Chemical disruption of the actin cytoskeleton decreased tendon tissue elastic modulus, measured by atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that early developmental stage embryonic tendons possess a well organized actin cytoskeleton network that contributes significantly to tendon tissue mechanical properties. PMID:25721681

  3. Actin cytoskeleton contributes to the elastic modulus of embryonic tendon during early development.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Nathan R; von Flotow, Friedrich; Tochka, Zachary L; Hockaday, Laura A; Marturano, Joseph E; Thibodeau, Jeffrey J; Kuo, Catherine K

    2015-06-01

    Tendon injuries are common and heal poorly. Strategies to regenerate or replace injured tendons are challenged by an incomplete understanding of normal tendon development. Our previous study showed that embryonic tendon elastic modulus increases as a function of developmental stage. Inhibition of enzymatic collagen crosslink formation abrogated increases in tendon elastic modulus at late developmental stages, but did not affect increases in elastic modulus of early stage embryonic tendons. Here, we aimed to identify potential contributors to the mechanical properties of these early stage embryonic tendons. We characterized tendon progenitor cells in early stage embryonic tendons, and the influence of actin cytoskeleton disruption on tissue elastic modulus. Cells were closely packed in embryonic tendons, and did not change in density during early development. We observed an organized network of actin filaments that seemed contiguous between adjacent cells. The actin filaments exhibited a crimp pattern with a period and amplitude that matched the crimp of collagen fibers at each developmental stage. Chemical disruption of the actin cytoskeleton decreased tendon tissue elastic modulus, measured by atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that early developmental stage embryonic tendons possess a well organized actin cytoskeleton network that contributes significantly to tendon tissue mechanical properties.

  4. Tendon gradient mineralization for tendon to bone interface integration.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2013-11-01

    Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a "bone-to-bone" interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into five groups: (1) normal FDP tendon, (2) CaP (non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), (3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2 HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), (4) CaPFetuin (non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and (5) CaPEXTFetuin (extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 µm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction.

  5. Mutants for Drosophila Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 3b Are Defective in Mitochondrial Function and Larval Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dianne M.; Kiefel, Paula; Duncan, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The death of larval salivary gland cells during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a key system for studying steroid controlled programmed cell death. This death is induced by a pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone that takes place at the end of the prepupal period. For many years, it has been thought that the ecdysone direct response gene Eip93F (E93) plays a critical role in initiating salivary gland cell death. This conclusion was based largely on the finding that the three “type” alleles of E93 cause a near-complete block in salivary gland cell death. Here, we show that these three mutations are in fact allelic to Idh3b, a nearby gene that encodes the β subunit of isocitrate dehydrogenase 3, a mitochondrial enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The strongest of the Idh3b alleles appears to cause a near-complete block in oxidative phosphorylation, as mitochondria are depolarized in mutant larvae, and development arrests early during cleavage in embryos from homozygous-mutant germline mothers. Idh3b-mutant larval salivary gland cells fail to undergo mitochondrial fragmentation, which normally precedes the death of these cells, and do not initiate autophagy, an early step in the cell death program. These observations suggest a close relationship between the TCA cycle and the initiation of larval cell death. In normal development, tagged Idh3b is released from salivary gland mitochondria during their fragmentation, suggesting that Idh3b may be an apoptogenic factor that functions much like released cytochrome c in mammalian cells. PMID:28104670

  6. Mutants for Drosophila Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 3b Are Defective in Mitochondrial Function and Larval Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Dianne M; Kiefel, Paula; Duncan, Ian

    2017-03-10

    The death of larval salivary gland cells during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a key system for studying steroid controlled programmed cell death. This death is induced by a pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone that takes place at the end of the prepupal period. For many years, it has been thought that the ecdysone direct response gene Eip93F (E93) plays a critical role in initiating salivary gland cell death. This conclusion was based largely on the finding that the three "type" alleles of E93 cause a near-complete block in salivary gland cell death. Here, we show that these three mutations are in fact allelic to Idh3b, a nearby gene that encodes the β subunit of isocitrate dehydrogenase 3, a mitochondrial enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The strongest of the Idh3b alleles appears to cause a near-complete block in oxidative phosphorylation, as mitochondria are depolarized in mutant larvae, and development arrests early during cleavage in embryos from homozygous-mutant germline mothers. Idh3b-mutant larval salivary gland cells fail to undergo mitochondrial fragmentation, which normally precedes the death of these cells, and do not initiate autophagy, an early step in the cell death program. These observations suggest a close relationship between the TCA cycle and the initiation of larval cell death. In normal development, tagged Idh3b is released from salivary gland mitochondria during their fragmentation, suggesting that Idh3b may be an apoptogenic factor that functions much like released cytochrome c in mammalian cells.

  7. Cell shape and interaction defects in alpha-spectrin mutants of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We show that the alpha-spectrin gene is essential for larval survival and development by characterizing several alpha-spectrin mutations in Drosophila. P-element minigene rescue and sequence analysis were used to identify the alpha-spectrin gene as the l(3)dre3 complementation group of the Dras-Roughened-ecdysoneless region of chromosome 3 (Sliter et al., 1988). Germ line transformants carrying an alpha-spectrin cDNA, whose expression is driven by the ubiquitin promoter, fully rescued the first to second instar lethality characteristic of the l(3)dre3 alleles. The molecular defects in two gamma-ray-induced alleles were identified. One of these mutations, which resulted in second instar lethality, contained a 73-bp deletion in alpha-spectrin segment 22 (starting at amino acid residue 2312), producing a premature stop codon between the two EF hands found in this segment. The second mutation, which resulted in first instar lethality, contained a 20 base pair deletion in the middle of segment 1 (at amino acid residue 92), resulting in a premature stop codon. Examination of the spectrin- deficient larvae revealed a loss of contact between epithelial cells of the gut and disruption of cell-substratum interactions. The most pronounced morphological change was seen in tissues of complex cellular architecture such as the middle midgut where a loss of cell contact between cup-shaped cuprophilic cells and neighboring interstitial cells was accompanied by disorganization of the cuprophilic cell brush borders. Our examination of spectrin deficient larvae suggests that an important role of non-erythroid spectrin is to stabilize cell to cell interactions that are critical for the maintenance of cell shape and subcellular organization within tissues. PMID:8276898

  8. The Drosophila F-box protein dSkp2 regulates cell proliferation by targeting Dacapo for degradation.

    PubMed

    Dui, Wen; Wei, Bin; He, Feng; Lu, Wei; Li, Changqing; Liang, Xuehong; Ma, Jun; Jiao, Renjie

    2013-06-01

    Cell cycle progression is controlled by a complex regulatory network consisting of interacting positive and negative factors. In humans, the positive regulator Skp2, an F-box protein, has been a subject of intense investigation in part because of its oncogenic activity. By contrast, the molecular and developmental functions of its Drosophila homologue, dSkp2, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of dSkp2 by focusing on its functional relationship with Dacapo (Dap), the Drosophila homologue of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(cip1)/p27(kip1)/p57(kip2). We show that dSkp2 interacts physically with Dap and has a role in targeting Dap for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. We present evidence that dSkp2 regulates cell cycle progression by antagonizing Dap in vivo. dSkp2 knockdown reduces cell density in the wing by prolonging the cell doubling time. In addition, the wing phenotype caused by dSkp2 knockdown resembles that caused by dap overexpression and can be partially suppressed by reducing the gene dose of dap. Our study thus documents a conserved functional relationship between dSkp2 and Dap in their control of cell cycle progression, suggesting the possibility of using Drosophila as a model system to study Skp2-mediated tumorigenesis.

  9. Drosophila S2 cells secrete wingless on exosome-like vesicles but the wingless gradient forms independently of exosomes.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Karen; Monier, Solange; Palmer, Lucy; Alexandre, Cyrille; Green, Hannah; Bonneil, Eric; Raposo, Graca; Thibault, Pierre; Le Borgne, Roland; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Wingless acts as a morphogen in Drosophila wing discs, where it specifies cell fates and controls growth several cell diameters away from its site of expression. Thus, despite being acylated and membrane associated, Wingless spreads in the extracellular space. Recent studies have focussed on identifying the route that Wingless follows in the secretory pathway and determining how it is packaged for release. We have found that, in medium conditioned by Wingless-expressing Drosophila S2 cells, Wingless is present on exosome-like vesicles and that this fraction activates signal transduction. Proteomic analysis shows that Wingless-containing exosome-like structures contain many Drosophila proteins that are homologous to mammalian exosome proteins. In addition, Evi, a multipass transmembrane protein, is also present on exosome-like vesicles. Using these exosome markers and a cell-based RNAi assay, we found that the small GTPase Rab11 contributes significantly to exosome production. This finding allows us to conclude from in vivo Rab11 knockdown experiments, that exosomes are unlikely to contribute to Wingless secretion and gradient formation in wing discs. Consistent with this conclusion, extracellularly tagged Evi expressed from a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome is not released from imaginal disc Wingless-expressing cells.

  10. Centrosome misorientation mediates slowing of the cell cycle under limited nutrient conditions in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, Therese M; Chiang, C-Y Ason; Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Roth, Caitlin E; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2012-04-01

    Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) divide asymmetrically, balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Although asymmetric stem cell division balances between self-renewal and differentiation, it does not dictate how frequently differentiating cells must be produced. In male GSCs, asymmetric GSC division is achieved by stereotyped positioning of the centrosome with respect to the stem cell niche. Recently we showed that the centrosome orientation checkpoint monitors the correct centrosome orientation to ensure an asymmetric outcome of the GSC division. When GSC centrosomes are not correctly oriented with respect to the niche, GSC cell cycle is arrested/delayed until the correct centrosome orientation is reacquired. Here we show that induction of centrosome misorientation upon culture in poor nutrient conditions mediates slowing of GSC cell proliferation via activation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint. Consistently, inactivation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint leads to lack of cell cycle slowdown even under poor nutrient conditions. We propose that centrosome misorientation serves as a mediator that transduces nutrient information into stem cell proliferation, providing a previously unappreciated mechanism of stem cell regulation in response to nutrient conditions.

  11. Unipolar distributions of junctional Myosin II identify cell stripe boundaries that drive cell intercalation throughout Drosophila axis extension

    PubMed Central

    Tetley, Robert J; Blanchard, Guy B; Fletcher, Alexander G; Adams, Richard J; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Convergence and extension movements elongate tissues during development. Drosophila germ-band extension (GBE) is one example, which requires active cell rearrangements driven by Myosin II planar polarisation. Here, we develop novel computational methods to analyse the spatiotemporal dynamics of Myosin II during GBE, at the scale of the tissue. We show that initial Myosin II bipolar cell polarization gives way to unipolar enrichment at parasegmental boundaries and two further boundaries within each parasegment, concomitant with a doubling of cell number as the tissue elongates. These boundaries are the primary sites of cell intercalation, behaving as mechanical barriers and providing a mechanism for how cells remain ordered during GBE. Enrichment at parasegment boundaries during GBE is independent of Wingless signaling, suggesting pair-rule gene control. Our results are consistent with recent work showing that a combinatorial code of Toll-like receptors downstream of pair-rule genes contributes to Myosin II polarization via local cell-cell interactions. We propose an updated cell-cell interaction model for Myosin II polarization that we tested in a vertex-based simulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12094.001 PMID:27183005

  12. Klp10A, a stem cell centrosome-enriched kinesin, balances asymmetries in Drosophila male germline stem cell division

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cuie; Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric stem cell division is often accompanied by stereotypical inheritance of the mother and daughter centrosomes. However, it remains unknown whether and how stem cell centrosomes are uniquely regulated and how this regulation may contribute to stem cell fate. Here we identify Klp10A, a microtubule-depolymerizing kinesin of the kinesin-13 family, as the first protein enriched in the stem cell centrosome in Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs). Depletion of klp10A results in abnormal elongation of the mother centrosomes in GSCs, suggesting the existence of a stem cell-specific centrosome regulation program. Concomitant with mother centrosome elongation, GSCs form asymmetric spindle, wherein the elongated mother centrosome organizes considerably larger half spindle than the other. This leads to asymmetric cell size, yielding a smaller differentiating daughter cell. We propose that klp10A functions to counteract undesirable asymmetries that may result as a by-product of achieving asymmetries essential for successful stem cell divisions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20977.001 PMID:27885983

  13. Cell wound repair in Drosophila occurs through three distinct phases of membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Verboon, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    When single cells or tissues are injured, the wound must be repaired quickly in order to prevent cell death, loss of tissue integrity, and invasion by microorganisms. We describe Drosophila as a genetically tractable model to dissect the mechanisms of single-cell wound repair. By analyzing the expression and the effects of perturbations of actin, myosin, microtubules, E-cadherin, and the plasma membrane, we define three distinct phases in the repair process—expansion, contraction, and closure—and identify specific components required during each phase. Specifically, plasma membrane mobilization and assembly of a contractile actomyosin ring are required for this process. In addition, E-cadherin accumulates at the wound edge, and wound expansion is excessive in E-cadherin mutants, suggesting a role for E-cadherin in anchoring the actomyosin ring to the plasma membrane. Our results show that single-cell wound repair requires specific spatial and temporal cytoskeleton responses with distinct components and mechanisms required at different stages of the process. PMID:21518790

  14. PS integrins and laminins: key regulators of cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Jose M; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration.

  15. PS Integrins and Laminins: Key Regulators of Cell Migration during Drosophila Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Jose M.; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration. PMID:21949686

  16. The Drosophila nuclear lamina protein otefin is required for germline stem cell survival.

    PubMed

    Barton, Lacy J; Pinto, Belinda S; Wallrath, Lori L; Geyer, Pamela K

    2013-06-24

    LEM domain (LEM-D) proteins are components of an extensive protein network that assembles beneath the inner nuclear envelope. Defects in LEM-D proteins cause tissue-restricted human diseases associated with altered stem cell homeostasis. Otefin (Ote) is a Drosophila LEM-D protein that is intrinsically required for female germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance. Previous studies linked Ote loss with transcriptional activation of the key differentiation gene bag-of-marbles (bam), leading to the model in which Ote tethers the bam gene to the nuclear periphery for gene silencing. Using genetic and phenotypic analyses of multiple ote(-/-) backgrounds, we obtained evidence that is inconsistent with this model. We show that bam repression is maintained in ote(-/-) GSCs and that germ cell loss persists in ote(-/-), bam(-/-) mutants, together demonstrating that GSC loss is independent of bam transcription. We show that the primary defect in ote(-/-) GSCs is a block of differentiation, which ultimately leads to germ cell death.

  17. Hormonally controlled chloride movement across Drosophila tubules is via ion channels in stellate cells.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, M J; Rheault, M R; Davies, S A; Rosay, P; Harvey, B J; Maddrell, S H; Kaiser, K; Dow, J A

    1998-04-01

    Anion conductance across the Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubule was investigated by a combination of physiological and transgenic techniques. Patch-clamp recordings identified clusters of 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive "maxi-chloride" channels in a small domain of the apical membrane. Fluid secretion assays demonstrated sensitivity to the chloride channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid, diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, and niflumic acid. Electrophysiological analysis showed that the calcium-mediated increase in anion conductance was blocked by the same agents. Vibrating probe analysis revealed a small number of current density hot spots, coincident with "stellate" cells, that were abolished by low-chloride saline or the same chloride channel blockers. GAL-4-targeted expression of an aequorin transgene revealed that the neurohormone leucokinin elicits a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels in stellate cells that precedes the fastest demonstrable physiological effect. Taken together, these data show that leucokinins act on stellate cells through intracellular calcium to increase transcellular chloride conductance through channels. As electrogenic cation conductance is confined to principal cells, the two pathways are spatially segregated in this tissue.