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Sample records for drought ravaged south-eastern

  1. View of east Africa ravaged by drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of a portion of east Africa revaged by drought for the past five years is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The semi-desert scene is in southwestern Niger.

  2. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  3. Mapping of SPI drought index in South-Eastern Europe, theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihari, Z.; Szentimrey, T.; Lakatos, M.; Gregorič, G.; Likso, T.

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades drought has a major impact on the economy in South-Eastern Europe (SEE). The annual precipitation has decreased from the beginning of 20th century. Additional problem is that the intensity of precipitation increases in average. The part of runoff became larger, and greater part of the precipitation runs to the rivers, streamlets, and less part infiltrates into the soil. Therefore, the available water reduces for vegetation. Summarized, the drought tendency increases in the region. The Drought Management Centre for South East Europe was established to deal with these events and try to improve drought management and policy. One method to calculate the extent of a drought event is the application of drought indices. Several indices are used for this purpose, one of them is the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) developed by McKee et al. The SPI is based only on precipitation and can be used to monitor conditions on a variety of time scales. The SPI calculation for any location is based on long-term precipitation record for a desired period. This long-term record is fitted to a gamma probability distribution, which is then transformed into the standard normal distribution. In the practice SPI is calculated mainly for 1, 3, 6 months. The SPI calculator which is offered on the project page of DMCSEE is applied for SPI calculations in this study. For the interpolation of SPI we use the MISH interpolation method developed at Hungarian Meteorological Service (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis; Szentimrey, Bihari, 2007). The interpolation can be realized in to ways: 1. The SPI values are calculated in grid points after gridding (by gridding part of MISH) the station precipitation data series 2. The station based SPI values are interpolated by method MISH One of the main feature of MISH is that it use longtime data series for modelling of the necessary climate statistical parameters while the SPI calculations are also based

  4. Reservoir storage and hydrologic responses to droughts in the Paraná River basin, south-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Davi de C. D.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Zizhan; Wendland, Edson; Yin, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Droughts are particularly critical for Brazil because of impacts on water supply and because most (70 %) of its electricity is derived from hydroelectric generation. The Paraná basin (PB), a major hydroelectric producing region with 32 % (60 million people) of Brazil's population, recently experienced the most severe drought since the 1960s, compromising the water supply for 11 million people in São Paulo. The objective of this study is to quantify linkages between meteorological and hydrological droughts based on remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data using the Paraná River basin in south-eastern Brazil as a case study. Two major meteorological droughts were identified in the early 2000s and 2014, with precipitation 20-50 % below the long-term mean. Total water storage change estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites declined by 150 km3 between April 2011 and April 2015. Simulated soil moisture storage declined during the droughts, resulting in decreased runoff into reservoirs. As a result, reservoir storage decreased by 30 % relative to the system's maximum capacity, with negative trends ranging from 17 (May 1997-April 2001) to 25 km3 yr-1 (May 2011-April 2015). Storage in upstream reservoirs is mostly controlled by natural climate forcing, whereas storage in downstream reservoirs also reflects dam operations. This study emphasizes the importance of integrating remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data to evaluate droughts and to establish a preliminary understanding of the linkages between a meteorological and hydrological drought for future management.

  5. Extreme Historical Droughts in the South-Eastern Alps — Analyses Based on Standardised Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-10-01

    Droughts are natural phenomena affecting the environment and human activities. There are various drought definitions and quantitative indices; among them is the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). In the drought investigations, historical events are poorly characterised and little data are available. To decipher past drought appearances in the southeastern Alps with a focus on Slovenia, precipitation data from HISTALP data repository were taken to identify extreme drought events (SPI ≤ -2.00) from the second half of the 19th century to the present day. Several long-term extreme drought crises were identified in the region (between the years 1888 and 1896; after World War I, during and after World War II). After 1968, drought patterns detected with SPI changed: shorter, extreme droughts with different time patterns appeared. SPI indices of different time spans showed correlated structures in space and between each other, indicating structured relations.

  6. Hydrothermal conditions of South Eastern Siberia under the ongoing warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropay, N. N.; Maksyutova, E. V.; Riazanova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A great increase in air temperature has been observed since 1976. Siberia is a region with most severe ongoing climate change. To monitor the extreme weather events is important. To evaluate moisture conditions we used the D.A. Ped index (Si). Monthly air temperature and precipitation data from 19 weather stations of South Eastern Siberia (50-60° N 90-120° E) were used for the index calculation during the vegetation period. During 1976-2010 the number of droughts in the study region was more than the number of excessive moisture periods. The maximal statistically significant trend (0.4-0.6 per 10 years) in Eastern Siberia was observed in May. The characteristics of the winter-spring period preceding the vegetation season were analyzed. Significant positive trends exist in the study area for the May temperature (0.5-0.9 °C per 10 years) and the May sum of positive temperatures (14-28 °C per 10 years). There are tendencies to increase the number of days with temperatures above zero in March (1-3 days per 10 years) and the sum of positive temperatures in April (5-16 °C per 10 years). The stable transition of air temperature over 0 °C shifts into early dates by 1-7 days every 10 years.

  7. Portraits of Innovative Vocational Schools in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldroyd, David, Ed.; Nielsen, Soren, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The reform of South Eastern European country vocational education and training (VET) systems has been underway for more than a decade. Initially major efforts focused on reforming the curricula of the vocational schools and training centres to align them better with the rapidly changing needs of the labour market and society. Later the focus moved…

  8. Towards CONFINTEA VI: Lifelong Learning Advocacy in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Anelia

    2007-01-01

    Adult learning is a field that has so far been neglected in education and training reforms in South Eastern European countries and territories but which is beginning to emerge as an important policy area. Further efforts are needed to foster national policy debate about the importance of lifelong learning (and adult education as a vital component…

  9. 33 CFR 167.154 - Off New York: South-eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.154 Off New York: South-eastern approach... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: South-eastern approach. 167.154 Section 167.154 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  11. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  12. The unexpected finding of Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis in south-eastern Romania (Insecta, Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Iorgu, Elena Iulia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Balkano-Anatolian genus Parapholidoptera comprises 21 species and the westernmost one, Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis, previously recognized to occur in western Turkey, north-eastern Greece and south-eastern Bulgaria is recorded for the first time from south-eastern Romania, almost 300 km away from the closest known locality. Illustrations and measurements of morphological characters are given and the male calling song from this new, northernmost population is described. PMID:28144178

  13. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  14. Urinary calculous disease in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekwere, P D

    1995-09-01

    Prospective observations are reported on 96 South Eastern Nigerians with urinary calculi, during a five year period. An overall hospital incidence of 19.1 per 100,000, and male: female ratio of 2.7:1, were obtained. There were 79% upper-urinary tract stones and 21% lower-tract stones. Thirty-two per cent of the patients were idiopathic stone formers. Other associated aetiologic factors include obstructive uropathy (29%), UTI (30%) prolonged catheterisation (9%), hyperuricaemia (6%), foreign body in the bladder (3.8%) and hyperparathyroidism (2.5%). The lower socio-economic group accounted for 55% of the patients. Fifty three (55%) stones were removed surgically whilst 38% (45%) were passed spontaneously. Mean size of the latter was 6.3 mm +/- 1.6 mm, and of the former 17.7 mm +/- 9.5 mm. Five patients did not know when they passed the stones. Clinical features were similar to other reported series but six females had pyonephrosis, one with nephrocutaneous fistula. One urethral stone was recovered from a periurethral abscess. Infection and dietary intake appear to be important aetiologic agents. Ninety-eight per cent of stones contained calcium. Other components were similar to other reported series, but it was not possible to detect any case of cystinuria. The relatively high incidence in contrast to most other Nigerian centres may be due to high consumption of calcium/magnesium-rich sea foods and vegetables, as well as the soft water of the South-East. Endemic bladder stones were absent in the series. The close similarity with caucasian stone patterns is a curiosity and of particular interest, deserving further elucidation.

  15. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  16. The Role of NGOs in Environmental Education in South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnock, David

    2004-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs) are playing an important role in environmental education in South-eastern Europe. Although some organisations appeared to compromise themselves by becoming political parties, others did useful work in debating ecological issues, working on environmental projects and increasing public awareness.…

  17. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  18. Fundamental tree growth processes severely suffer from water stress. The example of Pinus halepensis Mill. in South-eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Francois; Vennetier, Michel; Ouarmim, Samira; Caraglio, Yves; Misson, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Plant architecture processes are commonly neglected in the studies about climate change impact. In terms of biomass, primary growth (i.e. lateral and principal twig growth) and leaf production are far more important than secondary growth (i.e. radial growth). Polycyclism, or the ability for a plant to produce several flushes in the same growth season, is a key process of plant development. Aleppo pine is a good model to study polycyclism: it is known to produce up to four annual flushes in one growth season: one to three in spring and sometimes one after summer drought. Architectural development i.e. ranching rate, annual branch length growth and number of needles and fruiting are positively correlated with the production of multiple flushes per year. These tree growth processes are likely to be impacted by the anticipated climate trend over the next century, particularly repeated and more severe water stresses, However, Aleppo pine architecture is not well-described in the literature and an important lack of knowledge prevents any possible prediction for the 21st century. Thus, the objectives of this study were (i) to describe architectural processes on Aleppo pine in the Mediterranean region for the last 15 years, (ii) to untangle interrelationship between climate and twig status in the evolution of tree architecture and (iii) to look for a possible impact of climate change. Since 1998, climate was far hotter and drier than normal in South-eastern France: each process of tree architecture was significantly affected, particularly after 2003 heat-wave, which delayed effect remains till 2008, exacerbated by repeated droughts. Morphologically, polycyclism is primarily influenced by twig vigour, hierarchy and position (low, middle or top crown). Climatically, tree architectural development for a given year depends mainly on water availability in preceding growth season and to a less extent on rainfall during winter and summer temperatures of current and preceding year

  19. [The ravages of environmental deterioration in Third World cities].

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1990-10-01

    the Sahel, 2.6%, is below the 2.9% of Africa as a whole but is still high enough to fuel rapid urban growth. Years of drought and desertification have led to a continuous influx of indigents into already overcrowded cities. Sahelian cities had little interest until recently in urban planning, and environmental and urban codes are very recent. Sahelian cities lack the capacity to collect and process more than a small proportion of their sewage and garbage. The rural newcomers by and large lack habits of cleanliness. The migrants will eventually adapt to the requirements of life in the city, but it is not so certain that the cities will be able to adapt to the influx of rural migrants and to the lack of financial resources needed to confront severe existing and future problems.

  20. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  1. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Eric J.; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A.; McInnes, Allison S.; Waite, Anya M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180–250 O2 μmol.kg-1) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  2. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems.

  3. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  4. Health in south-eastern Europe: a troubled past, an uncertain future.

    PubMed Central

    Rechel, Bernd; Schwalbe, Nina; McKee, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The political and economic turmoil that occurred in south-eastern Europe in the last decade of the twentieth century left a legacy of physical damage. This aspect of the conflict has received considerable coverage in the media. However, surprisingly less has been reported about the effects of that turmoil on the health of the people living in the region. In an attempt to identify and synthesize data on these effects, we carried out a systematic review and used the results to put together a searchable online database of documents, reports, and published material, the majority of which have not previously been easily accessible (http:// www.lshtm.ac.uk/ecohost/see/index.php). The database covers the period from the early 1990s to 2003 and will be of considerable interest to policy-makers. It contains 762 items, many of them annotated and available for downloading. This paper synthesizes the main findings obtained from the material in the database and emphasizes the need for concerted action to improve the health of people in south-eastern Europe. Furthermore, we also recommend that agencies working in post-conflict situations should invest in developing and maintaining online databases that would be useful to others working in the area. PMID:15500286

  5. Early winter mesozooplankton of the coastal south-eastern Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Barents Sea (Pechora Sea) is a little studied region of the Russian Arctic. We investigated mesozooplankton community of this area in early winter period for the first time. The study was based on collections performed with a Juday net (168 μm) in November 2010. Three types of stations differing in mesozooplankton composition and abundance were revealed by non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses. Taxa richness and diversity of the mesozooplankton were high. The total abundance and biomass varied from 931 to 4360 individuals m-3 and from 4.0 to 64.2 mg dry mass m-3, respectively. Maximum density of mesozooplankton was located in the hydrographical frontal zone where cold and warm waters interacted. Copepods dominated in terms of the total abundance. Abundances of major taxa were strongly correlated with environmental variables, of which temperature, salinity and depth were the most important. Previous studies showed that many mesozooplankton are in a dormant state during the Arctic winter from October to April. However, our investigation found young copepodites to be present for many of the common copepod species, which suggests successful reproduction of some opportunistic taxa (Pseudocalanus, Acartia, Temora, Oithona) and that the small copepod community was in an active phase. The main factor influencing possible development of the copepods in the south-eastern Barents Sea was river run-off which supplied plankton with detritus and suspended organic matter.

  6. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  7. Divergent responses of fire to recent climate change: evidence from bio-regional patterns across south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstock, R.; Boer, M.; Penman, T.; Price, O.

    2012-04-01

    Fire activity is dependent on the growth of biomass (fuel), sufficient dryness of biomass (availability to burn), weather condition such as temperature, wind and humidity (rate of fire spread) and ignitions (natural or human caused). Differing fire regimes are predicted to emerge from differing syndromes of limitation by these fundamental drivers. These processes are in turn governed by complex relationships with vegetation and climate, as well as human populations. Fire regimes should therefore vary systematically across biophysical gradients as highlighted in recent, global analyses of fire patterns. In particular, fire in dry ecosystems may be fundamentally constrained by the growth of herbaceous biomass (fuel limitation), whereas in mesic, forested ecosystems the principal constraint on fire is predicted to be availability to burn (i.e. episodes where litter fuels derived form dominant woody plants are sufficiently dry to burn). This means fire oocurs primarily in response to rain in arid ecosystems (i.e. promotion of herbage growth) and, alternatively, to drought in mesic ecosystems (i.e. drying of fuel beds). These contrasting syndromes of fire provide scope for divergent responses to warmer and drier conditions under climate change, with fire potentially declining in arid ecosystems and increasing in mesic ecosystems as a result. We tested this prediction by examining the response of area burned from 1975 to 2009 across 32 bioregions covering south-eastern Australia, using mapped data derived from land and fire management archives. This range extends from arid grasslands through woodlands and sclerophyll forests to rainforests in the mesic, coastal fringe. Recent research has highlighted an increase in the severity of fire weather (i.e. annual sum of daily fire danger index) for the corresponding period across the part of the continent. We found that area burned tended to remain static or declined in semi-arid and arid bio-regions. By contrast in forested

  8. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  9. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  10. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria; A 15 Years Histopathologic Review (2000-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ukekwe, FI; Olusina, DB; Banjo, AAF; Akinde, OR; Nzegwu, MA; Okafor, OC; Ocheni, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has brought about a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries. Previous studies on TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) in South-Eastern Nigeria were done before the advent of the HIV pandemic making a review pertinent. Aim: To evaluate the role of TBLN as a cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in the post-HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) era of South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15 years (2000-2014) retrospective review of all superficial lymph node biopsies (SLNBs) received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One hundred and seventy-two cases of TBLN were identified in this study constituting 14.6% (172/1,180) of SLNBs received at our Hospital's Morbid Anatomy Department during the 15 years period under review. Twenty-eight cases of TBLN were clinically screened for HIV, 23 of which tested positive, representing 82.1% (23/28) of clinically screened cases. Acid fast bacilli demonstration was positive in 15.1% (26/172) of cases using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. 48.8% (84/172) of TBLN cases were males, and 51.2% (88/172) were females with most (22) cases received in 2012 and least (5) cases in 2000. Most TBLN occurred in the 21-25 years age group with a total of 21.5% (37/172) of cases and a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 The most common biopsy site for TBLN was the cervical group followed by the axillary and inguinal groups with 73.8% (127/172), 14% (24/172), and 4.7% (8/172) of cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a remarkable decline in the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria indicating a change in trend from the pre- to the post-HIV/AIDS era with slightly more females now presenting with TBLN and most TB lymphadenitis patients now presenting with associated HIV/AIDS disease. There is an urgent need to provide modern diagnostic facilities in our medical

  11. Sexual and alcohol risk behaviours of immigrant Latino men in the South-eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Griffith, Derek M; Yee, Leland J; Zometa, Carlos S; Montaño, Jaime; Vissman, Aaron T

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the USA. Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants' photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men's sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development.

  12. Sexual and Alcohol Risk Behaviours of Immigrant Latino Men in the South-eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    RHODES, SCOTT D.; HERGENRATHER, KENNETH C.; GRIFFITH, DEREK; YEE, LELAND J.; ZOMETA, CARLOS S.; MONTAÑO, JAIME; VISSMAN, ARRON T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity, and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the United States (USA). Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants’ photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men’s sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development. PMID:19234948

  13. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Venchi, Alberto; Wilson, Steve K; Borsboom, Adrian C

    2015-07-24

    A new species of blind snake is described from south-eastern Queensland, eastern Australia. Anilios insperatus sp. nov. differs from all of its congeners in having:16 scales around the body; 442 paravertebral scales; snout slightly trilobed from above and bluntly angular in profile; small, inconspicuous eyes, located within the ocular scale at its junction with the preocular and the supraocular scales; and uniform light colouration. The unique specimen was collected from pasture that was formally Queensland regional ecosystem 12.8.24, a eucalypt dominated ecosystem currently listed as endangered. The site is less than 100 km from Queensland's capital, Brisbane. Given the locality, habitat and absence of additional specimens, the species is probably of conservation concern.

  14. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  15. Background concentrations and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in south-eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestenius, Mika; Leppänen, Sirkka; Anttila, Pia; Kyllönen, Katriina; Hatakka, Juha; Hellén, Heidi; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Hakola, Hannele

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds) were measured in the PM 10 fraction [from ambient air] at Virolahti, Finland. The sampling site is located in a rural area in the south-eastern corner of Finland, near the Russian border. Altogether, 51 daily and 85 weekly filter samples were collected in 2007-2008. The yearly average concentration of benzo(a)pyrene at Virolahti in 2007 was 0.21 ng m -3, which is well below the annual target value of 1 ng m -3 set by the European Union. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied in source apportionment for daily PAH data combined with other pollutant data. A three-factor solution of the PMF analysis with 28 components was chosen. These three factors were identified as long-range transported secondary particles (F1), combustion (F2) and a sea-salt factor (F3). The conditional probability function (CPF) was used to combine wind direction sectors with the PMF factors. In cases F1 and F2, pollutants mainly originated from the south-east, whereas pollutants in F3 came from the south-western sector. PAHs entered into the combustion factor 2 together with SO 2, NO x, black carbon and potassium. This suggests that the PAHs at Virolahti originated from traffic and industrial pollution, as well as biomass burning. Elevated concentrations occurred throughout the winter period and most frequently originated from the south-eastern sector between 90°-135°. This sector includes, among other transboundary areas, the metropolis of St. Petersburg at a distance of 160 km.

  16. Holocene denudation pattern across the South-Eastern Australian Escarpment and implications for its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, Vincent; Dosseto, Anthony; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Fleury, Jules; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Developing a process based understanding of continental relief evolution requires to quantify rates of denudation and to compare their distribution with the evolution of geomorphic parameters. The analysis of denudation and exhumation spatial patterns based from cosmogenic nuclides and low temperature thermochronology are routinely used to document the processes associated with the geomorphic evolution of continental relief over various timescales. Passive margin escarpments are among some of the most salient continental geomorphic features outside of orogenic areas. Their evolution have been studied intensively over the long-term (several Ma to tens of Ma), using for example low-temperature thermochronology. However, datasets documenting their shorter-term (1-10 ka) dynamics are scarcer, and only a limited number of case studies have used quantitative techniques such as cosmogenic nuclides to document the denudation pattern across such escarpments. The South Eastern Australian Escarpment is such a place where cosmogenic nuclides have been intensively used over the last two decades to constrain processes of landscape evolution over short wavelength, with, for example the calibration of the soil production function. Such existing data and constraints provide an ideal setting to carry on further long-wavelength exploration of the dynamics of the whole escarpment. We have sampled 17 catchments across the South Eastern Australian Escarpment, starting from the coastal plain and moving westward up to the low relief plateau surface. The observed landscape denudation rates are 10-20 mm/ka in the coastal area and progressively increases up to ~60 mm/ka toward the edge of the escarpment. In the low-relief areas located west of the continental drainage divide denudation rates fall back to 10-20 mm/ka. This nearly four-fold contrast in denudation across the divide is characteristic of a major disequilibrium in the dynamics of the river network associated with a progressive

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi; Dim, Cyril Chukwudi; Menuba, Ifeanyi Emmanuel; Iloghalu, Emeka Ifeanyi; Onwuka, Chidozie Ifechi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major public health problem because of the enormous deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is among the highest per capita rates of alcohol consumption in the world, thus suggesting a high burden of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) in the sub-region. Despite this, there is limited data on alcohol exposed pregnancies for most SSA countries including Nigeria. Aim To determine the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study of 380 consecutive consenting parturients accessing antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. The information sought for, included the women’s socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use in pregnancy, awareness of the harmful effects of alcohol on the babies including FASD, sources of initial information on awareness, type and quantity of alcohol ingested, reasons for taking alcohol and willingness to stop alcohol ingestion in pregnancy after counseling on the risk of alcohol use in pregnancy. Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of alcohol consumption in pregnancy was 22.6%. The most common brand of alcoholic beverage consumed was stout beer (62.8%, 54/86). A total of 135 (35.5%) respondents were aware that alcohol is harmful to the fetus. Maternal age 30 years or less, nulliparity, less than tertiary education, pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and lack of awareness of the harmful effect of alcohol on the fetus, were associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy (p< 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among women in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria is high and lack of awareness of harmful effect of alcohol on fetus was a major

  18. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Rowell, David M.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  19. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-02-29

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes 'scale-up' to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five 'microgeographic regions' at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection.

  20. Rock glaciers, protalus ramparts and pronival ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, R. R.; Boccali, C.; Žebre, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers for the occurrence of permafrost in mountain terrains. As such, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first previously unreported rock glacier inventory of the south-eastern Alps (including the north-eastern-most region of Italy and Slovenia), interpreted from high resolution orthophotos and a high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1708 and 1846 m a.s.l. with slope ranging between 19° and 27°. In addition to rock glaciers we observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts, having median elevation of 1913 m a.s.l. and covering 0.48 km2. More than half of the inventoried protalus ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps with higher precipitation compared to the location of rock glaciers. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the 1981-2010 climatological record of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Possible evolution of the active pronival forms observed in the most maritime area of this alpine sector is also discussed.

  1. The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Cohen, T.; Kiernan, K.; Woodward, C.; Barrows, T.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Kemp, J.; Haworth, R.; Clark, D. H.; Gontz, A. M.; Chang, J.; Mueller, D.; Slee, A.; Ellerton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glaciation Maximum (c. 25-18 kyr) in south-eastern Australia has traditionally been regarded as both significantly colder than the present and much more arid. This was based on a variety of evidence including the dramatic reduction in tree pollen and dune activity in currently humid areas such as the Blue Mountains of NSW. Maintaining arid conditions under significantly lower temperatures is quite challenging and not all lines of evidence supported strong aridity. Over the last four years an ARC project has worked to develop new lines of evidence to test these inferences. Outcomes from the project indicate that winter temperatures were significantly colder than at present (an 8-11 C decrease) while summer temperatures were cooler but not as extreme (4-6.5 C). Moisture balances appear to have been more positive than present along the eastern highlands, while areas to the west were comparatively drier. The humid zone along the divide maintained at least seasonally stronger flows in the major rivers, meaning that water was more available in western districts than under modern climates. I will summarise the evidence for this new pattern and highlight the climatological patterns that would be consistent with the reconstruction. I will conclude by speculating on the implications for both human landscape use and what happened to the vegetation.

  2. Distribution and sources of organic matter in sediments of the south-eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeikaitė-Nikienė, Nijolė; Lujanienė, Galina; Malejevas, Vitalijus; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Žilius, Mindaugas; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Stankevičius, Algirdas

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial distribution of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) as well as its sources in the south-eastern Baltic Sea were investigated. Organic matter was characterized by the organic carbon content, δ13C and δ15N signatures and C/N ratios. The sampling was performed in the coastal, offshore areas and in the Curonian Lagoon in the period from May 2012 to September 2014. The average elemental (C/N ~ 6.4) and isotopic composition (δ13C from - 29.6‰ to - 24.9‰) of SOM suggested that during most of the year it was composed of both freshwater and marine phytoplanktonic material. Elevated δ15N values (average ranging from 5.6‰ to 6.7‰) were detected in SOM from the Curonian Lagoon. This most likely reflected the increased isotopic signal of the Nemunas River (δ15N ~ 8‰) derived from the anthropogenic input in the basin area. At the Baltic Sea offshore sites, SOM had lower δ15N values (δ15N ~ 3.5‰ on average), indicating phytoplankton blooms. A two-end member mixing model based on the carbon stable isotopic composition showed that a large proportion (~ 90%) of SOM in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon was of the freshwater origin. The allochthonous organic matter accounted for about 47% of SOM in the studied Baltic Sea area with the highest contribution (about 75%) within the Curonian Lagoon plume zone in the coastal waters.

  3. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C; Bronner, Gary N; Wilson, John W; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5-3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity.

  4. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C.; Bronner, Gary N.; Wilson, John W.; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5–3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity. PMID:26683828

  5. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  6. Building links between town and gown: an innovative organisation in south-eastern Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant; Mathews, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Primary care is the foundation of a nation's health care system. Real world research is a requirement of a health system built to deliver the benefits of a strong primary care community. In the last decade, new approaches to optimising the impact of research on practice and policy have been formulated across disciplines. However, in Australia, the primary care research community remains small and primary care researchers are not well represented in either receiving support for or governing research. While practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have brought GPs and, sometimes, other clinicians together with academics, few have managed to bring local decision makers and other primary health care stakeholders into partnerships where they can work together on common problems. This paper outlines a novel three-way partnership between a health authority, a primary care organisation and a university in the south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne. A case study was undertaken based on author experience of the Southern Academic Primary Care Research Unit (SAPCRU) and semi-structured interviews with representatives from partner organisations. Interviews elicited perceived barriers and facilitators, including complex financial, human resources and governance challenges, associated with bridging the gap between research and practice. It was found that SAPCRU has been successful in engaging with research partners and has begun to develop links with policy makers and orient research themes to the needs of its varied communities. Especially with the introduction of Primary Health Networks (PHNs), the model has the potential to translate to different settings but barriers should be noted.

  7. A warm thermal enclave in the late Pleistocene of the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Russell, Dale A; Rich, Fredrick J; Schneider, Vincent; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2009-05-01

    Physical and biological evidence supports the probable existence of an enclave of relatively warm climate located between the Southern Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean in the United States during the Last Glacial Maximum. The region supported a mosaic of forest and prairie habitats inhabited by a "Floridian" ice-age biota. Plant and vertebrate remains suggest an ecological gradient towards Cape Hatteras (35 degreesN) wherein forests tended to replace prairies, and browsing proboscideans tended to replace grazing proboscideans. Beyond 35 degreesN, warm waters of the Gulf Stream were deflected towards the central Atlantic, and a cold-facies biota replaced "Floridian" biota on the Atlantic coastal plain. Because of niche diversity and relatively benign climate, biodiversity may have been greater in the south-eastern thermal enclave than in other unglaciated areas of North America. However, the impact of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may also have been shorter and more severe in the enclave than further north. A comparison with biotic changes that occurred in North America approximately 55 million years (ma) ago at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum suggests that similar processes of change took place under both ice-house and greenhouse climates.

  8. Helminth communities of Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Atlantic rainforest, south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, G M; Morais, D H; Silva, R J; Anjos, L A

    2015-03-01

    The helminth fauna associated with Leptodactylus latrans, a large frog living in a disturbed environment of Atlantic rainforest in south-eastern Brazil, was evaluated. We found eight helminth taxa, including five nematode species, Falcaustra mascula, Oswaldocruzia subauricularis, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp. and an unidentified cosmocercid, two trematodes, Gorgoderina parvicava and Haematoloechus fuelleborni, and one larval cestode. The overall prevalence of infection was 63.2% with a mean intensity of 11.3 ± 3.8. The cosmocercid nematode and O. subauricularis showed the highest prevalences, although the trematode G. parvicava was the most abundant and dominant parasite species. Host size positively influenced both the intensity of infection and parasite species richness. Our data suggest that the juvenile individuals of L. latrans are more susceptible to parasitic infection than the adults. The comparison of the similarity of this community component with that found in other studies in South America shows that, as well as the characteristics of the host, the sampling area also influences the parasitic fauna. Therefore, the results of this study agree that the helminth communities of frogs have relatively low species richness and dominance of generalist species.

  9. Downscaling an Eddy-Resolving Global Model for the Continental Shelf off South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, M.; Baird, M.; MacDonald, H.; Oke, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Australian Bluelink collaboration between CSIRO, the Bureau of Meteorology and the Royal Australian Navy has made available to the research community the output of BODAS (Bluelink ocean data assimilation system), an ensemble optimal interpolation reanalysis system with ~10 km resolution around Australia. Within the Bluelink project, BODAS fields are assimilated into a dynamic ocean model of the same resolution to produce BRAN (BlueLink ReANalysis, a hindcast of water properties around Australia from 1992 to 2004). In this study, BODAS hydrographic fields are assimilated into a ~ 3 km resolution Princeton Ocean Model (POM) configuration of the coastal ocean off SE Australia. Experiments were undertaken to establish the optimal strength and duration of the assimilation of BODAS fields into the 3 km resolution POM configuration for the purpose of producing hindcasts of ocean state. It is shown that the resultant downscaling of Bluelink products is better able to reproduce coastal features, particularly velocities and hydrography over the continental shelf off south eastern Australia. The BODAS-POM modelling system is used to provide a high-resolution simulation of the East Australian Current over the period 1992 to 2004. One of the applications that we will present is an investigation of the seasonal and inter-annual variability in the dispersion of passive particles in the East Australian Current. The practical outcome is an estimate of the connectivity of estuaries along the coast of southeast Australia, which is relevant for the dispersion of marine pests.

  10. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  11. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  12. Trace fossil assemblages in the tide-dominated estuarine system: Ameki Group, south-eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekwenye, O. C.; Nichols, G.; Okogbue, C. O.; Mode, A. W.

    2016-06-01

    A systematic ichnological analysis with sedimentological study of the Eocene Ameki Group in south-eastern Nigeria, was conducted to infer depositional and biogenic processes operating during basin fill, identify discontinuities using substrate controlled ichnofacies, and identify the paleocological conditions that affected the diversity of the trace fossils. The Ameki Group represents a tide-dominated estuarine system characterised by a range of trace fossils assemblages. Eighteen individual ichnogenera and nineteen ichnospecies observed in the study area, were grouped into six recurring ichnofacies namely Scoyenia, Psilonichnus, Skolithos, Cruziana, Glossifungites and Teredolites. Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies are predominant in the estuarine deposits indicating that the sedimentary successions of the Eocene are dominantly of moderate to high energy marginal marine environments. The estuarine deposits (senus stricto) were controlled by low to fluctuating salinity levels, high sedimentation rate and fluctuating hydrodynamic energy. These resulted in the occurrence of low diversity of Scoyenia and Teredolites ichnofacies and low to moderate ichnodiversity of mixed Skolithos and depauperate Cruziana ichnofacies. Low levels of dissolved oxygen in quiescent water-embayment (open estuarine) resulted in low diversity of impoverished Cruziana ichnofacies. Glossifungites ichnofacies marked an amalgamated sequence boundary/marine flooding and an initial flooding surface at the base of the tidally influenced fluvial deposits.

  13. Recent slowdown and thinning of debris-covered glaciers in south-eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Niklas; Loibl, David; Rankl, Melanie

    2017-04-01

    Recent large-scale remote sensing studies have shown that glacier mass loss in south-eastern Tibet, specifically in the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range exceeds the average in High Asia. However, detailed studies at individual glaciers are scarce and the drivers behind the observed changes are poorly constrained to date. Employing feature tracking techniques on TerraSAR-X data for the periods 2008/2009, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 we found measurable surface velocities through to the glacier terminus positions of five debris-covered glacier tongues. This is contrary to debris-covered glaciers in other parts of High Asia, where stagnant glacier tongues are common. Our feature tracking results for the 2013/2014 period suggest an average deceleration of 51% when compared with published Landsat velocities for the period 1999/2003. Further, we estimated surface elevation changes for the five glaciers from recently released one arc second resolution elevation data obtained during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 2000 and an interferometrical derived TanDEM-X elevation model for the year 2014. With an average rate of -0.83 ± 0.57 m a-1 we confirm strong surface lowering in the region, despite the widely discussed insulation effect of debris cover. Beside the influence of thermokarst processes and delayed response times of debris-covered glaciers, we highlight that abundant monsoonal summer rainfall might contribute significantly to the pronounced negative mass balances in the study region.

  14. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  15. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nel, H A; Froneman, P W

    2015-12-15

    The extent of microplastic pollution (<5mm) in the southern hemisphere, particularly southern Africa, is largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa, looking at whether bays are characterised by higher microplastic densities than open stretches of coastline in both beach sediment and surf-zone water. Microplastic (mean ± standard error) densities in the beach sediment ranged between 688.9 ± 348.2 and 3308 ± 1449 particles · m(-2), while those in the water column varied between 257.9 ± 53.36 and 1215 ± 276.7 particles · m(-3). With few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in either the sediment or water column microplastic densities; with little differences in density between bays and the open coast (P>0.05). These data indicate that the presence of microplastics were not associated with proximity to land-based sources or population density, but rather is governed by water circulation.

  16. A Prospective Cohort Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Risk and Opium Addiction in South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by χ2 and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

  17. Copro-PCR prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs in Kerman, south-eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirbadie, S R; Kamyabi, H; Mohammadi, M A; Shamsaddini, S; Harandi, M F

    2017-01-30

    The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of taeniid parasites and the specific detection of Echinococcus granulosus using copro-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in the stray dogs of Kerman, south-eastern Iran. From September 2013 to May 2014, faecal samples of stray dogs were collected from different parts of the city of Kerman and its suburbs. Faecal samples from dogs were collected randomly within 24 h of defecation. All samples were transferred to the research lab and coprological examinations were conducted by the formalin-ether concentration method. In the microscopically positive samples, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) specific primers were used to determine the taeniid identity of the infection. In addition, another set of primers was used for the specific diagnosis of E. granulosus sensu lato. In total, 307 faecal samples from stray dogs were examined for the presence of the parasites. Taeniidae eggs were detected in 34 dogs (11.07%). All 34 taeniid-positive specimens were PCR positive for cox1 (444 bp). Of all taeniid-positive specimens, 21 samples (6.8% of all dog specimens) were positive according to primers specific for E. granulosus. The findings of the present study revealed that canine echinococcosis is prevalent in the stray dogs in Kerman. The findings of the present study have important implications for hydatid control programmes in the area.

  18. Hydrogeological impacts of a railway tunnel in fractured Precambrian gneiss rocks (south-eastern Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kværner, Jens; Snilsberg, Petter

    2013-11-01

    Groundwater monitoring along the Romeriksporten tunnel, south-eastern Norway, provided an opportunity for studying the impacts of tunnelling on groundwater in fractured Precambrian gneiss rocks, and examining relations between bedrock hydrology, tectonic weakness zones and catchments. Tunnel leakage resulted in groundwater drawdown up to 35 m in weakness zones, converted groundwater discharge zones into recharge zones, and affected groundwater chemistry. The magnitude of drawdown and fluctuations in groundwater level differed between weakness zones, and varied with distance from the tunnel route, tunnel leakage, and recharge from catchments. Clear differences in groundwater level and fluctuation patterns indicated restricted groundwater flow between weakness zones. The groundwater drawdowns demonstrated coherent water-bearing networks to 180-m depth in faults and fracture zones. Similar groundwater levels with highly correlated fluctuations demonstrated hydraulic connectivity within fracture zones. Different groundwater drawdown and leakage in weakness zones with different appearance and influence of tectonic events demonstrated the importance of the geological history for bedrock hydrogeology. Water injection into the bedrock counteracted groundwater drawdowns. Even moderate leakage to underground constructions may lead to large groundwater drawdown in areas with small groundwater recharge. Hydrogeological interpretation of tectonic weakness zones should occur in the context of geological history and local catchment hydrology.

  19. Economic Burden of Road Traffic Accidents; Report from a Single Center from South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sargazi, Aliyeh; Sargazi, Atefeh; Nadakkavukaran Jim, Prigil Kumar; Danesh, HoseinAli; Aval, ForoughSargolzaee; Kiani, Zohre; Lashkarinia, AmirHosein; Sepehri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the economic burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in patients admitted to a single center in south eastern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during a 12-month period from April 2012 to April 2013. All the RTAs patients who were admitted to our emergency department were included. The direct expenses of hospital care were recorded according to their medical charts and the accountant registration information. Data are presented according to different RTAs characteristics. Results: Overall 1155 patients were included in the current study with mean age of 36.7 ± 5.14 years among whom there were 673(58.3%) men and 482 (41.7%) women. The annual incidence of RTAs were calculated to be 288 per 100,000 population. The RTAs economic burden in our center was 589,448.49 USD which accounted for 10.4% of total hospital expenses during the study period. The money spend on RTAs in our center was 130 times more than gross national income per capita. Cost of each patient in road traffic was 15 times more than cost of an average patient of the hospital in other sections. Conclusion: With considerable high ratio of accidents in Zabol, proper intervention is needed for controlling and preventing RTAs in order to decrease its injuries, impact and the associated economic burden. PMID:27162926

  20. Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in south-eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At primary care facilities in Nigeria, national treatment guidelines state that malaria should be symptomatically diagnosed and treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Evidence from households and health care providers indicates that many patients do not receive the recommended treatment. This study sought to determine the extent of the problem by collecting data as patients and caregivers leave health facilities, and determine what influences the treatment received. Methods A cross-sectional cluster survey of 2,039 respondents exiting public health centres, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers was undertaken in urban and rural settings in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria. Results Although 79% of febrile patients received an anti-malarial, only 23% received an ACT. Many patients (38%) received sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). A further 13% of patients received an artemisinin-derivative as a monotherapy. An estimated 66% of ACT dispensed was in the correct dose. The odds of a patient receiving an ACT was highly associated with consumer demand (OR: 55.5, p < 0.001). Conclusion Few febrile patients attending public health facilities, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers received an ACT, and the use of artemisinin-monotherapy and less effective anti-malarials is concerning. The results emphasize the importance of addressing both demand and supply-side influences on malaria treatment and the need for interventions that target consumer preferences as well as seek to improve health service provision. PMID:21651787

  1. Guild composition and habitat use of voles in 2 forest landscapes in south-eastern Norway.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Lucrezia; Linnell, John D C; Boitani, Luigi; Hauptmann, Ulrike; Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per; Nilsen, Erlend B

    2011-12-01

    It is widely believed that intensive forestry has influenced small mammal population dynamics, and thereby the entire mammalian community in Fennoscandian boreal forests. The nature of these impacts on the different species is subject to debate. We live-trapped voles between 2006 and 2009 in 2 commercially harvested forests in south-eastern Norway. We investigated the variation in vole abundance among habitat types (e.g. mature forest and clear-cut) and the hypothesis that graminivorous species such as field voles (Microtus agrestis L.) benefit from clear-cuts at the expense of forest dwellers (i.e. the bank vole, Myodes glareolus Schreb.), using fine-scale descriptors of the ground vegetation. We could not find support for the hypothesis that field voles show a preference for clear-cuts, and their overall abundance was low, while bank voles were the dominant species in all habitat types, including clear-cuts in the peak and pre-peak years. We found a positive association between bank vole abundance and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) availability rather than a specific habitat type. Low field vole density in clear-cuts might be due to variation in local productivity and ground vegetation as well as to large variation in the species temporal dynamics. The latter is particularly associated with the widespread decline of field voles in Scandinavia. Logging has the potential to negatively affect bank vole population dynamics because of the negative effect on bilberry development.

  2. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Best, G.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Hornberger, G.M.; Meyer, J.L.; Robinson, P.J.; Stenberg, J.R.; Turner, R.E.; Vera-Herrera, F.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4??C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought. The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  3. Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystems of the South-Eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Best, G. Ronnie; Coutant, Charles C.; Hornberger, George M.; Meyer, Judy L.; Robinson, Peter J.; Stenberg, John R.; Turner, R. Eugene; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1997-06-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4°C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought.The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  4. Temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2016-04-01

    How will convective precipitation intensities and patterns evolve in a warming climate on a regional to local scale? Studies on the scaling of precipitation intensities with temperature are used to test observational and climate model data against the hypothesis that the change of precipitation with temperature will essentially follow the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation, which corresponds to a rate of increase of the water holding capacity of the atmosphere by 6-7 % per Kelvin (CC rate). A growing number of studies in various regions and with varying approaches suggests that the overall picture of the temperature-precipitation relationship is heterogeneous, with scaling rates shearing off the CC rate in both upward and downward directions. In this study we investigate the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands of Austria (SEA) based on a dense rain gauge net of 188 stations, with sub-daily precipitation measurements since about 1990 used at 10-min resolution. Parts of the study region are European hot-spots for severe hailstorms and the region, which is in part densely populated and intensively cultivated, is generally vulnerable to climate extremes. Evidence on historical extremely heavy short-time and localized precipitation events of several hundred mm of rain in just a few hours, resulting in destructive flash flooding, underline these vulnerabilities. Heavy precipitation is driven by Mediterranean moisture advection, enhanced by the orographic lifting at the Alpine foothills, and hence trends in positive sea surface temperature anomalies might carry significant risk of amplifying future extreme precipitation events. In addition, observations from the highly instrumented subregion of south-eastern Styria indicate a strong and robust long-term warming trend in summer of about 0.7°C per decade over 1971-2015, concomitant with a significant increase in the annual number of heat days. The combination of these

  5. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  6. Metabolic Syndrome in School Children in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in a school children population. Materials and Methods: Three thousand four hundred and sixty children aged between 7 and 15 in three elementary schools in the city of Mardin, located in the south-eastern region of Turkey, were included in this study in April and May 2011. Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and a variety of blood tests were done. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used for the diagnosis of MES. Results: It was found that 9.42% of those tested were overweight, and 8.0% were obese. The study found that more girls (9.1%) were obese than girls (6.9%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and the other parameters, namely waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), triglyceride (TG) (p=0.0001). It was found that total cholesterol (T-Chol), TG, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly different among obese MES’s group and non-obese children (p<0.05). The waist/hip ratio reference value in girls was significantly higher than boys (p>0.05). The prevalence of MES was 6.3%. The number of components of MES was higher in girls and obese children. The rate of MES was 30.3% in obese children. Conclusion: The frequency of obesity, hypertension and MES in childhood period have been steadily increasing. Children who are classified having central obesity and high body mass index should be more carefully evaluated to its potential to progress to MES. And the quality of the life should be improved by reducing the risks resulted from life style changes, necessary treatments and follow ups. PMID:25610318

  7. Rickettsia spp. in wild small mammals in Lower Bavaria, South-Eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Schex, Susanne; Dobler, Gerhard; Riehm, Julia; Müller, Jörg; Essbauer, Sandra

    2011-05-01

    So far, data on the natural cycle of rickettsiae of the tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) in Central Europe are barely available. Some studies showed the occurrence of different Rickettsia species in their arthropod vectors, but it is unclear which animals might have any kind of reservoir function. This survey was therefore set up to provide information on the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in small mammals in Germany. A total of 124 rodents and insectivores were collected over a period of 3 years in Lower Bavaria, South-Eastern Germany. Screening for Rickettsia antibodies was performed using immunofluorescence with Rickettsia conorii and R. helvetica slides, and the comparability of sera and body fluids (transudates) was investigated in these assays. Further, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for screening of Rickettsial DNA in rodents and insectivores. Ear versus liver tissue was compared to evaluate the more suitable tissue for detection of specific DNA. Further, a new PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal nucleic acid was established as internal control. The results indicated that transudates are a sufficient alternative to proof infection in cases where no sera are available. Rickettsial DNA, that is, Rickettsia felis and R. helvetica, was found in seven animals with the ears proving to be a proper choice for PCR. Statistical analyses revealed that the presence of ectoparasites and the body size positively correlated with the occurrence of rickettsial DNA. Overall, our study suggests that rodents and other small mammals may act as reservoir hosts for Rickettsia. However, with the course of infection and its transmission in wild animals still unknown, further investigations are needed to better understand the natural cycle of SFG rickettsiae.

  8. Time Series Analysis of Meteorological Factors Influencing Malaria in South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ostovar, Afshin; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Raeisi, Ahmad; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Malaria Early Warning System is defined as the use of prognostic variables for predicting the occurrence of malaria epidemics several months in advance. The principal objective of this study was to provide a malaria prediction model by using meteorological variables and historical malaria morbidity data for malaria-endemic areas in south eastern Iran. Methods: A total of 2002 locally transmitted microscopically confirmed malaria cases, which occurred in the Minab district of Hormozgan Province in Iran over a period of 6 years from March 2003 to March 2009, were analysed. Meteorological variables (the rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity in this district) were also assessed. Monthly and weekly autocorrelation functions, partial autocorrelation functions, and cross-correlation graphs were examined to explore the relationship between the historical morbidity data and meteorological variables and the number of cases of malaria. Having used univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average or transfer function models, significant predictors among the meteorological variables were selected to predict the number of monthly and weekly malaria cases. Ljung-Box statistics and stationary R-squared were used for model diagnosis and model fit, respectively. Results: The weekly model had a better fit (R2= 0.863) than the monthly model (R2= 0.424). However, the Ljung-Box statistic was significant for the weekly model. In addition to autocorrelations, meteorological variables were not significant, except for different orders of maximum and minimum temperatures in the monthly model. Conclusions: Time-series models can be used to predict malaria incidence with acceptable accuracy in a malaria early-warning system. The applicability of using routine meteorological data in statistical models is seriously limited. PMID:27308280

  9. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

  10. Determinants of Eye Care Utilization in Rural South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arinze, O C; Eze, B I; Ude, N N; Onwubiko, S N; Ezisi, C N; Chuka-Okosa, C M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the barriers and incentives to eye care utilization (ECU) in Abagana, a rural south-eastern Nigerian community. The study was a population-based cross-sectional mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) survey of adult inhabitants of Abagana, in July-August, 2011. Data on respondents' socio-demographics, barriers and incentives to ECU were collected, and analysed using descriptive and comparative statistics. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Qualitative data were obtained from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews and analyzed using ATLAS.ti software. The 549 respondents (males 224) were aged 49.8 ± 15.9 SD years (range 18-93 years). Overall, orthodox eye care had ever been sought by 42.4%, and 46.4% of those who reported change in vision. Lack of awareness-31.8%, cost-18.0%, and fatalistic attitudes-15.9% were the main ECU barriers. Possession of health insurance (OR 11.49; 95% CI 4.21-31.34; p = 0.001), family history of eye disorder (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.03-5.26; p = 0.001), noticed change in vision (OR 11.30; 95% CI 1.42-90.09; p = 0.022), current eye disease (OR 4.06; 95% CI 2.29-7.19; p = 0.001) and systemic co-morbidity (OR 4.33; 95% CI 2.67-7.02; p = 0.001) were the incentives to ECU. To enhance the low ECU in Abagana community, educational interventions on eye health maintenance and eye health seeking behaviours, and measures to reduce eye care cost are recommended.

  11. South-Eastern Bay of Biscay eddy-induced anomalies and their effect on chlorophyll distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Ainhoa; Rubio, Anna; Ruiz, Simón; Le Cann, Bernard; Testor, Pierre; Mader, Julien; Hernández, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of deep-water glider hydrographic and fluorescence data, together with satellite measurements provides a new insight into eddy-induced anomalies within the South-Eastern Bay of Biscay, during summer. Two cyclonic eddies and a SWODDY have been observed in different glider transects and by means of different sources of satellite data. Vertical profiles reveal complex structures (characteristic of the second baroclinic mode): upward/downward displacement of the seasonal/permanent thermocline in the case of X13 and the opposite thermocline displacements in the case of the cyclones. This is a typical behaviour of mode-water and "cyclonic thinny" eddies. A qualitative analysis of the vertical velocities in the anticyclone indicates that though geostrophy dominates the main water column, depressing the isopycnals, near the sea-surface the eddy-wind interaction affects the vertical currents, favouring Ekman pumping and upwelling. The analysis of the Θ-S properties corroborates that inside cyclones and between the 26 and 27 isopycnals, net downwelling occurs. These two types of intra-thermocline lenses appear to deeply impact the Chl-a fluorescence profiles, since the maximum Chl-a fluorescence is located just below the seasonal thermocline. The mean Chl-a fluorescence was higher in the anticyclone than within the cyclones and the mean for the entire study period; the highest values were observed in the centre of the anticyclone. These results are in agreement with previous findings concerning the SWODDY F90 and surrounding cyclones, located in the South-Western Bay of Biscay. Significant differences in the Θ-S properties of the two cyclonic mesoscale structures have been observed: higher temperatures and lower salinity in the easternmost cyclone. Finally, time variation of the salinity content of the shallowest water masses of the anticyclone (salinity decreasing over time), probably indicates advective mixing processes occurred during the mission.

  12. Epidemiological aspects of astrovirus and coronavirus in poults in the South Eastern Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, S.E.L.; Bonetti, A.M.; Petrocelli, A.; Ferrari, H.F.; Luvizotto, M.C.R.; Cardoso, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of Turkey Coronavirus (TCoV) and Astrovirus (TAstV-2) prevalence was carried out from February to December during 2006 year in semiarid region of Brazil, from a turkey producer area, localized in South Eastern of Brazil. To asses the risk factor related to clinical material, climatic condition and type of RT-PCR applied, cloacal swabs (CS), faeces, sera, bursa of Fabricius (BF), thymus (TH) and spleen (SP) and ileum-caeca region were collected from 30-day-old poults suffering of enteritis episode characterized as poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS). The PEMS clinical features were characterized by watery to foamy faeces, light brown-yellow in colour and low mortality rate. Meteorological data (rainfall and relative humidity) observed during along the study presented monthly average temperature ranging from 39.3 and 31.2ºC, precipitation in rainy season from 40 to 270.3 mm/month, and no rain during dry season. Simplex RT-PCR gave odds ratio (OR) values suggesting that ileum-caeca region is at higher chance (OR=1.9; p=0.9741) to have both viral RNA than faeces (OR=1.5; p=0.7319). However, multiplex RT-PCR showed 3.98 (p=0.89982) more chance to give positive results in faeces than CS at dry season. The major risk factors seem to be low rate of humidity and high temperatures at winter, probably responsible for spread, easily, the TCoV and TAstv-2 among the flocks. The positive results of both virus suggested that they can play an important role in enteric disorders, associated to low humidity and high temperatures frequently found in tropical countries. PMID:24031353

  13. Divergent responses of fire to recent warming and drying across south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, Ross; Penman, Trent; Boer, Matthias; Price, Owen; Clarke, Hamish

    2014-05-01

    The response of fire to climate change may vary across fuel types characteristic of differing vegetation types (i.e. litter vs. grass). Models of fire under climatic change capture these differing potential responses to varying degrees. Across south-eastern Australia, an elevation in the severity of weather conditions conducive to fire has been measured in recent decades. We examined trends in area burned (1975-2009) to determine if a corresponding increase in fire had occurred across the diverse range of ecosystems found in this part of the continent. We predicted that an increase in fire, due to climatic warming and drying, was more likely to have occurred in moist, temperate forests near the coast than in arid and semiarid woodlands of the interior, due to inherent contrasts in the respective dominant fuel types (woody litter vs. herbaceous fuels). Significant warming (i.e. increased temperature and number of hot days) and drying (i.e. negative precipitation anomaly, number of days with low humidity) occurred across most of the 32 Bioregions examined. The results were mostly consistent with predictions, with an increase in area burned in seven of eight forest Bioregions, whereas area burned either declined (two) or did not change significantly (nine) in drier woodland Bioregions. In 12 woodland Bioregions, data were insufficient for analysis of temporal trends in fire. Increases in fire attributable mostly to warming or drying were confined to three Bioregions. In the remainder, such increases were mostly unrelated to warming or drying trends and therefore may be due to other climate effects not explored (e.g. lightning ignitions) or possible anthropogenic influences. Projections of future fire must therefore not only account for responses of different fuel systems to climatic change but also the wider range of ecological and human effects on interactions between fire and vegetation.

  14. DDT and dieldrin: effects on resident Peregrine Falcon populations in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Olsen, P; Emison, B; Mooney, N; Brothers, N

    1992-12-01

    Organochlorine residues in eggs and prey species of the Peregrine Falcon,Falco peregrinus, were determined in parts of three south-eastern Australian States: Tasmania (1975-91), Victoria (1975-83) and South Australia (1977-1981). Relationships between residues detected and eggshell thickness, nest site occupancy and productivity were examined. Temporal changes and, in particular, the relative effects of DDE and dieldrin were also investigated. DDE was detected in all 137 eggs analysed. The concentration of DDE residues in eggs peaked in the late 1970s to early 1980s in Victoria, but peaked earlier and had declined to low concentrations by the 1980s in Tasmania. Maximum concentrations reached 82 ppm, in Victoria. The geometric means were: Victoria 12.4 ppm; Tasmania 1970s 10.1 ppm, 1980s 1.5 ppm; and South Australia 1.95 ppm. Dieldrin was detected in approximately half the eggs, but all except one egg (1.5 ppm) contained concentrations considered noncritical (<1 ppm). The degree of shell-thinning and reproductive success were related to DDE content, but not to that of dieldrin.Organochlorine concentrations in prey reflected general concentrations in eggs and, with a few exceptions, were low. In Tasmania, reproductive success increased as DDE contamination declined. In Victoria, despite mean concentrations of DDE well above that considered to be critical for successful reproduction (>15-20 ppm) for at least seven years, the breeding population declined by <2% a year. We interpret this result as evidence that DDE causes a slow decline in population and that the dramatic declines observed in some other parts of the world were mainly attributable to contamination by dieldrin or to other confounding factors.

  15. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  16. Hepatitis E Virus of Subtype 3a in a Pig Farm, South-Eastern France.

    PubMed

    Colson, P; Saint-Jacques, P; Ferretti, A; Davoust, B

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged during the past decade as a causative agent of autochthonous hepatitis and is a clinical concern in Western developed countries. It has been increasingly recognized that pigs are a major reservoir of HEV of genotypes 3 and 4 worldwide and pig-derived food items represent a potential source of infections by these viruses in humans. Hepatitis E virus RNA testing was performed here on faeces from rectal swabs sampled in 2012 from 50 3-month-old farm pigs from the same farm located in south-eastern France than in a previous work conducted in 2007. Pig HEV sequences corresponding to genomic fragments of ORF2 and ORF1 genes were obtained after RT-PCR amplification with in-house protocols. Hepatitis E virus genotype was determined by phylogenetic analysis. Prevalence was similar to that determined 5 years earlier (68% versus 62%). Two robust phylogenetic clusters of HEV subtypes 3a and 3f were identified, and these sequences obtained in 2012 largely differ compared with those obtained in 2007. Notably, HEV sequences obtained in 2012 from a majority (62%) of the infected pigs belonged to subtype 3a, which was not previously described in France, including not being found in any of humans, pigs or wild boars. Further studies are needed to assess the circulation of HEV-3a in pigs and humans in this country. In addition, along with previous findings, this study supports the need for increased information to the public on the risk of HEV infection through contacts with pigs or consumption of pig-derived products in France.

  17. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  18. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations

  19. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80-910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeus observed were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeus and C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe and Lophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroe commonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species

  20. The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: petrological characteristics and tectonomagmatic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Azer, Mokhles K.; Khalil, Ahmed E. S.

    2015-10-01

    The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, is one of the best preserved and least dismembered ophiolite successions in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. It contains a Penrose-type ophiolite sequence from mantle section below mafic crust upward to oceanic sedimentary cover overlying mafic volcanics, although the original magmatic (stratigraphic) contact between the mantle and crustal sections is disrupted by tectonism. The Abu Dahr ophiolite is metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions, and low-temperature alteration is widespread. Petrography reveals that: (i) the mantle is homogenous, serpentinized, and dominated by harzburgite and less abundant dunite; (ii) the cumulate ultramafics are represented by wehrlite and pyroxenite; and (iii) the crustal section is represented by metagabbros, meta-anorthosites and metabasalts. The Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites show high Mg# (0.92-0.93), with enrichment of Ni, Cr and Co, and depletion of Al2O3 and CaO, and nearly flat and unfractionated REE chondrite-normalized pattern. Major and trace element characteristics of the Abu Dahr metagabbro and metabasalt (crustal section) indicate a tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinity. Units of the crustal section have low-Nb and Zr concentrations, low Dy/Yb and relatively elevated La/Yb ratios, high U/Yb and Th/Yb ratios, and LREE enriched chondrite-normalized pattern. All of the Abu Dahr ophiolite units have trace-element signatures characterized by enrichment of LILE over HFSE. Rare and trace element patterns indicate a genetic link between the Abu Dahr mantle, cumulate ultramafics, and crust. Chromian spinel has survived metamorphism and is used as a petrogenetic indicator in the Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites. The spinel is homogeneous with a limited composition, and shows high-Cr# (>0.6) combined with low-TiO2 character (mostly <0.1 wt.%). The Abu Dahr ophiolite is interpreted as a fragment of depleted oceanic lithosphere that experienced high degrees

  1. Tick bites on humans in the agricultural and recreational areas in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Monika; Szymańska, Jolanta; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The investigations were conducted in the Lublin province (south-eastern Poland) in areas of high agricultural and recreational value. Among the 418 patients admitted to medical clinics due to arthropod bites in the years 2003-2005, 184 people (44%) had been bitten by ticks. As shown by the research, high-risk groups include people whose stay in tick habitats is connected with their occupational work (54.5%) as well as recreation and tourism (45.5%). As many as 78.7% of the patients were attacked by Ixodes ricinus ticks in forests, and much fewer (31.3%) in other habitats located in urban and rural areas. In one case, a Dermacentor reticulatus female was attached to the skin. Ticks were most commonly located on the upper (28.8%) and lower (27.2%) extremities, and on the abdomen (15.8%). Local skin reactions (57.6%) with predominance of erythema were the most prevalent. Combined local and systemic symptoms were reported less frequently (20.1%). The general symptoms were headache (10.8% of patients), fever (5.4%), lymphadenitis (5.9%) and arthralgia (4.3%). No lesions produced by tick bites were reported in 22.3% of the patients. Field studies conducted in 2003-2004 demonstrated that I. ricinus is a common species in the southern part of the Lublin province, where the density of nymphs and adult forms in various localities during the period of peak seasonal activity (in May) ranges from 18.5-26 specimens/1 h of collection. Two tick species, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, occur in the northern part of the province. The density of I. ricinus nymphs and adult forms as well as D. reticulatus adults is in the range of 2.5-42 specimens/1 hr of collection and 19.5-64.0 speciments/1 hr of collection, respectively. Due to the high risk of tick attacks in the study area, there arises the necessity to permanent the monitoring of ticks numbers and tick-borne diseases.

  2. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  3. Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Renato R.; Boccali, Chiara; Žebre, Manja; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers of the permafrost occurrence in mountain terrains. Therefore, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first rock glacier inventory of south-eastern Alps (including the northeasternmost region of Italy and Slovenia) obtained through the use of high resolution orthophotos and high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1,708 and 1,846 m a.s.l. with slope range between 19° and 27°. Their altitudinal range is the lowest for the southern Alps and comparable with what has been found for relict rock glaciers in the Northern Alps of Austria (1,798 m) and in the Austrian Niedere Tauern Range (1,823-1,850 m). Besides rock glaciers we also observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts covering 0.48 km2. They are predominantly located in the Carnic Alps, Julian Alps and Karavanke (80% of the total); the majority is distributed between 1,697 m and 2,007 m a.s.l. Protalus (pronival) ramparts situated in the Carnic Alps and Prealps (47% of the total) generally follow the same geographical distribution of rock glaciers, whereas more than half of the inventoried protalus (pronival) ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps where there is the higher precipitation. The analysis also highlighted 9 pronival ramparts located in front of permanent snow/firn bodies and small glacierets. These ridges produce a damming effect for avalanches which enhance accumulation of winter snow, a significant impact to the local mass balance. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the existing 1981-2010 climatology of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers possibly formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene (12.8±0

  4. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance. PMID:22853175

  5. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Løhaugen, Gro C. C.; Flak, Marianne Møretrø; Gerstner, Thorsten; Sundberg, Cato; Lerdal, Bjørn; Skranes, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1) provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2) provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3) initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions. PMID:26692762

  6. Academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria - the need for health education.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, C E; Davis, K J; Akpan, U P; Daniel, N E

    2011-12-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria. Three hundred and ninety-three (393) female students of the University of Uyo, ages between 16 and 35 years were randomly selected from different departments in the University, and studied during the 2009/2010 academic session. Menstrual history and Student's Stress Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ) were used for this assessment. They were distributed for participants to fill out. Prevalence of menstrual disorder among participants was 34.6%. A direct association between menstrual disorder and academic stress was observed. Commonest menstrual disorder was menorrhagia (37.5%). Others were: Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS 33.1%), Oligomenorrhea 19.9% and amenorrhea 5.9% (P<0.05). Those who experienced academic stress had about 2 times chances of having menstrual disorders (OR : 2.0, C.I = 1.224-2.837) at P<0.05. This study demonstrated a significant association between academic stress and menstrual disorder among females undergraduate in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria.

  7. New insights into the last deglaciation of the south-eastern flank of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitinas, Albertas

    2012-06-01

    The existing glaciodynamic paradigm used to explain the dynamics, morphogenesis, and deglaciation of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) does not satisfactorily reflect all the nuances of ice sheet dynamics, formation of particular forms of glacial relief, and details of deglaciation. Significant problems are to be found in the explanations proposed for the processes of deglaciation. Therefore a new theory for the deglaciation of the last SIS, based on new geochronological, geological, and geomorphological data has been developed and is presented here. It is suggested that along the south-eastern perimeter of the SIS, with the exception of the Salpausselkä moraine ridges, there is no evidence anywhere for re-advances of the SIS during deglaciation. Apart from the Salpausselkä moraine ridges the evidence for so-called 'stadial' or 'phasial' recessional events is interpreted as the result of SIS surges that occurred at different times and positions along the ice sheet margin. This new theory also proposes that deglaciation of the south-eastern flank of the SIS was dominated by surface thinning rather than marginal retreat. Characteristic landforms such as kame terraces located on the distal slopes of recessional marginal ridges and plateau-like glaciolacustrine kames, were developed during deglaciation probably due to the interaction of active ice lobes (surges) and masses of dead ice that persisting beyond the ice margin.

  8. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania.

  9. Mapping of PM10 surface concentrations derived from satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness over South-Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péré, J.-C.; Pont, V.; Mallet, M.; Bessagnet, B.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at developing a methodology based on in-situ experimental observations in order to use satellite retrievals as a tool for monitoring air particulate pollution. This methodology is applied during summer time on the South-Eastern France, which is one of the most polluted zones over Europe, enclosing further large cities and industrial sites. In a first time, we consider correlations between daily mean AERONET AOT and PM10 concentrations at five sites located as well close to as far from pollution sources. Our results show significant correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.68 to 0.79, following the site studied. Several factors like aerosol vertical distribution or hygroscopic growth factor could affect the link between PM10 ground measurements and aerosol optical thickness. To statistically strengthen this approach, we gather data sets from three types of sites (urban, near urban and rural) and establish a linear relationship between daily mean AOT measured from AERONET and PM10 mass concentrations. Secondly and thanks to good agreements between AOT measured from AERONET and AOT retrieved from the MODIS sensor, we calculate estimated concentrations of PM10 by using MODIS retrievals above the South-Eastern France. Uncertainties about this approach are discussed.

  10. Geocemical provinces of magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Belyatsky, Boris; Teterin, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of geochemical signatures of island magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean and tholeiites of the Bransfield and Powell rift zones revealed the similar character of the enrichment which reflects the melting of a close mantle source. But alkaline magmatism of the islands in the west of Antarctic and Marie Byrd Land differs from the enriched basalts of the northern province (Bransfield, Powell, BTJ) by showing more radiogenic Sr values and non-radiogenic Nd. The tectonic development of the South Ocean is characterized by its formation under stationary conditions of Antarctic continent. As a result of this, for the volcanic islands distributed at the western part of the Antarctic we observe no long mountain ridges typical for their development under conditions of the moving plate. Intraplate magmatism evolution was coincided with the extinction of the old subduction zones, formation of the new rift zones and separation of South America from Antarctic [Udintsev, Schenke, 2007; Teterin, 2008]. Such complicated geodynamics caused the possibility of formation of rupture cracks reaching the underlying metasomatizated mantle and decompression melting with further island formation. In Oligocene due to migration of asthenospheric flow from the west to east in the result of destruction of previously united continental blocks there was formed the Scotia Sea, South Sandwich island arc as well as Drake Passage. This caused the mechanical weakening of South Atlantic lithosphere and the starting at the end of Oligocene - beginning Miocene of the new plate border formation - American-Antarctic ridge, which propagated in the eastern direction till the Bouvet triple junction [Dubinin et al., 1999]. The close geochemical signatures of mantle source for islands basalts including the Bouvet Island and the enriched tholeiites of the western extremity of the SW Indian Ridge proves the development of a specific geochemical province enveloping the southeastern

  11. Geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami in south-eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardi, Flavia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; de Martini, Paolo Marco; Pirrotta, Claudia; Smedile, Alessandra; Pinzi, Stefania; Del Carlo, Paola

    2010-05-01

    Five years ago we started a coring campaign with the purpose to identify evidence for tsunami inundations along the coastal areas of eastern Sicily, that were affected in historical times by devastating tsunamis, generated both by local earthquakes, such as the 1169, 1693 and 1908 events, and by distant seismic sources, such as those belonging to the Aegean subduction zone (e.g. the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake). Following a multi-theme approach, we used the available historical information to address geomorphological study of the coastal landscape: aerial-photographs analysis, satellite images interpretation and field surveys allowed us to select areas likely invaded by tsunami waves in the past, representing potential trap-site for high energy deposits sedimentation and preservation. Given the variability in the nature of tsunami deposit characteristics, they are not uniquely identifiable, and other kinds of high energy deposits may share some of their features. Despite the abundant literature regarding diagnostic criteria for tsunami deposits, their distinction from storm and hurricane deposits remains a debated issue. We present the geological evidence of a tsunami inundation that left continuous onshore sandy deposit inside the Pantano Morghella along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. Pantano Morghella an almost flat area, about 1.3 km long and 0.8 km wide, surrounded by Upper Cretaceous lavas and volcanoclastic deposits, Late Cretaceous limestone calciruditi, calcarenites and marls. To the east Quaternary deposits, beach sands and 3 m high, partially cemented, dunal system (Holocene and Late Pleistocene) separate the Pantano from the sea forming the intertidal pond with a little channel from which sea water can rush into. The site was partially used as salt-pans in the recent past. In this site, we dug 33 cores down to a maximum depth of 5.80 m, from 200 m up to 1200 m from the coastline. The sedimentological core analysis reveals a fine stratigraphic sequence

  12. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  13. Molecular typing of PPRV strains detected during an outbreak in sheep and goats in south-eastern Gabon in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminanats (PPR) is an economically important viral disease affecting goats and sheep. Four genetically distinct lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) have been identified. In Gabon, the virus has not so far been detected. Findings Epidemiological investigations of Aboumi PPR outbreak revealed a high case fatality rate in sheep (98.9%). We detected and characterized peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), in October 2011, during the suspected outbreak in sheep and goats in Aboumi village located in the south-eastern. PPRV RNA was detected in 10 of 14 samples from three sick animals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PPRV strain belonged to lineage IV and was closely related to strain circulating in neighboring Cameroon. Conclusions This is the first molecular detection and typing of the PPRV strain associated with fatal PPR infection in these small ruminants and concrete evidence that PPRV is present and circulating in Gabon. PMID:23497402

  14. Modelling bloom formation of the toxic dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis caudata in a highly modified estuary, south eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajani, Penelope; Larsson, Michaela E.; Rubio, Ana; Bush, Stephen; Brett, Steve; Farrell, Hazel

    2016-12-01

    Dinoflagellates belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis are increasing in abundance in the Hawkesbury River, south-eastern Australia. This study investigates a twelve year time series of abundance and physico-chemical data to model these blooms. Four species were reported over the sampling campaign - Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis caudata, Dinophysis fortii and Dinophysis tripos-with D. acuminata and D. caudata being most abundant. Highest abundance of D. acuminata occurred in the austral spring (max. abundance 4500 cells l-1), whilst highest D. caudata occurred in the summer to autumn (max. 12,000 cells l-1). Generalised additive models revealed abundance of D. acuminata was significantly linked to season, thermal stratification and nutrients, whilst D. caudata was associated with nutrients, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The models' predictive capability was up to 60% for D. acuminata and 53% for D. caudata. Altering sampling strategies during blooms accompanied with in situ high resolution monitoring will further improve Dinophysis bloom prediction capability.

  15. An Online 3D Database System for Endangered Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in the South-Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Avgousti, A.; Faka, M.; Hermon, S.; Bakirtzis, N.; Christofi, P.

    2017-02-01

    The World Heritage Convention, drawn by various international bodies in 1972, was designed to protect cultural or natural places of outstanding universal value so that future generations may be able to enjoy them. Responding to these principles as well as to the Charter on the Preservation of Digital heritage (Vancouver, 2003), this multidisciplinary project, which involves archaeologists, art historians, conservators and computer scientists, aims to create an open access, 3D interactive online geo-database of endangered architectural and archaeological heritage in the South Eastern Mediterranean basin; a region of tremendous cultural importance whose rech heritage is unfortunately threatened by both natural and human factors. A wide range of 3D modelling and topographic techniques have been applied to create accurate reconstructions of heritage sites, enriched by a extensive array of metadata.

  16. Ideological vs. Instrumental Barriers to Accessing Formal Mental Health care in the Developing World: Focus on South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Oyebode, Femi; Muomah, Rosemary C; Igboaka, Anuli

    2016-01-01

    The striking gaps in formal mental health care in the developing world are largely traceable to Instrumental and Ideological Barriers. Focusing on south-eastern Nigeria, the study aimed to establish the relative weight, significance and determinants of these barriers for prioritised policy interventions. Multistage sampling method was used to select participants (n = 706) to whom questionnaires were administered. Ideological Barriers (cultural and mental health literacy constraints) were more significantly perceived (84.8%) than Instrumental Barriers (systemic and financial impediments) (56.6%). The study demonstrated the primacy of improved knowledge in plugging the gap in conventional mental health care in a region ironically defined more by systemic and material poverty. This is instructive for prioritised policy interventions with an indication that even if facilities and socio-economic status improve, services will likely be underused without greater improvement in people's conceptualisation of mental illness. It equally underscored the need for cultural competence in mental health service provision.

  17. Biogeochemistry of Mangrove Soil Organic Matter: a Comparison Between Rhizophoraand AvicenniaSoils in South-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, L. D.; Ittekkot, V.; Patchineelam, S. R.

    1995-06-01

    Soil core samples from Rhizophora mangleL. and Avicennia schauerianaStapf & Leech forests from south-eastern Brazil were analysed for their total organic matter content and their sugars, amino acid and amino sugars composition. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents were higher in Avicenniathan in Rhizophorasoils. The contribution of sugars and amino acids to the total organic carbon pool was constant with depth in Rhizophorasoils whereas in Avicenniasoils it increased. Spectral distribution of sugars and amino acids showed a dominance of Ca-affine monomers, particularly acidic amino acids, and the sugar arabinose. Biogeochemical indicators derived from ratios of individual sugar and amino acid monomers confirm previous studies which showed that organic matter in both soils is mainly of mangrove origin. The results further suggest accumulation of organic matter in Rhizophorasoils and a continuing degradation of organic matter in Avicenniasoils. The latter may thus release more nutrients to adjacent ecosystems than Rhizophorasoils.

  18. Distribution and characteristics of metamorphic belts in the south- eastern Alaska part of the North American Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Himmelberg, G.R.; Loney, R.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Cordilleran orogen in south-eastern Alaska includes 14 distinct metamorphic belts that make up three major metamorphic complexes, from east to west: the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex; the Glacier Bay-Chichagof plutonic-metamorphic complex; and the Chugach plutonic-metamorphic complex. Each of these complexes is related to a major subduction event. The metamorphic history of the Coast complex is lengthy and is related to the Late Cretaceous collision of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes and the Gravina overlap assemblage to the west against the Stikine terrane to the east. The metamorphic history of the Glacier Bay-Chichagof complex is relatively simple and is related to the roots of a Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous island arc. The metamorphic history of the Chugach is complicated and developed during and after the Late Cretaceous collision of the Chugach terrane with the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes. -from Authors

  19. Bioprospecting for fast growing and biomass characterization of oleaginous microalgae from South-Eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Mauro; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Sanchez-Rizza, Lara; Echarte, María Mercedes; Curatti, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    As part of pioneering efforts to assess the potential of native microalgae as biofuel feedstock in South-Eastern Buenos Aires, 34 monoalgal cultures (corresponding to the Phylum Chlorophyta) were established and 21 were selected for further growth and biomass composition characterization. Novel RNA sequences in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were identified. Some strains showed desirable traits as biodiesel feedstock such as (i) apparent maximal doubling times of 6h, (ii) lipids accumulation of up to 43% of their dry biomass, (iii) high ration of mono-unsaturated to poly-unsaturated fatty acids, (iv) high response to CO(2) supplementation, and (v) complete sedimentation in 4h. Data of the outdoors performance of some strains suggested they might represent valuable resources for future research towards the regional development of the technology for microalgae-based biofuels.

  20. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  1. "Bringing Learning Closer to Home": The Value and Impact of the Lisbon Strategy for Strengthening the Role of Local Learning Centres and Partnerships in South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarifis, George K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative examination of four local learning centres that provide learning opportunities throughout life in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and Turkey. The paper aims to assess some of the strengths and weaknesses of different types of local learning centres and partnerships in South-Eastern Europe--in line with the value and…

  2. Teacher Education Reforms between Higher Education and General Education Transformations in South-Eastern Europe: Reviewing the Evidence and Scoping the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Nataša

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers reforms and developments in teacher education in South-Eastern European countries as part of overall reforms in higher education, and in light of changes in general education that impact teachers and their preparation. The paper reviews the literature and reports from the region that offer some evidence of and insights…

  3. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented.

  4. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  5. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Taxodium in the south-eastern United States using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Y; Tomaru, N; Suyama, Y; Bacchus, S

    1999-09-01

    Two taxa of Taxodium, bald cypress and pond cypress, occur in the south-eastern United States. The ranges of these taxa overlap in the south-eastern Coastal Plain, with the range of the latter being more restricted. Although these taxa co-occur throughout a portion of the more expansive range of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Rich), the habitats of the two taxa appear to differ. Consequently, considerable debate has occurred regarding the taxonomic status of pond cypress. Some authors recognize pond cypress as a distinct species (Taxodium ascendens Brongn.), whereas others recognize it as a variety/ecotype (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium (Nutt.) Croom). In this study, the genetic diversity of these two taxa was investigated using 10 DNA markers based on sequences from cDNA clones of Cryptomeria japonica. Cryptomeria is a monospecific genus native to Japan, and is a close relative of Taxodium. These markers were codominant in Cryptomeria and were presumed to be codominant in Taxodium. DNA was extracted from leaf tissue collected from six populations of bald cypress and seven populations of pond cypress throughout Florida and Georgia. The average heterozygosities of bald cypress and pond cypress were 0.386 (SE 0.040) and 0.380 (SE 0.040), respectively. Most of the genetic variation (91.9%) was found within populations, 4.9% was found between populations and 3.2% between taxa. Results of DNA analysis using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) in this study did not suggest that pond cypress was a species distinct from bald cypress. Our conclusion is that the two taxa of Taxodium should be given varietal status.

  6. Infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices reported by south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals collaborating in the ARMed project.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A; Cookson, B D; Gür, D; Ben, Redjeb S; Rasslan, O; Elnassar, Z; Benbachir, M; Bagatzouni, D P; Rahal, K; Daoud, Z

    2008-11-01

    The prevalence of multiply resistant organisms (MROs) reported from south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals highlights the need to identify possible contributory factors to help design control interventions. This was investigated through a structured questionnaire, which examined infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices in hospitals participating or collaborating with the Antibiotic Resistance SurveilLance & Control in the Mediterranean Region (ARMed) project. A total of 45 hospitals (78.9% of invited institutions) responded to the questionnaire; 60% indicated that they faced periods of overcrowding when available bed complement was insufficient to cope with hospital admissions and 62% reported difficulties in isolating patients with MROs due to lack of available beds. Most hospitals relied mainly on washing to achieve hand hygiene, whether by non-medicated or disinfectant soaps. Dependence on solid bars of soap (28.9%) and cloth towels (37.8%) were among the problems identified as well as inconvenient distances of sinks from patient beds (66.6%). Alcohol hand rub was the predominant hand hygiene product in only 7% of hospitals. Programmes for better antibiotic use were mostly limited in scope; 33.3% reported having antibiotic prescribing guidelines and 53.3% of hospitals fed back resistance rates to prescribers. Auditing of antibiotic consumption, whether institution- or unit-based, was carried out in 37.8% of responding hospitals. Multi-faceted approaches aimed at improving isolation of patients with MROs, increasing the emphasis on hand hygiene by encouraging greater use of alcohol hand rubs and introducing effective antibiotic stewardship programmes should be encouraged in south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals.

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    PubMed

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  8. Establishing the dominant source of uncertainty in drought indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, G.; Dutra, E.; Barbosa, P.; Pappenberger, F.; Wetterhall, F.; Vogt, J.

    2013-11-01

    Drought monitoring is a key component to mitigate impacts of droughts. Lack of reliable and up-to-date datasets is a common challenge across the Globe. This study investigates different datasets and drought indicators on their capability to improve drought monitoring in Africa. The study was performed for four river basins located in different climatic regions (the Oum er-Rbia in Morocco, the Blue Nile in Eastern Africa, the Upper Niger in Western Africa, and the Limpopo in South-Eastern Africa) as well as the Greater Horn of Africa. The five precipitation datasets compared are the ECMWF ERA - Interim reanalysis, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite monthly rainfall product 3B43, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded precipitation dataset, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses, and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation. The set of drought indicators used includes the Standardized Precipitation Index, the Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index, Soil Moisture Anomalies and Potential Evapotranspiration. A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a good agreement in the timing of the rainy seasons. The main differences between the datasets are in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas affected by drought, all the drought indicators agree on the time of drought onset and recovery although there is disagreement on the extent of the affected area. In regions with limited rain gauge data the estimation of the different drought indicators is characterised by a higher uncertainty. Further comparison suggests that the main source of error in the computation of the drought indicators is the uncertainty in the precipitation datasets rather than the estimation of the distribution parameters of the drought indicators.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  10. Petrophysical rock properties of the Bazhenov Formation of the South-Eastern part of Kaymysovsky Vault (Tomsk Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A. M.; Kudryashova, L. K.; Lee-Van-Khe, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the results of studying petrophysical rock properties of the Bazhenov Formation of the South-Eastern part of Kaymysovsky Vault with the Gas Research Institute (GRI) method. The authors have constructed dependence charts for bulk and grain density, open porosity and matrix permeability vs. depth. The results of studying petrophysical properties with the GRI method and core description have allowed dividing the entire section into three intervals each of which characterized by different conditions of Bazhenov Formation rock formation. The authors have determined a correlation between the compensated neutron log and the rock density vs. depth chart on the basis of complex well logging and petrophysical section analysis. They have determined a promising interval for producing hydrocarbons from the Bazhenov Formation in the well under study. Besides, they have determined the typical behavior of compensated neutron logs and SP logs on well logs for this interval. These studies will allow re-interpreting available well logs in order to determine the most promising interval to be involved in Bazhenov Formation development in Tomsk Region.

  11. Geological record of tsunami inundations in Pantano Morghella (south-eastern Sicily) both from near and far-field sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardi, F.; Smedile, A.; Pirrotta, C.; Barbano, M. S.; De Martini, P. M.; Pinzi, S.; Gueli, A. M.; Ristuccia, G. M.; Stella, G.; Troja, S. O.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.

  12. Aechmea pectinata: a hummingbird-dependent bromeliad with inconspicuous flowers from the rainforest in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Canela, Maria Bernadete Ferreira; Sazima, Marlies

    2003-11-01

    The pollination biology of Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae) was studied in a submontane rainforest in south-eastern Brazil. This species has a mainly clumped distribution and its aggregated individuals are likely to be clones. From October to January, during the flowering period, the distal third of its leaves becomes red. The inflorescence produces 1-15 flowers per day over a period of 20-25 d. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-white coloured, tubular shaped with a narrow opening, and the stigma is situated just above the anthers. Anthesis begins at 0400 h and flowers last for about 13 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur between 0600 and 1000 h, and decrease throughout the day. Aechmea pectinata is self-incompatible and therefore pollinator-dependent. Hummingbirds are its main pollinators (about 90 % of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the morning. There is a positive correlation between the number of hummingbird visits per inflorescence and the production of nectar, suggesting that the availability of this resource is important in attracting and maintaining visitors. The arrangement of the floral structures favours pollen deposition on the bill of the hummingbirds. Flowers in clumps promote hummingbird territoriality, and a consequence is self-pollination in a broader sense (geitonogamy) as individuals in assemblages are genetically close. However, trap-lining and intruding hummingbirds promote cross-pollination. These observations suggest that successful fruit set of A. pectinata depends on both the spatial distribution of its individuals and the interactions among hummingbirds.

  13. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay. PMID:27703709

  14. Feeding biology of a guild of benthivorous fishes in a sandy shore on south-eastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Zahorcsak, P; Silvano, R A; Sazima, I

    2000-08-01

    The feeding biology of eight species of benthivorous fishes was studied in a sandy shore at Anchieta Island, south-eastern Brazilian coast. The fishes fed mainly on Amphipoda and Mysidacea crustaceans. The diet of the most abundant species, the drum Umbrina coroides, was analyzed in three standard length classes (20-55, 56-90 and 91-135 mm). This sciaenid showed an ontogenetic diet shift from Mysidacea to Amphipoda. The feeding behaviour of the sciaenid U. coroides and the gerreid Eucinostomus gula was recorded while snorkeling. During their foraging both species uncovered small organisms buried in the sand. Notwithstanding general similarities in diet, U. coroides and E. gula presented differences in feeding behaviour and morphology. Two carangid species of the genus Trachinotus differed in diet composition and consumed a larger array of food items than the remaining fish species. Differences in diet and feeding activity between the remaining benthivorous species were noted. These differences possibly reduce overlap in resource use and favour the coexistence of guilds of benthivorous fishes on sandy shores.

  15. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  16. Resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Contreras, Josefina; Torné, María; Martín, Alberto; Espinosa, Pedro J

    2007-07-01

    Susceptibility to spinosad of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), from south-eastern Spain was determined. LC(50) values of the field populations without previous exposure to spinosad collected in Murcia in 2001 and 2002 ranged from 0.005 to 0.077 mg L(-1). The populations collected in Almeria in 2003 in greenhouses were resistant to spinosad (LC(50) > 54 mg L(-1)) compared with the authors' highly susceptible laboratory strain. The highly sensitive laboratory strain leads to very high resistance ratios for the field populations (>13 500), but these ratios do not necessarily mean resistance problems and control failures (spinosad field rate 90-120 mg L(-1)). The populations collected in Murcia from some greenhouses in 2004 were also resistant to spinosad (RF > 3682). Spinosad overuse, with more than ten applications per crop, produced these resistant populations in some greenhouses. Spinosad showed no cross-resistance to acrinathrin, formetanate or methiocarb in laboratory strains selected for resistance towards each insecticide. Correlation analysis indicated no cross-resistance among spinosad and the other three insecticides in 13 field populations and in nine laboratory strains. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and diethyl maleate (DEM) did not enhance the toxicity of spinosad to the resistant strains, indicating that metabolic-mediated detoxification was not responsible for the spinosad resistance. These findings suggest that rotation with spinosad may be an effective resistance management strategy.

  17. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  18. Blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum in the South Eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of 2009 summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmakumar, K. B.; Smitha, B. R.; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Fanimol, C. L.; Sreerenjima, G.; Menon, N. R.; Sanjeevan, V. N.

    2010-09-01

    This study presents in situ evidence for the blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum observed in the shelf waters of the South Eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the onset of the southwest monsoon in June 2009. Evidence showed that water surface discoloration was caused by the accumulation of T. erythraeum, and that the water column contained a colony of T. thiebautii. The surface water color in the bloom region varied from pale brown to pinkish red. Pale brown indicated healthy algae at the peak of its photosynthetic activity, while pinkish red indicated the presence of photosynthetically less active filaments. Zooplankton abundance, especially copepodites, in the bloom area substantiated the theory that Trichodesmium filaments are excellent epiphytes to which the copepodites cling. The bloom area was very fertile with copious quantities of dissolved oxygen (6.85 ml L-1), PO4-P (0.108 μmol L-1) and SiO4 (1.29 μmol L-1). Lower NO3-N (0.028 μmol L-1) values in the bloom area did not appear to affect Trichodesmium growth from molecular nitrogen fixation. However, lower NO3-N values altered the normal phytoplankton composition of this area.

  19. Meteorological factors driving glacial till variation and the associated periglacial debris flows in Tianmo Valley, south-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Mingfeng; Chen, Ningsheng; Liu, Mei

    2017-03-01

    Meteorological studies have indicated that high alpine environments are strongly affected by climate warming, and periglacial debris flows are frequent in deglaciated regions. The combination of rainfall and air temperature controls the initiation of periglacial debris flows, and the addition of meltwater due to higher air temperatures enhances the complexity of the triggering mechanism compared to that of storm-induced debris flows. On the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau, where temperate glaciers are widely distributed, numerous periglacial debris flows have occurred over the past 100 years, but none occurred in the Tianmo watershed until 2007. In 2007 and 2010, three large-scale debris flows occurred in the Tianmo Valley. In this study, these three debris flow events were chosen to analyse the impacts of the annual meteorological conditions, including the antecedent air temperature and meteorological triggers. The remote sensing images and field measurements of the adjacent glacier suggested that sharp glacier retreats occurred in the 1 to 2 years preceding the events, which coincided with spikes in the mean annual air temperature. Glacial till changes providing enough active sediment driven by a prolonged increase in the air temperature are a prerequisite of periglacial debris flows. Different factors can trigger periglacial debris flows, and they may include high-intensity rainfall, as in the first and third debris flows, or continuous, long-term increases in air temperature, as in the second debris flow event.

  20. Gonadal Development of the Piau Leporinus copelandii (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in a Tropical River in South-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F G; Gomes, I D; Nascimento, A A; Sales, A

    2015-08-01

    Histological analysis of the gonadal development of Leporinus copelandii Steindachner, 1875, a rheophilic Characiformes species in the Paraiba do Sul River, South-eastern Brazil, was described. We expect that this species adapt gonadal development to succeed in this river basin that has its longitudinal profile blocked by several impoundments. Fishes were examined by routine macroscopic and histological techniques. Stages of oocyte and spermatocyte development were described, and gonadal maturation was proposed. Mean oocyte diameter obtained from histological observations increased from the pre-spawning (4.2-175.5 μm) to spawning (148.5-262.0 μm) phases, followed by a sharp decrease in the post-spawning (27.0-56.7 μm) phase. Based on occurrence of different oocytes phases and oocyte size distribution, this species has group-synchronic development of oocytes. Further studies are necessary to clarify the spawning grounds for L. copelandii in the Paraíba do Sul River basin, especially considering that several impoundments obliterate the natural river course and this could limit spawning grounds.

  1. Dune convergence/divergence controlled by residual current vortices in the Jade tidal channel, south-eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, Adam; Kösters, Frank; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    A field of large to very large subaqueous dunes was investigated in the Jade tidal channel, south-eastern North Sea, between January 2006 and October 2011. A ground-truthed sidescan sonar sediment map shows that the dunes, which are located on top of a consolidated clay surface, are composed of medium to coarse sand. A series of 35 consecutive high-resolution bathymetric surfaces collected by multibeam echosounder revealed a complex migration pattern induced by the reversing tidal currents. Various parts of the dune field are under the influence of either ebb- or flood-dominated currents, as indicated by dune asymmetries. Although some dunes migrate at a pace exceeding 100 m/year, the majority are displaced by 30 m/year in the direction of the locally dominant current. In the deepest part of the channel, however, dunes were observed to converge head-on, resulting in practically zero net transport with minor oscillations of symmetrical dunes at the apex. Applying the numerical UnTRIM model for the simulation of the fair-weather hydrology, a simplified map of residual current vectors over the dune field was generated. The residual flow vectors are found to perfectly match the derived dune migration vectors, suggesting that dune convergence is controlled by two counter-rotating residual current vortices caused by the local shape of the tidal channel. As no sediment build-up is observed, a mechanism of sediment bypassing with potential recirculation must exist, but has not yet been identified.

  2. Latino MSM and HIV in the rural south-eastern USA: findings from ethnographic in-depth interviews

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Aronson, Robert E.; Bloom, Fred R.; Felizzola, Jesus; Wolfson, Mark; Vissman, Aaron T.; Alonzo, Jorge; Allen, Alex Boeving; Montaño, Jaime; McGuire, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    A community-based participatory research partnership explored HIV risk and potentially effective intervention characteristics to reduce exposure and transmission among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men living in the rural south-eastern USA States. Twenty-one participants enrolled and completed a total of 62 ethnographic in-depth interviews. Mean age was 31 (range 18–48) years, and English-language proficiency was limited; 18 participants were from Mexico. Four participants reported having sex with men and women during the past three months; two participants self-identified as male-to-female transgender. Qualitative themes that emerged included a lack of accurate information about HIV and prevention; the influence of social-political contexts to sexual risk; and barriers to healthcare services. We also identified eight characteristics of potentially effective interventions for HIV prevention. Our findings suggest that socio-political contexts must be additional targets of change to reduce and eliminate HIV health disparities experienced by immigrant Latino men who have sex with men. PMID:20582764

  3. Primate population densities in three nutrient-poor amazonian terra firme forests of south-eastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Erwin; Peres, Carlos A

    2005-01-01

    We censused primate populations at three non-hunted 'terra firme' forests of south-eastern Colombian Amazonia. The aggregate biomass densities of diurnal primates at all sites were amongst the lowest recorded for any non-hunted forest in western Amazonia and elsewhere in the Neotropics. Densities of red howler monkeys were low, as is typical in Amazonian terra firme forests far removed from white-water rivers, and densities of woolly monkeys were 1.5-3.5 times lower than those estimated for this species in central-western Brazilian Amazonia. Densities of small to mid-sized primates except for brown capuchins (Cebus apella) and white-faced capuchins (Cebus albifrons) were similar to those of other oligotrophic Amazonian forest sites. Our results are in agreement with other studies showing that terra firme forests of lowland Amazonia typically sustain a low biomass density of primates and other mid-sized to large vertebrates. Large reserves are therefore required to assure the viability of primate populations in oligotrophic systems. Given the escalating negative impacts of human habitat disturbance and hunting in Colombian Amazonia, we urge that a baseline sampling protocol to quantify the abundance and distribution of the harvest-sensitive vertebrate fauna be established within protected areas and the large indigenous reserves so that conservation efforts can be defined and implemented.

  4. Submarine Sedimentation Transport Processes in the South-Eastern Terceira Rift / São Miguel Region (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The south-eastern Terceira Rift comprises a rift basin, igneous ridges, seamounts and São Miguel, the main island of the volcanic Azores Archipelago. It is located ~1500 km west of continental Portugal within the convergence zone of the American, African and Eurasian plate. Due to submarine and subaerial volcanism, the sedimentation rate is higher than usually assumed in such a segregated submarine region. Multi-beam and high-resolution multi-channel seismic data reveal a wide variety of sediment transport processes. Volcanic fall-out sediments are abundant in the entire area. Along the northern slope of Sao Miguel terrestrial volcanic sediments are drained by rain water gullies which connect to submarine channels. Turbidity currents created some 10 km long erosional channels which transported the sediments more than 40 km downslope. Several regional accumulations of talus and/or pyroclastic material get instable resulting in gravitational gliding, creeping or slide events. Volcanic ridges partly collapse due to tectonic stress and/or gravity spreading. Oceanic currents remobilize sediments and form drift deposits. Infilling drifts developed on top of hangingwall blocks of step faults. Therefore, the São Miguel region is a good example of a sedimentary system with strong time-variant and locally defined sediment support. Sedimentation is controlled by volcanism and tectonics, since these processes affect sedimentation pathways and oceanographic conditions.

  5. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Mason, Suzanne; Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-09-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay.

  6. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented. PMID:22977351

  7. Drought prediction and sustainable development of the ecological environment.

    PubMed

    Xu, X H; Lv, Z Q; Zhou, X Y; Jiang, N

    2016-01-25

    In the 1990s ecological early warning research began with the aim of elucidating the effect of drought in dry regions of the world. Drought has been a prevalent natural disaster, ravaging the Yun'nan province of China for over 5 years since 2009. Due to the extensive range, depth and devastating losses, the drought has reached a once-in-a-century severity. Yun'nan province suffered particularly badly from the drought, which took its toll on both the ecological environment and the sustainable economic development of the province. We chose to study Pu'er city in Yun'nun province for this research, and analysed the drought traits of Pu'er city utilizing geographic information technology. We applied the Mann-Kendall test for trend, linear tendency estimation and percentage of precipitation anomalies, as well as using combinations of monthly data searches of meteorological reports from 1980-2010. The results showed that except for a small rise in spring precipitation, the overall rainfall of Pu'er city showed a decreasing trend. The results of this study can provide an adequate and reliable theoretical basis and technological methods for use in government decision making, and promote research into early warning ecology.

  8. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Joan Ramon; Aguilar, Enric

    2015-04-01

    Drought variability and change is assessed in this study across the Iberian Peninsula along the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century using state of the art drought indices: the Sc-PDSI, the SPI and the SPEI. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 time-series regularly spread over Iberian Peninsula are quality controlled and also homogenized in a monthly scale to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Sc-PDSI, the 12-month SPI and 12-month SPEI are computed on a monthly basis using the newly MITPS dataset to identify dry and wet conditions across time. Precipitation data is only required to compute SPI, but potential evapotranspiration (PET) is also needed to perform the Sc-PDSI and SPEI, which is estimated using the Tornthwaite's method. The analysis conducted in this study confirms that drought conditions are worsening for most of the Iberian Peninsula across time strongly induced by global warming especially during the last three decades. All drought indices have found a drying trend in the Pyrenees, Ebro basin, central Iberia and in the south and south-eastern area while a wetting trend is identified in the western and in the north-western region. Future projections also indicate a clear increase in hydrological drought conditions along the 21st century, thus, water saving and the application of effective water management strategies will be crucial to minimize the impact of hydrological droughts over the Iberian Peninsula into the near future. KEY WORDS: Drought, climate change, Iberian Peninsula, drought indices.

  9. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R

    2012-05-15

    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  10. Demography of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult 'helpers', resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1) physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2) a high degree of reproductive skew, (3) small litters produced only once a year, and (4) a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males). Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs.) and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime); the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11), with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River.

  11. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    TULU, Begna; TAYE, Solomon; ZENEBE, Yohannes; AMSALU, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001) and (P=0.001), respectively. Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important. PMID:28127367

  12. High prevalence of complement component C6 deficiency among African-Americans in the South-eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z-B; Atkinson, T P; Hovanky, K T; Boppana, S B; Dai, Y L; Densen, P; Go, R C P; Jablecki, J S; Volanakis, J E

    2000-01-01

    Complement component C6 is a part of the membrane attack complex that forms a pore-like structure in cell membranes following complement activation. Deficiency of terminal complement components including C6 predisposes individuals to infection with Neisseriae. Using polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis followed by DNA sequencing, we screened genomic DNA from 200 randomly chosen blacks and an equal number from whites for three loss-of-function C6 mutations. Ten blacks and two whites were found to be heterozygous for one of the mutations. Two of the mutations, 1195delC and 1936delG, were found exclusively in black individuals. A third previously undescribed mutation, 878delA, was found at equal frequency among the two groups. The difference between the two groups was significant (P = 0.027), indicating that C6 deficiency due to these three mutations is more common among blacks than whites in the local area, principally Jefferson County, Alabama. In addition, three previously undescribed point mutations, two of which result in amino acid substitutions, were identified within exon 6. A review of the county health department records over the past 6 years revealed a higher incidence of meningococcal meningitis in blacks due to serogroups Y and W-135 which paralleled the difference in the estimated prevalence of C6 deficiency. Among black residents of the county (n = 235 598) there were 15 cases of meningitis due to these two serogroups, compared with two cases in the white population (n = 422 604) (P = 0.002). We conclude that C6 deficiency is more common among blacks than whites in the south-eastern United States, with a frequency approaching 1 in 1600 black individuals. PMID:10632667

  13. Isotopic, trace element and nutrient characterization of coastal waters from Ubatuba inner shelf area, south-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, P. P.; de Oliveira, J.; Braga, E. S.; Comanducci, J.-F.; Gastaud, J.; Groening, M.; Levy-Palomo, I.; Morgenstern, U.; Top, Z.

    2008-02-01

    Stable isotopes, tritium, radium isotopes, radon, trace elements and nutrients data were collected during two sampling campaigns in the Ubatuba coastal area (south-eastern Brazil) with the aim of investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the region. The isotopic composition ( δD, δ18O, 3H) of submarine waters was characterised by significant variability and heavy isotope enrichment. The stable isotopes and tritium data showed good separation of groundwater and seawater groups. The contribution of groundwater in submarine waters varied from a few % to 17%. Spatial distribution of 222Rn activity concentration in surface seawater revealed changes between 50 and 200 Bq m -3 which were in opposite relationship with observed salinities. Time series measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in Flamengo Bay (from 1 to 5 kBq m -3), obtained by in situ underwater gamma-spectrometry showed a negative correlation between the 222Rn activity concentration and tide/salinity. This may be caused by sea level changes as tide effects induce variations of hydraulic gradients, which increase 222Rn concentration during lower sea level, and opposite, during high tides where the 222Rn activity concentration is smaller. The estimated SGD fluxes varied during 22-26 November between 8 and 40 cm d -1, with an average value of 21 cm d -1 (the unit is cm 3/cm 2 per day). The radium isotopes and nutrient data showed scattered distributions with offshore distance and salinity, which implies that in a complex coast with many small bays and islands, the area has been influenced by local currents and groundwater-seawater mixing. SGD in the Ubatuba area is fed by coastal contaminated groundwater and re-circulated seawater (with small admixtures of groundwater), which claims for potential environmental concern with implications on the management of freshwater resources in the region.

  14. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751-1900 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-03-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  15. Heterogeneity of Environments Associated with Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South-Eastern France and Implication for Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Faucher, Benoit; Gaudart, Jean; Faraut, Francoise; Pomares, Christelle; Mary, Charles; Marty, Pierre; Piarroux, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across Europe. Leishmania infantum transmission in the Old World was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. Environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease. However, comprehensive studies were lacking to reliably identify all the environments at risk and thereby optimize monitoring and control strategy. Methodology/Findings We exhaustively collected 328 cases of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis from 1993 to 2009 in South-Eastern France. Leishmaniasis incidence decreased from 31 yearly cases between 1993 and 1997 to 12 yearly cases between 2005 and 2009 mostly because Leishmania/HIV coinfection were less frequent. No spread of human visceral leishmaniasis was observed in the studied region. Two major foci were identified, associated with opposite environments: whereas one involved semi-rural hillside environments partly made of mixed forests, the other involved urban and peri-urban areas in and around the region main town, Marseille. The two neighboring foci were related to differing environments despite similar vectors (P. perniciosus), canine reservoir, parasite (L. infantum zymodeme MON-1), and human host. Conclusions/Significance This unprecedented collection of cases highlighted the occurrence of protracted urban transmission of L. infantum in France, a worrisome finding as the disease is currently spreading in other areas around the Mediterranean. These results complete previous studies about more widespread canine leishmaniasis or human asymptomatic carriage. This first application of systematic geostatistical methods to European human visceral leishmaniasis demonstrated an unsuspected heterogeneity of environments associated with the transmission of the disease. These findings modify the current view of leishmaniasis epidemiology. They notably stress the need

  16. Surface sediment dynamics along the Tunisian coast at Skhira (Gulf of Gabès, south-eastern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahim, Mouldi; Abdelfattah, Atoui; Sammari, Chérif; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-12-01

    An investigation was conducted in the summer of 2012 at 24 study stations along the Tunisian coast near Skhira (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea) through high resolution of analyses, grain size and mineral composition of surface sediment. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Skhira's main coastal current to follow a direction 60°E, with its main axis south-west/north-east parallel to the coastline and its minor axis east-west. Current speeds were approximately 13 cm s-1 and 4.5 cm s-1 for the major and minor axes, respectively. Parallel to the coast, currents were generally mild to moderate, but often exceeded 20 cm s-1. An Argonaut meter recorded the dominant current direction as north/north-east with a speed not exceeding 18 cm s-1. Orthogonal Empirical Function analysis of tidal currents showed that the major axis velocity dispersion was north-east/south-west, the water mass flow parallel to the shoreline being almost unidirectional, driving littoral drift parallel to the coast. Spatial distribution of particle size, along with speed and current direction analysis, furnish an overview of the Skhira area's sediment dynamics and transport. Average sand grain size shows that the bottom consists of fine and especially of medium sands near the coast, with muddy sands offshore. The fine fraction percentage (<63 microns) as opposed to the coarse fraction (>63 microns) is higher at the two offshore study stations, 20 m deep. Fine particles are discharged into the sea by rip currents. Sediment dynamics along the Skhira coast are complex, being subject to the combined effect of swell and tide. Sediments are permanently re-suspended and in constant movement, especially during storms.

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in primary school children in the south-eastern Iranian city of Bam, 1994-95.

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, I.; Fekri, A. R.; Aflatonian, M. R.; Nadim, A.; Nikian, Y.; Kamesipour, A.

    1998-01-01

    Between August 1994 and July 1995, 11,517 primary school children aged 6-11 years in the south-eastern Iranian city of Bam, comprising 5560 (48.3%) girls and 5957 (51.7%) boys, were examined for the presence of active lesions or scars of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). There was a trend towards increasing prevalence with age, the prevalence being 10.7% in 6-year-old and 20% in > or = 11-year-old children. Overall, 1.3% of the children had active lesions and 14.3% had scars. There was no significant difference between the sexes in the prevalence of active lesions and/or scars. Of the children examined, 54 (0.5%) had leishmaniasis recidivans: 19 girls (35.2%) and 35 boys (64.8%). The number of active lesions or scars per child ranged from 1 to 10. The majority (82.3%) had 1 lesion, 12.4% had 2 lesions, and 5.3% had > or = 3. The average number of lesions was 1.08 (1.03 in girls and 1.18 in boys). The face was the part of the body most commonly involved (63.6%), followed by the hands (20.9%), legs (12.8%) and other parts of the body (2.7%). Examination of isolates from 14 children revealed that in 13 (92.9%) the causal organism was Leishmania tropica and in the other (7.1%) L. major. The survey indicates that the geographical distribution of CL is far wider than previously thought. It also shows that Bam is a suitable areas for a vaccine field trial. PMID:9744249

  18. The continuum approach in analysing the glacial landscapes of the South-Eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally geomorphologists are identifying individual landforms and describing their properties. However any discrimination of individual forms on the Earth's surface is arbitrary and often subjective. We are developing an automated procedure for slope and aspect distribution analysis of the digital elevation models. Instead of considering individual forms and describing them we intend to consider the Earth's surface as continuous plane and calculate the parameters describing it along a regular set of node points. The aim of the research is to identify and characterise fast ice flow zones in the south-eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation. We assume that different glacial landscapes - drumlin fields, glaciolimnic planes, outwash planes, complexes of marginal landforms etc. - do have their own fingerprint of slope and aspect distribution. We expect that this distribution can be used to identify and characterise the particular process that has shaped it, e.g. the fast ice flow usually is associated with streamlined glacial bed and faster flow produces stronger, more distinct lineation. Slope aspect distribution across a drumlin field will have a bidirectional, symetrical character with dominant dip directions transverse to the ice flow direction. In contrast the distribution of slope dip direction at the terrain dominated by ribbed moraines will be asymmetric and clustering in the ice flow direction. The slope and aspect distribution for the terrain at the Saadjärve drumlin field in eastern Estonia is used as the testing ground for the methodology. SRTM elevation data set is the basic data source and results are validated against the excellent laser altimetry (LiDAR) data obtained from Estonian Land Board. The research is supported by the European Union through the European Social Fund Mobilitas grant No MJD309.

  19. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  20. An independent event of Neolithic cattle domestication on the South-eastern Balkans: evidence from prehistoric aurochs and cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Peter; Spassov, Nikolai; Iliev, Nikolai; Radoslavov, Georgi

    2015-12-29

    Neolithic/Chalcolithic livestock domestication is an important issue for understanding the mode of life and economics of ancient human communities. The Balkans appears to be a crucial point for clarifying the socio-economical interrelations between the Oldest Middle Eastern/Anatolian and newly formed cultures in Europe. Two main hypotheses regarding the early history of cattle domestication, from their ancestor - the aurochs, have been discussed: multipoint domestication centers or single point origin and subsequent worldwide dissemination. In this study, we provide molecular data about the Balkan aurochs for the first time as well as additional information for the Neolithic/Chalcolithic cattle populations in this geographic location. A total of seventeen samples from different ancient settlements were analyzed according to D-loop control region. The results did not show different genetic profile of wild and domestic populations. All haplotypes were found to belong to the basic macro-haplogroup T. The majority of specimens (n = 14) were defined to form a new Balkan-specific T6 haplogroup. Only two of the ancient samples analyzed were assigned to the T3 haplotype predominating in Europe. We attempt to throw new light on the earliest cattle domestication events in Europe, thus, the results presented are discussed in two directions: (a) The possibility of local independent domestication processes in Neolithic South-Eastern Europe; (b) The single point domestication in the Middle East and subsequent cattle dissemination in Europe. Our data does not exclude the possibility for independent domestication events followed by a second wave of parallel dissemination of cattle herds via the Mediterranean route.

  1. Geodynamics and intermediate-depth seismicity in Vrancea (the south-eastern Carpathians): Current state-of-the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Matenco, Liviu; Radulian, Mircea; Cloetingh, Sierd; Panza, Giuliano

    2012-03-01

    The Vrancea region of the south-eastern Carpathians is a remarkable site of intra-continental intermediate-depth seismicity. A large set of geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations has been accumulated for the last few decades and utilised to improve our knowledge of the shallow and deep structures beneath Vrancea, the crustal and mantle dynamics, and the linkage between deep and surface processes in the region. In this article we review geology and tectonics of the Vrancea region including post-collisional to recent deformations, syn- to post-collisional magmatism, and orogenic exhumation along the East and South Carpathians. The regional seismicity is analysed, and the recent seismic studies including reflection, refraction, body and surface wave tomography are reviewed. We discuss new geodetic measurements of horizontal and vertical movements in the region, geoelectric studies, density/gravity and thermal modelling. Qualitative and quantitative (including retrospective) geodynamic models developed for Vrancea are analysed. The knowledge of regional tectonics, geodynamics, seismicity, lithospheric deformation, and stress regime in the Vrancea earthquake-prone region assists in an assessment of strong ground motion, seismic hazard and risk. The earthquake simulation, seismic hazard, and earthquake forecasting models have also been reviewed providing a link between deep geodynamic processes and their manifestation on the surface. Finally we discuss unresolved problems in Vrancea in order to improve our understanding of the regional evolution, present tectonics, mantle dynamics, intermediate-depth seismicity, and surface manifestations of the lithosphere dynamics and to enhance our ability to forecast strong earthquakes in the Vrancea region. The problems to be solved include: (i) the origin of the high-velocity body revealed by seismic tomography studies (oceanic versus continental); (ii) the lithospheric scale mechanism driving the Miocene subsidence of

  2. Sedimentological conditions and sediment transport pathways in the nearshore zone of the Russian part of South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, Evgenia

    2016-04-01

    The sediment transport pathways and sedimentological conditions are identified on the South-Eastern Baltic Sea coastal zone (Russian part) up to the depth of 30 m on the base of grain size analysis of recent marine sediments. The interrelations between grain size statistical parameters of 971 sediment samples are used. The two independent approaches that discussed in the literature are applied: 1) the sediment trend analysis, based on spatial variations of sediment grain size parameters from sample to sample (McLaren, 1981) and 2) the population anomalies method, which allows to determine the sedimentation conditions (erosion, transit or accumulation) from the deviations of sediments grain size parameters in each sampling place from the average values in investigation area (Baraniecki and Racinowski, 1996). Taking into account that the sediment grain size composition achieve its constant in calm period of reduced storm influence and that the all samples were taking during summer season, the obtained sedimentation pattern present the long-time annual average of sediment transport pathways in the investigated area. The results show that the sediment accumulation under the wave influence prevails up to the depth of 5 m. The continuous accumulation zone breaks in erosion where the shore line changes its direction. Seaward of the accumulation zone the sediment transit area extends and interrupts by zones of erosion and accumulation up to the depth of 20 m. Sediment transport here occurs in hydrodynamic circulation cells within bays along the Sambian peninsula north coast. The erosion zones serves as sediment source on the underwater shore slope. The north-eastern direction of sediment transport exist along the straightened coast of Curonian spit according to prevail west winds. Deeper there are zones of transit and "slowly" sediment accumulation up to the depth of 30 m. The seaward and isobaths parallel sediment transport pathways are obtained in these zones. The work

  3. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  4. Demography of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, South-Eastern Peru: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult ‘helpers’, resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1) physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2) a high degree of reproductive skew, (3) small litters produced only once a year, and (4) a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males). Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs.) and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime); the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11), with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River. PMID:25162684

  5. Reproductive Isolation among Sympatric Molecular Forms of An. gambiae from Inland Areas of South-Eastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Niang, El Hadji Amadou; Konaté, Lassana; Diallo, Mawlouth; Faye, Ousmane; Dia, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex includes at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species, one of which, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is the primary mosquito vector responsible for the transmission of malaria across sub-Saharan Africa. Sympatric ecological diversification of An. gambiae s.s. is in progress within this complex, leading to the emergence of at least two incipient species (the M and S molecular forms now recognized as good species and named An. coluzzii and An. gambiae respectively) that show heterogeneous levels of divergence in most parts of Africa. However, this process seems to have broken down in coastal areas of West Africa at the extreme edge of the distribution. We undertook a longitudinal study to describe An. gambiae s.s. populations collected from two inland transects with different ecological characteristics in south-eastern Senegal. Analysis of samples collected from 20 sites across these two transects showed the M and S molecular forms coexisted at almost all sampled sites. Overall, similar hybridization rates (2.16% and 1.86%) were recorded in the two transects; sites with relatively high frequencies of M/S hybrids (up to 7%) were clustered toward the north-western part of both transects, often near urban settings. Estimated inbreeding indices for this putative speciation event varied spatially (range: 0.52–1), with hybridization rates being generally lower than expected under panmictic conditions. Such observations suggest substantial reproductive isolation between the M and S molecular forms, and further support the ongoing process of speciation in these inland areas. According to a recent reclassification of the An. gambiae complex, the M and S molecular forms from this zone correspond to An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, respectively. There is considerable evidence that these molecular forms differ in their behavioural and ecological characteristics. Detailed study of these characteristics will allow the development

  6. Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

  7. Hydroclimatic change driven by land-water-use developments:the case of transboundary Sava River Catchment, South Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Lea; Jaramillo, Fernando; Andričević, Roko; Destouni, Georgia

    2013-04-01

    Growing human demands for water, food and energy have led to extensive use and modification of world water bodies, for instance by construction of dams, reservoirs and channels for hydropower purposes. In this study we use the transboundary Sava River Catchment (SRC) in South Eastern Europe, as field case for investigating long-term hydroclimatic changes and their relation to regional hydropower and associated land-water-use developments. We find sustained increase in average annual evapotranspiration, and decrease in average annual runoff and temporal runoff variability as hydropower production increased in the SRC parts with the greatest such developments during the 20th century. Purely climate-driven estimates of change in evapotranspiration and runoff cannot capture these changes, which are apparently related to the land and water use changes associated with hydropower development. Direct comparisons with corresponding results from other world regions and global estimates show consistent cross-regional results, supporting generalization of obtained specific numerical results and the used analysis approach on different scales and across different parts of the world. With regard to specific results, the estimated average increase of actual evapotranspiration by hydropower-related/reflected land-water-use changes in SRC (sub)catchments with considerable hydropower development is 37 mm/year (for their average annual hydropower production of 217 MWh/km2). This result is for instance consistent with a corresponding estimate of evapotranspiration increase by Destouni et al (2012) of 57 mm/year (for their investigated Swedish hydropower catchments with average annual hydropower production of 322 MWh/km2). The SRC case study, of an area of recent political and social instability with less than ideal conditions regarding environmental monitoring, represents a methodological success by showing that, even in such a complicated part of the world, relevant data series can be

  8. Late Holocene paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution at Elaiussa Sebaste archeological area (South-Eastern Turkey): preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Romana; Bernasconi, Maria Pia; Colizza, Ester; Di Rita, Federico; Equini Schneider, Eugenia; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia; Pugliese, Nevio

    2013-04-01

    Geological disciplines are increasingly applied to archaeological research. Their potentialities are able to cover numerous fields of research, since they can become very interesting tools to define the ancient environments, the origin of the human settlements and the natural and anthropic processes which occurred through the evolution of the territory. Elaiussa Sebaste (Mersin region, South-Eastern coast of the Turkey), which was an important coastal town from the II century BC to VII century AD, may represent a noteworthy field of application of geological disciplines. This site was one of the main trading harbours of the Mediterranean (from the Augustan to the Byzantine era) growing in the Augustan period and maintaining its prestige until the late Empire and the Byzantine era. Actually it was the intersection of the most important shipping and land routes among Syria, Egypt and the Anatolian peninsula. The evolution of the coastal environment around this town has been continuously modified by men along its history. The most evident modification occurred North and South the promontory of Elaiussa-Sebaste bay, i.e. the construction of two harbours, which have been subsequently buried by not well defined events. The definition of the geological processes controlling the evolution of the coastal area during the last 3000 years, should become essential to reconstruct the succession of the palaeoenvironments of Elaiussa Sebaste, including the decline of the harbours. With regard to this topic, the geomorphologic analysis reveals the complex interactions among tectonics, erosion and sedimentation in this coastal area in both, emerged and in ancient times submerged settings facing the archaeological site. During the summer 2012, a geological survey allowed us to drill nine boreholes along the land-to-sea transects in both harbours. Preliminary observations indicate the stratigraphic evolution from restricted to open marine coastal environments. Sedimentology

  9. Petrogenesis of cogenetic silica-oversaturated and -undersaturated syenites of Abu Khruq ring complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogahed, Moustafa M.

    2016-12-01

    The upper Cretaceous Abu Khruq ring complex (ARC) is located in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt displays concentric zonation of syenitic rocks from quartz-rich syenite at the margin, through alkali feldspar syenite to nepheline syenite in the centre. The syenitic rocks occur with nepheline monzogabbro, volcanic rocks (phonolite and trachyte) and the quartz- and nepheline-bearing pegmatites. Rocks of contrasting composition (mafic and salic) exhibit sophisticate geometric relationships. The nepheline monzogabbroic rocks have pillowy xenoliths forms within the salic (nepheline syenite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite) rocks, suggesting synchronous emplacement of the mafic and salic magmas. Clinopyroxene analysis of mafic and salic plutonic rocks of the ARC revealed that the overall pyroxene trend suggesting that fractionation involved a late, progressive increase in Na, in a reaction of the type Ca Mg Fe2+↔Na Fe3+. The chemistry of the analysed amphiboles are compositionally similar to those from typical differentiated peralkaline suites. Geochemically, the complex is enriched in the LILE, HFSE and REE. The concentrations of the compatible elements (V, Sr and Ba) generally decrease with increasing silica, consistent with fractional crystallization. A generalised increase in the Nb/Ta from the nepheline monzogabbro to nepheline syenite compositions is attributed to titanite fractionation. All the rock samples show relative increment of the LREE content than the HREE indicating weak to steep fractionated REE patterns (La/Yb) from 9.43 to 10.86, and thus retaining the geochemical characteristics of anorogenic suites. The magma sources of ARC are not derived from normal primitive mantle. The early stages of differentiation involved extensive olivine and pyroxene fractionation, the fractionation of amphibole, titanite, magnetite, apatite and feldspar may have been involved in the genesis of the salic differentiated compositions. The deviation towards silica

  10. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. Objective To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Design Community based cross-sectional survey Setting Four kebeles of Samre Woreda (2 urban & 2 rural kebeles) Methods Four hundred lactating mothers were recruited from 400 randomly selected households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, feeding practices, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity was collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using calibrated equipments and standardized techniques. A one-day weighed food record was also collected from randomly selected sub sample (n=60) of mothers. The nutrient and energy content of foods consumed by the mothers was calculated by using ESHA Food Processor and the Ethiopian Food Composition Tables. To investigate the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the nutritional status of the women, logistic regression was used. ANOVA and t-test were also used to see if there was a mean difference in nutritional status among the lactating mothers. Results Majority (71.2%) of the participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of the study participants was 5 out of 14 food groups. The prevalence of underweight, chronic energy deficiency and stunting were 31%, 25% and 2.2% respectively. Using logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants (as determined by BMI and MUAC) were size of farm land, length of years of marriage, maize cultivation

  11. Evidence of climatic effects on soil, vegetation and landform in temperate forests of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Water and radiation are unevenly distributed across the landscape due to variations in topography, which in turn causes water availability differences on the terrain according to elevation and aspect orientation. These differences in water availability can cause differential distribution of vegetation types and indirectly influence the development of soil and even landform, as expressed in hillslope asymmetry. While most of the research on the effects of climate on the vegetation and soil development and landscape evolution has been concentrated in drier semi-arid areas, temperate forested areas has been poorly studied, particularly in South Eastern Australia. This study uses soil profile descriptions and data on soil depth and landform across climatic gradients to explore the degrees to which coevolution of vegetation, soils and landform are controlled by radiative forcing and rainfall. Soil depth measurements were made on polar and equatorial facing hillslopes located at 3 sites along a climatic gradient (mean annual rainfall between 700 - 1800 mm yr-1) in the Victorian Highlands, where forest types range from dry open woodland to closed temperate rainforest. Profile descriptions were taken from soil pits dag on planar hillslopes (50 m from ridge), and samples were taken from each horizon for physical and chemical properties analysis. Hillslope asymmetry in different precipitation regimes of the study region was quantified from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Significant vegetation differences between aspects were noted in lower and intermediate rainfall sites, where polar facing aspects expressed higher overall biomass than the drier equatorial slope. Within the study domain, soil depth was strongly correlated with forest type and above ground biomass. Soil depths and chemical properties varied between topographic aspects and along the precipitation gradient, where wetter conditions facilitate deeper and more weathered soils. Furthermore, soil depths showed

  12. Using Chironomid-Based Transfer Function and Stable Isotopes for Reconstructing Past Climate in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J.; Shulmeister, J.; Woodward, C.

    2014-12-01

    A transfer-function based on chironomids was created to reconstruct past summer temperatures from a training set comprised of 33 south eastern Australian lakes. Statistical analyses show that mean February temperature (MFT) is the most robust and independent variable explaining chironomid species variability. The best MFT transfer function was a partial least squares (PLS) model with a coefficient of determination (r2Jackknifed) of 0.69, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.33˚C, and maximum bias of 2.15°C. The transfer function was tested by applying it to a Late Glacial to Holocene record from Blue Lake, New South Wales using published data. The reconstruction displays an overall pattern very similar to the Milankovitch driven summer insolation curve for 30°S and to the chironomid based summer temperature reconstruction from Eagle Tarn, Tasmania (Rees and Cwynar 2010) suggesting that the model is robust. The transfer function was also applied to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maxium (LGM) summer temperature from Welsby Lagoon, North Stradbroke Island (Queensland). Preliminary results show a c. 4.2~8.6˚C of cooling in summer temperatures during the LGM from south east Australia. Stable oxygen and deuterium isotope composition (δ18O and δD) of the chitnous subfossil head capsules from Australian chironomids were also measured to explore the opportunity developing them as an independent temperature proxy. This is the first application of this technique in the Southern Hemisphere. The modern range of chironomid δ18O values were measured based on the same 33 lakes sampled for the transfer function. For these lakes, head capsules of single genera were picked to avoid complications from 'vital effects'. The relationship of chironomid δ18O to modern lake temperatures has been investigated. Deuterium (δD) on the head capsules has been measured concurrently and the relationship to climate and environment will be explored based on the latest available

  13. Pesticides in surface water runoff in south-eastern New York State, USA: Seasonal and stormflow effects on concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Bode, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Samples from two streams (Kisco River and the Middle Branch of the Croton River) in the Croton Reservoir system in south-eastern New York State, USA were sampled from May 2000 through to February 2001 in order to document the effect of land use, streamflow and seasonal patterns of application on pesticide concentrations in runoff from developed watersheds. Many of the pesticides detected most commonly in this study are generally used in developed areas, and particularly on turfgrass. Pesticide concentrations were generally higher, and the numbers of compounds were generally larger, in samples from the Kisco River than in samples from the Middle Branch, probably because the Kisco River drainage has a greater population density and is more extensively developed. Four pesticides (2,4-D, 2,4-D-methyl, dicamba and metalaxyl) were detected in at least one sample from the Kisco River at a concentration > 1 ??g litre-1, and no pesticides were detected at concentrations >0.4 ??g litre-1 in Middle Branch samples. No human-health-based water-quality standards were exceeded by samples from either site in this study, but samples from the Kisco River contained four insecticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion) and one herbicide (2,4-D) in concentrations that exceeded water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. The highest concentrations of most compounds occurred during stormflows in both streams in June, September and December, 2000. The lowest concentrations of most compounds at both sites occurred during baseflows from October 2000 through February 2001, even though the concentrations of many compounds increased substantially at the Kisco River site during stormflows in November and December. Detailed data on the variability of pesticide concentrations during stormflows indicate that there may be two sources of pesticides in the Kisco River watershed: (1) elevated concentrations of pesticides during peak flows that occur early in stormflows

  14. Geodynamic Implications of Himu Mantle In The Source of Tertiary Volcanics From The Veneto Region (south Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macera, P.; Gasperini, D.; Blichert-Toft; Bosch, D.; del Moro, A.; Dini, G.; Martin, S.; Piromallo, C.

    DuringTertiary times extensive mafic volcanism took place in the South-Eastern Alps, along a half-graben structure bounded by the Schio-Vicenza main fault. This mag- matism gave rise to four main volcanic centers: Lessini, Berici, Euganei, and Maros- tica. The dominating rock types are alkali basalts, basanites and transitional basalts, with hawaiites, trachybasalts, tephrites, basaltic andesites, and differentiated rocks be- ing less common. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data for the most primitive lavas from each volcanic center show the typical features of HIMU hotspot volcanism, variably diluted by a depleted asthenospheric mantle component (87Sr/86Sr48Ma = 0.70314-0.70321; eNd48Ma = +6.4 to +6.5; eHf48Ma = +6.4 to +8.1, 206Pb/204Pb48Ma = 18.786-19.574). Since the HIMU component is consid- ered to be of deep mantle origin, its presence in a tectonic environment dominated by subduction (the Alpine subduction of the European plate below the Adria plate) has significant geodynamic implications. Slab detachment and ensuing rise of deep man- tle material into the lithospheric gap is proposed to be a viable mechanism of hotspot magmatism in a subduction zone setting. Interaction between deep-seated plume ma- terial and shallow depleted asthenospheric mantle may account for the geochemical features of the Veneto volcanics, as well as those of the so-called enriched astheno- spheric reservoir (EAR) component. Ascending counterflow of deep mantle material through the lithospheric gap to the top of the subducting slab further may induce heat- ing of the overriding plate and trigger it to partially melt. Upwelling of the resulting mafic magmas and their subsequent underplating at the mantle-lower crust bound- ary would favor partial melting of the lower crust, thereby giving rise to the bimodal mafic-felsic magmatism that characterizes the whole Periadriatic province. According to this model, the HIMU-like magmatism of the Alpine foreland is therefore

  15. A new species of the rare nematode genus Paramicrolaimus Wieser, 1954 (Chromadorida: Paramicrolaimidae) from the south eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jini; Jaleel K U, Abdul; Vijayan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-08

    A new paramicrolaimid nematode, Paramicrolaimus damodarani sp. nov., is described based on specimens from the continental shelf (95 m) of the south eastern Arabian Sea. Paramicrolaimus damodarani sp. nov. differs from other known species of the genus in having a smaller body size, form of the spicular apparatus, presence of 7 cuticularised protruding precloacal supplements and a strongly cuticularised terminal spinneret. This is the first record of the genus Paramicrolaimus from the northern Indian Ocean. A pictorial key to the four species of Paramicrolaimus is also provided, supplemented with comparative characters, based on published information.

  16. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to inform early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Vogt, J.

    2013-10-01

    geographical regions: the Mediterranean coast of Africa; the Sahel region and the Horn of Africa; the Serengeti and the Eastern Miombo woodlands in eastern Africa. Additionally, the western part of the Zambezi basin, the south-eastern border of the Congo basin and the belt of Fynbos in the Western Cape should also be included in this category. The results of the DVI at the country level were compared with drought disasters information from the EM-DAT disaster database. Even if a cause effect relationship cannot be established between the DVI and the drought disaster database, a good agreement is observed between the drought vulnerability maps and the number of persons affected by droughts. These results are a valuable contribution to the discussion on how to assess drought vulnerability and should contribute to the development of drought early warning systems in Africa.

  17. Drought in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Anne F.; Gleeson, Tom; Clark, Julian; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Stahl, Kerstin; Hannaford, Jamie; di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin; Svoboda, Mark; Verbeiren, Boud; Wagener, Thorsten; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2016-02-01

    Drought management is inefficient because feedbacks between drought and people are not fully understood. In this human-influenced era, we need to rethink the concept of drought to include the human role in mitigating and enhancing drought.

  18. Impacts of European drought events: insights from an international impact report inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Irene; Stagge, James H.; Blauhut, Veit; Bachmair, Sophie; Stahl, Kerstin; Tallaksen, Lena M.

    2014-05-01

    Drought is a natural hazard that can cause a wide range of impacts affecting the environment, society and economy in a number of ways. Drought analysis often concentrates on particular aspects of droughts with large-scale studies focussing mostly on climate variables and impact studies focussing on local case studies. In times of concern over future changes in drought frequency and severity due to climatic change, a holistic view linking hydrometeorological analysis with a wide range of impacts across regions is needed to improve trans-sectorial and transboundary drought management. This study presents an assessment of the diversity of drought impacts of past drought events across European geoclimatic regions made possible by the new European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII). This database, which already contains over 2000 entries, will go public for online reporting and use at the end of the (EU) DROUGHT-R&SPI project that it was developed in. Collected impact reports are classified into 15 impact categories, including different sectors, and sub-types, and referenced in time and space to allow mapping and statistical analysis. The selection of past drought events studied in detail is based on the complementary European Drought Reference (EDR) database which is housed on the same website. Reports on agricultural impacts were recorded for most events. However, it depends on the region as well as on temporal drought characteristics (timing and duration) if impacts on rainfed crops, on irrigated crops or on grazing and green fodder availability for livestock farming are dominating. Drought events peaking in summer associated with hot weather conditions, such as the extensive European benchmark droughts of 1947, 1976 and 2003 but also recent localized droughts in South-Eastern Europe, are outstanding due to diverse (and severe) impacts being reported across many regions. For all selected multi-year drought events in Mediterranean countries widespread impacts on

  19. Geographic distribution of Gryllotalpa stepposa in south-eastern Europe, with first records for Romania, Hungary and Serbia (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented. PMID:27551213

  20. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in young beef cattle in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wernicki, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stęgierska, D; Adaszek, Ł; Kalinowski, M; Puchalski, A; Dec, M

    2015-01-01

    In view of the scarcity of information concerning viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in beef cattle in Poland, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the BVDV in young beef cattle from selected herds in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland. The material consisted of 78 sera obtained from beef cattle from 15 farms, aged 6-12 months. The anti-BVDV antibody level in the sera was estimated with an ELISA kit, and detection of the BVDV was carried out by standard PCR and one step Real-Time RT-PCR. The ELISA results showed a high degree (80%) of positivity in 5 of the 78 samples. In 7 samples the degree of positivity was in the very low range: < 40%. Of the 78 cDNA samples, the presence of genetic material with a length of 288 bp was found by standard PCR in 3 sera. The genetic material of BVDV was also found in the sera of the same three calves by Real-Time HRM PCR. BVDV infection in young beef cattle in south-eastern Poland is not a significant problem. This was confirmed by the positive ELISA results for 6.4% of the animals and the positive PCR results for 3.9%. The percentage of positive beef herds was about 8.6%. However, due to the severe nature of the disease and rapid transmission of the virus, regular monitoring of BVDV should be carried out.

  1. Histological and morphological aspects of reproduction in the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Piercy, A N; Murie, D J; Gelsleichter, J J

    2016-05-01

    The reproduction of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico was examined using a combination of histological and morphological characteristics of C. plumbeus collected through fishery-dependent and -independent sampling programmes (n = 1,567). Indices of maturity were constructed using measurements of gonads, reproductive tracts and claspers, and sandbar sharks exhibited 50% maturity sizes of 140 and 148 cm fork length for males and females respectively. Gonado-somatic indices and variation in reproductive tract condition were used to determine seasonal trends in reproduction of mature C. plumbeus. Sandbar sharks have discrete seasonal reproductive cycles in which males produce sperm from January to May with a peak in May and females develop eggs from January to May with ovulation occurring in June. Females were shown to exhibit a >2 year reproductive cycle. Embryonic development was assessed through measurements of masses and lengths of uterine contents. Gestation was 12 months, from July to the following June, with parturition in late June. This research highlights a difference from previously reported data on the periodicity of female reproduction in C. plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, which may have major effects on future C. plumbeus stock management.

  2. Variations of Minor elements during MIS3a in the glacial tills at Mt.Yulong, South-eastern Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuanqing; He, Ze

    2016-04-01

    Several profiles of glacial varve sediments in Mt.Yulong (27°7'43"N, 100°14'53"E) were found and sampled recently, where is the lowest latitude alpine glacier-covered area in the region of south-eastern Tibetan Plateau influenced by South Asian monsoon. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (mXRF) was firstly applied to observe and describe these sediments in details, and the varve sediments are dated between 31620±180 and 38230±380BP determined by 14C dating,corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 3a(MIS3a). Minor elements in the glacial till can be related to precipitation amount because this kind of accumulation is strongly affected by monsoon rainfall in the region. 4 general circle variations have been identified in the varve sediments. The changes of analyzed lithogenic elements(Ga, Si, Fe,Sr,Zr )in the sediments show distinct centennial to millennial variable features during MIS3a. Principal components analysis of our geochemical dataset suggests a close link between high Rb/Sr ratio, Mn/Fe ratio and Zr abundance in the deposition that could be dealing with both chemical weathering process and hydrological process. Key Words: Minor elements, MIS 3a, Glacial till, Mt.Yulong, South-eastern Tibetan plateau;

  3. Analysis of large boulders along the coast of south-eastern Sicily to discriminate between storm and tsunami deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrotta, Claudia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; Gerardi, Flavia

    2010-05-01

    We present a study to discriminate the kind of anomalous waves, storms or tsunamis, that were responsible for the large boulder accumulation in the Vendicari Reserve along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. These depositional and erosional indicators of the large wave impact have been already observed in some rocky coasts of the Mediterranean basin and associated to strong waves of tsunamigenic or meteorological origin. Distinguishing boulders deposited by tsunamis from that deposited by storms and determining the age of their deposition can help to evaluate the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis and the hazard along the coast also regarding extraordinarily violent storms. The Sicilian Ionian coast has been affected in historical time by large destructive earthquake-related tsunamis (e.g. the 1169, 1693 and 1908) and it is exposed to an intense wave motion coming from a NNE- SSE span direction . In the rocky coastal area of Vendicari Reserve, three different GPS surveys (from September 2006 until April 2009) have been performed with the aim to observe the distance of each boulders with respect to the shoreline and if storms removed boulders or deposited new ones. A morphological analysis aiming to identify boulder shapes, measuring their volumes, elongation axis azimuth, pre-transport setting and the probable transport mechanism on the platform, was also carried out. The calcarenitic boulders (specific weight about 2,3 g/cm3), reaching about 20 tons and a distance up to 60m from the shoreline, are generally carved out from the supratidal or mid-sublittoral zone, showing widespread biogenic encrustations sometimes so fresh that suggest a recent deposition. The GPS surveys allowed us to observed that, after a strong storm during January 2009, several boulders were removed while new have been deposited on the platform by the storm waves. Hydrodynamic equations jointly to statistical analysis of sea storms have been used to determine the extreme event, geological or

  4. Features of autumnal differential coastal cooling in south-eastern Baltic deduced from data of MODIS spectroradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Chubarenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of profiles of sea surface temperature (SST) from the coastline to deep sea area in Russian sector of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea during seasonal autumnal cooling are identified using the data of spectroradiometers MODIS Aqua. Time periods are chosen when vertical convection and wind mixing make the upper layer (~ 30-40 m) in deep-sea area practically isothermal, and significant horizontal gradients of temperature/density are formed above shallows and underwater coastal slopes. This picture of differential cooling is formed by the combined action of heat exchange with the atmosphere (which is practically the same in coastal and open areas) and horizontal transport of heat from the sea to the shallow/coastal zone. This allows for estimation of horizontal heat and mass transport between the deep and the coastal area. The images of October-November 2002-2009 were analyzed, corresponding to periods of fast decrease of air temperature (at a rate of 0.86-2.54 °C/day). Significant linear portion in shallow-most paret is found to be a characteristic feature of the profiles, which is detected above all types of slopes (steep, sloping, irregular), reaching 20% to 70% of the length of the slope. Comparative analysis of the characteristics of the observed profiles above different slopes at the same image, and for the same slope at different dates was performed. The actual profiles of SST are compared with several theoretically predicted cases (in the absence of horizontal exchange, in of the quasi-stationary exchange), and the modeling results. Estimations suggest that horizontal gradient of water temperature favours seasonal slide of the cold/dense water along the underwater slopes (cascading) with a fairly high speed, reaching tens of cm/s at the shelf edge in the case of rapid cooling of water above the underwater slopes. Current speed at the end of the slopes may be quite high (8-20 cm/s), but comparable to the known values. On the base of numerical

  5. Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe. The Role of Vocational Education and Training. Working Document. [European Training Foundation and Kulturkontakt Austria Joint Workshop on "Civil Society and Vocational Education Training. The Role of Democratic Citizenship and Diversity Education" (Mavrovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, September 9-11, 1999)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document includes the following papers: "The European Training Foundation's Experience in Supporting Human Resource Development in South-Eastern Europe" (Peter de Rooij); "Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe; The Role of Vocational Education and Training" (Cesar Birzea, Peter Grootings, Tzako…

  6. Metal bioaccumulation in two edible cephalopods in the Gulf of Gabes, South-Eastern Tunisia: environmental and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rabaoui, Lotfi; El Zrelli, Radhouan; Balti, Rafik; Mansour, Lamjed; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Daghbouj, Nabil; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha

    2017-01-01

    Samples of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis were collected from four areas in the Gulf of Gabes, south-eastern Tunisia, and their edible tissues (mantle and arms) were analyzed for cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc. While the concentrations of metals showed significant differences between the sampling sites, no differences were revealed between the tissues of the two species. The spatial distribution of metals analyzed showed similar pattern for both tissues of the two species, with the highest concentrations found in the central area of Gabes Gulf, and the lowest in the northern and/or southern areas. From a human health risk point of view, the highest values of estimated daily intake, target hazard quotient, and hazard index were found in the central area of Gabes Gulf. Although the results of these indices were, in general, not alarming, the health risks posed by the consumption of cephalopods on local consumers cannot be excluded.

  7. Adult Participation in Education in South-Eastern Europe: An Elaboration on the Study Report for the Assessment of the Impact of Ongoing Reforms in Education and Training on the Adult Learning Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarifis, George K.

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the findings of the Research voor Beleid (RvB) study for the second phase of the assessment of the "Impact of ongoing reforms in education and training on adult learning sector" (2010), with particular focus on adult participation in education in three EU Member States in south-eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Cyprus…

  8. Ensemble projections of future streamflow drought in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyen, Luc; Dankers, Rutger

    2010-05-01

    Global warming - with higher temperatures, hence higher evaporative demands, but also with changes in the seasonality of precipitation patterns and an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events - is likely to favor conditions for the development of droughts in many regions of Europe. This study evaluates the impact of global warming on streamflow drought in Europe by examining changes in low-flow predictions of a hydrological model driven by a multi-model ensemble of climate projections. The ensemble consists of simulations from two regional climate models (HIRHAM and RCAO), both run with boundary conditions from two global models (HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3), and for two scenarios (SRES A2 and B2) of greenhouse gas emissions. We employed the methods of block maxima and partial duration series to obtain minimum flows and flow deficits and fitted extreme value distributions by the maximum likelihood method. In order not to mix drought events with different physical causes the analysis was performed separately for the frost and non-frost season. The ensemble analysis shows that in the frost-free season streamflow droughts will become more severe and persistent in most parts of Europe by the end of this century, except in the most northern and northeastern regions. In snow dominated regions winter droughts are projected to be less severe because a lower fraction of precipitation will fall as snow in warmer winters. Regions most prone to an increase in river flow drought are southern and south-eastern Europe. The decrease in summer precipitation over large parts of Europe, as well as the rise in winter temperature and precipitation over northern Europe is well established and fairly consistent between the various regional climate simulations. Therefore, the changes in streamflow drought are less sensitive to the decadal-scale internal variability that is usually present in climate simulations and that may partially or completely obscure the

  9. A comparative study of fire weather indices in a semiarid south-eastern Europe region. Case of study: Murcia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; Díaz-Palmero, José María; Cabezas-Cerezo, Juan de Dios

    2017-03-11

    Forest fires are an important distortion in forest ecosystems, linked to their development and whose effects proceed beyond the destruction of ecosystems and material properties, especially in semiarid regions. Prevention of forest fires has to lean on indices based on available parameters that quantify fire risk ignition and spreading. The present study was conducted to compare four fire weather indices in a semiarid region of 11,314km(2) located in southern Spain, characterised as being part of the most damaged area by fire in the Iberian Peninsula. The studied period comprises 3033 wildfires in the region during 15years (2000-2014), of which 80% are >100m(2) and 14% >1000m(2), resulting around 40km(2) of burnt area in this period. The indices selected have been Angström Index, Forest Fire Drought Index, Forest Moisture Index and Fire Weather Index. Likewise, four selection methods have been applied to compare the results of the studied indices: Mahalanobis distance, percentile method, ranked percentile method and Relative Operating Characteristic curves (ROC). Angström index gives good results in the coastal areas with higher temperatures, low rainfall and wider range of variations while Fire Weather Index has better results in inland areas with higher rainfall, dense forest mass and fewer changes in meteorological conditions throughout the year. ROC space rejects all the indices except Fire Weather Index with good performance all over the region. ROC analysis ratios can be used to assess the success (or lack thereof) of fire indices; thus, it benefits operational wildfire predictions in semiarid regions similar to that of the case study.

  10. Climate variability on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau since the Lateglacial based on a multiproxy approach from Lake Naleng - comparing pollen and non-pollen signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Stephan; Zhang, Chengjun; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Mischke, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    A multi-proxy Lateglacial environmental record is described from Lake Naleng (31.10°N; 99.75°E, 4200 m above sea level), situated on south-eastern Tibetan Plateau to gain deeper insights into the hydrological and palaeoclimate development since 17.7 cal ka BP. Palynological reconstructions of variations in mean annual precipitation (MAP) and temperature (MAT), sedimentological data and sediment chemistry including weathering indicators provide a multi-faceted picture of local and regional environmental changes since the Lateglacial. Principal component analyses of all parameters provide information on interrelationships between each parameters, which help to evaluate their traceability to temperature and precipitation and to estimate their usability as proxy indicators for local and or regional variations. During the Lateglacial from 17.7 to 14.0 cal ka BP Lake Naleng experienced cold and dry climate conditions with low biological productivity and supply of unaltered fine-grained material due to the high supply of glacier milk. During the second half of the Lateglacial, climate conditions changed abruptly: increases in MAT (from -4 to -2.2 °C) and MAP (from 500 mm to 820 mm) between 14.0 and 13.0 cal ka BP indicate a climate amelioration. This time interval can be correlated to the Bølling/Allerød (B/A) warming period in the North Atlantic region and is followed by the Younger Dryas cold reversal indicated by abrupt decreases of MAT (from -2.2 to -5 °C) and MAP (from 820 to 650 mm). The onset of the Holocene at about 11.5 cal ka BP is indicated by rises in reconstructed MAT (from -5 to about -0.3 °C) and MAP (from 600 mm to 950 mm), which led to an increased supply of weathered material and higher biological productivity. Between 5.0 and 3.0 cal ka BP, MAT increases to about 0.2 °C and MAP rises to maximum values of about 1000 mm, followed by slightly decreasing MAT and MAP between 3.0 and 0 cal ka BP. The biogeochemical parameters (total organic carbon

  11. Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania) - Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, C.; Kels, H.; Hambach, U.; Schulte, P.; Protze, J.; Eckmeier, E.; Marković, S. B.; Klasen, N.; Lehmkuhl, F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent investigations of the Semlac loess section in the south-eastern Carpathian Basin, which is situated at an undercut slope position on the right bank of the Mureş River in its lower reaches (Banat region, western Romanian), are presented and discussed. Dating back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 10, the more than 10 m thick loess sequence includes four fossil soil-complexes developed in homogenous and relatively fine silty loess. Because of the good preservation of the sediment, Semlac is regarded as a key section for the Carpathian Basin, which offers possibilities to a) improve the understanding of the type and composition (loess homogeneity and pedogenic alteration) of the lowland loess sequences in the Carpathian Basin also beyond the last interglacial palaoesol complex, b) to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the local loess-palaoesol successions, c) gain better insight into the regional paleoenvironments of the last 300 ka and d) to compare the loess of the region to loess-sequences in adjacent areas and to dust proxy data in the northern hemisphere. An integrated age model based on correlation to reference records and luminescence dating is compiled. Applying this age model we compare climate proxy data from Semlac to both global data and to data from the very southeast of the Carpathian Basin (Vojvodina, Serbia). The obtained results provide new insight into the dust accumulation regime for the eastern Carpathian Basin and offer new palaeoenvironmental information for the region and are an important step towards establishing a catena from the thin loess-like sediments of the Banat foothills in the East towards the thicker and seemingly more complete loess sections of the south-eastern and central Carpathian Basin. Disentangling grain size data from soil formation proxies is used to investigate patterns of non-local dust. Patterns of non-pedogenetic fine material are similar to grain size proxies from China and other parts of the northern hemisphere

  12. Mapping the isotopic signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with short term observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2016-04-01

    As a greenhouse gas, methane has a global warming potential of 25 in a 100 year scale. In order to establish mitigation plans it is important to assess its sources and sinks which can be both of geological and biological origin. South-Eastern Spain is a region with many different possible methane sources: i) by seismic activity of many geological faults both inland and in the neighbouring marine region (i.e. the Carboneras fault crossing the Alborán Sea along Málaga coastline); ii) by seepage of methane from hydrates present in the marine regions close to the Gibraltar Strait and the Gulf of Cádiz; iii) by emissions from fossil fuels caused by high traffic of merchant ships and the presence of large harbours (Algeciras, Tetuan and Cádiz), and the Africa - Europe Gas Transport Network in the Gibraltar Strait region; iv) by organic matter decomposition in both highly productive marshlands and eutrophic reservoirs; v) by burning of agricultural debris for energy supply, mainly from olive residues. In this study, a methane mapping survey has been conducted in the area around three atmospheric stations of the ClimaDat Atmospheric Network for Continuous Measurements of Greenhouse Gases (www.climadat.es) located in South-Eastern Spain (Sierra de Grazalema (SGC3), Tarifa (EEC3) and Sierra de Segura (SSC3). A cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) (G2301m, Picarro®) installed on a car has been used to measure methane concentrations. Additionally, in selected points, air samples have been collected in Tedlar bags for isotopic signature analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continuous Flow Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry). In order to obtain a map facilitating the identification of the different methane sources in the background air at regional scale, the mapping of isotopic signature of methane together with its concentration is a useful tool to obtain fast and direct information that will contribute to the knowledge of methane transport at the regional scale and

  13. Inter-annual variation of carbon uptake by a plantation oak woodland in south-eastern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Eaton, E. L.; Broadmeadow, M. S. J.; Morison, J. I. L.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon balance of an 80-yr-old deciduous oak plantation in the temperate oceanic climate of the south-east of Great Britain was measured by eddy covariance over 12 yr (1999-2010). The mean annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 486 g C m-2 yr-1 (95% CI of ±73 g C m-2 yr-1), and this was partitioned into a gross primary productivity (GPP) of 2034 ± 145 g C m-2 yr-1, over a 165 (±6) day growing season, and an annual loss of carbon through respiration and decomposition (ecosystem respiration, Reco) of 1548 ± 122 g C m-2 yr-1. Although the maximum variation of NEP between years was large (333 g C m-2 yr-1), the ratio of Reco/GPP remained relatively constant (0.76 ± 0.02 CI). Some anomalies in the annual patterns of the carbon balance could be linked to particular weather events, such as low summer solar radiation and low soil moisture content (values below 30% by volume). The European-wide heat wave and drought of 2003 did not reduce the NEP of this woodland because of good water supply from the surface-water gley soil. The inter-annual variation in estimated intercepted radiation only accounted for ~ 47% of the variation in GPP, although a significant relationship (p < 0.001) was found between peak leaf area index and annual GPP, which modified the efficiency with which incident radiation was used in net CO2 uptake. Whilst the spring start and late autumn end of the net CO2 uptake period varied substantially (range of 24 and 27 days respectively), annual GPP was not related to growing season length. Severe outbreaks of defoliating moth caterpillars, mostly Tortrix viridana L. and Operophtera brumata L., caused considerable damage to the forest canopy in 2009 and 2010, resulting in reduced GPP in these two years. Inter-annual variation in the sensitivity of Reco to temperature was found to be strongly related to summer soil moisture content. The eddy covariance estimates of NEP closely matched mensuration-based estimates, demonstrating that this forest

  14. Inter-annual variation of carbon uptake by a plantation oak woodland in south-eastern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Eaton, E. L.; Broadmeadow, M. S. J.; Morison, J. I. L.

    2012-07-01

    The carbon balance of an 80 yr old deciduous oak plantation in the temperate oceanic climate of the south-east of Britain was measured by eddy covariance over 12 yr (1999-2010). The mean annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 486 g C m-2 y-1 (95% CI of ±73 g C m-2 y-1), and this was partitioned into a Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) of 2034 ± 145 g C m-2 y-1, over a 165 (±6) day growing season, and an annual loss of carbon through respiration and decomposition (ecosystem respiration, Reco) of 1548 ± 122 g C m-2 y-1. The interannual variation of NEP was large (coefficient of variation (CV) 23%), although the variation for GPP and Reco was smaller (12%) and the ratio of Reco/GPP was relatively constant (0.76 ± 0.02 CI). Some anomalies in the annual patterns of the carbon balance could be linked to particular combinations of anomalous weather events, such as high summer air temperature and low soil moisture content. The Europe-wide heat-wave and drought of 2003 had little effect on the C balance of this woodland on a surface water gley soil. Annual variation in precipitation (CV 18%) was not a main factor in the variation in NEP. The inter-annual variation in estimated intercepted radiation only accounted for ~ 47% of the variation in GPP, although a significant relationship (p<0.001) was found between peak leaf area index and annual GPP which in turn played an important role in modifying the efficiency with which incident radiation was used in net CO2 uptake. Whilst the spring start and late autumn end of the net CO2 uptake period varied substantially (range of 24 and 27 days, respectively), annual GPP was not related to growing season length. Severe outbreaks of defoliating moth caterpillars, mostly Tortrix viridana L. and Operophtera brumata L., caused considerable damage to the forest canopy in 2009 and 2010, resulting in reduced GPP in these years.

  15. Drought modeling - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryIn recent years droughts have been occurring frequently, and their impacts are being aggravated by the rise in water demand and the variability in hydro-meteorological variables due to climate change. As a result, drought hydrology has been receiving much attention. A variety of concepts have been applied to modeling droughts, ranging from simplistic approaches to more complex models. It is important to understand different modeling approaches as well as their advantages and limitations. This paper, supplementing the previous paper ( Mishra and Singh, 2010) where different concepts of droughts were highlighted, reviews different methodologies used for drought modeling, which include drought forecasting, probability based modeling, spatio-temporal analysis, use of Global Climate Models (GCMs) for drought scenarios, land data assimilation systems for drought modeling, and drought planning. It is found that there have been significant improvements in modeling droughts over the past three decades. Hybrid models, incorporating large scale climate indices, seem to be promising for long lead-time drought forecasting. Further research is needed to understand the spatio-temporal complexity of droughts under climate change due to changes in spatio-temporal variability of precipitation. Applications of copula based models for multivariate drought characterization seem to be promising for better drought characterization. Research on decision support systems should be advanced for issuing warnings, assessing risk, and taking precautionary measures, and the effective ways for the flow of information from decision makers to users need to be developed. Finally, some remarks are made regarding the future outlook for drought research.

  16. Catch composition, reproductive biology and diet of the bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae) from the south-eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Shanis, C P R; Hashim, M; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

    2013-11-01

    Fishery and biological data are presented for the poorly known bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae), from the deep waters of the south-eastern Arabian Sea. A total of 5318 individuals from by-catch landings of deep-water bottom set longlines, gillnets and shrimp trawl fisheries operating at depths of 200-1200 m were recorded between January 2008 and December 2011 at the Kochi Fisheries Harbour (Kerala). A total of 431 individuals, from 46 to 318 cm total length (L(T)) and 0·8 to 132 kg total mass (M(T)), were examined to determine biological data for this species. The LT at which 50% were mature (L(T)50) for females and males was estimated at 189 and 187 cm LT. Litter size ranged from 10 to 36 and size at birth was between 42 and 46 cm L(T). Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed E. brucus feeds on a variety of prey including crustaceans (69% index of relative importance, I(RI)), teleosts (25·8% I(RI)), cephalopods (1·7% I(RI)) and elasmobranchs (0·7% I(RI)). This study provides the first detailed biological data for this species and also highlights the extent of the by-catch fishery for this species in Indian waters.

  17. Assessing the Potentialities of FORMOSAT-2 Data for Water and Crop Monitoring at Small Regional Scale in South-Eastern France

    PubMed Central

    Courault, Dominique; Bsaibes, Aline; Kpemlie, Emmanuel; Hadria, Rachid; Hagolle, Olivier; Marloie, Olivier; Hanocq, Jean-F.; Olioso, Albert; Bertrand, Nadine; Desfonds, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    Water monitoring at the scale of a small agricultural region is a key point to insure a good crop development particularly in South-Eastern France, where extreme climatic conditions result in long dry periods in spring and summer with very sparse precipitation events, corresponding to a crucial period of crop development. Remote sensing with the increasing imagery resolution is a useful tool to provide information on plant water status over various temporal and spatial scales. The current study focussed on assessing the potentialities of FORMOSAT-2 data, characterized by high spatial (8m pixel) and temporal resolutions (1-3 day/time revisit), to improve crop modeling and spatial estimation of the main land properties. Thirty cloud free images were acquired from March to October 2006 over a small region called Crau-Camargue in SE France, while numerous ground measurements were performed simultaneously over various crop types. We have compared two models simulating energy transfers between soil, vegetation and atmosphere: SEBAL and PBLs. Maps of evapotranspiration were analyzed according to the agricultural practices at field scale. These practices were well identified from FORMOSAT-2 images, which provided accurate input surface parameters to the SVAT models. PMID:27879889

  18. Latino men who have sex with men and HIV in the rural south-eastern USA: findings from ethnographic in-depth interviews.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Aronson, Robert E; Bloom, Fred R; Felizzola, Jesus; Wolfson, Mark; Vissman, Aaron T; Alonzo, Jorge; Boeving Allen, Alex; Montano, Jaime; McGuire, Jamie

    2010-10-01

    A community-based participatory research partnership explored HIV risk and potentially effective intervention characteristics to reduce exposure and transmission among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men living in the rural south-eastern USA. Twenty-one participants enrolled and completed a total of 62 ethnographic in-depth interviews. Mean age was 31 (range 18-48) years and English-language proficiency was limited; 18 participants were from Mexico. Four participants reported having sex with men and women during the past three months; two participants self-identified as male-to-female transgender. Qualitative themes that emerged included a lack of accurate information about HIV and prevention; the influence of social-political contexts to sexual risk; and barriers to healthcare services. We also identified eight characteristics of potentially effective interventions for HIV prevention. Our findings suggest that socio-political contexts must be additional targets of change to reduce and eliminate HIV health disparities experienced by immigrant Latino men who have sex with men.

  19. Where do people from different socio-economic groups receive diagnosis and treatment for presumptive malaria, in south-eastern Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Onwujekwe, O; Ojukwu, J; Uzochukwu, B; Dike, N; Ikeme, A; Shu, E

    2005-07-01

    The relationship between the socio-economic status (SES) of a household and its sources of malaria diagnosis and treatment was explored in south-eastern Nigeria. One aim was to see if, as seems likely, the poorest people generally seek care from 'low-level' providers, such as traditional healers and community-based healthworkers, because of their severe budget constraints. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from 1197 randomly selected respondents from four villages where malaria is holo-endemic. An index was used to categorize the study households into SES quartiles. The self-diagnosis of presumptive malaria and the use of patent-medicine dealers for treatment were very common among all the SES groupings. Compared with the other interviewees, however, the least-poor were significantly more likely to rely on laboratory tests for diagnosis and to visit hospitals when seeking treatment for presumptive malaria. The most-poor, in contrast, were significantly more likely to seek treatment from traditional healers or community-based healthworkers. Thus, even though the use of low-level providers was so common, there was still evidence of wealth-related inequity--in terms of the probabilities of the good diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Improvements in the quality of malaria diagnosis and treatment by the providers patronised by the most-poor villagers would help to redress this inequity, at least in the short- to medium-term.

  20. Orthorectification of Sentinel-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Data in Some Parts Of South-eastern Sulawesi Using Sentinel-1 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurahman Bayanudin, Athar; Heru Jatmiko, Retnadi

    2016-11-01

    Sentinel-1 satellite uses active microwave sensor that has a better ability than the optical system in generate satellite image without clouds cover and can operate in day or night in all weather conditions. However, the side looking viewing geometry of SAR system and the object height variation or topography on the surface of the earth causing various distortions of geometry in the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image. It needed to be corrected through orthorectifiation process before the further implementation. This research aims to Orthorectifying the Sentinel-1 of SAR data in some regions of Southern Sulawesiusing Sentinel-1 Toolbox software and assessing the geometrical accuracy of orthorectification's results. Two orthorectify methods have been used, namely Range-Doppler Terrain Correction and SAR-Simulation Terrain Correction. Each SAR data orthorectify results (resampling to 30 m resolution) compared qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative by visual comparison between the results orthorectify. Quantitative by the calculation of the accuracy results orthorectify both methods on the GLS (Global Land Survey) 2000 Landsat image using 99 test points coordinate then calculated the RMSEr (Root Mean Square Error). The results showed that, there is no significant differences in visual geometry between the orthorectify results. Orthorectified SAR image in some parts of South-eastern Sulawesi from both method showed the same RMSEr value is 25.27 m which means the horizontal accuracy is less than one pixel.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae: Petrolisthes and allies) from the south eastern Pacific: the genera Allopetrolisthes and Liopetrolisthes are not natural entities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Porcelain crabs from the closely related genera Petrolisthes, Liopetrolisthes, and Allopetrolisthes are known for their diversity of lifestyles, habitats, and coloration. The evolutionary relationships among the species belonging to these three genera is not fully resolved. A molecular phylogeny of the group may help to resolve the long-standing taxonomic question about the validity of the genera Allopetrolisthes and Liopetrolisthes. Using both ‘total evidence’ and single-marker analyses based on a 362-bp alignment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA and a 328-bp alignment of the Histone 3 nuclear DNA, the phylogenetic relationships among 11 species from Petrolisthes (6 species), Liopetrolisthes (2 species), and Allopetrolisthes (3 species), all native to the south eastern Pacific, were examined. The analyses supported three pairs of sister species: L. mitra + L. patagonicus, P. tuberculatus + P. tuberculosus, and A. angulosus + A. punctatus. No complete segregation of species, according to genera, was evident from tree topologies. Bayesian-factor analyses revealed strong support for the unconstrained tree instead of an alternative tree in which monophyly of the three genera was forced. Thus, the present molecular phylogeny does not support the separation of the species within this complex into the genera Petrolisthes, Liopetrolisthes, and Allopetrolisthes. Taking into account the above and other recent molecular phylogenetic analyses focused on other representatives from the family Porcellanidae, it is tentatively proposed to eliminate the genera Liopetrolisthes and Allopetrolisthes, and to transfer their members to the genus Petrolisthes. PMID:26989636

  2. A new semi-subterranean diving beetle of the Hydroporus normandi-complex from south-eastern France, with notes on other taxa of the complex (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Manuel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hydroporus galloprovincialis sp. n. is described from Jouques, north-east of Aix-en-Provence in south-eastern France (Provence). The new species belongs to the Hydroporus memnonius-group, within which it is the only ascertained normandi-complex species of the French fauna. The habitat (small springs) and morphological features of the species suggest a semi-subterranean life style. It can be separated from the other species of the complex notably by its more elongated and parallel-sided habitus, by its wider pronotum and flatter dorsal surface, and furthermore differs from H. normandi Régimbart, 1903 by a different shape of the gonocoxa. Illustrations are provided for other described normandi-complex species and subspecies for comparison. Analyses of partial cox1 sequences indicate that the three sampled H. normandi-complex species (H. galloprovincialis sp. n., H. normandi and H. lluci Fery, 1999) diverged recently; their relationships are unresolved. H. galloprovincialis sp. n. is for the moment the only species of the genus Hydroporus Clairville, 1806 endemic to continental France.

  3. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    PubMed

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries.

  4. Classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in South-eastern Europe: review of 632 cases from the international non-Hodgkin lymphoma classification project.

    PubMed

    Dotlic, Snjezana; Perry, Anamarija M; Petrusevska, Gordana; Fetica, Bogdan; Diebold, Jacques; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Nathwani, Bharat N; Boilesen, Eugene; Bast, Martin; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes varies around the world, but a systematic study of South-eastern Europe (SEEU) has never been done. Therefore, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in three SEEU countries--Croatia, Romania and Macedonia. Five expert haematopathologists reviewed 632 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed NHL from the three SEEU countries using the World Health Organization classification. The results were compared to 399 cases from North America (NA) and 580 cases from Western Europe (WEU). The proportions of B- and T-cell NHL and the sex distribution in SEEU were similar to WEU and NA. However, the median ages of patients with low- and high-grade B-NHL in SEEU (60 and 59 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively; P < 0·05). SEEU had a significantly lower proportion of low-grade B-NHL (46·6%) and higher proportion of high-grade B-NHL (44·5%) compared to both WEU (54·5% and 36·4%, respectively) and NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the relative frequencies of T-NHL subtypes. This study provides new insights into differences in the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in different geographic regions. Epidemiological studies are needed to better characterize and explain these differences.

  5. The impact of 85 years of coastal development on shallow seagrass beds (Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile)) in South Eastern France: A slow but steady loss without recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holon, F.; Boissery, P.; Guilbert, A.; Freschet, E.; Deter, J.

    2015-11-01

    Shallow Posidonia oceanica beds (0 to -15 m), the most common seagrass in the Mediterranean, were mapped from aerial photographs dating from the 1920's and from 2012 along 800 km of coastline in South-Eastern France (Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region). Changes in P. oceanica bed spatial distribution (limits and extent) during these 85 years were analyzed in terms of concordance (remaining areas), positive discordance (expanding areas) or negative discordance (lost areas). Lost areas were linked with direct or indirect impacts of coastal development (artificialized coastlines (namely harbours, ports of refuge, landfills, artificial beaches, groynes and pontoons, submarine pipelines and aquatic farms) visible on the photographs. The comparison showed that 73% of the shallow limits have declined. Considering spatial extent, remaining seagrass meadows areas accounted for the major part (85%), while lost areas accounted for 13% and expanding areas for 1.1%. Lost areas were mainly linked with artificial coastlines but 44% remained with undetermined causes (invisible pressures and/or mixed effects). The analysis of 96 coastal facilities creating the artificial (namely man-made) coastlines showed that the highest impact over the longest distance (5 km) was caused by harbours. Only artificial beaches had such a distant impact. Pontoons were the least surrounded by lost seagrass meadows areas. These quantitative data offer important information for marine conservation.

  6. Evidence for recent gene flow between north-eastern and south-eastern Madagascan poison frogs from a phylogeography of the Mantella cowani group

    PubMed Central

    Rabemananjara, Falitiana CE; Chiari, Ylenia; Ramilijaona, Olga Ravoahangimalala; Vences, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Mantella, endemic poison frogs of Madagascar with 16 described species, are known in the field of international pet trade and entered under the CITES control for the last four years. The phylogeny and phylogeography of this genus have been recently subject of study for conservation purposes. Here we report on the studies of the phylogeography of the Mantella cowani group using a fragment of 453 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 195 individuals from 21 localities. This group is represented by five forms: M. cowani, a critically endangered species, a vulnerable species, M. haraldmeieri, and the non-threatened M. baroni, M. aff. baroni, and M. nigricans. Results The Bayesian phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses revealed the presence of three separated haplotype clades: (1) M. baroni, M. aff. baroni, M. nigricans, and putative hybrids of M. cowani and M. baroni, (2) M. cowani and putative hybrids of M. cowani and M. baroni, and (3) M. haraldmeieri. The putative hybrids were collected from sites where M. cowani and M. baroni live in sympatry. Conclusion These results suggest (a) a probable hybridization between M. cowani and M. baroni, (b) a lack of genetic differentiation between M. baroni/M. aff. baroni and M. nigricans, (c) evidence of recent gene-flow between the northern (M. nigricans), eastern (M. baroni), and south-eastern (M. aff. baroni) forms of distinct coloration, and (d) the existence of at least three units for conservation in the Mantella cowani group. PMID:17207286

  7. Integrating variations in the soil chloride profile and evaporativity for in-situ estimation of evaporation in arid zones: an application in south-eastern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhlassa, Saïdati; Ammary, Bouchaib; Paré, Samuel; Safsaf, Naima

    2016-11-01

    In arid regions, knowledge of the evaporation rate from the water table is essential for appropriate management of scarce resources and to prevent land degradation. Soil chloride profiles in the unsaturated zone of a bare soil in an arid area of south-eastern Morocco were used to assess the evaporation flux, using chloride inventories in conjunction with evaporative demand. Moisture fluxes were calculated from measured chloride concentrations on the basis of a steady-state flow model. The chloride profiles displayed large variations in concentrations and had (1) low chloride concentrations near the soil surface, (2) maximum chloride concentrations at depths of 11-14 cm beneath the soil surface, respectively in July and February, and (3) gradually decreasing chloride concentrations while depth increased below these peaks. Evaporative demands were found to be inversely proportional to the depth of evaporation fronts and proportional to evaporation fluxes. In addition, the evaporation along the profiles seems to be controlled by the soil composition and texture. The investigation of chloride profiles in February and July enabled the determination of a value for annual evaporation (˜30 mm), which is in good agreement with the value estimated by the Allison-Barnes type model (˜32 mm).

  8. The many faces of rare diseases (RD): meeting report on Rare Disease in South-Eastern Europe, 15-16 November 2013, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Gucev, Z; Tasic, V; Polenakovic, M

    2014-03-01

    The Second meeting on Rare Diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skope, Macedonia on November 15-16, 2013. Objective and main data: Rare diseases (RD) are a major problem in developed and especially in countries without affluence. 6-8% of every population suffers from RD. The cumulative effect of RDs on the health system of a country is increasing. Diagnosis often remains a challenge and requires international collaboration. Treatment in diseases for which medication exist is often inaccessible to patients because of the high costs. All countries of SEE need screening programs that address more diseases. Patient organizations play a major role in increasing awareness and providing the needed pressure on society to treat treatable RDs. On the other hand, RDs are frequently a source of valuable new molecular insights not only on mechanisms of their etiology and pathology, but sometimes provide an insight on mechanisms of frequent diseases in man. Further efforts are needed in improving all the RD aspects mentioned.

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns of genetic variations in populations of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean and potential implications for its fishery management.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, F A; González, M T

    2017-01-01

    The genetic population structure and genetic diversity of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi from the coastal south-eastern Pacific Ocean (SEP) were evaluated at spatiotemporal scale in order to understand the ecology of this species. Between 2012 and 2015, temporal and spatial population genetic structure and a low genetic diversity were detected in S. lalandi from SEP. These results suggest that S. lalandi specimens arriving annually from offshore to the SEP coast could come from at least two genetically distinct populations, revealing a particular life strategy (i.e. reproductive or habitat segregation) for this fish species. Therefore, the SEP coast might constitute a point of population mixing for this species. Additionally, the low genetic diversity of S. lalandi in the SEP could be a result of a founder effect or overfishing. Regardless of the process explaining the genetic diversity and structure of S. lalandi in this geographical area, this new information should be considered in order to implement successful fishery management of this resource in the South Pacific.

  10. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs.

  11. The relative influence of climate, environmental heterogeneity, and human population on the distribution of vertebrate species richness in south-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio; Pizarro, Manuel

    2007-07-01

    In view of the many factors affect species richness, this study examines the relative influence of environmental heterogeneity, climate, human disturbance and spatial structure with respect to the species-richness distribution of terrestrial vertebrates in an area of south-eastern Spain with a Mediterranean climate. We show that environmental heterogeneity was the primary factor determining species richness (20.3% of variance), with the effect of temperature and precipitation being lower (11.6%). Climate had greater importance in determining the species richness of ectotherms (amphibians and reptiles) than of endotherms (mammals and birds). Species richness had less spatial autocorrelation in mammals and birds than in ectotherms. Also, a positive correlation was found between species richness and human population density, especially in reptiles and mammals. Orders and families more sensitive to human presence, such as snakes, raptors, ungulates, and carnivores, showed no relationship (or a negative one) with the human population. This study highlights the importance of environmental heterogeneity (topographic heterogeneity and habitat diversity) for vertebrate conservation in zones with a Mediterranean climate.

  12. A new species of Suezichthys (Teleostei: Perciformes: Labridae) from the south-eastern Pacific, with a redefinition of the genus and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barry C; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the fish family Labridae, Suezichthys rosenblatti, is described from specimens collected at Isla San Felix, Isla Juan Fernandez and Isla San Ambrosio, off the coast of Chile. Suezichthys rosenblatti is distinct in having a combination of 11 dorsal fin soft rays and 11 anal fin soft rays. It falls in the group of species that has 1½ scale rows above the lateral line and lack a scaly sheath at the base of the dorsal and anal fins (S. aylingi Russell, S. caudovittatus Russell, S. gracilis (Steindachner & Döderlein) and S. soelae Russell). Unlike other members of this group, S. rosenblatti has haemal arches on vertebrae 10-11 (versus haemal arch only on vertebra 10). The monotypic Nelabrichthys ornatus (Carmichael) is now included in the genus Suezichthys and a revised generic description and key to species of Suezichthys is provided. The occurrence of S. rosenblatti in the south-eastern Pacific and S. ornatus in the south-western Indian Ocean and south Atlantic Ocean represent major range extensions of the genus Suezichthys.

  13. A case in south-eastern France: a review of drug facilitated sexual assault in European and English-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Dorandeu, Anne H; Pagès, Cheryl A; Sordino, Marie-Christine; Pépin, Gilbert; Baccino, Eric; Kintz, Pascal

    2006-07-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) have been increasingly reported in the medical literature since the 1980s but their legal recognition is more recent, at least in Europe. From a case treated in south-eastern France, whose judicial consequences were known, it seemed of interest to carry out an international study of jurisprudence concerning this type of rape. While from the medical viewpoint the drugs used are well-known and their presence can be clinically verified, the legal consequences of their use in subsequent criminal prosecution is less clear-cut. Some European countries have no jurisprudence in this area, while others consider the use of drugs as an aggravating circumstance. In France, it was only in 2003 that the first case of DFSA was truly punished by the judicial system, with considerable media attention. By contrast, in English-speaking countries, particularly the United States, the use of drugs to facilitate sexual assault has frequently been recognized in legislation and in criminal prosecutions. Prevention is fundamental and is recognised as demonstrated by campaigns in various countries.

  14. Unchanging diet in a stable colony: contemporary and past diet composition of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at Helgoland, south-eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markones, Nele; Guse, Nils; Hüppop, Ommo; Garthe, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    In contrast to the situation at the west coast of the North Sea, the breeding colony of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at Helgoland in the south-eastern North Sea did not exhibit severe declines since 1990 but instead numbers increased and only lately stabilised. Declines at the west coast of the North Sea were attributed to a lower abundance and lower quality of the key prey, sandeels. We hypothesised that kittiwakes at Helgoland do not rely as heavily on sandeels as their conspecifics. We analysed stomach contents of nestlings and adults of 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. In concordance with earlier studies of the 1980s and 1990s, young whiting Merlangius merlangus was the most important prey species in 2001, 2002 and 2004. Clupeids and sandeels were consumed in lower proportions. While earlier studies suggested whiting to originate from fisheries discards, evidence now supports that kittiwakes prey upon whiting in areas of hydrographic fronts. No whiting was recovered in samples of 2006 and the proportion of fish prey was low. Main prey items were polychaete worms (Nereidae), which were presumably consumed as swarming Heteronereis stages. An observed strong rise in water temperature in summer 2006 might have influenced food availability of kittiwakes by inducing swarming of Nereidae. Overall, kittiwakes breeding on Helgoland showed a positive population trend for several decades while mainly feeding on whiting.

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness and compliance of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in the control of malaria in pregnant women in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, F O; Nwosu, E; Oguariri, R M

    2011-12-01

    Controlling malaria in pregnancy has been an important component of the millennium development goal and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is considered an important tool in controlling malaria among pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the level of compliance to IPT use as well as its effect on malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in south eastern Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears and placental histology were used as diagnostic tools to determine infection rate. Our data show that compliance to IPT use was poor (33%) when compared with non-compliance (67%). Infection rate was significantly lower among IPT users (39%) than in non-users (71%) (X(2) = 39·95; P<0·05). Maternal anaemia was also lower in IPT users (4%) than in non-users (18%). Taken together, IPT use appears to be important in reducing infection rate and maternal anaemia. Therefore, its adoption is highly recommended and this could be improved through public enlightenment campaign and adequate funding.

  16. Sustainable urban development and human health: septic tank as a major breeding habitat of mosquito vectors of human diseases in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwoke, B E; Nduka, F O; Okereke, O M; Ehighibe, O C

    1993-02-01

    Septic tank mosquitoes in Abia State University Okigwe, south-eastern Nigeria were studied using exit traps between November 1988 and April 1989. The results were revealing and striking. Apart from the common septic tank mosquitoes, Culex p. quinquefasciatus, Cu. cinereus and Aedes aegypti, which have been previously commonly found breeding in ammonia and nitrate-rich waters of latrines and septic tanks, the other species, Cu. horridus, Cu. tigripes and Aedes vittatus, have not been commonly reported as colonizing septic tanks in Nigeria. Three out of these six mosquito species observed are vectors of human diseases: Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus are vectors of Yellow fever and Cu. p. quinquefasciatus is a potential vector of Bancroftian filariasis and a world-wide vector of various arboviruses. The fact that these mosquito vectors are able to breed in highly polluted waters of septic tanks during the harsh dry months when most surface water bodies are dry is epidemiologically important. The breeding of these mosquito vectors of human diseases around human dwellings indicates an intense man-vector contact creating a high level risk to the crowded urban population. The public health implications of this urbanization/modernization problem and solutions are discussed.

  17. Fatty acid content, health and risk indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts of milk from organic and conventional farming systems in tropical south-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo-Puga, Claudia; Sánchez-Muñoz, Bernardo; Nahed-Toral, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Díaz-Martínez, Margarita; Solis-Zabaleta, Roman; Reyes-Hernández, Aurora; Castillo-Domíguez, Rosa Maria

    2014-06-01

    Organic agriculture and livestock farming is claimed to promote animal welfare and can offer animal products with better hygienic-sanitary quality, based on principles of health, ecology, fairness, and care. However, no clear advantages of organic milk (OM) versus conventional milk (CM) from tropical conditions are available. The aims of the study were to determine fatty acid profile, health-promoting (HPI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts (SCC) of OM and CM in tropical south-eastern Mexico. Female cross-breed cows (400-600 kg) were employed. CM had larger values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.6 %; 4.57 %) than OM (61.48 %; 4.22 %), while OM resulted in a larger value of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (34.3 %) than CM (31.7 %). HPI and TI showed that OM was more favorable than CM. Milk production and physicochemical composition (PC) as well as density had no significant difference, while SCC was significantly lower in OM than in CM on a monthly basis. These results showed that OM promotes a healthful and balanced diet, and is already produced by sustainable ecologic technologies employing traditional agrosilvopastoral management, which is more environmentally friendly and promotes ecological resilience.

  18. Spatial scale of autocorrelation of assemblages of benthic invertebrates in two upland rivers in South-Eastern Australia and its implications for biomonitoring and impact assessment in streams.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Natalie J; Nally, Ralph Mac; Lake, P S

    2006-04-01

    Spatial autocorrelation in ecological systems is a critical issue for monitoring (and a general understanding of ecological dynamics) yet there are very few data available, especially for riverine systems. Here, we report here on assemblage-level autocorrelation in the benthic-invertebrate assemblages of riffles in two adjacent, relatively pristine rivers in south-eastern Victoria, Australia (40-km reaches of the Wellington [surveys in summers of 1996 and 1997] and Wonnangatta Rivers [survey in summer of 1996 only], with 16 sites in each river). We found that analyses were similar if the data were resolved to family or to species level. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed by using Mantel-tests for the data partitioned into different sets of spatial separations of survey sites (e.g. 0-6 km, 6-12 km, etc.). We found strong small-scale (< or =6 km) autocorrelation in the Wellington River, which is consistent with known dispersal abilities of many aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, there were strong negative correlations at longer distance classes for the Wellington River in one of the two summers (20-40 km) and the Wonnangatta River (12-20 km). That two largely unimpacted, adjacent rivers should have such different autocorrelation patterns suggests that impact assessment cannot assume dependence or independence of sites a priori. We discuss the implications of these results for use of "reference" sites to assess impacts at nominally affected sites.

  19. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.

  20. A community-based case–control study of prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairments in patients with epilepsy residing in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Arinzechi, Eugene O.; Ogunrin, Olubunmi A.; Nwosu, Cosmas M.; Nwani, Paul O.; Enwereji, Kelechi O.; Asomugha, Lasbrey A.; Dimkpa, Uche

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is the commonest neurological disorder encountered in Sub-Saharan Africa. The quality of life of patients with epilepsy (PWEs) is adversely affected by cognitive impairments. Aim: This study investigated the prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairments in PWE in Ukpo community located in a South-Eastern state in Nigeria using Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID) and a computer-assisted cognitive test battery (FePsy). Methods and Patients: Fifty-one PWEs were studied and compared with 51 age-, sex-and level of education-matched healthy controls. Diagnosis of epilepsy was confirmed clinically with eye-witness corroboration. Sociodemographic data and information on epilepsy variables were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. Cognitive domains assessed include language, memory, orientation, attention, psychomotor speed and constructional praxis. Results: The prevalence rate of cognitive impairment using total CSID score was 19.6%. Analysis of CSID scores revealed significant impairment in language (17.6%), memory (29.4%), orientation (15.7%), attention (7.8%) and constructional praxis (15.7%) compared to healthy controls. A similar pattern was observed with FePsy but with better sensitivity indices for detecting cognitive impairment. Conclusion: This study indicated significant prevalence rate of cognitive impairment among treatment-naïve PWE with profound affectation of memory, mental speed and language. In addition, the FePsy was found to be more sensitive and specific in assessment of cognitive function in PWE. PMID:27365959

  1. Plant Stress Indicates Drought

    NASA Video Gallery

    Farmers across America rely on early drought warning systems to manage their crops. Americans everywhere rely on those farmers to provide food. A new drought tracking system called ESI helps by mon...

  2. Relative importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on the fresh surface water chemistry of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Markich, S J; Brown, P L

    1998-07-03

    Fresh surface waters from the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, the major river supplying water to the Sydney region in south-eastern Australia, were sampled monthly during 1991 and analysed for major ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and HCO3), nutrients (NO3 and PO4), organic carbon and trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Mn). The chemical composition of the river during 1991 was consistent with other studies of the river from 1977 to 1996. The major ion composition in the river is predominantly influenced by sea-salt aerosols in rainwater (headwaters) and connate sea-salt in groundwater (mid-lower reaches), with a cationic dominance order of Na > Mg > Ca > K (equivalents) and an anionic order of Cl > HCO3 > SO4. This is typical of the headwaters of other permanent coastal rivers (freshwater) in south-eastern Australia with a similar catchment lithology. These results differ markedly from the most common natural major ion assemblages established for world rivers (i.e. Ca > Mg > Na > K and HCO3 > SO4 > Cl), which tend to be predominantly influenced by chemical weathering of rocks and minerals. The mean concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon and trace metals in the freshwater reaches of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River increased by factors of 2.5-4.4, 14-18, 2.2 and 1.6-11, respectively, with increasing distance from the headwaters. Increases in major ion concentrations are attributed mainly to the increasing influence of saline groundwater inflows from regions of Wianamatta shale. Conversely, concentrations of nutrients, organic carbon and trace metals (except Fe and Al) increased as a consequence of anthropogenic inputs, particularly point discharges from sewage treatment plants (i.e. showing distinct, but variable, concentration peaks), as well as diffuse urban and/or agricultural runoff during storm events. The temporal variability of the mean concentrations of all measured parameters in this study was related to variability in water discharge. The

  3. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species.

    PubMed

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die.

  4. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species

    PubMed Central

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J. Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M. Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die. PMID:27066053

  5. Drought resistant sugar beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Increased water demands and drought have resulted in a need to indentify crop hybrids that are drought tolerant, requiring less irrigation to sustain yields. This study was conducted to assess differences in drought tolerance among a group of genetically diverse sugarbeet hybrids...

  6. Inter-decadal variations in the linkages between ENSO, the IOD and south-eastern Australian springtime rainfall in the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Zhao, Mei; Yin, Yonghong

    2016-08-01

    The 30 year period 1985-2014 experienced a swing of the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) from the warm phase to the cold phase. Here we investigate variation of the relation between El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole mode (IOD) and resultant changes in the predictability of the IOD and south-eastern Australian (SEA) springtime rainfall associated with this swing in the IPO. Using observational analyses, we show that during the warm phase of the IPO in the 1980s-1990s, the amplitudes of ENSO and the IOD were large, and the correlation between them was high; thus predictability of the IOD was high. Nevertheless, during these decades SEA spring rainfall was only weakly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore predictability of SEA rainfall was low. In contrast, during the cold phase of the IPO in the 2000s, the opposite was found: the IOD occurred more independently from ENSO, so the IOD was less predictable. Nonetheless, SEA spring rainfall was more strongly related to ENSO and the IOD, and therefore, SEA rainfall was more predictable in the 2000s than in the 1980s-1990s. The cause of this decadal variation in the relationship of SEA rainfall with ENSO and the IOD between the recent warm and cold states of the IPO appears to be a systematic zonal variation of the rainfall anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific associated with the IOD and ENSO and related changes in the Rossby wave train path over Australia.

  7. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Dimitris P; Whitfield, D Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our 'win-win' approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  8. Interspecific and Geographic Variation in the Diets of Sympatric Carnivores: Dingoes/Wild Dogs and Red Foxes in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Lumsden, Lindy F.

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  9. Integrating geologic and satellite imagery data for high-resolution mapping and gold exploration targets in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoheir, Basem; Emam, Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    The granitoid-greenstone belts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield are well-endowed with lode gold and massive sulfide ores. Although generally characterized by excellent outcrops and arid desert realm, poor accessibility and lack of finance have been always retardant to detailed geologic mapping of vast areas of the shield. Lack of comprehensive geological information and maps at appropriate scales would definitely hinder serious exploration programs. In this study, band ratioing, principal component analysis (PCA), false-color composition (FCC), and frequency filtering (FFT-RWT) of ASTER and ETM+ data have substantially improved visual interpretation for detailed mapping of the Gebel Egat area in South Eastern Desert of Egypt. By compiling field, petrographic and spectral data, controls on gold mineralization have been assessed in terms of association of gold lodes with particular lithological units and structures. Contacts between foliated island arc metavolcanics and ophiolites or diorite are likely to be favorable loci for auriferous quartz veins, especially where the NW-SE foliation is deflected into steeply dipping NNW-trending shear planes. High-resolution mapping of the greenstone belt, structures and alteration zones associated with gold lodes in the study area suggests that dilatation by foliation deflection was related to emplacement of the Egat granitic intrusion, attendant with a sinistral transpression regime (i.e., ˜640-550 Ma?). Gold mineralization associated with granitoid intrusions in transpression-induced pull-apart structures elsewhere in the Eastern Desert (e.g., Fawakhir, Sukari and Hangaliya mines) emphasize the reliability of this setting as a model for gold exploration targets in greenstone terrains of Egypt, and may be elsewhere in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  10. What Determines Habitat Quality for a Declining Woodland Bird in a Fragmented Environment: The Grey-Crowned Babbler Pomatostomus temporalis in South-Eastern Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kate P.; Holland, Greg J.; Clarke, Rohan H.; Cooke, Raylene; Bennett, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding what constitutes high quality habitat is crucial for the conservation of species, especially those threatened with extinction. Habitat quality frequently is inferred by comparing the attributes of sites where a species is present with those where it is absent. However, species presence may not always indicate high quality habitat. Demographic parameters are likely to provide a more biologically relevant measure of quality, including a species’ ability to successfully reproduce. We examined factors believed to influence territory quality for the grey-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus temporalis), a cooperatively breeding woodland bird that has experienced major range contraction and population decline in south-eastern Australia. Across three broad regions, we identified active territories and determined the presence of fledglings and the size of family groups, as surrogates of territory quality. These measures were modelled in relation to habitat attributes within territories, the extent of surrounding wooded vegetation, isolation from neighbouring groups, and the size of the neighbourhood population. Fledgling presence was strongly positively associated with group size, indicating that helpers enhance breeding success. Surprisingly, no other territory or landscape-scale variables predicted territory quality, as inferred from either breeding success or group size. Relationships between group size and environmental variables may be obscured by longer-term dynamics in group size. Variation in biotic interactions, notably competition from the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala), also may contribute. Conservation actions that enhance the number and size of family groups will contribute towards reversing declines of this species. Despite associated challenges, demographic studies have potential to identify mechanistic processes that underpin population performance; critical knowledge for effective conservation management. PMID:26098355

  11. What Determines Habitat Quality for a Declining Woodland Bird in a Fragmented Environment: The Grey-Crowned Babbler Pomatostomus temporalis in South-Eastern Australia?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kate P; Holland, Greg J; Clarke, Rohan H; Cooke, Raylene; Bennett, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding what constitutes high quality habitat is crucial for the conservation of species, especially those threatened with extinction. Habitat quality frequently is inferred by comparing the attributes of sites where a species is present with those where it is absent. However, species presence may not always indicate high quality habitat. Demographic parameters are likely to provide a more biologically relevant measure of quality, including a species' ability to successfully reproduce. We examined factors believed to influence territory quality for the grey-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus temporalis), a cooperatively breeding woodland bird that has experienced major range contraction and population decline in south-eastern Australia. Across three broad regions, we identified active territories and determined the presence of fledglings and the size of family groups, as surrogates of territory quality. These measures were modelled in relation to habitat attributes within territories, the extent of surrounding wooded vegetation, isolation from neighbouring groups, and the size of the neighbourhood population. Fledgling presence was strongly positively associated with group size, indicating that helpers enhance breeding success. Surprisingly, no other territory or landscape-scale variables predicted territory quality, as inferred from either breeding success or group size. Relationships between group size and environmental variables may be obscured by longer-term dynamics in group size. Variation in biotic interactions, notably competition from the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala), also may contribute. Conservation actions that enhance the number and size of family groups will contribute towards reversing declines of this species. Despite associated challenges, demographic studies have potential to identify mechanistic processes that underpin population performance; critical knowledge for effective conservation management.

  12. Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, G.; Morteani, G.

    2008-02-01

    The genesis of gem-quality deep green emeralds of Zabara, Sikait and Umm Kabo (South Eastern Desert, Egypt) is to date a controversial topic. The emerald-bearing biotite schists and quartz lenses are interpreted alternatively as a product of (i) thrust-fault-shear zone - controlled large scale alkali-metasomatism driven by post-magmatic fluid flow or of (ii) a large scale interaction between syntectonic pegmatitic magma or hydrothermal fluids with pre-existing basic to ultrabasic rocks, or of (iii) a syn- to post-tectonic regional metamorphism and small scale blackwall metasomatism. Detailed microstructural and chemical analyses of the Egyptian emeralds and their host rocks show that three generations of beryl can be distinguished: a colourless pegmatitic beryl; a pale green Cr-poor beryl crystallized from pegmatite-related hydrothermal fluids; and a deep green Cr- and Mg-rich emerald. The crystallization of the Cr- and Mg-rich emerald was controlled by the very local availability of Cr, Mg and Be-rich metamorphic fluids during the Pan-African tectono-thermal event. Emerald-rich quartz lenses demonstrate that those fluids locally did mobilize quartz, too. The pale green emeralds found within the pegmatites in association with colourless beryl are the product of a mobilization of colourless pegmatitic beryl and/or phenakite by late pegmatitic fluids slightly enriched in Cr by an interaction with the Cr-rich country rocks. The late pegmatitic fluids are typically Na-rich as is demonstrated by the pervasive albitization of the pegmatites. The complex interplay of magmatic and regional metamorphic events during the genesis of the Egyptian emeralds/beryls makes it impossible through stable oxygen isotope data to relate their genesis to the one or the other event.

  13. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  14. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts, as derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, AD 1751-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2011-12-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period AD 1751-1900. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  15. Evaluation of soil contamination in intensive agricultural areas by pesticides and organic pollutants: south-eastern Spain as a case study.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Garrido-Frenich, Antonia; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez-Vidal, José Luis

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive survey of the occurrence and fate of pesticides and organic contaminants in soils from an intensive agricultural area devoted to horticultural production in plastic-based greenhouses has been performed to determine if the operation under integrated pest management practices has contributed to reduce the levels of these compounds. Almería province (south-eastern Spain) was selected for the case study. 38 agricultural soil samples (each sample corresponds to an independent private greenhouse) of areas working under integrated pest management (IPM) programs have been analyzed in order to evaluate their contamination fate. Sampling was designed to cover an area of about 400 km(2). Pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phenolic compounds and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were monitored. The obtained results were compared to other studies reported in Spain and Europe. Among relevant persistent pesticides, DDTs and endosulfans were mainly found and the results indicated historical application, although recent application of endosulfan was rarely detected. PAHs were also found but to a lesser extent and derived from pyrogenic sources. DEHP levels were considerably higher in comparison to the other monitored analytes. The evaluation revealed that despite the use of IPM programs, pesticide and organic contaminants are still being detected in this type of agricultural soil, although at relatively low concentration levels. In general, the contamination rate was similar or lower in comparison to other agricultural areas from nearby regions or countries. However, further monitoring studies should be carried out to establish the possible reduction in contamination by the selected compounds.

  16. Composition and structure of the molluscan assemblage associated with a Cymodocea nodosa bed in south-eastern Spain: seasonal and diel variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Pablo; Urra, Javier; Rueda, José L.; Salas, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The molluscan taxocoenosis associated with a Cymodocea nodosa seagrass bed was studied throughout 1 year in Genoveses Bay, in the MPA "Parque Natural Cabo de Gata-Níjar" (south-eastern Spain). A total of 64,824 individuals were collected and 54 species identified. The molluscan fauna was mainly composed of gastropods (99.56% of individuals, 43 spp.). The families Rissoidae (72.98%, 11 spp.) and Trochidae (16.93%, 7 spp.) were the most abundant and diversified in terms of number of species. Rissoa monodonta (47.1% dominance), Rissoa membranacea (25.1%) and Gibbula leucophaea (11.6%) proved the top dominant species in both diurnal and nocturnal samples. Bivalves (0.41%, 10 species) and cephalopods (0.03%, 1 species) represented only a low percentage of the molluscan taxocoenosis. The molluscan assemblage was mainly composed of species with a wide geographical distribution in Europe, followed by strictly Mediterranean species. The abundance was significantly higher in the cold (December, March) than in the warm months (June, July). Species richness ( S) was higher in nocturnal than in diurnal samples, reaching maximal values in diurnal samples of March and June. Shannon-Wiener diversity ( H') values were generally higher in nocturnal samples than in diurnal ones, displaying minimum values in December and June, respectively. Evenness was similar in diurnal and nocturnal samples, with maximum values in July in both groups. S and H' were also significantly different between diurnal and nocturnal samples. Multivariate analyses based on both qualitative and quantitative data showed a significant seasonal and diel variation. Diel changes revealed to be more distinct than seasonal ones.

  17. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  18. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations’ persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our ‘win-win’ approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  19. Evaluation of changes in macrobenthic standing stock and polychaete community structure along the south eastern Arabian Sea shelf during the monsoon trawl-ban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Jaleel, K. U.; Parameswaran, Usha V.; Gopal, Aiswarya; Khader, Chippy; Ganesh, T.; Sanjeevan, V. N.; Shunmugaraj, T.; Vijayan, Anil Kumar; Gupta, G. V. M.

    2015-07-01

    The south eastern Arabian Sea is characterized by moderate coastal upwelling, high biological production and subsurface oxygen depletion during the southwest monsoon (June-September). Concurrently, a seasonal closure to trawling activities (15th June-31st July) is implemented here, as a sustainable ecosystem management practise. The effects of monsoon driven environmental changes and consequences of trawling cessation on macrofauna were assessed, based on surveys at 12 sites (30-200 m) preceding and during different phases of the southwest monsoon. Macrofaunal density and biomass increased considerably towards the mid and late monsoon along the inner shelf (30-50 m) where trawling is intense, while no temporal changes were observed along the outer shelf (100-200 m). Density increased four-folds at the 30 m contour and three-folds at 50 m, while biomass nearly doubled at both depths, reflecting a marked increase in density of polychaetes (61-87% of macrofauna). The disproportionate increase in faunal density and biomass along the inner shelf (30-50 m) was due to abundance of juvenile polychaetes and dominance of small-sized opportunists towards late monsoon (August-September). A concurrent hike in nominal species count of polychaetes was also observed in the study area. The increase in polychaete standing stock and high density of planktonic larvae during onset and peak monsoon, coupled with occurrence of juveniles as well as gamete-bearing adults in sediments, indicates that the southwest monsoon is a peak breeding season for the dominant polychaetes in the region. The trawl-ban during this period facilitates the recoupment of benthos by maximising spawning success and larval settlement, thereby enhancing overall ecosystem integrity.

  20. Hanging by a coastal strand: breeding system of a federally endangered morning-glory of the south-eastern Florida coast, Jacquemontia reclinata

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Torres, Elena; Koptur, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Coastal development has led to extensive habitat destruction and the near extinction of the beach clustervine, Jacquemontia reclinata (Convolvulaceae), an endangered, perennial vine endemic to dune and coastal strand communities in south-eastern Florida. We examined the breeding system of this rare species, and observed visitors to its flowers, as part of a larger effort to document its status and facilitate its recovery. Methods Reproductively mature experimental plants were grown from seed collected from wild plants in two of the largest remaining populations. Controlled hand pollinations on potted plants were conducted to determine the level of compatibility of the species and to investigate compatibility within and between populations. Seeds from the hand pollinations were planted in soil, and they were monitored individually, recording time to seed germination (cotyledon emergence). Wild plants were observed in several of the remaining populations to determine which species visited the flowers. Key Results Hand pollination and seed planting experiments indicate that J. reclinata has a mixed mating system: flowers are able to set fruit with viable seeds with self-pollen, but outcross pollen produces significantly greater fruit and seed set than self-pollen (≥50 % for crosses vs. <25 % for self-pollinations). Visitors included a wide array of insect species, primarily of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. All visitors captured and examined carried J. reclinata pollen, and usually several other types of pollen. Conclusions Remnant populations of beach clustervine will have greater reproductive success not only if floral visitor populations are maintained, but also if movement of either pollen or seed takes place between populations. Restoration efforts should include provisions for the establishment and maintenance of pollinator populations. PMID:19797424

  1. Mesoproterozoic island arc magmatism along the south-eastern margin of the Indian Plate: Evidence from geochemistry and zircon U-Pb ages of mafic plutonic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Zhang, Ze-ming; Balaram, V.; Reddy, U. V. B.

    2016-11-01

    The Prakasam Igneous Province within the Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) preserves important imprints of mafic magmatism along the south-eastern margin of the Indian plate. Here we report petrology, geochemistry and zircon U-Pb age data from three gabbro plutons namely Purimetla, Kanigiri and P C Palle which intruded into the high grade rocks of the region. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb data on zircons from the three plutons reveal prominent late Mesoproterozoic ages of 1334 ± 15 Ma, 1338 ± 27 Ma and 1251.2 ± 9.4 Ma. The cumulative 207Pb/206Pb mean age of 1315 ± 11 Ma is interpreted to represent the timing of mafic magmatism in the Prakasam Igneous Province. These rocks show adcumulus to mesocumulus and poikilitic textures indicating fractional crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxenes in the Purimetla pluton whereas the Kanigiri and P C Palle intrusions possess hornblende and biotite suggesting the role of water during partial melting. The rocks show LREE enrichment (∑LREE/∑HREE = 2.2-15.0), marked Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.8-2.2) and fractionated patterns (LaN/YbN = 3-79). Primitive mantle normalised trace element spider diagrams indicate subduction modified arc signatures with LILE enrichment and depletion of Nb, Ti and Zr relative to Th and La. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show arc magmatic affinities for the three gabbro plutons consistent with subduction zone setting. We propose a tectonic model involving intra oceanic island arc accretion during late Mesoproterozoic along the eastern margin of the Indian continent.

  2. Lithospheric influences on magma compositions of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic intraplate basalts (the Older Volcanics) of Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Richard C.; Nicholls, Ian A.; Day, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    Basaltic volcanism, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and extending across the southern part of the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia was initiated during the earliest stages of rifting associated with opening of the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean. Volcanism has continued sporadically since that time with major breaks in activity occurring between 77 and 62 Ma and 18 and 7 Ma. Basaltic rocks with ages in the range 95 to 18 Ma occur in small lava fields scattered across eastern and south-eastern Victoria and they have also been recovered from bore holes in the west of the state. They have been referred to as the “Older Volcanics” to differentiate them from more volumetrically extensive and younger (mainly < 4.6 Ma) lava fields comprising the “Newer Volcanics” of the Western District Province to the west. Older Volcanics vary in composition from SiO2-undersaturated nephelinites, basanites, basalts and hawaiites through transitional basalts to hypersthene and quartz normative tholeiites. Strontium, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions lie between depleted (DM) and enriched (EM1 and EM2) end member mantle components in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space. Trace element compositions are generally characterised by enrichment of Cs, Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, K and light REE over heavy REE, Ti, Zr and Y and the overall patterns of major and trace element behaviour can be explained in general terms by petrogenetic models involving partial melting of a complex spectrum of mantle compositions with subsequent but limited additional modification by fractional crystallisation with or without assimilation of crust. Among basalts with relatively high Mg# [100 ∗ Mol. MgO/(MgO + FeO) > 65], two distinct end member compositions can be differentiated using primitive mantle normalised extended element patterns. Group 1 basalts have convex upward patterns with enrichment of light over heavy REE and depletion of Rb, Ba, Th and U relative to Nb. Group 2 basalts also have

  3. Predicting shifts in rainfall-runoff partitioning during multiyear drought: Roles of dry period and catchment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saft, Margarita; Peel, Murray C.; Western, Andrew W.; Zhang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    While the majority of hydrological prediction methods assume that observed interannual variability explores the full range of catchment response dynamics, recent cases of prolonged climate drying suggest otherwise. During the ˜decade-long Millennium drought in south-eastern Australia significant shifts in hydrologic behavior were reported. Catchment rainfall-runoff partitioning changed from what was previously encountered during shorter droughts, with significantly less runoff than expected occurring in many catchments. In this article, we investigate the variability in the magnitude of shift in rainfall-runoff partitioning observed during the Millennium drought. We re-evaluate a large range of factors suggested to be responsible for the additional runoff reductions. Our results suggest that the shifts were mostly influenced by catchment characteristics related to predrought climate (aridity index and rainfall seasonality) and soil and groundwater storage dynamics (predrought interannual variability of groundwater storage and mean solum thickness). The shifts were amplified by seasonal rainfall changes during the drought (spring rainfall deficits). We discuss the physical mechanisms that are likely to be associated with these factors. Our results confirm that shifts in the annual rainfall-runoff relationship represent changes in internal catchment functioning, and emphasize the importance of cumulative multiyear changes in the catchment storage for runoff generation. Prolonged drying in some regions can be expected in the future, and our results provide an indication of which catchments characteristics are associated with catchments more susceptible to a shift in their runoff response behavior.

  4. Drought Definitions Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A.; Van Lanen, H.; Gleeson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is commonly defined as a temporary lack of water compared to normal conditions. In the traditional definition used in the natural sciences (climate science, hydrology, earth science) only natural drivers are included and the human effect on water resources is excluded. Drought impact studies, however, using observed crop yields, wildfire data, reservoir information, etc., can hardy make this division. The interdisciplinarity of drought asks for a broader definition that considers the interplay between the hazard, impacts and management. In the IPCC-SREX report definitional issues are mentioned as one of the reasons that no clear conclusions can be drawn about historic and future changes in drought. Human activities related to drought are mentioned by IPCC, but not included in their definition of drought. In the anthropocene the human aspects of drought can no longer be neglected. The IAHS Panta Rhei initiative, for example, urges hydrologists to include the connection with human systems. We propose a paradigm shift in the definition of drought, namely to expand it to include the effects of human action. For attribution we can then distinguish between climate-induced drought and human-induced drought. In this presentation, we will present a conceptual diagram that will do justice to the interdisciplinarity of drought. We will discuss issues of variability and change, scale (both temporal and spatial scales), feedbacks, and direct and indirect anthropogenic effects. The revised definition provides recognition and a common ground to researchers in all fields of research and is better aligned with drought impacts and with stakeholders' and policy maker's views on drought.

  5. Mass drug administration of ivermectin in south-eastern Senegal reduces the survivorship of wild-caught, blood fed malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In south-eastern Senegal, malaria and onchocerciasis are co-endemic. Onchocerciasis in this region has been controlled by once or twice yearly mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (IVM) for over fifteen years. Since laboratory-raised Anopheles gambiae s.s. are susceptible to ivermectin at concentrations found in human blood post-ingestion of IVM, it is plausible that a similar effect could be quantified in the field, and that IVM might have benefits as a malaria control tool. Methods In 2008 and 2009, wild-caught blood fed An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from huts of three pairs of Senegalese villages before and after IVM MDAs. Mosquitoes were held in an insectary to assess their survival rate, subsequently identified to species, and their blood meals were identified. Differences in mosquito survival were statistically analysed using a Glimmix model. Lastly, changes in the daily probability of mosquito survivorship surrounding IVM MDAs were calculated, and these data were inserted into a previously developed, mosquito age-structured model of malaria transmission. Results Anopheles gambiae s.s. (P < 0.0001) and Anopheles arabiensis (P = 0.0191) from the treated villages had significantly reduced survival compared to those from control villages. Furthermore, An gambiae s.s. caught 1-6 days after MDA in treated villages had significantly reduced survival compared to control village collections (P = 0.0003), as well as those caught pre-MDA (P < 0.0001) and >7 days post-MDA (P < 0.0001). The daily probability of mosquito survival dropped >10% for the six days following MDA. The mosquito age-structured model of malaria transmission demonstrated that a single IVM MDA would reduce malaria transmission (Ro) below baseline for at least eleven days, and that repeated IVM MDAs would result in a sustained reduction in malaria Ro. Conclusions Ivermectin MDA significantly reduced the survivorship of An. gambiae s.s. for six days past the date of

  6. The October 2015 flash - floods in south eastern France: first discharge estimations and comparison with other flash-floods documented in the framework of the Hymex project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Lebouc, Laurent; Ayral, Pierre Alain; Brunet, Pascal; Delrieu, Guy; Douvinet, Johnny; Dramais, Guillaume; Javelle, Pierre; Johannet, Anne; Adamovic, Marko; Adnes, Cyriel; Cantet, Philippe; Chapuis, Margot; Coutouis, Adrien; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Gonzalez-Sosa, Enrique; Ruin, Isabelle; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Shabou, Saif; Whilhelm, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    On the 3rd of October 2015, an outstanding hydrometeorological event hit the Mediterranean coast in the Alpes-Maritimes region in south-eastern France. Despite this rainstorm event was very short in time (approximatively 2 hours of intense rainfall), it caused a large rainfall accumulation reaching up to 180 mm. Intense flash floods were observed on all rivers of the affected area, including mostly small watersheds of less than 60 km². They caused 21 fatalities and particularly high damages because of the density of urban areas located in the downstream coastal part of the affected area. The towns of Mandelieu, Cannes, and Antibes were particularly affected. On several watersheds, the reported floods seem be the largest observed from human memory, and may therefore become reference events for flood risk prevention. A post event survey was organised in the framework of the Hymex project in order to document the characteristics of the floods which occurred in a large majority on ungauged rivers, and also destroyed some of the existing stream gauges. A total of 36 peak discharge values were estimated, enabling a detailed description of observed hydrological reactions. This dataset confirms the very large peak discharge values, which remain however significantly below the magnitude of other recent floods observed in other regions of France, and below the existing envelope curves. It may also be observed that the magnitude of this new event is relatively close to what was observed in june 2010 in the nearby Var region. These two events, both being among the largest observed locally from human memory, suggest that the position of the envelope curve should be lower in this eastern part of the French Mediterranean coast, if compared to the Cevennes region which fixes up to now the position of the envelope curve for the whole French territory. A rainfall-runoff analysis of this flood is now in progress to confirm that the runoff rates are not particularly high if compared

  7. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) have established non-native populations in inland waters of North and Central America, Asia and islands in the Caribbean, and Pacific and Indian oceans. Loricariids are generally considered to be strictly freshwater; but a few naturally occur in mesohaline habitats. 3.Catch and habitat data from 2004–2005 and 2009–2011 fish surveys in the Grijalva–Usumacinta River delta region (south-eastern Mexico) confirmed that introduced Pterygoplichthys populations established in upstream freshwater sites (where these catfish are abundant) have recently dispersed into downstream oligohaline and mesohaline estuarine habitats. During 2009–2011 surveys, these non-native catfish — tentatively identified as P. pardalis or its hybrids — were found in sites with salinities ranging from 1 to 8 ppt (mean 5.2 ppt). 4.Acute-salinity experiments were conducted with Pterygoplichthys (110–302 mm standard length, N=140) captured in the Grijalva–Usumacinta Basin to determine upper salinity tolerance levels. Tests demonstrated that individuals maintained in salinities of 0.2 ppt were able to survive abrupt (acute) exposure to salinities up to 10 ppt with little mortality over 10 days (240 h experimental endpoint). A few individuals survived abrupt exposure to 11 and 12 ppt for 20 or more hours, although none survived more than a few hours at 16 ppt or greater. 5.These field and experimental results provide quantitative evidence that non

  8. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  9. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) in the period 1751-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, K.; Brázdil, R.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrometeorological extremes always influenced human activities and caused great material damage or even loss of human lives. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. In order to create long-term series of hydrometeorological extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information for their study before 1850. In this study, written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, and the impacts on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about

  10. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  11. Breast-feeding, return of menses, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among mothers in the first six months of lactation in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egbuonu, I; Ezechukwu, C C; Chukwuka, J O; Ikechebelu, J I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the exclusive breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among breast-feeding mothers in the first six months of lactation. The study was based in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from breast-feeding mothers on their age, educational attainment, breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices within the first six months of lactation at intervals of 6 weeks, 10 weeks 14 weeks and 6 months post delivery. Analysis of the information obtained showed that out of the 178 mothers who participated in the study 81% of the mothers were within the ages of 20 - 34 years. While all the mothers had formal education, the majority (59%) had secondary education. Seventy-three percent initiated breast-feeding within one hour of delivery. On discharge from hospital, all of them had already established breast-feeding which continued up to six weeks and dropped to 97.8% at six months. Exclusive breast-feeding which was practised by 100% on discharge dropped to 3.9% at six months. The feeding regimen was on demand as practised by 98.9% of the mothers. Menstrual flow had returned in 33.8% of the mothers by 6 weeks of lactation, and had risen to 70.2% at six months. There was more prolonged lactational amenorrheoa in exclusively breast-feeding mothers than in those who were not. By 6 weeks post delivery 31.6% of the mothers had resumed sexual activity and this rose to 93.6% at six months. With the resumption of sexual activity only 5% of the mothers resorted to contraceptive practices other than lactational amenorrhea and this increased to 54% at six months. There was no pregnancy in any of these women during the six months period. While appreciating the role of lactational amenorrhea in child spacing and considering the early return of sexual activity among the mothers the practice of introducing

  12. A bust but no boom: responses of floodplain bird assemblages during and after prolonged drought.

    PubMed

    Selwood, Katherine E; Clarke, Rohan H; Cunningham, Shaun C; Lada, Hania; McGeoch, Melodie A; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Climate change alters the frequency and severity of extreme events, such as drought. Such events will be increasingly important in shaping communities as climate change intensifies. The ability of species to withstand extreme events (resistance) and to recover once adverse conditions abate (resilience) will determine their persistence. We estimated the resistance and resilience of bird species during and after a 13-year drought (the 'Big Dry') in floodplain forests in south-eastern Australia. We conducted bird surveys at the beginning and end of the Big Dry, and after the abrupt end to the drought (the 'Big Wet'), to evaluate species-specific changes in reporting rates among the three periods. We assessed changes in bird-breeding activity before and after the Big Wet to estimate demographic resilience based on breeding. Between the start and the end of the Big Dry (1998 vs. 2009), 37 of 67 species declined substantially. Of those, only two had increased reporting rates after the Big Wet (2009 vs. 2013) that were equal to or larger than their declines, while three partially recovered. All other declining species showed low resilience: 25 showed no change in reporting rates and seven declined further. The number of breeding species and total breeding activity of all species declined after the Big Wet, and there was no change in the number of young produced. The Big Dry caused widespread declines in the floodplain avifauna. Despite the drought being broken by 2 years of well-above-average rainfall and subsequent near-average rainfall, most species showed low resilience and there was little indication that overall breeding had increased. The effects of drought appeared to be pervasive for much of the floodplain avifauna, regardless of species traits (species body mass, fecundity, mobility or diet). Ecosystems such as these are likely to require active management and restoration, including reinstatement of natural flooding regimes, to improve ecological condition, to

  13. A global drought climatology for the 3rd edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Carrao, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Antofie, Tiberiu; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Climatology Center (GPCC) of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). This dataset was selected after an extensive quality check on data reliability, homogeneity, and physical consistency. We defined the drought frequency as the number of months with SPI below -1 out of all months in different periods of 10-15 years between 1951 and 2010. For the drought intensity we analyzed the drought events with at least 3 consecutive months with SPI below -1. The drought duration is defined in an operative way: a drought starts when SPI first falls below -1 and it ends when it turns back positive (i.e. >0) for at least 2 consecutive months. The results show that in the last two decades, as compared to the long-term normal conditions, the regions most affected by drought events were Congo and Central Africa, North-Eastern China, the Australian South-Eastern coast, and the Middle East. In general, an increase in duration and intensity of drought events was found for almost all the Northern Hemisphere. We also focused on some regional case studies dealing with drought events in the Mediterranean region, the Horn of Africa, and South America in the last 15 years

  14. Drought Studies For Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana, V.

    2007-05-01

    Drought constitutes one of the major threats for a number of socioeconomic sectors in Mexico. Meteorological drought occurs in various temporal and spatial scales that range from a few weeks in the tropical Mexico to decades in northern Mexico. Historically, these long term droughts have had a negative impact, not only in economic activities, but in the lives of Mexicans as well. In general, short term droughts over central southern Mexico are related to El Niño conditions. However, drought may also occur when an anomalously low number of easterly waves reach the Caribbean and Mexico. El Niño and easterly wave activity may be related by the intensification of the Caribbean Low Level Jet. However, the role of this form of transient activity as a drought trigger in Mexico has not been explored in depth. The present analysis explores the possibility of more than one form of forcing to explain drought in Mexico on various spatial and temporal scales, as well as in various regions. Such approach to the study of drought may prove useful to diagnose why certain general circulation models are unable of reproducing drought patterns over Mexico.

  15. Droughts in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Nancy L.; Stamey, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Droughts do not have the immediate effects of floods, but sustained droughts can cause economic stress throughout the State. The word 'drought' has various meanings, depending on a person's perspective. To a farmer, a drought is a period of moisture deficiency that affects the crops under cultivation - even two weeks without rainfall can stress many crops during certain periods of the growing cycle. To a meteorologist, a drought is a prolonged period when precipitation is less than normal. To a water manager, a drought is a deficiency in water supply that affects water availability and water quality. To a hydrologist, a drought is an extended period of decreased precipitation and streamflow. Droughts in Georgia have severely affected municipal and industrial water supplies, agriculture, stream water quality, recreation at major reservoirs, hydropower generation, navigation, and forest resources. In Georgia, droughts have been documented at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gaging stations since the 1890's. From 1910 to 1940, about 20 streamflow gaging stations were in operation. Since the early 1950's through the late 1980's, about 100 streamflow gaging stations were in operation. Currently (2000), the USGS streamflow gaging network consists of more than 135 continuous-recording gages. Ground-water levels are currently monitored at 165 wells equipped with continuous recorders.

  16. Drought and pasture management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a common feature of every landscape and can last from a few months to several years. According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), droughts are the most costly natural hazard affecting the United States costing 6 to 8 billion dollars annually. Mitigating the impacts of dr...

  17. Drought and rangelands.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Droughts are common and occur regularly in Oklahoma. They’re the most costly natural hazard to the United States, and estimates show a $6-$8 billion annual loss to the nation’s farmers and rancher. With the current drought impacting Oklahoma, people managing rangelands are concerned with the short...

  18. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  19. Ultrasound measurements of live and carcass traits in Tswana goat kids raised under semi-intensive system in South-eastern Botswana.

    PubMed

    Monau, Phetogo Ineeleng; Nsoso, Shalaulani James; Waugh, Esau Emmanuel; Sharma, Surender Pal

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise ultrasound measurements of live and carcass traits in intact males, females and castrated Tswana goat kids from birth to 12 months of age raised under semi-intensive system in South-eastern Botswana. Measurements were recorded in 15 castrates, 15 intact males and 15 female Tswana goat kids randomly selected at birth. Ultrasonic fat and muscle depths were measured at the first, third/fourth, sixth/seventh, ninth/tenth and 12th/13th thoracic; first, third and fifth lumbar and first, second/third and fourth/fifth sternal vertebrae, fortnightly for the first 6 months and then monthly for the remaining 6 months. The animals were stunned and humanely slaughtered at 12 months of age, and ultrasound and shatterproof ruler were used to measure fat and muscle depths on the carcasses at similar sites as on live animals. A real-time B-mode ultrasound scanner fitted with LV2-1 probe operating at 7.5 MHz (Explorer V5 Vet Laptop B-Ultrasonic Scanner UMC Technology Development Co., Ltd, China) was used to predict ultrasound measurements on live animals and their carcasses. Data were analysed using general linear model in statistical analysis system. Muscle depth measurements increased significantly (p < 0.05) with age in all sites of measurements. However, there was no significant difference between the sexes at different sites of muscle depth measurements at the same age. Muscle depth at the sternal vertebrae was significantly deeper (almost 55 mm at 12 months of age) than 16 mm at thoracic and 16 mm at lumbar vertebrae at 12 and 8 months of age, respectively. No subcutaneous fat depth measurements were recorded in the lumbar vertebrae (0.00 ± 0.00) and the thoracic (0.00 ± 0.00) regions in all sex groups. However, fourth and fifth sternal vertebrae showed considerably deeper amount of subcutaneous fat suitable for taking fat measurements as age increases (2.07 ± 0.23 mm females, 1.50 ± 0.43 mm intact

  20. Vegetation and climate changes in the South Eastern Mediterranean during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle (86 ka): new marine pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langgut, D.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Weinstein-Evron, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean, located at the meeting between the Mediterranean vegetation of the Eurasian continent and the desert vegetation of the Saharan-Arabian desert belt, is ideal for tracking changes in regional vegetation as function of climate changes. Reconstruction of these changes in the South Eastern Mediterranean during the last 86 ka is based on a palynological record, from deep-sea core 9509, taken by R/V Marion Dufresne, off the southern Israeli coast. The chronological framework is based on the correlation of δ 18O records of planktonic foraminifera with the high resolution, well-dated U-Th speleothem record from the Soreq Cave, Israel and the occurrence of sapropel layers. Several cycles of humid/dry periods were documented during the last 86 ka. The record starts with the moderate humid and warm sapropel S3 marking the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. The climate during the Last Glacial period (75.5-16.2 ka) was cold and dry, with low Arboreal Pollen (AP) levels, and high values of semi-desert and desert vegetation (e.g. Artemisia - sagebrush). The driest and coldest period during the last 86 ka corresponds to MIS 2 (27.1-16.2 ka), characterized by the lowest tree cover along the sequence and the dominance of steppe vegetation. Some slightly more humid fluctuations were identified during the period of 56.3 and 43.5 ka with its peak between 56.0 and 54.4 ka. The most pronounced climate change started at the beginning of the Deglaciation (16.2-10 ka) and continued throughout the Holocene (last 10 ka), notwithstanding some short fluctuations. High AP levels were dominated by Quercus callipprinos (evergreen oak), suggesting that the Mediterranean forest was more extensive in the area and the climate was wet. Sapropels S3 and S1 were clearly recognized here by the high concentrations and good state of preservation of pollen because of the development of anoxia in the bottom water that may be related to more extensive Nile discharge coinciding with

  1. Exploring hydrological uncertainties and thresholds of a drought vulnerable region in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Clara; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    In the region of South-Eastern Styria, Austria, a strong increase of summer temperature over the last decades was recognized by Kabas et. al. (Meteorol. Z./ 20 (3), 277-289, 2011). With climate change the temperature will further increase, so that the possibility for more frequent droughts in summer will rise. This leads to the question if, for example, a steppe climate similar to that in the neighboring Hungarian Pussta can evolve in this region. Drastic climatic changes will be accompanied by strong changes in the hydrological balance. Since the region is strongly influenced by agriculture and other non-climatic factors as well, these human impacts on the water cycle must be considered. The Wegener Center, University of Graz is studying the Raab catchment in South-Eastern Styria, Austria, as an example of a small catchment of the climate-sensitive southern Alpine foothills. The available data indicate that the region is vulnerable to droughts in summer, signalled by a strong temperature increase over the recent decades and a tendency of precipitation decrease. The main goals of this study are to explore how the water balance in the region is going to change in the future, what the most significant uncertainties are and where there might be thresholds towards drastic changes. In this poster we report on the first steps, which is to build up a hydrological model for the Styrian Raab valley based on the Water balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) of ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Within the calibration the focus is on low flow conditions in summer. Given that the model shows good results for the well observed recent decades, a sensitivity analysis for changes in specific (control) parameters of the surface water balance is conducted. This will include anomalies of temperature and precipitation, water use for irrigation, and others. This enables to explore how warmer temperatures or changes in irrigation and crops affect the catchment. Model analyses do not only focus on flow

  2. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  3. Drought and resprouting plants

    DOE PAGES

    Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Adams, Henry D.; ...

    2014-12-17

    Many species have the ability to resprout vegetatively after a substantial loss of biomass induced by environmental stress, including drought. Many of the regions characterised by ecosystems where resprouting is common are projected to experience more frequent and intense drought during the 21st century. However, in assessments of ecosystem response to drought disturbance there has been scant consideration of the resilience and post-drought recovery of resprouting species. Systematic differences in hydraulic and allocation traits suggest that resprouting species are more resilient to drought-stress than nonresprouting species. Evidence suggests that ecosystems dominated by resprouters recover from disturbance more quickly than ecosystemsmore » dominated by nonresprouters. The ability of resprouters to avoid mortality and withstand drought, coupled with their ability to recover rapidly, suggests that the impact of increased drought stress in ecosystems dominated by these species may be small. Furthermore, the strategy of resprouting needs to be modelled explicitly to improve estimates of future climate-change impacts on the carbon cycle, but this will require several important knowledge gaps to be filled before resprouting can be properly implemented.« less

  4. Drought and resprouting plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Adams, Henry D.; Kelley, Douglas I.; Li, Guangqi; Tissue, David T.; Dawson, Todd E.; Fensham, Rod; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Palmer, Anthony; West, Adam G.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2014-12-17

    Many species have the ability to resprout vegetatively after a substantial loss of biomass induced by environmental stress, including drought. Many of the regions characterised by ecosystems where resprouting is common are projected to experience more frequent and intense drought during the 21st century. However, in assessments of ecosystem response to drought disturbance there has been scant consideration of the resilience and post-drought recovery of resprouting species. Systematic differences in hydraulic and allocation traits suggest that resprouting species are more resilient to drought-stress than nonresprouting species. Evidence suggests that ecosystems dominated by resprouters recover from disturbance more quickly than ecosystems dominated by nonresprouters. The ability of resprouters to avoid mortality and withstand drought, coupled with their ability to recover rapidly, suggests that the impact of increased drought stress in ecosystems dominated by these species may be small. Furthermore, the strategy of resprouting needs to be modelled explicitly to improve estimates of future climate-change impacts on the carbon cycle, but this will require several important knowledge gaps to be filled before resprouting can be properly implemented.

  5. Drought and resprouting plants.

    PubMed

    Zeppel, Melanie J B; Harrison, Sandy P; Adams, Henry D; Kelley, Douglas I; Li, Guangqi; Tissue, David T; Dawson, Todd E; Fensham, Rod; Medlyn, Belinda E; Palmer, Anthony; West, Adam G; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-04-01

    Many species have the ability to resprout vegetatively after a substantial loss of biomass induced by environmental stress, including drought. Many of the regions characterised by ecosystems where resprouting is common are projected to experience more frequent and intense drought during the 21st Century. However, in assessments of ecosystem response to drought disturbance there has been scant consideration of the resilience and post-drought recovery of resprouting species. Systematic differences in hydraulic and allocation traits suggest that resprouting species are more resilient to drought-stress than nonresprouting species. Evidence suggests that ecosystems dominated by resprouters recover from disturbance more quickly than ecosystems dominated by nonresprouters. The ability of resprouters to avoid mortality and withstand drought, coupled with their ability to recover rapidly, suggests that the impact of increased drought stress in ecosystems dominated by these species may be small. The strategy of resprouting needs to be modelled explicitly to improve estimates of future climate-change impacts on the carbon cycle, but this will require several important knowledge gaps to be filled before resprouting can be properly implemented.

  6. Drought - A Global Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, S.; Barnwal, P.; von der Goltz, J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the lasting effects of early childhood exposure to drought on economic and health outcomes in a large multi-country dataset. By pooling all Demographic and Health Survey rounds for which household geocodes are available, we obtain an individual-level dataset covering 47 developing countries. Among other impact measures, we collect infant and child mortality data from 3.3m live births and data on stunting and wasting for 1.2m individuals, along with data on education, employment, wealth, marriage and childbearing later in life for similarly large numbers of respondents. Birth years vary from 1893 to 2012. We seek to improve upon existing work on the socio-economic impact of drought in a number of ways. First, we introduce from the hydrological literature a drought measure, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), that has been shown to closely proxy the Palmer drought index, but has far less demanding data requirements, and can be obtained globally and for long time periods. We estimate the SPI for 110 years on a global 0.5° grid, which allows us to assign drought histories to the geocoded individual data. Additionally, we leverage our large sample size to explicitly investigate both how drought impacts have changed over time as adaptation occurred at a varying pace in different locations, and the role of the regional extent of drought in determining impacts.

  7. What does drought look like?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Hughes, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Drought is commonly portrayed using images of cracked earth, dry dams and empty river beds. However, these 2-dimensional representations illustrate the impact of drought rather than drought itself and ignore the rich 4-dimensional spatio-temporal variablity which characterises drought as a natural hazard. Improved visualisations of drought are needed to increase public understanding and assist the research community in understanding its drivers. WebGL is explored as a medium for contructing interactive drought graphics that go beyond displaying drought impacts and address the multi-dimensionality of the problem.

  8. North American Drought Projections

    NASA Video Gallery

    Droughts in the Southwest and Central Plains of the United States in the second half of the 21st century could be drier and longer than anything humans have seen in those regions in the last 1,000 ...

  9. Neotectonic stress field of the south-eastern East European platform as related to the Late Alpine collision deformation of the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Mikhail L.; Kolesnichenko, Aleksei; Vassiliev, Nikita; Mostryukov, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    In the south-eastern East European platform and Urals, as well as the young Scythyan platform, the Late Alpine collision deformations are widely spread. First of all, these are crumbled aulacogen covers (the Azov Sea, Dnieper-Donets, and Pachelma aulacogens). In some places the covers were dislocated conformably with platform basements but commonly they were partly detached from it with formation of inversion foldbelts (such as the Donets coal basin in the Alpine stage, Saratov and Kerensk-Chembar dislocations). Basements of some anteclises (the Voronezh, Tokmovo, and Volga-Urals ones) dividing the aulacogens were also involved into deformations. There the greatest upthrusting of basement onto cover can be observed (e.g., the Zhigouli upthrust). In general the thrusting and folding occurred during the Early Miocene-Quaternary, with its periodicity strictly corresponding to that of the Late Alpine tectonic phases in the Greater Caucasus: Early Miocene (the H. Stille,s Styrian phase), terminal Miocene-initial Pliocene (the Attic and Rhodanian phases), Eo-Pleistocene (the Valachian phase). Beside the synchronous occurrences, there are some other evidences of relation of intraplate deformations to the Arabia-Eurasa collision in its Caucasian region: (i) sublatitudinal (up to WNW-ESE strike) orientation of the intraplate upthrusts and folds, (ii) wide distribution of structurally manifested strike-slip zones as well as similarity in orientation and location between the right and left strike-slips considered with those of the Greater Caucasus: domains of the formers are built up to the north the domains of the latters, (iii) directed southward increasing basement involvement into the neotectonic deformations. For example, in the Donets-Azov region a basement neotectonic megafold was imposed not only onto Donets Herzinian foldbelt but also on the Precambrian basement of the Rostov high of the Ukrainian shield. To some extent, this megafold resembles a northern wing of the

  10. Convolute laminations and load structures in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections and decelerations against bounding slopes. Examples from the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinterri, R.; Muzzi Magalhaes, P.; Tagliaferri, A.; Cunha, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    This work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations very common within turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures. Detailed facies analyses of the foredeep turbidites in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France) show that these deformational structures tend to increase near morphological obstacles, concomitantly with contained-reflected beds. The lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures, as well as their geometry, has a well-defined depositional logic related to flow decelerations and reflections against bounding slopes. This evidence suggests an interaction between fine-grained sediment and the presence of morphologic relief, and impulsive and cyclic-wave loadings, which are produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to impinging bipartite turbidity currents.

  11. Metal and metalloid concentrations in the tissues of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters, and the implications for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Bowling, Alison C; Christidis, Les

    2015-03-15

    Shark fisheries have expanded due to increased demand for shark products. As long-lived apex predators, sharks are susceptible to bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids, and biomagnification of some such as Hg, primarily through diet. This may have negative health implications for human consumers. Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn were analysed in muscle, liver and fin fibres (ceratotrichia) from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters. Concentrations of analytes were generally higher in liver than in muscle and lowest in fin fibres. Muscle tissue concentrations of Hg were significantly correlated with total length, and >50% of sampled individuals had concentrations above Food Standards Australia New Zealand's maximum limit (1 mg kg(-1) ww). Arsenic concentrations were also of concern, particularly in fins. Results warrant further investigation to accurately assess health risks for regular consumption of shark products.

  12. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  13. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians.

    PubMed

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  14. Monitoring vegetation responses to drought -- linking Remotely-sensed Drought Indices with Meteorological drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.; Liu, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Effectively monitoring vegetation drought is of great significance in ecological conservation and agriculture irrigation at the regional scale. Combining meteorological drought indices with remotely sensed drought indices can improve tracking vegetation dynamic under the threat of drought. This study analyzes the dynamics of spatially-defined Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and temporally-defined Vegetation Health Index (VHI) from remotely sensed NDVI and LST datasets in the dry spells in Southwest China. We analyzed the correlation between remotely sensed drought indices and meteorological drought index of different time scales. The results show that TVDI was limited by the spatial variations of LST and NDVI, while VHI was limited by the temporal variations of LST and NDVI. Station-based buffering analysis indicates that the extracted remotely sensed drought indices and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) could reach stable correlation with buffering radius larger than 35 km. Three factors affect the spatiotemporal relationship between remotely sensed drought indices and SPI: i) different vegetation types; ii) the timescale of SPI; and iii) remote sensing data noise. Vegetation responds differently to meteorological drought at various time scales. The correlation between SPI6 and VHI is more significant than that between SPI6 and TVDI. Spatial consistency between VHI and TVDI varies with drought aggravation. In early drought period from October to December, VHI and TVDI show limited consistency due to the low quality of remotely sensed images. The study helps to improve monitoring vegetation drought using both meteorological drought indices and remotely sensed drought indices.

  15. Hydrological drought in cold climates: new drought types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lanen, Henny A. J.; van Loon, Anne F.; Ploum, Stefan; Laaha, Gregor; Parajka, Juraj; Garnier, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The previous winter (2013-2014) was warm and dry in many regions of Europe, leading to serious problems in water supply in for example Kosovo. This winter was not an exception. Analyses of drought-related impacts on nature and society indicate that not all drought impacts occur in summer, during periods with below-normal rainfall and connected heat waves. We found that several drought impacts are a consequence of anomalies in winter-related processes, such as snow accumulation and melt. The hydrological drought typology (Van Loon & Van Lanen, 2012) was developed based on analysis of the processes underlying drought propagation in catchments in Norway, Czech Republic and Slovakia. In this typology, two drought types were distinguished that are caused by anomalous winter processes: cold snow season drought and warm snow season drought. In a recent study in the Alpine region, however, we found drought events that could not be classified into one of the types of the existing hydrological drought typology. We could reveal the processes underlying these drought events with further detailed analysis of an extensive dataset of observations and simulations of hydrometeorological variables for a large number of catchments in Austria. In this paper we present two new hydrological drought types related to snow and glacier melt. We discuss the processes underlying these drought types and show that besides precipitation, temperature plays an important role. Furthermore, we discuss the differences between hydrological droughts in the Alpine region and the previously studied regions in North and Central Europe, and investigate the relationship with the impacts of hydrological drought, both in the ancient (1500-1950) and in the recent past (1970-2010). Van Loon, A.F., and Van Lanen, H.A.J.: A process-based typology of hydrological drought, Hydrology and Earth System Science, 16, p. 1915-1946, doi: 10.5194/hess-16-1915-2012, 2012

  16. Coping With Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  17. The 2010 Amazon drought.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L; Brando, Paulo M; Phillips, Oliver L; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Nepstad, Daniel

    2011-02-04

    In 2010, dry-season rainfall was low across Amazonia, with apparent similarities to the major 2005 drought. We analyzed a decade of satellite-derived rainfall data to compare both events. Standardized anomalies of dry-season rainfall showed that 57% of Amazonia had low rainfall in 2010 as compared with 37% in 2005 (≤-1 standard deviation from long-term mean). By using relationships between drying and forest biomass responses measured for 2005, we predict the impact of the 2010 drought as 2.2 × 10(15) grams of carbon [95% confidence intervals (CIs) are 1.2 and 3.4], largely longer-term committed emissions from drought-induced tree deaths, compared with 1.6 × 10(15) grams of carbon (CIs 0.8 and 2.6) for the 2005 event.

  18. Drought Risk Identification: Early Warning System of Seasonal Agrometeorological Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalecios, Nicolas; Spyropoulos, Nicos V.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    By considering drought as a hazard, drought types are classified into three categories, namely meteorological or climatological, agrometeorological or agricultural and hydrological drought and as a fourth class the socioeconomic impacts can be considered. This paper addresses agrometeorological drought affecting agriculture within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with the quantification and monitoring of agrometeorological drought, which constitute part of risk identification. For the quantitative assessment of agrometeorological or agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI are: areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural region of Greece characterized by vulnerable and drought-prone agriculture. The results show that every year there is a seasonal agrometeorological drought with a gradual increase in the areal extent and severity with peaks appearing usually during the summer. Drought monitoring is conducted by monthly remotely sensed VHI images. Drought early warning is developed using empirical relationships of severity and areal extent. In particular, two second-order polynomials are fitted, one for low and the other for high severity drought, respectively. The two fitted curves offer a seasonal

  19. Toward a Drought Cyberinfrastructure System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momtaz, Farshad; Nakhjiri, Navid; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Drought chokes ecosystems, strangles economies, and threatens human health [Wilhite, 2005]. In the United States, drought has recently forced states, including economic powerhouses like California and Texas, to declare a state of emergency. Complications such as an increase in fires, rising food prices, and water scarcity further compound the effects of drought [Pozzi et al., 2013; Hao et al., 2014].

  20. Drought, Mortality and Social Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the human population explosion, resource depletion, drought, malnutrition, and disease. As a sample study, mortality trends in Rajasthan State in India in the 1980s were analyzed to correlate the increased death rate with the drought of 1987. It is demonstrated that drought-induced malnutrition was the root cause…

  1. Drought impact functions as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    While damage or vulnerability functions for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought impacts are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage functions difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage functions we exploit text-based reports on drought impacts from the European Drought Impact report Inventory and the US Drought Impact Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought impacts is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of impacts, or number of impact occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link functions relating drought hazard indicators with drought impacts: 1) logistic regression for drought impacts coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought impact occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought impact occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) impacts for regions at the scale of federal states or

  2. A theoretical drought classification method for the multivariate drought index based on distribution properties of standardized drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hao, Fanghua; Singh, Vijay P.; Xia, Youlong; Ouyang, Wei; Shen, Xinyi

    2016-06-01

    Drought indices have been commonly used to characterize different properties of drought and the need to combine multiple drought indices for accurate drought monitoring has been well recognized. Based on linear combinations of multiple drought indices, a variety of multivariate drought indices have recently been developed for comprehensive drought monitoring to integrate drought information from various sources. For operational drought management, it is generally required to determine thresholds of drought severity for drought classification to trigger a mitigation response during a drought event to aid stakeholders and policy makers in decision making. Though the classification of drought categories based on the univariate drought indices has been well studied, drought classification method for the multivariate drought index has been less explored mainly due to the lack of information about its distribution property. In this study, a theoretical drought classification method is proposed for the multivariate drought index, based on a linear combination of multiple indices. Based on the distribution property of the standardized drought index, a theoretical distribution of the linear combined index (LDI) is derived, which can be used for classifying drought with the percentile approach. Application of the proposed method for drought classification of LDI, based on standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized soil moisture index (SSI), and standardized runoff index (SRI) is illustrated with climate division data from California, United States. Results from comparison with the empirical methods show a satisfactory performance of the proposed method for drought classification.

  3. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  4. Drought vulnerability assessment for prioritising drought warning implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Mwangi, Emmah; Barbosa, Paulo; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Werner, Micha

    2014-05-01

    Drought warning provides a potentially efficient approach to mitigation of drought impacts, and should be targeted at areas most vulnerable to being adversely impacted. Assessing drought vulnerability is, however, complex and needs to consider susceptibility to drought impact as well as the capacity to cope with drought. In this paper a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) is proposed that considers four primary components that reflect the capacity of society to adapt to drought; the renewable natural capital, the economic capacity, the human and civic resources, and the available infrastructure and technology. The DVI is established as a weighted combination of these four components, each a composite of selected indicators. Constituent indicators are calculated based on national and/or regional census data and statistics, and while the resulting DVI should not be considered an absolute measure of drought vulnerability it does provide for a prioritisation of areas that can be used to target drought warning efforts. Sensitivity analysis of weights applied show the established DVI to be robust. Through the DVI the development of drought forecasting and warning can be targeted at the most vulnerable areas. The proposed DVI is applied at both the continental scale in Africa to assess drought vulnerability of the different nations across Africa, and at the national level in Kenya, allowing for prioritisation of the counties within Kenya to drought vulnerability. Results show the relative vulnerability of countries and counties vulnerable to drought. At the continental scale, Somalia, Burundi, Niger, Ethiopia, Mali and Chad are found to be the countries most vulnerable to drought. At the national level, the relative vulnerability of the counties across Kenya is found, with counties in the North-East of Kenya having the highest values of DVI. At the country level results were compared with drought disaster information from the EM-DAT disaster database, showing a good

  5. Ranchers responding to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thad Box, a distinguished rangeland professional, once said, “We continue to approach each new drought as if it is a disaster rather than the norm, ignoring the past, and paying only lip service to sustainable use of dry rangelands.” I guess it should not be surprising to continue to see below avera...

  6. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  7. Sporadic melanoma in South-Eastern Italy: the impact of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) polymorphism analysis in low-risk people and report of three novel variants.

    PubMed

    Guida, S; Bartolomeo, N; Zanna, P T; Grieco, C; Maida, I; De Summa, S; Tommasi, S; Guida, M; Azzariti, A; Foti, C; Filotico, R; Guida, G

    2015-08-01

    Environmental and genetic risk factors are involved in the development of melanoma. The role of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene has been investigated and differences according to geographic areas have been described. To evaluate the role of some clinical and genetic risk factors in melanoma development, we performed a case-control study involving 101 melanoma patients and 103 controls coming from South-Eastern Italy (Puglia), after achieving informed consent. We confirmed the role of known clinical risk factors for melanoma. Furthermore, 42 MC1R polymorphisms were observed. Three of these variants (L26V, H232L, D294Y) were not previously reported in the literature. Their predicted impact on receptor function was evaluated using bioinformatic tools. We report an overall frequency of MC1R variants in our population higher than in Northern or Central Italy. The most common polymorphism found was V60L, that has been recently reported to spread among South Mediterranean population. This variant influenced phenotypic characteristics of our population while it did not impinge on melanoma risk. An increased risk of melanoma was associated with two or more MC1R variants, when at least one was RHC, compared to people carrying the MC1R consensus sequence or a single MC1R polymorphism. Interestingly, we observed an increased risk of melanoma in subjects with darker skin and lower nevus count, usually considered at low risk, when carrying MC1R polymorphisms.

  8. Phloem transport and drought.

    PubMed

    Sevanto, Sanna

    2014-04-01

    Drought challenges plant water uptake and the vascular system. In the xylem it causes embolism that impairs water transport from the soil to the leaves and, if uncontrolled, may even lead to plant mortality via hydraulic failure. What happens in the phloem, however, is less clear because measuring phloem transport is still a significant challenge to plant science. In all vascular plants, phloem and xylem tissues are located next to each other, and there is clear evidence that these tissues exchange water. Therefore, drought should also lead to water shortage in the phloem. In this review, theories used in phloem transport models have been applied to drought conditions, with the goal of shedding light on how phloem transport failure might occur. The review revealed that phloem failure could occur either because of viscosity build-up at the source sites or by a failure to maintain phloem water status and cell turgor. Which one of these dominates depends on the hydraulic permeability of phloem conduit walls. Impermeable walls will lead to viscosity build-up affecting flow rates, while permeable walls make the plant more susceptible to phloem turgor failure. Current empirical evidence suggests that phloem failure resulting from phloem turgor collapse is the more likely mechanism at least in relatively isohydric plants.

  9. Drought in the Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the difference between the amount of vegetation in July 2000 and the average July vegetation for North America. Of particular interest are the dry conditions in the western United States. This spring and summer the Rocky Mountains have been relatively dry, and the brown regions stretching from the Canadian to the Mexican border, indicate the effect on the regions' forests. Western Montana and eastern Idaho are particularly parched, and appear darker brown. The dry conditions have contributed to this year's devastating fire season, during which millions of acres have burned in the west. Scientists find that during the growing season, land plants can be used to measure drought. Healthy, thriving plants reflect and absorb visible and near-infrared light differently than plants under stress. These variations in reflectance and absorption can be measured by satellites to produce maps of healthy and stressed vegetation. This image shows Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, which indicates where vegetation growth was above average (green pixels), below average (brown pixels), or normal (white pixels). For more images and information about measuring vegetation and drought from space visit: Drought and Vegetation Monitoring. Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Biospheric Sciences Branch, based on data from NOAA.

  10. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  11. Global Patterns of Drought Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, C.; Anderegg, W.; Biondi, F.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Shaw, J.; Wolf, A.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Wei, Y.; Fang, Y.; Hayes, D. J.; Huang, M.; Jain, A. K.; Tian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of drought on carbon metabolism is crucial to elucidate how global environmental change will alter the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by terrestrial vegetation. Notwithstanding past and anticipated future changes in drought regime the interplay between hydrologic (amelioration of precipitation deficit) and functional (return to pre-drought levels of carbon metabolism) post-drought recovery is not well understood. Recovery time is however a prime determinant of whether ecosystems revert to their initial state or transition to a new equilibrium. Here we quantify post-drought recovery time of gross primary productivity (GPP) at grid cell (0.5° spatial resolution) to global scales using three reconstructions: MODIS, upscaled FLUXNET, and an ensemble of state-of-the-art standardized land surface model runs taken from MsTMIP (Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project). Drought is tracked using the multiscalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index drought metric where the integration period (the retrospective window used to calculate the metric) is varied from 1 to 24-months. We define recovery time as a function of both hydrologic and GPP recovery, i.e., both must attain pre-drought levels for recovery to occur. Despite the diverse provenance of the reconstructions, different reconstruction periods, and variable integration lengths several consistent patterns emerge across the c. 4 000 000 drought events and subsequent recovery times cataloged. Recovery time scales with drought severity and drought length. Biological productivity and biodiversity exhibit response surfaces with large amplitudes and clear thresholds whereas soil fertility is a weak constraint. In general, GPP-based descriptors of drought events serve as key boundary conditions for drought recovery. The longest recovery times occur on marginal lands--non-forested, mixed tree-grass, and boreal systems--with a slight uptick for

  12. Drought: A comprehensive R package for drought monitoring, prediction and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hao, Fanghua; Singh, Vijay P.; Cheng, Hongguang

    2015-04-01

    Drought may impose serious challenges to human societies and ecosystems. Due to complicated causing effects and wide impacts, a universally accepted definition of drought does not exist. The drought indicator is commonly used to characterize drought properties such as duration or severity. Various drought indicators have been developed in the past few decades for the monitoring of a certain aspect of drought condition along with the development of multivariate drought indices for drought characterizations from multiple sources or hydro-climatic variables. Reliable drought prediction with suitable drought indicators is critical to the drought preparedness plan to reduce potential drought impacts. In addition, drought analysis to quantify the risk of drought properties would provide useful information for operation drought managements. The drought monitoring, prediction and risk analysis are important components in drought modeling and assessments. In this study, a comprehensive R package "drought" is developed to aid the drought monitoring, prediction and risk analysis (available from R-Forge and CRAN soon). The computation of a suite of univariate and multivariate drought indices that integrate drought information from various sources such as precipitation, temperature, soil moisture, and runoff is available in the drought monitoring component in the package. The drought prediction/forecasting component consists of statistical drought predictions to enhance the drought early warning for decision makings. Analysis of drought properties such as duration and severity is also provided in this package for drought risk assessments. Based on this package, a drought monitoring and prediction/forecasting system is under development as a decision supporting tool. The package will be provided freely to the public to aid the drought modeling and assessment for researchers and practitioners.

  13. Distinguishing warming-induced drought from drought-induced warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, M. L.; Yin, D.

    2015-12-01

    It is usually observed that temperatures, especially maximum temperatures are higher during drought. A very widely held public perception is that the increase in temperature is a cause of drought. This represents the warming-induced drought scenario. However, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation with drought being the cause of increasing temperature. In essence, those communities assume the warming is a surface feedback and their interpretation is for drought-induced warming. This is a classic cause-effect problem that has resisted definitive explanation due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation we first summarise the observations and then use theory to untangle the cause-effect relationships that underlie the competing interpretations. We then show how satellite data (CERES, NASA) can be used to disentangle the cause-effect relations.

  14. Soil microbiology under drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    he severity of the 2012 drought affecting much of the Midwestern U.S. is readily observed in the extremely stressed conditions of crops and natural vegetation. However, we may not realize that the extent of drought effects is just as severe on the biology below the soil surface. Detrimental effects ...

  15. Multivariate analysis of the influence of donor and recipient cytomegalovirus sero-pairing on outcomes in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation: the South-Eastern Organ Procurement Foundation Experience.

    PubMed

    Stratta, R J; Thacker, L R; Sundberg, A K

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if donor (D) and recipient (R) CMV sero-pairing at the time of simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation (SKPT) subsequently influenced outcomes in a large cohort of patients with long-term follow-up. Between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1999 complete data were available on 723 primary SKPTs performed at South-Eastern Organ Procurement Foundation member institutions. For purposes of this study, four groups were defined: D+/R-, n = 203 (28%); D+/R+, n = 206 (28%); D-/R+, n = 156 (22%); and D-/R-, n = 158 (22%). Patient and graft survival rates for the study groups were computed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and tests of equality of survival curves were performed utilizing both the log-rank and Wilcoxon test statistics. A multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression. A total of 56% of Ds were CMV+ and 50% of Rs were CMV-. D serostatus was not, but R serostatus was, a significant independent risk factor for patient and kidney, but not pancreas, graft survival rates in the uncensored analysis. When examining the CMV D/R groups in both univariate and multivariate fashion, CMV sero-pairing was not an independent risk factor for death, graft loss, or rejection. However, when considering CMV sero-pairing as a binary variable (D-/R- versus all other D/R groups), 6-year patient, kidney, and pancreas graft survival rates were significantly higher in the D-/R- group (P < .05). In conclusion, CMV seronegativity is present in half of diabetic patients at the time of SKPT, and protective CMV seronegative matching confers a long-term survival advantage.

  16. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  17. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  18. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  19. 33 CFR 203.62 - Drought assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drought assistance. 203.62... Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.62 Drought assistance. (a) Authority. The... political subdivisions, within areas determined to be drought-distressed. (b) General policy. (1) It is...

  20. 33 CFR 203.62 - Drought assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drought assistance. 203.62... Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.62 Drought assistance. (a) Authority. The... political subdivisions, within areas determined to be drought-distressed. (b) General policy. (1) It is...

  1. 33 CFR 203.62 - Drought assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drought assistance. 203.62... Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.62 Drought assistance. (a) Authority. The... political subdivisions, within areas determined to be drought-distressed. (b) General policy. (1) It is...

  2. 33 CFR 203.62 - Drought assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drought assistance. 203.62... Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.62 Drought assistance. (a) Authority. The... political subdivisions, within areas determined to be drought-distressed. (b) General policy. (1) It is...

  3. Phenotyping bananas for drought resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Iyyakkutty; Uma, Subbaraya; Vaganan, Muthu Mayil; Mustaffa, Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with “B” genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on “A” genome. In particular, bananas with “ABB” genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite for any improvement program for targeted traits. In the present article, known drought tolerant traits of other crop plants are validated in bananas with different genomic backgrounds and presented. Since, banana is recalcitrant to breeding, strategies for making hybrids between different genomic backgrounds are also discussed. Stomatal conductance, cell membrane stability (CMS), leaf emergence rate, rate of leaf senescence, RWC, and bunch yield under soil moisture deficit stress are some of the traits associated with drought tolerance. Among these stress bunch yield under drought should be given top priority for phenotyping. In the light of recently released Musa genome draft sequence, the molecular breeders may have interest in developing molecular markers for drought resistance. PMID:23443573

  4. DroughtView: Satellite Based Drought Monitoring and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartfield, K. A.; Van Leeuwen, W. J. D.; Crimmins, M.; Marsh, S. E.; Torrey, Y.; Rahr, M.; Orr, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Drought is an ever growing concern within the United States and Mexico. Extended periods of below-average precipitation can adversely affect agricultural production and ecosystems, impact local water resources and create conditions prime for wildfire. DroughtView (www.droughtview.arizona.edu) is a new on-line resource for scientists, natural resource managers, and the public that brings a new perspective to remote-sensing based drought impact assessment that is not currently available. DroughtView allows users to monitor the impact of drought on vegetation cover for the entire continental United States and the northern regions of Mexico. As a spatially and temporally dynamic geospatial decision support tool, DroughtView is an excellent educational introduction to the relationship between remotely sensed vegetation condition and drought. The system serves up Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data generated from 250 meter 16-day composite Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery from 2000 to the present. Calculation of difference from average, previous period and previous year greenness products provide the user with a proxy for drought conditions and insight on the secondary impacts of drought, such as wildfire. The various image products and overlays are served up via the ArcGIS Server platform. DroughtView serves as a useful tool to introduce and teach vegetation time series analysis to those unfamiliar with the science. High spatial resolution imagery is available as a reference layer to locate points of interest, zoom in and export images for implementation in reports and presentations. Animation of vegetation time series allows users to examine ecosystem disturbances and climate data is also available to examine the relationship between precipitation, temperature and vegetation. The tool is mobile friendly allowing users to access the system while in the field. The systems capabilities and

  5. Tree ecophysiological traits related to tree drought mortality are linked to the aridity of the environment in eucalypts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, S. K.; Sanders, G.; Hirsch, M.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in tree drought mortality are observed in forest ecosystems in all continents but the actual mechanisms how trees succumb to drought are still controversial. Physiological traits and thresholds have often be proposed as possible tools to predict tree drought mortality but these traits and thresholds have only been studied in a few tree species in detail. We investigated the vulnerability to hydraulic cavitation in leaves (P50leaf), turgor loss point (TLP) and osmotic potential at full turgor (OPFT) in 16 different eucalypts species that occur in environments of differing aridity in south-eastern Australia (gradient from 300mm to 1500 mm of precipitation per year). The species were grown from seed, planted in an arboretum in Melbourne and measured under well-watered conditions as two-year old saplings. We observed strong correlations between all measured ecophysiological traits and the aridity of the environment of the origin of the species. P50leaf and TLP were more negative in the eucalypts from more arid environments and more positive in eucalypts from more mesic environments, indicating that eucalypts in arid environments lose turgor at lower water potentials and have a lower vulnerability to hydraulic cavitation in leaves. Eucalypts from arid environments also had a much more negative osmotic potential at full turgor than eucalypts from mesic environments and more rigid cell walls. The measured plants all grew in the same environmental conditions and were well watered at the time of measurement. The results therefore indicate a strong genetic control over these physiological traits in eucalypts - trees from more arid environments lose turgor and hydraulic conductivity at lower water potentials and achieve these lower water potentials by having more osmotically active substances, even if they are not drought stressed. This is the first time these strong correlations between physiological traits and aridity of the origin of the species have been

  6. Genome-assisted Breeding For Drought Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Awais; Sovero, Valpuri; Gemenet, Dorcus

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress caused by unpredictable precipitation poses a major threat to food production worldwide, and its impact is only expected to increase with the further onset of climate change. Understanding the effect of drought stress on crops and plants' response is critical for developing improved varieties with stable high yield to fill a growing food gap from an increasing population depending on decreasing land and water resources. When a plant encounters drought stress, it may use multiple response types, depending on environmental conditions, drought stress intensity and duration, and the physiological stage of the plant. Drought stress responses can be divided into four broad types: drought escape, drought avoidance, drought tolerance, and drought recovery, each characterized by interacting mechanisms, which may together be referred to as drought resistance mechanisms. The complex nature of drought resistance requires a multi-pronged approach to breed new varieties with stable and enhanced yield under drought stress conditions. High throughput genomics and phenomics allow marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS), which offer rapid and targeted improvement of populations and identification of parents for rapid genetic gains and improved drought-resistant varieties. Using these approaches together with appropriate genetic diversity, databases, analytical tools, and well-characterized drought stress scenarios, weather and soil data, new varieties with improved drought resistance corresponding to grower preferences can be introduced into target regions rapidly. PMID:27499682

  7. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Archibong, A E; Antia, U E; Udosen, J

    1997-06-01

    In a ten year retrospective study of burns in children in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, the main causes were hot water, hot soup or oil (56.6%) involving children mostly in the one to three year age group. The relative safety of the home environment seen in other forms of paediatric trauma is not observed in burns in children. A changing pattern of burns in children has emerged within the region with naked flames/bush fire coming second and affecting 22.7% of the children. Chemical burns hitherto a rare occurrence is now frequent because of the storage of caustic soda and acids in living rooms by soap making parents. Burns affecting the perineum, axilla and buttocks are difficult to keep clean and frequently lead to infections, with associated increased morbidity. Causes of childhood burns are largely preventable requiring active social/medical education and public enlightenment campaigns on the various methods of prevention.

  8. Plant adaptation to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Supratim; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Kumar, Anuj; Pereira, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitats adapt to drought stress in the environment through a variety of mechanisms, ranging from transient responses to low soil moisture to major survival mechanisms of escape by early flowering in absence of seasonal rainfall. However, crop plants selected by humans to yield products such as grain, vegetable, or fruit in favorable environments with high inputs of water and fertilizer are expected to yield an economic product in response to inputs. Crop plants selected for their economic yield need to survive drought stress through mechanisms that maintain crop yield. Studies on model plants for their survival under stress do not, therefore, always translate to yield of crop plants under stress, and different aspects of drought stress response need to be emphasized. The crop plant model rice ( Oryza sativa) is used here as an example to highlight mechanisms and genes for adaptation of crop plants to drought stress. PMID:27441087

  9. Plant adaptation to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Basu, Supratim; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Kumar, Anuj; Pereira, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitats adapt to drought stress in the environment through a variety of mechanisms, ranging from transient responses to low soil moisture to major survival mechanisms of escape by early flowering in absence of seasonal rainfall. However, crop plants selected by humans to yield products such as grain, vegetable, or fruit in favorable environments with high inputs of water and fertilizer are expected to yield an economic product in response to inputs. Crop plants selected for their economic yield need to survive drought stress through mechanisms that maintain crop yield. Studies on model plants for their survival under stress do not, therefore, always translate to yield of crop plants under stress, and different aspects of drought stress response need to be emphasized. The crop plant model rice ( Oryza sativa) is used here as an example to highlight mechanisms and genes for adaptation of crop plants to drought stress.

  10. Geochronology and geochemistry of Permian bimodal volcanic rocks from central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for the late Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Chen, Yan; Li, Ke; Li, Jianfeng; Yang, Jinfu; Qian, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical data and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation. These rocks are widely distributed in the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in central Inner Mongolia, China. The volcanic rocks mainly consist of basaltic andesite and rhyolite, subordinate dacite and local andesite, and exhibit bimodal geochemical features. The results of zircon U-Pb dating indicate that the volcanic rocks formed during the early Permian (292-279 Ma). The mafic volcanic rocks belong to low-K tholeiitic to medium-K calc-alkaline series. These mafic volcanic rocks are also characterised by moderately enriched light rare earth element (LREE) patterns; high abundances of Th, U, Zr and Hf; negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies; initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70514-0.70623; and positive εNd(t) values (+1.9 to +3.8). These features indicate that the mafic volcanic rocks were likely derived from the high-percentage partial melting of subduction-related metasomatised asthenospheric mantle. The felsic rocks show an A-type affinity, with enrichments in alkalis, Th, U and LREEs. The felsic rocks are depleted in Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta and Ti and exhibit moderately LREE-enriched patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.09-6.45) and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.04-0.25). These features, along with the positive εNd(t) values (+2.6 to +7.7) and young TDM2 ages (TDM2 = 435-916 Ma), indicate that the felsic rocks were likely derived from a juvenile crustal source that mainly consisted of juvenile mid-ocean ridge basalt-related rocks. The volcanic association in this study and in previously published work widely distributed in central Inner Mongolia. The observations in this study suggest that the lower Permian volcanic rocks formed in an identical tectonic environment. The regional geological data indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation in the study area formed in an extensional setting that was

  11. Drought Analysis in Northeastern Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N. O.

    2005-12-01

    The objetive of the present work was analyze the occurrence of droughts in the context of the climatic variability, in a wide region of the Argentinean territory that encompass the six provinces of the northeastern (Misiones, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Chaco and Formosa). In order to define the droughts a decilic analysis of the monthly precipitation records was used, and the temporal and spatial variability were analyzed with Spectral Analysis of the composite dry year (From January of the year of droughts onset until December of the following year), this period contain the complete hydrologic dry-year. It was observed that the occurrence of annual droughts change along the last century, verifying an average of one drought each three years up to 1969 and one drought each five year from 1970. From the point of view of the relative amount of fallen water, it was observed that the extreme dry periods take place in autumn, winter and spring and weak dry period during the summer or to along the complete hydrologic year. The spatial and temporal behavior of the dry periods showed that the composite dry-years are more significant in amplitude and phase than composite LA NIÑA years. So much the rains of summer like the winters droughts accentuate the second harmonic amplitude, that contains information of the amount of fallen water and also represent the annual cycle of the precipitations, while the droughts of summer attenuate it. The harmonic dials in the analyzed region showed that the second spectral component is the most significant, while the first component indicates their relationship with the region EL NIÑO, in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. The results indicate a regional homogeneous characterization regarding the first harmonic in the north, the same as the area center-eastern, while the southwest and south area has a behavior with characteristic very particular characteristics during the dry events (second harmonic not significant).

  12. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2014-02-01

    The humanitarian crises caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought forecasts with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model precipitation forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for March-May and October-December rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the consensus forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF), which is the present operational product for precipitation forecast over East Africa. Complementing the original ECMWF precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  13. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Dutra, E.; Di Giuseppe, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in the East African region have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with adequate lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts and drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), promises to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The October-December rain season has higher skill that the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF) which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extend and intensity of the drought event.

  14. Forecasting droughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Emmah; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Dutra, Emanuel; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Pappenberger, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The humanitarian crisis caused by the recent droughts (2008-2009 and 2010-2011) in East Africa have illustrated that the ability to make accurate drought predictions with sufficient lead time is essential. The use of dynamical model forecasts in combination with drought indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), can potentially to lead to a better description of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent. This study evaluates the use of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) products in forecasting droughts in East Africa. ECMWF seasonal precipitation shows significant skill for both rain seasons when evaluated against measurements from the available in-situ stations from East Africa. The forecast for October-December rain season has higher skill than for the March-May season. ECMWF forecasts add value to the statistical forecasts produced during the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forums (GHACOF), which is the present operational product. Complementing the raw precipitation forecasts with SPI provides additional information on the spatial extent and intensity of the drought event.

  15. Management of drought risk under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Han, Lanying; Jia, Jianying; Song, Lingling; Wang, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a serious ecological problem around the world, and its impact on crops and water availability for humans can jeopardize human life. Although drought has always been common, the drought risk has become increasingly prominent because of the climatic warming that has occurred during the past century. However, it still does not comprehensively understand the mechanisms that determine the occurrence of the drought risk it poses to humans, particularly in the context of global climate change. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on drought and the associated risk, introduce the principle of a drought "transition" from one stage to another, synthesize the characteristics of key factors and their interactions, discuss the potential effect of climatic warming on drought risk, and use this discussion to define the basic requirements for a drought risk management system. We also discuss the main measures that can be used to prevent or mitigate droughts in the context of a risk management strategy.

  16. Application of effective drought index for quantification of meteorological drought events: a case study in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Ravinesh C.; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Adamowski, Jan F.; Begum, Khaleda

    2016-01-01

    Drought indices (DIs) that quantify drought events by their onset, termination, and subsequent properties such as the severity, duration, and peak intensity are practical stratagems for monitoring and evaluating the impacts of drought. In this study, the effective drought index (EDI) calculated over daily timescales was utilized to quantify short-term (dry spells) and ongoing drought events using drought monitoring data in Australia. EDI was an intensive DI that considered daily water accumulation with a weighting function applied to daily rainfall data with the passage of time. A statistical analysis of the distribution of water deficit period relative to the base period was performed where a run-sum method was adopted to identify drought onset for any day (i) with EDI i < 0 (rainfall below normal). Drought properties were enumerated in terms of (1) severity (AEDI ≡ accumulated sum of EDIi < 0), (2) duration (DS ≡ cumulative number of days with EDIi < 0), (3) peak intensity (EDImin ≡ minimum EDI of a drought event), (4) annual drought severity (YAEDI ≡ yearly accumulated negative EDI), and (5) accumulated severity of ongoing drought using event-accumulated EDI (EAEDI). The analysis of EDI signal enabled the detection and quantification of a number of drought events in Australia: Federation Drought (1897-1903), 1911-1916 Drought, 1925-1929 Drought, World War II Drought (1937-1945), and Millennium Drought (2002-2010). In comparison with the other droughts, Millennium Drought was exemplified as an unprecedented dry period especially in Victoria (EAEDI ≈ -4243, DS = 1946 days, EDImin = -4.05, and YAEDI = -4903). For the weather station tested in Northern Territory, the worst drought was recorded during 1925-1929 period. The results justified the suitability of effective drought index as a useful scientific tool for monitoring of drought progression, onset and termination, and ranking of drought based on severity, duration, and peak intensity, which allows an

  17. Towards developing drought impact functions to advance drought monitoring and early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Stahl, Kerstin; Hannaford, Jamie; Svoboda, Mark

    2015-04-01

    In natural hazard analysis, damage functions (also referred to as vulnerability or susceptibility functions) relate hazard intensity to the negative effects of the hazard event, often expressed as damage ratio or monetary loss. While damage functions for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is little knowledge on how drought intensity translates into ecological and socioeconomic impacts. One reason for this is the multifaceted nature of drought affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity (for example, recognizing meteorological - agricultural - hydrological - socioeconomic drought) leading to a wide range of drought impacts. Moreover, drought impacts are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetarize (e.g. impaired navigability of streams, bans on domestic water use, increased mortality of aquatic species). Knowledge on the relationship between drought intensity and drought impacts, i.e. negative environmental, economic or social effects experienced under drought conditions, however, is vital to identify critical thresholds for drought impact occurrence. Such information may help to improve drought monitoring and early warning (M&EW), one goal of the international DrIVER project (Drought Impacts: Vulnerability thresholds in monitoring and Early-warning Research). The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of designing "drought impact functions" for case study areas in Europe (Germany and UK) and the United States to derive thresholds meaningful for drought impact occurrence; to account for the multidimensionality of drought impacts, we use the broader term "drought impact function" over "damage function". First steps towards developing empirical drought impact functions are (1) to identify meaningful indicators characterizing the hazard intensity (e.g. indicators expressing a precipitation or streamflow deficit), (2) to identify suitable variables representing impacts

  18. Proteomic responses of drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive cotton varieties to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Ni, Zhiyong; Chen, Quanjia; Guo, Zhongjun; Gao, Wenwei; Su, Xiujuan; Qu, Yanying

    2016-06-01

    Drought, one of the most widespread factors reducing agricultural crop productivity, affects biological processes such as development, architecture, flowering and senescence. Although protein analysis techniques and genome sequencing have made facilitated the proteomic study of cotton, information on genetic differences associated with proteomic changes in response to drought between different cotton genotypes is lacking. To determine the effects of drought stress on cotton seedlings, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to comparatively analyze proteome of drought-responsive proteins during the seedling stage in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, drought-tolerant KK1543 and drought-sensitive Xinluzao26. A total of 110 protein spots were detected on 2-DE maps, of which 56 were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The identified proteins were mainly associated with metabolism (46.4 %), antioxidants (14.2 %), and transport and cellular structure (23.2 %). Some key proteins had significantly different expression patterns between the two genotypes. In particular, 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine methyltransferase, UDP-D-glucose pyrophosphorylase and ascorbate peroxidase were up-regulated in KK1543 compared with Xinluzao26. Under drought stress conditions, the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit, a 14-3-3g protein, translation initiation factor 5A and pathogenesis-related protein 10 were up-regulated in KK1543, whereas ribosomal protein S12, actin, cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, protein disulfide isomerase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase and cysteine synthase were down-regulated in Xinluzao26. This work represents the first characterization of proteomic changes that occur in response to drought in roots of cotton plants. These differentially expressed proteins may be related to

  19. Nonlinear analysis of drought dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is an extreme natural hazard and becomes a severe problem in the world. It arises as a result of interactions between climate input and human activity, displaying the nonlinearity and complexity. Nonlinear time series analyses open a way to study the underlying dynamic characteristics of drought, and then provide the forward knowledge to understanding the physical mechanism of drought event. The rationale behind this idea is that information about the representation of nonlinear properties could be used as an additional quality indicator. To that end, the correlation dimension method, a powerful nonlinear time series analysis method based on the chaos theory, has been suggested to assess the intrinsic dimensionality or degree of freedom of time series according to Takens (1981). It can provide an assessment of the dominant processes that is required to map the observed dynamics. In this study, daily discharge and hourly groundwater level data of 63 catchments in Germany and China were investigated with correlation dimension method. The results indicated that the correlation dimension values of studied discharge exhibited none clear spatial patterns, but showed significant correlations with the spatial heterogeneity within the catchments. In contrast, the correlation dimension values of groundwater level displayed spatial patterns due to the different aquifer conditions (confined or unconfined). High correlation dimension values indicate partly confined conditions. In addition, Hurst analysis was involved to qualify the persistence of drought. It seems that drought mechanisms can be learnt from the data themselves in an inverse manner.

  20. Drought Monitoring with VegDRI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2010-01-01

    Drought strikes somewhere in the United States every year, turning green landscapes brown as precipitation falls below normal levels and water supplies dwindle. Drought is typically a temporary climatic aberration, but it is also an insidious natural hazard. It might last for weeks, months, or years and may have many negative effects. Drought can threaten crops, livestock, and livelihoods, stress wildlife and habitats, and increase wildfire risks and threats to human health. Drought conditions can vary tremendously from place to place and week to week. Accurate drought monitoring is essential to understand a drought's progression and potential effects, and to provide information necessary to support drought mitigation decisions. It is also crucial in light of climate change where droughts could become more frequent, severe, and persistent.

  1. Drought Resilience and Water Conservation Technical Brief

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In many areas of the US, the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought events are increasing, this brief highlights EPA drought and conservation activities across the nation and includes links to additional materials and reference documents.

  2. Scientific Insights for Managing Droughts in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Howitt, R. E.; MacEwan, D.; Sumner, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts stress water systems and provide important opportunities to learn about vulnerabilities and motivate improvements in water systems. Current and past droughts in California show that this highly-engineered system is highly robust and resilient to droughts, as agriculture and urban water needs are mostly fulfilled and recover quickly following drought. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper reviews the impacts of California's ongoing 4-year drought and its importance for better understanding its ecological and water supply systems, as well as motivating improvements in water management and scientific work.

  3. Seismic response to power production at the Coso Geothermal field, south-eastern CA: using operational parameters and relocated events to study anthropogenic seismicity rates and reservoir scale tectonic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, L. J.; O'Connell, D. R.; Creed, R. J.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    The United States is increasing its dependence on renewable energies and with that has come an interest in expanding geothermal operations. Due to the proximity of many existing and potential geothermal sites to population centers and seismically active regions, it is important to understand how geothermal operations interact with local (and regional) seismicity, and to determine if seismicity rates are predictable from operational parameters (i.e. fluid injection, production, and net fluid extraction) alone. Furthermore, geothermal injection and production strategies can be improved by identifying, locating and characterizing related earthquakes within the tectonic related background seismicity. As the geothermal production related seismic source focal mechanisms, moment, and location are better characterized, important pragmatic questions (such as the improvement of injection strategies and 3-d thermohydromechanical model validation) and research issues (such as the relationship between far field seismic signals, local rheology changes, and native state reservoir stress evolution as a function of injection and production transients) can be more systematically addressed. We focus specifically on the 270 MW Coso geothermal field in south-eastern California, which is characterized by both high seismicity rates and relatively high aftershock triggering. After performing statistical de-clustering of local seismicity into background and aftershock rates, we show that the background rate (at both the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields) can be approximated during many time intervals at the 90% + confidence level by a linear combination of injection volume and the net extracted volume (difference between production and injection). Different magnitude ranges are sampled to determine if the response is constant with respect to magnitude. We also use relative relocations and focal mechanisms from Yang et al. (2012) to map fault planes within the Coso geothermal field. We

  4. Drought tolerance selection of sugarbeet hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased water demands and drought have resulted in a need to indentify crop hybrids that are drought tolerant, requiring less irrigation to sustain yields. This study was conducted to assess differences in drought tolerance among a group of genetically diverse sugarbeet hybrids. The study was cond...

  5. Adapting agriculture to drought and extreme events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 drought, the worst during the last 80 years or more, remind us of the dust bowl of the 1930s (Figure 1),and indicates that climate change is a reality rather than a distant threat. The last drought of this magnitude may have occurred more than 800 years ago, and the 2012 drought has been du...

  6. Drought monitoring: Historical and current perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the complex dimensions of drought and the challenges they pose for routine drought monitoring, it is essential that we continue to find innovative and robust ways to quantify and more effectively communicate the impacts of this hazard as part of an operational Drought Early Warning System. Th...

  7. Coping with historic drought in California rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current drought in California is of historic proportion, both in its intensity and its effect on agriculture. Although storms of the 2015-16 winter rainfall season have provided modest drought relief, their effects on alleviating the multi-year drought are unknown. Short- and mid-term forecasts...

  8. Hydrological drought typology: temperature-related drought types and associated societal impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2014-09-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts the effect of below-normal summer temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the sectors agriculture and electricity production (hydropower). However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. This study shows that the combination of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is a promising approach to identify relevant drought types in other regions, especially if more data on drought impacts become

  9. General mechanisms of drought response and their application in drought resistance improvement in plants.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yujie; Xiong, Lizhong

    2015-02-01

    Plants often encounter unfavorable environmental conditions because of their sessile lifestyle. These adverse factors greatly affect the geographic distribution of plants, as well as their growth and productivity. Drought stress is one of the premier limitations to global agricultural production due to the complexity of the water-limiting environment and changing climate. Plants have evolved a series of mechanisms at the morphological, physiological, biochemical, cellular, and molecular levels to overcome water deficit or drought stress conditions. The drought resistance of plants can be divided into four basic types-drought avoidance, drought tolerance, drought escape, and drought recovery. Various drought-related traits, including root traits, leaf traits, osmotic adjustment capabilities, water potential, ABA content, and stability of the cell membrane, have been used as indicators to evaluate the drought resistance of plants. In the last decade, scientists have investigated the genetic and molecular mechanisms of drought resistance to enhance the drought resistance of various crops, and significant progress has been made with regard to drought avoidance and drought tolerance. With increasing knowledge to comprehensively decipher the complicated mechanisms of drought resistance in model plants, it still remains an enormous challenge to develop water-saving and drought-resistant crops to cope with the water shortage and increasing demand for food production in the future.

  10. Drought in a human-modified world: reframing drought definitions, understanding, and analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, Anne F.; Stahl, Kerstin; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Clark, Julian; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; Gleeson, Tom; Van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Hannaford, Jamie; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin; Svoboda, Mark; Verbeiren, Boud; Wagener, Thorsten; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2016-09-01

    In the current human-modified world, or Anthropocene, the state of water stores and fluxes has become dependent on human as well as natural processes. Water deficits (or droughts) are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological anomalies, land surface processes, and human inflows, outflows, and storage changes. Our current inability to adequately analyse and manage drought in many places points to gaps in our understanding and to inadequate data and tools. The Anthropocene requires a new framework for drought definitions and research. Drought definitions need to be revisited to explicitly include human processes driving and modifying soil moisture drought and hydrological drought development. We give recommendations for robust drought definitions to clarify timescales of drought and prevent confusion with related terms such as water scarcity and overexploitation. Additionally, our understanding and analysis of drought need to move from single driver to multiple drivers and from uni-directional to multi-directional. We identify research gaps and propose analysis approaches on (1) drivers, (2) modifiers, (3) impacts, (4) feedbacks, and (5) changing the baseline of drought in the Anthropocene. The most pressing research questions are related to the attribution of drought to its causes, to linking drought impacts to drought characteristics, and to societal adaptation and responses to drought. Example questions include

    • (i) What are the dominant drivers of drought in different parts of the world? (ii) How do human modifications of drought enhance or alleviate drought severity? (iii) How do impacts of drought depend on the physical characteristics of drought vs. the vulnerability of people or the environment? (iv) To what extent are physical and human drought processes coupled, and can feedback loops be identified and altered to lessen or mitigate drought? (v) How should we adapt our drought analysis to

    • Remote Sensing Technologies Mitigate Drought

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2015-01-01

      Ames Research Center has partnered with the California Department of Water Resources to develop satellite-based technologies to mitigate drought conditions. One project aims to help water managers adjust their irrigation to match the biological needs of each crop, and another involves monitoring areas where land is fallow so emergency relief can more quickly aid affected communities.

    • A new perspective on hydrological drought: a process-based classification into different drought types

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Van Loon, A. F.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

      2012-04-01

      Almost ten years ago, the well-known flood typology of Merz and Blöschl (2003) was published. Up to now, such a typology does not exist for hydrological drought, while both drought management and research could strongly benefit from a thorough understanding and associated specific description of different drought types. Here, we present a hydrological drought typology based on underlying drought propagation processes. In the proposed hydrological drought typology six drought types are distinguished, i.e. i) classical rainfall deficit drought, ii) rain-to-snow-season drought, iii) wet-to-dry-season drought, iv) cold snow season drought, v) warm snow season drought, and vi) composite drought. The processes underlying these drought types are the result of the interplay of precipitation and temperature at catchment scale in different seasons. The most common drought type in five contrasting European catchments is the classical rainfall deficit drought, caused by an anomaly in precipitation. However, when only the most severe drought events are selected, anomalies in temperature play an increasingly important role in hydrological drought development. For severe hydrological drought events, the most common types are rain-to-snow-season drought (rainfall deficit causes hydrological drought that continues into snow season due to below-zero temperatures) and warm snow season drought (complete melt of snow cover, due to high temperatures, in combination with rainfall deficit causes hydrological drought). The occurrence of hydrological drought types in a specific catchment is based on climate and catchment control, which makes it possible to infer the drought type occurrence from information on climate and catchment characteristics (i.e. response to precipitation) using a general framework. This hydrological drought typology is based upon a thorough analysis of the processes underlying a high number of hydrological drought events in European case study catchments. The

    • Changes of flash droughts over China

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wang, Linying; Yuan, Xing

      2016-04-01

      The rapidly evolving drought events, which are recently termed as "flash droughts", can seriously affect vegetation and water supply due to extreme heat, low soil moisture and high evapotranspiration (ET). The changes of flash droughts are not only caused by natural climate variability similar to the traditional drought events, but also associated with global warming since abnormally high temperature is an important criterion for the triggering of flash droughts. Here, we have assessed the long-term trend and variability of flash droughts over China from 1979 to 2010, based on over two thousand meteorological observations of surface air temperature and three global reanalysis products for the soil moisture and ET estimations. Our results suggest that the flash droughts are most likely to occur in humid and semihumid regions, such as southern and northeastern China. Basically, there are increasing trends for flash droughts over different regions in China mainly due to the temperature increases. The increasing trends of flash droughts do not decline during the second half of the study period, but the warming hiatus does exist over many regions of China. The underlying mechanisms are being attributed by investigating the changes in temperature, soil moisture and ET over different parts of China. This study uniquely demonstrates the favorable regions for the occurrence of flash droughts over China, and is targeted at attributing the changes of flash droughts within the context of the understanding of the terrestrial water and energy cycle in a changing climate.

    • Hydrologic Drought in the Colorado River Basin

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Timilsena, J.; Piechota, T.; Hidalgo, H.; Tootle, G.

      2004-12-01

      This paper focuses on drought scenarios of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) for the last five hundred years and evaluates the magnitude, severity and frequency of the current five-year drought. Hydrologic drought characteristics have been developed using the historical streamflow data and tree ring chronologies in the UCRB. Historical data include the Colorado River at Cisco and Lees Ferry, Green River, Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI), and the Z index. Three ring chronologies were used from 17 spatially representative sites in the UCRB from NOAA's International Tree Ring Data. A PCA based regression model procedures was used to reconstruct drought indices and streamflow in the UCRB. Hydrologic drought is characterized by its duration (duration in year in which cumulative deficit is continuously below thresholds), deficit magnitude (the cumulative deficit below the thresholds for consecutive years), severity (magnitude divided by the duration) and frequency. Results indicate that the current drought ranks anywhere from the 5th to 20th worst drought during the period 1493-2004, depending on the drought indicator and magnitude. From a short term perspective (using annual data), the current drought is more severe than if longer term average (i.e., 5 or 10 year averages) are used to define the drought.

    • California's Drought - Stress test for the future

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lund, J. R.

      2014-12-01

      The current California drought is in its third dry years, with this year being the third driest years in a 106-year record. This drought occurs at a time when urban, agricultural, and environmental water demands have never been greater. This drought has revealed the importance of more quantitative evaluation and methods for water assessment and management. All areas of water and environmental management are likely to become increasingly stressed, and have essentially drought-like conditions, in the future, as California's urban, agricultural, and environmental demands continue to expand and as the climate changes. In the historical past, droughts have pre-viewed stresses developing in the future and helped focus policy-makers, the public, and stakeholders on preparing for these developing future conditions. Multi-decade water management strategies are often galvinized by drought. Irrigation was galvanized by California droughts in the 1800s, reservoir systems by the 1928-32 drought, urban water conservation by the 1976-77 drought, and water markets by the 1988-92 drought. With each drought, demands for tighter accounting, rights, and management have increased. This talk reviews the prospects and challenges for increased development and use of water data and systems analysis in the service of human and environmental water demands in California's highly decentralized water management system, and the prospects if these challenges are not more successfully addressed.

    • Drought in Southwestern United States

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2007-01-01

      The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

    • Linking Drought Information to Crop Yield

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Madadgar, S.; Farahmand, A.; Li, L.; Aghakouchak, A.

      2015-12-01

      Droughts have detrimental impacts on agricultural yields all over the world every year. This study analyzes the relationship between three drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI), Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) and the yields of five largest rain-fed crops in Australia (wheat, broad beans, canola, lupins and barley). Variation of the five chosen crop yields is overall in agreement with the three drought indicators SPI, SSI, and MSDI during the analysis period of 1980-2012. This study develops a bivariate copula model to investigate the statistical dependence of drought and crop yield. Copula functions are used to establish the existing connections between climate variables and crop yields during the Millennium drought in Australia. The proposed model estimates the likelihood of crop yields given the observed or predicted drought indicators SPI, SSI or MSDI. The results are also useful to estimate crop yields associated with different thresholds of precipitation or soil moisture.

    • Monitoring groundwater drought with GRACE data assimilation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Li, B.; Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Getirana, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.

      2015-12-01

      Groundwater drought is a distinct class of drought, not a sub-class of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological drought and has profound impacts on natural environments and societies. Due to a deficiency of in situ measurements, we developed a groundwater drought indicator using groundwater change estimates derived by assimilating GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomalies into the NASA Catchment land surface model. Data assimilation enables spatial and temporal downscaling of coarse GRACE TWS observations (monthly and ~150,000 km2 effective spatial resolution) and extrapolation to near-real time. In this talk, we will present our latest progress on using GRACE satellite data for groundwater drought monitoring in the U.S. and globally. Characteristics of this groundwater drought indicator will be discussed, including its relationship with other types of drought and how they are influenced by model physics and climate conditions. Results are evaluated using in situ groundwater observations.

    • Drought, Agriculture, and Labor: Understanding Drought Impacts and Vulnerability in California

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Greene, C.

      2015-12-01

      Hazardous drought impacts are a product of not only the physical intensity of drought, but also the economic, social, and environmental characteristics of the region exposed to drought. Drought risk management requires understanding the complex links between the physical and human dimensions of drought. Yet, there is a research gap in identifying and explaining the socio-economic complexities of drought in the context of the first world, especially for economic and socially marginal groups who rely on seasonal and temporary jobs. This research uses the current drought in California as a case study to identify the socioeconomic impacts of drought on farmworker communities in California's San Joaquin Valley, with a specific focus on the relationship between drought and agricultural labor. Through both a narrative analysis of drought coverage in newspaper media, drought policy documents, and interviews with farmworkers, farmers, community based organizations, and government officials in the San Joaquin Valley, this research aims to highlight the different understandings and experiences of the human impacts of drought and drought vulnerability in order to better inform drought risk planning and policy.

    • Validity of Drought Indices as Drought Predictors in the South-Central United States

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Rohli, R. V.; Bushra, N.; Lam, N.; Zou, L.; Mihunov, V.; Reams, M.; Argote, J.

      2015-12-01

      Drought is among the most insidious types of natural disasters and can have tremendous economic and human health impacts. This research analyzes the relationship between two readily-accessible drought indices - the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index (PHDI) - and the damage incurred by such droughts in terms of monetary loss, over the 1975-2010 time period on monthly basis, for five states in the south-central U.S.A. Because drought damage in the Spatial Hazards Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUSTM) is reported at the county level, statistical downscaling techniques were used to estimate the county-level PDSI and PHDI. Correlation analysis using the downscaled indices suggests that although relatively few months contain drought damage reports, in general drought indices can be useful predictors of drought damage at the monthly temporal scale extended to 12 months and at the county-wide spatial scale. The varying time lags between occurrence of drought and reporting of damage, perhaps due to varying resilience to drought intensity and duration by crop types across space, irrigation methods, and adaptation measures of the community to drought varies over space and time, are thought to contribute to weakened correlations. These results present a reminder of the complexities of anticipating the effects of drought but they contribute to the effort to improve our ability to mitigate the effects of incipient drought.

  1. Precursor conditions related to Zimbabwe's summer droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangombe, Shingirai; Madyiwa, Simon; Wang, Jianhong

    2016-11-01

    Despite the increasing severity of droughts and their effects on Zimbabwe's agriculture, there are few tools available for predicting these droughts in advance. Consequently, communities and farmers are more exposed, and policy makers are always ill prepared for such. This study sought to investigate possible cycles and precursor meteorological conditions prior to drought seasons that could be used to predict impending droughts in Zimbabwe. The Single Z-Index was used to identify and grade drought years between 1951 and 2010 according to rainfall severity. Spectral analysis was used to reveal the cycles of droughts for possible use of these cycles for drought prediction. Composite analysis was used to investigate circulation and temperature anomalies associated with severe and extreme drought years. Results indicate that severe droughts are more highly correlated with circulation patterns and embedded weather systems in the Indian Ocean and equatorial Pacific Ocean than any other area. This study identified sea surface temperatures in the average period June to August, geopotential height and wind vector in July to September period, and air temperature in September to November period as precursors that can be used to predict a drought occurrence several months in advance. Therefore, in addition to sea surface temperature, which was identified through previous research for predicting Zimbabwean droughts, the other parameters identified in this study can aid in drought prediction. Drought cycles were established at 20-, 12.5-, 3.2-, and 2.7-year cycles. The spectral peaks, 12.5, 3.2, and 2.7, had a similar timescale with the luni-solar tide, El Niño Southern Oscillation and Quasi Biennial Oscillation, respectively, and hence, occurrence of these phenomena have a possibility of indicating when the next drought might be.

  2. Drought, floods and water quality: Drivers of a severe hypoxic blackwater event in a major river system (the southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Baldwin, Darren S.; Kerr, Janice L.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryHypoxic blackwater events are characterised by high levels of dissolved organic carbon in the water column, the metabolism of which depletes dissolved oxygen, which can cause fish and crustacean mortality. Understanding the drivers of and controls on hypoxic blackwater events is important in order to reduce the potential for detrimental water quality impacts from both managed and natural flows. After a decade-long drought in south-eastern Australia, a series of spring and summer flood events in 2010-2011 resulted in a large-scale hypoxic blackwater event in the southern Murray-Darling Basin that affected over 2000 km of river channels and persisted for 6 months. We examined the biogeochemistry and hydrology underpinning this extreme event and found that multiple drivers contributed to the development and persistence of hypoxic blackwater. Inundation of both forested and agricultural floodplains that had not been flooded for over a decade mobilised large stores of reactive carbon. Altered flow seasonality, due to a combination of climatic effects and river regulation, not only increased the risk of hypoxic blackwater generation but also shifted the proportion of bioavailable carbon that was returned to the river channels. Hypolimnetic weir discharge also contributed to hypoxia at some sites. These findings highlight the need for a whole-of-system perspective for the management of regulated river systems - especially in the face of a changing climate.

  3. Measurement of 1999 drought conditions in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Long, Loyd G.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate and reliable water-resources data collected during drought conditions are critical to regulatory agencies such as the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). Droughts have affected Mississippi during 1940-44, 1951-57, 1962-71, 1980-82 and 1983-88. In late summer and early autumn 1999, many areas of Mississippi experienced near record drought conditions causing concern to many private and public interests. Personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the MDEQ Office of Land and Water Resources (MDEQ-OLWR) measured water levels and streamflows throughout the State of Mississippi during drought conditions in August through October 1999. Droughts are normal, recurring hydrological events caused by deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of time that can have adverse effects on anthropogenic use of water. Much of the State of Mississippi has continued to experience drought conditions through late winter of 2000. Data on minimum streamflows are an important factor for determining the regulation of flow control structures, effluent discharge, and surface water withdrawals and other water-management decisions during droughts. Data on minimum streamflows become paramount during drought conditions. This report presents information related to the legal aspects of drought conditions and includes selected data collected at streamgages affected by severe drought conditions in Mississippi during the late summer and early autumn of 1999. Comparisons of low-flow characteristics at selected streamgages to other period-of-record low-flows at selected gages in the State are also presented.

  4. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  5. Climate Dynamics of Regional US Southeastern drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J.

    2008-12-01

    The phenomena of droughts both regional and continental have received considerable attention from both science and policy. Understanding the larger scale dynamics of these events is critical to improving predictability, management and mitigation strategies. The history of drought in the United States shows both long (multi-decadal) and short (seasonal or yearly) droughts in various regions. Some of the most severe droughts, such as those with the largest economic losses or that have received the most attention both from the scientific and broader communities have occurred in the Midwest/Great Plains (e.g. the "Dust Bowl" years, the 1988 drought) and generally correlate with continent-wide anomalies. The Southeast region of the US, while generally having a more humid temperature climate than the rest of the country, also is subject to periods of drought conditions. In this study we analyze long term records of PDSI in the southeastern United States. While some occurrences correlate with larger continental scale droughts, many severe southeastern droughts occur during a synoptic pattern correlating with wetter conditions through the greater Midwest, have a seasonal pattern different than larger continental scale anomalies, and show correlations with patterns in Atlantic tropical activity. While winter and spring deficits may initiate a drought, we find a proportionally larger decrease in summertime precipitation during severe drought periods. Some of this decrease may be related to the contribution of tropical systems, which increases in the periods following droughts. We suggest that the dynamics of drought in this region differ from the larger US pattern, and particularly need to account for the interaction between continental and tropical contributions. With an increasing population and areas of high agricultural productivity, we argue this region deserves further attention from both the scientific and larger community, that understanding these dynamics will

  6. Development and Applications of the U.S. Drought Monitor and North America Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, R. R.

    2007-05-01

    Drought is an important climatological phenomenon which has significant socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Several drought indices have been developed during the last hundred years to quantify drought, but all of them either were developed for specific applications and/or regions, or have limitations which restrict their use. In the U.S., a drought monitoring tool was developed in the late 1990s through a federal-state collaborative effort to consolidate and centralize drought monitoring activities. This tool, the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), consists of a weekly map and narrative product which describes current drought conditions according to a scale ranging from moderate drought (D1) to exceptional drought (D4). Conditions which are dry but not yet of drought severity are categorized as abnormally dry (D0). The USDM draws its strength from the collaborative input at the federal (USDA, NOAA), regional (NOAA Regional Climate Centers), state, and local levels and from the objective synthesis of several drought-related indices. In late 2002, the methodology of the USDM was extended internationally to develop the North America Drought Monitor (NADM), which is a monthly map and narrative product that describes drought across the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. This paper will describe the development of the USDM and NADM, and discuss examples of their applications.

  7. Patenting drought tolerance in organisms.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, Vishal S

    2009-01-01

    Dehydration is a major form of osmotic stress in cells. Physiological and molecular basis of dehydration stress responses in cells and organisms has been intensively researched over past years. Almost all of the patented dehydration stress tolerance genes from different organisms were used in engineering drought tolerance in crop plants. In spite of the moral, religious and ethical controversies surrounding use of foreign DNA sequences in crop plants, the numbers of such patents has grown tremendously in recent years. In future, we might witness another rise in patents on use of dehydration stress related gene sequences in creating environmental stress tolerant biological control agents for plant disease and insect pest management in agriculture. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents related to drought tolerance genes and their use.

  8. Occurrences and Effects of Drought across Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a common occurrence in Africa and its effects vary temporally and spatially across the continent. The objective of this paper is to synthesize available information on droughts in Africa in order to discern emerging trends vis-à-vis spatiotemporal occurrences, impacts and adaptation. Drought forcings in the Sahelian region and southern Africa are predominately related to the passage of mid-latitude air masses while in locations near the equator is strongly linked to the position of ITCZ, except perhaps in the deserts where albedo may predominate. The review shows that drought occurrences have increased both temporally and spatially; its effects on the society vary across scales, and are influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological factors. The drought occurrence and its impacts varied spatially and temporally. The effect of drought also varied with socioeconomic sector; agriculture and pastoralism were the widely reported. The greater horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, has the most continuous record of droughts. The synthesis also reveals that a suite of drought adaptation strategies exists at the local scale; in contrasts, at the aggregate scale, coping strategies are scarce. Drought management tailored for specific livelihood system or societies are non-existent. The study found that occurrence of drought alongside issues related to the multiscale political economy affect the viability of most adaptation strategies used by societies across Africa. Drought management has been silent on the social, political, and economic dimensions that reasonably aggravate the vulnerability of lives and livelihood systems to this climatic hazard. The effect of drought and social pressures is relational and simultaneous to such a degree that differential vulnerability among communities across Africa is to be expected. Although scenarios about rainfall and drought vis-à-vis Africa are largely contested there is a general indication that most

  9. Drought monitoring in the Northwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijssen, B.; Xiao, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drought along the US Pacific Coast has grabbed headlines this year. During this past spring and summer, California has continued to experience a multi-year drought with water restrictions imposed by the state; the governor of Washington has declared a statewide drought emergency; and the governor of Oregon has issued a drought declaration for most of the counties in Oregon. The region relies on winter precipitation, and especially snow, for most of its water supply during the summer. This past winter has been anomalously warm, leading to record low snow in many places, providing what many have called a preview of snow conditions that may become common by the middle of this century. This talk will review the development of the drought in the Northwest, put the past winter in a historic context, and provide a summary of drought projections under climate change.

  10. Drought-deciduous behavior reduces nutrient losses from temperate deciduous trees under severe drought.

    PubMed

    Marchin, Renée; Zeng, Hainian; Hoffmann, William

    2010-08-01

    Nutrient resorption from senescing leaves is an important mechanism of nutrient conservation in temperate deciduous forests. Resorption, however, may be curtailed by climatic events that cause rapid leaf death, such as severe drought, which has been projected to double by the year 2100 in the eastern United States. During a record drought in the southeastern US, we studied 18 common temperate winter-deciduous trees and shrubs to understand how extreme drought affects nutrient resorption of the macronutrients N, P, K, and Ca. Four species exhibited drought-induced leaf senescence and maintained higher leaf water potentials than the remaining 14 species (here called drought-evergreen species). This strategy prevented extensive leaf desiccation during the drought and successfully averted large nutrient losses caused by leaf desiccation. These four drought-deciduous species were also able to resorb N, P, and K from drought-senesced leaves, whereas drought-evergreen species did not resorb any nutrients from leaves lost to desiccation during the drought. For Oxydendrum arboreum, the species most severely affected by the drought, our results indicate that trees lost 50% more N and P due to desiccation than would have been lost from fall senescence alone. For all drought-deciduous species, resorption of N and P in fall-senesced leaves was highly proficient, whereas resorption was incomplete for drought-evergreen species. The lower seasonal nutrient losses of drought-deciduous species may give them a competitive advantage over drought-evergreen species in the years following the drought, thereby impacting species composition in temperate deciduous forests in the future.

  11. Probabilistic drought characterization in the categorical form using ordinal regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hong, Yang; Xia, Youlong; Singh, Vijay P.; Hao, Fanghua; Cheng, Hongguang

    2016-04-01

    Drought is an insidious natural hazard that may cause tremendous losses to different sectors, including agriculture and ecosystems. Reliable drought monitoring and early warning are of critical importance for drought preparedness planning and mitigation to reduce potential impacts. Traditional drought monitoring is generally based on drought indices, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), that are computed from hydro-climatic variables. The U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifies drought conditions into different drought categories to provide composite drought information by integrating multiple drought indices, which has been commonly used to aid decision making at the federal, state, and local levels. Characterizing drought in categories similar to USDM would be important for decision making for both research and operational purposes. However, drought monitoring, based on a variety of drought indices, is challenged by the classification of drought into categories used by USDM. In this study, an ordinal regression model is proposed to characterize droughts in USDM drought categories based on several drought indices, in which the probability of each drought category can be estimated. The proposed method is assessed by comparing with USDM in Texas and a satisfactory performance for estimating drought categories is revealed.

  12. Dissecting the various responsive modes to drought stress responses in corn with contrasting tolerance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought decreases crop yield and exacerbates Aspergillus flavus infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Deciphering crop tolerance and adaptation to drought can contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance through breeding. In order to investigate the responsive modes in co...

  13. Association between physiological traits for drought tolerance and aflatoxin contamination in peanut genotypes under terminal drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terminal drought induces preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) in peanut. Drought resistance traits are promising as indirect selection tools for improving resistance to PAC. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of terminal drought on PAC and to investigate the associations...

  14. Association between surrogate traits of drought tolerance and aflatoxin contamination in peanut cultivars under terminal drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terminal drought induces pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC). Drought resistance traits are promising as indirect selection tools for improving resistance to PAC. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of terminal drought on Aspergillus invasion and aflatoxin contamination ...

  15. Flash Droughts over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.; Mo, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Flash drought refers to relatively short periods of warm surface temperature and anomalously low and rapid decreasing soil moisture (SM). Based on the physical mechanisms associated with flash droughts, we classify them into two categories: heat wave and precipitation (P) deficit flash droughts. We analyze the flash droughts based on the observations and the land surface model reconstructed soil moisture (SM) and evaporation (ET) from 1916 to 2013. Heat wave flash droughts are most likely to occur over the Midwest and the Pacific Northwest during the growing season. They do not occur often. The maximum frequency of occurrence is only 4%. Heat wave flash drought is temperature driven. High temperatures increase the transpiration and drive down soil moisture and cause drought to occur. The P deficit flash droughts are more common than the heat wave droughts and the maximum frequency of occurrence is about 8- 10 %. They are most likely to occur over the southern United States with a maximum over the Southern Plains. They are P driven. Heat waves are caused by P deficits. P deficits drive down SM and cause ET to decreases and temperature to increase.

  16. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe. PMID:25977759

  17. Drought Adaptation Mechanisms Should Guide Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew E; Medina, Viviana

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism, or hypothesis, of how a plant might be adapted to drought should strongly influence experimental design. For instance, an experiment testing for water conservation should be distinct from a damage-tolerance evaluation. We define here four new, general mechanisms for plant adaptation to drought such that experiments can be more easily designed based upon the definitions. A series of experimental methods are suggested together with appropriate physiological measurements related to the drought adaptation mechanisms. The suggestion is made that the experimental manipulation should match the rate, length, and severity of soil water deficit (SWD) necessary to test the hypothesized type of drought adaptation mechanism.

  18. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe.

  19. Enhancing drought tolerance in C(4) crops.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta S; Araus, Jose Luis; van Heerden, Philippus D R; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-05-01

    Adaptation to abiotic stresses is a quantitative trait controlled by many different genes. Enhancing the tolerance of crop plants to abiotic stresses such as drought has therefore proved to be somewhat elusive in terms of plant breeding. While many C(4) species have significant agronomic importance, most of the research effort on improving drought tolerance has focused on maize. Ideally, drought tolerance has to be achieved without penalties in yield potential. Possibilities for success in this regard are highlighted by studies on maize hybrids performed over the last 70 years that have demonstrated that yield potential and enhanced stress tolerance are associated traits. However, while our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that enable plants to tolerate drought has increased considerably in recent years, there have been relatively few applications of DNA marker technologies in practical C(4) breeding programmes for improved stress tolerance. Moreover, until recently, targeted approaches to drought tolerance have concentrated largely on shoot parameters, particularly those associated with photosynthesis and stay green phenotypes, rather than on root traits such as soil moisture capture for transpiration, root architecture, and improvement of effective use of water. These root traits are now increasingly considered as important targets for yield improvement in C(4) plants under drought stress. Similarly, the molecular mechanisms underpinning heterosis have considerable potential for exploitation in enhancing drought stress tolerance. While current evidence points to the crucial importance of root traits in drought tolerance in C(4) plants, shoot traits may also be important in maintaining high yields during drought.

  20. Advancing Drought Understanding, Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariotti, Annarita; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Mo, Kingtse; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Wood, Andy; Pulwarty, Roger; Huang, Jin; Barrie, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Having the capacity to monitor droughts in near-real time and providing accurate drought prediction from weeks to seasons in advance can greatly reduce the severity of social and economic damage caused by drought, a leading natural hazard for North America. The congressional mandate to establish the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS; Public Law 109-430) in 2006 was a major impulse to develop, integrate, and provide drought information to meet the challenges posed by this hazard. Significant progress has been made on many fronts. On the research front, efforts by the broad scientific community have resulted in improved understanding of North American droughts and improved monitoring and forecasting tools. We now have a better understanding of the droughts of the twentieth century including the 1930s "Dust Bowl"; we have developed a broader array of tools and datasets that enhance the official North American Drought Monitor based on different methodologies such as state-of-the-art land surface modeling (e.g., the North American Land Data Assimilation System) and remote sensing (e.g., the evaporative stress index) to better characterize the occurrence and severity of drought in its multiple manifestations. In addition, we have new tools for drought prediction [including the new National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System, version 2, for operational prediction and an experimental National Multimodel Ensemble] and have explored diverse methodologies including ensemble hydrologic prediction approaches. Broad NIDIS-inspired progress is influencing the development of a Global Drought Information System (GDIS) under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program. Despite these advances, current drought monitoring and forecasting capabilities still fall short of users' needs, especially the need for skillful and reliable drought forecasts at regional and local scales. To tackle this outstanding challenging problem

  1. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  2. Pulse-drought atop press-drought: unexpected plant responses and implications for dryland ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, David L.; Duniway, Michael C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    In drylands, climate change is predicted to cause chronic reductions in water availability (press-droughts) through reduced precipitation and increased temperatures as well as increase the frequency and intensity of short-term extreme droughts (pulse-droughts). These changes in precipitation patterns may have profound ecosystem effects, depending on the sensitivities of the dominant plant functional types (PFTs). Here we present the responses of four Colorado Plateau PFTs to an experimentally imposed, 4-year, press-drought during which a natural pulse-drought occurred. Our objectives were to (1) identify the drought sensitivities of the PFTs, (2) assess the additive effects of the press- and pulse-drought, and (3) examine the interactive effects of soils and drought. Our results revealed that the C3 grasses were the most sensitive PFT to drought, the C3shrubs were the most resistant, and the C4 grasses and shrubs had intermediate drought sensitivities. Although we expected the C3 grasses would have the greatest response to drought, the higher resistance of C3 shrubs relative to the C4 shrubs was contrary to our predictions based on the higher water use efficiency of C4 photosynthesis. Also, the additive effects of press- and pulse-droughts caused high morality in C3 grasses, which has large ecological and economic ramifications for this region. Furthermore, despite predictions based on the inverse texture hypothesis, we observed no interactive effects of soils with the drought treatment on cover or mortality. These results suggest that plant responses to droughts in drylands may differ from expectations and have large ecological effects if press- and pulse-droughts push species beyond physiological and mortality thresholds.

  3. Pulse-drought atop press-drought: unexpected plant responses and implications for dryland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hoover, David L; Duniway, Michael C; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-12-01

    In drylands, climate change is predicted to cause chronic reductions in water availability (press-droughts) through reduced precipitation and increased temperatures as well as increase the frequency and intensity of short-term extreme droughts (pulse-droughts). These changes in precipitation patterns may have profound ecosystem effects, depending on the sensitivities of the dominant plant functional types (PFTs). Here we present the responses of four Colorado Plateau PFTs to an experimentally imposed, 4-year, press-drought during which a natural pulse-drought occurred. Our objectives were to (1) identify the drought sensitivities of the PFTs, (2) assess the additive effects of the press- and pulse-drought, and (3) examine the interactive effects of soils and drought. Our results revealed that the C3 grasses were the most sensitive PFT to drought, the C3 shrubs were the most resistant, and the C4 grasses and shrubs had intermediate drought sensitivities. Although we expected the C3 grasses would have the greatest response to drought, the higher resistance of C3 shrubs relative to the C4 shrubs was contrary to our predictions based on the higher water use efficiency of C4 photosynthesis. Also, the additive effects of press- and pulse-droughts caused high morality in C3 grasses, which has large ecological and economic ramifications for this region. Furthermore, despite predictions based on the inverse texture hypothesis, we observed no interactive effects of soils with the drought treatment on cover or mortality. These results suggest that plant responses to droughts in drylands may differ from expectations and have large ecological effects if press- and pulse-droughts push species beyond physiological and mortality thresholds.

  4. Drought Adaptation in Opuntia basilaris

    PubMed Central

    Szarek, Stan R.; Johnson, Hyrum B.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1973-01-01

    Contrasting metabolic regimes operate in Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigelov, before and after precipitation. During periods of drought, atmospheric CO2 exchange and transpiration are greatly reduced throughout the day/night cycle by stomatal closure and a highly impervious cuticle. The hypothesis is that endogenously produced CO2 is retained and recycled through dark CO2 fixation, organic acid transformations, photosynthesis, and respiration. Immediately following precipitation, nighttime stomatal opening is initiated, permitting increased atmospheric CO2 assimilation and organic acid synthesis. PMID:16658600

  5. Characterizing drought for forested landscapes and streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changing nature of drought is a growing global concern (Cook et al. 2015, Dai 2011, Seneviratne et al. 2010, Sheffield and Wood 2008b, Trenberth et al. 2014, Wilhite et al. 2014). Drought can be a severe natural disaster with substantial social and economic consequences affecting large areas wit...

  6. Phenotyping peanut genotypes for drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought and heat stress can result in aflatoxin contamination of peanuts especially when this occurs during the last three to six weeks of the growing season. Identifying drought-tolerant genotypes may aid in development of peanuts that are less susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. This study w...

  7. Learning To Cope with Drought in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Kotze, Astrid

    2002-01-01

    A program started during a drought in Zimbabwe involved the cultivation of drought-resistant crops. The program made the women less dependent on their often-absent husbands and changed the relationship between men and women in the village. (JOW)

  8. Global Drought Information System: Influence of Differences in Land Surface Model Dynamics on Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijssen, B.; Shukla, S.; Mo, K. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time drought monitoring enables a proactive drought management approach that can lead to timely actions to mitigate the losses due to a drought event. In recent years, the availability of long-term, high quality, satellite and reanalysis based datasets of atmospheric forcings, combined with the development of state-of-the-art hydrologic models have made real-time global drought monitoring feasible. Hydrologic models are invaluable tools for global drought monitoring given the scarcity of long-term moisture observations (e.g. soil moisture, streamflow). However, as valuable as they are for drought monitoring, characteristics of a drought event (i.e. onset, severity and persistence) as estimated by a hydrologic model depend on the model's parameters (e.g. soil and vegetation parameters) and its inherent dynamics that guide the partition of precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff. One approach to account for the differences in drought estimates due to differences in model dynamics is to use multiple hydrologic models. Each hydrologic model is forced with the same atmospheric forcings to simulate moisture conditions which are converted into objective drought indicators (e.g. soil moisture percentile) with respect to the model's own climatology and then those estimates are combined to provide a multimodel based drought estimates. The University of Washington's Global Drought Information System (GDIS) developed in 2013, is one such prototype drought monitoring system. This system uses the VIC, NOAH and Catchment models. In this presentation we investigate how the differences in the dynamics of the models used in UW's GDIS, influence the drought monitoring estimates. Specifically we answer following questions: 1.What is the level of uncertainties in drought onset, severity and persistence as estimated by different hydrologic models? 2. How do the uncertainties vary spatially and seasonally? 3. What are the sources of the uncertainties?

  9. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, hazard indicators and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, V.; Stahl, K.; Stagge, J. H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; De Stefano, L.; Vogt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work (1) tests the capability of commonly applied hazard indicators and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and (2) combines information on past drought impacts, drought hazard indicators, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This "hybrid approach" bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact forecast in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro region specific sensitivities of hazard indicators, with the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for a twelve month aggregation period (SPEI-12) as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictor, with information about landuse and water resources as best vulnerability-based predictors. (3) The application of the "hybrid approach" revealed strong regional (NUTS combo level) and sector specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer aggregation periods, and a combination of information on landuse and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information

  10. Modeling drought impact occurrence based on climatological drought indices for four European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagge, James H.; Kohn, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between atmospheric conditions and the likelihood of a significant drought impact has, in the past, been difficult to quantify, particularly in Europe where political boundaries and language have made acquiring comprehensive drought impact information difficult. As such, the majority of studies linking meteorological drought with the occurrence or severity of drought impacts have previously focused on specific regions, very detailed impact types, or both. This study describes a new methodology to link the likelihood of drought impact occurrence with climatological drought indices across different European climatic regions and impact sectors using the newly developed European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII), a collaborative database of drought impact information (www.geo.uio.no/edc/droughtdb/). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) are used as predictor variables to quantify meteorological drought severity over prior time periods (here 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months are used). The indices are derived using the gridded WATCH Forcing Datasets, covering the period 1958-2012. Analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify the climatological drought index and accumulation period, or linear combination of drought indices, that best predicts the likelihood of a documented drought impact, defined by monthly presence/absence. The analysis was carried out for a subset of four European countries (Germany, UK, Norway, Slovenia) and four of the best documented impact sectors: Public Water Supply, Agriculture and Livestock Farming, Energy and Industry, and Environmental Quality. Preliminary results show that drought impacts in these countries occur most frequently due to a combination of short-term (2-6 month) precipitation deficits and long-term (12-24 month) potential evapotranspiration anomaly, likely associated with increased temperatures. Agricultural drought impacts

  11. Structural adjustment and drought in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mulwanda, M

    1995-06-01

    While drought is not uncommon in Zambia, the country is now facing the worst drought in history. The monetary and social costs will be enormous. Although it is too early to measure the economic and social costs of the drought on Zambia, it is obvious that the impact is catastrophic on a country whose economy is under pressure. The drought will affect the structural adjustment programme (SAP) unveiled by the new government which has embraced the market economy. The country has imported, and will continue to import, large quantities of maize and other foodstuffs, a situation likely to strain the balance of payments. Earlier targets with regard to export earnings, reductions in the budget deficit, and GDP growth as contained in the Policy Framework Paper (PFP) are no longer attainable due to the effects of the drought.

  12. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  13. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  14. Drought rewires the cores of food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xueke; Gray, Clare; Brown, Lee E.; Ledger, Mark E.; Milner, Alexander M.; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Woodward, Guy; Ma, Athen

    2016-09-01

    Droughts are intensifying across the globe, with potentially devastating implications for freshwater ecosystems. We used new network science approaches to investigate drought impacts on stream food webs and explored potential consequences for web robustness to future perturbations. The substructure of the webs was characterized by a core of richly connected species surrounded by poorly connected peripheral species. Although drought caused the partial collapse of the food webs, the loss of the most extinction-prone peripheral species triggered a substantial rewiring of interactions within the networks’ cores. These shifts in species interactions in the core conserved the underlying core/periphery substructure and stability of the drought-impacted webs. When we subsequently perturbed the webs by simulating species loss in silico, the rewired drought webs were as robust as the larger, undisturbed webs. Our research unearths previously unknown compensatory dynamics arising from within the core that could underpin food web stability in the face of environmental perturbations.

  15. How Does Drought Change With Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Large disparities among published studies have led to considerable confusion over the question of how drought is changing and how it is expected to change with global warming. As a result the IPCC AR5 assessment has watered down statements, and failed to carry out an adequate assessment of the sources of the discrepancies. Quite aside from the different definitions of drought related to meteorological (absence of precipitation), hydrological (lack of water in lakes and rivers), and agricultural (lack of soil moisture) drought, there are many indices that measure drought. Good homogeneous datasets are essential to assess changes over time, but are often not available. Simpler indices may miss effects of certain physical processes, such as evapotranspiration (ET). The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) has been much maligned but has considerable merit because it can accommodate different ET formulations (e.g., Thornthwaite vs Penman-Monteith), it can be self calibrating to accommodate different regions, and it carries out a crude moisture balance. This is in contrast to simpler indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index, which provides only a measure of moisture supply, or the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, which also includes potential (but not actual) ET. The largest source of drought variations is ENSO: during La Niña more rain falls on land while during El Niño most precipitation is over the Pacific Ocean, exposing more land to drought conditions. It is essential to account for interannual and inter-decadal variability in assessing changes in drought with climate change. Yet drought is one time on land when effects accumulate, with huge consequences for wild fire risk. It is important to ask the right questions in dealing with drought.

  16. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  17. Population distribution, land, and livelihood in South-Eastern Nigeria/La repartition de la population, les terres et le mode de vie en Nigeria du Sud-Est.

    PubMed

    Okore, A O

    1982-06-01

    This article discusses increasing population density as a proximate measure of overpopulation or population pressure, especially as it occurs in an agrarian society. The paper examines 1) population distribution in 2 Igbo states in southeastern Nigeria, relating to soil types, cultivable land, and per capita acreage under cultivation, and 2) measures adopted by individuals in these areas. Aside from Legos, Nigeria's highest population densities are in Imo state (644.3 persons/square mile) and Anambra state (477.8 persons/square mile). The absence of drought and high soil fertility may contribute to high population density, although overfarming has now occurred in some areas. 3 settlement pattern stages, colonization, consolidation, and distintegration, explain the population density variation within the 2 states. Although it is useful to examine population density in terms of soil types, cultivable land availability and land use, very little of this information is available for these states. The evidence suggests that high density areas have very little cultivable land. Some general observations on the pattern of population distribution and settlement include 1) Igbo community migration tendencies, 2) land use potentials, 3) encroachment by growing communities on farmland and the need for nonfarm earning sources, and 4) decreasing land fallowing periods. Trade, migrant labor, and land rental have become alternatives to farming in densely populated areas. Population in the Igbo region strains the land resources, but leaders argue that rapid population growth could stimulate socioeconomic development, and generate interest in new food production methods. This theory supposes that agricultural production methods can be easily changed and that virgin land is still available. Instead, in response to population pressure, young people move from the land to towns and cities, increasing urban unemployment and slum dwelling. The older people, women, and children left behind

  18. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  19. Drought, Climate Change and Potential Agricultural Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Caylor, K. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a major factor in agricultural productivity, especially in developing regions where the capacity for water resources management is limited and climate variability ensures that drought is recurrent and problematic. Recent events in East Africa are testament to this, where drought conditions that have slowly developed over multiple years have contributed to reduced productivity and ultimately food crises and famine. Prospects for the future are not promising given ongoing problems of dwindling water supplies from non-renewable sources and the potential for increased water scarcity and increased drought with climate change. This is set against the expected increase in population by over 2 billion people by 2050 and rise in food demand, coupled with changes in demographics that affect food choices and increases in non-food agriculture. In this talk we discuss the global variability of drought over the 20th century and recent years, and the projected changes over the 21st century, and how this translates into changes in potential agricultural productivity. Drought is quantified using land surface hydrological models driven by a hybrid reanalysis-observational meteorological forcing dataset. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of hydroclimatic variables, in particular precipitation, evaporation and soil moisture, and we calculate changes in various drought characteristics. Potential agricultural productivity is derived from the balance of precipitation to crop water demand, where demand is based on potential evaporation and crop coefficients for a range of staple crops. Some regional examples are shown of historic variations in drought and potential productivity, and the estimated water deficit for various crops. The multitude of events over the past decade, including heat waves in Europe, fires in Russia, long-term drought in northern China, southeast Australia, the Western US and a series of droughts in the Amazon and Argentina, hint at the influence of

  20. How to Generate More Reliable Seasonal Drought Forecasts and Analyze Drought Recovery Under Uncertainties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradkhani, H.; DeChant, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting of drought is vital for resource management and planning. Both societal and agricultural requirements for water weigh heavily on the natural environment, which may become scarce in the event of drought. Although drought forecasts are an important tool for managing water in hydrologic systems, these forecasts are plagued by uncertainties, owing to the complexities of water dynamics and the spatial heterogeneities of pertinent variables. Due to these uncertainties, it is necessary to frame forecasts in a probabilistic manner. While it is common to focus on the meteorological aspects of uncertainty (e.g. precipitation, temperature), this presentation will discuss the impacts of initial condition and model uncertainty on drought, and particularly ways in which these uncertainties may be reduced. In order to reduce these uncertainties, the recently developed Particle Filter with Sequential Bayesian Combination (PF-SBC) algorithm is applied to drought forecasting within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). It will be shown that this methodology has the potential to increase the reliability of seasonal hydrologic drought forecasts. In addition, the recovery of drought will be examined with initialization of forecasts through the Particle Filter. From these forecasts, it is found that drought recovery is a longer process than suggested in recent literature. Drought in land surface variables (snow, soil moisture) is shown to be persistent up to a year in certain locations, depending on the intensity of the drought. Location within the UCRB appears to be a driving factor in the ability of the land surface to recover from drought, allowing for differentiation between drought prone and drought resistant regions.

  1. Analysis of drought variability in data sparse regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, M.; Apel, H.

    2012-04-01

    Drought impacts can be mitigated by enhancing preparedness. For better disaster management an effective drought forecasting and monitoring system has to be combined with detailed knowledge of drought variability and local impact. In regions with low data availability remotely sensed data and global reanalysis data and forecasts play an important role to supplement low density monitoring systems. Many sources of data are available to the public and represent most of the complex aspects of drought. To investigate drought variability - temporal and spatial - several statistical methods have to be combined to characterize a region. Here, we analyze drought variability in the Limpopo basin (southeastern Africa). We combine reanalysis data and drought indices to investigate meteorological drought. Vegetation indices provide an indicator of drought impact. We use empirical orthogonal function analysis and cluster analysis to find spatiotemporal patterns in drought conditions and identify homogeneous regions. For these homogeneous regions we extract a meteorological drought signal. Then, we employ wavelet analysis to investigate major characteristics of the drought signal. We seek to identify external climate factors such as ENSO having a major influence on drought occurrence. These factors can serve as a starting point for the investigation of predictors in a drought foreshadowing system enabling estimation of drought likelihood and severity with several months lead times. The foreshadowing based on statistical analysis and large scale climatic factors can complement physical model based forecasts for enhanced drought preparedness.

  2. Drought-mortality relationships for tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Oliver L; van der Heijden, Geertje; Lewis, Simon L; López-González, Gabriela; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lloyd, Jon; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Almeida, Samuel; Dávila, Esteban Alvarez; Amaral, Iêda; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; da Costa, Lola; Feldpausch, Ted R; Fisher, Joshua B; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Jiménez, Eliana; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Lovett, Jon C; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Patiño, Sandra; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Cruz, Antonio Peña; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J W Ferry; Sonké, Bonaventure; Thomas, Anne Sota; Stropp, Juliana; Taplin, James R D; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Vilanova, Emilio

    2010-08-01

    *The rich ecology of tropical forests is intimately tied to their moisture status. Multi-site syntheses can provide a macro-scale view of these linkages and their susceptibility to changing climates. Here, we report pan-tropical and regional-scale analyses of tree vulnerability to drought. *We assembled available data on tropical forest tree stem mortality before, during, and after recent drought events, from 119 monitoring plots in 10 countries concentrated in Amazonia and Borneo. *In most sites, larger trees are disproportionately at risk. At least within Amazonia, low wood density trees are also at greater risk of drought-associated mortality, independent of size. For comparable drought intensities, trees in Borneo are more vulnerable than trees in the Amazon. There is some evidence for lagged impacts of drought, with mortality rates remaining elevated 2 yr after the meteorological event is over. *These findings indicate that repeated droughts would shift the functional composition of tropical forests toward smaller, denser-wooded trees. At very high drought intensities, the linear relationship between tree mortality and moisture stress apparently breaks down, suggesting the existence of moisture stress thresholds beyond which some tropical forests would suffer catastrophic tree mortality.

  3. Phenotyping Cowpeas for Adaptation to Drought

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Anthony E.

    2012-01-01

    Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay, and fresh pea production. Strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought is available and should be incorporated. The extreme ability of extra-early erect cowpea cultivars to escape terminal drought should be exploited in zones with very short rainfall seasons. In zones with the possibility of limited rainfall in the middle of the growing season, resistance to mid-season drought, and the delayed-leaf-senescence trait can be valuable. Breeding for water-use efficiency, deeper rooting, and heat tolerance are discussed. Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Resistance to the organism causing ashy stem blight disease should be incorporated because this disease can destroy cowpea seedlings under hot, dry soil conditions. The value of varietal intercrops with contrasting types of cowpea cultivars in enhancing adaptation to drought is described. Implications of cowpea/cereal rotations for cowpea breeding are discussed. Breeding strategies for enhancing cowpea adaptation to drought are described. PMID:22654769

  4. A drought index accounting for snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudinger, Maria; Stahl, Kerstin; Seibert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is the most widely used index to characterize and monitor droughts that are related to precipitation deficiencies. However, the SPI does not always deliver the relevant information for hydrological drought management when precipitation deficiencies are not the only reason for droughts as it is the case for example in snow influenced catchments. If precipitation is temporarily stored as snow, then there is a significant difference between meteorological and hydrological drought because the delayed release of melt water from the snow accumulation to the stream. In this study we introduce an extension to the SPI, the Standardized Snow Melt and Rain Index (SMRI), that captures both rain and snow melt deficits, which in effect modify streamflow. The SMRI does not require any snow data instead observations of temperature and precipitation are used to model snow. The SMRI is evaluated for seven Swiss catchments with varying degrees of snow influence. In particular for catchments with a larger component of snowmelt in runoff generation, we found the SMRI to be a good complementary index to the SPI to describe streamflow droughts. In a further step, the SPI and the SMRI were compared for the summer drought of 2003 and the spring drought of 2011 for Switzerland, using gridded products of precipitation and temperature including the entire country.

  5. Phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anthony E

    2012-01-01

    Methods for phenotyping cowpeas for adaptation to drought are reviewed. Key factors involve achieving optimal time of flowering and cycle length, and appropriate morphology for different types of cultivars as they relate to their utilization for dry grain, hay, and fresh pea production. Strong resistance to vegetative-stage drought is available and should be incorporated. The extreme ability of extra-early erect cowpea cultivars to escape terminal drought should be exploited in zones with very short rainfall seasons. In zones with the possibility of limited rainfall in the middle of the growing season, resistance to mid-season drought, and the delayed-leaf-senescence trait can be valuable. Breeding for water-use efficiency, deeper rooting, and heat tolerance are discussed. Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Resistance to the organism causing ashy stem blight disease should be incorporated because this disease can destroy cowpea seedlings under hot, dry soil conditions. The value of varietal intercrops with contrasting types of cowpea cultivars in enhancing adaptation to drought is described. Implications of cowpea/cereal rotations for cowpea breeding are discussed. Breeding strategies for enhancing cowpea adaptation to drought are described.

  6. Forecasts of Agricultural Drought in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the most frequent natural disaster in Sri Lanka, drought greatly affects crop production and livelihoods. Over half of all agricultural crop damage in Sri Lanka is currently due to drought; the frequency and severity of drought in the country is only expected to increase with the changing climate. Previous work indicates that the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are capable of capturing agricultural drought patterns (between 1881-2010) in the island nation. In this work, PDSI and SPI from 13 long-term meteorological stations will be projected into the future using a combination of artificial neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average models. The impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (such as the Niño 3.4 index, a measure of sea surface temperature) and lead times on projection accuracy will also be explored. Model projections will be compared to weather data since 2010 to determine if the 2014 drought could have been forecasted using these methods. Since agricultural systems are strongly influenced by both natural and human systems, it is important to frame these physical findings within a social context. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that assesses the perceptions of and adaptations to drought by rice farmers in Sri Lanka; disciplines represented in the group include hydrology, social psychology, ethnography, policy, and behavioral economics. Insights from the diverse research perspectives within the group will be drawn upon to highlight the social implications of the physical results.

  7. How useful are meteorological drought indicators to assess agricultural drought impacts across Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Tanguy, Maliko; Hannaford, Jamie; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning (M&EW) is an important component of agricultural and silvicultural risk management. Meteorological indicators such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are widely used in operational M&EW systems and for drought hazard assessment. Meteorological drought yet does not necessarily equate to agricultural drought given differences in drought susceptibility, e.g. crop-specific vulnerability, soil water holding capacity, irrigation and other management practices. How useful are meteorological indicators such as SPI to assess agricultural drought? Would the inclusion of vegetation indicators into drought M&EW systems add value for the agricultural sector? To answer these questions, it is necessary to investigate the link between meteorological indicators and agricultural impacts of drought. Crop yield or loss data is one source of information for drought impacts, yet mostly available as aggregated data at the annual scale. Remotely sensed vegetation stress data offer another possibility to directly assess agricultural impacts with high spatial and temporal resolution and are already used by some M&EW systems. At the same time, reduced crop yield and satellite-based vegetation stress potentially suffer from multi-causality. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the relation between meteorological drought indicators and agricultural drought impacts for Europe, and to intercompare different agricultural impact variables. As drought indicators we used SPI and the Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI) for different accumulation periods. The focus regarding drought impact variables was on remotely sensed vegetation stress derived from MODIS NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and LST (Land Surface Temperature) data, but the analysis was complemented with crop yield data and text-based information from the European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII) for selected countries. A correlation analysis

  8. North American drought: Reconstructions, causes, and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Edward R.; Seager, Richard; Cane, Mark A.; Stahle, David W.

    2007-03-01

    Severe drought is the greatest recurring natural disaster to strike North America. A remarkable network of centuries-long annual tree-ring chronologies has now allowed for the reconstruction of past drought over North America covering the past 1000 or more years in most regions. These reconstructions reveal the occurrence of past "megadroughts" of unprecedented severity and duration, ones that have never been experienced by modern societies in North America. There is strong archaeological evidence for the destabilizing influence of these past droughts on advanced agricultural societies, examples that should resonate today given the increasing vulnerability of modern water-based systems to relatively short-term droughts. Understanding how these megadroughts develop and persist is a timely scientific problem. Very recently, climate models have succeeded in simulating all of the major droughts over North America from the Civil War to the severe 1998-2004 drought in the western U.S. These numerical experiments indicate the dominating importance of tropical Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in determining how much precipitation falls over large parts of North America. Of central importance to drought formation is the development of cool "La Niña-like" SSTs in the eastern tropical Pacific region. This development appears to be partially linked to changes in radiative forcing over that region, which affects the Bjerknes feedback mechanism of the ENSO cycle there. Paradoxically, warmer conditions over the tropical Pacific region lead to the development of cool La Niña-like SSTs there, which is drought inducing over North America. Whether or not this process will lead to a greater prevalence of drought in the future as the world warms due to accumulating greenhouse gases is unclear at this time.

  9. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review.

    PubMed

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12-18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding.

  10. Phenotypic approaches to drought in cassava: review

    PubMed Central

    Okogbenin, Emmanuel; Setter, Tim L.; Ferguson, Morag; Mutegi, Rose; Ceballos, Hernan; Olasanmi, Bunmi; Fregene, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12–18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow. This paper highlights some modified traits suitable for early-growth phase phenotyping that may be used to reduce drought phenotyping cycle in cassava. Such modified traits can significantly complement the high throughput genotyping procedures to fast track breeding of improved drought tolerant varieties. The need for metabolite profiling, improved phenomics to take advantage of next generation sequencing technologies and high throughput phenotyping are basic steps for future direction to improve genetic gain and maximize speed for drought tolerance breeding. PMID

  11. An application of spatially constrained inversion using FD Helicopter EM data to characterise spatial variations in groundwater salinity across the floodplains of the Murray River in South-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, T. J.; Viezzoli, A.; Fitzpatrick, A.

    2008-12-01

    The floodplains of the Murray River, situated in the southeast of Australia, have become extensively salinised, related in part to the discharge of naturally saline groundwater linked to increased recharge from land clearing and irrigation adjacent to the river. This problem has been compounded by extended drought conditions that prevail across the Murray Basin, resulting in increase in the accumulation and concentration of salt within the floodplain soils and an increase in salt loads to the river. Consequently in many floodplain areas along the Murray, the native riparian vegetation communities are in severe decline and Eucalyptus largiflorens (Black Box) and E. camaldulensis (Red Gum) communities are being significantly affected. A range management strategies are being employed to manage these issues, the manipulation of river flows to enhance biodiversity values (ie restore vegetation health) and the development of a hydro-dynamic models to better understand surface flows and the role of soils and elevation in floodplain vegetation health. Integral to these strategies is the acquisition of detailed spatial data on the distribution of salinity in floodplain soils and groundwater, thereby indicating patterns of groundwater evapotranspiration and baseflow across these areas. Hydrogeophysical data from electrical (inductive) methods have considerable potential to provide such data. We present an application of the Spatially Constrained Inversion (SCI) of RESOLVE FDHEM (airborne EM) data for defining spatial patterns of salinisation in the sunraysia irrigation area located in the lower Murray Basin of South Australia. Spatially Constrained Inversion uses Delaunay triangulation to set three dimensional constraints between neighbouring soundings, taking advantage of the spatial coherency that may be present in the data set. Conductivity information for individual soundings is linked through the spatial constraints, from well determined parameters to locally poorly

  12. DROUGHT AND POPULATION MOBILITY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the possibility that climate change will displace large populations in the developing world, but few multivariate studies have investigated climate-induced migration. We use event history methods and a unique longitudinal dataset from the rural Ethiopian highlands to investigate the effects of drought on population mobility over a ten-year period. The results indicate that men’s labor migration increases with drought and that land-poor households are most vulnerable. However, marriage-related moves by women also decrease with drought. These findings suggest a hybrid narrative of environmentally-induced migration that recognizes multiple dimensions of adaptation to environmental change. PMID:22523447

  13. A Global Drought Observatory for Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Jürgen; de Jager, Alfred; Carrão, Hugo; Magni, Diego; Mazzeschi, Marco; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Droughts are occurring on all continents and across all climates. While in developed countries they cause significant economic and environmental damages, in less developed countries they may cause major humanitarian catastrophes. The magnitude of the problem and the expected increase in drought frequency, extent and severity in many, often highly vulnerable regions of the world demand a change from the current reactive, crisis-management approach towards a more pro-active, risk management approach. Such approach needs adequate and timely information from global to local scales as well as adequate drought management plans. Drought information systems are important for continuous monitoring and forecasting of the situation in order to provide timely information on developing drought events and their potential impacts. Against this background, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing a Global Drought Observatory (GDO) for the European Commission's humanitarian services, providing up-to-date information on droughts world-wide and their potential impacts. Drought monitoring is achieved by a combination of meteorological and biophysical indicators, while the societal vulnerability to droughts is assessed through the targeted analysis of a series of social, economic and infrastructural indicators. The combination of the information on the occurrence and severity of a drought, on the assets at risk and on the societal vulnerability in the drought affected areas results in a likelihood of impact, which is expressed by a Likelihood of Drought Impact (LDI) indicator. The location, extent and magnitude of the LDI is then further analyzed against the number of people and land use/land cover types affected in order to provide the decision bodies with information on the potential humanitarian and economic bearings in the affected countries or regions. All information is presented through web-mapping interfaces based on OGC standards and customized reports can be drawn by the

  14. Amazon forest response to repeated droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldpausch, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Brienen, R. J. W.; Gloor, E.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Alarcón, A.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragao, L. E. O. C.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Baker, T. R.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Castro, W.; Chama, V.; Chave, J.; Domingues, T. F.; Fauset, S.; Groot, N.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Laurance, S.; Laurance, W. F.; Lewis, S. L.; Licona, J. C.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza Bautista, C.; Neill, D. A.; Oliveira, E. A.; Oliveira dos Santos, C.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Rudas, A.; Saiz, G.; Salomão, R. P.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Steege, H.; Stropp, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Heijden, G. M. F.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon Basin has experienced more variable climate over the last decade, with a severe and widespread drought in 2005 causing large basin-wide losses of biomass. A drought of similar climatological magnitude occurred again in 2010; however, there has been no basin-wide ground-based evaluation of effects on vegetation. We examine to what extent the 2010 drought affected forest dynamics using ground-based observations of mortality and growth from an extensive forest plot network. We find that during the 2010 drought interval, forests did not gain biomass (net change: -0.43 Mg ha-1, confidence interval (CI): -1.11, 0.19, n = 97), regardless of whether forests experienced precipitation deficit anomalies. This contrasted with a long-term biomass sink during the baseline pre-2010 drought period (1998 to pre-2010) of 1.33 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI: 0.90, 1.74, p < 0.01). The resulting net impact of the 2010 drought (i.e., reversal of the baseline net sink) was -1.95 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI:-2.77, -1.18; p < 0.001). This net biomass impact was driven by an increase in biomass mortality (1.45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 CI: 0.66, 2.25, p < 0.001) and a decline in biomass productivity (-0.50 Mg ha-1 yr-1, CI:-0.78, -0.31; p < 0.001). Surprisingly, the magnitude of the losses through tree mortality was unrelated to estimated local precipitation anomalies and was independent of estimated local pre-2010 drought history. Thus, there was no evidence that pre-2010 droughts compounded the effects of the 2010 drought. We detected a systematic basin-wide impact of the 2010 drought on tree growth rates across Amazonia, which was related to the strength of the moisture deficit. This impact differed from the drought event in 2005 which did not affect productivity. Based on these ground data, live biomass in trees and corresponding estimates of live biomass in lianas and roots, we estimate that intact forests in Amazonia were carbon neutral in 2010 (-0.07 Pg C yr-1 CI:-0.42, 0.23), consistent with results from an

  15. Role of soil moisture in maintaining droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of soil moisture on the persistence of an ongoing drought was investigated. The case study of drought of the summer of 1980 was selected. The difference in the simulation of two identical twin runs: one with the climatological normal soil moisture and the other with anomalous soil moisture for drought conditions, were examined on the mean monthly circulation. It is found that a reduction in soil moisture did produce a corresponding reduction in precipitation. The pattern of the rainfall anomaly however, was not identical to the soil moisture (evapotranspiration) anomaly but had a good resemblance with observations.

  16. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  17. Results of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) drought analysis (South Dakota drought 1976)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    LACIE using techniques developed from the southern Great Plains drought analysis indicated the potential for drought damage in South Dakota. This potential was monitored and as it became apparent that a drought was developing, LACIE implemented some of the procedures used in the southern Great Plains drought. The technical approach used in South Dakota involved the normal use of LACIE sample segments (5 x 6 nm) every 18 days. Full frame color transparencies (100 x 100 nm) were used on 9 day intervals to identify the drought area and to track overtime. The green index number (GIN) developed using the Kauth transformation was computed for all South Dakota segments and selected North Dakota segments. A scheme for classifying segments as drought affected or not affected was devised and tested on all available 1976 South Dakota data. Yield model simulations were run for all CRD's Crop Reporting District) in South Dakota.

  18. A novel gene OsAHL1 improves both drought avoidance and drought tolerance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liguo; Liu, Zaochang; Liu, Yunhua; Kong, Deyan; Li, Tianfei; Yu, Shunwu; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Hongyan; Chen, Liang; Luo, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    A novel gene, OsAHL1, containing an AT-hook motif and a PPC domain was identified through genome-wide profiling and analysis of mRNAs by comparing the microarray of drought-challenged versus normally watered rice. The results indicated OsAHL1 has both drought avoidance and drought tolerance that could greatly improve drought resistance of the rice plant. Overexpression of OsAHL1 enhanced multiple stress tolerances in rice plants during both seedling and panicle development stages. Functional studies revealed that OsAHL1 regulates root development under drought condition to enhance drought avoidance, participates in oxidative stress response and also regulates the content of chlorophyll in rice leaves. OsAHL1 specifically binds to the A/T rich sequence region of promoters or introns, and hence directly regulates the expression of many stress related downstream genes. PMID:27453463

  19. Multivariate drought index: An information theory based approach for integrated drought assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Singh, Vijay. P.; Mishra, Ashok. K.

    2015-07-01

    Most of the existing drought indices are based on a single variable (e.g. precipitation) or a combination of two variables (e.g., precipitation and streamflow). This may not be sufficient for reliable quantification of the existing drought condition. It is possible that a region might be experiencing only a single type of drought at times, but multiple drought types affecting a region is quite common too. To have a comprehensive representation, it is better to consider all the variables that lead to different physical forms of drought, such as meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural droughts. Therefore, we propose to develop a multivariate drought index (MDI) that will utilize information from hydroclimatic variables, including precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture as indicator variables, thus accounting for all the physical forms of drought. The entropy theory was utilized to develop this proposed index, that led to the smallest set of features maximally preserving the information of the input data set. MDI was then compared with the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) for all climate regions within Texas for the time period 1950-2012, with particular attention to the two major drought occurrences in Texas, viz. the droughts which occurred in 1950-1957, and 2010-2011. The proposed MDI was found to represent drought conditions well, due to its multivariate, multi scalar, and nonlinear properties. To help the user choose the right time scale for further analysis, entropy maps of MDI at different time scales were used as a guideline. The MDI time scale that has the highest entropy value may be chosen, since a higher entropy indicates a higher information content.

  20. Drought-Net: An international network to assess terrestrial ecosystem sensitivity to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Phillips, R.; Sala, O. E.

    2014-12-01

    All ecosystems will be impacted to some extent by climate change, with forecasts for more frequent and severe drought likely to have the greatest impact on terrestrial ecosystems. Terrestrial ecosystems are known to vary dramatically in their responses to drought. However, the factors that may make some ecosystems respond more or less than others remains unknown, but such understanding is critical for predicting drought impacts at regional and continental scales. To effectively forecast terrestrial ecosystem responses to drought, ecologists must assess responses of a range of different ecosystems to drought, and then improve existing models by incorporating the factors that cause such variation in response. Traditional site-based research cannot provide this knowledge because experiments conducted at individual sites are often not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies employed. Coordinated experimental networks, with identical protocols and comparable measurements, are ideally suited for comparative studies at regional to global scales. The US National Science Foundation-funded Drought-Net Research Coordination Network (www.drought-net.org) will advance understanding of the determinants of terrestrial ecosystem responses to drought by bringing together an international group of scientists to conduct two key activities conducted over the next five years: 1) planning and coordinating new research using standardized measurements to leverage the value of existing drought experiments across the globe (Enhancing Existing Experiments, EEE), and 2) finalizing the design and facilitating the establishment of a new international network of coordinated drought experiments (the International Drought Experiment, IDE). The primary goals of these activities are to assess: (1) patterns of differential terrestrial ecosystem sensitivity to drought and (2) potential mechanisms underlying those patterns.

  1. Drought-Net: A global network to assess terrestrial ecosystem sensitivity to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melinda; Sala, Osvaldo; Phillips, Richard

    2015-04-01

    All ecosystems will be impacted to some extent by climate change, with forecasts for more frequent and severe drought likely to have the greatest impact on terrestrial ecosystems. Terrestrial ecosystems are known to vary dramatically in their responses to drought. However, the factors that may make some ecosystems respond more or less than others remains unknown, but such understanding is critical for predicting drought impacts at regional and continental scales. To effectively forecast terrestrial ecosystem responses to drought, ecologists must assess responses of a range of different ecosystems to drought, and then improve existing models by incorporating the factors that cause such variation in response. Traditional site-based research cannot provide this knowledge because experiments conducted at individual sites are often not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies employed. Coordinated experimental networks, with identical protocols and comparable measurements, are ideally suited for comparative studies at regional to global scales. The US National Science Foundation-funded Drought-Net Research Coordination Network (www.drought-net.org) will advance understanding of the determinants of terrestrial ecosystem responses to drought by bringing together an international group of scientists to conduct two key activities conducted over the next five years: 1) planning and coordinating new research using standardized measurements to leverage the value of existing drought experiments across the globe (Enhancing Existing Experiments, EEE), and 2) finalizing the design and facilitating the establishment of a new international network of coordinated drought experiments (the International Drought Experiment, IDE). The primary goals of these activities are to assess: (1) patterns of differential terrestrial ecosystem sensitivity to drought and (2) potential mechanisms underlying those patterns.

  2. The drought risk atlas: Enhancing decision support for drought risk management in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Mark D.; Fuchs, Brian A.; Poulsen, Chris C.; Nothwehr, Jeff R.

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers have continuously asked for better tools and resources to help them assess their risks related to climate variability and extremes. Drought is one of the risks they face, and the need for better drought risk tools and resources has also been expressed. With drought continuing to be one of the most problematic and costly natural disasters within the United States, and building on the work of the original National Drought Atlas (NDA) (1996), an updated and expanded Drought Risk Atlas (DRA) decision support tool for the United States was developed and is housed at the National Drought Mitigation Center. The DRA (1) provides weekly calculations of multiple indices/indicators, with more than a billion records made freely available, including the SPI, SPEI, PDSI, scPDSI, Deciles and U.S. Drought Monitor; (2) houses more than 3000 stations with data through 2012, nearly tripling the station count of the original NDA; (3) utilizes a much longer period of record, nearly double that of the NDA in most cases; (4) when fully completed, will house a cache of more than 500,000 gridded drought index maps; (5) will allow us to analyze and assess trends and various characteristics of drought, including frequency, intensity, duration and magnitude; (6) will become a resource for the National Weather Service (NWS) personnel around the country by transferring the application into the field through integration within the NWS's newly developed Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT); and (7) work directly with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) program office to include the information contained in the DRA into NIDIS's regional drought early warning system pilot basins and the U.S. Drought Portal for broad dissemination to the user community and general public.

  3. Developing a European Drought Observatory for Monitoring, Assessing and Forecasting Droughts across the European Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.; Barbosa, P.; Hofer, B.; Magni, D.; Jager, A. D.; Singleton, A.; Horion, S.; Sepulcre, G.; Micale, F.; Sokolova, E.; Calcagni, L.; Marioni, M.; Antofie, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Many European countries have repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage. Climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement national activities with a European view. As droughts affect the entire water cycle continuous monitoring of a suite of indicators is required. Drought indicators at continental scale are supplemented by indicators at national, regional and local scales, providing more detailed information. At the core of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) are a portal and a map server presenting Europe-wide up-to-date drought-relevant information to the public and to decision makers in policy and water resources management. The final portal will include access to metadata catalogues, media reports, a map server and other related resources. The current version of EDO publishes continental information based on data processed and analysed at JRC as well as more detailed information at national and river basin scale processed by the local authorities. Available drought products include monthly updated Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPI), modelled soil moisture anomalies, remote sensing observations on the state of the vegetation cover (i.e. fAPAR and NDWI) and groundwater levels. A one-week soil moisture anomaly forecast complements the picture. Access to information at the national and river basin scale is established through interoperability arrangements with local authorities, making use of a special metadata catalogue and OWS standards (especially WMS and WCS). In addition, time series of drought indices can be retrieved for grid cells and administrative regions in

  4. Drought assessment using a multivariate drought index in the Huaihe River basin of Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Zeng, M.; Wang, H.; Li, P.; Wang, K.; Yu, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Huaihe River Basin having China's highest population density (662 persons per km2) lies in a transition zone between the climates of North and South China, and is thus prone to drought. Therefore, the paper aims to develop an appropriate drought assessment approach for drought assessment in the Huaihe River basin, China. Based on the Principal Component Analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, the three latter variables of which were obtained by use of the Xin'anjiang model, a new multivariate drought index (MDI) was formulated, and its thresholds were determined by use of cumulative distribution function. The MDI, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) time series on a monthly scale were computed and compared during 1988, 1999/2000 and 2001 drought events. The results show that the MDI exhibited certain advantages over the sc-PDSI and the SPI in monitoring drought evolution. The MDI formulated by this paper could provide a scientific basis for drought mitigation and management, and references for drought assessment elsewhere in China.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Drought Indices and Drought Monitoring for Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Dai, Q.; Yin, H.; Howard, A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation discusses a statistical analysis of six drought indices for monitoring Alberta drought events from 1901 to 2000. The data used are the interpolated daily precipitation data on the 149 ecodistrict polygons over Alberta. The analyzed indices are standardized precipitation index, rainfall anomaly index, rainfall decile index, standardized anomaly index, principal component index, and optimal index. The historically documented drought records of five sites (Beaver Lodge, Lacombe, Lethbridge, Vegreville, and Swift Current [in Saskatchwan]) are classified into drought categories D4, D3, ?, D0, and wet categories D1, -D2, and D3. The thresholds of the drought categories for different indices are calculated. The wheat drought of Canada's Palliser Triangle was used as a validation analysis of the drought indices. The transitional probability of drought categories from one week to the next is calculated. Some discussions on the theory of calculating SPI are included. It has been found that the while all the drought indices are highly correlated with precipitation, the PCI has the highest correlation. The transitional probability analysis for the south Alberta agricultural region shows that the chance of transition from normal to extremely dry is highest in the mid May, hence this region's spring seeding is extremely vulnerable to precipitation and an effective irrigation system is of great importance to the early stages of crop development.

  6. U.S. Drought Portal: Data from the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Drought Policy Commission was established under the National Drought Policy Act of 1998 to ensure collaboration between different government agencies on drought-related issues. The Commission issued a groundbreaking report, Preparing for Drought in the 21st Century, in 2000. Following the Commission's recommendations, the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) was envisioned in a Western Governors' Association Report in 2004. The NIDIS Act was introduced in the U.S. Congress and signed by the President in 2006. The first version of the NIDIS was launched in 2007, with the Portal interface following within the next couple of years. The U.S. Drought Portal is part of the interactive system to provide early warning about emerging and anticipated droughts, assimilate quality control and risk data, explain how to plan for and manage the impacts of droughts, and provide a stakeholder forum. [Taken from the Overview at http://www.drought.gov/portal/server.pt/community/what_is_nidis/207

  7. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  8. Ancient Dry Spells Offer Clues About Drought

    NASA Video Gallery

    New research indicates that the ancient Mesoamerican civilizations of the Mayans and Aztecs amplified droughts in the Yucatán and southern Mexico by clearing rainforests to make room for pastures ...

  9. Major Mesoamerican droughts of the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Diaz, J. Villanueva; Burnette, D. J.; Paredes, J. Cerano; Heim, R. R., Jr.; Fye, F. K.; Acuna Soto, R.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Stahle, D. K.

    2011-03-01

    Ancient Montezuma baldcypress (Taxodium mucronatum) trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Queretaro, have been used to develop a 1,238-year tree-ring chronology that is correlated with precipitation, temperature, drought indices, and crop yields in central Mexico. This chronology has been used to reconstruct the spring-early summer soil moisture balance over the heartland of the Mesoamerican cultural province, and is the first exactly dated, annually resolved paleoclimatic record for Mesoamerica spanning the Late Classic, Post Classic, Colonial, and modern eras. The reconstruction indicates that the Terminal Classic drought extended into central Mexico, supporting other sedimentary and speleothem evidence for this early 10th century drought in Mesoamerica. The reconstruction also documents severe and sustained drought during the decline of the Toltec state (1149-1167) and during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec state (1514-1539), providing a new precisely dated climate framework for Mesoamerican cultural change.

  10. Understanding origins and impacts of drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Tatiana; Krankina, Olga; Kurbanov, Eldar

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of Extreme Weather on Natural, Socio-economic, and Land-Use Systems:Focus on the 2010 Summer Anomaly in the Volga Region;Yoshkar-Ola, Russia, 17-21 June 2012 In the summer of 2010 an extreme drought captured the attention of the media, the Russian government, and the international community. This drought resulted in widespread crop failure within one of the largest wheat-exporting regions of the world, leading to global grain price hikes. A joint NASA, Global Observations of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD), and Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) meeting at the Volga State University of Technology, held 2 years after the 2010 drought, provided for a wide-ranging and in-depth review of recent research on the drought and its impacts on ecosystems and society and drew participants from the United States, Europe, Russia, and Kazakhstan.

  11. Method to improve drought tolerance in plants

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Kwak, June Myoung

    2003-10-21

    A method to increase drought resistance in plants is provided. The method comprises inhibiting or disabling inward-rectifying K.sup.+ (K.sup.+.sub.in) channels in the stomatal guard cells of the plant.

  12. Modeling a complex system of multipurpose reservoirs under prospective scenarios (hydrology, water uses, water management): the case of the Durance River basin (South Eastern France, 12 800 km2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, Céline; Hendrickx, Frédéric; Samie, René; Sauquet, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Durance River and its main tributary, the Verdon River, are two major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Three large dams (Serre-Ponçon, Castillon and Sainte-Croix) were built on their streams during the second half of the 20th century for multiple purposes. Stored water is used for hydropower, recreational, industry, drinking water and irrigation. Flows are partly diverted to feed areas outside the basin. On average 30 plants located in the Durance and Verdon valleys currently produce a total of 600 million kWh per year, equal to the annual residential consumption of a city with over 2.5 million inhabitants. The Southern part of France has been recently affected by severe droughts (2003, 2007 and 2011) and the rules for water allocation and reservoir management are now questioned particularly in the light of global change. The objective of the research project named "R²D²-2050" was to assess water availability and risks of water shortage in the mid-21st century by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. Therefore, a multi-model multi-scenario approach was considered to simulate regional climate, water resources and water demands under present-day (over the 1980-2009 baseline period) and under future conditions (over the 2036-2065 period). In addition, a model of water management was developed to simulate reservoir operating rules of the three dams. This model was calibrated to simulate water released from reservoir under constraints imposed by current day water allocation rules (e.g. downstream water requirements for irrigation, minimum water levels in the reservoirs during summer time for recreational purposes). Four territorial socio-economic scenarios were also elaborated with the help of stake holders to project water needs in the 2050s for the areas supplied with water from the Durance River basin. Results suggest an increase of the average air temperature with consequences on snow accumulation, snowmelt processes

  13. Identifying Groundwater Droughts using standardized Water Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, J. C.; Birk, S.

    2015-12-01

    Drought indices are frequently used to compare the occurrence and characteristics of droughts at different sites as well as to characterize different hydrometeorological aspects of drought. The existing indices have been mostly focused on precipitation, soil moisture, and surface waters though. To enable a comparison of groundwater drought with other hydrometeorological aspects of drought, the Standardized Groundwater level Index SGI was proposed by Bloomfield and Marchant (2013). So far, the SGI has been applied only to consolidated aquifers in the UK. The purpose of this work is to assess the applicability and performance of the SGI in unconsolidated, porous aquifers situated in valleys, which represent the main sources of drinking water in many regions. For this purpose, long-term time series of groundwater levels both in wet and dry regions of Austria are analyzed and compared with time series of precipitation, evapotranspiration and river stages. It is shown that large drought events, such as 2003 with only 79% of the long-term average precipitation, but also less severe events are reflected by negative SGI anomalies. To identify and classify time periods with a groundwater deficit, such benchmark years are used to propose a threshold value of the SGI defining the onset of a drought. Time periods where a clear drop in SGI does not correspond to a significant anomaly in precipitation are also visible in the data. More detailed investigations into small valley fill aquifers in the south-east of Austria reveal that the SGI may closely correlate with river stage fluctuations. Also, effects of the geographic setting (mountainous area vs. lowland) and the impacts of human activities (hydropower, drinking water extraction) are shown. Bloomfield, J. P., Marchant, B. P., Analysis of groundwater drought building on the standardised precipitation index approach, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 4769-4787, 2013.

  14. Satellite remote sensing of drought conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1987-01-01

    Multitemporal satellite data have application in the detection and quantification of drought through the ability of these data to estimate the photosynthetic capacity of the terrestrial surface and record microwave surface brightness at the 37 GHz frequency. With proper calibration and registration, comparisons can be made between and among years for specific months using the photosynthetic capacity and the 37 GHz microwave surface brightness for selected time periods or growing seasons. This technology has application in identifying and quantifying areas experiencing drought.

  15. Phenotyping maize for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Araus, Jose L.; Serret, María D.; Edmeades, Gregory O.

    2012-01-01

    The need of a better adaptation of crops to drought is an issue of increasing urgency. However, enhancing the tolerance of maize has, therefore, proved to be somewhat elusive in terms of plant breeding. In that context, proper phenotyping remains as one of the main factors limiting breeding advance. Topics covered by this review include the conceptual framework for identifying secondary traits associated with yield response to drought and how to measure these secondary traits in practice. PMID:22934056

  16. A Look into the National Drought Mitigation Center: Providing 15 Years of Drought Services (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M. J.; Knutson, C. L.; Wardlow, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) was formed in 1995 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Over the past 15 years, the NDMC has made it a priority to work with various local, state, tribal and federal entities to provide a suite of drought/climate services, with a goal of bringing research to fruition through applications and operations. Through our research and outreach projects, the NDMC has worked to reduce risk to drought by developing several mitigation strategies, monitoring and decision making tools and other services aimed at enhancing our nation’s capacity to cope with drought. Two of the earliest NDMC activities were the creation of a website and assessing drought conditions around the United States. An electronic drought clearinghouse was built in 1995 at drought.unl.edu. The site was designed, and still concentrates, on the concepts of drought monitoring, planning, and mitigation and also serves as a repository of information from around the world. The NDMC’s electronic quarterly newsletter, DroughtScape, disseminates information about all things drought to people across the country. In addition, the NDMC has developed and is home to websites for the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), and the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). In an effort to inform decision makers, the NDMC continually pursues ways to raise the awareness and visibility of drought as one of the most costly hazards we face. This began in the mid-1990s with the creation of a state-based drought impact assessment map that would help lead to the formation of the USDM in 1999 and the DIR in 2005. The NDMC plays a key role in producing the weekly USDM and the monthly North American Drought Monitor (NADM). The USDM was created out of collaborations between the NDMC, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and has quickly become one of the most widely used products in assessing

  17. Development and evaluation of a comprehensive drought index.

    PubMed

    Esfahanian, Elaheh; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Adhikari, Umesh; Zhang, Zhen; Daneshvar, Fariborz; Herman, Matthew R

    2016-10-28

    Droughts are known as the world's costliest natural disasters impacting a variety of sectors. Despite their wide range of impacts, no universal drought definition has been defined. The goal of this study is to define a universal drought index that considers drought impacts on meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and stream health categories. Additionally, predictive drought models are developed to capture both categorical (meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural) and overall impacts of drought. In order to achieve these goals, thirteen commonly used drought indices were aggregated to develop a universal drought index named MASH. The thirteen drought indices consist of four drought indices from each meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural categories, and one from the stream health category. Cluster analysis was performed to find the three closest indices in each category. Then the closest drought indices were averaged in each category to create the categorical drought score. Finally, the categorical drought scores were simply averaged to develop the MASH drought index. In order to develop predictive drought models for each category and MASH, the ReliefF algorithm was used to rank 90 variables and select the best variable set. Using the best variable set, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to develop drought predictive models and their accuracy was examined using the 10-fold cross validation technique. The models' predictabilities ranged from R(2) = 0.75 for MASH to R(2) = 0.98 for the hydrological drought model. The results of this study can help managers to better position resources to cope with drought by reducing drought impacts on different sectors.

  18. Enhancing Drought Risk Management: Tools and Services for Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) (http://drought.unl.edu) has been working with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) (http://drought.gov) and other partners with a goal of developing tools, products, services and outreach with a goal of contributing to a U.S. drought early warning system (DEWS) as well as contributing to efforts underway toward building a virtual and collaborative global drought early warning system (GDEWS). The NDMC's mission is to work to reduce societal vulnerability to drought by helping decision makers at all levels to: develop and implement DEWS, understand and prevent drought impacts and increase long-term resilience to drought through proactive risk management planning. The NDMC is a national center founded in 1995 and located at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The NDMC conducts basic and applied research, services and decision support applications, along with the maintaining of a number of operational drought-related tools, products and outreach activities, including the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI) along with the newly developed and enhanced National Drought Atlas, Drought Ready Communities Guide to Community Drought Preparedness and our Managing Drought Risk on the Ranch planning section on our newly revamped web site at http://drought.unl.edu. This presentation will describe in more detail the various drought resources, tools, research efforts, services and collaborations already being provided by the NDMC and its partners toward developing a collaborative DEWS in the U.S. and around the world.

  19. How tree roots respond to drought

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Dawes, Melissa A.; Arend, Matthias; Sperisen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing climate change is characterized by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organization and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signaling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field. PMID:26284083

  20. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots.

  1. Mechanisms Underlying Early Medieval Droughts in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Multidecadal drought during the early Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 800-1200 CE) in Mesoamerica has been implicated in the demise of many pre-Columbian societies, including the Maya. The mechanisms behind these droughts, however, are poorly understood. Researchers most often interpret these records as tracking the mean position of the ITCZ, with a southward shifted ITCZ resulting in Mesoamerican drought. This is puzzling, however, because our dynamical understanding of the ITCZ and its role in interhemispheric heat transport would suggest a more northward shifted ITCZ during the MCA. Here, we evaluate two hypotheses to reconcile existing proxies and dynamics. First, we assess whether evidence for dry conditions during the MCA is robust across multiple Mesoamerican proxy records, focusing on the influence of radiometric dating uncertainty on estimates of drought timing. Second, we use control simulations of CCSM4 and HadCM3, as well as a broader synthesis of oceanic and terrestrial proxies, to explore the mechanisms responsible for long-term drought in Mesoamerica. Ultimately, we suggest that a temporary slowdown of the AMOC, either internally or externally forced, combined with local and regional land surface feedbacks can explain these droughts in Mesoamerica.

  2. Reducing societal vulnerability to drought: A methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Given worldwide experience with drought during the past several decades and the magnitude of associated impacts, it is apparent that vulnerability to extended periods of water shortage is escalating. Developing a national or provincial drought policy and preparedness plan is a complicated but essential first step toward reducing societal vulnerability. Until recently, nations had devoted little effort to drought preparedness, preferring instead the reactive or crisis management approach. Presently, an increasing number of nations are pursuing a more proactive approach that emphasizes the principles of risk management and sustainable development. Because of the multitude of impacts associated with drought and the numerous governmental agencies that have responsibility for some aspect of monitoring, assessment, mitigation, and planning, developing a policy and plan must be an integrated process within and between levels of government. This paper outlines a generic process that can be adopted by governments that desire to develop a more comprehensive and long-term approach to drought management and planning. Countries and states or provincial authorities that have adopted this approach is presented as case studies. This process is timely, given the declaration of the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and the recent International Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought (June, 1994), an offshoot of deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

  3. Separating drought effects from roof artefacts on ecosystem processes in a grassland drought experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Anja; Fester, Thomas; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Given the predictions of increasing risk of long drought periods under various climate change scenarios, there have been numerous experimental field studies simulating drought using transparent roofs in different ecosystems and regions. Such roofs may, however, have unknown side effects, here called artefacts, on the response variables potentially confounding experimental results and misleading conclusions. Knowing the ecosystem response to such roof artefacts is therefore indispensible to correctly predict the effects of drought on the composition and functioning of ecosystems. We therefore aimed at filling this gap by studying the relevance of roof artefacts in a temperate grassland ecosystem. We compared pure drought effects to roof artefacts by measuring the response of three ecosystem properties (aboveground biomass, litter decomposition and plant metabolite profiles). We realized three treatments: a drought treatment simulated by means of transparent roofs, an unroofed control treatment receiving natural rainfall and a roofed control, with rain water applied according to ambient conditions. The roof constructions in our experiment caused a slight change in air (+0.14 °C during night) and soil (-0.45°C on warm days, +0.25 °C on cold nights) temperatures while photosynthetically active radiation was decreased (-16%) on bright days. Aboveground plant community biomass was reduced in the drought treatment (-41%), but there was no significant difference between the roofed and unroofed control, thus there was no measurable response of aboveground biomass to roof artefacts, but a considerable response to drought. Compared to the unroofed control, litter decomposition was decreased both in the drought treatment (-26%) and in the roofed control treatment (-18%), suggesting a response of litter decomposition to roof artefacts in addition to drought. Similarly, aboveground metabolite profiles in the model plant species Medicago x varia were significantly different

  4. Separating drought effects from roof artifacts on ecosystem processes in a grassland drought experiment.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Anja; Fester, Thomas; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    1: Given the predictions of increased drought probabilities under various climate change scenarios, there have been numerous experimental field studies simulating drought using transparent roofs in different ecosystems and regions. Such roofs may, however, have unknown side effects, called artifacts, on the measured variables potentially confounding the experimental results. A roofed control allows the quantification of potential artifacts, which is lacking in most experiments. 2: We conducted a drought experiment in experimental grasslands to study artifacts of transparent roofs and the resulting effects of artifacts on ecosystems relative to drought on three response variables (aboveground biomass, litter decomposition and plant metabolite profiles). We established three drought treatments, using (1) transparent roofs to exclude rainfall, (2) an unroofed control treatment receiving natural rainfall and (3) a roofed control, nested in the drought treatment but with rain water reapplied according to ambient conditions. 3: Roofs had a slight impact on air (+0.14°C during night) and soil temperatures (-0.45°C on warm days, +0.25°C on cold nights), while photosynthetically active radiation was decreased significantly (-16%). Aboveground plant community biomass was reduced in the drought treatment (-41%), but there was no significant difference between the roofed and unroofed control, i.e., there were no measurable roof artifact effects. 4: Compared to the unroofed control, litter decomposition was decreased significantly both in the drought treatment (-26%) and in the roofed control treatment (-18%), suggesting artifact effects of the transparent roofs. Moreover, aboveground metabolite profiles in the model plant species Medicago x varia were different from the unroofed control in both the drought and roofed control treatments, and roof artifact effects were of comparable magnitude as drought effects. 5: Our results stress the need for roofed control treatments

  5. Separating Drought Effects from Roof Artifacts on Ecosystem Processes in a Grassland Drought Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Anja; Fester, Thomas; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Weigelt, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    1 Given the predictions of increased drought probabilities under various climate change scenarios, there have been numerous experimental field studies simulating drought using transparent roofs in different ecosystems and regions. Such roofs may, however, have unknown side effects, called artifacts, on the measured variables potentially confounding the experimental results. A roofed control allows the quantification of potential artifacts, which is lacking in most experiments. 2 We conducted a drought experiment in experimental grasslands to study artifacts of transparent roofs and the resulting effects of artifacts on ecosystems relative to drought on three response variables (aboveground biomass, litter decomposition and plant metabolite profiles). We established three drought treatments, using (1) transparent roofs to exclude rainfall, (2) an unroofed control treatment receiving natural rainfall and (3) a roofed control, nested in the drought treatment but with rain water reapplied according to ambient conditions. 3 Roofs had a slight impact on air (+0.14°C during night) and soil temperatures (−0.45°C on warm days, +0.25°C on cold nights), while photosynthetically active radiation was decreased significantly (−16%). Aboveground plant community biomass was reduced in the drought treatment (−41%), but there was no significant difference between the roofed and unroofed control, i.e., there were no measurable roof artifact effects. 4 Compared to the unroofed control, litter decomposition was decreased significantly both in the drought treatment (−26%) and in the roofed control treatment (−18%), suggesting artifact effects of the transparent roofs. Moreover, aboveground metabolite profiles in the model plant species Medicago x varia were different from the unroofed control in both the drought and roofed control treatments, and roof artifact effects were of comparable magnitude as drought effects. 5 Our results stress the need for roofed control

  6. Drought and climatic change impact on streamflow in small watersheds.

    PubMed

    Tigkas, Dimitris; Vangelis, Harris; Tsakiris, George

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive, thought simple, methodology, for forecasting the annual hydrological drought, based on meteorological drought indications available early during the hydrological year. The meteorological drought of 3, 6 and 9 months is estimated using the reconnaissance drought index (RDI), whereas the annual hydrological drought is represented by the streamflow drought index (SDI). Regression equations are derived between RDI and SDI, forecasting the level of hydrological drought for the entire year in real time. Further, using a wide range of scenarios representing possible climatic changes and drought events of varying severity, nomographs are devised for estimating the annual streamflow change. The Medbasin rainfall-runoff model is used to link meteorological data to streamflow. The later approach can be useful for developing preparedness plans to combat the consequences of drought and climate change. As a case study, the area of N. Peloponnese (Greece) was selected, incorporating several small river basins.

  7. Not all droughts are created equal: the impacts of interannual drought pattern and magnitude on grassland carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Hoover, David L; Rogers, Brendan M

    2016-05-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, may have immediate and potentially prolonged effects on carbon cycling. Grasslands store approximately one-third of all terrestrial carbon and may become carbon sources during droughts. However, the magnitude and duration of drought-induced disruptions to the carbon cycle, as well as the mechanisms responsible, remain poorly understood. Over the next century, global climate models predict an increase in two types of drought: chronic but subtle 'press-droughts', and shorter term but extreme 'pulse-droughts'. Much of our current understanding of the ecological impacts of drought comes from experimental rainfall manipulations. These studies have been highly valuable, but are often short term and rarely quantify carbon feedbacks. To address this knowledge gap, we used the Community Land Model 4.0 to examine the individual and interactive effects of pulse- and press-droughts on carbon cycling in a mesic grassland of the US Great Plains. A series of modeling experiments were imposed by varying drought magnitude (precipitation amount) and interannual pattern (press- vs. pulse-droughts) to examine the effects on carbon storage and cycling at annual to century timescales. We present three main findings. First, a single-year pulse-drought had immediate and prolonged effects on carbon storage due to differential sensitivities of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Second, short-term pulse-droughts caused greater carbon loss than chronic press-droughts when total precipitation reductions over a 20-year period were equivalent. Third, combining pulse- and press-droughts had intermediate effects on carbon loss compared to the independent drought types, except at high drought levels. Overall, these results suggest that interannual drought pattern may be as important for carbon dynamics as drought magnitude and that extreme droughts may have long-lasting carbon feedbacks in grassland ecosystems.

  8. Probabilistic assessment of agricultural droughts using graphical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadas, Meenu; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2015-07-01

    Agricultural droughts are often characterized by soil moisture in the root zone of the soil, but crop needs are rarely factored into the analysis. Since water needs vary with crops, agricultural drought incidences in a region can be characterized better if crop responses to soil water deficits are also accounted for in the drought index. This study investigates agricultural droughts driven by plant stress due to soil moisture deficits using crop stress functions available in the literature. Crop water stress is assumed to begin at the soil moisture level corresponding to incipient stomatal closure, and reaches its maximum at the crop's wilting point. Using available location-specific crop acreage data, a weighted crop water stress function is computed. A new probabilistic agricultural drought index is then developed within a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework that provides model uncertainty in drought classification and accounts for time dependence between drought states. The proposed index allows probabilistic classification of the drought states and takes due cognizance of the stress experienced by the crop due to soil moisture deficit. The capabilities of HMM model formulations for assessing agricultural droughts are compared to those of current drought indices such as standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (SC-PDSI). The HMM model identified critical drought events and several drought occurrences that are not detected by either SPEI or SC-PDSI, and shows promise as a tool for agricultural drought studies.

  9. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  10. Transcriptomic Changes of Drought-Tolerant and Sensitive Banana Cultivars Exposed to Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Muthusamy; Uma, Subbaraya; Backiyarani, Suthanthiram; Saraswathi, Marimuthu Somasundaram; Chandrasekar, Arumugam

    2016-01-01

    In banana, drought responsive gene expression profiles of drought-tolerant and sensitive genotypes remain largely unexplored. In this research, the transcriptome of drought-tolerant banana cultivar (Saba, ABB genome) and sensitive cultivar (Grand Naine, AAA genome) was monitored using mRNA-Seq under control and drought stress condition. A total of 162.36 million reads from tolerant and 126.58 million reads from sensitive libraries were produced and mapped onto the Musa acuminata genome sequence and assembled into 23,096 and 23,079 unigenes. Differential gene expression between two conditions (control and drought) showed that at least 2268 and 2963 statistically significant, functionally known, non-redundant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from tolerant and sensitive libraries. Drought has up-regulated 991 and 1378 DEGs and down-regulated 1104 and 1585 DEGs respectively in tolerant and sensitive libraries. Among DEGs, 15.9% are coding for transcription factors (TFs) comprising 46 families and 9.5% of DEGs are constituted by protein kinases from 82 families. Most enriched DEGs are mainly involved in protein modifications, lipid metabolism, alkaloid biosynthesis, carbohydrate degradation, glycan metabolism, and biosynthesis of amino acid, cofactor, nucleotide-sugar, hormone, terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Several, specific genotype-dependent gene expression pattern was observed for drought stress in both cultivars. A subset of 9 DEGs was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These results will provide necessary information for developing drought-resilient banana plants. PMID:27867388

  11. Heritability of drought resistance traits and correlation of drought resistance and agronomic traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits under str...

  12. Using temporal changes in drought indices to generate probabilistic drought intensification forecasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the potential utility of using rapid temporal changes in drought indices to provide early warning of an elevated risk for drought development over sub-seasonal time scales is assessed. Standardized change anomalies were computed each week during the 2000-2012 growing seasons for drou...

  13. Drought in Southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    May 2007 was a record-setting month in Georgia. Typically a dry month in this southern state, May 2007 was exceptionally so, with many locations setting record-low rainfall records and some receiving no rain at all, said state climatologist David Emory Stooksbury on GeorgiaDrought.org. The lack of rain slowed plant growth, as shown in this vegetation index image. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite collected the data used to make this image between May 9 and May 24, 2007. The image shows vegetation conditions compared to average conditions observed from 2000 through 2006. Areas in which plants are more sparse or are growing more slowly than average are brown, while better-than-average growth is green. Georgia and its neighbors (South Carolina, Alabama, and Florida) are all brown, an indication that the lack of rainfall is suppressing plant growth. The gray area in southern Georgia and northern Florida shows where MODIS could not collect valid vegetation measurements, either because of clouds or smoke. In this case, the area corresponds with land that burned during this period and was probably masked by smoke. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef, Global Agricultural Monitoring Project.

  14. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of drought is a ubiquitous feature of the global water cycle. Such an extreme does not necessarily lead to an overall change in the magnitude of the global water cycle but it of course affects the regional cycling of water. Droughts are recurring aspects of weather and climate extremes as are floods and tornadoes, but they differ substantially since they have long durations and lack easily identified onsets and terminations. Drought is a relatively common feature of the North American and Canadian climate system and all regions of the continent are affected from time-to-time. However, it tends to be most common and severe over the central regions of the continent. The Canadian Prairies are therefore prone to drought. Droughts in the Canadian Prairies are distinctive in North America. The large scale atmospheric circulations are influenced by blocking from intense orography to the west and long distances from all warm ocean-derived atmospheric water sources; growing season precipitation is generated by a highly complex combination of frontal and convective systems; seasonality is severe and characterized by a relatively long snow-covered and short growing seasons; local surface runoff is primarily produced by snowmelt water; there is substantial water storage potential in the poorly drained, post-glacial topography; and aquifers are overlain by impermeable glacial till, but there are also important permeable aquifers. One example of Prairie drought is the recent one that began in 1999 with cessation of its atmospheric component in 2004/2005 and many of its hydrological components in 2005. This event produced the worst drought for at least a hundred years in parts of the Canadian Prairies. Even in the dust bowl of the 1930s, no single year over the central Prairies were drier than in 2001. The drought affected agriculture, recreation, tourism, health, hydro-electricity, and forestry in the Prairies. Gross Domestic Product fell some 5.8 billion and

  15. The European Drought Observatory (EDO) - A European Contribution to a Global Drought Information System (GDIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.; Sepulcre, G.; De Jager, A.; Magni, D.; Valentini, L.; Russo, S.; Micale, F.; Barbosa, P.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage and climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement and integrate national activities with a European view. At the core of EDO is a portal, including a map viewer, a metadata catalogue, a media-monitor and analysis tools. Underlying data stem from ground and satellite observations as well as from distributed hydrological models and are stored in a relational database. Through the map viewer Europe-wide up-to-date information on the occurrence and severity of droughts is presented, complemented by more detailed information from regional, national and local observatories through OGC compliant web-mapping services. The continent-wide meteorological, soil moisture-related and vegetation-related indicators are then integrated into a combined indicator showing different alert levels targeted specifically to decision makers in water and land management. Finally, time series of historical maps as well as graphs of the temporal evolution of drought indices for individual grid cells in Europe can be retrieved and analysed. On-going work is focusing on developing reliable medium and long-range probabilistic as well as seasonal drought forecasts, the analysis of climate change impacts on drought occurrence, duration and severity and the assessment of current and future drought hazard and risk. In addition, remote sensing-based water-stress indicators from geostationary satellite data (e.g., MSG SEVIRI) are developed in order to complement the available information. The further development of EDO as part of a Global Drought Information

  16. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  17. Past and future regional drought in Europe: corroborating global hydrological models and projecting drought characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, S.; Williamson, J.; Hannaford, J.; Prudhomme, C.; Goodsell, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recent drought events in Europe have caused significant environmental and socio-economic impacts, and water resource managers are increasingly concerned with how hydrological drought characteristics are set to evolve in future under changing climatic conditions. Global hydrological models (GHMs) enable the projection of future runoff, but before such projections can be used with confidence, there is a need to assess how well models perform in reproducing historical droughts. This study presents an intercomparison of eight GHMs, validated against observed data, in terms of their ability to reproduce regional drought characteristics in Europe. The suite of models is then used to examine how drought characteristics may evolve under future climate change scenarios and the uncertainty associated with the simulations. In order to facilitate the validation, a Regional Deficiency Index (RDI) is used to compare regional drought characteristics derived from GHMs against observations. Drought 'catalogues' have been derived for 23 homogeneous European regions from 0.5° gridded total runoff outputs of eight GHMs (JULES, WaterGAP, MPI-HM, HTessel, H08, LPJml, Orchidee, and GWAVA) driven by WATCH Forcing Data (WFD). These catalogues, covering the period 1963-2000 on a daily time step, have been corroborated against drought catalogues produced by a previous study derived from observed daily streamflow data from >500 catchments across Europe, for the same 23 regions and across an identical period. The observed catalogues provide a benchmark to assess the extent to which GHMs are able to reproduce historical drought characteristics. Model performance in reproducing observed historical drought characteristics varies significantly between GHMs, regions, and drought characteristics considered. Nevertheless, there are many instances in which some of the GHMs generally perform well in reproducing regional drought duration, spatial coherence, onset and termination, as well as 'drought

  18. Drought drives DOM biodegradability in intermittent streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harjung, Astrid; Butturini, Andrea; Sabater-Comas, Francesc

    2015-04-01

    In lotic ecosystems drought periods strongly influence the availability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in terms of quantity and quality. It is essential to investigate the link between DOM properties and ecosystem functioning under this hydrologic condition. Within this context, the study explores the relationship between DOM availability and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) in a pool which is disconnected from the river continuum during drought episode. It is expected that the increase of water residence time, as a consequence of drought, will enhance the transformation of DOM and the contribution of autochthonous relative to allochthonous DOM. An intensive sampling program of surface and hyporheic waters coupled to continuous measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO) and DOM was performed in a pristine Mediterranean intermittent stream in order to prove this hypothesis. The field site is characterized by a permeable streambed and impermeable bedrock, which interrupts the surface-hyporheic connectivity during drought periods. Due to the impermeability of the bedrock there is still surface water captured in small pools, even when the rest of the stream is dry. The samples were analysed for nutrients and DOM. With respect to DOM quality this study focuses on its fluorescent properties. The data of continuous measurements taken over two months inside the pool indicates that DOM is becoming more recalcitrant as the pool gets disconnected and residence times increase. During drought the NEP seems to uncouple from DOM concentrations and in some moments of severe drought they even show an inverse relationship. A decrease of terrestrial input, shifting the DOM source to autochthonous production and chemical transformation of DOM could cause this change in DOM availability. Drought in geomorphological diverse streams is not just causing a loss of water and hence source of DOM, but also enhancing other factors of production and transformation. Consequently, it is important to

  19. The ambiguity of drought events, a bottleneck for Amazon forest drought response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Verbeeck, Hans; Baker, Timothy; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Galbraith, David; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kruijt, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Meir, Patrick; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Von Randow, Celso; Zhang, Ke

    2016-04-01

    Considering the important role of the Amazon forest in the global water and carbon cycle, the prognosis of altered hydrological patterns resulting from climate change provides strong incentive for apprehending the direct implications of drought on the vegetation of this ecosystem. Dynamic global vegetation models have the potential of providing a useful tool to study drought impacts on various spatial and temporal scales. This however assumes the models being able to properly represent drought impact mechanisms. But how well do the models succeed in meeting this assumption? Within this study meteorological driver data and model output data of 4 different DGVMs, i.e. ORCHIDEE, JULES, INLAND and LPGmL, are studied. Using the palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and the mean cumulative water deficit (MWD), temporal and spatial representation of drought events are studied in the driver data and are referenced to historical extreme drought events in the Amazon. Subsequently, within the resulting temporal and spatial frame, we studied the drought impact on the above ground biomass (AGB) and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes. Flux tower data, field inventory data and the JUNG data-driven GPP product for the Amazon region are used for validation. Our findings not only suggest that the current state of the studied DGVMs is inadequate in representing Amazon droughts in general, but also highlights strong inter-model differences in drought responses. Using scatterplot-studies and input-output correlations, we provide insight in the origin of these encountered inter-model differences. In addition, we present directives of model development and improvement in scope of Amazon forest drought response modelling.

  20. Drought and Snow: Analysis of Drivers, Processes and Impacts of Streamflow Droughts in Snow-Dominated Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Ploum, S.

    2015-12-01

    Around the world, drought events with severe socio-economic impacts seem to have a link with winter snowpack. That is the case for the current California drought, but analysing historical archives and drought impact databases for the US and Europe we found many impacts that can be attributed to snowpack anomalies. Agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) were found to be the sectors that are most affected by drought related to snow. In this study, we investigated the processes underlying hydrological drought in snow-dominated regions. We found that drought drivers are different in different regions. In Norway, more than 90% of spring streamflow droughts were preceded by below-average winter precipitation, while both winter air temperature and spring weather were indifferent. In Austria, however, spring streamflow droughts could only be explained by a combination of factors. For most events, winter and spring air temperatures were above average (70% and 65% of events, respectively), and winter and spring precipitation was below average (75% and 80%). Because snow storage results from complex interactions between precipitation and temperature and these variables vary strongly with altitude, snow-related drought drivers have a large spatial variability. The weather input is subsequently modified by land properties. Multiple linear regression between drought severity variables and a large number of catchment characteristics for 44 catchments in Austria showed that storage influences both drought duration and deficit volume. The seasonal storage of water in snow and glaciers was found to be a statistically important variable explaining streamflow drought deficit. Our drought impact analysis in Europe also showed that 40% of the selected drought impacts was caused by a combination of snow-related and other drought types. For example, the combination of a winter drought with a preceding or subsequent summer drought was reported to have a large effect on

  1. Drought and Snow: Analysis of Drivers, Processes and Impacts of Streamflow Droughts in Snow-Dominated Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, Anne; Laaha, Gregor; Van Lanen, Henny; Parajka, Juraj; Fleig, Anne; Ploum, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Around the world, drought events with severe socio-economic impacts seem to have a link with winter snowpack. That is the case for the current California drought, but analysing historical archives and drought impact databases for the US and Europe we found many impacts that can be attributed to snowpack anomalies. Agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) were found to be the sectors that are most affected by drought related to snow. In this study, we investigated the processes underlying hydrological drought in snow-dominated regions. We found that drought drivers are different in different regions. In Norway, more than 90% of spring streamflow droughts were preceded by below-average winter precipitation, while both winter air temperature and spring weather were indifferent. In Austria, however, spring streamflow droughts could only be explained by a combination of factors. For most events, winter and spring air temperatures were above average (70% and 65% of events, respectively), and winter and spring precipitation was below average (75% and 80%). Because snow storage results from complex interactions between precipitation and temperature and these variables vary strongly with altitude, snow-related drought drivers have a large spatial variability. The weather input is subsequently modified by land properties. Multiple linear regression between drought severity variables and a large number of catchment characteristics for 44 catchments in Austria showed that storage influences both drought duration and deficit volume. The seasonal storage of water in snow and glaciers was found to be a statistically important variable explaining streamflow drought deficit. Our drought impact analysis in Europe also showed that 40% of the selected drought impacts was caused by a combination of snow-related and other drought types. For example, the combination of a winter drought with a preceding or subsequent summer drought was reported to have a large effect on

  2. Drought Characterisation Using Ground and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hore, Sudipta Kumar; Werner, Micha; Maskey, Shreedhar

    2016-04-01

    The North-West of Bangladesh is frequently affected by drought, which may have profound impacts to different water related sectors. The characterisation and identification of drought is, however, challenging. Despite several standard drought indices being available it is important that indicators proposed in support of an effective drought management are related to the impacts drought may have. In this study we present the characterisation of drought in the districts of Rajshahi and Rangpur in North-Western Bangladesh. Drought indicators were developed using available temperature, precipitation, river discharge and groundwater level data, as well as from remotely sensed NDVI data. We compare these indicators to records of drought impacts to agriculture, fisheries and migration collected from relevant organisations, as well as through interviews with key stakeholders, key informants, and community leaders. The analysis shows that droughts occur frequently, with nine occurrences in the last 42 years, as found using common meteorological drought indicators. NDVI data corroborated these events, despite being only available from 2001. The agricultural sector was adversely impacted in all events, with impacts correlated to drought severity. Impacts to the fisheries sector were, however, reported only three times, though impacts to fisheries are less well recorded. Interestingly, the good relationship between meteorological drought indicators and agricultural impacts weakens in the last decade. This appears to be due to the intensification of irrigation using groundwater, with the declining groundwater levels found in Rajshahi district suggesting overexploitation of the resource, and the increasing importance of groundwater drought indicators. The study reveals the drought indicators that are important to the agriculture and fisheries sectors, and also tentative threshold values at which drought start to impact these sectors. Such sector relevant drought indicators, as

  3. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance. PMID:26193269

  4. Multivariate drought frequency estimation using copula method in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Cui; Zhang, Jiahua; Yao, Fengmei

    2017-02-01

    Drought over Southwest China occurs frequently and has an obvious seasonal characteristic. Proper management of regional droughts requires knowledge of the expected frequency or probability of specific climate information. This study utilized k-means classification and copulas to demonstrate the regional drought occurrence probability and return period based on trivariate drought properties, i.e., drought duration, severity, and peak. A drought event in this study was defined when 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was less than -0.99 according to the regional climate characteristic. Then, the next step was to classify the region into six clusters by k-means method based on annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature and to establish marginal probabilistic distributions for each drought property in each sub-region. Several copula types were selected to test the best fit distribution, and Student t copula was recognized as the best one to integrate drought duration, severity, and peak. The results indicated that a proper classification was important for a regional drought frequency analysis, and copulas were useful tools in exploring the associations of the correlated drought variables and analyzing drought frequency. Student t copula was a robust and proper function for drought joint probability and return period analysis, which is important for analyzing and predicting the regional drought risks.

  5. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops.

    PubMed

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-07-17

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance.

  6. Regionalisation of groundwater droughts using hydrograph classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, J. P.; Marchant, B. P.; Bricker, S. H.; Morgan, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater drought is a spatially and temporally variable phenomenon. Here we describe the development and application of a method to regionalize and quantify groundwater drought based on categorisation of Standardised Groundwater level Index (SGI) time series. The categorisation scheme uses non-hierarchical k-means cluster analysis. This has been applied to 74 SGI time series for the period January 1983 to August 2012 for a case study from Lincolnshire, UK. Six SGI time series clusters have been identified. For each cluster a correlation can be established between the mean SGI and a mean Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) associated with an optimal SPI accumulation period, qmax. Based on a comparison of SPI time series for each cluster and SPI estimated for the whole study area, it is inferred that the clusters are largely independent of heterogeneity in the diving meteorology across the study region and are primarily a function of catchment and hydrogeological factors. This inference is supported by the observation that the majority of sites in each cluster are associated with one of three principal aquifers in the study region. The groundwater drought characteristics of the three largest clusters (CL1, CL2 and CL4 that constitute ~80% of the sites) have been analyzed. There is a common linear relationship between drought magnitude and duration for each of three clusters. However, there are differences in the character of the groundwater drought events between the three clusters as a function of autocorrelation of the mean SGI time series for each cluster. For example, CL1 has a relatively short period of significant SGI autocorrelation compared with CL2 (15 and 23 months respectively); CL1 has more than twice the number of drought episodes (39 episodes) than CL2 (15 episodes), and the average and maximum duration of droughts in CL1 (4.6 and 27 months) are less than half those of CL2 (11.3 and 61 months). The drought characteristics of CL4 are intermediate

  7. An Interface to Drought Mitigation: Decision Support Tools from the National Drought Mitigation Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M.; Fuchs, B.; Hayes, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) (http://drought.unl.edu) has been working with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) (http://drought.gov) and other partners with a goal of developing tools to enhance drought risk management activities around the world. The NDMC is a national center founded in 1995 and located at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The NDMC conducts basic and applied research, services and decision support applications, along with maintaining a number of operational drought-related tools and products including the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR) and Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). The NDMC's newly launched National Drought Atlas (NDA) will be the focus of this presentation. Building off the concept of the original National Electronic Drought Atlas (NEDA) developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (led by Hoskings, Wallis and Guttman in the early 1990s), the original NEDA consisted of approximately 1000 stations taken from the Historical Climate Network (HCN). The period of record was limited at that time with most stations only having digital data from the late 1940s to present. For the NDMC's NDA, more than 12,000 stations with precipitation and/or temperature records from the National Weather Service Cooperative data (COOP) network were analyzed through the Regional Climate Centers' (RCCs) Applied Climate Information System (ACIS). From the initial sample set of 12,000 sites considered, over 3000 stations had at least 40 years of data and over 1700 sites had over 60 years of data meeting our criteria. A unique period of record (POR) was established for each station based on the screening criteria, with each station having a unique starting date. From the final selection of 3059 stations, all have at least 40+ years of data and 827 sites contain over 80+ years of data. In essence, the new NDA tripled the size and doubled the period of record of those sites used in

  8. Uncertainty in climate change and drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.; Tasker, Gary D.; Ayers, Mark A.; ,

    1991-01-01

    A series of projections of climate change were applied to a watershed model of the Delaware River basin to identify sources of uncertainty in predicting effects of climate change on drought in the basin as defined by New York City reservoir contents. The watershed model is a calibrated, monthly time-step water-balance model that incorporates the operation of reservoirs and diversion canals, and accounts for all inflows to and outflows from the basin at several key nodes. The model assesses the effects of projected climate change on reservoir contents by calculating the frequency with which the basin enters drought conditions under a range of climate-change conditions. Two primary sources of uncertainty that affect predictions of drought frequency in the Delaware River basin were considered: (1) uncertainty in the amount of change in mean air temperature and precipitation, and (2) uncertainty in the effects of natural climate variability on future temperature and precipitation. Model results indicate that changes in drought frequency in the Delaware River basin are highly sensitive to changes in mean precipitation; therefore, the uncertainty associated with predictions of future precipitation has a large effect on the prediction of future drought frequency in the basin.

  9. Diagnosing Drought in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, A. L. S.; Hoffman, F. M.; Koven, C. D.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Predictions of future climate impacts such as drought rely heavily on metrics based on changes in rainfall and changes in the demand for water from the atmosphere. However, the underlying driver of climate change is the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), which simultaneously increases temperature globally and modifies the water needs of plants. Although the influence of CO2 on plant stomatal conductance and transpiration is well established, the relative impact of this physiology on different drought metrics has not been rigorously assessed. We find that predictions of increasing drought stress derived using atmospheric demand metrics in many regions (including potential evapotraspiration and Palmer Drought Stress Index) correspond to places where Earth system models show stable or increasing water availability on land when assessed using the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Approximately 70% of the increase in global water availability is a direct result of the effect of CO2 reducing plant water needs. Current models predict a decoupling of water flux and carbon flux, which require revisions to how aridity is measured and drought is calculated under changing CO2.

  10. Drought in the Black Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Color-Coded Map

    Despite good rainfall and record-setting snowstorms in the spring of 2005, most of northeastern Wyoming, the Black Hills, and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) contrast the appearance of the Black Hills region of northwestern South Dakota on July 12, 2000 (left column), with views acquired four years later, on July 14, 2004 (right column). The natural-color images along the top are from MISR's nadir (downward-looking) camera. The browning that appears in 2004 compared with 2000 indicates that the vigor of green vegetation was significantly diminished in 2004.

    The color-coded maps (along the bottom) provide a quantitative measurement of the sunlight reflected from these surfaces, and the loss of sunlight-absorbing vegetation between the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the albedo at the surface increased. Albedo measures the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected by a surface, and can vary between zero (if all the incident sunlight is absorbed and none is reflected) and one (if all sunlight is reflected and none is absorbed). Dense forest has a low albedo; bright desert, snow and clouds, have a high albedo. Here, albedo is provided for the wavelengths of sunlight that plants use for photosynthesis (400 - 700 nanometers). This measurement is known as the albedo for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). Surfaces with greater absorption of PAR appear here in blue hues, whereas surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, usually due to the presence of clouds. In July 2004, low albedo areas (blue pixels) are notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased.

    Because incoming sunlight is

  11. Not all droughts are created equal: The impacts of interannual drought pattern and magnitude on grassland carbon cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, David L.; Rogers, Brendan M.

    2016-01-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, may have immediate and potentially prolonged effects on carbon cycling. Grasslands store approximately one-third of all terrestrial carbon and may become carbon sources during droughts. However, the magnitude and duration of drought-induced disruptions to the carbon cycle, as well as the mechanisms responsible, remain poorly understood. Over the next century, global climate models predict an increase in two types of drought: chronic but subtle ‘press-droughts’, and shorter term but extreme ‘pulse-droughts’. Much of our current understanding of the ecological impacts of drought comes from experimental rainfall manipulations. These studies have been highly valuable, but are often short term and rarely quantify carbon feedbacks. To address this knowledge gap, we used the Community Land Model 4.0 to examine the individual and interactive effects of pulse- and press-droughts on carbon cycling in a mesic grassland of the US Great Plains. A series of modeling experiments were imposed by varying drought magnitude (precipitation amount) and interannual pattern (press- vs. pulse-droughts) to examine the effects on carbon storage and cycling at annual to century timescales. We present three main findings. First, a single-year pulse-drought had immediate and prolonged effects on carbon storage due to differential sensitivities of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Second, short-term pulse-droughts caused greater carbon loss than chronic press-droughts when total precipitation reductions over a 20-year period were equivalent. Third, combining pulse- and press-droughts had intermediate effects on carbon loss compared to the independent drought types, except at high drought levels. Overall, these results suggest that interannual drought pattern may be as important for carbon dynamics as drought magnitude and that extreme droughts may have long-lasting carbon feedbacks in grassland ecosystems.

  12. Improved tolerance to post-anthesis drought stress by pre-drought priming at vegetative stages in drought-tolerant and -sensitive wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Liu, Yang; Cui, Yakun; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-09-01

    Wheat crop endures a considerable penalty of yield reduction to escape the drought events during post-anthesis period. Drought priming under a pre-drought stress can enhance the crop potential to tolerate the subsequent drought stress by triggering a faster and stronger defense mechanism. Towards these understandings, a set of controlled moderate drought stress at 55-60% field capacity (FC) was developed to prime the plants of two wheat cultivars namely Luhan-7 (drought tolerant) and Yangmai-16 (drought sensitive) during tillering (Feekes 2 stage) and jointing (Feekes 6 stage), respectively. The comparative response of primed and non-primed plants, cultivars and priming stages was evaluated by applying a subsequent severe drought stress at 7 days after anthesis. The results showed that primed plants of both cultivars showed higher potential to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress through improved leaf water potential, more chlorophyll, and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase contents, enhanced photosynthesis, better photoprotection and efficient enzymatic antioxidant system leading to less yield reductions. The primed plants of Luhan-7 showed higher capability to adapt the drought stress events than Yangmai-16. The positive effects of drought priming to sustain higher grain yield were pronounced in plants primed at tillering than those primed at jointing. In consequence, upregulated functioning of photosynthetic apparatus and efficient enzymatic antioxidant activities in primed plants indicated their superior potential to alleviate a subsequently occurring drought stress, which contributed to lower yield reductions than non-primed plants. However, genotypic and priming stages differences in response to drought stress also contributed to affect the capability of primed plants to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress conditions in wheat.

  13. Monitoring and predicting the 2007 U.S. drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lifeng; Wood, Eric F.

    2007-11-01

    Severe droughts developed in the West and Southeast of the U.S. starting early in 2007. The development of the droughts is well monitored and predicted by our model-based Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (DMAPS). Using the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) realtime meteorological forcing and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, DMAPS is capable of providing a quantitative assessment of the drought in near realtime. Using seasonal climate forecasts from NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFS) as one input, DMAPS successfully predicted the evolution of the droughts several months in advance. The realtime monitoring and prediction of drought with the system will provide invaluable information for drought preparation and drought impact assessment at national and local scales.

  14. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  15. The current California drought through EDDI's eyes: early warning and monitoring of agricultural and hydrologic drought with the new Evaporative Demand Drought Index.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Wood, A. W.; Morton, C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a physically based, multi-scalar drought index—the Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)—to improve treatment of evaporative dynamics in drought monitoring. Existing popular drought indices—such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index that informs much of the US Drought Monitor (USDM)—have primarily relyied on precipitation and temperature (T) to represent hydroclimatic anomalies, leaving evaporative demand (E0) most often derived from poorly performing T-based parameterizations then used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) from LSMs. Instead, EDDI leverages the inter-relations of E0 and ET, measuring E0's physical response to surface drying anomalies due to two distinct land surface/atmosphere interactions: (i) in sustained drought, limited moisture availability forces E0 and ET into a complementary relation, whereby ET declines as E0 increases; and (ii) in "flash" droughts, E0 increases due to increasing advection or radiation. E0's rise in response to both drought types suggests EDDI's robustness as a monitor and leading indicator of drought. To drive EDDI, we use for E0 daily reference ET from the ASCE Standardized Reference ET equation forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System drivers. EDDI is derived by aggregating E0 anomalies from its long-term mean across a period of interest and normalizing them to a Z-score. Positive EDDI indicates drier than normal conditions (and so drought). We use the current historic California drought as a test-case in which to examine EDDI's performance in monitoring agricultural and hydrologic drought. We observe drought development and decompose the behavior of drought's evaporative drivers during in-drought intensification periods and wetting events. EDDI's performance as a drought leading indicator with respect to the USDM is tested in important agricultural regions. Comparing streamflow from several USGS gauges in the Sierra Nevada to EDDI, we find that EDDI tracks most major

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis induces strigolactone biosynthesis under drought and improves drought tolerance in lettuce and tomato.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo; Zamarreño, Ángel María; Molina, Sonia; Andreo-Jiménez, Beatriz; Porcel, Rosa; García-Mina, José María; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alleviates drought stress in plants. However, the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as its effect on the production of signalling molecules associated with the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, the effects of drought on lettuce and tomato plant performance and hormone levels were investigated in non-AM and AM plants. Three different water regimes were applied, and their effects were analysed over time. AM plants showed an improved growth rate and efficiency of photosystem II than non-AM plants under drought from very early stages of plant colonization. The levels of the phytohormone abscisic acid, as well as the expression of the corresponding marker genes, were influenced by drought stress in non-AM and AM plants. The levels of strigolactones and the expression of corresponding marker genes were affected by both AM symbiosis and drought. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates drought stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. In addition, a correlation between AM root colonization, strigolactone levels and drought severity is shown, suggesting that under these unfavourable conditions, plants might increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with the stress.

  17. Modeling drought impact occurrence based on meteorological drought indices in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagge, James H.; Kohn, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stahl, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    There is a vital need for research that links meteorological drought indices with drought impacts felt on the ground. Previously, this link has been estimated based on experience or defined based on very narrow impact measures. This study expands on earlier work by showing the feasibility of relating user-provided impact reports with meteorological drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, through logistic regression, while controlling for seasonal and interannual effects. Analysis includes four impact types, spanning agriculture, energy and industry, public water supply, and freshwater ecosystem across five European countries. Statistically significant climate indices are retained as predictors using step-wise regression and used to compare the most relevant drought indices and accumulation periods across different impact types and regions. Agricultural impacts are explained by 2-12 month anomalies, though anomalies greater than 3 months are likely related to agricultural management practices. Energy and industrial impacts, typically related to hydropower and energy cooling water, respond slower (6-12 months). Public water supply and freshwater ecosystem impacts are explained by a more complex combination of short (1-3 month) and seasonal (6-12 month) anomalies. The resulting drought impact models have both good model fit (pseudo-R2 = 0.225-0.716) and predictive ability, highlighting the feasibility of using such models to predict drought impact likelihood based on meteorological drought indices.

  18. Operationalising resilience to drought: Multi-layered safety for flooding applied to droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijke, Jeroen; Smith, Jennifer Vessels; Gersonius, Berry; van Herk, Sebastiaan; Pathirana, Assela; Ashley, Richard; Wong, Tony; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2014-11-01

    This paper sets out a way of thinking about how to prepare for and respond to droughts in a holistic way using a framework developed for managing floods. It shows how the multi-layered safety (MLS) approach for flood resilience can be utilised in the context of drought in a way that three layers of intervention can be distinguished for operationalising drought resilience: (1) protection against water shortage through augmentation and diversification of water supplies; (2) prevention of damage in case of water shortage through increased efficiency of water use and timely asset maintenance; (3) preparedness for future water shortages through mechanisms to reduce the use of water and adopt innovative water technologies. Application of MLS to the cities of Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney shows that recent water reforms in these cities were primarily focused on protection measures that aim to reduce the hazard source or exposure to insufficient water supplies. Prevention and preparedness measures could be considered in defining interventions that aim to further increase the drought resilience of these cities. Although further research is needed, t