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Sample records for drug abuse tnd

  1. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  2. An Evaluation of the Fidelity of Implementation of a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skara, Silvana; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an implementation fidelity evaluation of the fourth experimental trial of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND). Two theoretical content components of the curriculum were examined to increase our understanding of the active ingredients of successful drug abuse prevention programs. A total of 18 senior high schools were randomly…

  3. Fidelity of Implementation in Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND): A Comparison of Classroom Teachers and Program Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Skara, Silvana; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an effectiveness trial of Project Towards No Drug Abuse [TND], in which we compared program delivery by regular classroom teachers and program specialists within the same high schools. Within 18 schools that were randomly assigned to the program or control conditions, health classrooms were assigned to program delivery by teachers or (outside) specialists. Classroom sessions were observed by pairs of observers to assess three domains of implementation fidelity: adherence, classroom process, and perceived student acceptance of the program. Pre- and immediate posttest survey data were collected from 2331 students. Of the four composite indexes of implementation fidelity that were examined, only one (quality of delivery) showed a difference between specialists and teachers, with marginally higher ratings of specialists (p < .10). Both teachers and program specialists achieved effects on three of the five immediate outcome measures, including program-specific knowledge, addiction concern, and social self-control. Students’ posttest ratings of the program overall and the quality of program delivery failed to reveal differences between the teacher- and specialist-led classrooms. These results suggest that motivated, trained classroom teachers can implement evidence-based prevention programs with fidelity and achieve immediate effects. PMID:17180722

  4. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  5. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  6. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  7. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  8. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  9. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  10. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  11. Educating against Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book is a compilation of drug education and drug abuse prevention materials collected by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) along with example of activities carried out by various countries. It opens with four introductory papers by separate authors: (1) "Prevention of Drug Dependence: A Utopian Dream?"…

  12. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  13. Contemporary drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Giannini, M C

    1986-03-01

    The physician needs to know the signs, symptoms and recommended treatments of drug overdoses. Overdose of hallucinogens usually does not require drug therapy. Overdose of amphetamines ("uppers") may be complicated by the presence of PCP, a dissociative substance. It is important for the physician to be familiar with the street terminology for contemporary drugs of abuse and to be aware of how users obtain these drugs.

  14. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Anxiety COPD Delirium Depression Pain Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Drug and Substance Abuse ...

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  16. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  17. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  18. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  19. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  20. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  1. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  2. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

    2005-01-01

    The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information.

  3. Drug abuse and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, C G; Asch, R H

    1987-09-01

    It is clear that a number of CNS agents, including drugs of abuse, can inhibit reproductive function. Figure 1 shows the chemical diversity of some of the drug groups that affect reproductive hormones. Their structural dissimilarity to the steroid hormones is also readily apparent in the figure. These chemically diverse drugs share an important pharmacologic property: they are highly potent neuroactive drugs, and they can disrupt hypothalamic-pituitary function. Although it is frequently difficult to distinguish between direct drug actions on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and subsequent effects on gonadal hormones and sex accessory gland function, the distinction is an important one. Most neuroactive drugs produce only transient effects on the central nervous pathways necessary for normal gonadotropin secretion. The disruptive effects of these drugs are likely to be transient and completely reversible, and tolerance to the inhibitory drug effects may occur even with continued drug use. Under these circumstances, normal adults may experience only subtle changes in sexual function. However, individuals with compromised reproductive function may exhibit major problems. It is also likely that adolescents may be at substantial risk for reproductive damage from these neuroactive drugs since the endocrine events associated with puberty are dependent on the normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  4. Drug Use by Students of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Ronald; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of differences in the use of certain psychoactive drugs among students who enrolled for an elective drug abuse course and students not enrolled, or who have not previously taken a drug abuse course. (Author)

  5. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  6. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  7. Effects of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse and HIV/AIDS Next Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  8. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  9. Drug abuse in slum population

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  10. Other Drugs of Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... can make you pass out. It's called a "date rape" drug because someone can secretly put it in your ... you without your permission. Rohypnol (roofies) is a date rape pill and can ... about these drugs . Bath Salts are drugs made with chemicals like ...

  11. Drugs of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Donald E., Ed.

    This Drug Enforcement Administration publication delivers clear, scientific information about drugs in a factual, straightforward way, combined with precise photographs shot to scale. The publication is intended to serve as an A to Z guide for drug history, effects, and identification information. Chapters are included on the Controlled Substances…

  12. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and ... to you. Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites ...

  13. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease.

  14. Drugs of abuse--opiates.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, W; Wesson, D R

    1990-01-01

    Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, for which there are specific diagnostic criteria, and an understanding of the pharmacology of opiates of abuse and the medications used in treating opiate dependence. The opiate agonist, methadone, is useful for both detoxification and maintenance. The opiate antagonist, naloxone, is the treatment of choice for opiate overdose, and naltrexone, also an opiate antagonist, is a useful adjunct in subgroups of opiate-dependent patients for preventing relapse. New medications for the treatment of opiate dependence are being developed. PMID:2161588

  15. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  17. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  18. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  19. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  20. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  1. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  2. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  3. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1)...

  4. Common drugs of abuse--Part II.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Mary Linda Stotter

    2004-01-01

    Drug abuse affects a significant number of individuals of all ages. Health care practitioners must be knowledgeable about both the physiological effects of such drugs and the impact of drug-seeking behavior on their patients.

  5. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior.

  6. Drug Abuse Information, Teacher Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Haskell, Comp.

    This informational publication is to be used as an aid for teachers, bringing them basic facts regarding drugs and drug abuse. Its purpose is to (1) give additional teacher background information and (2) enrich any course of study that has been developed on drug abuse. To use the material most effectively, it is suggested the teacher have an…

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  8. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  9. The First Lady Talks about Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Mrs. Reagan discusses effects of drug use among teenagers and offers suggestions to teachers, parents, and students for combating drug abuse. She stresses parent involvement and the formation of parent peer groups, as well as teachers' responsibilities. (NJ)

  10. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  11. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  12. Behavioral Analysis and Modification of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, George E.

    Some of the unique characteristics of the drug abuse field which distinguish it from the other varieties of substance abuse and research methodologies for studying determinants of drug self-administration behavior which have been developed in response to these characteristics were investigated. Data suggest that residential drug…

  13. Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What to Ask

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask » Introduction Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask Email Facebook Twitter Introduction The goal of drug abuse treatment is to stop drug use and allow ...

  14. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  15. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    The Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 directed the development and promulgation of a comprehensive, coordinated long-term Federal strategy for all drug abuse prevention and drug traffic control functions conducted, sponsored, or supported by the Federal Government. This second annual report of the Strategy Council builds on the…

  16. Pulse Check: National Trends in Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dana

    This Pulse Check is a report of national trends in illicit drug abuse and drug markets in the United States. The report draws on conversations with ethnographers and epidemiologists working in the drug field, law enforcement agents, and drug treatment providers across the United States. Information from each of these sources is summarized in…

  17. Drug Traffic and Abuse in Schools: NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Drug abuse in schools, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and tobacco abuse, are the topics of this report. Discussions are provided in these areas: (1) prevalence of drug abuse; (2) student attitudes and beliefs; (3) drug laws and school rules; (4) student searches and drug testing; (5) drug epidemic reaching the very young; (6) tobacco abuse; (7)…

  18. Drug Traffic and Abuse in Schools: NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Drug abuse in schools, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and tobacco abuse are the topics of this paper. The paper is divided into the following sections: (1) prevalence of drug abuse; (2) student attitudes and beliefs; (3) drug laws and school rules; (4) student searches and drug testing; (5) drug epidemic reaches very young; (6) tobacco abuse; (7)…

  19. Female Athletes: Targets for Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Increased participation in sports and greater pressures to win have made female athletes very vulnerable to drug abuse. How the physiology and socialization of females contributes to this problem is discussed. (Author/MT)

  20. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  1. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  2. Ocular manifestations of drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Recent findings Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called “designer,” drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. Summary In this review we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them. PMID:24100364

  3. Attitudes Among a Group of College Students toward Drug-Abuse and the Drug-Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    A study of student attitudes toward drug abuse and the drug abuser was conducted, using a modified version of Marcus's "Alcoholism Questionnaire." One hundred twenty-two college students participated. Mean factor scores (MFS) were developed for the nine factors tested. Marcus's "safe operating criterion" (ignore MFS differences that are less than…

  4. Annual Report 2000: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Justice Programs.

    This annual report reflects changes to the National Institute of Justice's Drug Use Forecasting program. After several years of development and testing, the restructured program was fully implemented in 2000 as Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM). Probability-based sampling was adopted, the interview instrument (questionnaire) was enhanced to…

  5. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jadidi, Nadjme

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe), individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals' views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies. PMID:25247105

  6. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  7. Selected Materials on Drug Abuse and Misuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigo County Public Library, Terre Haute, IN.

    The Vigo County Public Library has a Center for Drug Information which contains pamphlets, leaflets, newsletters, realia kits, films, records, cassettes, slides, educational aids and other materials on drug use, abuse and education. The materials in this list were selected for their relevance to the needs of local groups and organizations in…

  8. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  9. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and Drug... appears to have an abuse potential....

  10. Links between nutrition, drug abuse, and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew; Ali, Syed; Gaetani, Franco

    2006-08-01

    Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse may increase risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by augmenting cell damage, excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. We have reviewed here the following points: effects of drugs of abuse on nutrition and brain metabolism; effects of nutrition on actions of the drugs of abuse; drug abuse and probability of developing metabolic syndrome; role of genetic vulnerability in nutrition/drug abuse and brain damage; and the role of neuroprotective supplements in drug abuse. Nutrition education is an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs and can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. The strategies available, in particular the nutritional approach to protect the drug abusers from the metabolic syndrome and other diseases are discussed.

  11. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Public Health What Can We Do About the Heroin Overdose Epidemic? NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts ...

  12. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  13. Drug abuse and the neurovascular unit.

    PubMed

    Egleton, Richard D; Abbruscato, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse continues to create a major international epidemic affecting society. A great majority of past drug abuse research has focused mostly on the mechanisms of addiction and the specific effects of substance use disorders on brain circuits and pathways that modulate reward, motivation, craving, and decision making. Few studies have focused on the neurobiology of acute and chronic substance abuse as it relates to the neurovascular unit (brain endothelial cell, neuron, astrocyte, microglia, and pericyte). Increasing research indicates that all cellular components of the neurovascular unit play a pivotal role in both the process of addiction and how drug abuse affects the brain response to diseases. This review will focus on the specific effects of opioids, amphetamines, alcohol, and nicotine on the neurovascular unit and its role in addiction and adaption to brain diseases. Elucidation of the role of the neurovascular unit on the neurobiology associated with drug addiction will help to facilitate the development of better therapeutic approaches for drug-dependent individuals.

  14. Mixed News on Drug Abuse Among Lesbian, Gay Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... News on: Drug Abuse Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Mental Disorders Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Drug Abuse Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Mental Disorders About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  15. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-01

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  16. Non-pharmacological factors in drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Hartnoll, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the relevance of laboratory models of drug abuse to drug taking in human societies, and discusses their significance relative to other explanatory frameworks. It argues that self-administration models are poor predictors of the prevalence of drug taking, and offer an inadequate basis for both explanation and intervention. Non-pharmacological factors that may be of greater importance derive from social perspectives (notably economic and market factors, socio-economic conditions, and cultural and subcultural processes) and psychological approaches (individual, social learning, cognitive and developmental). It is concluded that drug abuse should be understood within the same framework of explanation as other human behaviour and sentiment, having major cultural, social and cognitive dimensions as well as the strictly behavioural and pharmacological.

  17. Drug Dependence and Abuse: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This selected list of references is designed to provide an introduction to both scientific and popular drug abuse literature. Criteria for selection are presented and include: (1) 1969 or 1970 books by recognized and authoritative writers, (2) current and responsible research, (3) classic books, articles and studies, and (4) factual popular…

  18. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S.; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual…

  19. Interpersonal style differences among drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Calsyn, D A; Roszell, D K; Anderson, L S

    1988-09-01

    Interpersonal style differences among drug abusers were explored using Ryan's (1977) typological system of FIRO-B interpretation. One hundred eleven male veteran drug abusers were administered the FIRO-B, along with a battery of psychological tests and a structured interview. The drug abusers were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. The categories within each FIRO-B dimension (inclusion, control, and affection) were collapsed into three larger subtypes based on general patterns of "expressed" and "wanted" scores within each dimension. The construct validity of the Ryan schema was tested by comparing the three larger groups for each dimension on a series of preselected variables for which differences would be hypothesized from FIRO theory. The results of these analyses were consistent with Ryan's (1977) and Schutz's (1978) theories about interpersonal orientation. The findings of the study provide information about the commonality and heterogeneity of interpersonal style among drug abusers. The findings also support the construct validity of Ryan's typological schema for the FIRO-B.

  20. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  1. Descriptive and Functional Classifications of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Albert S.; Stauss, Fred F.

    1977-01-01

    Polydrug (non-opiate-drug) abusers have previously been classified by a variety of typologies that can be characterized as either descriptive, functional, or a combination of both. This investigation proposes two objective scoring systems that classify polydrug users on a streetwise/straight dimension and on a self-medication/recreational-use…

  2. Facts About Drug Abuse: Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, William E.; And Others

    Following an introductory survey of the course, this modular drug abuse trainer's manual contains all course-specified materials. These materials are: the course goals and objectives; time/activity sheets; trainer guidelines, process notes, and exercise instructions; detailed lectures and supplementary information. The time/activity sheets contain…

  3. [Medical drug abuse and aging].

    PubMed

    Nubukpo, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Drug addiction is often underestimated among the aged. Opiate drugs (mostly pain killers) are the most frequently implicated in drug addiction after benzodiazepines (BZD) in the aged. The subjects aged of 65 years or more are the most represented among the BZD users in France. Frequency of BZD use varies according to various studies from 39 to 55% in this age group. Leading a lonely life is associated with the use of psychotropic drugs among retired people (OR=1.7). Vulnerability at this age must take into account not only polypathology, but also the faster aging of a minority of the population under opiate drugs substitution treatment (OST), more subjects to drugs interaction. Drug addiction among elderly often reflects the drift of "lawful" doctor's instructions that leads to an increase in drugs use. The difficulty has to do with a lack of specificity of diagnosis of addiction at this age, but perhaps also with physicans'instructions in the aged. Some authors suggest that continued and prolonged use should be considered the main criterion for BZD addiction at this age, with or without increase in doses and failed attempt at cessation. Besides, the prescription of BZD increases after retirement and loneliness.

  4. Medical Readings on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    Summaries are presented of over 150 articles in the recent medical and psychiatric literature. Topics covered are: effects of drugs, tobacco, alcohol, drugs used in medicine, vapor sniffing, marijuana, barbiturates, tranquilizers, amphetamines, methamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, other hallucinogens, heroin and the opiates, psychiatric…

  5. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  6. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  7. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  8. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  9. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse....

  10. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  11. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  12. Survey of City/County Drug Abuse Activities 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Abuse Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This monograph is the second of a two-part report delineating state and local government activities and programs in the area of drug abuse. Presented here are the efforts of cities and counties to control drug abuse, accompanied by comparisons with state actions where appropriate. A survey instrument was developed by the Drug Abuse Council, Inc.…

  13. Research Reports: Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine. NIDA hopes to change this situation ...

  14. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Haum, A; Perbix, W; Häck, H J; Stark, G B; Spilker, G; Doehn, M

    1995-05-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU stay, and suicide attempt. The 70 patients with positive blood alcohol levels on admission had a significantly higher fatality rate (31.5 per cent) in comparison with the 18.1 per cent fatality rate of patients with a negative blood alcohol level. Both groups had nearly identical mean TBSA and mean age. Chronic alcohol abuse was noted in 59 patients. These patients were found to have a higher fatality rate (31.4 per cent, 22/70) compared with that of patients without a history of chronic alcohol abuse who had an overall fatality rate of 18.1 per cent (28/155). No significant difference was found between non-intoxicated and acutely intoxicated alcoholics (31.4 vs 29.3 per cent). Our conclusion is that intake of alcohol before burn injury represents an independent risk factor. The second study was a prospective study of 16 consecutively admitted burn patients, who were evaluated for both drug and alcohol intake. Five patients had positive drug levels and five had positive alcohol levels. Five patients had a history of chronic drug and/or alcohol abuse. This incidence of alcohol and drug abuse supports the findings of our retrospective study.

  15. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  18. Pulse Check: Trends in Drug Abuse, Mid-Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meth, Marcia; Chalmers, Rebecca; Bassin, Gail

    This report serves as a source of information on drug abuse and drug markets. It aims to describe drug-abusing populations; emerging drugs; new routes of administration; varying use patterns; changing demand for treatment; drug-related criminal activity; and shifts in supply and distribution patterns. It is not designed to be used as a law…

  19. The Literature on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary D.; Brooks, Bonnie S.

    This is a bibliographical compilation of much of the literature pertinent to the current drug emphasis which has appeared since c. 1960. It is divided into two general sections: (1) books and pamphlets; and (2) articles. In all, there are 13 books and pamphlets on LSD, three on marihuana, and 52 of a more general nature. Articles are more…

  20. Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bosker, Wendy M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) is an exciting alternative matrix for monitoring drugs of abuse in workplace, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. During the last 5 years, scientific and technological advances in OF collection, point-of-collection testing devices, and screening and confirmation methods were achieved. Guidelines were proposed for workplace OF testing by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DUID testing by the European Union’s Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) program, and standardization of DUID research. Although OF testing is now commonplace in many monitoring programs, the greatest current limitation is the scarcity of controlled drug administration studies available to guide interpretation. CONTENT This review outlines OF testing advantages and limitations, and the progress in OF that has occurred during the last 5 years in collection, screening, confirmation, and interpretation of cannabinoids, opioids, amphetamines, cocaine, and benzodiazepines. We examine controlled drug administration studies, immunoassay and chromatographic methods, collection devices, point-of-collection testing device performance, and recent applications of OF testing. SUMMARY Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration approval of OF testing was delayed because questions about drug OF disposition were not yet resolved, and collection device performance and testing assays required improvement. Here, we document the many advances achieved in the use of OF. Additional research is needed to identify new bio-markers, determine drug detection windows, characterize OF adulteration techniques, and evaluate analyte stability. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that OF offers multiple advantages as an alternative matrix for drug monitoring and has an important role in DUID, treatment, workplace, and criminal justice programs. PMID:19745062

  1. Drugs and Drug Abuse: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook.

    For a relatively new field of research and interest, the bibliographic control of drug literature (indexing and recording for retrieval) is remarkable. Public and private agencies have taken the initiative in compiling catalogs, bibliographies and indexes which, although often duplicatory, nonetheless ensure access to the many aspects of the drug…

  2. Drug Abuse Education Program. Drug Abuse Education, Grades 5,7,9. Bibliography Included.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    A drug abuse education program was implemented in grades five, seven, and nine in the Baltimore City Public Schools. Unit plans outline the curriculum content and learning activities for each of the three grades. The major objective in grade five is to familiarize pupils with various medically used drugs and to develop an understanding that they…

  3. The histopathology of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Milroy, Christopher Mark; Parai, Jacqueline Louise

    2011-10-01

    The use of drugs for recreational purposes is widespread. The drugs used can be divided into groups including stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, etc.), opiates and opioids (heroin, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, etc.), sedatives (benzodiazepines and related substances) and miscellaneous drugs, including ketamine and cannabis (marijuana). These drugs can have profound effects on all organ systems in the body. The method of administration, whether by injection or inhalation, can cause localized and systemic effects, including the transmission of infection and granulomata at the site of injection and in the lungs. Suppurative abscesses from injection can result in systemic amyloidosis. Stimulants have profound effects on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, with enlarged hearts with fibrosis seen microscopically and cerebral infarction and haemorrhage. Crack cocaine use is also associated with changes in the pulmonary system, including carbon pigmented intra-alveolar macrophages, emphysema and pulmonary arterial changes. Cannabis use is associated with brown pigmented macrophages in the lung as well as changes in the respiratory tract epithelium. Opiates/opioids are associated with inhalational pneumonitis and hypoxic brain damage due to their respiratory depressant effects. Heroin use has been associated with focal segmental glomerulonephritis (heroin-associated nephropathy: HAN). 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) use is associated with changes in the cardiovascular system. Its use can lead to hyperpyrexia, which results in systemic changes. Ketamine abuse has been associated with cystitis. Drugs of abuse may affect testicular function. In analysing the effects of drugs at autopsy a systematic approach to sampling of histology is required.

  4. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  5. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukaddam, Nidal; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit.

  6. Drug Abuse. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Souver, F. Gerald; Plunkett, Thomas G.

    This booklet is concerned with providing information on drug abuse. A brief history of drug traffic and today's problem begin the pamphlet. The second part discusses the identification of drugs including opium, heroin, and marihuana. The next section is concerned with non-narcotic drug abuse, including Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) mascaline,…

  7. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161012.html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And ... 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For some teens with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and ...

  8. Clinical implications of drug abuse epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schulden, Jeffrey D; Lopez, Marsha F; Compton, Wilson M

    2012-06-01

    Research on the epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders provides continued critical insights into the distribution and determinants of drug use and drug use disorders in the United States. This research serves as a foundation for understanding the etiology of these disorders, helping to disentangle the complex interrelationship of developmental, genetic, and environmental risk and protective factors. Building on an understanding of this research in substance abuse epidemiology, it is important for clinicians to understand the unique trends in drug use in the overall communities that they serve and the unique risk factors for given individuals. The generally high prevalence of substance use disorders, along with their high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders and with the HIV epidemic, make prevention, evaluation, and referral for treatment for drug abuse an important part of routine clinical practice in a range of clinical settings, including primary care, psychiatric, and emergency department settings. Ongoing efforts to ensure insurance coverage parity for the treatment of mental health and substance use disorders offer the promise of continued improvements in the integration and availability of such services in the broader US health care system.

  9. Synthetic cannabinoids as drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John C

    2012-06-01

    In the last decade a number of products have appeared in various countries that contain synthetic cannabinoids. This article reviews the history of the sale of these drugs, and the evidence that they contain synthetic cannabinoids. The biochemistry of the synthetic cannabinoids identified thus far is discussed, including a discussion of chemical structures and biochemical targets. The cannabinoid receptor targets for these drugs are discussed, as well as other possible targets such as serotonin receptors. Evidence for the abuse potential of these drugs is reviewed. The toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids and cannabinoid products is reviewed and compared to that of the phytocannabinoid Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). As cannabinoids are a structurally diverse class of drugs, it is concluded that synthetic cannabinoids should be classified by biological activity rather than by structure, and that if this isn't done, novel synthetic cannabinoids will continue to emerge that fall outside of current regulatory classification models.

  10. A Review on Renal Toxicity Profile of Common Abusive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varun Parkash; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse has become a major social problem of the modern world and majority of these abusive drugs or their metabolites are excreted through the kidneys and, thus, the renal complications of these drugs are very common. Morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol are the most commonly abused drugs, and their use is associated with various types of renal toxicity. The renal complications include a wide range of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases leading to acute or chronic renal failure. The present review discusses the renal toxicity profile and possible mechanisms of commonly abused drugs including morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. PMID:23946695

  11. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  12. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  13. Drug use and abuse: the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Almond, B

    1992-01-01

    Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use. PMID:1638919

  14. Drug abuse treatment as AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, D S; Navaline, H; Woody, G E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among drug users enters its third decade in the United States, it is important to consider the role playing by substance abuse treatment in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: The authors review the research literature, examining findings from studies with behavioral and serologic measures on the association among treatment participation, HIV risk reduction, and HIV infection. RESULTS: Numerous studies have now documented that significantly lower rates of drug use and related risk behaviors are practiced by injecting drug users (IDUs) who are in treatment. Importantly, these behavioral differences, based primarily on self-report, are consistent with studies that have examined HIV seroprevalence and seroincidence among drug users. CONCLUSION: The underlying mechanism of action suggested by the collective findings of the available literature is rather simple-- individuals who enter and remain in treatment reduce their drug use, when leads to fewer instances of drug-related risk behavior. This lower rate of exposure results in fewer infections with HIV. The protective effects of treatment, however, can only be achieved when programs are accessible and responsive to the changing needs of drug users. Future research needs to be directed at developing a better understanding of the factors that enhance treatment entry and retention. PMID:9722815

  15. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  16. The Role of Education in Drug Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra C.

    A 1984 survey of teachers and principals revealed that the respondents considered the use of drugs and alcohol to be the worst type of discipline problem they had experienced. While the significance of the drug and alcohol abuse problem in schools supports the existence of drug abuse prevention programs in the schools, several practical reasons…

  17. Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons. Treatment Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Advanced Studies, Washington, DC.

    This report, based on a 1979 national survey of drug abuse treatment programs in the prisons of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, presents data on 160 operational programs. Descriptive information on the identification of drug-dependent inmates and the provision of drug abuse treatment by state adult correctional institutions is…

  18. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  19. The Controlled Study of the Ecology of Child Abuse and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, R. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The article reports on an ongoing, controlled study of factors related to the occurrence of child abuse, family factors related to heroin addiction, and the overall relationship between child abuse and drug abuse in 240 families. Journal availability: see EC 111 256. (DLS)

  20. Drug abuse in Nigeria: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Pela, O A; Ebie, J C

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the available literature on the epidemiology of drug abuse in Nigeria. Depending on the definition used, substances which are abused include antibiotics, antidiarrhoeals, laxatives, pain-relieving drugs, sedatives, amphetamines and cannabis. This review is, however, limited to studies on substances which alter behaviour or mood. These drugs include cannabis, sedative-hypnotics, amphetamines and alcohol. For some classes of drugs there has been a noticeable shift in patterns of drug abuse, for example, from abuse of methaqualone to barbiturates. The abuse of volatile solvents and other substances has also been noted. The review shows that there is no age limit among drug abusers. Studies on the influence of social class have been contradictory. Factors which indicate a predisposition to initial drug use have been similar to those reported in other cultures. Although the studies agreed on the classes of drugs abused and the changing patterns of drug abuse, there has been no uniform reporting system. This situation is attributed to financial constraints. Large-scale surveys which should incorporate most of the core items in any epidemiological study on substance abuse have been suggested. PMID:6985029

  1. Attitudes Among a Group of College Students Toward Drug Abuse and The Drug Abuser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    1973-01-01

    College students tend to view alcoholism and drug abuse in an equally conflicting fashion. Other findings also seem to lead to the suggestion that education programs dealing with these pathologies would probably be more effective if combined rather than separate. (Author)

  2. An Experimental Analysis of Reaction to Filmed Drug Abuse Information. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; McEwen, William J.

    Message strategies relating to information about social problems such as drug abuse have been based on the assumption that exposure to relevant information via mass media will result in behavior modification. There is need, however, for scientific inquiry into methods of information acquisition and perceptual response to information. A two-part…

  3. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hall, James A; Sarrazin, Mary S Vaughan; Huber, Diane L; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I; Reedy, Amanda R; Jang, Mijin

    2009-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. METHOD: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual (TAU), or to a fourth condition of TAU only. All were assessed at intake and followed at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: Clients in all four conditions significantly decreased substance use by 3 months after intake and maintained most gains over time. However, the addition of ICM to TAU did not improve substance use outcomes. CONCLUSION: Overall, the addition of case management did not significantly improve drug treatment as hypothesized by both researchers and clinicians. Some results were mixed, possibly due to the heterogeneous sample, wide range of case management activities, or difficulty retaining participants over time.

  4. Iowa Case Management for Rural Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hall, James A.; Sarrazin, Mary S. Vaughan; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual (TAU), or to a fourth condition of TAU only. All were assessed at intake and followed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Clients in all four conditions significantly decreased substance use by 3 months after intake and maintained most gains over time. However, the addition of ICM to TAU did not improve substance use outcomes. Conclusion Overall, the addition of case management did not significantly improve drug treatment as hypothesized by both researchers and clinicians. Some results were mixed, possibly due to the heterogeneous sample, wide range of case management activities, or difficulty retaining participants over time. PMID:22065018

  5. Trends in drug abuse in the mid-1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Jekel, J. F.; Allen, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the causes of, and some of the health and social concerns from, the growing illicit drug problem in the 1980s. It suggests that two recent developments, the decentralization of much drug production and modification to chemical laboratories in homes, and the application of increasingly innovative marketing techniques, have brought us to a new and more hazardous era of drug abuse. The new designer drugs and the new developments in cocaine abuse reveal these to be of major concern to the medical and public health professions, as well as a major worry to the public. In the absence of effective elimination of illegal drugs from the environment, attention must focus on alternative ways to reduce drug abuse. Education regarding the nature of the hazards of these drugs must increase, but there are no simple methods for reducing drug use. We must be prepared to fight growing drug abuse for some time to come. PMID:3564548

  6. Medical consequences of drug abuse and co-occurring infections: research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Jag H; Treisman, Glenn; McCance-Katz, Elinore; Tedaldi, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Substance abuse still remains one of the major problems in the world today, with millions of people abusing legal and illegal drugs. In addition, a billion people may also be infected with one or more infections. Both drugs of abuse and infections are associated with enormous burden of social, economic, and health consequences. This article briefly discusses a few medical consequences of drugs of abuse and infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, psychiatric complications in hepatitis C infection, pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions among medications used in the treatment of addiction and infections, and new drugs in development for the treatment of infections. Research is encouraged to study interactions between infections, drugs of abuse, and underlying pathophysiologic and molecular/genetic mechanisms of these interactions.

  7. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  8. Alcohol Abuse: Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my doctor that I am in recovery? The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your ...

  9. Assessment of AIDS Risk among Treatment Seeking Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, John L.; And Others

    Intravenous (IV) drug abusers are at risk for contracting transmittable diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of risk behaviors for acquiring and transmitting AIDS and hepatitis B among treatment-seeking drug abusers (N=168). Subjects participated in a…

  10. Drug Abuse and School Children: A Survey and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to survey the nature of the drug abuse problem among younger students; and (2) to determine whether profiles from abuse research on older student groups apply to a younger student sample. Subjects were 676 fifth graders in a semi-urban area. Incidence data on drug use and availability were gathered through…

  11. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  12. Drug Abuse Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  13. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area. This includes scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports.…

  14. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area. This includes scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports.…

  15. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  16. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  17. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  18. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  19. Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS), Volume 1 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    The Drug Abuse Current Awareness System (DACAS) is a comprehensive biweekly listing of citations of the recent drug abuse literature, derived from scanning the major publications media in the area, including scientific and technical journals, popular magazines, underground newspapers, books, legal journals, and government project reports. The…

  20. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses intoxicants to excess is subject to removal (5 U.S.C. 7352). The Relocation Commission recognizes...

  1. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  2. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  3. A Practical Approach to Rural Drug Abuse Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozelle, George R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews characteristics of rural drug abuse and general considerations for rural service delivery. Describes the Prevention Project, a rural drug abuse program in Florida, and explains its development, philosophy, and teaching techniques, including a basic educational module for use with rural youth. Includes recommendations for similar programs.…

  4. Drug Abuse Training as Part of a Family Medicine Clerkship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confusione, Michael; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A program incorporating experiential and didactic experience in identification and treatment of drug abuse into third-year clerkship curriculum is described. Experiential training is in a methadone maintenance clinic. Students are evaluated on their knowledge, attitudes, and level of participation in the drug abuse treatment. (MSE)

  5. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  6. [Drugs of abuse acute intoxication in paediatric emergencies].

    PubMed

    García-Algar, O; Papaseit, E; Velasco, M; López, N; Martínez, L; Luaces, C; Vall, O

    2011-06-01

    Documented cases show that acute drugs of abuse intoxication in children usually is the Fritz clinical evidence of a chronic exposure. Published clinical reports of drugs of abuse acute poisonings in children are reviewed, above all those with an underlying chronic exposure to the same or another substance. Biological matrices and exposure biomarkers useful in toxicology analysis in Paediatrics are reviewed. In toxicology, biomarkers refer to original parental substances and its metabolites and matrices refer to body substances where biomarkers are detected. In these matrices acute and chronic (previous days, weeks or months) exposures can be detected. Hair analysis has become the gold standard of drugs of abuse chronic exposure. Recommendation includes to confirm previous chronic exposure to drugs of abuse by hair analysis of children and their parents. This protocol must be applied in all cases with suspicion of acute drugs of abuse intoxication, parental consumption and/or children living in a risk environment.

  7. Prediction and Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse: Role of Preclinical Assessment of Substance Abuse Liability.

    PubMed

    Marusich, Julie A; Lefever, Timothy W; Novak, Scott P; Blough, Bruce E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2013-07-01

    In 2011, the prevalence of prescription drug abuse exceeded that of any other illicit drug except marijuana. Consequently, efforts to curtail abuse of new medications should begin during the drug development process, where abuse liability can be identified and addressed before a candidate medication has widespread use. The first step in this process is scheduling with the Drug Enforcement Agency so that legal access is appropriately restricted, dependent upon levels of abuse risk and medical benefit. To facilitate scheduling, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has published guidance for industry that describes assessment of abuse liability. The purpose of this paper is to review methods that may be used to satisfy the FDA's regulatory requirements for animal behavioral and dependence pharmacology. Methods include psychomotor activity, self-administration (an animal model of the rewarding effects of a drug), drug discrimination (an animal model of the subjective effects of a drug), and evaluation of tolerance and dependence. Data from tests conducted at RTI with known drugs of abuse illustrate typical results, and demonstrate that RTI is capable of performing these tests. While using preclinical data to predict abuse liability is an imperfect process, it has substantial predictive validity. The ultimate goal is to increase consumer safety through appropriate scheduling of new medications.

  8. Soft tissue infections in parenteral drug abusers.

    PubMed Central

    Orangio, G R; Pitlick, S D; Della Latta, P; Mandel, L J; Marino, C; Guarneri, J J; Giron, J A; Margolis, I B

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-four parenteral drug abusers admitted with soft tissue infections underwent bacteriologic and immunologic evaluation. Staphylococcus aureus and beta hemolytic streptococci were the most common organisms recovered. Enteric gram negative aerobes and oral flora were common and enteric anaerobes rare. Absolute lymphopenia and elevations in the IgA, IgG and IgM fractions of the immunoglobulins were common as were false positive VDRL examinations. Cutaneous anergy was found in 83% of the group and 70% of a simultaneously noninfected addict group. Staphylococcal carriage was frequent. Because of variation in the flora between this and other reported groups, ongoing bacteriologic surveillance could be a useful guide to initial antibiotic therapy. Differences in the pattern of immune reaction in this group when compared to different addict groups suggest a difference in antigenic stimulation, possibly as a result of differences in bacteriologic exposure. PMID:6691735

  9. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing. PMID:25062521

  10. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  11. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  12. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  13. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  14. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  15. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  16. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  17. Dermatologists and anabolic-androgenic drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Scott, M J; Scott, M J

    1989-07-01

    The use of huge self-administered dosages of anabolic-androgenic steroids by athletes and body builders is widespread in the United States, increasing at a rapid rate among athletes of both sexes and involving an ever-expanding age group. Athletes are very wary of revealing steroid use to their physicians, so a high index of suspicion is a prerequisite in diagnosing the use of these agents. Since many of the side effects of steroids are manifested in the skin, dermatologists are in a unique and favorable position to detect their use, if they are aware of such clinical signs. Once alerted to this possibility during a dermatologic examination, the dermatologist has an excellent opportunity to make users aware of the potential hazards and dangers of taking such drugs. Counselling these athletes can do much to stem the tide against the rising problem of drug abuse. It is a worthwhile service to sports in general as well as to the patient's personal health. Many of our conclusions are based on our personal experience with elite and Olympic athletes in almost every sport, body builders, and junior high school, high school, and college students and athletes.

  18. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  19. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  20. Recent trends of drug abuse and drug-associated deaths in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heesun; Park, Meejung; Hahn, Eunyoung; Choi, Haeyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lim, Miae

    2004-10-01

    Methamphetamine is the most abused drug in Korea followed by cannabis and opiates. Recent characteristics of the drug problem in Korea include increased drug smuggling from abroad, drug trafficking by organized gangs, varieties of drug smuggling, foreigners engaged in drug smuggling, and spread among drug abusers and areas. New drugs such as MDMA, Yaba, and LSD are found in greater proportion in the seizure records, indicating diversification of smuggled drugs in Korea. In addition, there is a growing tendency for the abuse of common medicines among young people in Korea because they are easily available. Methamphetamine is so seriously abused that fatalities from its overdose have occurred; since 1985, 20 such fatalities have been reported. Many deaths from the abuse of noncontrolled substances, especially dextromethorphan, zipeprol, and carisoprodol, which are taken for their hallucinogenic effects, were also reported. Recently, there was even a fatality related to smuggling of cocaine by body-packing.

  1. Drug Abuse in the Military: An Adolescent Misbehavior Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beary, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes drug abuse in the military. Survey data of military personnel (N=15,268) revealed that single, enlisted males under age 25 were the population most at risk. Alcohol and cannabis were the most common substances of abuse. Some work impairment and dependence were reported but were not typical. (Author/JAC)

  2. Student Assistance Programs: An Important Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.; DuPont, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new approach to school-based drug abuse prevention called Student Assistance Programs (SAP). SAP offers various approaches tailored to particular settings and includes students, teachers, parents, and community representatives who define and resolve student problems including substance abuse. SAP facilitates the use of 12-step…

  3. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Main Findings 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This survey, monitoring levels of substance abuse in the United States, serves as a tool for researchers and policymakers to better understand and control substance abuse problems. It provides information on 25,500 participants' use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the civilian, noninstutionalized population. Trends for the years,…

  4. Recognizing Signs of Prescription Drug Abuse and Addiction, Part I.

    PubMed

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.

  5. Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Patrick C.; And Others

    This participant manual is designed to provide an overview of federal laws and regulations pertaining to the confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records. The relationship of federal laws to state laws and regulations is also discussed. The materials, useful for persons involved in the fields of substance abuse treatment or…

  6. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  7. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  8. Drug Scene Syllabus, A Manual on Drugs and Volatile Chemical of Potential Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert B.; And Others

    A brief historical review of attempts to control the abuse of drugs introduces a series of tables listing pertinent information about drugs of potential abuse. Each table provides the common commercial and slang names for the drugs, their medical and legal classification, their potential for emotional and physical dependence, whether the user…

  9. Adolescent Drug Abuse and Alcoholism: Directions for the School and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extent of adolescent drug abuse and alcoholism, psychological factors that lead to drug abuse and drinking, and treatment approaches that have been used with young people. Focuses on drug-abusing family systems and the roles of the school and the community in combatting drug abuse. (Author/GC)

  10. 75 FR 3239 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Rapid Assessment for Drug Abuse and... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive...

  11. 75 FR 16815 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Mechanism for Time-Sensitive Drug Abuse... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, 6101 Executive...

  12. Treatment of Drug Abuse: An Overview. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series 34, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This report presents a brief review of the development of methods and programs for treatment of drug abusers in the United States. In order to limit the scope of the report, discussion of the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is excluded. The report focuses primarily on the treatment of opiate dependence, since most of the experience on…

  13. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  14. Drug Abuse Education and Prevention Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    In a national poll conducted in 1988, 83 percent of the American people felt that the nation's drug problem was "out of control." In 1988, Congress, responding to the public mandate, passed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. Title III of the Act specifically addressed these issues by authorizing two anti-drug programs for youth. These two programs…

  15. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  16. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  17. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  18. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Dependence (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Substance Abuse or Dependence Zloupotreba opojnih ... ili ovisnost - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Substance Abuse or Dependence 物质滥用或依赖 - ...

  19. Detection of drugs of abuse by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    West, Matthew J; Went, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy can provide rapid, sensitive, non-destructive analysis of a variety of drug types (e.g. amphetamines, alkaloids, designer drugs, and date rape drugs). This review concentrates on developments in the past 15 years. It considers identification and quantification of drugs of abuse in different types of forensic evidence, including bulk street drugs as well as traces found in drinks, on fibres/clothing, in fingerprints, on fingernails, on bank notes, and in body fluids. PMID:21960539

  20. Survey of abuses against injecting drug users in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sara LM; Triwahyuono, Agus; Alexander, Risa

    2009-01-01

    In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGKAR (also known in English as the Indonesian Harm Reduction Network), a nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in Jakarta, surveyed 1106 injecting drug users in 13 cities about their experiences of police abuse. Of those interviewed, 667 or 60% reported physical abuse by police. These findings indicate the importance of continuing efforts to promote police reform and harm reduction in Indonesia. PMID:19852845

  1. Drug discrimination: A versatile tool for characterization of CNS safety pharmacology and potential for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2016-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit

  2. Prescription drug abuse information in D.A.R.E.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa C; Cline, Rebecca J Welch; Weiler, Robert M; Broadway, S Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized within 14 categories. A two-dimensional coding system for context identified Use versus Abuse and Explicit versus Implicit references to prescription drugs. Results indicated that content and objectives found in D.A.R.E. represent a very narrow breadth of prescription drug topics. Moreover, all prescription-drug related content and objectives were presented in an Abuse-Implicit context. Although some educational material in D.A.R.E. modules potentially is related to prescription drugs, none of the content or objectives explicitly identify drugs discussed as prescription drugs. If elementary and middle schools rely on D.A.R.E. modules to teach students about drug abuse, students are likely to be underinformed about prescription drug risks. PMID:16981638

  3. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives. PMID:1955823

  4. Summary of Findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This report presents information from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) on rates of use, numbers of users, and other measures related to illicit drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, and other forms of tobacco. This report includes separate chapters that summarize the findings of the survey on five topics: use of illicit drugs; use of…

  5. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  6. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24793872

  7. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious problem worldwide. One therapy being investigated is vaccines against drugs of abuse. The antibodies elicited against the drug can take up the drug and prevent it from reaching the reward centers in the brain. Few such vaccines have entered clinical trials, but research is going on apace. Many studies are very promising and more clinical trials should be coming out in the near future. PMID:24982760

  8. 75 FR 14175 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Substance Abuse Treatment Referral..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda,...

  9. [Drug abuse/dependence and developmental disorder: clinical features of drug abusers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review Western studies on the prevalence of comorbid attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in individuals with drug abuse/dependence, and the associations of drug abuse/dependence with AD/HD. Additionally, we introduce our studies on the associations between adulthood drug abuse/dependence and the childhood AD/HD tendency in Japan, using a self-rating questionnaire to assess childhood AD/HD tendencies, the Japanese version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Our studies suggested that, while adulthood drug abuse/dependence may be closely associated with the childhood AD/HD tendency, as many Western studies have indicated, the abused substances most commonly chosen by drug abusers with a childhood AD/HD tendency were not methamphetamines but organic solvents, unlike in several Western studies. Our results did not support the findings of some Western studies: "preferences to choose a stimulant as "self-medication" to directly improve AD/HD symptoms. However, organic solvents appeared to be chosen as "self-medication" to cope with secondary/peripheral symptoms derived from AD/HD.

  10. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  11. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  12. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  13. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug...

  14. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  15. Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

  16. Drug Abuse and the Brain: A Viewer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This guide provides a detailed look at the biological basis of drug addiction, examining how the brain and its reward system work and how drug abuse can cause fundamental changes in the way the brain works. It is a resource for clinicians and practitioners. The first section of the guide provides an outline of the following basic concepts…

  17. Prescription Drug Abuse & Diversion: Role of the Pain Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; March, Samantha J.; Inciardi, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research is to better understand the role that South Florida pain management clinics may be playing in the abuse and diversion of prescription drugs. This study explores 1) the characteristics and practices of pain clinics that may be facilitating the drug-seeking endeavors of prescription drug abusers and 2) the drug-seeking behaviors of prescription drug abusers who use pain clinics as a primary source for drugs. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with prescription drug abusers in South Florida. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and codes were generated based on thematic analyses of the data. Using grounded theory strategies, the analysis revealed six main themes: “pill mills”, on-site pharmacies, liberal prescribing habits, “sponsoring” drug diversion, pain doctor/pharmacy shopping, and faking symptoms/documentation. These findings should provide insights for law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and industry as they attempt to develop appropriate policy initiatives and recommendations for best practices. PMID:21278927

  18. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  19. Drug Abuse Prevention for You and Your Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Novelli and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written for adolescents, focuses on the individual's role and responsibility, both to themselves and their friends, in preventing drug abuse problems. Short statements define the influence of peer pressure on prevention, friendship, and intervention. The results of a ninth grade student survey list 22 reasons for using drugs,…

  20. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Two. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  1. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia. PMID:6642801

  2. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia.

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes among Adults in Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…

  4. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

  5. GHB: a new and novel drug of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, K L; Balster, R L

    2001-06-01

    There has been increasing attention in the United States to problems of abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), with some evidence for problems in other parts of the world as well. In vitro and animal research show that, while GHB shares some properties with abused central nervous system depressant drugs, it has unique aspects of its pharmacology as well, including actions at a specific neural receptor which probably mediates many of its effects. Abuse potential assessment of GHB using standard animal models has not yielded a picture of a highly abusable substance, but little human testing has yet been done. Very little systematic data exist on tolerance and dependence with GHB, but both have been seen in human users. Quantitative data on the prevalence of GHB abuse is incomplete, but various qualitative measures indicate that a mini-epidemic of abuse began in the late 1980s and continues to the present. GHB is often included with the group of 'club drugs', and can be used as an intoxicant. It also has been used as a growth promoter and sleep aid and has been implicated in cases of 'date rape', usually in combination with alcohol. Undoubtedly the easy availability of GHB and some of its precursors has contributed to its popularity. Recent changes in the control status of GHB in the US may reduce its availability with as yet unknown consequences for the scope of the public health problem. Drug abuse experts need to familiarize themselves with GHB as possibly representing a new type of drug abuse problem with some unique properties. PMID:11297827

  6. 16mm Films on Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Abuse. Product Information Supplement No.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Prod Rep, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Sixty-two films on drug abuse, 33 on smoking abuse, and 28 on alcohol abuse are listed showing title, distributor, suggested grade level, technical information, description of content, cost, and availability. (MLF)

  7. Mechanisms of Action and Persistent Neuroplasticity by Drugs of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Korpi, Esa R; den Hollander, Bjørnar; Farooq, Usman; Vashchinkina, Elena; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Nutt, David J; Hyytiä, Petri; Dawe, Gavin S

    2015-10-01

    Adaptation of the nervous system to different chemical and physiologic conditions is important for the homeostasis of brain processes and for learning and remembering appropriate responses to challenges. Although processes such as tolerance and dependence to various drugs of abuse have been known for a long time, it was recently discovered that even a single pharmacologically relevant dose of various drugs of abuse induces neuroplasticity in selected neuronal populations, such as the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area, which persist long after the drug has been excreted. Prolonged (self-) administration of drugs induces gene expression, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and structural changes in many brain cell populations. These region-specific changes correlate with addiction, drug intake, and conditioned drugs effects, such as cue- or stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. In rodents, adolescent drug exposure often causes significantly more behavioral changes later in adulthood than a corresponding exposure in adults. Clinically the most impairing and devastating effects on the brain are produced by alcohol during fetal development. In adult recreational drug users or in medicated patients, it has been difficult to find persistent functional or behavioral changes, suggesting that heavy exposure to drugs of abuse is needed for neurotoxicity and for persistent emotional and cognitive alterations. This review describes recent advances in this important area of research, which harbors the aim of translating this knowledge to better treatments for addictions and related neuropsychiatric illnesses. PMID:26403687

  8. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  9. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. PMID:25988826

  10. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication.

    PubMed

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse.

  11. Drug Abuse: A Handbook for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittenberg, Erica

    Designed for parents of adolescents, this handbook provides drug information and suggestions for parental action regarding children's drug use. The first of seven chapters places adolescent drug use in its social context. Chapter 2 describes home prevention strategies. Chapter 3 focuses on the reasons children take drugs. Chapter 4 describes…

  12. Resource Book for Drug Abuse Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The bulk of this book is divided into 3 major sections: (1) teaching about drugs; (2) facts about drugs; and (3) supplementary reports which deal with legal aspects, prevention, drug use-student value correlations, motivation, etc. The section concerned with teaching about drugs provides concrete suggestions for elementary and secondary educators,…

  13. Changing world patterns of drug abuse, 1945-1974.

    PubMed

    Ball, J C; Graff, H; Chien, K

    1975-07-01

    New patterns of drug abuse have rapidly appeared in the Western world since the Second World War. These patterns are characterized by the rapid introduction and spread of manufactured substances adopted from medicine. Interest has been sustained among illicit users by the search for new mood altering drugs. Both recreational use and multiple drug patterns are becoming increasingly predominant. Western youth has taken the forefront in the new patterns, especially in the rise of marijuana. Sex differentials are rapidly decreasing as more females are smoking. In the United States, hallucinogens have also been abused in large amounts. This reveals an important difference from Europe, where hallucinogen abuse has been low, but amphetamine abuse has been as high or higher than in the United States. Spread has been rapid throughout the populations studied, both from the colleges to the secondary schools, and from country to country, based on current rapid methods of communication and transportation. These data are important in formulating hypotheses for study and control of both epidemic and endemic drug abuse.

  14. Behavior therapy in drug abuse treatment: review and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; McCaul, M E

    1985-01-01

    The goal of drug abuse treatment is to decrease the dominance of drug-related behaviors while enhancing the dominance of alternative socially acceptable behaviors. The behavioral techniques of extinction, satiation, and punishment can be used to suppress undesirable behaviors, and reinforcement can be used to enhance desirable behaviors. Methadone maintenance offers unique advantages for treatment of opiate abuse since methadone satiates the drug abuser, thereby reducing the reinforcing efficacy of illicit opiate drugs, while also serving as a reinforcer whose delivery in the treatment setting can be used in contingent arrangements. Short-term efficacy has been demonstrated in studies that used contingent treatment termination or contingent dose decreases as punishing events and contingent dose increases or contingent take-home privileges as reinforcing events to promote reductions in drug use and cooperation with clinic rules. Systematic use of dose adjustments and take-home privileges may be a useful adjunct to methadone maintenance treatment, having a positive impact both on client outcomes and clinic operation. Rehabilitation efforts might also benefit if delivery of reinforcers available at the clinic is contingent upon participation in skills training and therapy programs or community activities outside the drug abuse clinic. PMID:3929125

  15. Trends and pattern of drug abuse deaths in Maryland teenagers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Xiang; Levine, Berry; Li, Guohua; Zielke, H Ronald; Fowler, David R

    2011-07-01

    The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Maryland recorded a total of 149 drug abuse deaths of teenagers aged 13-19 years between 1991 and 2006. Of these deaths, 96 (64.4%) were caused by the use of narcotic drugs only, 29 (19.5%) by both narcotics and cocaine, four (2.7%) by both narcotics and methylenedioxymethamphetamine, six (4.0%) by cocaine only, and 14 (9.4%) by volatile substances (e.g., butane, Freon, nitrous oxide, and propane). The annual death rate from drug abuse for teenagers increased from 1.4 deaths per 100,000 population in 1991 to 2.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 2006 (chi-square test for time trend, p<0.01). The increase in teenager drug abuse deaths occurred in 1999 and since has remained at a higher rate. Further analysis revealed that the increase in drug abuse deaths was attributable to a large degree to narcotic drugs, particularly heroin/morphine and methadone, and was confined to teenagers residing in the suburban and rural areas. PMID:21392003

  16. Trends and pattern of drug abuse deaths in Maryland teenagers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Xiang; Levine, Berry; Li, Guohua; Zielke, H Ronald; Fowler, David R

    2011-07-01

    The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Maryland recorded a total of 149 drug abuse deaths of teenagers aged 13-19 years between 1991 and 2006. Of these deaths, 96 (64.4%) were caused by the use of narcotic drugs only, 29 (19.5%) by both narcotics and cocaine, four (2.7%) by both narcotics and methylenedioxymethamphetamine, six (4.0%) by cocaine only, and 14 (9.4%) by volatile substances (e.g., butane, Freon, nitrous oxide, and propane). The annual death rate from drug abuse for teenagers increased from 1.4 deaths per 100,000 population in 1991 to 2.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 2006 (chi-square test for time trend, p<0.01). The increase in teenager drug abuse deaths occurred in 1999 and since has remained at a higher rate. Further analysis revealed that the increase in drug abuse deaths was attributable to a large degree to narcotic drugs, particularly heroin/morphine and methadone, and was confined to teenagers residing in the suburban and rural areas.

  17. Drug abuse in China: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Fang, Yuxia; Wang, Xi

    2008-06-01

    Following British importation of opium to China in 1760s, the use and production of the drug in China increased dramatically. This situation was aggravated after the failure of Opium Wars that occurred between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China with the aim of forcing China to import British Opium; this war made China open the door to a free flowing opium trade, with disastrous social and public health consequences. The subsequent rise of the new China created drug-free atmosphere by strict legislation and punishment, in which drug use greatly decreased. However, in the context of governmental reform and the open-door policies of the 1980s, drug abuse has re-emerged as a major public health problem. Today, drug abuse is highly linked to the spread of HIV/AIDS and to drug-related crimes in China. To combat the severe drug problem facing the nation, the Chinese government has adopted the Methadone Maintenance Treatment program, a multi-faceted therapeutic approach that aims to reduce the health and social problem induced by drug epidemics. In addition, traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal therapy and acupuncture, both found to be effective in the prevention of relapse and causes few side effects, making them useful for the treatment of opiate addiction. With continuous application of these therapies and managements that have been proved to be effective in harm reduction in the western countries, we believe that drug abuse and its related problems in China will be brought under control.

  18. Drug abuse and dependency during pregnancy: anaesthetic issues.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, J; Christmas, T; Paech, M J; Orr, B

    2007-12-01

    Drug abuse is a significant social problem that can lead to serious obstetric complications, some of which may be confused with pregnancy-related disease states. Substance abuse poses a number of challenges with respect to the management of pain and the conduct of anaesthesia in the peripartum period. This review was based on information from a literature search of epidemiological, research and review papers on substance abuse during pregnancy, obtained for the purpose of preparing a background paper for the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy, Commonwealth Government of Australia. Given that almost 80% of substance-abusing parturients require anaesthetic services in the perinatal period, early antenatal referral for anaesthetic review is recommended. To optimise the care of these vulnerable patients, obstetricians, general practitioners and midwives should attempt to identify substance-abusing parturients and refer them to an anaesthetist. A careful anaesthetic evaluation with non-judgemental questioning is essential, with management tailored to individual patient needs and the urgency of obstetric intervention for vaginal delivery or caesarean section. Opioid-dependent women, in particular, benefit from antenatal pain management planning. Patients recovering from drug addiction should also have a well-documented analgesic strategy. A multidisciplinary approach will involve obstetricians, anaesthetists and staff of the Drug and Alcohol Service. In acute admissions of women by whom antenatal care was not accessed, a high index of suspicion for illicit drug use should arise. Because illicit substance use is so prevalent, if untoward reactions occur during an otherwise uneventful anaesthetic, the possibility of drug abuse should be considered.

  19. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components...

  20. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components...

  1. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Alternate Drug Delivery Dosage Forms for Drug Abuse Studies. Date: January 7, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Agenda: To...

  2. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components...

  3. 78 FR 23772 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Drugged Driving: Future Research... of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550,...

  4. Developing an Occupational Drug Abuse Program: Considerations and Approaches. Services Research Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Mae; Prentice, Robert

    This monograph, developed as a guide for companies interested in establishing drug abuse programs, begins with a brief summary of studies assessing the extent and costs of employee drug use. The next section addresses some practical and conceptual issues about establishing a drug abuse program. Suggestions for implementing a drug abuse program are…

  5. [Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abuser].

    PubMed

    Rataj, O; Martinkovičová, L; Šetina, M

    2013-10-01

    Infective endocarditis can be divided from practical point of view into native valve endocarditis and prosthetic valve endocarditis. With regard to aquired endocarditis, endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers can be separetly differentiated. Echocardiography and microbio-logical cultures are essential for dia-gnosis. Treatment consists of antibio-tic therapy and often surgical procedure is required. We present a case report of an intravenous drug abuser with a tricuspid valve endocarditis, successfully treated with antibio-tic therapy and a following surgical valve repair. PMID:24164370

  6. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention. PMID:2331555

  7. What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  8. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  9. Nephrotoxic effects of common and emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Pendergraft, William F; Herlitz, Leal C; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Rosner, Mitchell; Niles, John L

    2014-11-01

    The kidneys can be injured in diverse ways by many drugs, both legal and illegal. Novel associations and descriptions of nephrotoxic effects of common and emerging drugs of abuse have appeared over the past several years. Anabolic androgenic steroids, illicitly used by athletes and others for decades to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat, are emerging as podocyte toxins given recent descriptions of severe forms of FSGS in long-term abusers. Synthetic cannabinoids, a new group of compounds with marijuana-like effects, recently became popular as recreational drugs and have been associated with an atypical form of AKI. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, commonly known as ecstasy, is a widely used synthetic recreational drug with mood-enhancing properties and a constellation of toxicities that can result in death. These toxic effects include hyperthermia, hypotonic hyponatremia due to its arginine vasopressin secretagogue-like effects, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiovascular collapse. Cocaine, a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor that serves as an illegal stimulant, appetite suppressant, and anesthetic, also causes vasoconstriction and rhabdomyolysis. Recent adulteration of much of the world's supply of cocaine with levamisole, an antihelminthic agent with attributes similar to but distinct from those of cocaine, appears to have spawned a new type of ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis. This review discusses the nephrotoxic effects of these common and emerging drugs of abuse, of which both community and health care providers should become aware given their widespread abuse. Future investigation into pathogenetic mechanisms associated with these drugs is critical and may provide a window into ways to lessen and even prevent the nephrotoxic effects of these drugs of abuse and perhaps allow a deeper understanding of the nephrotoxicities themselves.

  10. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue.

  11. The need for a drug abuse documentation center in India.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R P

    1990-01-01

    The problems of alcoholism and drug addiction are major concerns in India. Alcohol and drugs were used in the past to obtain relief from pain and misery and to attain a state of forgetfulness. India is presently facing the problem of increased trafficking in drugs; heroin and hashish are supplied to the west through the subcontinent. Addiction has become a major problem in metropolitan centers. The Ministry of Welfare is responsible for drug abuse prevention programs and the rehabilitation of addicts. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is concerned with drug treatment. A deaddiction center, established at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, became operational in 1988; it is responsible for health manpower training, research, and documentation. India has witnessed an exponential growth in the literature on drug abuse; it is no longer possible for a single library to acquire all of the international literature. There is a clear need to establish a drug abuse information center in India. This paper describes the aims, objectives, and planning for such a center and recommends the establishment of a national center in New Delhi with regional centers in other geographic areas. Images PMID:2224297

  12. Interpretation of Oral Fluid Tests for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CONE, EDWARD J.; HUESTIS, MARILYN A.

    2009-01-01

    Oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse offers significant advantages over urine as a test matrix. Collection can be performed under direct observation with reduced risk of adulteration and substitution. Drugs generally appear in oral fluid by passive diffusion from blood, but also may be deposited in the oral cavity during oral, smoked, and intranasal administration. Drug metabolites also can be detected in oral fluid. Unlike urine testing, there may be a close correspondence between drug and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid and in blood. Interpretation of oral fluid results for drugs of abuse should be an iterative process whereby one considers the test results in the context of program requirements and a broad scientific knowledge of the many factors involved in determining test outcome. This review delineates many of the chemical and metabolic processes involved in the disposition of drugs and metabolites in oral fluid that are important to the appropriate interpretation of oral fluid tests. Chemical, metabolic, kinetic, and analytic parameters are summarized for selected drugs of abuse, and general guidelines are offered for understanding the significance of oral fluid tests. PMID:17332074

  13. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contained therein can be tested in a laboratory for the presence of drugs of abuse or their metabolites; and... laboratory testing of biological specimens for the presence of drugs of abuse or their metabolites that...

  14. 75 FR 80512 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Cutting-Edge Basic Research Award....: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  15. 75 FR 71712 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Cutting-Edge Basic Research Awards... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs,...

  16. Schools and Drugs: A Guide to Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Curricula & Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This guide to kindergarten through 12th grade drug abuse prevention curricula and programs addresses the need for thorough training of all school personnel, including teachers, counselors, nurses, administrators, and school board members. The first chapter discusses what can realistically be expected of school-based substance abuse prevention…

  17. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.

  18. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections. PMID:27000123

  19. Randomized Trial of Drug Abuse Treatment-Linkage Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, James L.; Masson, Carmen L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Sporer, Karl; Barnett, Paul G.; Mitsuishi, Fumi; Lin, Christine; Song, Yong; Chen, TeChieh; Hall, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    A clinical trial contrasted 2 interventions designed to link opioid-dependent hospital patients to drug abuse treatment. The 126 out-of-treatment participants were randomly assigned to (a) case management, (b) voucher for free methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), (c) case management plus voucher, or (d) usual care. Services were provided for 6…

  20. Temperature in the spotlight of drug abuse research.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Félix; Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Rusyniak, Daniel E; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial summarizes Temperature's special issue entitled "Temperature and Toxicology with a Focus on Drugs of Abuse" (2014, volume 1, issue 3), dedicated to the multiple recent discoveries related to the thermoregulatory effects of xenobiotics. Several basic and clinical studies on xenobiotic-induced hyperthermia are reported that propose novel mechanisms and treatments.

  1. Growing Up in America: A Background to Contemporary Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Anne

    This book is aimed at helping school personnel and others understand the world as youths experience it and to prepare them to respond to young people's search for philosophical answers. Understanding the life context and viewpoint of young adolescents is assumed to be a prerequisite for understanding drug abuse and for communicating with…

  2. Guidelines for School Programs in the Prevention of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This publication is intended as an initial effort by the New York state education department to provide pragmatic and realistic suggestions for the development by schools of successful drug abuse prevention programs. The information provided covers: (1) the nature of the problem; (2) present school district policies and procedures; (3) program…

  3. OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

  4. Overcoming Obstacles to Drug Abuse Research with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    Although there has been a significant amount of research on the families of drug abusers, this field has encountered a number of obstacles to its continued growth. Some of these problems include an emphasis of research on opiate use, methodological hindrances, and lack of a constituency. A review of two concurrent national processes, the White…

  5. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  6. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  7. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  8. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  9. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  10. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR Part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  11. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with 5 CFR part 792. Such referral does not exempt the employee from appropriate administrative or... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13...

  12. Drug–drug interactions between anti-retroviral therapies and drugs of abuse in HIV systems

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Earla, Ravindra; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substance abuse is a common problem among HIV-infected individuals. Importantly, addictions as well as moderate use of alcohol, smoking, or other illicit drugs have been identified as major reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV patients. The literature also suggests a decrease in the response to ART among HIV patients who use these substances, leading to failure to achieve optimal virological response and increased disease progression. Areas covered This review discusses the challenges with adherence to ART as well as observed drug interactions and known toxicities with major drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, smoking, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opioids. The lack of adherence and drug interactions potentially lead to decreased efficacy of ART drugs and increased ART, and drugs of abuse-mediated toxicity. As CYP is the common pathway in metabolizing both ART and drugs of abuse, we discuss the possible involvement of CYP pathways in such drug interactions. Expert opinion We acknowledge that further studies focusing on common metabolic pathways involving CYP and advance research in this area would help to potentially develop novel/alternate interventions and drug dose/regimen adjustments to improve medication outcomes in HIV patients who consume drugs of abuse. PMID:25539046

  13. A New Prescription for Fighting Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    It's a drug prevention conversation--and program--that was largely missing as recently as a decade ago in most middle and high schools. In those days, the principal concern of health educators and disciplinarians alike was to keep students from misusing alcohol and illegal street drugs such as ecstasy, cocaine and even heroine. But driven by the…

  14. Come Closer around the Fire. Using Tribal Legends, Myths, and Stories in Preventing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Multicultural Awareness, Arlington, VA.

    Intended for people working in drug abuse prevention or trying to help American Indian youth feel pride in themselves and their culture, the booklet provides specific guidelines on how to use tribal stories in preventing drug abuse. Following a brief introduction to drug abuse problems and prevention strategies, the booklet explains three kinds of…

  15. Understanding a Need...Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This booklet provides an overview of alcohol and other drug abuse prevention, disability, and the relationship between the two issues. It cites the incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse among people with disabilities. It looks at alcohol and other drug abuse risk factors that are disability related, such as medication use, chronic pain,…

  16. 77 FR 12858 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel NIDA-K Special Emphasis Panel (SEP). Date... on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4229, MSC 9550, Bethesda, MD 20892-9550,...

  17. 75 FR 9606 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Web-Enabled Cognitive/Neuropsychological... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive...

  18. 76 FR 59414 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, I/START Review Committee. Date: October..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4235, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD...

  19. 75 FR 21006 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; R25 Review (PAR-07-221). Date: April 29... Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, 6101 Executive Blvd., Rm. 213, MSC 8401, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  20. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; A Mobile Application to Help Patients...., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS,...

  1. 76 FR 51381 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  2. 77 FR 72366 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIH Pathway to Independence Award... Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245,...

  3. 78 FR 13362 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIH Pathway to Independence Award... Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC...

  4. 77 FR 72365 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  5. 78 FR 45252 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  6. 76 FR 59415 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Multisites Applications (R01) Review... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4234, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive...

  7. 77 FR 44640 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Rodent Testing to Identify... Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room...

  8. 78 FR 6122 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Research ``Center of Excellence..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC 9550,...

  9. 78 FR 69858 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Revision Applications to Promote CRAN... Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive...

  10. 76 FR 51381 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel SEDAPA R25. Date: September 22, 2011..., gm145a@nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel,...

  11. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel E-Technology tools for Extending the... Review Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room...

  12. 78 FR 73866 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Center for Genetics Studies (7789... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive...

  13. 75 FR 54348 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, NIDA Clinical Science Conference Grant... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Blvd.,...

  14. 76 FR 70463 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Preclinical Medications Discovery and... Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC...

  15. 75 FR 42104 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Systems Biology, HIV/AIDS, and Substance..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda,...

  16. 78 FR 55265 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel... Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD...

  17. 78 FR 4421 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Predictive In vivo... Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4238, MSC 9550, Bethesda, MD 20892-9550,...

  18. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  19. 77 FR 69640 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel CEBRA Review. Date: November 29, 2012... Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4234, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892- 9550,...

  20. 75 FR 42102 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Research Dissemination (1143). Date..., Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS,...

  1. 75 FR 14176 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  2. 78 FR 63995 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel R13 Conference Grant Review (PA12-212..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd.,...

  3. 78 FR 58320 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel GOMED: Grand Opportunity in Medications... of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228, MSC 9550, 6001...

  4. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Clinical Trials Research Coordination... of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550,...

  5. 78 FR 25460 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA I/START Small Grant Review. Date... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4238, MSC 9550,...

  6. 77 FR 22579 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel E-Technology Tools for Extending the... Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4229, MSC 9550, Bethesda, MD 20892-9550,...

  7. 78 FR 9065 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; The Diversity-promoting Institutions Drug Abuse Research Program (DIDARP). Date: March 26, 2013. ] Time: 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda:...

  8. 76 FR 3913 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... and projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel... Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD...

  9. 76 FR 65517 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meeting... projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD 21223. Contact...

  10. 77 FR 52752 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  11. 77 FR 27075 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Regulatory Affairs Support (8902). Date... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive...

  12. 77 FR 22581 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Multi-site Trials. Date: May 22, 2012... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4226, MSC 9550,...

  13. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Blending Research and Practice... Special Projects Review Branch, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH,...

  14. 75 FR 9420 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Web-Enabled Cognitive/Neuropsychological... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive...

  15. 76 FR 65517 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, NIDA R13 Conference Grant Review. Date... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4226, MSC 9550, Bethesda,...

  16. 78 FR 19499 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel PAR-12-297: Mechanism for Time-Sensitive Drug Abuse Research. Date: April 9, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  17. 76 FR 2697 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting... ] hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  18. 75 FR 6042 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Rapid Assessments Tools of Sexual and... Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC...

  19. 75 FR 42100 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  20. 75 FR 13136 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment. Date: March 22, 2010..., Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH. DHHS,...

  1. 75 FR 63491 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, NIDA Basic Science Conference Grant (R13..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive, Blvd., Bethesda, MD...

  2. 78 FR 27411 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings... of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Medication Ingestion... Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive...

  3. 75 FR 63498 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Statistical Analysis in Support of DPMC... Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892- 8401,...

  4. 76 FR 3916 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA B/START R03 Small Grant Review... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4238, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd.,...

  5. 78 FR 40755 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIH Summer Research Experience Programs... Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC...

  6. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Collaborative Clinical Trials in Drug Abuse--PAR 10- 099. Date: October 4, 2012. Time: 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  7. 78 FR 56238 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Multisite Clinical Trials. Date... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4234, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive...

  8. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIH Summer Research Experience Programs... Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive...

  9. 76 FR 11252 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Initial Review Group; Training and Career Development... Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-9550,...

  10. 78 FR 19499 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Profile Screening and Predictive..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550,...

  11. 77 FR 27075 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Grand Opportunity in Medications... of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228, MSC 9550, 6001...

  12. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; R13 Conference Grant Review. Date: June... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4226, MSC...

  13. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Training and Career Development... Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC...

  14. 77 FR 75179 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings... of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Collaborative Clinical Trials..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228, MSC 9550, 6001...

  15. Evaluation of Drug Abuse Treatment Effectiveness: Summary of the DARP Followup Research. Treatment Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Sells, S. B.

    The Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP) was initiated in 1969 as a federally supported client reporting system for community-based drug abuse treatment programs. Posttreatment follow-up interviews were conducted with over 4,000 persons from 34 treatment agencies to describe major findings from the drug abuse treatment research of the DARP relating…

  16. Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sport: A Different Form of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, John R.; LaFountain, Marc J.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses an often overlooked area of drug abuse: performance-enhancing drugs in sport, used for different reasons than for recreation. Examines the seriousness and prevalence of performance-enhancing drugs and presents the results of a series of interviews with steroid users to determine their attitudes. Discusses the implications of the…

  17. Breaking the Cycle of Drug Abuse. 1993 Interim National Drug Control Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This Interim Drug Strategy is intended to give a new sense of direction and to reinvigorate the nation's efforts against drug trafficking and abuse. The preface to the report lists eight new strategies that the Administration will implement: (1) make drug policy a cornerstone of domestic and social policy; (2) target pregnant women, children, and…

  18. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  19. Conditioned saccharin avoidance and sensitization to drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Fenu, Sandro; Cadoni, Cristina; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2010-12-25

    Saccharin avoidance conditioned by drugs of abuse (CSA) has been interpreted as an expression of the appetitive, dopamine-dependent, properties of the drug. Repeated exposure to these drugs induces an increase (sensitization) of their motor stimulant properties associated with differential changes in DA transmission in the NAc shell and core. The present study investigated the changes in drug CSA induced by schedules of repeated drug exposure that induce behavioral sensitization. CSA was performed in a two-bottle choice paradigm with two saccharin-drug associations in rats previously sensitized to morphine, cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine. In control rats morphine (1 and 5mg/kg s.c.), cocaine (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.), amphetamine (0.25 and 0.5mg/kg s.c.) and nicotine (0.4 mg/kg s.c.) induced dose-dependent CSA. Sensitization to morphine, cocaine and nicotine, which is known to reduce the responsiveness of NAc shell DA to the same drugs, also reduced CSA. In contrast, sensitization to amphetamine, that does not affect the responsiveness of NAc shell DA to the drug, failed to affect CSA. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that NAc shell DA is a substrate of the appetitive properties of drugs of abuse.

  20. Sociodemographic characteristics and drug abuse patterns of treatment-seeking illicit drug abusers in Finland, 1997-2008: the Huuti study.

    PubMed

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Uosukainen, Hanna; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Beynon, Caryl; Bell, J Simon; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Föhr, Jaana; Tiihonen, Jari; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiological part of the Huume tietokanta (HUUTI) consortium research project is the first large-scale longitudinal study of treatment-seeking illicit drug abusers in Finland. The objective of this report was to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and drug abuse patterns of treatment-seeking clients at their first visit. This study analysed baseline data of 4817 clients (3365 men and 1452 women) aged 11-65 years who sought treatment for drug abuse between 1997 and 2008 at Helsinki Deaconess Institute. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The majority (56%) of clients were between 15 and 24 years, educated at elementary school level (75%), and unemployed (57%). Opiates (30%) were the primary drugs of abuse. The primary drugs were mostly injected (45%) and were abused daily during the past month (44%). Cannabis was the most common secondary drug of abuse (34%). The secondary drugs were predominantly smoked (39%) or taken orally (38%) and were abused once per week or less frequently during the past month (33%). Age at initiation of illicit drug abuse ranged from 5 to 49 years. Polydrug abuse was common, with a mean consumption of 3.5 concurrent polydrug use, which were combined from 3 or more drug classes. The prevalence of lifetime/ever intravenous drug abuse was 64% and past month intravenous drug abuse was 64%, respectively, and 13% reported sharing injecting equipment during the past month. Early initiation, polydrug abuse, and risky consumption of illicit drugs were major areas of concern among the study population. Injecting drug use could place considerable burden on health services in view of complications and transmission of infectious diseases.

  1. Drug Abuse among Minority Youth: Advances in Research and Methodology. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 130.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rosa, Mario R., Ed.; Adrados, Juan-Luis Recio, Ed.

    The lack of information on the extent and nature of drug use and abuse among minority youth has limited the development of culturally relevant and effective interventions for this group. These papers present research findings and information about research methodology directed at this target group. Papers include: (1) "Integrating Mainstream and…

  2. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion pharmacogenomics of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-02-01

    Pharmacologic and toxic effects of xenobiotics, such as drugs of abuse, depend on the genotype and phenotype of an individual, and conversely on the isoenzymes involved in their metabolism and transport. The current knowledge of such isoenzymes of frequently abused therapeutics such as opioids (oxycodone, hydrocodone, methadone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, tramadol, heroin, morphine and codeine), anesthetics (γ-hydroxybutyric acid, propofol, ketamine and phencyclidine) and cognitive enhancers (methylphenidate and modafinil), and some important plant-derived hallucinogens (lysergide, salvinorin A, psilocybin and psilocin), as well as of nicotine in humans are summarized in this article. The isoenzymes (e.g., cytochrome P450, glucuronyltransferases, esterases and reductases) involved in the metabolism of drugs and some pharmacokinetic data are discussed. The relevance of such data is discussed for predicting possible interactions with other xenobiotics, understanding pharmacokinetic behavior and pharmacogenomic variations, assessing toxic risks, developing suitable toxicological analysis procedures, and finally for interpretating drug testing results.

  3. Drug abuse in the workplace: employee screening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzeo, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Recent studies show that as many as three to five percent of the employees of a medium- to large-sized plant may be dependent on drugs as a way of life. The detrimental effects of drug abuse in the workplace can be measured in lost productivity, poor quality control and other areas at an annual cost to the American economy of $30 billion. However, a price tag cannot be attached to the lives affected by this unrelenting problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the employee screening and hiring techniques available to industry to detect and eliminate potentially dangerous or fatal situations involving drug abuse in the workplace. The techniques are universal and can be effectively applied by the nuclear industry as well as other businesses to ensure that its work force is a reputable and reliable one.

  4. Role of Cdk5 in drug abuse and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Benavides, David R; Bibb, James A

    2004-10-01

    Neuronal plasticity serves as the basis for learning and memory in the adult brain. Contextual, motor, and reward-based learning are important in reinforcing survival behavior in animals. Most psychostimulant drugs of abuse target the dopaminergic reward system of the brain. Drugs of abuse cause long-standing cellular and molecular neuroadaptations in the brain. The neuronal protein kinase Cdk5 is emerging as an important player in the cellular and physiological responses to drugs of abuse. Substantial evidence indicates that Cdk5 controls dopamine neurotransmission through regulation of the protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor, DARPP-32. Furthermore, the morphological changes associated with chronic cocaine exposure are dependent on Cdk5. Thus, Cdk5 mediates cellular responses to psychostimulant drug-induced changes in dopamine signal transduction and cytoskeletal reorganization. In this regard, Cdk5, through its targeting of various substrates, integrates a number of intracellular pathways that are targeted by psychostimulant drugs. These studies and the emerging role of Cdk5 in various forms of neuronal plasticity are reviewed.

  5. National Institute on Drug Abuse symposium report: drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders/HIV-associated dementia.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Frankenheim, Jerry; Avila, Albert; Sorensen, Roger; Rutter, Joni

    2013-04-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse organized a symposium on drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in Rockville, Maryland, October 4, 2011. The purpose of this symposium was to evaluate the potential role of dopamine in the potentiation of HAND/HAD by drugs of abuse. A summary of the symposium has been presented in this report.

  6. Drug abuse in China: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Fang, Yuxia; Wang, Xi

    2008-06-01

    Following British importation of opium to China in 1760s, the use and production of the drug in China increased dramatically. This situation was aggravated after the failure of Opium Wars that occurred between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China with the aim of forcing China to import British Opium; this war made China open the door to a free flowing opium trade, with disastrous social and public health consequences. The subsequent rise of the new China created drug-free atmosphere by strict legislation and punishment, in which drug use greatly decreased. However, in the context of governmental reform and the open-door policies of the 1980s, drug abuse has re-emerged as a major public health problem. Today, drug abuse is highly linked to the spread of HIV/AIDS and to drug-related crimes in China. To combat the severe drug problem facing the nation, the Chinese government has adopted the Methadone Maintenance Treatment program, a multi-faceted therapeutic approach that aims to reduce the health and social problem induced by drug epidemics. In addition, traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal therapy and acupuncture, both found to be effective in the prevention of relapse and causes few side effects, making them useful for the treatment of opiate addiction. With continuous application of these therapies and managements that have been proved to be effective in harm reduction in the western countries, we believe that drug abuse and its related problems in China will be brought under control. PMID:17990098

  7. Osteoarticular infection in intravenous drug abusers: influence of HIV infection and differences with non drug abusers.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Fernández, S; Maciá, M A; Pantoja, L; Cardenal, A; Peña, J M; Martín Mola, E; Balsa, A; Barbado, F J; Vázquez, J J; Gijón Baños, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine (a) the influence of HIV in developing osteoarticular infections in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs) and (b) the differences between the clinical features of osteoarticular infections in IVDAs and a control group of non-IVDAs. METHODS--A comparative study of the clinical features of osteoarticular infections in all HIV positive and HIV negative IVDAs admitted to the departments of rheumatology and internal medicine during a 10 year period was carried out. The joint infections of all IVDAs, irrespective of HIV status, were compared with those of a control group of non-IVDAs lacking risk factors for HIV infection. RESULTS--A total of 482 HIV positive and 85 HIV negative IVDAs was studied, in whom 25 (5%) and six (7%) osteoarticular infections were found respectively. There were no differences in age, sex, joints affected, and causative agents between these two groups. A comparison of the 31 (5.5%) osteoarticular infections in all IVDAs with 21 infections in 616 (3.4%) non-IVDAs showed significant differences in the mean age (27.5 v 54), the frequency of affection of the axial joints (hip, sacroiliac, and sternocostal joints) (64.5% v 16.6%), and in the incidence of Candida albicans (19% v 0%). CONCLUSIONS--(1) HIV may not predispose to osteoarticular infections in IVDAs. (2) The hip, sacroiliac, and sternocostal joints (axial joints) were most commonly affected in IVDAs. (3) In Spain, unlike other countries, Gram positive bacteria and C albicans seem to be predominant agents in osteoarticular infections in IVDAs, with a low incidence of Gram negative bacteria. PMID:8215617

  8. Psychosocial Characteristics of Drug-Abusing Women. Services Research Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Marvin R.; And Others

    In recent years considerable attention has been paid to the status of women as drug abusers and as clients in drug treatment programs. A study of drug abusers' characteristics found a significantly higher history of non-medical psychotherapeutic drug use for females than for males; however, males had a higher prevalence of illicit drug use.…

  9. Science Notes. Simulating Drug or Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a computer program that, by means of a simple motor task, provides a context that enables students to learn about motor coordination. The effects of alcohol, drugs, or solvents on the motor task can be investigated using a delay in the feedback loop. A description of the hardware and software is included. (KR)

  10. A Rural Communities Response to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Peter J.

    The upward economic flux of Pike County is having a dramatic impact on the traditional morals and values held by the established community. Drug availability has increased proportionately with improved highway systems, accessibility of money, and increasing numbers of youth with their own cars. Although 75% of the population live in isolated…

  11. Tetanus in a parenteral drug abuser: report of a case.

    PubMed Central

    Francois, M. P.; Roberts, J. R.; Hewlett, D.

    1994-01-01

    Tetanus is an infection caused by Clostridium tetani. In the United States, tetanus remains a significant problem primarily among nonimmunized or inadequately immunized individuals. This article reports a fatal case of tetanus that occurred in a 45-year-old parenteral drug abuser who presented to Harlem Hospital Center with nuchal rigidity, trismus, dysphagia, and spasms of the pectoralis musculature. Multiple cutaneous ulcerations also were observed. Despite aggressive measures that included: endotracheal intubation, administration of human tetanus, hyperimmune globulin, tetanus toxoid, and intravenous penicillin, the patient rapidly deteriorated and manifestations of heightened sympathetic nervous system activity, seizures, and cardiac arrest ensued. The diagnosis of tetanus must be based upon clinical grounds. Clinicians must remain aware of the possibility of tetanus, especially among drug abusers who also are more likely to be evaluated for complications of human immunodeficiency viral infection, which in some cases may mimic tetanus or make the diagnosis more difficult to establish. PMID:8189456

  12. Fears about treatment among young drug abusers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yida Y H; Shek, Daniel T L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined fears about drug treatment among 300 young male heroin abusers in Hong Kong (172 newcomers and 128 repeaters) recruited from non-government treatment agencies. An indigenous 35-item Fears about Treatment Scale (Fears Scale) was developed to measure fears about treatment among the participants. Results showed that four factors (fear of failure, fear of labeling or disclosure, fear of maladaptation and fear of withdrawal) were abstracted from the scale. Reliability analyses showed that subscales based on these four factors and the total scale were internally consistent. The findings showed that treatment failure was the major fear in the respondents. The present findings suggest that drug treatment and rehabilitation services should help clients, particularly young substance abusers, mitigate their treatment fears.

  13. Statistical Agent Based Modelization of the Phenomenon of Drug Abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Clemente, Riccardo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a statistical agent based model to describe the phenomenon of drug abuse and its dynamical evolution at the individual and global level. The agents are heterogeneous with respect to their intrinsic inclination to drugs, to their budget attitude and social environment. The various levels of drug use were inspired by the professional description of the phenomenon and this permits a direct comparison with all available data. We show that certain elements have a great importance to start the use of drugs, for example the rare events in the personal experiences which permit to overcame the barrier of drug use occasionally. The analysis of how the system reacts to perturbations is very important to understand its key elements and it provides strategies for effective policy making. The present model represents the first step of a realistic description of this phenomenon and can be easily generalized in various directions.

  14. Public Service Advertising and Social Problems: the Case of Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, William J.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    This paper explores certain findings of a DAIR (Drug Abuse Information Research) project undertaken at the University of Connecticut which is investigating the dissemination and impact of drug abuse information. Specifically, findings regarding audience response to persuasive antidrug abuse messages on television are discussed. On the basis of the…

  15. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  16. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  17. Task Force on Alcohol and Drug Abuse: Productive People, Productive Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC. Center for Policy Research and Analysis.

    The first part of this report on alcohol and drug abuse summarizes major recommendations from testimony and written statements from a hearing on alcohol and drug abuse. Testimony from these witnesses is included: (1) Reed Bell, Director, Office of Substance Abuse Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services; (2) Merita…

  18. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.1 Section 2.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  19. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  20. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  1. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  2. 78 FR 22892 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Feedback-regulated Naloxone Delivery... Abuse, NIH, Room 4228, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-9550, (301) 451-3086,...

  3. 75 FR 36429 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Medications Development for Substance... Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-451-3086....

  4. 77 FR 75179 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; N43DA13-4417: Video Gaming Targeting... Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4229, MSC 9550, Bethesda, MD 20892- 9550,...

  5. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.1 Section 2.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  6. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.1 Section 2.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  7. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.1 Section 2.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  8. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.1 Section 2.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  9. Adjuvants for Vaccines to Drugs of Abuse and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alving, Carl R.; Matyas, Gary R.; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. PMID:25111169

  10. Adjuvants for vaccines to drugs of abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2014-09-22

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA.

  11. The groin hit: complications of intravenous drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Roszler, M H; McCarroll, K A; Donovan, K R; Rashid, T; Kling, G A

    1989-05-01

    We are seeing an increased number of complications in intravenous drug abusers who resort to injecting the groin for vascular access (the "groin hit"). Vascular complications include venous thrombosis, arteriovenous fistula, mycotic aneurysm, ruptured pseudoaneurysm, and dissecting hematoma. Soft tissue complications include cellulitis and abscess. The latter may dissect into the extraperitoneal space. Skeletal complications include osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. This paper illustrates the radiographic spectrum of these complications. An algorithm will illustrate the radiographic evaluation of a groin mass in a drug addict. PMID:2727357

  12. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  13. Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This publication answers questions about the consequences of abusing commonly prescribed medications including opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants. In addition to offering information on what research says about how certain medications affect the brain and body, this publication also discusses treatment options. It examines…

  14. Homosexual sex as harmful as drug abuse, prostitution, or smoking.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul; Landess, Thomas; Cameron, Kirk

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court said same-sex sexual activity could not be prohibited by law. Analyzing data from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (N= 12,381) and comparing those who engaged in four recreational activities-homosexual sex, illegal drug use, participation in prostitution, and smoking --against those who abstained, participants (1) were more frequently disruptive (e.g., more frequently criminal, drove under the influence of drugs or alcohol, used illegal drugs, took sexual risks), (2) were less frequently productive (e.g., less frequently had children in marriage, more frequently missed work), and (3) generated excessive costs (e.g., more promiscuous, higher consumers of medical services). Major sexuality surveys have reported similar findings for homosexuals. Societal discrimination inadequately accounts for these differences since parallel comparisons of black and white subsamples produced a pattern unlike the differences found between homosexuals and nonhomosexuals.

  15. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  16. The use and potential abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs in Norway: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Gjerden, Pål; Bramness, Jørgen G; Slørdal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    AIMS The use of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs is assumed to have shifted from the therapy of Parkinson's disease to the amelioration of extrapyramidal adverse effects induced by antipsychotic drugs. There is a considerable body of data suggesting that anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs have a potential for abuse. The aim was to investigate the use and potential abuse of this class of drugs in Norway. METHODS Data were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database on sales to a total of 73 964 patients in 2004 of biperiden and orphenadrine, and use in patients with Parkinson's disease or in patients who were also prescribed antipsychotic agents. Possible abuse of these drugs was assessed by the level of use, skewedness of use, indications of drug-seeking behaviour and concomitant use of benzodiazepine tranquillizers, a group of prescription drugs with a recognized potential for abuse. RESULTS Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs were prescribed to 4.5% of all outpatients who used antipsychotic drugs. This outnumbered sales to patients with Parkinson's disease by >20 to 1. We found indications of abuse of benzodiazepine tranquillizers among patients using antipsychotics, but there were no clear indications of abuse of anticholinergics, even among patients who were strongly suspected of abuse of benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs were used primarily by patients with psychotic illnesses. These patients have a very high prevalence of legal and illegal drug abuse, but the risk of abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs seemed small. PMID:19094158

  17. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  18. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. PMID:26237316

  19. Legalization of drugs of abuse and the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H

    1991-10-01

    Growing numbers of individuals are proposing that drugs be legalized in the United States, with claims that federal, state, and local efforts to prohibit the use of illicit drugs are irrational and unenforceable. "Drug reform" advocates include persons of all political persuasions. Ironically, the call for drug reform comes at a time when trends in drug abuse, as reflected in national and state surveys, show a promising decline. It also is contradictory to at least one recent public opinion poll, in which respondents opposed the legalization of marijuana by a five-to-one margin. While their position is by no means unanimous, proponents of drug reform generally base their arguments on several key premises, such as elimination of or reductions in drug trafficking, enforcement, and interdiction expenditures; increased tax revenues from the legal sale of drugs; and reductions in health-care expenses associated with drug treatment. Reform advocates further claim that legalization would not be followed by an increase in drug use. The validity of each of these arguments is highly questionable. Legalization is a simplistic, short-sighted solution to a complex issue with public health, economic, criminal justice, and societal ramifications. Legalization would, moreover, abrogate the position taken in 1961 by the United States and 114 other nations in ratifying the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The impact of drug reform merits an unbiased study by an independent agency. Until that time, pediatricians should inform themselves of the arguments for and against drug reform and be prepared to educate patients and their families about the issue.

  20. Provisions of Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988 Relating to Drug Law Enforcement. Information Memorandum 89-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Mary

    This document describes major provisions of the Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988, a federal law relating to enforcement of controlled substances laws which authorizes over two billion dollars for anti-drug activities. Provisions of the Act relating primarily to drug abuse education, prevention or treatment and regulation of the manufacture,…

  1. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  2. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  3. Dragon's Blood incense: misbranded as a drug of abuse?

    PubMed

    Ford, S L; Steiner, R R; Thiericke, R; Young, R; Soine, W H

    2001-01-01

    An unknown red substance was being sold and used with other drugs of abuse in Virginia (often being used in conjunction with marihuana). The red substance was identified as Dragon's Blood incense from Daemonorops draco. In bioassays, Dragon's Blood incense exhibited a low, but measurable cytotoxicity in in vitro cell lines. Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood had no adverse effect on mouse motor performance based on the inclined screen and rotorod tests. delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) produced a dose-related decline in mouse performance on the rotorod test. The combination of Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood with delta(9)-THC did not contribute further to the impairment of the mice on the rotorod. This data suggests that the abuse potential for Dragon's Blood incense alone or in combination with marihuana is minimal.

  4. Medication and drug abuse in relation to road traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Lentner, S; Mader, R; Musalek, M; Nimmerrichter, A; Walter, H

    1989-01-01

    Apart from alcohol, various other substances with a psychotropic effect have been discussed recently in relation to their association with road traffic safety. There has been a general lack of hard facts, however, on how much drug use and abuse influence this. In the absence of data on the frequency of such effects, a representative random sample (approx. 8000 persons) of the Austrian population was interviewed and questioned on their drug intake. A smaller sample (2007 persons) was also questioned as to their behaviour regarding road traffic participation. The results showed that those drugs taken most frequently belong to the 'analgesic' group, whilst the frequency in use of substances to which greater importance is attached currently regarding road safety is relatively low (tranquillizers by 4%; strictly 'psychotropic' drugs by 0.3% to 0.6% of the population). These findings are similar to those reported in English-speaking countries. Data analysis showed that socio-cultural factors (age, sex, marital status and profession) influence the frequency and type of drug intake. The definition of drug abuse and addiction used (increase of dosage, inappropriate use, effect changes) proved somewhat unreliable and called into question the criteria used for diagnosis and categorization of persons at risk. In view of the results of previous studies and the importance attached by critics, an unexpected finding of this survey was the minor influence exerted by tranquillizers on road traffic safety. However, the number of cases for individual drug classes was relatively small and there is a need for more broadly based studies of a similar design before reaching firm conclusions. PMID:2748692

  5. Prevention of alcohol and drug abuse: what works?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L

    2002-09-01

    There is no single "best" prevention program, and no one program or approach will stop all drug use. There are many effective research-based programs; the best approach for any particular population requires selecting the best intervention for the target population on the basis of a knowledge of the risk and protective factors in that population. Unfortunately, the most highly marketed school or family programs are generally not those programs with the best outcomes. The best approach to prevention is to begin early to reduce emerging behavioral and emotional problems in youth. Longer-lasting effects should accrue from changing school, community, and family environmental conditions that promote and maintain drug problems in youth. More and more prevention specialists are considering moving from a focus on the individual to changes in total systems or the environmental contexts that promote or hinder drug use. On the basis of economic considerations, the "whole family" systems-change approach of family skills training classes is becoming popular even in the managed care environment. The greatest challenge facing the drug abuse prevention field is to get information out to practitioners and communities about the best prevention programs, approaches, and principles of effectiveness. Researchers and funding agencies must learn how to effectively market the most successful programs to bridge the gap between research and practice. We must become as effective at marketing drug prevention programs as drug dealers are at promoting and selling drugs. Communities need health care professionals who are knowledgeable about substance abuse prevention and who can advocate the implementation and ongoing improvement of prevention programs with known effectiveness.

  6. The economics of drug abuse: a quantitative assessment of drug demand.

    PubMed

    Hursh, Steven R; Galuska, Chad M; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H

    2005-02-01

    Behavioral economic concepts have proven useful for an overall understanding of the regulation of behavior by environmental commodities and complements a pharmacological perspective on drug abuse in several ways. First, a quantitative assessment of drug demand, equated in terms of drug potency, allows meaningful comparisons to be made among drug reinforcers within and across pharmacological classes. Second, behavioral economics provides a conceptual framework for understanding key factors, both pharmacological and environmental, that contribute to reductions in consumption of illicit drugs. Finally, behavioral economics provides a basis for generalization from laboratory and clinical studies to the development of novel behavioral and pharmacological therapies.

  7. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guides for Pediatrics Faculty: Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series, Medicine 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.; And Others

    This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…

  8. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  9. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  10. [Molecular neurobiological research in the fight against drug abuse].

    PubMed

    Terenius, L

    1991-07-24

    Molecular biology has a strong impact on current research into drug and alcohol dependence. Spectacular recent results include the cloning of a cannabinoid receptor, nicotine receptors in the CNS and the targets of amphetamine and cocaine action, catecholamine transporters. Alcohol has been found to interact with the GABAA and NMDA (glutamate) receptors at concentrations reached with social alcohol use. The interactions of opiates and other drugs of abuse with the endogenous opioid peptides have been studied at several levels; it is a general finding that precursor gene transcription is suppressed. Although much less is known about the molecular consequences of chronic addictive drug usage, a functional deficit in opioid systems has been described. A general addiction mechanism may have similarities with memory storage mechanisms which are currently being studied with molecular probes.

  11. Relapse Among Adolescent Drug Abusers Following Treatment: The Role of Probable ADHD Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  13. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 25, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), commonly called Mellow Drug of America. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of…

  14. Demographic Trends and Drug Abuse, 1980-1995. NIDA Research Monograph 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Louise G., Ed.

    This research monograph, written for community officials and planners of drug abuse prevention programs, presents straight line projections on the possible extent and kinds of nonmedical drug use for young adults (18-25 years old) that can be expected in the future. Projections are made based on current young adult drug abuse and population…

  15. 75 FR 9606 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel NIDA-K Conflicts. Date: March 8, 2010..., PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug...

  16. 78 FR 57166 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Ruth L. Kirschstein National...-Wesley, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug...

  17. 75 FR 3239 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse; Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Network. Date: February..., PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug...

  18. A Primer on Prescription Drug Abuse and the Role of the Pharmacy Director.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Andre; Weber, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    Prescription drug abuse, or using a prescription drug in a way not intended by the provider, has become such an issue in the United States that in 2013 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified it as a new epidemic. The goal of this article is to provide pharmacy directors with a primer on prescription drug abuse and its prevention. This article will cover the causes and societal impact of prescription drug abuse, review recent and proposed strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse, and discuss efforts within the health system to reduce the risks of narcotic diversion that can lead to prescription drug abuse. There are several health and societal factors that have contributed to the rise in prescription drug abuse. As there is no singular contributory factor to this epidemic, there is no easy solution for proper containment and monitoring of prescription drug use. Pharmacy directors play a vital role in the safe use of prescription medications by providing for fail-safe systems for accounting and controlling prescription drugs. In addition, pharmacists can play a role in educating patients and health care workers on the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Health systems should form teams to identify drug diversion and provide an intervention that demands accountability while helping the impaired professional. Health system pharmacy directors must play an integral role in these efforts and continue to seek opportunities to reduce any risks for prescription drug abuse. PMID:26405329

  19. Methodological Issues in Controlled Studies on Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Drug Abuse. Research Monograph 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbey, M. Marlyne, Ed.; Asghar, Khursheed, Ed.

    This monograph presents the proceedings of the first National Institute on Drug Abuse technical review related to the conduct of controlled studies on prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. Papers in the monograph are categorized by session. The first session (two papers) focused on the detection and quantification of prenatal drug exposure in…

  20. 75 FR 16815 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; N44DA-10-5541: The..., Training and Special Projects Review Branch, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug...

  1. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community... RDAP, they must participate in TDAT in the community. If inmates refuse or fail to complete TDAT,...

  2. The Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Treatment: Implications for Controlling AIDS/HIV Infection. Background Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper examines evidence for the effectiveness of treatment for drug abuse and evaluates the role of drug abuse treatment as a strategy to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) spread. Because most intravenous (IV) drug users are not in treatment, the study also examines other approaches to HIV prevention. The remainder of the…

  3. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Redican, Kerry J; Marek, Lydia I; Brock, Donna JP; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse. Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders. Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco¬done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries) turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers. Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed. PMID:24688929

  4. Sex-driven vulnerability in stress and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Berry, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that a link exists between substance abuse and stress and that the crosstalk of sex hormones with the neuroendocrine system might differently prime vulnerability to drug addiction in male and female subjects. Thus, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction and the identification of sex-driven determinants in vulnerability to drug abuse may help to better devise and/or implement strategic (pharmacological, behavioural, social) interventions to prevent or face the issue of addiction. Differences between sexes can be found at all stages of life (in both the animal model and human studies) and may account for genetic, epigenetic and environmental/hormonal factors that in turn affect the functionality of the whole organism leading also to a sex-driven differential vulnerability or resilience to non-communicable pathologies. These include the onset and precipitation of stress-related psychiatric disorders as well as "substance-related and addictive disorders" (as defined in the DSM-V). This paper reviews the scientific literature highlighting significant differences in male and female subjects in stress and neuroendocrine function and the implications for sex-dependent differential vulnerability to drug addiction. PMID:27364390

  5. Drug use patterns and demographics of employed drug users: data from the 1988 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Kopstein, A; Gfroerer, J

    1990-01-01

    This paper has identified some characteristics of full-time working populations who are at higher risk to be substance abusers. In summary, employed people who use drugs are generally between the ages of 18 and 34. Heavy drinkers fall mainly between 18 and 25 years of age. Males are much more likely than females to use marijuana, cocaine, or other illicit drugs and alcohol on a frequent basis. For males, past month use of any illicit drugs and marijuana was higher among those with the lowest personal incomes. For females, past year use of cocaine was higher among those with the highest personal incomes. Females and males with high personal incomes were also more likely than their low income counterparts to use alcohol on a weekly basis. Industries with high percentages of male substance abusers were: construction, wholesale trade, finance, repair services and professionals. Industries with substantial numbers of female drug abusers were manufacturing, retail trade and professionals.

  6. Treating women drug abusers: action therapy and trauma assessment.

    PubMed

    Uhler, Ann S; Parker, Olga V

    2002-07-01

    The authors suggest that action therapy, a group of techniques including psychodrama, drama therapy, and role training, warrants research attention to determine whether it is well suited to the special characteristics and needs of women clients. In addition, the authors call on researchers to develop a new standardized tool for counselors to use during initial interviews to determine whether women presenting for drug abuse treatment also have significant issues related to trauma. The authors believe the use of unassisted clinical judgment for trauma assessment in first interviews may drive patients away by probing for painful information that clients are not yet ready to confront or divulge.

  7. Current approaches for the discovery of drugs that deter substance and drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Yasgar, Adam; Simeonov, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Much has been presented and debated on the topic of drug abuse and its multidimensional nature, including the role of society and its customs and laws, economical factors, and the magnitude and nature of the burden. Given the complex nature of the receptors and pathways implicated in regulation of the cognitive and behavioral processes associated with addiction, a large number of molecular targets have been interrogated during recent years to discover starting points for development of small molecule interventions. Areas covered This review describes recent developments in the field of early drug discovery for drug abuse interventions, with a special emphasis on advances published during the 2012-2014 period. Expert Opinion Technologically, the processes/platforms utilized in drug abuse drug discovery are nearly identical to those used in the other disease areas. A key complicating factor in drug abuse research is the enormous biological complexity surrounding the brain processes involved and the associated difficulty in finding “good” targets and achieving exquisite selectivity of treatment agents. While tremendous progress has been made during recent years to use the power of high-throughput technologies to discover proof-of-principle molecules for many new targets, next-generation models will be especially important in this field; examples include seeking advantageous drug-drug combinations, use of automated whole-animal behavioral screening systems, advancing our understanding of the role of epigenetics in drug addiction, and the employment of organoid-level 3D test platforms (also referred to as tissue-chip or organs-on-chip). PMID:25251069

  8. Chronic cerebral effects of alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Grant, I; Mohns, L

    1975-01-01

    A minority of alcohol abusers develop severe cerebral dysfunction in the form of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. There is also evidence to suggest that cerebral dysfunction, particularly impaired abstracting ability, occurs in that larger population of heavy drinkers who do not go on to develop the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. There is no consistent evidence that long-term marijuana, hallucinogen, or sedative use causes lasting neuropsychological disturbance. The deficits in abstract thinking reported by some LSD studies are similar to deficits others have reported among alcoholics. Since the LSD studies were not controlled for alcohol use, their interpretation is difficult. It appears that cerebrovascular accidents occur more frequently and at a younger age among amphetamine abusers. There is no reliable information about possible other long-term effects of stimulants on the brain per se (i.e., nonvascular complications). Abuse of intravenous narcotics has been associated with case reports of transverse myelitis and encephalitis. It is not known whether this pathology is a direct or hypersensitivity effect of narcotic drugs, of adulterants, or of infection.

  9. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    PubMed

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  10. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  11. Marijuana-based Drugs: Innovative Therapeutics or Designer Drugs of Abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Seely, Kathryn A.; Prather, Paul L.; James, Laura P.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana has been used recreationally and medicinally for centuries. The principle psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1R agonists and antagonists could potentially treat a wide variety of diseases; unfortunately, therapeutic doses produce unacceptable psychiatric effects. “K2” or “Spice” (K2/Spice), an emerging drug of abuse, exhibits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to Δ9-THC, these drugs are widely unregulated and touted as “legal” marijuana. This review summarizes current and future therapeutic uses of CB1R ligands and provides a historical perspective of the K2/Spice “phenomenon” so the reader can decide if marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or instead perpetuate drug abuse. PMID:21441120

  12. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  13. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  14. Drugs and Addict Lifestyles. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report is the seventh in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews the research undertaken to describe the lifestyle histories of heroin users. These research findings are formulated and detailed to provide the reader with…

  15. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse. PMID:19102471

  16. Electrodiagnostic evidence of subclinical disease states in drug abusers.

    PubMed

    DiBenedetto, M

    1976-02-01

    One hundred drug abusers, free of clinical signs or symptoms of disease, were examined by electrodiagnostic techniques. Sensory conduction of median, ulnar and sural nerves was evaluated in terms of latency, velocity and amplitude of evoked potential. Motor nerve latencies and conduction velocities of median, ulnar and personeal nerves were determined. Definite changes in the evoked sensory potentials of median and sural nerves of subjects using heroin or LSD were demonstrated. The sensory amplitude changes were suggestive of axonal degreneration because of normal duration. Maximum motor conduction velocity was abnormal in one patient who admitted using a variety of drugs; five heroin and two barbiturate users showed dispersed motor responses suggesting small fiber involvement. No abnormality could be shown in marjuana smokers. Signifcance of these findings is explained, emphasizing important potential for recognition of subclinical abnormalities and the opportunity for disease prevention.

  17. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  18. Natural opium as one of the possibilities for drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Klusonová, Hana; Vlková, Jana; Visnovský, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Natural opium is a popular seasonal alternation for substance dependent people. Its processing, way of using, experience and change of habits was the aim of our study carried out via anonymous questionnaire and directed interview. 47 questionnaires were obtained. According to our results natural opium has been abused by people 19-42 years old, more than a half of them were male. Basic drug were pervitin in 57 %, marihuana in 33 %, a considerable part (30 %) was natural opium. Each grower produced approximately 35 g of raw opium in one season. The most frequent way of application was smoking, injecting and "opium tea" drinking. Almost a half of the clients (40 %) felt attenuation after application; relaxation, hallucination and central stimulation admitted 25 % of respondents. Health troubles had majority of the users. Combinations of natural opium with other drugs (alcohol, marihuana, pervitin) declared 45 % respondents, the effects of the combinations admitted one third of users. The examination for viral hepatitis confirmed more than a half of the clients; the major part of users from Olomouc, but only 25 % of users from Prostejov were tested for HIV. Opium consumption influenced habits of personal hygiene of more than a half of the users (57 %). Routine servicing of the spot of the needle insertion practiced a half of the responders. Majority of the abusers (79 %) obtained and closed out paraphernalia throw to the "harm reduction" program.

  19. Distribution of methamphetamine and amphetamine in drug abusers' head hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Eunyoung; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun

    2009-09-10

    In order to aid the interpretation of hair results from methamphetamine (MA) abusers the MA and amphetamine (AP) concentrations in 2070 hair samples were statistically evaluated. The MA and AP concentrations in hair were put into three groups arbitrarily representing low, medium and high ranges and the metabolite-to-parent drug ratios of each group were examined. The concentration ranges proposed here were also applied to the interpretation of five authentic cases. The low, medium and high ranges of MA were 0.5-4.2, 4.2-24.5 and 24.5-608.9 ng/mg and those of AP were 0.1-0.4, 0.4-1.7 and 1.7-41.4 ng/mg. The AP-to-MA ratios showed large variation but a tendency that it decreased as the MA ranges increased. This evaluation was very useful to presume the severity of individuals' MA abuse and to provide law enforcement agencies more understandable information. It could also facilitate the court's decision regarding specific circumstances surrounding the drug-related crimes.

  20. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. PMID:25608962

  1. The drug abuse problem in Peninsular Malaysia: parent and child differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zulkifli, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalail, S; Aye, K W

    1996-10-01

    A survey was carried out to gather information on knowledge, attitudes and perception of parents and their children in relation to drug abuse matters. Significantly more teenagers knew more of the cause of drug addiction, as well as places for treatment and rehabilitation. Both teenagers and parents were also aware of reasons why drug addicts find it difficult to change their habits, mainly lacking motivation to stop taking drugs and that drug addicts do not have the power to control themselves. Teenagers were significantly more aware of effects of negative parental attitudes contributing to drug abuse, apart from school factors. Personal experiences before abusing drugs such as knowledge of pleasurable effects of drugs and where to obtain them has also a role to play in leading to drug abuse. There was also agreement that unfulfilled needs such as 'not being respected recognised for ones capabilities' and 'not being loved or treated fairly by parents', were causes of drug abuse. Significantly more teenagers knew of the ways of abusing drugs, mainly by injection, smoking and sniffing, and also sources of information via the mass media, social clubs, rehabilitation centres and schools. However, both the parents and teenagers were relatively ignorant of the long term effects of abusing drugs.

  2. The drug abuse problem in Peninsular Malaysia: parent and child differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zulkifli, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalail, S; Aye, K W

    1996-10-01

    A survey was carried out to gather information on knowledge, attitudes and perception of parents and their children in relation to drug abuse matters. Significantly more teenagers knew more of the cause of drug addiction, as well as places for treatment and rehabilitation. Both teenagers and parents were also aware of reasons why drug addicts find it difficult to change their habits, mainly lacking motivation to stop taking drugs and that drug addicts do not have the power to control themselves. Teenagers were significantly more aware of effects of negative parental attitudes contributing to drug abuse, apart from school factors. Personal experiences before abusing drugs such as knowledge of pleasurable effects of drugs and where to obtain them has also a role to play in leading to drug abuse. There was also agreement that unfulfilled needs such as 'not being respected recognised for ones capabilities' and 'not being loved or treated fairly by parents', were causes of drug abuse. Significantly more teenagers knew of the ways of abusing drugs, mainly by injection, smoking and sniffing, and also sources of information via the mass media, social clubs, rehabilitation centres and schools. However, both the parents and teenagers were relatively ignorant of the long term effects of abusing drugs. PMID:8889409

  3. Drug Abuse Among Medical Students at a Nigerian University: Part 1. Prevalence and Pattern of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ihezue, U. H.

    1988-01-01

    Using a structured pro forma, 728 out of 775 medical undergraduates at a Nigerian university were surveyed for the prevalence and pattern of drug use. An operational definition of substance abuse was made, and 28 percent of students fell within that criterion. Male abusers (81 percent) exceeded female abusers (19 percent). Substances most commonly abused were alcohol (60 percent), minor tranquilizers (48 percent), tobacco (35 percent), and narcotics (29 percent), particularly codeine. Only 11 percent abused cannabis. While most students were polydrug users, there was a low frequency of daily drug use. A general lifetime (occasional use) prevalence of substance use of 56 percent was found. Drugs consumed on a daily basis were alcohol (2 percent) and tobacco (6 percent). The prevalence of drug use was highest among the fourth and final year students. The majority of students were occasional abusers; there was no evidence of physical dependence. PMID:3257527

  4. Drug abuse among medical students at a Nigerian university: Part 1. Prevalence and pattern of use.

    PubMed

    Ihezue, U H

    1988-01-01

    Using a structured pro forma, 728 out of 775 medical undergraduates at a Nigerian university were surveyed for the prevalence and pattern of drug use. An operational definition of substance abuse was made, and 28 percent of students fell within that criterion. Male abusers (81 percent) exceeded female abusers (19 percent). Substances most commonly abused were alcohol (60 percent), minor tranquilizers (48 percent), tobacco (35 percent), and narcotics (29 percent), particularly codeine. Only 11 percent abused cannabis. While most students were polydrug users, there was a low frequency of daily drug use. A general lifetime (occasional use) prevalence of substance use of 56 percent was found. Drugs consumed on a daily basis were alcohol (2 percent) and tobacco (6 percent). The prevalence of drug use was highest among the fourth and final year students. The majority of students were occasional abusers; there was no evidence of physical dependence. PMID:3257527

  5. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... central nervous system, drugs that are chemically or pharmacologically similar to other drugs with known... Abuse (NIDA), as described in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of March 8, 1985 (50 FR 9518). When...

  6. 75 FR 5798 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... on HIV/AIDS and Drug Use. Date: February 18, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and...: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Special Emphasis Panel, Targeted Library Synthesis and Screening at...

  7. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  8. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on synthetic cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Debruyne, Danièle; Le Boisselier, Reynald

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive drugs that have appeared over the last decade are typically dominated by cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). SCs have been emerging as recreational drugs because they mimic the euphoria effect of cannabis while still being legal. Sprayed on natural herb mixtures, SCs have been primarily sold as “herbal smoking blends” or “herbal incense” under brand names like “Spice” or “K2”. Currently, SCs pure compounds are available from websites for the combination with herbal materials or for the use in e-cigarettes. For the past 5 years, an ever increasing number of compounds, representative of different chemical classes, have been promoted and now represent a large assortment of new popular drugs of abuse, which are difficult to properly identify. Their legal status varies by country with many government institutions currently pushing for their control. The in vitro binding to CB1/CB2 receptors is usually well-known and considerable differences have been found in the CB1 versus CB2 selectivity and potency within the different SCs, with several structure-activity relations being evident. Desired effects by CB1 agonist users are relaxation/recreative, however, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or psychiatric/neurological side effects are commonly reported. At present there is no specific antidote existing if an overdose of designer drugs was to occur, and no curative treatment has been approved by health authorities. Management of acute toxic effects is mainly symptomatic and extrapolated from experience with cannabis. PMID:26543389

  9. Dimensions, Patterns, and Personality Correlates of Drug Abuse in an Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Terrill R.

    1978-01-01

    Drug abuse scores from prisoners resulted in two factors describing lifetime use of cannabis versus opiates. Analysis of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles versus drug abuse patterns indicated moderate, unidimensional relationship between variables. MMPI profiles of opiate users were similar to those identified in research…

  10. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 13, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on the British narcotics system. Underlying the British approach is the belief that narcotic dependence is a medical problem to be treated by medical professionals rather than a criminal…

  11. 78 FR 63994 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Substance Use Disorders and Molecular Regulation of Brain Energy Utilization (R01) (R21). Date: November 19, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00...

  12. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 15, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on mescaline. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  13. The Evolution of a Community Drug Abuse Program: Families Have a Critical Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Timothy F.; Schrenker, Robert J.

    This description of the Merrillville Substance Abuse Program initially reviews the problems that student drug abuse poses for school administrators. A community needs assessment is described and the evolution of a developmental drug education program is presented. Educational strategies targeted to parents, teachers, and students are discussed,…

  14. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  15. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 12, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on methadone. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  16. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 26, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on narcotic antagonists, particularly nalorphine, naloxone, cyclazocine, levallorphan, and pentazocine. Background information is provided through a summary of their history, legal status,…

  17. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 11, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on cocaine. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is presented…

  18. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 14, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on phencyclidine (PCP). Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject…

  19. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  20. Assessing dietary intake of drug abusing Hispanic adults with and without HIV infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drug abuse is an important risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Hispanics in the Northeastern United States and both drug abuse and HIV are associated with nutritional deficiencies. The selection of a dietary assessment method most appropriate for Hispanic adults with/without HIV...

  1. 76 FR 4928 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse..., 76; 10 FR 2011-727. The time of the closed session on February 2, 2011 was changed to 8:30 a.m. to...

  2. 76 FR 71986 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Amended; Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special... October 20, 2011, 76; 204 FR 2011-27294. The location of the meeting was changed to The Dupont...

  3. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  4. Preliminary Estimates from the 1995 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Advance Report Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfroerer, Joseph

    This report presents the first results from the 1995 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, an annual survey conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The survey provides estimates of the prevalence of use of a variety of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco, based on a nationally representative sample of the…

  5. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  6. The Use of Family Therapy in Drug Abuse Treatment: A National Survey. Services Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    A survey sought to determine the nature and extent of family therapy practiced in treatment and rehabilitation agencies serving drug abuse clients. Questionnaire responses to a three-phase study were on a voluntary basis. Phase I, with a 60% response rate, gathered information on the number of drug abuse treatment agencies providing family…

  7. The Effects of a Self-Directed Drug Abuse Education Program on Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, James Toy, Jr.

    The major purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences in attitude change toward eight drug abuse concepts would be generated among college students when taught a drug abuse education program with the use of self-directed multi-media learning activities. The subjects' opinions and evaluation of the self-directed education…

  8. 78 FR 64966 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 11:00 a.m....

  9. 78 FR 64958 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 2:00 p.m....

  10. 78 FR 64966 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 17, 2013, 08:00 a.m....

  11. 78 FR 64962 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 9:00 a.m....

  12. 78 FR 64965 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, October 16, 2013, 08:00 a.m....

  13. Use of Brief Interventions for Drug Abusing Teenagers within a Middle and High School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Leitten, Willa; Wagner, Eric; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Promising and encouraging results have been recently reported on the use of briefer interventions for adolescent drug abusers. Because middle- and high-school-based drug abuse intervention programs have grown in popularity over the past several decades, the use of brief interventions (BIs) in school settings merits consideration.…

  14. Why Do Teachers Choose to Implement or Reject Drug Abuse Prevention Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John

    State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…

  15. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 16, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on psilocybin. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  16. 76 FR 3916 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... October 15, 2010, 75; 199 FR 2010- 26025. The date and time of the meeting were changed to February 22... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse...

  17. Minority Drug Abuse Prevention: An Overview of the State of the Art. (Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, John L.

    This paper describes (1) the role of the Center for Multicultural Awareness (CMA) in providing technical assistance and identifying and designing culturally relevant materials for the prevention of drug abuse among minority groups, and (2) the current status of State and local drug abuse programs in relation to minority groups. The development of…

  18. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Four. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This revised curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' affective and cognitive skills. The introductory section presents the rationale for the school-community drug abuse prevention program…

  19. Women and Drug Abuse Treatment: Needs and Services. Services Research Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beschner, George; Thompson, Peggy

    During the 1970s, several activities were initiated in response to concern about the quality of treatment services available to drug-abusing women. A comparison of services needed by women with services actually available to women found that special treatment services for drug-abusing women were needed in the areas of medical treatment,…

  20. Drugs and Pregnancy: The Effects of Nonmedical Use of Drugs on Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Neonates. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse presents this report as the fifth in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the the issues of drug use and abuse. Included in this volume are summaries of the major research findings concerning the effects of nonmedical drug use on pregnancy.…

  1. Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother-fetus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV disease progression is mixed, in vitro studies as well as studies using in vivo animal models have indicated that drugs of abuse have the ability to enhance HIV infection/replication. Drugs of abuse may also be a risk factor for perinatal transmission of HIV. Because high levels of viral load in maternal blood are associated with increased risk of HIV vertical transmission, it is likely that drugs of abuse play an important role in promoting mother-fetus transmission. Furthermore, because the neonatal immune system differs qualitatively from the adult system, it is possible that maternal exposure to drugs of abuse would exacerbate neonatal immunity defects, facilitating HIV infection of neonate immune cells and promoting HIV vertical transmission. The availability and use of antiretroviral therapy for women infected with HIV increase, there is an increasing interest in determining the impact of drug abuse on efficacy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) -standardized treatment regimens for woman infected with HIV in the context of HIV vertical transmission. PMID:21056582

  2. Drug Abuse Office, Prevention, and Treatment Amendments of 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2916.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The purpose of the testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in April, 1978 was to amend the drug abuse office and treatment act of 1972, thereby extending assistance programs for drug abuse prevention, education, treatment, rehabilitation and other purposes. Speakers represented such organizations as National…

  3. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    PubMed Central

    Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Cesbron, Alexandre; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Bourgine, Joanna; Debruyne, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and psychiatric/neurological signs/symptoms (agitation, seizures, paranoia, and hallucinations) are the most common adverse effects reported. Severe toxicity signs compatible with excessive serotonin activity, such as hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, and prolonged rhabdomyolysis, have also been observed. Reinforcing potential observed in animals predicts a high potential

  4. Human neuroscience at National Institute on Drug Abuse: Implications for genetics research

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.W.

    1994-12-15

    It is becoming clear that there is a genetic component to drug abuse. Family studies, adoption studies, and critical twin studies have all pointed to some genetic vulnerability or risk factors for an individual to abuse psychoactive drugs depending on certain psychopathologies in the biological parents and/or parents` own drug use. The question for the next generation of research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is to apply the rapidly developing technology in molecular genetics in an effort to determine the candidate genes contributing to the risk. 19 refs.

  5. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the “Confidentiality of Certain Medical... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82...

  6. Prescription drug abuse & addiction: past, present and future: the paradigm for an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Hall, P Bradley; Hawkinberry, Denzil; Moyers-Scott, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and West Virginia is not immune. It is estimated that in 2009, the number of adolescents and adults with a substance abuse and/or dependence problem has reached 23.2 million in the US. There has been an alarming rate of increased sales of methadone, hydrocodone and oxycodone. This article addresses the scope of the problem of prescription drug abuse in West Virginia and the impact by and on the addicted individual. Addiction is a chronic relapsing neuropsychiatric illness manifested by compulsive drug seeking and use. It has created a substantive socioeconomic burden on our state. Prescription drug abuse and addiction increase medical expenses, drug related crime and unemployment. There are misconceptions regarding the etiology and treatment of addiction based on past clinical experience. The view of addiction as volitional misconduct alone has been disproven scientifically. A more current understanding of neurobiological alterations caused by this disease, current treatment strategies and future directions will be presented. This article provides an understanding of prescription drug abuse and addiction's contribution and impact on society's health and social policy. Addressing the problem of prescription drug abuse requires an understanding of the disease of addiction, thus enhancing the effectiveness in diminishing the associated health and social costs. It is the article's intent to illuminate the mutually symbiotic relationship of prescription drug abuse and the disease of addiction and subsequently provide recommendations toward the resolution of this most important issue.

  7. Risk behaviour associated with HIV infection among drug abusers seen at the general Hospital, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Suarn, S; Nor Adam, M

    1993-06-01

    Sixty-one serologically positive HIV infected drug abusers admitted to the Drug Ward, General Hospital, Kota Bharu, were interviewed for possible risk behaviour and AIDS awareness. Fifty-eight subjects were IV abusers while the other 3 were non-IV abusers. All the IV abusers had shared injecting equipment with no regard for sterility. There was non-usage of condoms among those sexually active. Though AIDS awareness was high, there was a lack of risk behaviour change. The drug abusers appear to be a problem group in HIV control measures. Educating the drug abusers and commitment by them to alter risk behaviour is needed.

  8. Risk behaviour associated with HIV infection among drug abusers seen at the general Hospital, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Suarn, S; Nor Adam, M

    1993-06-01

    Sixty-one serologically positive HIV infected drug abusers admitted to the Drug Ward, General Hospital, Kota Bharu, were interviewed for possible risk behaviour and AIDS awareness. Fifty-eight subjects were IV abusers while the other 3 were non-IV abusers. All the IV abusers had shared injecting equipment with no regard for sterility. There was non-usage of condoms among those sexually active. Though AIDS awareness was high, there was a lack of risk behaviour change. The drug abusers appear to be a problem group in HIV control measures. Educating the drug abusers and commitment by them to alter risk behaviour is needed. PMID:8350785

  9. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  10. [Response to treatment of patients abusing the "dappou drug" who participated in a group relapse prevention program: a comparison with patients abusing methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Hikitsuchi, Emi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Imamura, Fumi; Kawachi, Hiraku; Wakabayashi, Asako; Kato, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy of a group relapse prevention program using the cognitive behavioral therapy-based workbook, Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), between patients abusing the so-called "dappou drugs" (designer drug in Japan, and those abusing methamphetamine (MAP). Both groups participated in the SMARPP at the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. Results showed that, no significant differences were found in the rates of participation in the program or self-reported frequency of drug or alcohol use between the patients abusing "dappou drugs" or MAP. However, patients using "dappou drugs" reported no significant increase in their confidence in their ability to resist the temptation to use drugs on the self- report drug abuse scales after the SMARPP intervention, while patients abusing MAP reported a significant positive difference in their ability to resist temptation. In addition, insight into substance abuse problems and motivation to participate in further treatment slightly declined in those using "dappou drugs," while there was a significant increase reported by the patients using MAP. These results suggested that the SMARPP might not be as effective for patients abusing "dappou drugs" as for those abusing MAP. The development of a relapse prevention program specifically designed for patients abusing "dappou drugs" is required. PMID:25831947

  11. [The Pharmacist as Gatekeeper of Prescription Drug Abuse: Return to "Community Scientists"].

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya

    2016-01-01

      The non-medical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including benzodiazepines, is a growing health problem in Japan. An association between prescription drug overdose and suicide risk has also been reported. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has expected pharmacists to act as "gatekeepers", facilitating early identification of individuals at high risk of prescription drug abuse including overdose, supplying medication counseling to patients, and helping to introduce these patients to appropriate medical care. Prescription drugs such as benzodiazepines are widely used in psychiatry. However, these drugs are prescribed not only by psychiatrists but also by other healthcare professionals including primary care physicians. Moreover, in recent years, the dispensing of prescriptions has moved rapidly from inside to outside hospitals, with prescription drugs being dispensed mainly at community pharmacies. Although all healthcare professionals including hospital pharmacists can play a role in preventing prescription drug abuse, the role of the community pharmacist is vital in addressing this problem. Formerly, community pharmacists were recognized as "community scientists", low-threshold accessible healthcare advisors. Now, community pharmacists should return to the role of community scientists to prevent prescription drug abuse. This article begins by reviewing the current situation of prescription drug abuse and dependence in Japan. The role of pharmacists as gatekeepers in preventing prescription drug abuse is then examined. Finally, this article discusses the effect of intervention in the form of gatekeeper training for community pharmacists.

  12. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tommasello, Anthony C

    2004-01-01

    Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine) 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use PMID:15169544

  13. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  15. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  16. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  17. Prenatal Drug Abuse: Prevalence and Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes, Child Survival and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Feroz

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on prenatal drug abuse to (1) estimate mothers' drug use and exposure of infants; (2) document the relationship between prenatal drug use and adverse birth outcomes; and (3) examine effects of maternal drug use on birth defects. Argues for more treatment facilities and greater prevention efforts. (SLD)

  18. Other Drug Use and Abuse on Campus: The Scope of the Problem. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Virginia; DeJong, William

    2009-01-01

    Of all drugs abused on college and university campuses, alcohol causes the greatest harm. Other drugs (the prevention field uses the term "other drugs" to distinguish them from alcohol, which also is a drug) also take a significant toll--diminishing the quality of campus life, undermining academic performance, compromising students' health and…

  19. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Dick B. S.; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer. PMID:27721531

  20. Cognitive Factors Related to Drug Abuse Among a Sample of Iranian Male Medical College Students

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Farzad; Ataee, Mari; Matin, Behzad Karami; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Jouybari, Touraj Ahmadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: Drug abuse is one of the most serious social problems in many countries. College students, particularly at their first year of education, are considered as one of the at risk groups for drug abuse. The present study aimed to determine cognitive factors related to drug abuse among a sample of Iranian male medical college students based on the social cognitive theory (SCT). Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 425 Iranian male medical college students who were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. The participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using bivariate correlations, logistic and linear regression at 95% significant level. Results: Attitude, outcome expectation, outcome expectancies, subjective norms, and self-control were cognitive factors that accounted for 49% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to abuse drugs. Logistic regression showed that attitude (OR=1.062), outcome expectancies (OR=1.115), and subjective norms (OR=1.269) were the most influential predictors for drug abuse. Conclusions: The findings suggest that designing and implementation of educational programs may be useful to increase negative attitude, outcome expectancies, and subjective norms towards drug abuse for college students in order to prevent drug abuse. PMID:26156919

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse in peninsula Malaysia: a survey report.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zulkifil, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalai, S; Aye, K W

    1995-01-01

    Given the magnitude of drug addiction in Malaysia, the government has given top priority to this issue. It is timely that an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse and drug dependents among the general public be carried out. Thus, a nationwide survey was undertaken. A representative sample of 2,591 respondents aged 13 years and above from households were surveyed throughout the 11 states and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur in Peninsula Malaysia. The results revealed that the respondents are moderately knowledgeable on drug abuse, especially information pertaining to treatment, rehabilitation and aftercare services, including education to families against drug abuse. The public possess a negative attitude towards drug dependents. Majority felt that drug addicts do not have the will power to rid themselves of drugs and they also lack a supportive family network system. Many believe that the most vulnerable group are the adolescents. Respondents were aware of the type of drugs commonly abused, although they failed to realise their long-term effects. Respondents do not attribute low education, large family and marginal income to the background of drug dependents. The findings showed gaps and misconceptions in terms of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the public. Accurate knowledge on, and right attitudes and perceptions towards drug related issues would certainly benefit the public in timely prevention of drug abuse. PMID:9037810

  2. How Communities Can Strengthen Their Strategies To Fight Drug Abuse Using Research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). 2000 Monthly Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This kit helps communities use research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) to make local prevention and treatment programs more effective. The kit describes some of NIDA's research on the nature of addiction and the anatomy of the brain's response to drugs. Suggestions are given for putting the NIDA principles of prevention to work,…

  3. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN).

    PubMed

    Mattson, Margaret E; Albright, Victoria A; Yoon, Joanna; Council, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional). Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) for prevalence of emergency department (ED) visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA. PMID:26056465

  4. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Margaret E; Albright, Victoria A; Yoon, Joanna; Council, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional). Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) for prevalence of emergency department (ED) visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA. PMID:26056465

  5. Human Rights Abuses and Suicidal Ideation among Male Injecting Drug Users in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Enisha; Samson, Luke; Sweat, Michael; Beyrer, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background Human rights abuses, denial of care, police surveillance, and violence directed at IDUs have been found to impact HIV prevention efforts due to decreased attendance in harm reduction programs. The association of mental health status with rights abuses has not been examined extensively among drug users. In India, drug control laws are often in conflict with harm reduction policies, thus increasing the likelihood of rights abuses against IDUs. The purpose of this study was to describe human rights abuses occurring among IDUs in Delhi and examine their association with suicidal ideation. Methods 343 IDUs were recruited in two research sites in Delhi through respondent driven sampling and were interviewed with a cross sectional survey questionnaire that included items on human rights and socio demographics. Results IDUs in the study experienced many human rights abuses. Notably among these were denial of admission into hospital (38.5%), denial of needles and syringes (20%), police arrests for carrying needles and using drugs (85%), verbal abuse (95%) and physical abuse (88%). Several human rights abuses were associated with suicidal ideation. These include being denied needles and syringes (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 3.03- 17.49); being arrested by police for carrying needles and using drugs (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.06- 6.03), and being physically abused (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05- 2.23). The likelihood of suicidal ideation is also strongly related to the cumulative number of abuses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of human rights abuses among IDUs in Delhi. Given the alarming rate of suicidal ideation and its close relationship with human rights abuses it is essential that IDU interventions are executed within a rights-based framework. PMID:21439808

  6. Self-destructive behavior patterns in male and female drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Saxon, S; Kuncel, E; Kaufman, E

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and fourteen male and female drug abusers were interviewed regarding their histories of self-destructive behaviors. The data were analyzed to determine if, and identify what, differences existed between males and females with respect to types and extent of self-destructiveness. The analyzed data indicate that male and female drug abusers present very different self-destructive portraits. These portraits and their component parts are presented along with possible explanations for the differences. The paper also presents some of the differences between drug abusers and the general population with respect to self-destructiveness.

  7. The impact of science education games on prescription drug abuse attitudes among teens: a case study.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G; Miller, Leslie M; Ramos, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated in a pretest, two game-play sessions, and a delayed posttest. Students in both groups demonstrated more negative attitudes toward prescription drug abuse after playing the game, driven by changes of students' normative beliefs and their ability to make the connection between prescription drug abuse and illicit drugs. A secondary aim was to assess gains in science knowledge; however, due to low internal consistency reliabilities of content measures, students' knowledge acquisition could not be determined.

  8. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on...

  9. Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Texas: 1997 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liang Y.

    This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…

  10. Identifying Some Factors That Might Predispose Drug Abuse among Learners in a South African Township School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobler, R.; Khatite, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into some of the factors that might predispose the use and abuse of drugs among secondary school learners in a township school. The objective of this research is to identify these factors and to offer a few suggestions on how the abuse may be prevented. A quantitative research strategy is used and a document analysis technique…

  11. Family Support Programs and the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Resource Coalition, Chicago, IL.

    This overview examines underlying precepts and components of family support programs. The role of the family in a child's resistance to alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse is discussed. Comprehensive prevention programs encompassing the family, school, and community have shown more promise in helping children avoid AOD abuse than programs that rely…

  12. Screening American Indian Youth for Referral to Drug Abuse Prevention and Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Dewolfe, Jerome; Graham, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The development and psychometric properties of a brief screening tool for use with American Indian youth suspected of abusing substances is described. The Indian Health Service-Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (IHS-PESQ) is a brief questionnaire that screens for drug abuse problem severity, response distortion tendencies, and…

  13. Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    The guide presents facts and issues concerning drug and alcohol abuse so that college and university administration and governing boards can make informed decisions about programs, policy, and procedures to minimize their occurrence on campus. Chapter 1 examines issues related to substance abuse on campus: risk factors in the campus community; the…

  14. Teenage Pregnancy and Drug Abuse: Sources of Problem Behaviors. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bempechat, Janine; And Others

    Drug and alcohol abuse and teenage pregnancy are two behaviors manifested by at-risk children that are both a cause and a result of their lack of success in school and possible subsequent dropping out. The distinction between substance use and abuse may be determined using the following criteria: (1) age of onset; (2) physiological responses; (3)…

  15. An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse Through Twitter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. Objective To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Methods Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. Results From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, P<.001). Conclusions Twitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it—potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm. PMID:24014109

  16. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  17. Marijuana-based drugs: innovative therapeutics or designer drugs of abuse?

    PubMed

    Seely, Kathryn A; Prather, Paul L; James, Laura P; Moran, Jeffery H

    2011-02-01

    The principal psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). Unfortunately, pharmacological research into the design of effective THC analogs has been hampered by psychiatric side effects. THC-based drug design of a less academic nature, however, has led to the marketing of "synthetic marijuana," labeled as K2 or "Spice," among other terms, which elicits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to THC, the active ingredients of K2/Spice preparations are widely unregulated. The K2/Spice "phenomenon" provides a context for considering whether marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or merely perpetuate drug abuse.

  18. Social and legal factors related to drug abuse in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Greberman, S B; Wada, K

    1994-01-01

    This article is an overview of social and legal differences in the United States and in Japan that are related to patterns of current drug abuse epidemics in these countries. These two nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and take different approaches currently to handling illicit drug marketing and use. Histories of opiate and cocaine abuse in the United States and of stimulant and inhalant abuse in Japan are discussed. The United States has experienced three heroin epidemics in the last three decades; cocaine addiction began to merit national concern by the end of the 1980s. In Japan, the first methamphetamine epidemic began after World War II; it was controlled in the 1950s. The current inhalant epidemic began in the late 1960s and was followed by the second methamphetamine epidemic that began in 1970; both are continuing to the present. The criminal justice system is always given first consideration when assessing societal measures employed to reduce drug use. Legal penalties for illicit drug offenses reflect the societal differences of these two nations with respect to the seriousness of particular types of crimes. Characteristics of the health care system of a nation may also influence patterns of drug abuse, particularly where functions of criminal justice and health care systems overlap. Health care systems in the United States and in Japan are based on different treatment philosophies and patients' expectations; these differences are discussed along with explanations of their potential influence on the epidemiology of drug abuse. PMID:7800780

  19. Psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) with substance abusers in outpatient and residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Voluse, Andrew C; Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Dum, Mariam; Sobell, Mark B; Simco, Edward R

    2012-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT), an 11-item self-report questionnaire developed to screen individuals for drug problems, are evaluated. The measure, developed in Sweden and evaluated there with individuals with severe drug problems, has not been evaluated with less severe substance abusers or with clinical populations in the United States. Participants included 35 drug abusers in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program, 79 drug abusers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, and 39 alcohol abusers from both treatment settings who did not report a drug abuse problem. The DUDIT was found to be a psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measure with high convergent validity (r=.85) when compared with the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10), and to have a Cronbach's alpha of .94. In addition, a single component accounted for 64.91% of total variance, and the DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of .90 and .85, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 8. Additionally, the DUDIT showed good discriminant validity as it significantly differentiated drug from alcohol abusers. These findings support the DUDIT as a reliable and valid drug abuse screening instrument that measures a unidimensional construct. Further research is warranted with additional clinical populations. PMID:21937169

  20. Sports and Drug Abuse. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (September 25, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This hearing examined the impact of illegal drugs on both professional and amateur sports and the national effort of sports figures to help fight drug abuse. Witnesses included individuals currently involved in programs designed to prevent drug abuse, members of groups formed to rehabilitate drug users, and former professional athletes who…

  1. Natural killer cells in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Poli, G; Introna, M; Zanaboni, F; Peri, G; Carbonari, M; Aiuti, F; Lazzarin, A; Moroni, M; Mantovani, A

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated 25 intravenous drug abusers with the clinical and laboratory features of lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) and 10 AIDS patients for the expression of NK activity. LAS and AIDS patients had low NK cytotoxicity compared to normal donors. The defective NK cytotoxicity was analysed in the eight LAS subjects with most marked depression. NK effectors were identified by morphology (large granular lymphocytes, LGL) and monoclonal antibody-defined surface markers (B73.1, N901, HNK1). LAS patients had normal percentages of LGL and B73.1+ and N901+ cells. with the exception of two subjects with very low frequency of B73.1+ and N901+ cells. The percentage of HNK1+ cells was increased in LAS, probably because of the reactivity of this reagent with a subset of conventional OKT8+ cells, relatively augmented in LAS subjects. Depletion of monocytes did not enhance NK activity consistently. LAS patients had a normal frequency of cells capable of binding K562. In-vitro exposure to interferon beta (natural) or gamma (recombinant) augmented the defective NK activity of LAS subjects. Thus, patients with LAS have defective NK activity that cannot be accounted for by a low frequency of the relevant effector cells or by monocytic suppressors. These observations suggest a functional defect of NK cells at one or more of the post-binding steps required for the completion of killing. PMID:2415279

  2. Possibility of spontaneous drug abuse tested in rat.

    PubMed

    Sala, M; Braida, D; Calcaterra, P; Leone, M P; Gori, E

    1993-01-01

    Given that a number of the techniques used to test drug abuse liability are not free from criticism, a series of oral free-choice experimental procedures was adopted. When simultaneously offered as alternatives to glucose using the classical polydipsic procedure, no preference for buprenorphine (0.025 mg/ml), morphine (0.5 mg/ml) or fentanyl (0.005 mg/ml) solutions was shown by premedicated rats. The same result was obtained when the two-bottle procedure was used for at least one month to offer etonitazene (10 micrograms/ml), buprenorphine (60 micrograms/ml), cocaine (300 micrograms/ml) and haloperidol (25 micrograms/ml) solutions as simultaneous alternatives to aspartame. This absence of preference was maintained even when the rats showed evident pharmacological effects and, in the case of the opiates, tolerance and withdrawal syndrome. However, when a gustatory marker (quinine) was introduced into one of the two solutions, preference was always shown for the other. Finally, in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) test, etonitazene (5 or 40 micrograms/kg, i.p.) and haloperidol (0.5 or 2 mg/kg, i.p.) did not induce any reduction in saccharin consumption, while morphine (40 mg/kg) did. Pretreatment with naloxone (120 micrograms/kg, i.c.v.) did not antagonize morphine-induced CTA, while it did antagonize morphine-induced analgesia.

  3. Predicting abuse potential of stimulants and other dopaminergic drugs: overview and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Huskinson, Sally L; Naylor, Jennifer E; Rowlett, James K; Freeman, Kevin B

    2014-12-01

    Examination of a drug's abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  4. 78 FR 28860 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for: “Data Rx: Prescription Drug Abuse Infographic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... abuse and the treatment of drug abusers. Consistent with this authority, one of NIDA's strategic goals... support this strategic goal. Entry Materials Applications for this Challenge will include the following... Possible data sources include (but are not limited to): Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Data (ADAM;...

  5. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 84 Stat. 1276, to approve the application of a U.S....

  6. 76 FR 15328 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Pharmaceutical Products/Addiction Treatment (8899). Date: May 24, 2011. Time: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review....279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March...

  7. 76 FR 78671 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Treatment of HIV and HVC Infections in Drug Abusing Populations (8907). Date: January 13, 2012. Time: 1 p.m...; Smokescreen: Genetic Screening Tool for Tobacco Dependence and Treatment Approaches (7783). Date: January...

  8. Gallium-67 detection of intramammary injection sites secondary to intravenous drug abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Swayne, L.C. )

    1989-09-01

    A case of gallium localization within the breast occurred secondary to intravenous drug abuse. In the appropriate clinical setting, prior self-administered injections should be considered as a cause of Ga-67 accumulation at unusual sites.

  9. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / 359 Hallucinogens / 397 Cocaine / 1,003 Inhalants / 161 Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use ...

  10. The Drug Use Screening Inventory: School Adjustment Correlates of Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Drug Use Screening Inventory's (DUSI) sensitivity in detecting adolescents (N=706) who abuse drugs is demonstrated. Severity of drug involvement and psychiatric disturbance correlated with scores on the School Adjustment domain. Recommends additional research be conducted to determine the predictive validity and temporal stability of DUSI…

  11. Language Deficits in Children at High Risk for Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najam, Najma; Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirisci, Levent

    1997-01-01

    Compared the language capacities of children at high risk for substance abuse to low-risk children to uncover focal areas of deficit. Results indicate that high-risk subjects' performance was significantly poorer on several measures of language ability. Findings suggest that poor language mediation increases the risk for substance abuse. (RJM)

  12. Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abusers: a multi-site effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael S; Szapocznik, José; Horigian, Viviana E; Feaster, Daniel J; Puccinelli, Marc; Jacobs, Petra; Burlew, Kathy; Werstlein, Robert; Bachrach, Ken; Brigham, Greg

    2009-05-01

    Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) is a manualized treatment designed to address aspects of family functioning associated with adolescent drug use and behavior problems (J. Szapocznik, U. Hervis, S. Schwartz, (2003). Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abuse. (NIH Publication No. 03-4751). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse). Within the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA's) Clinical Trials Network, BSFT is being compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in a multisite, prospective randomized clinical trial for drug using adolescents and their families in outpatient settings. The effectiveness of BSFT is being compared to TAU in reducing adolescent drug use, conduct problems, and sexually risky behaviors as well as in improving family functioning and adolescent prosocial behaviors. This paper describes the following aspects of the study: specific aims, research design and study organization, assessment of primary and secondary outcomes, study treatments, data analysis plan, and data monitoring and safety reporting.

  13. The effect of a contingent monetary reward on probation referrals to a drug abuse program.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, A C

    1985-01-01

    Faced with reductions in public funds and calls for greater accountability, substance abuse programs can possibly increase revenues through patient fees by increasing referrals from the criminal justice system. Accountability can be improved through the use of organizational behavior management techniques. This study demonstrates the utility of behavioral techniques to increase referrals and revenue in an outpatient drug abuse program. The rate of criminal justice referrals increased substantially when counselors were offered "commissions" based on patient fees. These results are discussed with respect to the practicality of behavioral techniques in the management of drug abuse programs and with regard to policy implications. PMID:3833815

  14. Homeless in Dhaka: Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Drug-abuse

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  15. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  16. Sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, L; Taylor-Seehafer, M; Fitzgerald, M L

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that homeless youth have high rates of suicidal ideation, sexual abuse, and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. However, little is known about how these rates differ by gender and ethnicity. Our objective was to describe patterns of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and indicators of suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents and to determine gender and ethnic differences in these factors. We used secondary data analysis of data from surveys completed by 96 homeless youth whose average age was 17.9 years. Over 60% of the sample reported a history of sexual abuse; the majority were under the age of 12 years when they first tried alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; 56.3% had injected drugs, and 46.9% had tried inhalants. During the past 12 months, 35.1% had seriously considered suicide and 12.3% had actually attempted suicide at least once. Significantly more Hispanics than Whites had considered suicide (chi 2 = 4.31, p = .038). A disproportionate number of Hispanics (95% of the sample) reported a history of sexual abuse. Participants with a history of sexual abuse were significantly more likely than those who did not have a history of sexual abuse to have used alcohol and/or marijuana (chi 2 = 9.93, p < .01) and to have considered suicide in the past 12 months (F = 14.93, p < .001). We found that sexual abuse history is greater in this sample than in the general population and is particularly prevalent among Hispanic/Latino subjects. As in other studies, sexual abuse was more common among females than among males. High prevalence of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in this sample of homeless youth underscores the need to develop and test community-based interventions to improve their health status. PMID:11769208

  17. Male drug abuse, criminality and subcultural affiliation in a career perspective.

    PubMed

    Byqvist, S; Olsson, B

    1998-01-01

    Degree of connection to the criminal underworld was the basis for typologic research on 698 male drug abusers; interviews as well as official records were used. Four types were distinguished: The addicted criminals seemed to resemble the groups dominant in Sweden from the 1950s to the 1970s. An early crime debut and criminal offenses in youthful years characterized their deviant careers. Drugs and criminal activities coexisted with an often very high intake of alcohol and the most difficult childhood and adolescence conditions compared to the other types. The criminal addicts had fewer recorded acts of juvenile delinquency. Their drug abuse was severe and occurred later in life, as criminality did, but tended to accelerate very rapidly. Their subcultural affiliation was probably as strong as that of the addicted criminals. A large group called low-crime addicts had a weak subgroup affiliation. The "normal" abuse pattern, with cannabis as the first substance used and a gradual shift to more severe opioid and CNS stimulant abuse, was most true of this type. Probably the drug abuse played a role in the development of the criminal pattern. Emotionally unstable addicts with little or no criminality had the best education, job situation and social relations. Multiple drug abuse and abuse of legal drugs were common. Mental ill-health was characteristic for this group. The results show that drug abusers in Sweden cannot be seen as a homogeneous group of individuals, that they do not commit crimes only in order to finance their habit, and that the history of narcotics use in Sweden, with its strong connection to a criminal subculture, is highly relevant to this sample.

  18. The Effect of Postdetoxification Drug-Free Residential Living on Birth Outcome in the Pregnant Drug Abuser.

    PubMed

    Kyei-Aboagye, K.; Acker, D. B.; MacBain, D.

    1998-09-01

    The birth outcome for pregnant drug abusers is complicated by polydrug use, neonatal withdrawal symptoms, and low birth weight. To improve birth outcome, in-hospital detoxification and stabilization from drug use followed by drug-free residential living with prenatal care were provided for patients committed to cessation of illicit drug use. Pregnant heroin or cocaine abusers with significant drug use were eligible for the study. The birth outcome for the 30 term singletons born to the mothers in the program was statistically compared with respect to low birth weight, mean birth weight and length of stay in the nursery to that for 44 term singleton infants of a similar group of drug-abusing ambulatory pregnant women in our aftercare clinic, not in the residential program. Twenty percent of 152 patients evaluated were found suitable for admission to the program. Numerical data for term singletons were as follows: weights (g +/- SD), 3218 +/- 596 (30) vs control 2806 +/- 317 (44); low birth weights; 1/30 vs control 12/44; and length of stay in the nursery (days +/- SD), 3 +/- 0.5 (30) vs control 5.5 +/- 2.5 (44). For the pregnant drug abuser committed to cessation of drug use, detoxification followed by drug free living leads to a statistically significant improvement in birth outcome.

  19. Risk assessment for drugs of abuse in the Dutch watercycle.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Monique; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Emke, Erik; Dijkman, Ellen; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; van de Ven, Bianca; Hernández, Felix; Versteegh, Ans; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-04-01

    A screening campaign of drugs of abuse (DOA) and their relevant metabolites in the aqueous environment was performed in the Netherlands. The presence of DOA, together with the potential risks for the environment and the possible human exposure to these compounds through consumption of drinking water was investigated. Sewage water (influent and effluent), surface water of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, and drinking water (raw and finished) were analysed by four different laboratories using fully in-house validated methods for a total number of 34 DOA and metabolites. In this way, data reported for several compounds could also be confirmed by other laboratories, giving extra confidence to the results obtained in this study. In total 17 and 22 DOA were detected and quantified in influent and effluent sewage samples, respectively. The tranquilizers oxazepam and temazepam, and cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine were found in high concentrations in sewage water. Nine compounds were possibly not efficiently removed during treatment and were detected in surface waters. The results indicated that substantial fractions of the total load of DOA and metabolites in the rivers Rhine and Meuse enter the Netherlands from abroad. For some compounds, loads appear to increase going downstream, which is caused by a contribution from Dutch sewage water effluents. As far as data are available, no environmental effects are expected of the measured DOA in surface waters. In raw water, three DOA were detected, whereas in only one finished drinking water out of the 17 tested, benzoylecgonine was identified, albeit at a concentration below the limit of quantification (<1 ng/L). Concentrations were well below the general signal value of 1 μg/L, which is specified for organic compounds of anthropogenic origin in the Dutch Drinking Water Act.

  20. Development and application of a system for monitoring drug abuse: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Navaratnam, V; Foong, K

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring systems are useful epidemiological instruments for assessing the problem of drug abuse. The rapid growth of the drug dependence problem in Malaysia led to increased awareness of the need for a system for continuous monitoring of the situation. Preliminary work on the design of an appropriate monitoring system was initiated in 1976. A fully integrated national reporting system was established in 1978, linking all public services and agencies coming into contact with drug-dependent persons, including law enforcement agencies, drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation centres, and social and welfare institutions. The information system included a mechanism for systematic gathering, processing, analysing and presenting essential data on the prevention, control and management of drug abuse problems. It also included reporting on drug-related events, such as hospitalizations and arrests, as well as data on known drug-dependent persons and new cases of dependence. The system has been used for routine monitoring of the extent, trends, patterns and other characteristics of drug abuse problems in Malaysia, providing basic information for policy-making and programme planning. On the basis of data generated by the system, it was estimated that the prevalence rate of drug-dependent persons per 100,000 population increased from 84.3 in 1976 to 754.6 in 1986. It was estimated that there were 119,001 drug-dependent persons in Malaysia in 1986.