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Sample records for drug costs

  1. [Are drugs worth their cost?].

    PubMed

    Martín-Conde, J A; Tévar Alfonso, E; García García, F J

    2011-05-01

    Drugs constantly jeopardize the balance among Bioethical Principles governing Healthcare. Their correct use implies more than a correct clinical diagnosis and an academic prescription and demands thorough coordination among all healthcare levels (Regulatory Agencies, the State, the Pharmaceutical Industry and professionals) and the necessary incentive for the research and development process to provide true therapeutic innovations. The interannual growth of Pharmaceutical Expenditure in the public sector in the last few years has greatly exceeded growth in the consumer price index and the gross domestic product. The economic problem of drugs utilization therefore centers on their opportunity cost and on their impact on the sustainability of the system overall. Cost-utility, as an accepted principle for the incorporation and use of new technologies is not always taken into account in prioritization, decision-making and interventions. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the production costs of antiretroviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Eloan; Vasan, Ashwin; Kim, Jim Yong; Lee, Evan; Guimier, Jean Marc; Perriens, Joseph

    2006-08-22

    To present direct manufacturing costs and price calculations of individual antiretroviral drugs, enabling those responsible for their procurement to have a better understanding of the cost structure of their production, and to indicate the prices at which these antiretroviral drugs could be offered in developing country markets. Direct manufacturing costs and factory prices for selected first and second-line antiretroviral drugs were calculated based on cost structure data from a state-owned company in Brazil. Prices for the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) were taken from a recent survey by the World Health Organization (WHO). The calculated prices for antiretroviral drugs are compared with quoted prices offered by privately-owned, for-profit manufacturers. The API represents the largest component of direct manufacturing costs (55-99%), while other inputs, such as salaries, equipment costs, and scale of production, have a minimal impact. The calculated prices for most of the antiretroviral drugs studied fall within the lower quartile of the range of quoted prices in developing country markets. The exceptions are those drugs, primarily for second-line therapy, for which the API is either under patent, in short supply, or in limited use in developing countries (e.g. abacavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir). The availability of data on the cost of antiretroviral drug production and calculation of factory prices under a sustainable business model provide benchmarks that bulk purchasers of antiretroviral drugs could use to negotiate lower prices. While truly significant price decreases for antiretroviral drugs will depend largely on the future evolution of API prices, the present study demonstrates that for several antiretroviral drugs price reduction is currently possible. Whether or not these reductions materialize will depend on the magnitude of indirect cost and profit added by each supplier over the direct production costs. The ability to

  3. Random Drug Tests: What Are the Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, William E.

    1993-01-01

    American Trucking Association conducted survey of 1,655 motor carriers 2 years ago concerning drug use in trucking industry. Based on responses from 540 carriers (32%) costs of drug testing ranged between $30 and $70 per test. Of 153,000 truck drivers tested, 1.95% were verified "positive" for illegal drug use. Delaware study of school…

  4. Random Drug Tests: What Are the Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, William E.

    1993-01-01

    American Trucking Association conducted survey of 1,655 motor carriers 2 years ago concerning drug use in trucking industry. Based on responses from 540 carriers (32%) costs of drug testing ranged between $30 and $70 per test. Of 153,000 truck drivers tested, 1.95% were verified "positive" for illegal drug use. Delaware study of school…

  5. Pharmacy costs associated with nonformulary drug requests.

    PubMed

    Sweet, B V; Stevenson, J G

    2001-09-15

    Pharmacy costs associated with handling nonformulary drug requests were studied. Data for all nonformulary drug orders received at a university hospital between August 1 and October 31, 1999, were evaluated to determine their outcome and the cost differential between the nonformulary drug and formulary alternative. Two sets of data were used to analyze medication costs: data from nonformulary medication request forms, which allowed the cost of nonformulary drugs and their formulary alternatives to be calculated, and data from the pharmacy computer system, which enabled actual nonformulary drug use to be captured. Labor costs associated with processing these requests were determined through time analysis, which included the potential for orders to be received at different times of the day and with different levels of technician and pharmacist support. Economic analysis revealed that the greatest cost saving occurred when converting nonformulary injectable products to formulary alternatives. Interventions were least costly during normal business hours, when all the satellite pharmacies were open and fully staffed. Pharmacists' interventions in oral product orders resulted in a net increase in expenditures. Incremental pharmacy costs associated with processing nonformulary medication requests in an inpatient setting are greater than the drug acquisition cost saving for most agents, particularly oral medications.

  6. Rising cost of anticancer drugs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Karikios, D J; Schofield, D; Salkeld, G; Mann, K P; Trotman, J; Stockler, M R

    2014-05-01

    Anticancer drugs are often expensive and are contributing to the growing cost of cancer care. Concerns have been raised about the effect rising costs may have on availability of new anticancer drugs. This study aims to determine the recent changes in the costs of anticancer drugs in Australia. Publicly available expenditure and prices paid by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) for anticancer drugs from 2000 to 2012 were reviewed. The measures used to determine changes in cost were total PBS expenditure and average price paid by the PBS per prescription for anticancer drugs and for all PBS listed drugs. An estimated monthly price paid for newly listed anticancer drugs was also calculated. Annual PBS expenditure on anticancer drugs rose from A$65 million in 1999-2000 to A$466 million in 2011-2012; an average increase of 19% per annum. The average price paid by the PBS per anticancer drug prescription, adjusted for inflation, increased 133% from A$337 to A$786. The real average annual increase in the price per anticancer drug prescription was more than double that for all other PBS drugs combined (7.6% vs 2.8%, difference 4.8%, 95% confidence interval -0.4% to 10.1%, P = 0.07). The median price for a month's treatment of the new anticancer drugs listed was A$4919 (range A$1003 to A$12 578, 2012 prices). PBS expenditure and the price of anticancer drugs in Australia rose substantially from 2000 to 2012. Dealing with these burgeoning costs will be a major challenge for our health system and for those affected by cancer. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Seeking value as cancer drug costs soar.

    PubMed

    Bender, Eric

    2013-08-01

    As significant increases in the costs of cancer drugs cause financial difficulties for many U.S. patients, some oncologists suggest that changes in pricing policies at the federal and state levels are inevitable.

  8. Maximum allowable cost: can the government control drug costs?

    PubMed

    Smith, M I; Wertheimer, A I

    1979-01-01

    In 1973 the federal government moved to limit drug reimbursement to providers in federally sponsored or supported programs, to the lowest cost at which the drug is generally and consistently available unless a difference in therapeutic effect can be demonstrated between the brand name and generic drug. This paper examines the political evolution and rationale for this program and explores the issues surrounding the ongoing controversy regarding publicly financed programs offering drug benefits. The authors speculate that the government's first attempt to control prices of pharmaceuticals, prior to enactment of some form of national health insurance, if successful, will call forth pharmaceutical industry strategies which could negate program benefits.

  9. [Synthetic drugs: the new low-cost landscape of drugs].

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Petit, Aymeric; Cottencin, Olivier; Coscas, Sarah; Reynaud, Michel

    2012-05-01

    Designer drugs include, among others, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones. These new "legal highs" drugs are sold on line for recreational public or private use. Synthetic cannabinoids are a psychoactive herbal and chemical product that, when used, mimics the effects of cannabis. Cathinone is a naturally occurring betaketone amphetamine analogue found in the leaves of the Catha edulis plant. Synthetic cathinones are phenylalkylamines derivatives, and may possess both amphetamine-like properties. They are often sold as "bath salts" or "plant food" and labeled "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. The absence of legal risks, the ease of obtaining these drugs, the moderate cost, and the avaibility via Internet are the main criteria attracting the user. There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may occur in recreational and chronic users. The addictive potential of designer drugs is not weak. Furthermore, there is a lack of epidemiological, pharmacological, animal, clinical, psychological and therapeutic data concerning these new synthetic agents.

  10. Costs of drug treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dodel, R C; Eggert, K M; Singer, M S; Eichhorn, T E; Pogarell, O; Oertel, W H

    1998-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a major socioeconomic impact on society. The chronic, progressive course of the disease, which often leads to severe disability, results in high expenses for the medical resources used for treatment, care, and rehabilitation of patients as well as reduced or lost productivity as a result of illness or premature death. In Great Britain, it has been estimated that the National Health Service spends up to 383 million pound sterling (1992) annually for the care of PD. This emphasizes the importance of assessing the costs related to this disease. A detailed knowledge of the cost allocation would provide a solid basis on which health care priorities can be rationally set. Next to hospitalization, drug treatment accounts for the highest expense for direct medical costs of PD. Therefore, this analysis focuses on the costs of drug treatment for PD. The cost analysis was based on a retrospective study of 409 patients with PD who were seen over a 1-year period in our movement disorders clinic. The cost of therapy varied considerably depending on the severity of the condition (assessed in the "off" phase), the incidence of motor fluctuations, and the type of PD. In the early stage of the disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage I [HY I]), mean daily costs for therapy were DM (German marks) 6.60, which increased in later stages of the disease (HY V) to DM 22.00. If rare cases requiring continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion were included, mean daily costs of patients in HY V rose to DM 32.50 (the mean daily costs of subcutaneous apomorphine-treated patients in HY V: DM 74.30). Patients with motor fluctuations accounted for higher costs (DM 16.50) compared with those without motor fluctuations (DM 7.80). With respect to the three subtypes of PD, the mean daily expenditure was DM 7.00 for the tremor-dominant type, DM 12.40 for the akinetic-rigid type, and DM 10.80 for the mixed type. In the group of 409 PD patients included in this analysis, the average

  11. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504... APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount which may be expended from program funds for the acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1)...

  12. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504... APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount which may be expended from program funds for the acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1)...

  13. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504... APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount which may be expended from program funds for the acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1)...

  14. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504... APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount which may be expended from program funds for the acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1)...

  15. Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadelmann, Ethan A.

    1989-09-01

    ``Drug legalization'' increasingly merits serious consideration as both an analytical model and a policy option for addressing the ``drug problem.'' Criminal justice approaches to the drug problem have proven limited in their capacity to curtail drug abuse. They also have proven increasingly costly and counterproductive. Drug legalization policies that are wisely implemented can minimize the risks of legalization, dramatically reduce the costs of current policies, and directly address the problems of drug abuse.

  16. Market power and state costs of HIV/AIDS drugs.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Arleen A; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-03-01

    We examine whether U.S. states can use their market power to reduce the costs of supplying prescription drugs to uninsured and underinsured persons with HIV through a public program, the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP). Among states that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them directly to clients, those that purchase a greater volume pay lower average costs per prescription. Among states depending on retail pharmacies to distribute drugs and then claiming rebates from manufacturers, those that contract with smaller numbers of pharmacy networks have lower average costs. Average costs per prescription do not differ between the two purchase methods.

  17. Conceptual framework for estimating the social cost of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    French, M T; Rachal, J V; Hubbard, R L

    1991-01-01

    Drug abuse imposes costs on individuals and society. Researchers have produced several studies on a subset of tangible costs of drug abuse and other illnesses, but key tangible costs sometimes have been overlooked and, even when recognized, rarely have been estimated. An assortment of intangible costs also have received very little research attention. This study outlines a comprehensive conceptual framework for estimating the social cost of drug abuse. We address both the tangible and intangible costs for the drug-abusing and non-drug-abusing population. Our conceptual framework is based on critical reviews of new and traditional methods for estimating the costs of illness and disease including cost-of-illness methods, averting behavior methods, and utility valuation techniques. We show how the proposed methods can be combined with existing data to estimate the total social cost of drug abuse. Using social cost estimates will enable policymakers to more accurately assess the total burden of drug abuse and related problems on society.

  18. The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs.

    PubMed

    DiMasi, Joseph A; Hansen, Ronald W; Grabowski, Henry G

    2003-03-01

    The research and development costs of 68 randomly selected new drugs were obtained from a survey of 10 pharmaceutical firms. These data were used to estimate the average pre-tax cost of new drug development. The costs of compounds abandoned during testing were linked to the costs of compounds that obtained marketing approval. The estimated average out-of-pocket cost per new drug is 403 million US dollars (2000 dollars). Capitalizing out-of-pocket costs to the point of marketing approval at a real discount rate of 11% yields a total pre-approval cost estimate of 802 million US dollars (2000 dollars). When compared to the results of an earlier study with a similar methodology, total capitalized costs were shown to have increased at an annual rate of 7.4% above general price inflation. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. [Costly drugs: analysis and proposals for the Mercosur countries].

    PubMed

    Marín, Gustavo H; Polach, María Andrea

    2011-08-01

    Determine how the Mercosur countries access, regulate, and finance costly drugs and propose joint selection and financing strategies at the subregional level. Qualitative design, using content analyses of primary and secondary sources, document reviews, interviews, focus groups, and case studies. The variables selected included: selection criteria, access, financing, and regulations in the various countries. Costly drugs were divided into those that do not alter the natural course of the disease and those with demonstrated efficacy, using the defined daily dose to compare the costs of classical treatments and those involving costly drugs. The Mercosur countries generally lack formal strategies for dealing with the demand for costly drugs, and governments and insurers wind up financing them by court order. The case studies show that there are costly drugs whose efficacy has not been established but that nonetheless generate demand. The fragmentation of procurement, international commitments with regard to intellectual property, and low negotiating power exponentially increase the price of costly drugs, putting health system finances in jeopardy. Costly drugs must be regulated and rationally selected so that only those that substantively benefit people are accepted. To finance the drugs so selected, common country strategies are needed that include such options as flexible in trade agreements, the creation of national resource funds, or joint procurement by countries to enhance their negotiating power.

  20. 42 CFR 447.53 - Cost sharing for drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... agency exercises the option under paragraph (d) of this section. All drugs will be considered preferred... service): Services Maximum allowable cost sharing Individuals with family income ≤150% of the FPL Individuals with family income >150% of the FPL Preferred Drugs $4 $4. Non-Preferred Drugs 8 20% of the...

  1. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL... to the public for the drug; Provided, That the MAC established for any drug shall not apply to a...

  2. Fitness cost of chromosomal drug resistance-conferring mutations.

    PubMed

    Sander, Peter; Springer, Burkhard; Prammananan, Therdsak; Sturmfels, Antje; Kappler, Martin; Pletschette, Michel; Böttger, Erik C

    2002-05-01

    To study the cost of chromosomal drug resistance mutations to bacteria, we investigated the fitness cost of mutations that confer resistance to different classes of antibiotics affecting bacterial protein synthesis (aminocyclitols, 2-deoxystreptamines, macrolides). We used a model system based on an in vitro competition assay with defined Mycobacterium smegmatis laboratory mutants; selected mutations were introduced by genetic techniques to address the possibility that compensatory mutations ameliorate the resistance cost. We found that the chromosomal drug resistance mutations studied often had only a small fitness cost; compensatory mutations were not involved in low-cost or no-cost resistance mutations. When drug resistance mutations found in clinical isolates were considered, selection of those mutations that have little or no fitness cost in the in vitro competition assay seems to occur. These results argue against expectations that link decreased levels of antibiotic consumption with the decline in the level of resistance.

  3. Future drug prices and cost-effectiveness analyses.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses worldwide assume that the price of any single drug increases with inflation. New guidance from the Pharmaceutical Management Agency in New Zealand suggests that, when it is known that a generic drug will be available in the near future, a best estimate of the lower price of the generic should be included in the base-case cost-effectiveness analysis. Furthermore, in the sensitivity analysis, the real prices of the new and comparator drugs should be deflated by 2% per year as a proxy for inflation. To challenge the widespread assumption that the price of any single drug increases with inflation in the UK, and to calculate the impact on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of using a more realistic estimate for the future price of individual drugs. The change in the real price of 373 drugs in the UK over the period 1980-2006 was calculated. Only those drugs launched after 1984 and with more than 500 prescriptions per year were analysed. A linear model of the change in real price by drug was fitted as a function of launch year, number of prescriptions, and British National Formulary (BNF) section. The mean annual decrease in the real price of individual drugs was 3.8% (95% CI 3.4, 4.2), with a standard deviation of 2.5%. Using this value, drugs would generally appear more cost effective than as presently calculated, i.e. the ICER would generally fall. The ICER would fall substantially for drugs for chronic conditions, e.g. by 15%, from 61,900 to 52,700 pound per QALY (year 2004 values) for cinacalcet for hyperparathyroidism. It is predicted that the ratio would fall even more for longer-term conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Most of the drugs previously appraised by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) are actually more cost effective than stated by NICE. Furthermore, most or all drugs for chronic conditions are actually far more cost effective than stated by NICE. Hence, it is likely that some of

  4. US-Based Drug Cost Parameter Estimation for Economic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Levy, Joseph F; Meek, Patrick D; Rosenberg, Marjorie A

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, more than 10% of national health expenditures are for prescription drugs. Assessing drug costs in US economic evaluation studies is not consistent, as the true acquisition cost of a drug is not known by decision modelers. Current US practice focuses on identifying one reasonable drug cost and imposing some distributional assumption to assess uncertainty. We propose a set of Rules based on current pharmacy practice that account for the heterogeneity of drug product costs. The set of products derived from our Rules, and their associated costs, form an empirical distribution that can be used for more realistic sensitivity analyses and create transparency in drug cost parameter computation. The Rules specify an algorithmic process to select clinically equivalent drug products that reduce pill burden, use an appropriate package size, and assume uniform weighting of substitutable products. Three diverse examples show derived empirical distributions and are compared with previously reported cost estimates. The shapes of the empirical distributions among the 3 drugs differ dramatically, including multiple modes and different variation. Previously published estimates differed from the means of the empirical distributions. Published ranges for sensitivity analyses did not cover the ranges of the empirical distributions. In one example using lisinopril, the empirical mean cost of substitutable products was $444 (range = $23-$953) as compared with a published estimate of $305 (range = $51-$523). Our Rules create a simple and transparent approach to creating cost estimates of drug products and assessing their variability. The approach is easily modified to include a subset of, or different weighting for, substitutable products. The derived empirical distribution is easily incorporated into 1-way or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Multiple drug cost containment policies in Michigan's Medicaid program saved money overall, although some increased costs.

    PubMed

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Michigan's Medicaid program implemented four cost containment policies--preferred drug lists, joint and multistate purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost--during 2002-04. The goal was to control growth of drug spending for beneficiaries who were enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare and taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic prescription drugs. We analyzed the impact of each policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred drug lists increased both preferred and generic drugs' market share and reduced daily cost--the cost per day for each prescription provided to a beneficiary. In contrast, the maximum allowable cost policy increased daily cost and was the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multistate arrangements did not affect daily cost. Despite these policy trade-offs, the cumulative effect was a 10 percent decrease in daily cost and a total cost savings of $46,195 per year. Our findings suggest that policy makers need to evaluate the impact of multiple policies aimed at restraining drug spending, and further evaluate the policy trade-offs, to ensure that scarce public dollars achieve the greatest return for money spent.

  6. Despite high costs, specialty drugs may offer value for money comparable to that of traditional drugs.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James D; Thorat, Teja; Pyo, Junhee; Chenoweth, Matthew; Neumann, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Specialty drugs are often many times more expensive than traditional drugs, which raises questions of affordability and value. We compared the value of specialty and traditional drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the period 1999-2011. To do this, we identified published estimates of additional health gains (measured in quality-adjusted life-years, or QALYs) and increased costs of drug and health care resource use that were associated with fifty-eight specialty drugs and forty-four traditional drugs, compared to preexisting care. We found that specialty drugs offered greater QALY gains (0.183 versus 0.002 QALYs) but were associated with greater additional costs ($12,238 versus $784), compared to traditional drugs. The two types of drugs had comparable cost-effectiveness. However, the distributions across the two types differed, with 26 percent of specialty drugs--but only 9 percent of traditional drugs--associated with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of greater than $150,000 per QALY. Our study suggests that although specialty drugs often have higher costs than traditional drugs, they also tend to confer greater benefits and hence may still offer reasonable value for money.

  7. Cost-effectiveness and pricing of antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of 'value', which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. © 2015 The Authors. Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Economic costs of drug abuse: financial, cost of illness, and services.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, William S

    2008-03-01

    This article examines costs as they relate to the financial costs of providing drug abuse treatment in private and public health plans, costs to society relating to drug abuse, and many smaller costing studies of various stakeholders in the health care system. A bibliography is developed from searches across PubMed, Web of Science, and other bibliographic sources. The review indicates that a wide collection of cost findings is available to policy makers. For example, the financial aspects of health plans have been dominated by considerations of actuarial costs of parity for drug abuse treatment. Cost-of-illness methods have been developed and extended to drug abuse costing to measure the national level of burden and are important to the economic evaluation of interventions at the program level. Costing is done in many small and focused studies, reflecting the interests of different stakeholders in the health care system. For costs in programs and health plans, as well as cost offsets of the impact of substance abuse treatment on medical expenditures, findings are surprisingly important to policy makers. Maintaining ongoing research that is highly policy relevant from the point of view of health services, more is needed on costing concepts and measurement applications.

  9. Costs of alcohol and drug-involved crime.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Cohen, Mark A; Cox, Kenya L C

    2006-12-01

    A large proportion of violent and property crimes involve alcohol or other drugs (AOD). AOD use only causes some of these crimes. This paper estimates the costs of AOD-involved and AOD-attributable crimes. Crime counts are from government statistics adjusted for underreporting. The AOD-involved portion of crime costs is estimated from inmate surveys on alcohol and illicit drug use at the time of the crime. The costs and AOD-attributable portion of AOD-involved crimes come from published studies. They include tangible medical, mental health, property loss, future earnings, public services, adjudication, and sanctioning costs, as well as the value of pain and suffering. An estimated 5.4 million violent crimes and 8 million property crimes involved AOD use in 1999. Those AOD-involved crimes cost society over 6.5 billion dollars in medical and mental health care and almost 65 billion dollars in other tangible expenses (in 1999 dollars). If the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life is added, AOD-involved crime costs totaled 205 billion dollars. Violent crimes accounted for more than 85% of the costs. Roughly estimated, crimes attributable to alcohol cost 84 billion dollars, more than 2 times the 38 billion dollars attributable to drugs. Although American media--news and entertainment--dwell on the links between drugs and crime, alcohol-attributable crime costs are double drug-attributable ones. Effective efforts to reduce the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs should reduce costs associated with crime.

  10. Cost-effectiveness and Pricing of Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of ‘value’, which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

  11. Drug Cost Avoidance in Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Calvin-Lamas, M; Portela-Pereira, P; Rabuñal-Alvarez, M T; Martinez-Breijo, S; Martín-Herranz, M I; Gómez-Veiga, F

    2015-11-01

    Economic impact of prostate cancer is increasing in relation to its increased incidence and increased patient survival. Clinical trials are essential to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new treatments but may also result in economic benefits by avoiding the cost of the drug. Our objective is to determine the avoided cost in investigational drugs in clinical trials of prostate cancer conducted in a period of 18 years in a tertiary center. We carried out an observational of prevalence study with retrospective collected data of clinical trials involving currently marketed drugs and cost avoidance during the study period (1996-2013) was calculated. We include in this review five clinical trials on prostate cancer that met selection criteria of 18 performed. All of them were phase III, multicenter, international and with current marketed drugs. 136 patients were included. Total cost avoidance of 696,002€ and an average cost avoidance by clinical trial of 139,200€ were obtained. Average cost avoidance per patient was 5,118€. Cost avoidance in investigational drugs is a tangible benefit of clinical trials, whose realization is a source of economic benefits for the hospital, not only by directly generated by each trial. Clinical trials are an exceptional framework for progress in clinical research and real savings for the health system. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Patents Associated with High-Cost Drugs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew F.; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by “evergreening” blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators. PMID:23577165

  13. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew F; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  14. The multinational drug companies in Zaire: their adverse effect on cost and availability of essential drugs.

    PubMed

    Glucksberg, H; Singer, J

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the types and costs of drugs imported by seven multinational pharmaceutical companies in Zaire, an underdeveloped country in Africa, reveals that three-fourths of the drugs consisted of expensive and nonessential items. The prices of essential drugs (24 percent of their total imports) were much higher than those of available generic sources (average difference of 300 percent). The importation of nonessential drugs and high prices paid for essential drugs exacerbate the scarcity of needed items because of Zaire's limited supply of hard currency. In addition, two drug firms imported and promoted the sale of aminopyrone-dipyrone analgesic-antipyretics, drugs now rarely used in Western industrialized countries because of potentially fatal complications. Thus, in Zaire, the multinational pharmaceutical industry has an adverse effect on the availability and cost of drugs, as well as on the pattern of drug usage.

  15. Use and Costs Under the Iowa Capitation Drug Program

    PubMed Central

    Yesalis, Charles E.; Norwood, G. Joseph; Lipson, David P.; Helling, Dennis K.; Burmeister, Leon F.; Fisher, Wayne P.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates changes in the use of drug services and the corresponding costs when the conventional fee-for-service system for reimbursement of pharmacists under Medicaid is replaced by a capitation system. The fee-for-service system usually covers ingredient costs plus a fixed professional dispensing fee. The capitation system provided a cash payment (which varied by aid category and season of the year) per Medicaid eligible the first of each month. We examined drug use and costs in two experimental rural counties during a 1-year preperiod in which the fee-for-service form of reimbursement was employed, as well as a 2-year postperiod in which the capitation system was used. We compared the results with use and cost patterns in two other rural counties which remained on the fee-for-service system during the same 3-year period. Drug use was similar among control and experimental counties with the exception of nursing home patients; use in this category decreased under capitation and increased under fee-for-service. Using three measures of drug cost: 1) average cost of a day's drug therapy; 2) average drug costs per recipient; and 3) average Medicaid expenditures for drug services per recipient, we observed significant savings under the capitation reimbursement system as compared to the fee-for-service system. We attributed savings under capitation to shifts in prescribing and dispensing behavior, as well as changes in use by nursing home patients. Based upon these findings, the total savings resulting from implementing capitation would be approximately 16 percent when compared to fee-for-service reimbursement. PMID:10309472

  16. Physician Awareness of Drug Cost: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Lexchin, Joel; Wiebe, Natasha

    2007-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical costs are the fastest-growing health-care expense in most developed countries. Higher drug costs have been shown to negatively impact patient outcomes. Studies suggest that doctors have a poor understanding of pharmaceutical costs, but the data are variable and there is no consistent pattern in awareness. We designed this systematic review to investigate doctors' knowledge of the relative and absolute costs of medications and to determine the factors that influence awareness. Methods and Findings Our search strategy included The Cochrane Library, EconoLit, EMBASE, and MEDLINE as well as reference lists and contact with authors who had published two or more articles on the topic or who had published within 10 y of the commencement of our review. Studies were included if: either doctors, trainees (interns or residents), or medical students were surveyed; there were more than ten survey respondents; cost of pharmaceuticals was estimated; results were expressed quantitatively; there was a clear description of how authors defined “accurate estimates”; and there was a description of how the true cost was determined. Two authors reviewed each article for eligibility and extracted data independently. Cost accuracy outcomes were summarized, but data were not combined in meta-analysis because of extensive heterogeneity. Qualitative data related to physicians and drug costs were also extracted. The final analysis included 24 articles. Cost accuracy was low; 31% of estimates were within 20% or 25% of the true cost, and fewer than 50% were accurate by any definition of cost accuracy. Methodological weaknesses were common, and studies of low methodological quality showed better cost awareness. The most important factor influencing the pattern and accuracy of estimation was the true cost of therapy. High-cost drugs were estimated more accurately than inexpensive ones (74% versus 31%, Chi-square p < 0.001). Doctors consistently overestimated the cost

  17. Seniors' prescription drug cost inflation and cost containment: evidence from British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Agnew, Jonathan D; Barer, Morris L

    2004-06-01

    We develop an analytic framework to map out the nature and relative importance of different cost-driving trends in the prescription drug market. This is used to measure prescription drug cost-drivers for the population of seniors in British Columbia during a period when they received comprehensive public drug coverage. Between 1991 and 2001, expenditures on prescription drugs for BC seniors increased from dollar 149 to 320 million. Increases in the population of seniors, and the rate at which they utilized therapies contributed under half of the total cost increase over the period. Changes in the mix of therapies and the type of product selected explained over half of the observed drug expenditure inflation. Increased generic substitution significantly reduced the price of products selected over the period.

  18. [Cost of drugs used to treat cardiovascular disease in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bueno, Cristiane Schmalz; Moreira, Angélica Cristiane; Oliveira, Karla Renata de

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the circulatory system are a principal cause of mortality in Brazil. Using as a basis drugs dispensed through Brazil's Popular Pharmacy Program (FPB, for its name in Portuguese), prices for drugs used to treat circulatory diseases were analyzed to identify the advantages of using generic drugs and the FPB. Drug prices were obtained using Brazil's Pharmacy Price Guide and FPB price tables. The costs of 15 drugs available through the FPB were compared with those of three generic pharmaceutical products, three similar products, and the reference drug. The generic drugs were lower in price for 10 of the drugs and for four of the similar products. The FPB drugs were of the lowest price. Generic and FPB drugs are easily accessed by the population and thus facilitate the continuity of pharmacotherapy when these drugs are not available through the Unified Health System and/or are not affordable through other means. Access to drugs should be taken into consideration at the time prescriptions are filled, especially as regards those used to treat chronic diseases.

  19. The drug cost gap and the diagnosis-prescription connection.

    PubMed

    Dross, David

    2008-01-01

    Although the rise in pharmacy benefit costs continues to outpace overall medical cost inflation, the gap is narrowing. Employers can improve cost and employee wellness even further with an innovative technique for drug therapy compliance called the Diagnosis-Prescription (Dx-Rx) approach. This article reports results from a 2007 national employer survey on pharmacy benefits and describes how the Dx-Rx innovation can keep patients and their doctors on track when it comes to controlling disease and driving down overall medical costs.

  20. [Psychoactive drugs and costs in the Madrid III (Valdemoro) prison].

    PubMed

    Algora-Donoso, I; Varela-González, O

    2008-01-01

    Annual pharmaceutical expenditures in prisons increases dramatically and the rising costs of psychoactive drugs have especially contributed to this. These drugs are often prescribed in order to find therapeutic uses in the field of personality disorders, addictions, and dysfunctional behaviours that are not included in the authorized indications (compassionate use). This study has enabled a detailed description of the use of psychoactive drugs at the Madrid III prison, a centre with one of the lowest levels of pharmaceutical expenditure in this autonomous community. During a two-week period, all prescriptions of psychoactive drugs were collected and registered along with data of several possible conditioning factors. 20.5% of the population was receiving some kind of psychoactive drug; 76% of those inmates undergoing treatment were receiving one or two substances; 65% were taking anxiolytics, 38% antidepressants and 27% antipsychotics. The total amount of psychoactive drugs consumed was 9,840 defined daily doses, 46% of which were anxiolytics, 17% antidepressants and 14% antipsychotics. The total cost of the fortnight's treatment was euros 5,379 with a saving of euro 611 due to requesting and selecting offers carried out by the pharmacist. 72% of the costs were spent on anti-psychotics and the newer psychoactive drugs, representing 66% of the prescriptions, accounted for 98% of expenditure. The prescriber was one of the key influential factors over the amount, type and cost of the treatments. There are signs that compassionate use of current antipsychotics and antiepileptics, and newer antidepressants are a main cause of the dramatic increase in the costs, with cost-efficiency not always clearly demonstrated. These results are not an isolated fact restricted only to prisons, as demonstrated by consumption data published by the National Health System in the same year.

  1. Accounting for the drug life cycle and future drug prices in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health technologies typically assume constant real drug prices and model only the cohort of patients currently eligible for treatment. It has recently been suggested that, in the UK, we should assume that real drug prices decrease at 4% per annum and, in New Zealand, that real drug prices decrease at 2% per annum and at patent expiry the drug price falls. It has also recently been suggested that we should model multiple future incident cohorts. In this article, the cost effectiveness of drugs is modelled based on these ideas. Algebraic expressions are developed to capture all costs and benefits over the entire life cycle of a new drug. The lifetime of a new drug in the UK, a key model parameter, is estimated as 33 years, based on the historical lifetime of drugs in England over the last 27 years. Under the proposed methodology, cost effectiveness is calculated for seven new drugs recently appraised in the UK. Cost effectiveness as assessed in the future is also estimated. Whilst the article is framed in mathematics, the findings and recommendations are also explained in non-mathematical language. The 'life-cycle correction factor' is introduced, which is used to convert estimates of cost effectiveness as traditionally calculated into estimates under the proposed methodology. Under the proposed methodology, all seven drugs appear far more cost effective in the UK than published. For example, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases by 46%, from £61, 900 to £33, 500 per QALY, for cinacalcet versus best supportive care for end-stage renal disease, and by 45%, from £31,100 to £17,000 per QALY, for imatinib versus interferon-α for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Assuming real drug prices decrease over time, the chance that a drug is publicly funded increases over time, and is greater when modelling multiple cohorts than with a single cohort. Using the methodology (compared with traditional methodology) all drugs in the UK and New

  2. [The "cost-benefit" analysis of new antiepileptic drugs].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, P N; Orekhova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to optimize the pharmaceutical treatment of epileptic patients and to evaluate the clinical-economical effectiveness of new antiepileptic drugs (AED)--levetiracetam, lamotrigine, topiramate and oxcarbazepine. The study included 134 patients with different types of seizures who received earlier antiepileptics with the addition of new AED as mono- or polytherapy. The cost of treatment and pharmacoeconomic "cost-benefit" index were calculated before and after the treatment optimization. After one year of the treatment with "news" AED, the decrease in seizure frequency was 75-92%. The "cost-benefit" ratio was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 2-3 times in all types of seizures despite the increase of direst costs of the treatment. The significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the cost of treatment of epilepsy was noted in all groups studied. In conclusion, the rational treatment using "new" AED allows to reduce both the total cost of treatment and ccost-benefits ratio.

  3. National Mass Drug Administration Costs for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ann S.; Guisinger, Victoria H.; Aikins, Moses; Amarillo, Maria Lourdes E.; Belizario, Vicente Y.; Garshong, Bertha; Gyapong, John; Kabali, Conrad; Kamal, Hussein A.; Kanjilal, Sanjat; Kyelem, Dominique; Lizardo, Jefrey; Malecela, Mwele; Mubyazi, Godfrey; Nitièma, P. Abdoulaye; Ramzy, Reda M. R.; Streit, Thomas G.; Wallace, Aaron; Brady, Molly A.; Rheingans, Richard; Ottesen, Eric A.; Haddix, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Because lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination efforts are hampered by a dearth of economic information about the cost of mass drug administration (MDA) programs (using either albendazole with diethylcarbamazine [DEC] or albendazole with ivermectin), a multicenter study was undertaken to determine the costs of MDA programs to interrupt transmission of infection with LF. Such results are particularly important because LF programs have the necessary diagnostic and treatment tools to eliminate the disease as a public health problem globally, and already by 2006, the Global Programme to Eliminate LF had initiated treatment programs covering over 400 million of the 1.3 billion people at risk. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain annual costs to carry out the MDA strategy, researchers from seven countries developed and followed a common cost analysis protocol designed to estimate 1) the total annual cost of the LF program, 2) the average cost per person treated, and 3) the relative contributions of the endemic countries and the external partners. Costs per person treated ranged from $0.06 to $2.23. Principal reasons for the variation were 1) the age (newness) of the MDA program, 2) the use of volunteers, and 3) the size of the population treated. Substantial contributions by governments were documented – generally 60%–90% of program operation costs, excluding costs of donated medications. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF elimination is comparatively inexpensive in relation to most other public health programs. Governments and communities make the predominant financial contributions to actual MDA implementation, not counting the cost of the drugs themselves. The results highlight the impact of the use of volunteers on program costs and provide specific cost data for 7 different countries that can be used as a basis both for modifying current programs and for developing new ones. PMID:17989784

  4. Medical cost offsets from prescription drug utilization among Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, M Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This brief commentary extends earlier work on the value of adherence to derive medical cost offset estimates from prescription drug utilization. Among seniors with chronic vascular disease, 1% increases in condition-specific medication use were associated with significant (P  less than  0.001) reductions in gross nonpharmacy medical costs in the amounts of 0.63% for dyslipidemia, 0.77% for congestive heart failure, 0.83% for diabetes, and 1.17% for hypertension.

  5. Good research practices for measuring drug costs in cost-effectiveness analyses: a societal perspective: the ISPOR Drug Cost Task Force report--Part II.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Louis P; Mansley, Edward C; Abbott, Thomas A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hay, Joel W; Smeeding, James

    2010-01-01

    Major guidelines regarding the application of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) have recommended the common and widespread use of the "societal perspective" for purposes of consistency and comparability. The objective of this Task Force subgroup report (one of six reports from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research [ISPOR] Task Force on Good Research Practices-Use of Drug Costs for Cost Effectiveness Analysis [Drug Cost Task Force (DCTF)]) was to review the definition of this perspective, assess its specific application in measuring drug costs, identify any limitations in theory or practice, and make recommendations regarding potential improvements. Key articles, books, and reports in the methodological literature were reviewed, summarized, and integrated into a draft review and report. This draft report was posted for review and comment by ISPOR membership. Numerous comments and suggestions were received, and the report was revised in response to them. The societal perspective can be defined by three conditions: 1) the inclusion of time costs, 2) the use of opportunity costs, and 3) the use of community preferences. In practice, very few, if any, published CEAs have met all of these conditions, though many claim to have taken a societal perspective. Branded drug costs have typically used actual acquisition cost rather than the much lower social opportunity costs that would reflect only short-run manufacturing and distribution costs. This practice is understandable, pragmatic, and useful to current decision-makers. Nevertheless, this use of CEA focuses on static rather than dynamic efficacy and overlooks the related incentives for innovation. Our key recommendation is that current CEA practice acknowledge and embrace this limitation by adopting a new standard for the reference case as one of a "limited societal" or "health systems" perspective, using acquisition drug prices while including indirect costs and community preferences. The

  6. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed dose antihypertensive drugs].

    PubMed

    García Ruiz, A J; Divisón Garrote, J A; García-Agua Soler, N; Morata García de la Puerta, F; Montesinos Gálvez, A C; Avila Lachica, L

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of different fixed-dose combinations of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers and calcium channel blockers, to use it as a guide to assist the rational prescribing in antihypertensive therapy. The efficacy of each drug was obtained from intervention studies randomized, double-blind, made with these combinations and a utility-cost modeling from the model proposed and used by NICE. The perspective of our analysis is the National Health System and the time horizon is long enough to achieve therapeutic goals. Cost per mmHg reduction in BP, percentage of reduction necessary to achieve the therapeutic goals for hypertension control and cost, and finally quantity and quality of life gained with these treatments in patients with hypertension, diabetes. We studied three fixed-dose combinations: amlodipine/olmesartán, amlodipine/valsartan and manidipine/delapril. The cost per mmHg systolic BP ranged from 24.93 to 12.34 €/mmHg, and diastolic BP ranged from 34.24 to 18.76 €/mmHg, depending on the drug used. For an initial value of 165mmHg systolic BP the most efficient treatment to achieve the therapeutic goal of hypertension control (<140mmHg) is manidipine/delapril with a cost of 67.76 €. The use of these drugs to control diabetic and hypertensive patients resulted in all cases being cost-effective (more effective and lower cost compared to "no treatment"). Manidipine/delapril showed the best relation cost-utility (1,970 €/QALY (quality-adjusted life year)) followed by amlodipine/olmesartan and amlodipine/valsartan (2,087 and 2,237 €/QALY, respectively). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMERGEN. All rights reserved.

  7. Good research practices for measuring drug costs in cost effectiveness analyses: an industry perspective: the ISPOR Drug Cost Task Force report--Part V.

    PubMed

    Mycka, Jack M; Dellamano, Renato; Kolassa, Eugene Mick; Wonder, Michael; Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Hay, Joel W; Smeeding, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The industry perspective on drug costs should be framed by the need for decision-makers to use actual and relevant costs, and to inform real-world decisions regarding medication selection and use. The objective of this report is to provide guidance and recommendations on how manufacturers should approach the use of drug costs. The Task Force was appointed with the advice and consent of the ISPOR Board of Directors. Members were experienced developers or users of drug cost information working in academia and industry, and came from several countries. Following the core assumptions developed and outlined by the Task Force, a draft report was prepared. Comments were solicited on the outline and several draft reports both from a core group of external reviewers and more broadly from the ISPOR membership of ISPOR via the ISPOR Web site. The industry should always strive for: 1) a focus on drug value and not just cost; 2) credibility-that is correct and consistent costs; 3) transparency-by disclosing the prices and costs, and ensuring that they reflect the actual cost of the drug whenever possible; and 4) providing actionable results that help customers comprehend the value offered by a drug therapy and to use products more efficiently and effectively. Understanding and accounting for all costs and consequences of the use of a medical treatment is in the best interests of all parties involved in the prescribing, consuming, reimbursement, selling, and manufacturing of bio/pharmaceuticals. Transparency, consistency, and clear communication of costs and value are essential for appropriate decision-making and should be important goals for all parties.

  8. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  9. Medical cost impact of intrathecal drug delivery for noncancer pain.

    PubMed

    Guillemette, Scott; Witzke, Susan; Leier, Jacqueline; Hinnenthal, Jennifer; Prager, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    As healthcare budgets continue to contract, there is increased payer scrutiny on the use of implantable intrathecal drug-infusion devices. This study utilizes claims data to evaluate the economic effects of intrathecal drug delivery (IDD) based on health services utilization and costs of care before and after implantation. We performed a retrospective database study involving 555 noncancer pain patients that received an IDD system implant within a 3-year service period (1/2006-1/2009). IDD patient costs were temporally aligned to implant month and repriced to a standardized, national pricing schedule over a 6-year episode cycle (3 years preimplant, implant month, and 3 years postimplant). Additionally, we made an actuarial projection of postimplant experience, in the absence of IDD intervention, simulating a conventional pain therapy (CPT) protocol by assuming the same slope in costs prior to implantation at standardized, national price levels. Cost projections were produced over a 30-year time horizon at various reimplantation rates. IDD therapy was less costly than the CPT protocol over our baseline implantation cycle. Costs in the month of IDD implantation, and in the year following, are cumulatively $17,317 more than the CPT protocol; however, IDD financial break-even occurs soon after the second year postimplant. The lifetime analysis indicates that IDD per patient per year savings is $3,111 compared with CPT. The authors found that patients receiving an implantable IDD system may experience reduced cumulative future medical costs relative to anticipated costs in the absence of receiving IDD. This finding complements published literature on the cost-effectiveness of IDD. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Limiting the accessibility of cost-prohibitive drugs reduces overall anesthetic drug costs: a retrospective before and after analysis.

    PubMed

    Tabing, Ariana K; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Wanderer, Jonathan P

    2015-10-01

    Cost effectiveness is becoming increasingly important in today's healthcare environment. Remifentanil, dexmedetomidine, and desflurane are costly agents that often have suitable alternatives to their use. We sought to identify changes in cost and outcomes following interventions that limited the availability of these drugs. We calculated anesthetic drug costs for all operating room procedures performed before and after the accessibility interventions. We retrospectively compared drug costs per case and the frequency of agent use before and after the interventions. In addition, we analyzed the incidence of adverse outcomes, including delayed out-of-room times, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), unplanned intubations, use of naloxone, and reintubations. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Chi square analyses were used to quantify differences in cost, use, and outcomes between cohorts. Of the 27,233 cases we identified, 24,201 cases were analyzed. The mean anesthetic drug costs per case were significantly lower after the interventions vs before at ($21.44 vs $32.39, respectively), a cost savings of $10.95 (95% confidence interval, $9.86 to $12.04; P < 0.001). Additionally, a comparison of data after vs before the interventions revealed the following results: remifentanil use was significantly lower (3.5% vs 9.2% of cases; P < 0.001). Dexmedetomidine use did not differ significantly (0.4% vs 0.5% of cases; P = 0.07), and desflurane use was significantly lower (0.6% vs 20.2% of cases; P < 0.001). There was no significant relationship between the interventions and the frequency of delayed out-of-room times (15.5% vs 15.9%; P = 0.41), unplanned intubations (0.02% vs 0.03%; P = 0.60), and reintubations (0.01% vs 0.03%; P = 0.28). Postoperative nausea and vomiting decreased significantly after the interventions (22.8% vs 24.4%; P = 0.003), and naloxone use showed a significant increase (0.22% vs 0.11% of cases; P = 0.04). Reducing the accessibility of these cost

  11. Low-cost drug cuts perinatal HIV-transmission rate.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M

    1999-07-24

    Researchers in Uganda and the US report their discovery of nevirapine, an inexpensive antiretroviral drug that cuts perinatal HIV transmission rate. The price (about US$4) of a two-dose treatment with this drug is suited for developing countries, and application of this regimen could save 300,000-400,000 newborns in developing countries from HIV infection annually. These findings are based on the researchers' study comparing nevirapine with another antiretroviral drug, zidovudine, in terms of effectiveness and cost. The two drugs were compared in a tested of 600 HIV-infected pregnant women. Without antiretroviral treatment, about 25-35% of infants of HIV-infected mothers will be born infected. Results revealed that the percentage of children infected with HIV at 14-16 weeks of age was 13.1% in the nevirapine group and 25.1% in the zidovudine group, demonstrating a 47% reduction of incidence among those treated with nevirapine.

  12. The antibacterial paradox: essential drugs, effectiveness, and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Fasehun, F.

    1999-01-01

    The concept proposed by WHO of an essential drugs list that should comprise drugs corresponding to the health needs of the majority of the people has been embraced by countries, which have adapted it to their needs. In this study, the essential antibacterial drug lists of 16 countries chosen from the six WHO regions are reviewed. Most of these countries include 73% of WHO-recommended essential antibacterials on their lists. However, most are lacking reserve antibacterials, and even some main list antibacterials, which are essential when empirical therapy fails in cases of bacterial resistance. Many factors that may be responsible for the lack of selection of these drugs, not least cost considerations, are discussed. PMID:10212510

  13. Effects of changes in patient cost sharing and drug sample policies on prescription drug costs and utilization in a safety-net-provider setting.

    PubMed

    Lurk, Jared T; DeJong, Douglas J; Woods, T Mark; Knell, Maureen E; Carroll, Cathryn A

    2004-02-01

    The impact of cost-containment strategies on prescription drug utilization and costs in an ambulatory care safety-net-provider setting was studied, along with the impact of these strategies on patient out-of-pocket expenditures. Aggregate monthly prescription drug cost and utilization data were obtained from a health system's outpatient pharmacy computer system for the targeted clinic. The data represented approximately 42,000 patient visits over 38 months. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to evaluate the influence of copayment increases and changes in prescription drug sample policies on prescription drug costs, prescription drug utilization, and patient expenditures. Prescription drug copayment increases were associated with significant decreases in prescription drug utilization and costs. An average per visit prescription drug copayment increase of $5 was associated with a significant reduction in prescription drug utilization per visit and a $26.07 reduction in prescription drug expenditures per visit per month. Removal of samples from the clinic did not result in a significant decrease in either prescription drug costs or utilization. The presence of samples, however, was associated with a significant reduction in per visit patient expenditures by an amount similar to the copayment for one brand-name prescription drug per visit. An increase in patient copayments was associated with reductions in a clinic's drug expenditures and prescription drug utilization per visit. Removal of prescription drug samples had no effect except increasing patients' out-of-pocket drug costs.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Drug Use on Hospital Costs

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Bruce C; Doshi, Jalpa A; Terza, Joseph V

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess whether outpatient prescription drug utilization produces offsets in the cost of hospitalization for Medicare beneficiaries. Data Sources/Study Setting The study analyzed a sample (N=3,101) of community-dwelling fee-for-service U.S. Medicare beneficiaries drawn from the 1999 and 2000 Medicare Current Beneficiary Surveys. Study Design Using a two-part model specification, we regressed any hospital admission (part 1: probit) and hospital spending by those with one or more admissions (part 2: nonlinear least squares regression) on drug use in a standard model with strong covariate controls and a residual inclusion instrumental variable (IV) model using an exogenous measure of drug coverage as the instrument. Principal Findings The covariate control model predicted that each additional prescription drug used (mean=30) raised hospital spending by $16 (p<.001). The residual inclusion IV model prediction was that each additional prescription fill reduced hospital spending by $104 (p<.001). Conclusions The findings indicate that drug use is associated with cost offsets in hospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries, once omitted variable bias is corrected using an IV technique appropriate for nonlinear applications. PMID:18783453

  15. Costs of drugs for treatment of rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Westhovens, Rene; Annemans, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    The cost of drugs is becoming an issue worldwide, in particular for inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In the current review, an overview of the scene is given with a specific emphasis on accessibility for those patients in real need of the available expensive treatments. The authors propose 7 principles for discussion that need to be addressed and are a responsibility for all stakeholders in rheumatology. PMID:27651923

  16. Predicting bacterial fitness cost associated with drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Beining; Abdelraouf, Kamilia; Ledesma, Kimberly R; Nikolaou, Michael; Tam, Vincent H

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that antimicrobial resistance could be associated with a fitness cost in bacteria, which is often determined by competition experiments between isogenic strains (wild-type and mutant). However, this conventional approach is time consuming and labour intensive. An alternative method was developed to assess the fitness cost in drug-resistant bacteria. Time-growth studies were performed with approximately 1 × 10(5) cfu/mL of Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa at baseline. Serial samples were obtained to quantify the bacterial burden over 24 h. The growth rates (K(g)) of isogenic strains (antibiotic susceptible and resistant) were determined individually and used to predict their relative abundance in a co-culture over an extended period of time. The predicted difference between the two strains was subsequently validated by in vitro growth competition experiments. The growth rates of A. baumannii were not significantly different in different strengths of growth medium. The difference in bacterial burden observed in competition studies was in general agreement with the predicted difference based on K(g) values, suggesting good predicting ability of the mathematical model. The proposed mathematical model was found to be reasonable in characterizing bacterial growth and predicting the fitness cost of resistance. This simple method appears robust in the assessment of fitness cost associated with drug resistance and warrants further investigations.

  17. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Dao, T D

    1985-04-01

    A model for cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis (CBA-CEA) of pharmaceutical intervention is presented, and CBA-CEA research methods reported in the literature are reviewed. The cost versus benefit and the cost effectiveness of drug therapy can be analyzed in societal as well as private terms. Since CBA measures costs and outcomes in monetary terms, it can be used to compare net benefits of all types of interventions. CEA, however, can be used only in comparing alternative interventions that can produce a similar health outcome. Research activities needed for identification of treatment protocols, alternative therapies and their respective outcomes, and resource use are described. Quantification of benefits and costs is discussed and inherent strengths and weaknesses of CBA-CEA are summarized. For the wide variety of research activities involved in CBA-CEA, the expertise of economists, physicians, clinical pharmacists and pharmacologists, epidemiologists, sociologists, and psychologists is needed. Inherent in CBA-CEA for drug therapy are judgments, either by analysts or by policy decision makers, about how to value life, pain, anxiety, and happiness and how to distribute health-care resources. When results of CBA-CEA are presented and interpreted with care, this analysis can be an important tool for policy decision makers.

  18. Physicians' perceptions and knowledge of drug costs: results of a survey.

    PubMed

    Barclay, L P; Hatton, R C; Doering, P L; Shands, J W

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to determine physicians' opinions of the importance of drug costs, sources of drug cost information used, preferences for mechanisms to lower drug costs, and to assess knowledge of the relative cost of common drugs. A questionnaire containing opinion statements and five categories of drugs to be ranked from least to most expensive was sent to 598 physicians at our tertiary-care, university-affiliated teaching hospital. In all, 398 (66.6%) surveys were completed. Survey results indicate that physicians are interested in lowering the cost of drug therapy, and that they are knowledgeable of relative drug costs but would like more cost information to make more informed prescribing decisions. Most believe that a readily available drug cost index is the most beneficial mechanism to decrease drug expenditures.

  19. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug

  20. Changes in drug utilization following the outpatient prescription drug cost-sharing program--evidence from Taiwan's elderly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuen-Zen; Romeis, James C

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines changes in drug utilization following Taiwan's newly implemented National Health Insurance (NHI) outpatient prescription drug cost-sharing program for persons over 65 years old. The study is a hospital outpatient prescription level analysis that adopts a pretest-posttest control group experiment design. Selected measures of outpatient prescription drug utilization are examined for cost-sharing and non cost-sharing groups in cost-sharing periods and pre cost-sharing periods. Additional analyses were conducted comparing older patients with and without chronic diseases and differences for essential and non-essential drugs. Patients over age 65 were drawn from 21 hospitals in the Taipei area using a stratified random sampling method. This paper yields several interesting findings. First, average prescription cost and prescription period increased for both the cost-sharing and non cost-sharing groups. However, the rate of increase was significantly less in the cost-sharing group when compared with the non cost-sharing group. Second, the elderly with non-chronic diseases were more sensitive (i.e., reducing drug utilization) to the drug cost-sharing program when compared with those with chronic diseases. Third, for the elderly with non-chronic diseases average drug cost per prescription experienced a smaller decrease in essential drugs but a moderate increase in non-essential drugs for the cost-sharing group. By contrast, for the non cost-sharing group, average drug cost per prescription increased sharply in non-essential drugs as well as essential drugs. Finally, there was a significant increase in the number of prescriptions as well as drug costs above the upper bound of the cost-sharing schedule. The outpatient drug cost-sharing program implemented by the NHI in Taiwan did not reverse the trend of prescription drug cost increases in hospitals. The significant increase in the number of prescriptions above the upper bound of the cost-sharing schedule

  1. Out-of-pocket drug costs and drug utilization patterns of postmenopausal Medicare beneficiaries with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Conwell, Leslie Jackson; Esposito, Dominick; Garavaglia, Susan; Meadows, Eric S; Colby, Margaret; Herrera, Vivian; Goldfarb, Seth; Ball, Daniel; Marciniak, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The Medicare Part D coverage gap has been associated with lower adherence and drug utilization and higher discontinuation. Because osteoporosis has a relatively high prevalence among Medicare-eligible postmenopausal women, we examined changes in utilization of osteoporosis medications during this coverage gap. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in out-of-pocket (OOP) drug costs and utilization associated with the Medicare Part D coverage gap among postmenopausal beneficiaries with osteoporosis. This retrospective analysis of 2007 pharmacy claims focuses on postmenopausal female Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in full-, partial-, or no-gap exposure standard or Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans (PDPs), retiree drug subsidy (RDS) plans, or the low-income subsidy program. We compared beneficiaries with osteoporosis who were taking teriparatide (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana) (n = 5657) with matched samples of beneficiaries who were taking nonteriparatide osteoporosis medications (NTO; n = 16,971) or who had other chronic conditions (OCC; n = 16,971). We measured average monthly prescription drug fills and OOP costs, medication discontinuation, and skipping. More than half the sample reached the coverage gap; OOP costs then rose for teriparatide users enrolled in partial- or full-gap exposure plans (increase of 121% and 186%; $300 and $349) but fell for those in no-gap exposure PDPs or RDS plans (decrease of 49% and 30%; $131 and $40). OOP costs for beneficiaries in partial- or full-gap exposure PDPs increased >120% (increase of $144 and $176) in the NTO group and nearly doubled for the OCC group (increase of $124 and $151); these OOP costs were substantially lower than those for teriparatide users. Both teriparatide users and NTO group members discontinued or skipped medications more often than persons in the OCC group, regardless of plan or benefit design. Medication discontinuation and OOP costs among beneficiaries with

  2. Cost-effectiveness of Newer Antiretroviral Drugs in Treatment-Experienced Patients with Multi-drug Resistant HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Barnett, Paul G.; Joyce, Vilija R.; Griffin, Susan C.; Sun, Huiying; Bansback, Nick J.; Holodniy, Mark; Sanders, Gillian; Brown, Sheldon T.; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Angus, Brian; Cameron, D. William; Anis, Aslam H.; Sculpher, Mark; Owens, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Newer antiretroviral drugs provide substantial benefits but are expensive. We determined the cost-effectiveness of using antiretroviral drugs in combination for patients with multi-drug resistant HIV disease. Design We built a cohort state-transition model representing treatment-experienced patients with low CD4 counts, high viral load levels, and multi-drug resistant virus. We estimated the effectiveness of newer drugs (those approved in 2005 or later) from published randomized trials. We estimated other parameters from a randomized trial and from the literature. The model had a lifetime time horizon and used the perspective of an ideal insurer in the United States. The interventions were combination antiretroviral therapy, consisting of two newer drugs and one conventional drug, compared to three conventional drugs. Outcome measures were life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness. Results Substituting newer antiretroviral drugs increased expected survival by 3.9 years in advanced HIV disease. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of newer, compared to conventional, antiretroviral drugs was $75,556/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses showed that substituting only one newer antiretroviral drug cost $54,559 to $68,732/QALY, depending on assumptions about efficacy. Substituting three newer drugs cost $105,956 to $117,477/QALY. Cost-effectiveness ratios were higher if conventional drugs were not discontinued. Conclusions In treatment-experienced patients with advanced HIV disease, use of newer antiretroviral agents can be cost effective, given a cost-effectiveness threshold in the range of $50,000 to $75,000 per QALY gained. Newer antiretroviral agents should be used in carefully selected patients for whom less expensive options are clearly inferior. PMID:24129369

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Infrapopliteal Drug-Eluting Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Siablis, Dimitris

    2013-02-15

    IntroductionThere are no cost-utility data about below-the-knee placement of drug-eluting stents. The authors determined the cost-effectiveness of infrapopliteal drug-eluting stents for critical limb ischemia (CLI) treatment. The event-free individual survival outcomes defined by the absence of any major events, including death, major amputation, and target limb repeat procedures, were reconstructed on the basis of two published infrapopliteal series. The first included spot Bail-out use of Sirolimus-eluting stents versus bare metal stents after suboptimal balloon angioplasty (Bail-out SES).The second was full-lesion Primary Everolimus-eluting stenting versus plain balloon angioplasty and bail-out bare metal stenting as necessary (primary EES). The number-needed-to-treat (NNT) to avoid one major event and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for a 3-year postprocedural period for both strategies. Overall event-free survival was significantly improved in both strategies (hazard ratio (HR) [confidence interval (CI)]: 0.68 [0.41-1.12] in Bail-out SES and HR [CI]: 0.53 [0.29-0.99] in Primary EES). Event-free survival gain per patient was 0.89 (range, 0.11-3.0) years in Bail-out SES with an NNT of 4.6 (CI: 2.5-25.6) and a corresponding ICER of 6,518 Euro-Sign (range 1,685-10,112 Euro-Sign ). Survival gain was 0.91 (range 0.25-3.0) years in Primary EES with an NNT of 2.7 (CI: 1.7-5.8) and an ICER of 11,581 Euro-Sign (range, 4,945-21,428 Euro-Sign ) per event-free life-year gained. Two-way sensitivity analysis showed that stented lesion length >10 cm and/or DES list price >1000 Euro-Sign were associated with the least economically favorable scenario in both strategies. Both strategies of bail-out SES and primary EES placement in the infrapopliteal arteries for CLI treatment exhibit single-digit NNT and relatively low corresponding ICERs.

  4. A drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch; Srijariya, Witsanuchai; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents for patients receiving treatment at a regional hospital in Thailand. Methods The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive analysis. The cases were all from road traffic accidents receiving treatment at a public regional hospital in the fiscal year 2004. Results Three thousand seven hundred and twenty-three road accident patients were included in the study. The mean drug cost per case was USD18.20 (SD=73.49, median=2.36). The fitted drug cost model had an adjusted R2 of 0.449. The positive significant predictor variables of drug costs were prolonged length of stay, age over 30 years old, male, Universal Health Coverage Scheme, time of accident during 18:00-24:00 o’clock, and motorcycle comparing to bus. To forecast the drug budget for 2006, there were two approaches identified, the mean drug cost and the predicted average drug cost. The predicted average drug cost was calculated based on the forecasted values of statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor variables included in the fitted model; predicted total drug cost was USD44,334. Alternatively, based on the mean cost, predicted total drug cost in 2006 was USD63,408. This was 43% higher than the figure based on the predicted cost approach. Conclusions The planned budget of drug cost based on the mean cost and predicted average cost were meaningfully different. The application of a predicted average cost model could result in a more accurate budget planning than that of a mean statistic approach. PMID:25170359

  5. Adherence to hospital drug formularies and cost of drugs in hospitals in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Plet, Hanne T; Hallas, Jesper; Kjeldsen, Lene J

    2013-10-01

    To investigate adherence rates to hospital drug formularies (HDFs) and cost of drugs in hospitals. Data on drugs used during 2010 were analyzed for ten hospitals (two hospitals from each of the five regions), constituting 30 % of hospitals and 45 % of hospital beds in Denmark. Drug use data from individual hospitals were retrieved from the hospital pharmacies. Adherence to the HDFs was analyzed for selected substances characterised by extensive use both in primary and secondary sectors (ATC codes A10, B03, C03, C07, C08, C09, C10, J01, N02, N05 and R03). Within each group, we also identified the drugs constituting 90 % of the volume (= DU90%) and the adherence to the HDF in this segment (Index of Adherence). Substances used by hospitals varied between 598 and 1,093. The proportion of used substances that were on the HDF varied between 14 % and 44 %. University hospitals used a significantly higher total number of substances (median 165 vs. 139, p = 0.019) and cost/DDD [(median 5 vs. 2 Euros, p = 0.033), p = 0.033] in the DU90% segment than the regional hospitals. Index of adherence varied between 43 % and 91 %. For the selected ATC codes, the index of adherence was between 76 % and 100 %. Adherence to the selected ATC groups was high, which means that the most commonly used substances are included in the HDFs, even though a variation existed. A large variation existed between the hospitals in the number of substances at HDFs.

  6. Prescribing patterns and drug cost among cardiovascular patients in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Junid, S M; Ezat, W P Sharifa; Surianti, S

    2007-03-01

    A prevalence study was conducted, measuring drug cost and prescribing patterns of clinicians treating cardiovascular patients in UKM Hospital (HUKM). One Hundred and thirty-five patients' case-notes were selected from the Case-Mix database of HUKM. The average and median number of drugs prescribed per patient was 7.56 (+/- 3.37) and 7.0 (+/- 3) respectively. Generic drug prescription rate was still low (45.2%). Significant relationship was observed between generic drug prescriptions with age of patients, types of wards and different levels of clinicians' training. Younger patients, admitted to Coronary Care Unit (CCU) and Cardiology Rehabilitation Ward (CRW) were more likely to be prescribed with branded drugs. Lower generic drugs prescription and higher cost of drugs were mostly practised by Consultants. CCU and CRW wards were the only predictor to having low generic drugs prescriptions. Ninety-nine percent of the total RM28,879.25 drug cost was used to purchase branded drugs. Mean drug cost for a patient is RM213.92 (+/- RM333.36) and median cost is RM102.46 (+/- RM240.51). Higher drug cost and its' predictors were patients with severity level II and III, length of stay of > or = 6 days, number of drugs types of > or = 7, generic drugs prescription rate < 50% and patients admitted in CCU and CRW wards. This study is important for short and long-term decision-making, controlling of providers behaviour and resources.

  7. An Educational Intervention to Decrease Drug Costs Related to Terminal Secretions in a Hospice Organization.

    PubMed

    Brock, Cara; Cooper, Sarah; Herndon, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Terminal secretions is a common symptom seen in hospice patients. Antimuscarinic drugs are commonly used to treat this symptom despite a lack of supporting data. Wide variability in cost exists among these treatments. Hospice program data were assessed to identify high-use and high-cost medications. An educational intervention (EI) was developed to target one such medication, transdermal scopolamine. The EI focused on efficacy, safety, and actual cost (by unit and total expenditure) for each possible treatment of terminal secretions. Following the EI, drug utilization data was re-evaluated. Prior to the deployment of the EI, total monthly hospice drug costs averaged $91,405 (SD 1,444) with an average drug cost per patient per day of $11.42 (SD 0.54). Monthly costs of drugs frequently employed to treat terminal secretions averaged $7,187.67 (SD 2,253) pre-intervention. Following the EI, monthly drug costs decreased 22.5%, average daily patient drug costs decreased 11.1%, and total anti-secretion costs decreased 28.5% after adjusting for difference in census. Education regarding the use and cost of medications to treat symptoms at end-of-life in hospice patients can be an intervention used to lead to significant cost savings to hospice organizations while maintaining appropriate symptom management for patients. Future interventions to target additional high-cost medications are warranted.

  8. Non-adherence to drug therapy and drug acquisition costs in a national population - a patient-based register study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients' non-adherence to drug therapy is a major problem for society as it is associated with reduced health outcomes. Generally, approximately only 50% of patients with chronic disease in developed countries adhere to prescribed therapy, and the most common non-adherence refers to chronic under-use, i.e. patients use less medication than prescribed or prematurely stop the therapy. Patients' non-adherence leads to high additional costs for society in terms of poor health. Non-adherence is also related to the unnecessary sale of drugs. The aim of the present study was to estimate the drug acquisition cost related to non-adherence to drug therapy in a national population. Methods We constructed a model of the drug acquisition cost related to non-adherence to drug therapy based on patient register data of dispensed out-patient prescriptions in the entire Swedish population during a 12-month period. In the model, the total drug acquisition cost was successively adjusted for the assumed different rates of primary non-adherence (prescriptions not being filled by the patient), and secondary non-adherence (medication not being taken as prescribed) according to the patient's age, therapies, and the number of dispensed drugs per patient. Results With an assumption of a general primary non-adherence rate of 3%, and a general secondary non-adherence rate of 50%, for all types of drugs, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 11.2 billion (€ 1.2 billion), or 48.5% of total drug acquisition costs in Sweden 2006. With the assumption of varying primary non-adherence rates for different age groups and different secondary non-adherence rates for varying types of drug therapies, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 9.3 billion (€ 1.0 billion), or 40.2% of the total drug acquisition costs. When the assumption of varying primary and secondary non-adherence rates for a different number of dispensed drugs per patient was added to

  9. How are the costs of drug-related morbidity measured?: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Rehnberg, Clas; Carlsten, Anders

    2012-03-01

    Drug-related morbidity has been associated with increased healthcare costs and has been suggested as one of the leading causes of death. Previous reviews have identified heterogeneity in research methods in studies measuring the cost of drug-related morbidity. To date, no attempt has been made to analyse different methods and cost sources used when estimating the costs of drug-related morbidity. The aim of this review was to evaluate and compare methods and data sources in cost estimates of drug-related morbidity. A literature search was conducted in three electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE and MEDLINE) to identify peer-reviewed articles written in English and published between January 1990 and November 2011. Articles were included if estimating the direct or indirect costs of drug-related morbidity based on clinical data from general patient groups. The general patient groups were defined as patients visiting, being admitted to, treated at or discharged from a general hospital, excluding studies from nursing homes or specialized hospitals. Study information was collected using a standardized data collection sheet. Studies were categorized according to the type of costs included in the cost analysis. Thereafter, the cost analyses of included studies were reviewed regarding viewpoint, costing methods and adjustments for timing of costs. In total, 9569 articles were identified, of which 25 publications were included in this review, and four additional articles were identified from reference or citation lists of publications already included. Eighteen studies measured either the total or attributable costs of drug-related morbidity, while seven studies estimated the increased costs using matched controls or regression analyses. Six studies measured costs from a payer perspective, while the other 23 measured costs to the hospital. One study included costs resulting after discharge, and discounted future costs, while the remaining 28 studies measured costs during the

  10. How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Medicare offers prescription ... elect the drug coverage. 2. Join a Medicare Advantage Plan— like a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), Preferred ...

  11. The impact of decentralised drug-budgets in Sweden - a survey of physicians' attitudes towards costs and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Sandra; Anell, Anders

    2006-05-01

    In Sweden decentralised drug-budgets at health-care facility levels were introduced in 1997 in an attempt to contain increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. This paper reports the findings of a postal survey which investigates whether decentralised drug-budgets according to a so-called primary-care based model in Swedish health care have led to increased cost awareness and changed attitudes towards cost-minimisation and cost-effectiveness as decision-making criteria among physicians. In particular, it was investigated whether there were differences in this respect between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists. The postal survey was sent to 1,520 Swedish physicians from a stratified sample of Swedish county councils. A total of 738 physicians responded (response rate 49%). Statistical analysis was performed of logistic regression analysis and independent or paired samples t-tests. The results suggest that GPs have a higher degree of cost awareness than specialists. Physicians with experience of decentralised drug-budgets have a higher degree of cost awareness than other physicians. However, the rating of the top four decision-making criteria; therapeutic effects, side effects, compliance and cost-effectiveness, were not significantly different when comparing GPs against specialists, and physicians practising in county councils with decentralised drug-budgets against other physicians. The main barriers to considering costs to a greater extent were perceived difficulties in switching drugs and a fear among physicians of losing credibility among patients. In conclusion, decentralisation of drug-budgets according to the Swedish primary-care based model increases cost awareness, especially among GPs. Such responsibility, however, does not create strong incentives for physicians to reconsider the importance of cost-effectiveness in relation to other decision-making criteria when prescribing. Parallel interventions are needed to meet the objective of cost

  12. Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Texas: 1997 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liang Y.

    This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…

  13. Economic consequences of legal and illegal drugs: The case of social costs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Verhaeghe, Nick; Putman, Koen; Pauwels, Lieven; Hardyns, Wim; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-06-01

    Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied. Three cost components were considered: direct, indirect and intangible costs related to substance misuse. The direct and indirect cost of addictive substances was estimated at 4.6 billion euros in Belgium (419 euros per capita or 1.19% of the GDP) and more than 515,000 healthy years are lost due to substance misuse. The Belgian social cost study reaffirms that alcohol and tobacco impose the highest cost to society compared to illegal drugs. Health problems are the main driver of the social cost of legal drugs. Law enforcement expenditure exceed the healthcare costs but only in the case of illegal drugs. Estimating social costs of addictive substances is complex because it is difficult to determine to what extent the societal harm is caused by substances. It can be argued that social cost studies take only a 'snapshot' of the monetary consequences of substance misuse. Nevertheless, the current study offers the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the social costs of substance misuse in Belgium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Costs of Screening and Brief Intervention for Illicit Drug Use in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Zarkin, Gary; Bray, Jeremy; Hinde, Jesse; Saitz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors estimate implementation costs for illicit drug screening and brief intervention (SBI) and identify a key source of variation in cost estimates noted in the alcohol SBI literature. This is the first study of the cost of SBI for drug use only. Method: Using primary data collected from a clinical trial of illicit drug SBI (n = 528) and a hybrid costing approach, we estimated a per-service implementation cost for screening and two models of brief intervention. A taxonomy of activities was first compiled, and then resources and prices were attached to estimate the per-activity cost. Two components of the implementation cost, direct service delivery and service support costs, were estimated separately. Results: Per-person cost estimates were $15.61 for screening, $38.94 for a brief negotiated interview, and $252.26 for an adaptation of motivational interviewing. (Amounts are in 2011 U.S. dollars.) Service support costs per patient are 5 to 7.5 times greater than direct service delivery costs per patient. Ongoing clinical supervision costs are the largest component of service support costs. Conclusions: Implementation cost estimates for illicit drug brief intervention vary greatly depending on the brief intervention method, and service support is the largest component of SBI costs. Screening and brief intervention cost estimates for drug use are similar to those published for alcohol SBI. Direct service delivery cost estimates are similar to costs at the low end of the distribution identified in the alcohol literature. The magnitude of service support costs may explain the larger cost estimates at the high end of the alcohol SBI cost distribution. PMID:25785797

  15. Low cost mobile explosive/drug detection devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.; Bendahan, J.

    1999-06-10

    Inspection technologies based on Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) and/or Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) are the basis for relatively compact and low-cost, material-sensitive devices for a wide variety of inspection needs. The TNA allows the use of either isotropic neutron sources such as a {sup 252}Cf, or electronic neutron generators such as the d-T sealed neutron generator tubes. The latter could be used in a steady state mode or in slow (>{mu}s) pulsing mode, to separate the thermal neutron capture signatures following the pulse from the combination of the FNA plus TNA signatures during the pulse. Over the years, Ancore Corporation has built and is continuing to develop a variety of inspection devices based on its TNA and FNA technologies: SPEDS--an explosive detection device for small parcels, portable electronics, briefcases and other similar carry-on items; MDS - a system for the detection or confirmation of buried mines; VEDS - a system for the detection of varied amounts of explosives and/or drugs concealed in passenger vehicles, pallets, lightly loaded trucks or containers, etc.; ACD - a device to clear alarms from a primary, non-specific explosive detection system for passenger luggage. The principle and performance of these devices will be shown and discussed.

  16. Prescription Drug Price Paradox: Cost Analysis of Canadian Online Pharmacies versus US Medicare Beneficiaries for the Top 100 Drugs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sean Hyungwoo; Ryu, Young Joo; Cho, Na-Eun; Kim, Andy Eunwoo; Chang, Jongwha

    2017-07-22

    Despite the introduction of Medicare Part D (MPD) and 2012 Affordable Care Act (ACA), patients have a cost burden due to increases in drug prices. To overcome cost barriers, some patients purchase their medications from Canadian online pharmacies as Canadian prescription drug prices are believed to be lower than US prescription drug prices. The objective of this study was to determine which top 100 Medicare drugs can be imported to the USA legally, and to determine which type of prescription drug would be more beneficial to be purchased from Canadian online pharmacies. Moreover, we also deemed it important to compare MPD beneficiary annual expenses with expenses patients would have when obtaining their prescriptions from Canadian online pharmacies. We conducted a cost analysis from a patient perspective. A list of the top 100 Medicare drugs was compiled and information on drug prices was collected from three Canadian online pharmacies and four MPD plans in Virginia. The annual cost of each Medicare drug and percent change between Canadian online pharmacies and MPD were compared. A total of 78 drugs from the top 100 Medicare drugs were included in the final analysis. Seventy-six prescription drugs (97.4%) that could be purchased from Canadian online pharmacies showed a significantly lower average drug price percent change of -72.71% (P < 0.0001). The heart health/blood pressure subgroup had the highest number of drugs that could be purchased from Canadian online pharmacies. The majority of prescription drugs can be purchased at lower prices from Canadian online pharmacies when compared to Medicare beneficiaries' potential expenses. Purchasing medications from Canadian online pharmacies may be a viable option to address cost barriers.

  17. A Comparative Study on the Cost of New Antibiotics and Drugs of Other Therapeutic Categories

    PubMed Central

    Falagas, Matthew E.; Fragoulis, Konstantinos N.; Karydis, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Background Drug treatment is becoming more expensive due to the increased cost for the introduction of new drugs, and there seems to be an uneven distribution of medication cost for different therapeutic categories. We hypothesized that the cost of new antimicrobial agents may differ from that of other therapeutic categories and this may play a role in the stagnation of development of new antibiotics. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a pharmaco-economical comparative analysis of the drug cost of treatment for new agents introduced in the United States drug market in various therapeutic categories. We calculated the drug cost (in US dollars) of a ten-day treatment of all new drugs approved by the FDA during the period between January 1997 and July 2003, according to the 2004 Red Book Pharmacy's Fundamental Reference. New anti-neoplastic agents were found to be the most expensive drugs in comparison to all other therapeutic categories, with a median ten-day drug-treatment cost of US$848 compared to the median ten-day drug-treatment costs of all other categories ranging from US$29 to US$301. On the other hand, new antimicrobial drugs were found to be much less expensive, with a median ten-day drug-treatment cost of US$137 and $US85 for all anti-microbial agents and for anti-microbial agents excluding anti-HIV medications, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The drug-treatment cost of new medications varies considerably by different therapeutic categories. This fact may influence industry decisions regarding the development of new drugs and may play a role in the shortage of new antimicrobial agents in the fight against the serious problem of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:17183637

  18. Relative costs of anesthesiologist prepared, hospital pharmacy prepared and outsourced anesthesia drugs.

    PubMed

    Jelacic, Srdjan; Craddick, Karen; Nair, Bala G; Bounthavong, Mark; Yeung, Kai; Kusulos, Dolly; Knutson, Jennifer A; Somani, Shabir; Bowdle, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Anesthesia drugs can be prepared by anesthesia providers, hospital pharmacies or outsourcing facilities. The decision whether to outsource all or some anesthesia drugs is challenging since the costs associated with different anesthesia drug preparation methods remain poorly described. The costs associated with preparation of 8 commonly used anesthesia drugs were analyzed using a budget impact analysis for 4 different syringe preparation strategies: (1) all drugs prepared by anesthesiologist, (2) drugs prepared by anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy, (3) drugs prepared by anesthesiologist and outsourcing facility, and (4) all drugs prepared by outsourcing facility. A strategy combining anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy prepared drugs was associated with the lowest estimated annual cost in the base-case budget impact analysis with an annual cost of $225 592, which was lower than other strategies by a margin of greater than $86 000. A combination of anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy prepared drugs resulted in the lowest annual cost in the budget impact analysis. However, the cost of drugs prepared by an outsourcing facility maybe lower if the capital investment needed for the establishment and maintenance of the US Pharmacopeial Convention Chapter <797> compliant facility is included in the budget impact analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Good research practices for measuring drug costs in cost-effectiveness analyses: Medicare, Medicaid and other US government payers perspectives: the ISPOR Drug Cost Task Force report--Part IV.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C Daniel; Seal, Brian; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Asche, Carl V; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar; Lee, Won Chan; Romanus, Dorothy K; Wang, Junling; Hay, Joel W; Smeeding, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Public programs finance a large share of the US pharmaceutical expenditures. To date, there are not guidelines for estimating the cost of drugs financed by US public programs. The objective of this study was to provide standards for estimating the cost of drugs financed by US public programs for utilization in pharmacoeconomic evaluations. This report was prepared by the ISPOR Task Force on Good Research Practices-Use of Drug Costs for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Medicare, Medicaid, and other US Government Payers Subgroup. The Subgroup was convened to assess the methodological and practical issues confronted by researchers when estimating the cost of drugs financed by US public programs, and to propose standards for more transparent, accurate and consistent costing methods. The Subgroup proposed these recommendations: 1) researchers must consider regulation requirements that affect the drug cost paid by public programs; 2) drug cost must represent the actual acquisition cost, incorporating any rebates or discounts; 3) transparency with respect to cost inputs must be ensured; 4) inclusion of the public program's perspective is recommended; 5) high cost drugs require special attention, particularly when drugs represent a significant proportion of health-care expenditures for a specific disease; and 6) because of variations across public programs, sensitivity analyses for actual acquisition cost, real-world adherence, and generics availability are warranted. Specific recommendations also were proposed for the Medicare and Medicaid programs. As pharmacoeconomic evaluations for coverage decisions made by US public programs grows, the need for precise and consistent estimation of drug costs is warranted. Application of the proposed recommendations will allow researchers to include accurate and unbiased cost estimates in pharmacoeconomic evaluations.

  20. Estimated cost of universal public coverage of prescription drugs in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Law, Michael; Daw, Jamie R.; Abraham, Liza; Martin, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the exception of Canada, all countries with universal health insurance systems provide universal coverage of prescription drugs. Progress toward universal public drug coverage in Canada has been slow, in part because of concerns about the potential costs. We sought to estimate the cost of implementing universal public coverage of prescription drugs in Canada. Methods: We used published data on prescribing patterns and costs by drug type, as well as source of funding (i.e., private drug plans, public drug plans and out-of-pocket expenses), in each province to estimate the cost of universal public coverage of prescription drugs from the perspectives of government, private payers and society as a whole. We estimated the cost of universal public drug coverage based on its anticipated effects on the volume of prescriptions filled, products selected and prices paid. We selected these parameters based on current policies and practices seen either in a Canadian province or in an international comparator. Results: Universal public drug coverage would reduce total spending on prescription drugs in Canada by $7.3 billion (worst-case scenario $4.2 billion, best-case scenario $9.4 billion). The private sector would save $8.2 billion (worst-case scenario $6.6 billion, best-case scenario $9.6 billion), whereas costs to government would increase by about $1.0 billion (worst-case scenario $5.4 billion net increase, best-case scenario $2.9 billion net savings). Most of the projected increase in government costs would arise from a small number of drug classes. Interpretation: The long-term barrier to the implementation of universal pharmacare owing to its perceived costs appears to be unjustified. Universal public drug coverage would likely yield substantial savings to the private sector with comparatively little increase in costs to government. PMID:25780047

  1. Estimated cost of universal public coverage of prescription drugs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Law, Michael; Daw, Jamie R; Abraham, Liza; Martin, Danielle

    2015-04-21

    With the exception of Canada, all countries with universal health insurance systems provide universal coverage of prescription drugs. Progress toward universal public drug coverage in Canada has been slow, in part because of concerns about the potential costs. We sought to estimate the cost of implementing universal public coverage of prescription drugs in Canada. We used published data on prescribing patterns and costs by drug type, as well as source of funding (i.e., private drug plans, public drug plans and out-of-pocket expenses), in each province to estimate the cost of universal public coverage of prescription drugs from the perspectives of government, private payers and society as a whole. We estimated the cost of universal public drug coverage based on its anticipated effects on the volume of prescriptions filled, products selected and prices paid. We selected these parameters based on current policies and practices seen either in a Canadian province or in an international comparator. Universal public drug coverage would reduce total spending on prescription drugs in Canada by $7.3 billion (worst-case scenario $4.2 billion, best-case scenario $9.4 billion). The private sector would save $8.2 billion (worst-case scenario $6.6 billion, best-case scenario $9.6 billion), whereas costs to government would increase by about $1.0 billion (worst-case scenario $5.4 billion net increase, best-case scenario $2.9 billion net savings). Most of the projected increase in government costs would arise from a small number of drug classes. The long-term barrier to the implementation of universal pharmacare owing to its perceived costs appears to be unjustified. Universal public drug coverage would likely yield substantial savings to the private sector with comparatively little increase in costs to government. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  2. Systematic review of drug administration costs and implications for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Ebenezer; Morris, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition costs of biologic drugs are often considered to be relatively high compared with those of nonbiologics. However, the total costs of delivering these drugs also depend on the cost of administration. Ignoring drug administration costs may distort resource allocation decisions because these affect cost effectiveness. The objectives of this systematic review were to develop a framework of drug administration costs that considers both the costs of physical administration and the associated proximal costs; and, as a case example, to use this framework to evaluate administration costs for biologics within the UK National Health Service (NHS). We reviewed literature that reported estimates of administration costs for biologics within the UK NHS to identify how these costs were quantified and to examine how differences in dosage forms and regimens influenced administration costs. The literature reviewed were identified by searching the Centre for Review and Dissemination Databases (DARE, NHS EED and HTA); EMBASE (The Excerpta Medica Database); MEDLINE (using the OVID interface); Econlit (EBSCO); Tufts Medical Center Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry; and Google Scholar. We identified 4,344 potentially relevant studies, of which 43 studies were selected for this systematic review. We extracted estimates of the administration costs of biologics from these studies. We found evidence of variation in the way that administration costs were measured, and that this affected the magnitude of costs reported, which could then influence cost effectiveness. Our findings suggested that manufacturers of biologic medicines should pay attention to formulation issues and their impact on administration costs, because these affect the total costs of healthcare delivery and cost effectiveness.

  3. Financial Impact of Cancer Drug Wastage and Potential Cost Savings From Mitigation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Caitlyn Y W; Cheung, Matthew C; Charbonneau, Lauren F; Prica, Anca; Ng, Pamela; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2017-07-01

    Cancer drug wastage occurs when a parenteral drug within a fixed vial is not administered fully to a patient. This study investigated the extent of drug wastage, the financial impact on the hospital budget, and the cost savings associated with current mitigation strategies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals of various sizes. We recorded the actual amount of drug wasted over a 2-week period while using current mitigation strategies. Single-dose vial cancer drugs with the highest wastage potentials were identified (14 drugs). To calculate the hypothetical drug wastage with no mitigation strategies, we determined how many vials of drugs would be needed to fill a single prescription. The total drug costs over the 2 weeks ranged from $50,257 to $716,983 in the three institutions. With existing mitigation strategies, the actual drug wastage over the 2 weeks ranged from $928 to $5,472, which was approximately 1% to 2% of the total drug costs. In the hypothetical model with no mitigation strategies implemented, the projected drug cost wastage would have been $11,232 to $149,131, which accounted for 16% to 18% of the total drug costs. As a result, the potential annual savings while using current mitigation strategies range from 15% to 17%. The financial impact of drug wastage is substantial. Mitigation strategies lead to substantial cost savings, with the opportunity to reinvest those savings. More research is needed to determine the appropriate methods to minimize risk to patients while using the cost-saving mitigation strategies.

  4. A social cost perspective in the wake of the Portuguese strategy for the fight against drugs.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ricardo; Lourenço, Ana; Silva, Sofia Nogueira da

    2015-02-01

    The Portuguese National Strategy for the Fight Against Drugs (NSFAD), approved in 1999, was explicitly grounded on the values of humanism and pragmatism and paved the way for the decriminalization of illicit drug use in Portugal in 2000. This paper presents an analysis of the social costs of illicit drug use in the wake of the strategy's approval. Taking into consideration health and non-health related costs, we find that that the social cost of drugs decreased by 12% in the five years following the NSFAD's approval and by a rather significant 18% in the eleven-year period following its approval. Whilst the reduction of legal system costs (possibly associated with the decriminalization of drug consumption) is clearly one of the main explanatory factors, it is not the only one. In particular, the rather significant reduction of health-related costs has also played an important role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlling the Cost of Drugs: the Canadian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Thomas K.; Dickens, Paul F.

    1979-01-01

    In 1969 Canada began programs at both the national and provincial levels to lower prescription drug prices. These programs may have contributed to a significant decline between 1970 and 1974 of 39 percent in the average price of 16 drugs selected for study. During this time, the average price for the same drugs in the United States declined only 1.4 percent. One major program, a change in the compulsory patent licensing, is described and analyzed. Other Canadian programs, designed to promote competition in the drug industry, and their effects are discussed. PMID:10309114

  6. High-Cost Users of Prescription Drugs: A Population-Based Analysis from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Deirdre; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Morgan, Steven G

    2017-04-01

    To examine variation in pharmaceutical spending and patient characteristics across prescription drug user groups. British Columbia's population-based linked administrative health and sociodemographic databases (N = 3,460,763). We classified individuals into empirically derived prescription drug user groups based on pharmaceutical spending patterns outside hospitals from 2007 to 2011. We examined variation in patient characteristics, mortality, and health services usage and applied hierarchical clustering to determine patterns of concurrent drug use identifying high-cost patients. Approximately 1 in 20 British Columbians had persistently high prescription costs for 5 consecutive years, accounting for 42 percent of 2011 province-wide pharmaceutical spending. Less than 1 percent of the population experienced discrete episodes of high prescription costs; an additional 2.8 percent transitioned to or from high-cost episodes of unknown duration. Persistent high-cost users were more likely to concurrently use multiple chronic medications; episodic and transitory users spent more on specialized medicines, including outpatient cancer drugs. Cluster analyses revealed heterogeneity in concurrent medicine use within high-cost groups. Whether low, moderate, or high, costs of prescription drugs for most individuals are persistent over time. Policies controlling high-cost use should focus on reducing polypharmacy and encouraging price competition in drug classes used by ordinary and high-cost users alike. © 2016 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Reynolds, Jillian; García-Altés, Anna; Gual, Antoni; Anderson, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Drug use accounts for one of the main disease groups in Europe, with relevant consequences to society. There is an increasing need to evaluate the economic consequences of drug use in order to develop appropriate policies. Here, we review the social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union. A systematic search of relevant databases was conducted. Grey literature and previous systematic reviews were also searched. Studies reporting on social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco were included. Methodology, cost components as well as costs were assessed from individual studies. To compare across studies, final costs were transformed to 2014 Euros. Forty-five studies reported in 43 papers met the inclusion criteria (11 for illegal drugs, 26 for alcohol and 8 for tobacco). While there was a constant inclusion of direct costs related to treatment of substance use and comorbidities, there was a high variability for the rest of cost components. Total costs showed also a great variability. Price per capita for the year 2014 ranged from €0.38 to €78 for illegal drugs, from €26 to €1500 for alcohol and from €10.55 to €391 for tobacco. Drug use imposes a heavy economic burden to Europe. However, given the high existing heterogeneity in methodologies, and in order to better assess the burden and thus to develop adequate policies, standardised methodological guidance is needed. [Barrio P, Reynolds J, García-Altés A, Gual A, Anderson P. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Effectiveness, safety and costs of orphan drugs: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Matthew J; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several orphan drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) over the past two decades. However, the drugs are expensive, and in some instances, the evidence for effectiveness is not convincing at the time of regulatory approval. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of orphan drugs that have been granted marketing licenses in Europe, determine the annual costs of each drug, compare the costs of branded orphan drugs against their generic equivalents, and explore any relationships between orphan drug disease prevalence and annual costs. Methods We searched the EMA database to identify orphan drugs granted marketing authorisation up to April 2014. Electronic searches were also conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar, to assess data on effectiveness, safety and annual costs. 2 reviewers independently evaluated the levels and quality of evidence, and extracted data. Results We identified 74 orphan drugs, with 54 (73%) demonstrating moderate quality of evidence. 85% showed significant clinical effects, but serious adverse events were reported in 86.5%. Their annual costs were between £726 and £378 000. There was a significant inverse relationship between disease prevalence and annual costs (p=0.01); this was largely due to the influence of the ultra-orphan diseases. We could not determine whether the balance between effectiveness and safety influenced annual costs. For 10 drugs where generic alternatives were available, the branded drugs were 1.4 to 82 000 times more expensive. Conclusions The available evidence suggests that there is inconsistency in the quality of evidence of approved orphan drugs, and there is no clear mechanism for determining their prices. In some cases, far cheaper generic agents appear to be available. A more robust, transparent and standard mechanism for determining annual costs is imperative. PMID:26109112

  9. Effectiveness, safety and costs of orphan drugs: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Matthew J; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-06-24

    Several orphan drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) over the past two decades. However, the drugs are expensive, and in some instances, the evidence for effectiveness is not convincing at the time of regulatory approval. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of orphan drugs that have been granted marketing licenses in Europe, determine the annual costs of each drug, compare the costs of branded orphan drugs against their generic equivalents, and explore any relationships between orphan drug disease prevalence and annual costs. We searched the EMA database to identify orphan drugs granted marketing authorisation up to April 2014. Electronic searches were also conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar, to assess data on effectiveness, safety and annual costs. 2 reviewers independently evaluated the levels and quality of evidence, and extracted data. We identified 74 orphan drugs, with 54 (73%) demonstrating moderate quality of evidence. 85% showed significant clinical effects, but serious adverse events were reported in 86.5%. Their annual costs were between £726 and £378,000. There was a significant inverse relationship between disease prevalence and annual costs (p = 0.01); this was largely due to the influence of the ultra-orphan diseases. We could not determine whether the balance between effectiveness and safety influenced annual costs. For 10 drugs where generic alternatives were available, the branded drugs were 1.4 to 82,000 times more expensive. The available evidence suggests that there is inconsistency in the quality of evidence of approved orphan drugs, and there is no clear mechanism for determining their prices. In some cases, far cheaper generic agents appear to be available. A more robust, transparent and standard mechanism for determining annual costs is imperative. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Impact of pharmacist’s interventions on cost of drug therapy in intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Saokaew, Surasak; Maphanta, Sirada; Thangsomboon., Pornchanok

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacist participation in patient care team has been shown to reduce incidence of adverse drug events, and overall drug costs. However, impact of pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team on cost saving and cost avoidance has little been studied in Thailand. Objective: To describe the characteristics of the interventions and to determine pharmacist’s interventions led to change in cost saving and cost avoidance in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A Prospective, standard care-controlled study design was used to compare cost saving and cost avoidance of patients receiving care from patient care team (including a clinical pharmacist) versus standard care (no pharmacist on team). All patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit 1 and 2 during the same period were included in the study. The outcome measures were overall drug cost and length of ICU stay. Interventions made by the pharmacist in the study group were documented. The analyses of acceptance and cost saving and/or cost avoidance were also performed. Results: A total of 65 patients were admitted to either ICU 1 or 2 during the 5 week-study period. The pharmacist participated in patient care and made total of 127 interventions for the ICU-1 team. Ninety-eight percent of the interventions were accepted and implemented by physicians. The difference of overall drug cost per patient between two groups was 182.01 USD (1,076.37 USD in study group and 1,258.38 USD in control group, p=0.138). The average length of ICU stay for the intervention group and the control group was not significantly different (7.16 days vs. 6.18 days, p=0.995). The 125 accepted interventions were evaluated for cost saving and cost avoidance. Pharmacist’s interventions yielded a total of 1,971.43 USD from drug cost saving and 294.62 USD from adverse drug event cost avoidance. The net cost saved and avoided from pharmacist interventions was 2,266.05 USD. Interventions involving antibiotic use

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of microdose clinical trials in drug development.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Naoe; Igarashi, Ataru; Kusama, Makiko; Maeda, Kazuya; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Microdose (MD) clinical trials have been introduced to obtain human pharmacokinetic data early in drug development. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of microdose integrated drug development in a hypothetical model, as there was no such quantitative research that weighed the additional effectiveness against the additional time and/or cost. First, we calculated the cost and effectiveness (i.e., success rate) of 3 types of MD integrated drug development strategies: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, and positron emission tomography. Then, we analyzed the cost-effectiveness of 9 hypothetical scenarios where 100 drug candidates entering into a non-clinical toxicity study were selected by different methods as the conventional scenario without MD. In the base-case, where 70 drug candidates were selected without MD and 30 selected evenly by one of the three MD methods, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per one additional drug approved was JPY 12.7 billion (US$ 0.159 billion), whereas the average cost-effectiveness ratio of the conventional strategy was JPY 24.4 billion, which we set as a threshold. Integrating MD in the conventional drug development was cost-effective in this model. This quantitative analytical model which allows various modifications according to each company's conditions, would be helpful for guiding decisions early in clinical development.

  12. A Practical Methodology for Disaggregating the Drivers of Drug Costs Using Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Lungu, Elena R; Manti, Orlando J; Levine, Mitchell A H; Clark, Douglas A; Potashnik, Tanya M; McKinley, Carol I

    2017-09-01

    Prescription drug expenditures represent a significant component of health care costs in Canada, with estimates of $28.8 billion spent in 2014. Identifying the major cost drivers and the effect they have on prescription drug expenditures allows policy makers and researchers to interpret current cost pressures and anticipate future expenditure levels. To identify the major drivers of prescription drug costs and to develop a methodology to disaggregate the impact of each of the individual drivers. The methodology proposed in this study uses the Laspeyres approach for cost decomposition. This approach isolates the effect of the change in a specific factor (e.g., price) by holding the other factor(s) (e.g., quantity) constant at the base-period value. The Laspeyres approach is expanded to a multi-factorial framework to isolate and quantify several factors that drive prescription drug cost. Three broad categories of effects are considered: volume, price and drug-mix effects. For each category, important sub-effects are quantified. This study presents a new and comprehensive methodology for decomposing the change in prescription drug costs over time including step-by-step demonstrations of how the formulas were derived. This methodology has practical applications for health policy decision makers and can aid researchers in conducting cost driver analyses. The methodology can be adjusted depending on the purpose and analytical depth of the research and data availability.

  13. [Threshold value for reimbursement of costs of new drugs: cost-effectiveness research and modelling are essential links].

    PubMed

    Frederix, Geert W J; Hövels, Anke M; Severens, Johan L; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Schellens, Jan H M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing discussion in the Netherlands about the introduction of a threshold value for the costs per extra year of life when reimbursing costs of new drugs. The Medicines Committee ('Commissie Geneesmiddelen'), a division of the Netherlands National Healthcare Institute ('Zorginstituut Nederland'), advises on reimbursement of costs of new drugs. This advice is based upon the determination of therapeutic value of the drug and the results of economic evaluations. Mathematical models that predict future costs and effectiveness are often used in economic evaluations; these models can vary greatly in transparency and quality due to author assumptions. Standardisation of cost-effectiveness models is one solution to overcome the unwanted variation in quality. Discussions about the introduction of a threshold value can only be meaningful if all involved are adequately informed, and by high quality in cost-effectiveness research and, particularly, economic evaluations. Collaboration and discussion between medical specialists, patients or patient organisations, health economists and policy makers, both in development of methods and in standardisation, are essential to improve the quality of decision making.

  14. Managing the Rising Costs and High Drug Expenditures in Critical Care Pharmacy Practice.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Alexander H; Pandya, Komal; Laine, Melanie E; Almeter, Philip J; Flynn, Jeremy D

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical costs for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) constitute a large portion of hospital drug budgets. Unfortunately, prices for medications commonly used in the ICU are on the rise for a variety of reasons. In particular, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Unapproved Drugs Initiative, generic manufacturers cornering the marketplace, drug shortages, and regulatory device changes are major drivers of pharmaceutical price escalation affecting costs in the ICU. Furthermore, traditional high acquisition cost items still pose challenges to controlling costs. To offer strategies to mitigate the rising costs of pharmaceuticals in the ICU setting, we searched the PubMed/Medline and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases and other related sources to identify published cost-saving protocols concerning specific medications that are affected by rising prices or have traditional high acquisition costs. In the absence of specific protocols, we offer possible cost-saving initiatives based on published literature regarding specific agents or based on our own diverse set of experiences. Finally, we review suggested clinical and operational activities at an institutional level to address these rising drug costs in the ICU setting. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. Estimating the cost of new drug development: is it really 802 million dollars?

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher P; Brantner, Van V

    2006-01-01

    This paper replicates the drug development cost estimates of Joseph DiMasi and colleagues ("The Price of Innovation"), using their published cost estimates along with information on success rates and durations from a publicly available data set. For drugs entering human clinical trials for the first time between 1989 and 2002, the paper estimated the cost per new drug to be 868 million dollars. However, our estimates vary from around 500 million dollars to more than 2,000 million dollars, depending on the therapy or the developing firm.

  16. Breaking the Bank: Three Financing Models for Addressing the Drug Innovation Cost Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kleinke, J.D.; McGee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background The introduction of innovative specialty pharmaceuticals with high prices has renewed efforts by public and private healthcare payers to constrain their utilization, increase patient cost-sharing, and compel government intervention on pricing. These efforts, although rational for individual payers, have the potential to undermine the public health impact and overall economic value of these innovations for society. The emerging archetypal example is the outcry over the cost of sofosbuvir, a drug proved to cure hepatitis C infection at a cost of $84,000 per person for a course of treatment (or $1000 per tablet). This represents a radical medical breakthrough for public health, with great promise for the long-term costs associated with this disease, but with major short-term cost implications for the budgets of healthcare payers. Objectives To propose potential financing models to provide a workable and lasting solution that directly addresses the misalignment of incentives between healthcare payers confronted with the high upfront costs of innovative specialty drugs and the rest of the US healthcare system, and to articulate these in the context of the historic struggle over paying for innovation. Discussion We describe 3 innovative financing models to manage expensive specialty drugs that will significantly reduce the direct, immediate cost burden of these drugs to public and private healthcare payers. The 3 financing models include high-cost drug mortgages, high-cost drugs reinsurance, and high-cost drug patient rebates. These models have been proved successful in other areas and should be adopted into healthcare to mitigate the high-cost of specialty drugs. We discuss the distribution of this burden over time and across the healthcare system, and we match the financial burden of medical innovations to the healthcare stakeholders who capture their overall value. All 3 models work within or replicate the current healthcare marketplace mechanisms for

  17. The cost of multiple sclerosis drugs in the US and the pharmaceutical industry

    PubMed Central

    Bourdette, Dennis N.; Ahmed, Sharia M.; Whitham, Ruth H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the pricing trajectories in the United States of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS) over the last 20 years and assess the influences on rising prices. Methods: We estimated the trend in annual drug costs for 9 DMTs using published drug pricing data from 1993 to 2013. We compared changes in DMT costs to general and prescription drug inflation during the same period. We also compared the cost trajectories for first-generation MS DMTs interferon (IFN)–β-1b, IFN-β-1a IM, and glatiramer acetate with contemporaneously approved biologic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. Results: First-generation DMTs, originally costing $8,000 to $11,000, now cost about $60,000 per year. Costs for these agents have increased annually at rates 5 to 7 times higher than prescription drug inflation. Newer DMTs commonly entered the market with a cost 25%–60% higher than existing DMTs. Significant increases in the cost trajectory of the first-generation DMTs occurred following the Food and Drug Administration approvals of IFN-β-1a SC (2002) and natalizumab (reintroduced 2006) and remained high following introduction of fingolimod (2010). Similar changes did not occur with TNF inhibitor biologics during these time intervals. DMT costs in the United States currently are 2 to 3 times higher than in other comparable countries. Conclusions: MS DMT costs have accelerated at rates well beyond inflation and substantially above rates observed for drugs in a similar biologic class. There is an urgent need for clinicians, payers, and manufacturers in the United States to confront the soaring costs of DMTs. PMID:25911108

  18. Hospital costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition.

    PubMed

    Morales, Eva; Cots, Francesc; Sala, Maria; Comas, Mercè; Belvis, Francesc; Riu, Marta; Salvadó, Margarita; Grau, Santiago; Horcajada, Juan P; Montero, Maria Milagro; Castells, Xavier

    2012-05-23

    We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain). All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros). In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively). P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact.

  19. Hospital costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. Methods A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain). All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Results Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros). In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively). Conclusions P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact. PMID:22621745

  20. Cost evaluation of therapeutic drug monitoring of gentamicin at a teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Abdelrahim, Hisham Elhag Ahmed; Ab Rahman, Ab Fatah

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) makes use of serum drug concentrations as an adjunct to decision-making. Preliminary data in our hospital showed that approximately one-fifth of all drugs monitored by TDM service were gentamicin. In this study, we evaluated the costs associated with providing the service in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin. We retrospectively collected data from medical records of patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 5-year period. These patients were diagnosed with bronchopneumonia and were on gentamicin as part of their treatment. Five hospitalisation costs were calculated; (i) cost of laboratory and clinical investigations, (ii) cost associated with each gentamicin dose, (iii) fixed and operating costs of TDM service, (iv) cost of providing medical care, and (v) cost of hospital stay during gentamicin treatment. There were 1920 patients admitted with bronchopneumonia of which 67 (3.5%) had TDM service for gentamicin. Seventy-three percent (49/67) patients were eligible for final analysis. The duration of gentamicin therapy ranged from 3 to 15 days. The cost of providing one gentamicin assay was MYR25, and the average cost of TDM service for each patient was MYR104. The average total hospitalisation cost during gentamicin treatment for each patient was MYR442 (1EUR approx. MYR4.02). Based on the hospital perspective, in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin, the provision of TDM service contributes to less than 25% of the total cost of hospitalization.

  1. The High Cost of Prescription Drugs in the United States: Origins and Prospects for Reform.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Avorn, Jerry; Sarpatwari, Ameet

    The increasing cost of prescription drugs in the United States has become a source of concern for patients, prescribers, payers, and policy makers. To review the origins and effects of high drug prices in the US market and to consider policy options that could contain the cost of prescription drugs. We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature from January 2005 to July 2016 for articles addressing the sources of drug prices in the United States, the justifications and consequences of high prices, and possible solutions. Per capita prescription drug spending in the United States exceeds that in all other countries, largely driven by brand-name drug prices that have been increasing in recent years at rates far beyond the consumer price index. In 2013, per capita spending on prescription drugs was $858 compared with an average of $400 for 19 other industrialized nations. In the United States, prescription medications now comprise an estimated 17% of overall personal health care services. The most important factor that allows manufacturers to set high drug prices is market exclusivity, protected by monopoly rights awarded upon Food and Drug Administration approval and by patents. The availability of generic drugs after this exclusivity period is the main means of reducing prices in the United States, but access to them may be delayed by numerous business and legal strategies. The primary counterweight against excessive pricing during market exclusivity is the negotiating power of the payer, which is currently constrained by several factors, including the requirement that most government drug payment plans cover nearly all products. Another key contributor to drug spending is physician prescribing choices when comparable alternatives are available at different costs. Although prices are often justified by the high cost of drug development, there is no evidence of an association between research and development costs and prices; rather, prescription

  2. Regulatory Solutions to the Problem of High Generic Drug Costs

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted dramatic price increases for several older generic drugs, including a number of essential products used to treat deadly infectious diseases. Although most of these medicines have been widely available at reasonable prices for decades, some manufacturers have seized on unique features of the pharmaceutical marketplace to seek substantial profits. In this Perspective, we examine limitations in current price regulation among public and private payors and consider several reforms that could address the problem of expensive generic drugs through improved competition. PMID:26693494

  3. What is the Cost of Diagnosis and Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Pooran, Anil; Pieterson, Elize; Davids, Malika; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is undermining TB control in South Africa. However, there are hardly any data about the cost of treating DR-TB in high burden settings despite such information being quintessential for the rational planning and allocation of resources by policy-makers, and to inform future cost-effectiveness analyses. Methodology We analysed the comparative 2011 United States dollar ($) cost of diagnosis and treatment of drug sensitive TB (DS-TB), MDR-TB and XDR-TB, based on National South African TB guidelines, from the perspective of the National TB Program using published clinical outcome data. Principal Findings Assuming adherence to national DR-TB management guidelines, the per patient cost of XDR-TB was $26,392, four times greater than MDR-TB ($6772), and 103 times greater than drug-sensitive TB ($257). Despite DR-TB comprising only 2.2% of the case burden, it consumed ∼32% of the total estimated 2011 national TB budget of US $218 million. 45% and 25% of the DR-TB costs were attributed to anti-TB drugs and hospitalization, respectively. XDR-TB consumed 28% of the total DR-TB diagnosis and treatment costs. Laboratory testing and anti-TB drugs comprised the majority (71%) of MDR-TB costs while hospitalization and anti-TB drug costs comprised the majority (92%) of XDR-TB costs. A decentralized XDR-TB treatment programme could potentially reduce costs by $6930 (26%) per case and reduce the total amount spent on DR-TB by ∼7%. Conclusion/Significance Although DR-TB forms a very small proportion of the total case burden it consumes a disproportionate and substantial amount of South Africa’s total annual TB budget. These data inform rational resource allocation and selection of management strategies for DR-TB in high burden settings. PMID:23349933

  4. [Evolution of reimbursement of high-cost anticancer drugs: Financial impact within a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Amandine; Fargier, Emilie; Cerruti, Ariane; Dubromel, Amélie; Vantard, Nicolas; Ranchon, Florence; Schwiertz, Vérane; Salles, Gilles; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Thomas, Luc; Bérard, Frédéric; Nancey, Stéphane; Freyer, Gilles; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Rioufol, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    In the context of health expenses control, reimbursement of high-cost medicines with a 'minor' or 'nonexistent' improvement in actual health benefit evaluated by the Haute Autorité de santé is revised by the decree of March 24, 2016 related to the procedure and terms of registration of high-cost pharmaceutical drugs. This study aims to set up the economic impact of this measure. A six months retrospective study was conducted within a French university hospital from July 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. For each injectable high-cost anticancer drug prescribed to a patient with cancer, the therapeutic indication, its status in relation to the marketing authorization and the associated improvement in actual health benefit were examined. The total costs of these treatments, the cost per type of indication and, in the case of marketing authorization indications, the cost per improvement in actual health benefit were evaluated considering that all drugs affected by the decree would be struck off. Over six months, 4416 high-cost injectable anticancer drugs were prescribed for a total cost of 4.2 million euros. The costs of drugs with a minor or nonexistent improvement in actual benefit and which comparator is not onerous amount 557,564 euros. The reform of modalities of inscription on the list of onerous drugs represents a significant additional cost for health institutions (1.1 million euros for our hospital) and raises the question of the accessibility to these treatments for cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Economic Loss of Remaining Contents in Molecular Target Drug Preparation and the Simulation for Cost Saving].

    PubMed

    Usami, Eiseki; Kimura, Michio; Fukuoka, Tomohiro; Okada, Kazutomo; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-01

    While preparing an anticancer drug, even if it is an expensive molecular target drug, the remainder is not divided and saved for use in other patients; instead, it is discarded, resulting in waste of medical resources. In this study, we examined the economic loss in terms of medical costs by calculating the discarded amounts of 12 commonly used molecular target drugs at Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Japan between January 2012 and December 2014. We found, on average, that drugs valued at ¥ 52,593,182 were discarded annually. In particular, the discarded amounts of relatively expensive drugs, such as bevacizumab, bortezomib, and rituximab, were valued at ¥ 16,646,300, ¥ 15,866,289, and ¥ 8,401,324, respectively. Among these, the average amount of waste per administration of bortezomib was particularly expensive, at a cost of ¥ 67,325. Bortezomib is a commonly used treatment, resulting in excessive cumulative discarded cost. In an effort to save cost, we should consider using small capacity standard injections. Development of a simulation that used the remaining drug contents from only 1 day showed that bevacizumab alone accounts for an average cost saving of ¥1 2,542,191(75.3%) per year. This study suggests that effectively utilizing the remaining drug contents would ensure efficient use of medical resources, thereby reducing economic losses.

  6. Money Matters: Cost-Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…

  7. 77 FR 19425 - Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... AFFAIRS Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar... purposes of calculating VA's charges for prescription drugs that were not administered during treatment but... administered during treatment for: (1) A nonservice-connected disability for which the veteran is entitled...

  8. NCAA Sets Drug-Test Procedures and Selects Labs; Program Seen Costing More than Colleges Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association's plan for randomly testing athletes at championships for performance-enhancing and illegal drugs will cost about $950,000, more than anticipated, and will be accompanied by a drug education program and loans to laboratories to speed the testing. (MSE)

  9. Money Matters: Cost-Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…

  10. NCAA Sets Drug-Test Procedures and Selects Labs; Program Seen Costing More than Colleges Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association's plan for randomly testing athletes at championships for performance-enhancing and illegal drugs will cost about $950,000, more than anticipated, and will be accompanied by a drug education program and loans to laboratories to speed the testing. (MSE)

  11. A Drug Safety Rating System Based on Postmarketing Costs Associated with Adverse Events and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Keith B; Dimbil, Mo; Kyle, Robert F; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Erdman, Colin B; Demakas, Andrea; Chen, Dingguo; Overstreet, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    Given the multiple limitations associated with relatively homogeneous preapproval clinical trials, inadequate data disclosures, slow reaction times from regulatory bodies, and deep-rooted bias against disclosing and publishing negative results, there is an acute need for the development of analytics that reflect drug safety in heterogeneous, real-world populations. To develop a drug safety statistic that estimates downstream medical costs associated with serious adverse events (AEs) and unfavorable patient outcomes associated with the use of 706 FDA-approved drugs. All primary suspect case reports for each drug were collected from the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System database (FAERS) from 2010-2014. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) was used to code serious AEs and outcomes, which were tallied for each case report. Medical costs associated with AEs and poor patient outcomes were derived from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) survey data, and their corresponding ICD-9-CM codes were mapped to MedDRA terms. Nonserious AEs and outcomes were not included. For each case report, either the highest AE cost or, if no eligible AE was listed, the highest outcome cost was used. All costed cases were aggregated for each drug and divided by the number of patients exposed to obtain a downstream estimated direct medical cost burden per exposure. Each drug was assigned a corresponding 1-100 point total. The 706 drugs showed an exponential distribution of downstream costs, and the data were transformed using the natural log to approximate a normal distribution. The minimum score was 8.29, and the maximum score was 99.25, with a mean of 44.32. Drugs with the highest individual scores tended to be kinase inhibitors, thalidomide analogs, and endothelin receptor antagonists. When scores were analyzed across Established Pharmacologic Class (EPC), the kinase inhibitor and endothelin receptor antagonist classes had the highest total. However

  12. Functional Limitations, Medication Support, and Responses to Drug Costs among Medicare Beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Christopher; Reed, Mary; Hsu, John; Fung, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Standard Medicare Part D prescription drug benefits include substantial and complex cost-sharing. Many beneficiaries also have functional limitations that could affect self-care capabilities, including managing medications, but also have varying levels of social support to help with these activities. We examined the associations between drug cost responses, functional limitations, and social support. We conducted telephone interviews in a stratified random sample of community-dwelling Medicare Advantage beneficiaries (N = 1,201, response rate = 70.0%). Participants reported their functional status (i.e., difficulty with activities of daily living) and social support (i.e., receiving help with medications). Drug cost responses included cost-reducing behaviors, cost-related non-adherence, and financial stress. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess associations among functional status, help with medications, and drug cost responses, adjusting for patient characteristics. Respondents with multiple limitations who did not receive help with their medications were more likely to report cost-related non-adherence (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.5) and financial stress (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.5) compared to subjects with fewer limitations and no help; however, those with multiple limitations and with medication help had similar odds of unfavorable cost responses as those with fewer limitations. The majority of beneficiaries with functional limitations did not receive help with medications. Support with medication management for beneficiaries who have functional limitations could improve adherence and outcomes.

  13. The Economic and Social Costs of Drug Abuse among the Rural Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    This paper presents a framework for assessing the economic and social costs of drug abuse in rural areas. The first section considers definitions for three key sets of concepts: (1) what is rural, the great diversity within rural contexts, and how to distinguish rural from urban; (2) the nature of social costs, as they affect communities as well…

  14. Operational and Clinical Strategies to Address Drug Cost Containment in the Acute Care Setting.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Karen J; Guzman, Oscar E; Pherwani, Nisha; Spencer, Dustin D; Van Cura, Jennifer D; Shea, Katherine M

    2017-01-01

    To provide clinical and operational strategies to generate drug cost savings in the hospital setting. A search of the PubMed database was performed with no time limit through July 2016. All original prospective and retrospective studies, peer-reviewed guidelines, consensus statements, review articles, and accompanying references were evaluated for inclusion. Only articles published in the English language were included. Investigators reviewed 937 abstracts. The review of the literature showed that acute care hospitals are under increasing financial pressures, and the pharmacy is often responsible for opportunities to manage drug costs. The literature also indicated that cost-containment strategies in the acute care setting range from pharmacy-directed activities to initiatives requiring interdisciplinary collaboration and strategic planning. Hospital pharmacies should consider establishing an interdisciplinary team that is responsible for systematically reviewing drug cost implications and leading any initiatives that are deemed necessary. Acute care settings can use various operational and clinical strategies to lower their expenditures on high-cost drugs. Operational strategies include various activities that pharmacy staff implement related to contracting, purchasing, and inventory management. Clinical strategies utilize clinical pharmacists working with interdisciplinary teams to develop and maintain a formulary, implement established-use criteria for select drugs, use dose optimization, and implement other clinical tactics aimed at cost containment. After initiatives are implemented, assessing the outcomes of the initiatives is important to determine how successful they were at lowering costs safely and effectively. Acute care hospitals can use various operational and clinical strategies to lower overall drug costs. A systematic stepwise approach is recommended to ensure relevant drugs are regularly reviewed and addressed as needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy

  15. Coverage for high-cost specialty drugs for rheumatoid arthritis in Medicare Part D.

    PubMed

    Yazdany, Jinoos; Dudley, R Adams; Chen, Randi; Lin, Grace A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2015-06-01

    More than 1 in 4 Medicare beneficiaries with rheumatoid arthritis use high-cost biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and spending for these drugs has risen sharply for Medicare Part D. Our aim was to conduct the first systematic, national investigation of how Part D plans cover biologic DMARDs and to determine patients' financial burden under current cost-sharing structures. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of Part D plan formularies (n = 2,737) in 50 states and Washington, DC using the January 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Prescription Drug Plan Formulary and Pharmacy Network Files. We calculated the percentage of plans covering each DMARD as well as the percentage requiring prior authorization and/or coinsurance. We also compared biologic drug coverage in Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans to that in Medicare Part D stand-alone plans. All plans covered at least 1 biologic DMARD, but the vast majority required prior authorizations (95%). Nearly all plans (81-100%) required patients to pay a coinsurance percentage (averaging 29.6% of drug costs) rather than a fixed dollar copayment. This translated into mean out-of-pocket costs of $2,712-$2,774 before reaching the catastrophic phase of coverage, during which beneficiaries pay 5% of drug costs. Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans covered more individual biologic DMARDs (55-100%) than did Medicare Part D stand-alone plans (22-100%), but Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans required higher average coinsurance (31.1% versus 29.0%). In contrast, 6 of 9 nonbiologic DMARDs were covered by nearly all plans without prior authorizations at fixed copayments averaging $5-$10/month. Nationally, nearly all Part D plans cover at least 1 biologic DMARD, but the vast majority require cost sharing sufficiently high to risk significant financial burden to patients. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Cost of school-based drug treatment in Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    It has been argued that targeting delivery of anthelmintics to school-children by taking advantage of the existing education infrastructure and administrative system can be one of the most cost-effective approaches in minimizing the intensity of infections with both schistosomiasis and major intestinal nematodes in many developing countries. The study was conducted in January 1997, shortly after the completion of the drug intervention programme. This paper provides an analysis of the costs of providing age-targeted treatment of school-children for urinary schistosomiasis using praziquantel and for intestinal nematodes using albendazole as an integral part of the School Health Programme in Tanga Region, Tanzania. The analysis shows that the total financial cost of the intervention programme in 1996 prices was US$54 252.28 (exchange rate: TSH 573 = US$1). Of this amount, the cost of drugs constitutes 80.6%, while the delivery cost appears relatively low, representing just below 20%. Even when the opportunity cost of unpaid days of labour input is included, the cost of drugs still remains the highest cost component of the intervention (55.8%). In the current epidemiological and logistic setting of Tanzania, the financial cost per child treated using praziquantel, which involved prior screening at the school level, was US$0.79, while treatment using albendazole was as low as US$0.23, of which US$0.20 was drug purchase cost. It is concluded that the base cost of delivering a universal, standard, school-based health intervention such as albendazole can be as low as US$0.03 per child tested, but even a very slight increase in the complexity of delivery can have a very significant impact on the cost of intervention.

  17. Drug prescribing in rural health facilities in China: implications for service quality and cost.

    PubMed

    Zhan, S K; Tang, S L; Guo, Y D; Bloom, G

    1998-01-01

    Overuse of drugs in rural areas of China has led to a growing concern regarding service quality and cost. The study found evidence of high levels of drug use in some rural health facilities in comparison with a number of other developing countries. Such a result was significantly associated with the government policy of financing health care, regulation and monitoring of health services, and users' attitudes and behaviour. It underlines the need for measures to be taken in China to improve drug use in order to allow its population access to effective care at reasonable cost.

  18. Postmarket Drug Surveillance Without Trial Costs: Discovery of Adverse Drug Reactions Through Large-Scale Analysis of Web Search Queries

    PubMed Central

    Gabrilovich, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    Background Postmarket drug safety surveillance largely depends on spontaneous reports by patients and health care providers; hence, less common adverse drug reactions—especially those caused by long-term exposure, multidrug treatments, or those specific to special populations—often elude discovery. Objective Here we propose a low cost, fully automated method for continuous monitoring of adverse drug reactions in single drugs and in combinations thereof, and demonstrate the discovery of heretofore-unknown ones. Methods We used aggregated search data of large populations of Internet users to extract information related to drugs and adverse reactions to them, and correlated these data over time. We further extended our method to identify adverse reactions to combinations of drugs. Results We validated our method by showing high correlations of our findings with known adverse drug reactions (ADRs). However, although acute early-onset drug reactions are more likely to be reported to regulatory agencies, we show that less acute later-onset ones are better captured in Web search queries. Conclusions Our method is advantageous in identifying previously unknown adverse drug reactions. These ADRs should be considered as candidates for further scrutiny by medical regulatory authorities, for example, through phase 4 trials. PMID:23778053

  19. Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Crespo, Àngels; Llibre, Josep M; Cardona-Peitx, Glòria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals) - with a cost of 47,139.91 € - would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar), should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets.

  20. Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging

    PubMed Central

    Andreu-Crespo, Àngels; Llibre, Josep M; Cardona-Peitx, Glòria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals) – with a cost of 47,139.91€ – would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar), should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets. PMID:26273190

  1. Cost-effectiveness of scaling up mass drug administration for the control of soil-transmitted helminths: a comparison of cost function and constant costs analyses.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hugo C; Truscott, James E; Fleming, Fiona M; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Brooker, Simon J; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-07-01

    The coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) for neglected tropical diseases, such as the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), needs to rapidly expand to meet WHO's 2020 targets. We aimed to compare use of a cost function to take into account economies of scale to the standard method of assuming a constant cost per treatment when investigating the cost and cost-effectiveness of scaling up a STH MDA programme targeting Ascaris lumbricoides. We fitted a cost function describing how the costs of MDA change with scale to empirical cost data and incorporated it into a STH transmission model. Using this cost function, we investigated the consequences of taking into account economies of scale on the projected cost-effectiveness of STH control, by comparison with the standard method of assuming a constant cost per treatment. The cost function was fitted to economic cost data collected as part of a school-based deworming programme in Uganda using maximum likelihood methods. We used the model to investigate the total reduction in the overall worm burden, the total number of prevalent infection case-years averted, and the total number of heavy infection case-years averted. For each year, we calculated the effectiveness as the difference between the worm burden or number of cases and the number in absence of treatment. When using the cost function, the cost-effectiveness of STH control markedly increased as the programme was scaled up. By contrast, the standard method (constant cost per treatment) undervalued this and generated misleading conclusions. For example, when scaling up control in the projected district from 10% to 75% coverage of at-risk school-age children, the cost-effectiveness in terms of prevention of heavy burden infections was projected to increase by over 70% when using the cost function, but decrease by 18% when assuming a constant cost per treatment. The current exclusion of economies of scale in most economic analyses must be addressed if the most cost

  2. Pharmacy students teaching prescribers strategies to lower prescription drug costs for underserved patients.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Marilyn R; Frear, Meghan E; Cutler, Timothy W; Lightwood, James M; Fingado, Amanda R; Lai, Cindy J; Lipton, Helene Levens

    2013-09-01

    The rising costs of health care and, in particular, prescription drugs remains a challenge. Health professionals' ability to promote cost-effective prescription drug use is critical, yet this subject is not included consistently in the curriculum of most health professional schools. As experts in prescription drug selection, use, and cost, pharmacists are in a unique position to help manage prescription drug regimens for the best therapeutic outcome, while also helping to keep patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) prescription drug costs low. In addition to promoting interprofessional collaboration, pharmacy student-led lectures may provide an effective means to teach prescription drug cost-savings strategies to other health professional students and current prescribers. To describe and evaluate the impact of a 60- to 90-minute standardized, case-based lecture on prescribers' attitudes and knowledge about drug cost-containment strategies. Four trained pharmacy students delivered a lecture that focused on strategies to help underserved patients with their OOP prescription drug costs. This lecture was given to health professional students and prescribers across disciplines. For purposes of this study, underserved patients included those with no drug insurance, those with limited financial resources who were unable to pay for their prescription drugs, and those whose drug insurance had significant gaps in coverage (e.g., Medicare Part D patients). Lectures targeted future and current prescribers and were delivered in multiple settings (e.g., residents' seminars, medical grand rounds, required health policy courses for medical and nursing students). Pretest/posttest surveys were administered to assess the impact of the lecture on learners' (a) knowledge of strategies to improve underserved patients' access to needed prescription drugs; (b) willingness to address and discuss cost issues with patients; (c) likelihood of collaborating with other health care professionals; and (d

  3. Supply and demand: negotiating the prescription drug labyrinth to reduce costs.

    PubMed

    DeStefino, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Prescription drug costs are increasing at a rate of 15% to 17% a year and a look into the future does not bring much better news. Employers can expect to see more numbers like these as doctors more aggressively treat diseases using drug therapy, the population continues to age and pharmaceutical companies continue to spend billions of dollars on direct-to-consumer advertising aimed at consumers who are desensitized to the true costs of their prescriptions. In this environment, it is unlikely that companies can realistically expect to reverse costs of even to avoid cost increases. However, this article provides employers with a prudent approach to managing both the supply and demand sides of the prescription drug equation in order to reduce their level of increase. Supply-side management focuses on negotiations with vendors, while the demand side focuses on managing employee utilization.

  4. Multisite cost analysis of a school-based voluntary alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-09-01

    This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100-$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14-$28). Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites.

  5. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  6. Patented drug extension strategies on healthcare spending: a cost-evaluation analysis.

    PubMed

    Vernaz, Nathalie; Haller, Guy; Girardin, François; Huttner, Benedikt; Combescure, Christophe; Dayer, Pierre; Muscionico, Daniel; Salomon, Jean-Luc; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Drug manufacturers have developed "evergreening" strategies to compete with generic medication after patent termination. These include marketing of slightly modified follow-on drugs. We aimed to estimate the financial impact of these drugs on overall healthcare costs and also to examine the impact of listing these drugs in hospital restrictive drug formularies (RDFs) on the healthcare system as a whole ("spillover effect"). We used hospital and community pharmacy invoice office data in the Swiss canton of Geneva to calculate utilisation of eight follow-on drugs in defined daily doses between 2000 and 2008. "Extra costs" were calculated for three different scenarios assuming replacement with the corresponding generic equivalent for prescriptions of (1) all brand (i.e., initially patented) drugs, (2) all follow-on drugs, or (3) brand and follow-on drugs. To examine the financial spillover effect we calculated a monthly follow-on drug market share in defined daily doses for medications prescribed by hospital physicians but dispensed in community pharmacies, in comparison to drugs prescribed by non-hospital physicians in the community. Estimated "extra costs" over the study period were €15.9 (95% CI 15.5; 16.2) million for scenario 1, €14.4 (95% CI 14.1; 14.7) million for scenario 2, and €30.3 (95% CI 29.8; 30.8) million for scenario 3. The impact of strictly switching all patients using proton-pump inhibitors to esomeprazole at admission resulted in a spillover "extra cost" of €330,300 (95% CI 276,100; 383,800), whereas strictly switching to generic cetirizine resulted in savings of €7,700 (95% CI 4,100; 11,100). Overall we estimated that the RDF resulted in "extra costs" of €503,600 (95% CI 444,500; 563,100). Evergreening strategies have been successful in maintaining market share in Geneva, offsetting competition by generics and cost containment policies. Hospitals may be contributing to increased overall healthcare costs by listing follow-on drugs in

  7. It is not only the empty vials that go into the garbage can during chemotherapy drugs preparation: a cost analysis of unused chemotherapy drugs in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ata, A; Abali, H; Yengel, E; Arican, A

    2012-01-01

    Cancer therapy is a costly treatment. Costs of drugs used in cancer therapy are gradually increasing with the addition of new and expensive drugs. This fact imposes obligation on reasonable drug usage. Occasionally, all of the prescribed drugs are not used for various reasons, and a number of drugs can be left over. In this study, we aimed to calculate the costs of unused chemotherapeutic drugs in our oncology clinics. A total of 117 patients with 17 different types of cancer were administered 32 cancer therapy protocols during 2 months. After administration of ideal doses of the prescribed drugs calculated on an individual basis, the number of unused drug doses in the packages was recorded and the costs of the unused drugs were calculated based on current prices of the drugs. The cumulative cost of the unused drugs calculated for all patients was US dollars (USD) 6406.93, and average cost of the drug per capita was USD 54.76. Minimal and maximal unused drug costs per drug were USD 0.29 for 5-fluorouracil, and USD 247.12 for bevacizumab, respectively. Minimal increase in drug costs per recipe was USD 0.50 for a prescription containing cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil, while the total cost of bevacizumab plus irinotecan combination increased tremendously to USD 309.12. Among chemotherapeutic protocols the cheapest one was AC (adriamycin, cyclophosphamide) with USD 4.77, while the most expensive one (USD 116.02) was FOLFIRI-B (5-fluorouracil, calcium folinate, irinotecan, and bevacizumab). The important financial burden of unused drugs goes unrecognized among routine chemotherapeutic applications. In order to be able to avoid this extravagance, drug industry, prescribing physicians, and practice nurses must assume important roles.

  8. [Direct costs and hospital morbimortality impact from preventable adverse drug events].

    PubMed

    Pinzón, José Fernando; Maldonado, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge A; Segura, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Implementing pharmacovigilance activities consists of monitoring and assessment of activities related to medical attention. However, additional data are necessary to identify conditions where care quality can be improved. Therefore, a focus on adverse drug events analysis from a prevention and economic perspective is needed, with emphasis on its local impact. Preventable adverse drug events were summarized to establishing their impact on morbidity and mortality, as well as to estimate the ensuing economic burden. The data were gathered from a level 3 hospital (high complexity), located in Bogotá, Colombia, where specific pharmacovigilance activities were recorded in 2007. Patient charts were reviewed to characterize adverse drug events according to their causality, severity and preventability. Direct costs were estimated by grouping diagnostic tests, length of hospitalization, procedures and additional drugs required. The charts of 283 patients and 448 reports were analyzed. These data indicated that 24.8% of adverse drug events were preventable and that an associated mortality of 1.1% had occurred. The associated direct costs were between USD $16,687 and $18,739. Factors more commonly associated with preventability were drug-drug interactions, as well as inappropriate doses and unsuitable frequencies at which the drugs were administrated. The data recommended that actions be taken to decrease preventable adverse drug events, because of negative impact on patient´s health, and unnecessary consumption of healthcare resources.

  9. The impact of diabetes on prescription drug costs: the population-based Turin study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, G; Karaghiosoff, L; Merletti, F; Costa, G; De Maria, M; Panero, F; Segre, O; Cavallo-Perin, P; Gnavi, R

    2008-05-01

    The aim of our study was to compare prescription drug costs in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in a large population-based Italian cohort covered by the National Health System. We identified diabetic residents in Turin on 31 July 2003 through multiple independent data sources (diabetes registry, hospital discharges and prescriptions data sources). All prescriptions registered in the 12 month period 1 August 2003 to 31 July 2004 were examined to compare prevalence of treatment and costs in diabetic (n = 33,797) and non-diabetic individuals (n = 863,876). A log-linear model was employed to estimate age- and sex-adjusted ratios of costs. Costs per person per year were 830.90euros in diabetic patients and 182.80euros in non-diabetic individuals (age- and sex-adjusted rate ratio 2.8, 95% CI 2.7-2.9). Diabetes treatment accounted for 18.5% of the total cost. Compared with non-diabetic individuals, the excess of expenditure was particularly high in diabetic patients aged <45 years (rate ratio 9.3), in those with type 1 diabetes (rate ratio 7.7) and in insulin users (rate ratio 4.8). The cost of diet-treated patients was similar to those treated with oral drugs. Diabetes was associated with an increased prevalence of treatment for most drug categories; one-third of the diabetic cohort received ACE inhibitors, anti-thrombotic drugs and statins. This population-based study shows that diabetes has a great impact on prescription drug costs, independently of main confounders, particularly in insulin-treated patients, suggesting that a wide range of comorbidities affect their health. Costs are expected to further increase if the transferability of knowledge provided by evidence-based guidelines on diabetic patients is completed over the coming years.

  10. Cost evaluation of therapeutic drug monitoring of gentamicin at a teaching hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Abdelrahim, Hisham Elhag Ahmed; Ab Rahman, Ab Fatah

    Background Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) makes use of serum drug concentrations as an adjunct to decision-making. Preliminary data in our hospital showed that approximately one-fifth of all drugs monitored by TDM service were gentamicin. Objective In this study, we evaluated the costs associated with providing the service in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin. Methods We retrospectively collected data from medical records of patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 5-year period. These patients were diagnosed with bronchopneumonia and were on gentamicin as part of their treatment. Five hospitalisation costs were calculated; (i) cost of laboratory and clinical investigations, (ii) cost associated with each gentamicin dose, (iii) fixed and operating costs of TDM service, (iv) cost of providing medical care, and (v) cost of hospital stay during gentamicin treatment. Results There were 1920 patients admitted with bronchopneumonia of which 67 (3.5%) had TDM service for gentamicin. Seventy-three percent (49/67) patients were eligible for final analysis. The duration of gentamicin therapy ranged from 3 to 15 days. The cost of providing one gentamicin assay was MYR25, and the average cost of TDM service for each patient was MYR104. The average total hospitalisation cost during gentamicin treatment for each patient was MYR442 (1EUR approx. MYR4.02). Conclusions Based on the hospital perspective, in patients with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin, the provision of TDM service contributes to less than 25% of the total cost of hospitalization. PMID:24644520

  11. Therapeutic drug monitoring of gentamicin in patients with bronchopneumonia: cost considerations and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Abdelrahim, Hisham Elhag; Ab Rahman, Ab Fatah; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamad Izham

    2012-04-01

    In Malaysia, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service started in the late 1980s. Serum concentration measurements depend on commercially available drug assays, which are costly. In the present study, we attempted to document the impact of TDM service on cost and patient outcomes. We reviewed the medical records of the patients who were admitted to the hospital over a five-year period, diagnosed with bronchopneumonia and treated with gentamicin. Outcome measures were duration of fever, incidence of nephrotoxicity and length of hospital stay. We calculated the costs of laboratory and clinical investigations, the costs associated with the administration of gentamicin doses, the cost of providing TDM services, the costs associated with medical care by professional staff and the costs of hospital stays during gentamicin treatment. Sixty-six patients were found to meet the inclusion criteria (10 patients were provided with TDM service and 56 patients were not). There was no significant difference in the duration of fever or the length of hospital stay during gentamicin therapy between the two groups. Although serum creatinine levels were not checked in all of the patients after gentamicin therapy, the data analysis did not show any cases of nephrotoxicity. There was no significant difference in the costs of laboratory investigations, the total cost of gentamicin therapy and the costs associated with professional staff between the two groups. The cost of the hospital stay during gentamicin therapy and the total cost of hospitalization were significantly higher in the TDM group. Evaluation in patients with bronchopneumonia shows that TDM in our setting was associated with higher cost; however, we did not observe any significant differences in the clinical outcomes.

  12. Costs of Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Neglected Tropical Diseases in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ann S.; Brady, Molly A.; Direny, Abdel; Desir, Luccene; Oscard, Roland; Vely, Jean-Francois; Linehan, Mary; Baker, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a cost analysis of Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population neglected tropical disease program, Projet des Maladies Tropicales Negligées and collected data for 9 of 55 communes participating in the May 2008–April 2009 mass drug administration (MDA). The Projet des Maladies Tropicales Negligées Program partnered with IMA World Health and Hôpital Ste. Croix to implement MDA for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis by using once a year treatment with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine in a population of approximately 8 million persons. Methods included analyzing partner financial records and conducting retrospective surveys of personnel. In the nine communes, 633,261 persons were treated at a cost of U.S. $0.64 per person, which included the cost of donated drugs, and at a cost of U.S. $0.42 per person treated, when excluding donated drug costs. The MDA for lymphatic filariasis in Haiti began in 2000, with the treatment of 105,750 persons at a cost per person of U.S. $2.23. The decrease in cost per person treated is the result of cumulative implementation experience and economies of scale. PMID:22049035

  13. Low-cost generic drugs under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief drove down treatment cost; more are needed.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; Mayer, Kenneth H; Carpenter, Charles C J

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was originally authorized in 2003 with the goal of supporting HIV prevention, treatment, and care within fifteen focus countries in the developing world. By September 2011 nearly 13 million people around the world were receiving HIV/AIDS-related care through PEPFAR, and 3.9 million were receiving antiretroviral treatment. However, in the early years of the program, access to antiretroviral drugs was hampered by the lack of a licensing process that the US government recognized for generic versions of these medications. Ultimately, the obstacle to approval of generic antiretroviral drugs was removed, which led to PEPFAR's considerable success at making these treatments widely available. This article outlines PEPFAR's evolving use of generic antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV in the developing world, highlights ongoing initiatives to increase access to generic antiretrovirals, and points to the need for mechanisms that will speed up the approval of new generic drugs. The striking decline in antiretroviral treatment costs, from $1,100 per person annually in 2004 to $335 per person annually in 2012, is due to the availability of effective generic antiretrovirals. Given growing resistance to existing drugs and the planned expansion of treatment to millions more people, access to newer generations of generic antiretrovirals will have to be expedited.

  14. [Systematic review of studies assessing the cost of adverse drug reactions].

    PubMed

    Vallano Ferraz, Antonio; Agustí Escasany, Antonia; Pedrós Xolvi, Consuelo; Arnau de Bolós, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important healthcare problem. The objective of this study was to review published articles analyzing the cost of ADRs in any healthcare setting. We conducted a search of articles published on the cost of ADRs in the bibliographic databases from 1970 to 2010. We identified 28 studies and selected 16 that included cases of ADR fitting the World Health Organization's definition of these events. The information on the characteristics of the study design, the types of costs analyzed and the reported results were reviewed. The design features and populations included in the studies were heterogeneous. Only two studies explicitly defined the perspective adopted. Only five studies compared cases of ADR with matched controls without ADRs. All studies analyzed direct healthcare costs, but none analyzed indirect or intangible costs. Fourteen publications analyzed the costs of length of hospital stay. The average (SD) percentage of ADRs was 3.04% (0.2) [median 2.4%, range 0.7% to 26.1%]. The median length of hospital stay in patients with ADRs was 8.8 days (range: 0.15 to 19.2 days). Accounting systems and monetary costs varied widely. Studies on the costs of ADRs are highly heterogeneous and have evaluated direct healthcare costs in hospitals. Their results indicate that ADRs generate substantial costs. More studies using appropriate methodology are needed on the costs of ADRs. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses of drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia M; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Kanis, John A; Ramaekers, Bram; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Silverman, Stuart; Wyers, Caroline E; Boonen, Annelies

    2015-03-01

    Given the limited availability of healthcare resources and the recent introduction of new anti-osteoporosis drugs, the interest in the cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis remains and even increases. This study aims to identify all recent economic evaluations on drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis, to critically appraise the reporting quality, and to summarize the results. A literature search using Medline, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation database and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was undertaken to identify original articles published between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013. Studies that assessed cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis were included. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement was used to assess the quality of reporting of these articles. Of 1,794 articles identified, 39 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were conducted in 14 different countries and nine active interventions were assessed. When compared with no treatment, active osteoporotic drugs were generally cost effective in postmenopausal women aged over 60-65 years with low bone mass, especially those with prior vertebral fractures. Key drivers of cost effectiveness included individual fracture risk, medication adherence, selected comparators and country-specific analyses. Quality of reporting varied between studies with an average score of 17.9 out of 24 (range 7-21.5). This review found a substantial number of published cost-effectiveness analyses of drugs in osteoporosis in the last 6 years. Results and critical appraisal of these articles can help decision makers when prioritizing health interventions and can inform the development of future economic evaluations.

  16. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments.

    PubMed

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Henggeler, Scott W; Shapiro, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes.

  17. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes. PMID:22389577

  18. Assessing Medicare prescription drug plans in four states: balancing cost and access.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Erika; Carino, Tanisha; Dix, Heidi

    2006-08-01

    Success of the Medicare prescription drug benefit depends on private organizations offering beneficiaries appropriate access to medications while controlling costs. There is limited guidance, however, as to what constitutes best practice in benefit and formulary design. This issue brief examines Medicare stand-alone prescription drug plans in the four most populous Medicare states-California, Florida, New York, and Texas. While there are similar offerings in all four states, there is wide variation in the amount of drugs covered, how drugs are accessed by beneficiaries, and prior authorization requirements. Plans with lower premiums are more likely to have additional formulary tiers and no coverage in the "doughnut hole"-the gap faced by many beneficiaries between $2,250 and $5,100 in costs. Given the many choices facing beneficiaries, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services should monitor experiences to determine whether plans are meeting the needs of Medicare beneficiaries, particularly the frail and disabled.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Atherly, Adam; Rubin, Paul H

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we use published information to analyze the economic value of Direct to Consumer Advertising (DTCA). The reviewed research finds that DTCA leads to increased demand for the advertised drug and that the effect of the drug tends to be class-wide rather than product specific. There is weak evidence that DTCA may increase compliance and improve clinical outcomes. However, there is little research on the effect of DTCA on inappropriate prescribing or on the characteristics of patients who respond to treatment. On net, if the advertised drugs are cost effective on average and the patients using the drugs in response to the advertisement are similar to other users, DTCA is likely cost effective. Overall, the literature to date is consistent with the idea that DTCA is beneficial, but further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  20. Improving the quality of antimicrobial drug use can result in cost containment.

    PubMed

    Gyssens, I C; Kullberg, B J

    1995-09-22

    Antibiotic policies are implemented to optimize patient care, to limit antimicrobial resistance and to reduce costs. Before improving the use of antimicrobial drugs by monitoring, it is of primary importance to conduct a general utilization review to document problem areas within the hospital and to evaluate quality and costs. Subsequently, limited targets for an intervention can be defined. For the evaluation of quality, established criteria can be used to classify prescriptions into categories of appropriate use. Several classification systems are described in the literature. We have developed a classification method which allows evaluation of each relevant parameter associated with antimicrobial drug use and global (true) cost calculation. Data are processed in a computer program for Apple or Windows. Surgical prophylaxis is a target of choice to analyse at a hospital pharmacy level. Important cost savings can be obtained by implementing well-accepted standards of good antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  1. Pharmaceutical cost management and access to psychotropic drugs: The U.S. context

    PubMed Central

    Huskamp, Haiden A.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, prescription drug expenditures in the United States have increased rapidly. In 2003, spending on prescription medications totaled $179.2 billion dollars, or approximately 11% of national health expenditures [Smith, C., Cowan, C., Sensenig, A., Catlin, A., & the Health Accounts Team. (2005). Health spending growth slows in 2003. Health Affairs, 24 (1) 185–194]. In response to rapid increases in prescription drug expenditures, both public and private payers of health care services have adopted strategies to try to contain drug costs, including drug formularies, prior authorization programs, cost sharing and utilization management. In this paper, I provide a background on prescription drug spending trends, financing, and access to medications; describe some of the tools used most commonly to manage prescription drug utilization; present results from the literature on the impact of these tools; and discuss some implications of this information for the new Medicare prescription drug benefit to be implemented in 2006 as well as for future prescription drug innovation. PMID:16150490

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment services: review of the literature*

    PubMed

    Cartwright, William S.

    2000-03-01

    BACKGROUND: How valuable is public investment in treatment for drug abuse and dependency in the real world of everyday practice? Does drug abuse treatment provide benefits and how are they valued? What are the costs of obtaining outcomes and benefits? Cost-benefit analysis attempts to answer these questions in a standard analytic framework. AIMS: This paper reviews cost-benefit analyses with scientific merit so that analysts will have a current picture of the state of the research. It will also give public decision-makers information with regards to the available evidence for policy purposes. METHOD: Bibliographic searches were performed. Studies were obtained through the assistance of the Parklawn Health Library system, a component of the US Public Health Service. Selected studies were from the scientific literature with the exception of eight studies published as governmental reports. RESULTS: Cost-benefit studies have fallen into the following categories: (i) planning models for delivery systems in states and cities; (ii) short-term follow-up studies of individuals, (iii) single individual programs and (iv) state system's monitoring of outcomes. In 18 cost-benefit studies, a persistent finding is that benefits exceed costs, even when not all benefits are accounted for in the analysis. Much variation is found in the implementation of cost-benefit methods, and this is detailed across discussions of effectiveness, benefits and costs. Studies have emphasized the cost savings to society from the reduction in external costs created by the behavioral consequences of addiction and drug use. DISCUSSION: Economic analysis of drug treatment requires sophisticated conceptualization and measurement. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment has been a significant analytical exercise since the early 1970s when the public drug treatment system was founded in the United States. CONCLUSION: Drug abuse treatment services may be considered as contributing positive economic returns

  3. Costs of Drug Therapy in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; Ferre, Felipe; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Public Health System offers free-of-charge drug treatment for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to all Brazilian citizens. We report here the first population-based cohort study on patients with AS in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs of the tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) blockers and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that were used in the treatments of patients with AS in Brazil between March 2010 and September 2013. A retrospective cohort study was performed using administrative databases. All patients with a diagnosis of AS who were aged 18 years or older and had been dispensed anti-TNF or DMARDs were included in the analysis. The cost analysis was carried out from the health system perspective, and the results were described as median monthly cost per capita and the annual cost over the study period. A search of the databases identified 1251 patients with AS who were treated during the study period, of whom 63.3% were male; the median age was 41 years. During the study period, 78.0% of patients initiated treatment with anti-TNF drugs and 22.0% with DMARDs. The median monthly cost per capita was US$ 1650 for anti-TNF therapy and US$ 25 for treatment with DMARDs. Among the anti-TNF drugs, therapy with etanercept was associated with the lowest cost per patient, followed by adalimumab and infliximab. No difference in monthly cost was observed in relation to gender and age. The cost per patient of treating AS in this study cohort was lower with etanercept than with adalimumab and infliximab. These results highlights the economic burden of treating patients with AS.

  4. Physician adherence to hypertension treatment guidelines and drug acquisition costs of antihypertensive drugs at the cardiac clinic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abdulameer, Shaymaa Abdalwahed; Sahib, Mohanad Naji; Aziz, Noorizan Abd; Hassan, Yahaya; Alrazzaq, Hadeer Akram Abdul; Ismail, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Prescribing pattern surveys are one of the pharmacoepidemiological techniques that provide an unbiased picture of prescribing habits. Prescription surveys permit the identification of suboptimal prescribing patterns for further evaluation. The aims of this study were to determine the prescribing trend, adherence of the prescribers to the guideline, and the impact of drug expenditure on drug utilization at the cardiac clinic of Penang Hospital, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study. Demographic data of the patients, diagnoses and the drugs prescribed were recorded. The average drug acquisition costs (ADAC) were calculated for each antihypertensive drug class on a daily and annual basis. Adherence to the guideline was calculated as a percentage of the total number of patients. A total of 313 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average age of the study population was 59.30 ± 10.35 years. The mean number of drugs per prescription in the study was 2.09 ± 0.78. There were no significant differences in the demographic data. Antihypertensive drugs were used in monotherapy and polytherapy in 20.8% and 79.2% of the patients, respectively. Adherence to the guideline regarding prescription occurred in 85.30% of the patients. The lowest priced drug class was diuretics and the highest was angiotensin-receptor blockers. In conclusion, the total adherence to the guideline was good; the adherence percentage only slightly decreased with a co-existing comorbidity (such as diabetes mellitus). The use of thiazide diuretics was encouraged because they are well tolerated and inexpensive, and perindopril was still prescribed for diabetic patients since it is relatively cheap (generic drug) and its daily dosage is beneficial.

  5. Cost Shifting and Timeliness of Drug Formulary Decisions in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scobie, Andrea C.; Mackinnon, Neil J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Our objectives were to investigate the timeliness of formulary decision-making in Atlantic Canada, including the Common Drug Review (CDR) process and the adoption of positive CDR recommendations by Atlantic Canadian provincial public drug plans, and to determine the degree of cost shifting to private payers. Methods: Dates of formulary listing decisions from Atlantic Canadian provincial drug plan formularies and utilization analyses from Medavie Blue Cross were used to calculate the timeliness of decisions and cost shifting from public payers to a private payer. Results: The median time period between the issuance of a positive CDR recommendation and the addition of a drug to an Atlantic Canadian provincial drug plan was 26.7 weeks (σ=19.1). Cost shifting to employer-sponsored health plans provided by Medavie Blue Cross was minimal. Discussion: There is significant variation in the timing of provincial drug formulary listings among the four Atlantic Canadian provinces and the uptake of CDR recommendations. Conclusion: Atlantic Canadian provincial governments should support the mandate of the CDR by aiming for a more timely consideration of recommendations. PMID:21286272

  6. Drug-resistant TB: deadly, costly and in need of a vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Manjelievskaia, Janna; Erck, Dara; Piracha, Samina; Schrager, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    TB is an underappreciated public health threat in developed nations. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million TB cases and 1.5 million deaths occurred worldwide; 3.3% of these cases resulted from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains. These figures underestimate the economic burden associated with MDR-TB and XDR-TB, as the cost of treating disease caused by these strains can be 9–25 times higher than treating drug-susceptible TB. Developing new drugs, improved diagnostics and new TB vaccines are critical components of a strategy to combat TB in general, and drug-resistant TB in particular. Because Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has demonstrated a capacity to develop resistance to drugs developed to combat it, it is unlikely that drug-resistant MTB would be ‘resistant’ to vaccines capable of preventing disease or established infection with drug-sensitive MTB strains. Accordingly, the development of TB vaccines represents an important long-term investment in preventing the spread of drug-resistant TB and achieving WHO's goal of ending the global TB epidemic by 2035. Our current understanding of the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB and the interventions needed to limit its spread, reviewed in this article, illustrates the need for increased financial support for developing new TB drugs, diagnostics and vaccines to meet the WHO goal of TB elimination by 2035. PMID:26884499

  7. Drug-resistant TB: deadly, costly and in need of a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Manjelievskaia, Janna; Erck, Dara; Piracha, Samina; Schrager, Lewis

    2016-03-01

    TB is an underappreciated public health threat in developed nations. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million TB cases and 1.5 million deaths occurred worldwide; 3.3% of these cases resulted from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains. These figures underestimate the economic burden associated with MDR-TB and XDR-TB, as the cost of treating disease caused by these strains can be 9-25 times higher than treating drug-susceptible TB. Developing new drugs, improved diagnostics and new TB vaccines are critical components of a strategy to combat TB in general, and drug-resistant TB in particular. Because Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has demonstrated a capacity to develop resistance to drugs developed to combat it, it is unlikely that drug-resistant MTB would be 'resistant' to vaccines capable of preventing disease or established infection with drug-sensitive MTB strains. Accordingly, the development of TB vaccines represents an important long-term investment in preventing the spread of drug-resistant TB and achieving WHO's goal of ending the global TB epidemic by 2035. Our current understanding of the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB and the interventions needed to limit its spread, reviewed in this article, illustrates the need for increased financial support for developing new TB drugs, diagnostics and vaccines to meet the WHO goal of TB elimination by 2035.

  8. Cost comparison and economic implications of commonly used originator and generic chemotherapy drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G de L

    2013-09-01

    Cancer treatments have improved outcomes but access to medications is an issue around the world and especially so in low- and middle-income countries, such as India. Generic substitution may lead to significant cost savings. The author aimed to compare the cost and estimate potential cost savings per cycle, per patient, and for the country as a whole with generic substitution of frequently used chemotherapy drugs in the treatment of common cancers in India. Generic paclitaxel (Taxol), docetaxel (Taxotere), gemcitabine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan cost from 8.9% to 36% of their equivalent branded originator drug, resulting in cost savings of ~ Indian Rupees (INR) 11,000 to >INR 90,000 (USD 200-1600, Euro 160-1300) per cycle; and ~INR 50,000 to >INR 240,000 (USD 900-4300, Euro 700-3400) per patient. Overall, potential yearly savings for health systems in India were nearly INR 47 billion (~USD 843 million, Euro 670 million). In conclusion, generic substitution for frequently used chemotherapy drugs in the treatment of common cancers has an enormous potential to generate significant cost savings and increase access to cancer treatments in India and other low- and middle-income countries.

  9. A Regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee-led Intervention to Reduce the Hospital Costs of Expensive HIV Drugs.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Camilla Munk; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee (DTC) began a series of meetings with lead specialists in infectious diseases. The role of the DTC was to engage clinicians and ensure commitment to prescribing the least expensive drugs among the clinically equivalent HAARTs (highly active antiretroviral therapy). DTC also led implementation of a national guideline. This study analyses the impact of this process on HAART consumption and expenditure. The HAART consumption and expenditure (2009-2013) was compared to forecasts produced by exponential smoothing (2004-2009). Abrupt switches between drug regimens coincided with the DTC-led meetings. Overall, HAART consumption rose 16%, while price per defined daily dose (DDD) fell 11% and the 2013 expenditure decreased 23%. The consumption of drugs addressed by the guideline rose 48%. Still, the 2013 expenditure was 41.5 million DKK (5.5 million €) (27%) lower than expected, reflecting a fall in price per DDD that coincided with the intervention. The consumption of drugs not addressed by the guideline rose 8.3%, while price per DDD fell 8.5% and the 2013 expenditure was 26.8 million DKK (3.6 million €) (19%) lower than expected. Despite a steadily increasing consumption, significant cost savings followed this DTC-led intervention. This multifaceted approach might be applicable to changing the prescribing of other expensive drug classes. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  10. Impact of cost sharing on prescription drugs used by Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Goedken, Amber M; Urmie, Julie M; Farris, Karen B; Doucette, William R

    2010-06-01

    Incentive-based prescription drug cost sharing can encourage seniors to use generic medications. Little information exists about prescription drug cost sharing and generic use in employer-sponsored plans after the implementation of Medicare Part D. To compare prescription drug cost sharing across prescription insurance type for Medicare beneficiaries after Medicare Part D, to assess the impact of that cost sharing on the number of medications used, and to examine how generic utilization rates differ before and after Medicare Part D and across the type of insurance. This longitudinal study of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older used Web-based surveys administered in 2005 and 2007 by Harris Interactive((R)) to collect information on prescription drug coverage and medication use. Co-payment plans were categorized as low, medium, or high co-payment plans. Multiple regression was used to assess the impact of co-payment rank on the number of prescription drugs. t-Tests and analysis of variance were used to compare generic use over time and between coverage types. One thousand two hundred twenty and 1024 respondents completed the baseline and follow-up surveys, respectively. Among 3-tier co-payment plans, brand drug co-payments were higher for Part D plans ($26 for preferred brand and $55 for nonpreferred brand) than employer-based plans ($20 for preferred brand and $39 for nonpreferred brand). Co-payment was not a significant predictor for the number of prescription drugs. Generic use was lowest among beneficiaries in employer plans both before and after Part D. In 2007, generic use among beneficiaries with Part D was not significantly different from the generic use for beneficiaries with no drug coverage. Medicare beneficiaries in Part D had higher cost sharing amounts than those with employer coverage, but higher cost sharing was not significantly linked to lower prescription use. Generic use for Part D beneficiaries was higher than that for beneficiaries

  11. Future delivery of the Drug Interventions Programme: do the benefits justify the costs?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Drug Interventions Programme is an initiative employed by the Home Office in 2003 to integrate the Criminal Justice System with drug treatment services with the ultimate goal of reducing acquisitive crime. Drug Action Teams employ this scheme on a local level by providing a broad range of services for misusers in the community. Although much attention has been placed on societal gains, there is an added benefit in improving the health outcomes of those referred. Opioid replacement therapy decreases illicit heroin use, reduces mortality and maintains contact with misusers allowing for psychosocial intervention. The Drug Interventions Programme provides direct access to such treatment in an otherwise high-risk and disengaged population. Anecdotal evidence of the programme is positive; with improved mental and physical health in offenders and a reduction in hospital admissions. However, monitoring health outcomes in offenders is challenging as long-term follow-up is difficult, poor compliance is an issue and coercive referrals may introduce a reporting bias. Drug Action Team services are cost-effective due a lower consumption of health and social care and reduced offending levels. The Drug Interventions Programme has been successful in maintaining offenders in treatment and the Home Office claim its role in reducing crime is cost-saving. Future delivery of the initiative is at risk due to spending reductions, competing interests and a focus towards payment by results. Opposition to future implementation of the Drug Interventions Programme must be met with evidence for its effectiveness in order to ensure its continued investment.

  12. Comparing employer-sponsored and federal exchange plans: wide variations in cost sharing for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Buttorff, Christine; Andersen, Martin S; Riggs, Kevin R; Alexander, G Caleb

    2015-03-01

    Just under seven million Americans acquired private insurance through the new health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces, in 2014. The exchange plans are required to cover essential health benefits, including prescription drugs. However, the generosity of prescription drug coverage in the plans has not been well described. Our primary objective was to examine the variability in drug coverage in the exchanges across plan types (health maintenance organization or preferred provider organization) and metal tiers (bronze, silver, gold, and platinum). Our secondary objective was to compare the exchange coverage to employer-sponsored coverage. Analyzing prescription drug benefit design data for the federally facilitated exchanges, we found wide variation in enrollees' out-of-pocket costs for generic, preferred brand-name, nonpreferred brand-name, and specialty drugs, not only across metal tiers but also within those tiers across plan types. Compared to employer-sponsored plans, exchange plans generally had lower premiums but provided less generous drug coverage. However, for low-income enrollees who are eligible for cost-sharing subsidies, the exchange plans may be more comparable to employer-based coverage. Policies and programs to assist consumers in matching their prescription drug needs with a plan's benefit design may improve the financial protection for the newly insured. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Introducing a drug formulary to general practice — effects on practice prescribing costs

    PubMed Central

    Beardon, P.H.G.; Brown, S.V.; Mowat, D.A.E.; Grant, J.A.; McDevitt, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    A drug formulary comprising 249 preparations of 132 drugs and drug combinations was prepared by the partners in a three-doctor general practice serving more than 5000 patients. No attempt was made to change to generic prescribing nor were repeat prescription drugs altered. Introduction of the formulary in September 1981 was followed by an increase in the proportion of prescriptions containing drugs from the formulary from about 55% to more than 60% for both repeat and non-repeat prescriptions. The proportion of formulary drugs on non-repeat prescriptions reached a maximum of 78% within the first year with the additional influence of information feedback. Over the first year the level of formulary drugs used for both repeat and nonrepeat prescribing levelled off at about 62%. Even with these modest changes, when compared with the costs of general practice prescribing in Scotland as a whole, the introduction of the formulary resulted in savings of approximately 10% within the practice for the mean ingredient costs both per patient and per prescription. PMID:3449632

  14. Doctors commitment and long-term effectiveness for cost containment policies: lesson learned from biosimilar drugs

    PubMed Central

    Menditto, Enrica; Orlando, Valentina; Coretti, Silvia; Putignano, Daria; Fiorentino, Denise; Ruggeri, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Background Agency is a pervasive feature of the health care market, with doctors acting as agents for both patients and the health care system. In a context of scarce resources, doctors are required to take opportunity cost into account when prescribing treatments, while cost containment policies cannot overlook their active role in determining health care resource allocation. This paper addresses this issue, investigating the effects of cost containment measures in the market of biosimilar drugs that represent a viable and cost-saving strategy for the reduction of health care expenditure. The analysis focuses on a particular region in Italy, where several timely policies to incentivize biosimilar prescribing were launched. Methods Drugs were identified by the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Information about biosimilar drugs and their originator biological products was extracted from the IMS Health regional database. Drug consumption was expressed in terms of counting units, while expenditure was evaluated in Euro (€). The market penetration of biosimilars was analyzed by year and quarterly. Results In the Campania region of Italy, the effects of cost containment policies, launched between 2009 and 2013, showed the prescription of biosimilars strongly increasing in 2010 until prescribing levels reached and exceeded the market share of the reference biological products in 2012. After a slight reduction, a plateau was observed at the beginning of 2013. At the same time, the use of the originator products had been decreasing until the first quarter of 2011. However, after a 1-year plateau, this trend was reversed, with a new increase in the consumption of the originators observed. Conclusion Results show that the cost containment policies, applied to cut health expenditure “to cure and not to care”, did not produce the cultural change necessary to make these policies effective in the long run. Therefore, top-down policies for cost

  15. Older Americans Struggling with Drug Costs Don't Ask for Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... news release. The national poll of more than 2,100 adults aged 50 to 80 found that 27 percent said their prescription drug costs were a financial burden. About 16 percent had six or more prescriptions and saw more than one doctor. These patients were the ...

  16. For Both Parties, Drug Costs Are a Hard Pill To Swallow.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jan

    2016-09-01

    When the election ends, the time for rhetoric will be over and the new president and lawmakers will face the task of actually managing a giant, unwieldy, and complex health care system, trying to wrestle drug costs into submission before they wreck more havoc on the budgets of Medicare, Medicaid, and the American consumer.

  17. [High cost drugs for rare diseases in Brazil: the case of lysosomal storage disorders].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Mônica Vinhas; Krug, Bárbara Corrêa; Picon, Paulo Dornelles; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein

    2010-11-01

    This paper approaches in a critical way aspects of Brazilian public policies for drugs, emphasizing those classified as high cost and for rare diseases. The lysosomal storage diseases was taken as an example because of their rarity and the international trend for the development of new drugs for their treatment, all at high costs. Three lysosomal storage diseases were approached: Gaucher disease, Fabry disease and mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Gaucher disease has its treatment drug licensed in Brazil and guidelines for its use are established through a clinical protocol by the Ministry of Health. The others have their drug treatments registered in Brazil; however, no treatment guidelines for them have been developed by the government. The objective of the paper was to foster the discussion on the role of health technology assessment for high-cost drugs for rare diseases in Brazil, emphasizing the need for establishing health policies with legitimacy towards these diseases. Despite the difficulties in establishing a health policy for each rare disease, it is possible to create rational models to deal with this growing challenge.

  18. Presenting Germany's drug pricing rule as a cost-per-QALY rule.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2012-06-01

    In Germany, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) makes recommendations for ceiling prices of drugs based on an evaluation of the relationship between costs and effectiveness. To set ceiling prices, IQWiG uses the following decision rule: the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a new drug compared with the next effective intervention should not be higher than that of the next effective intervention compared to its comparator. The purpose of this paper is to show that IQWiG's decision rule can be presented as a cost-per-QALY rule by using equity-weighted QALYs. This transformation shows where both rules share commonalities. Furthermore, it makes the underlying ethical implications of IQWiG's decision rule transparent and open to debate.

  19. Generic Drugs - Decreasing Costs and Room for Increased Number of Kidney Transplantations.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment option in comparison to dialysis, although patients are obliged to receive life-long medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) for prevention of the graft rejection. Such immunosuppressive treatment may be costly and associated with multiple adverse effects. Since costs are viewed as one of the major constraints for the increasing number of transplantation, the use of generic ISDs may decrease the overall cost of transplantation and raise the possibility for its further development. An ideal ISD should have the security margin between toxic and therapeutic dose, and prevent development of acute or chronic rejection of the transplanted kidney. This is particularly important for drugs with a "narrow therapeutical index" (NTI), where small differences in dose or concentration lead to dose and concentration-dependent, serious therapeutic failures and/or adverse drug reactions. The NTI generic drug is approved if within 90%-112% of the area under the curve of the original product the pharmacokinetics fulfills the strict criteria of pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence. Every generic has to be proven to be bioequivalent to the innovator product, and not to other generic products because of the possible generic "drift". Thus, the generic ISDs may be economically attractive, but theoretically, they may pose a risk to transplant patients. Such risks may be reduced if a long-term clinical studies showing cost-effectiveness of generic ISDs in de novo and prevalent transplant patients for every new generic ISD are performed. In conclusion, the increased number of solid organ transplantation goes in line with the increased health care expenditure for ISDs. The generic immunosuppressants could be a possible solution if safely substituted for innovator products or other generic drug of choice. The substantial cost reduction needs to be redirected into organ donation initiatives so that more patients can benefit

  20. Patented Drug Extension Strategies on Healthcare Spending: A Cost-Evaluation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vernaz, Nathalie; Haller, Guy; Girardin, François; Huttner, Benedikt; Combescure, Christophe; Dayer, Pierre; Muscionico, Daniel; Salomon, Jean-Luc; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug manufacturers have developed “evergreening” strategies to compete with generic medication after patent termination. These include marketing of slightly modified follow-on drugs. We aimed to estimate the financial impact of these drugs on overall healthcare costs and also to examine the impact of listing these drugs in hospital restrictive drug formularies (RDFs) on the healthcare system as a whole (“spillover effect”). Methods and Findings We used hospital and community pharmacy invoice office data in the Swiss canton of Geneva to calculate utilisation of eight follow-on drugs in defined daily doses between 2000 and 2008. “Extra costs” were calculated for three different scenarios assuming replacement with the corresponding generic equivalent for prescriptions of (1) all brand (i.e., initially patented) drugs, (2) all follow-on drugs, or (3) brand and follow-on drugs. To examine the financial spillover effect we calculated a monthly follow-on drug market share in defined daily doses for medications prescribed by hospital physicians but dispensed in community pharmacies, in comparison to drugs prescribed by non-hospital physicians in the community. Estimated “extra costs” over the study period were €15.9 (95% CI 15.5; 16.2) million for scenario 1, €14.4 (95% CI 14.1; 14.7) million for scenario 2, and €30.3 (95% CI 29.8; 30.8) million for scenario 3. The impact of strictly switching all patients using proton-pump inhibitors to esomeprazole at admission resulted in a spillover “extra cost” of €330,300 (95% CI 276,100; 383,800), whereas strictly switching to generic cetirizine resulted in savings of €7,700 (95% CI 4,100; 11,100). Overall we estimated that the RDF resulted in “extra costs” of €503,600 (95% CI 444,500; 563,100). Conclusions Evergreening strategies have been successful in maintaining market share in Geneva, offsetting competition by generics and cost containment policies. Hospitals may be contributing to

  1. Brands, costs and registration status of antimalarial drugs in the Kenyan retail sector

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Abdinasir A; Snow, Robert W

    2005-01-01

    Background Although an important source of treatment for fevers, little is known about the structure of the retail sector in Africa with regard to antimalarial drugs. This study aimed to assess the range, costs, sources and registration of antimalarial drugs in the Kenyan retail sector. Methods In 2002, antimalarial drug registration and trade prices were established by triangulating national registration lists, government gazettes and trade price indices. Data on registration status and trade prices were compared with similar data generated through a retail audit undertaken among 880 randomly sampled retailers in four districts of Kenya. Results Two hundred and eighteen antimalarial drugs were in circulation in Kenya in 2002. These included 65 "sulfur"-pyrimethamine (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and sulfalene-pyrimethamine (SP), the first-line recommended drug in 2002) and 33 amodiaquine (AQ, the second-line recommended drug) preparations. Only half of SP and AQ products were registered with the Pharmacy and Poisons Board. Of SP and AQ brands at district level, 40% and 44% were officially within legal registration requirements. 29% of retailers at district level stocked SP and 95% stocked AQ. The retail price of adult doses of SP and AQ were on average 0.38 and 0.76 US dollars, 100% and 347% higher than trade prices from manufacturers and importers. Artemether-lumefantrine, the newly announced first-line recommended antimalarial drug in 2004, was found in less than 1% of all retail outlets at a median cost of 7.6 US dollars. Conclusion There is a need to ensure that all antimalarial drugs are registered with the Pharmacy and Poisons Board to facilitate a more stringent post-marketing surveillance system to ensure drugs are safe and of good quality post-registration. PMID:16042815

  2. Brands, costs and registration status of antimalarial drugs in the Kenyan retail sector.

    PubMed

    Amin, Abdinasir A; Snow, Robert W

    2005-07-26

    Although an important source of treatment for fevers, little is known about the structure of the retail sector in Africa with regard to antimalarial drugs. This study aimed to assess the range, costs, sources and registration of antimalarial drugs in the Kenyan retail sector. In 2002, antimalarial drug registration and trade prices were established by triangulating national registration lists, government gazettes and trade price indices. Data on registration status and trade prices were compared with similar data generated through a retail audit undertaken among 880 randomly sampled retailers in four districts of Kenya. Two hundred and eighteen antimalarial drugs were in circulation in Kenya in 2002. These included 65 "sulfur"-pyrimethamine (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and sulfalene-pyrimethamine (SP), the first-line recommended drug in 2002) and 33 amodiaquine (AQ, the second-line recommended drug) preparations. Only half of SP and AQ products were registered with the Pharmacy and Poisons Board. Of SP and AQ brands at district level, 40% and 44% were officially within legal registration requirements. 29% of retailers at district level stocked SP and 95% stocked AQ. The retail price of adult doses of SP and AQ were on average 0.38 and 0.76 US dollars, 100% and 347% higher than trade prices from manufacturers and importers. Artemether-lumefantrine, the newly announced first-line recommended antimalarial drug in 2004, was found in less than 1% of all retail outlets at a median cost of 7.6 US dollars. There is a need to ensure that all antimalarial drugs are registered with the Pharmacy and Poisons Board to facilitate a more stringent post-marketing surveillance system to ensure drugs are safe and of good quality post-registration.

  3. The upward spiral of drug costs: a time series analysis of drugs used in the treatment of hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Rogoff, Edward G; Guirguis, Hany S; Lipton, Richard A; Seremetis, Stephanie V; DiMichele, Donna M; Agnew, George M; Karpatkin, Margaret; Barish, Robert J; Jones, Robert L; Bianco, Celso; Knothe, Barbara D; Lee, Myung-Soo

    2002-10-01

    Hemophilia is an expensive disease because its treatment is heavily dependent on costly clotting factor drugs. Over the last nine years,a consortium of three Comprehensive Hemophilia Treatment Centers and other hospitals, which purchased clotting factors for their patients, has seen treatment costs escalate on average 17% annually. Currently, new, even more expensive drugs are entering the market. This study analyzes 3,244 purchases that were made over a nine-year period totaling nearly 500 million units of clotting factor, representing every product on the market. Purchases were made both apart from and under the Federal Public Health Service (PHS)discount pricing rules. The main cause of the increases was the move to newer, more expensive products. The average price of existing products increased less than 2%per year, but new products were priced, on average, 47% higher than existing products. Overall consumption increased by an average of 5% per year, likely reflecting prophylactic treatment modalities that require greater amounts of clotting factor. Government pricing programs, such as the PHS program, were ineffective or counterproductive at reducing costs. There is a notable absence of competition in this market, with a few dominant companies having a functional monopoly in the largest segments of the market. Prices of older products are not lowered, even when new products are brought to market. A few products that serve small patient groups have had their prices increased substantially. This escalation is likely to continue as new, more expensive clotting factor drugs are developed. Since these new products are not proven to be any safer or more effective than the current products, this situation creates a risk of intervention by government and insurers to address both treatment costs and exhaustion of patients' insurance caps. Drug companies are not serving the patients by pricing new, but often very similar, products so aggressively. The trends seen in

  4. A noticeable difference? Productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work in economic evaluations on expensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; Tan, Siok Swan; Brouwer, Werner; Hakkaart, Leona

    2016-05-01

    Productivity costs can strongly impact cost-effectiveness outcomes. This study investigated the impact in the context of expensive hospital drugs. This study aimed to: (1) investigate the effect of productivity costs on cost-effectiveness outcomes, (2) determine whether economic evaluations of expensive drugs commonly include productivity costs related to paid and unpaid work, and (3) explore potential reasons for excluding productivity costs from the economic evaluation. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify economic evaluations of 33 expensive drugs. We analysed whether evaluations included productivity costs and whether inclusion or exclusion was related to the study population's age, health and national health economic guidelines. The impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was assessed in studies that included productivity costs. Of 249 identified economic evaluations of expensive drugs, 22 (9 %) included productivity costs related to paid work. One study included unpaid productivity. Mostly, productivity cost exclusion could not be explained by the study population's age and health status, but national guidelines appeared influential. Productivity costs proved often highly influential. This study indicates that productivity costs in economic evaluations of expensive hospital drugs are commonly and inconsistently ignored in economic evaluations. This warrants caution in interpreting and comparing the results of these evaluations.

  5. A systematic review of observational studies evaluating costs of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Batel Marques, Francisco; Penedones, Ana; Mendes, Diogo; Alves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The growing evidence of the increased frequency and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs), besides the negative impact on patient’s health status, indicates that costs due to ADEs may be steadily rising. Observational studies are an important tool in pharmacovigilance. Despite these studies being more susceptible to bias than experimental designs, they are more competent in assessing ADEs and their associated costs. Objective To identify and characterize the best available evidence on ADE-associated costs. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from 1995 to 2015. Observational studies were included. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for experimental and observational studies. Studies were classified according to the setting analyzed in “ambulatory”, “hospital”, or both. Costs were classified as “direct” and “indirect”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total incremental cost per patient with ADE was estimated. Results Twenty-nine (94%) longitudinal observational studies and two (7%) cross-sectional studies were included. Twenty-three (74%) studies were assessed with the highest methodological quality score. The studies were mainly conducted in the US (61%). Twenty (65%) studies evaluated any therapeutic group. Twenty (65%) studies estimated costs of ADEs leading to or prolonging hospitalization. The “direct costs” were evaluated in all studies, whereas only two (7%) also estimated the “indirect costs”. The “direct costs” in ambulatory ranged from €702.21 to €40,273.08, and the in hospital from €943.40 to €7,192.36. Discussion Methodological heterogeneities were identified among the included studies, such as design, type of ADEs, suspected drugs, and type and structure of costs. Despite such discrepancies, the financial burden associated with ADE costs was found to be high. In the light of the present findings

  6. The hidden cost of low prices: limited access to new drugs in India.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Cockburn, Iain M

    2014-09-01

    The pricing and accessibility of patent-protected drugs in low- and middle-income countries is a contentious issue in the global context. But questions about price have little meaning if a drug is not available for purchase, and the extent to which patent policy affects when (and if) new drugs become available in these countries has largely been overlooked. We examined data on the sales of 184 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2000 and 2009. We found that 50 percent of those 184 drugs went on sale in India only after lags of more than five years from their first worldwide introduction. More than half of the drugs that became newly available in India during the study period were produced and sold by multiple manufacturers in the country within one year of their introduction. The presence of multiple manufacturers indicates sharp competition and weak patent protection--factors that are disincentives to manufacturers to incur the costs of gaining access to the market. We conclude that modest patent and regulatory reform could bring the faster availability of a wider range of new drugs in India with limited impact on prices--a trade-off that merits greater policy attention.

  7. Antihypertensive drugs: a perspective on pharmaceutical price erosion and its impact on cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Herings, Ron; Meerding, Willem-Jan; Rutten, Frans

    2012-01-01

    When comparators' prices decrease due to market competition and loss of exclusivity, the incremental clinical effectiveness required for a new technology to be cost-effective is expected to increase; and/or the minimum price at which it will be funded will tend to decrease. This may be, however, either unattainable physiologically or financially unviable for drug development. The objective of this study is to provide an empirical basis for this discussion by estimating the potential for price decreases to impact on the cost-effectiveness of new therapies in hypertension. Cost-effectiveness at launch was estimated for all antihypertensive drugs launched between 1998 and 2008 in the United Kingdom using hypothetical degrees of incremental clinical effectiveness within the methodologic framework applied by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed and compared with funding thresholds. In addition, the levels of incremental clinical effectiveness required to achieve specific cost-effectiveness thresholds at given prices were estimated. Significant price decreases were observed for existing drugs. This was shown to markedly affect cost-effectiveness of technologies entering the market. The required incremental clinical effectiveness was in many cases greater than physiologically possible so, as a consequence, a number of products might not be available today if current methods of economic appraisal had been applied. We conclude that the definition of cost-effectiveness thresholds is fundamental in promoting efficient innovation. Our findings demonstrate that comparator price attrition has the potential to put pressure in the pharmaceutical research model and presents a challenge to new therapies being accepted for funding. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Relationship between quality and cost of the drug prescription in primary care].

    PubMed

    Amado Guirado, E; Madridejos Mora, R; Pérez Rodríguez, M; Puig, X

    2000-04-30

    With a system of qualitative indicators, to analyse the pharmaceutical prescription of general practitioners (GPs), and to evaluate the relationship of these indicators to the overall pharmaceutical prescription expenditure per inhabitant. Retrospective descriptive study. Primary care. The drugs prescription of 285 GPs from 32 primary care teams was evaluated, with the individual prescription of each doctor as the unit of analysis. The prescription was classified in 3 categories according to its intrinsic value (IV): low (< or = 75%), medium (76-79%) and high (> or = 80%). Selected as tracers of over-prescription were: daily dose per inhabitant (DDI) of antibiotics (AB), DDI of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and DDI of ulcer drugs (ULC). Selected as tracers of selection were: % DDI third-generation cephalosporins/DDI total cephalosporins; % DDI broad-spectre quinolones/DDI total quinolones; and % DDI NSAID/DDI NSAID plus analgesics. Quantitative indicators studied were: total expenditure per allocated population, cost per drugs prescription of doubtful efficacy, and cost per daily dose of AB, NSAID and ULC. Variance analysis, including the Scheffe test for multiple comparisons and Pearson's linear correlation, was applied. 26% of the prescriptions had an IV below 75%, and 34% had an IV above 80%. The means of DDI of AB among the categories of IV were different (p < 0.0001), as were those of DDI of NSAID (p < 0.0001) and of ULC (p = 0.007). Lower consumption of AB, NSAID and ULC was found in prescriptions with the highest IV %. The third-generation cephalosporins and the NSAID + analgesics showed significant differences in the three IV categories (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.041), unlike broad-spectrum quinolones (p = 0.18). The total expenditure per allocated population was less for GPs whose prescriptions had the highest IV %; whereas the cost per prescription and cost per daily dose showed no significant differences for IV categories. The doctors with the

  9. Cost comparison of drug-drug and drug-condition interactions in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy treated with pregabalin versus duloxetine.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Stephen S; Udall, Margarita; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Johnson, Barbara H; Shrady, George; Chu, Bong-Chul; Silverman, Stuart L

    2013-12-15

    The frequency and financial impact of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and drug-condition interactions (DCIs) in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) treated with either pregabalin or duloxetine were compared. This retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large U.S. administrative claims database. Patients selected for study inclusion had a diagnosis of DPN and were newly initiated on either pregabalin or duloxetine between July 1, 2008, and October 1, 2010. Data on potential DDIs and DCIs were collected. Health care costs were measured as the sum of gross covered payments for all medical and prescription claims incurred during the six months after the index date. The study sample comprised 2499 pregabalin users and 1354 duloxetine users. Among pregabalin users, 48 (1.8%) had at least one potential pregabalin DCI; none had potential pregabalin DDIs. Among duloxetine users, 966 (71%) had at least one potential duloxetine DDI or DCI. The frequencies of potential DDIs and DCIs differed significantly between pregabalin and duloxetine users (p < 0.001). Potential duloxetine DDIs and DCIs were associated with a significant increase in mean health care costs in duloxetine users (p = 0.002). Potential pregabalin DDIs and DCIs were not associated with additional health care costs in pregabalin users. Among patients with painful DPN treated with either pregabalin or duloxetine, the frequency of potential duloxetine DDIs and DCIs was substantially higher than that of pregabalin. Potential DDIs and DCIs were associated with significantly increased health care costs in duloxetine users.

  10. Effect of antibiotic order form guiding rational use of expensive drugs on cost containment.

    PubMed

    Sirinavin, S; Suvanakoot, P; Sathapatayavongs, B; Malatham, K

    1998-09-01

    New injectable antimicrobial agents are generally costly and broad-spectrum. Overusage results in unnecessary economic loss and multi-drug resistant organisms. Effective strategies for decreasing costs without compromising patient care are required. This study aimed to evaluate the economic impact of a system using an antimicrobial order form to assist rational usage of expensive antimicrobial agents. The study was performed during 1988-1996 at a 900-bed, tertiary-care, medical school hospital in Bangkok. The target drugs were 3 costly, broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs, namely imipenem, vancomycin, and injectable ciprofloxacin. The restriction of these 3 drugs was started in 1992 and was extended to netilmicin and ceftazidime in 1995. A filled antimicrobial order form (AOF) was required by pharmacists before dispensing the drugs. The AOF guided the physicians to give explicit information about anatomic diagnosis, etiologic diagnosis, and suspected antimicrobial resistance patterns of the organisms. It also contained information about indications of the restricted drugs. The filled forms were audited daily during working days by the chairman of The Hospital Antibiotic Committee. Feedback was given to the prescribers by infectious disease specialists at least twice a week. The strategy was endorsed by the executive committee of the hospital. Impact of AOF without endorsement, audit and feedback, was evaluated in 1996. The expenditures of the drugs were adjusted to the average admitted patient-days per fiscal year of the study period. The system with endorsement was well accepted and could be maintained for 4 years. The adjusted expenditures per year of the 3 restricted antibiotics were 1.41-1.87 million baht less (22-29%) in 1992-1994 than the pre-intervention year 1991. The cost reduction of imipenem and injectable ciprofloxacin could also be maintained for 1995 but not vancomycin for which use increased. The costs of these 3 restricted drugs increased very

  11. Disease-modifying drugs for knee osteoarthritis: can they be cost-effective?

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Daigle, Meghan E.; Reichmann, William M.; Suter, Lisa G.; Hunter, David J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Burbine, Sara A.; Paltiel, A. David; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) are under development. Our goal was to determine efficacy, toxicity, and cost thresholds under which DMOADs would be a cost-effective knee OA treatment. Design We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a validated computer simulation of knee OA, to compare guideline-concordant care to strategies that insert DMOADs into the care sequence. The guideline-concordant care sequence included conservative pain management, corticosteroid injections, total knee replacement (TKR), and revision TKR. Base case DMOAD characteristics included: 50% chance of suspending progression in the first year (resumption rate of 10% thereafter) and 30% pain relief among those with suspended progression; 0.5%/year risk of major toxicity; and costs of $1,000/year. In sensitivity analyses, we varied suspended progression (20–100%), pain relief (10–100%), major toxicity (0.1–2%), and cost ($1,000–$7,000). Outcomes included costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and TKR utilization. Results Base case DMOADs added 4.00 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and $230,000 per 100 persons, with an ICER of $57,500/QALY. DMOADs reduced need for TKR by 15%. Cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to likelihoods of suspended progression and pain relief. DMOADs costing $3,000/year achieved ICERs below $100,000/QALY if the likelihoods of suspended progression and pain relief were 20% and 70%. At a cost of $5,000, these ICERs were attained if the likelihoods of suspended progression and pain relief were both 60%. Conclusions Cost, suspended progression, and pain relief are key drivers of value for DMOADs. Plausible combinations of these factors could reduce need for TKR and satisfy commonly cited cost-effectiveness criteria. PMID:23380251

  12. Furthering benefit/risk ratio and cost effectiveness of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Golikov, A S; Tikhomirova, A V

    2015-01-01

    In Russia, the incidence of melanoma is increasing steadily. The approved standard of specialized medical care for melanoma of the skin defined the range of drugs, recommended for the provision of quality health care. However, it appears that the most effective innovative and safe medicines are at the same time the most expensive drugs. The most important is the assessment of drug use, taking into account their relative efficacy, safety (risk/benefit) and cost (economic efficiency), which may help to create the conditions for controlling their use. Based on this analysis, it is necessary to introduce drugs on the lists of drugs within the framework of the provision of state guarantees of free medical care to citizens (patients). To analyze the drug use according to the standard of specialized medical care for melanoma of the skin, to perform information retrieval in specialized libraries and databases Cochrane, Pubmed, Medline, as well as in the database of the state register of medicines (GRLS) of Russian Ministry of Health. The nomenclature of drugs was determined according to the standards of specialized medical care for 2006 and 2012, to the data of GRLS; information searches were performed in specialized libraries and databases Cochrane, Pubmed, Medline. Analysis of anticancer drugs for melanoma of the skin consisted of determining of nomenclature of drugs, included in the standard of specialized medicine care. The standard of specialized medicine care for patients with malignant melanoma of the skin (with specialized assistance) (Order dated December 6, 2006 № 828) includes the following anticancer drugs: dacarbazine (alkylating agents), vinblastine (antineoplastic agent - an alkaloid), cisplatin (platinum), lomustine (nitrosoureas), bleomycin (antitumor agent, an antibiotic) [1]. The standard of specialized medical care in melanoma skin generalization or recurrent disease (chemotherapy) (Order of November 7, 2012 № 604n) includes the following anticancer

  13. Improving access to high-cost cancer drugs in Latin America: Much to be done.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rossana; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Touya, Diego; Herrero Vincent, Carmen; Hernandez-Blanquisett, Abraham; St Louis, Jessica; Bukowski, Alexandra; Goss, Paul E

    2017-04-15

    Lack of access to high-cost medications is a complex issue at the intersection of economics, medicine, politics, and ethics, and it poses a significant threat to global health care. The problem is even more significant in low- and middle-income countries, such as those in Latin America, where governments and individuals struggle to pay for products that are priced at several times the level of their per capita gross domestic product. In this review, we examine the determinants for increasing drug costs and how Latin American countries face this burgeoning crisis. We emphasize that a number of opportunities and strategies to reduce costs and improve access exist and should be identified and implemented, ideally within a regional approach with multiple stakeholders involved and based on systematic and transparent cost-effectiveness analyses. Cancer 2017;123:1313-1323. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Cost of treatment as a placebo effect in psychopharmacology: importance in the context of generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-04-01

    Nonspecific factors have long been known in both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. In recent years, 2 studies showed that placebo benefits were lower when the treated subjects were told that the placebo, presented as an active treatment, cost less. One of these studies had assessed motor and other outcomes in Parkinson disease patients; the other had assessed analgesia in paid, healthy volunteers to whom electric shocks were administered. The implication of the finding that lower treatment cost may diminish treatment gains is that patients who receive generic medicines may have lower expectations and may consequently derive less placebo-related benefit. This could be of concern in psychiatric disorders that are characterized by a large placebo response. Although the 2 "placebo cost" studies cannot be easily generalized to clinical and especially psychiatric contexts, clinicans should consider offering reassurance to patients receiving generic drugs that cost, per se, has no bearing on treatment-related benefit. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Reliable low-cost capillary electrophoresis device for drug quality control and counterfeit medicines.

    PubMed

    Marini, R D; Rozet, E; Montes, M L A; Rohrbasser, C; Roht, S; Rhème, D; Bonnabry, P; Schappler, J; Veuthey, J-L; Hubert, Ph; Rudaz, S

    2010-12-15

    The proportion of counterfeit medicines is dramatically increasing these last few years. According to numerous official sources, in some pharmaceutical wholesalers in African countries, the proportion has reached 80%. Unfortunately, this situation is far to be improved due to lack of suitable analytical equipment allowing rapid actions of the Regulatory Agencies based on scientific consideration, at affordable cost and all over the drug supply chain. For that purpose, a network group considered that mater by building a low-cost original capillary electrophoresis (CE) equipment equipped with a new deep UV detector based on LED technology. The generic conditions for analysis were investigated: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) performed at acidic pH for basic drug molecules (i.e., quinine, highly used as the last antimalarial rampart), basic pH for compounds such as furosemide (a common diuretic drug) and at neutral pH for a well known antibiotic combination, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol. To evaluate the ability of the CE equipment for quantification, a full validation and a method comparison study were carried out for the CZE method dedicated to quinine determination. The validation involved the use of accuracy profile and total error concept to monitor the adequacy of the results obtained by the new prototype. The method comparison was based on the Bland and Altman approach by comparing results obtained by the low-cost CE and a conventional set-up. Subsequent validation studies were realized with neutral and acidic drug molecules, each focusing on a single concentration level calibration curve in order to maintain as low as possible the expenses due to reagents and thus the cost of analysis, as important advantages of CE for drug quality control. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Out-of-pocket costs of AIDS care in China: are free antiretroviral drugs enough?

    PubMed

    Moon, S; Van Leemput, L; Durier, N; Jambert, E; Dahmane, A; Jie, Y; Wu, G; Philips, M; Hu, Y; Saranchuk, P

    2008-09-01

    Financial access to HIV care and treatment can be difficult for many people in China, where the government provides free antiretroviral drugs but does not cover the cost of other medically necessary components, such as lab tests and drugs for opportunistic infections. This article estimates out-of-pocket costs for treatment and care that a person living with HIV/AIDS in China might face over the course of one year. Data comes from two treatment projects run by Médecins Sans Frontières in Nanning, Guangxi Province and Xiangfan, Hubei Province. Based on the national treatment guidelines, we estimated costs for seven different patient profiles ranging from WHO Clinical Stages I through IV. We found that patients face significant financial barriers to even qualify for the free ARV program. For those who do, HIV care and treatment can be a catastrophic health expenditure, with cumulative patient contributions ranging from approximately US$200-3939/year in Nanning and US$13-1179/year in Xiangfan, depending on the patient's clinical stage of HIV infection. In Nanning, these expenses translate as up to 340% of an urban resident's annual income or 1200% for rural residents; in Xiangfan, expenses rise to 116% of annual income for city dwellers and 295% in rural areas. While providing ARV drugs free of charge is an important step, the costs of other components of care constitute important financial barriers that may exclude patients from accessing appropriate care. Such barriers can also lead to undesirable outcomes in the future, such as impoverishment of AIDS-affected households, higher ARV drug-resistance rates and greater need for complex, expensive second-line antiretroviral drugs.

  17. Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.

    PubMed

    Emilien, G

    1997-01-01

    The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment for injection drug user populations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Natasha K; Vickerman, Peter; Miners, Alec; Foster, Graham R; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Goldberg, David J; Hickman, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Injecting drug use is the main risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in most developed countries. HCV antiviral treatment (peginterferon-α + ribavirin) has been shown to be cost-effective for patients with no reinfection risk. We examined the cost-effectiveness of providing antiviral treatment for injecting drug users (IDUs) as compared with treating ex/non-IDUs or no treatment. A dynamic model of HCV transmission and disease progression was developed, incorporating: a fixed number of antiviral treatments allocated at the mild HCV stage over 10 years, no retreatment after treatment failure, potential reinfection, and three baseline IDU HCV chronic prevalence scenarios (20%, 40%, and 60%). We performed a probabilistic cost-utility analysis estimating long-term costs and outcomes measured in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) comparing treating IDUs, ex/non-IDUs, or no treatment. Antiviral treatment for IDUs is the most cost-effective option in the 20% and 40% baseline chronic prevalence settings, with ICERs compared with no treatment of £ 521 and £ 2,539 per QALY saved, respectively. Treatment of ex/non-IDUs is dominated in these scenarios. At 60% baseline prevalence, treating ex/non-IDUs is slightly more likely to be the more cost-effective option (with an ICER compared with no treatment of £ 6,803), and treating IDUs dominated due to high reinfection. A sensitivity analysis indicates these rankings hold even when IDU sustained viral response rates as compared with ex/non-IDUs are halved. Despite the possibility of reinfection, the model suggests providing antiviral treatment to IDUs is the most cost-effective policy option in chronic prevalence scenarios less than 60%. Further research on how HCV treatment for injectors can be scaled up and its impact on prevalence is warranted. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. 42 CFR 423.908. - Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare. 423.908. Section 423.908. Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... General Payment Provisions § 423.908. Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed...

  20. 42 CFR 423.908. - Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare. 423.908. Section 423.908. Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... General Payment Provisions § 423.908. Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed...

  1. 42 CFR 423.908. - Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare. 423.908. Section 423.908. Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Provisions § 423.908. Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare. This...

  2. 42 CFR 423.908. - Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare. 423.908. Section 423.908. Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Provisions § 423.908. Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare. This...

  3. 42 CFR 423.908. - Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed by Medicare. 423.908. Section 423.908. Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... General Payment Provisions § 423.908. Phased-down State contribution to drug benefit costs assumed...

  4. Variation of Cost among Anti-cancer Drugs Available in Indian Market

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, Divyashanthi Chellathambi; Ponnaluri, Raghunatha Rao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although cancer remains a major health problem all over the world, its treatment is limited by affordability of patients in a developing country like India. Information generated from cost analysis studies will be helpful for both the doctors in choosing the correct medicine for their patients and also for policy makers in successfully utilizing the meager resources that are available. Aim The aim of the present observational study was to analyse the price variations of anti-cancer drugs available in India. Materials and Methods The cost of a particular anti-cancer drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same dose and dosage form, was obtained from latest issue of “Current Index of Medical Specialties” (CIMS) January–April, 2016. The difference between the maximum and minimum prices of various brands of the same drug was analysed and percentage variation in the prices was calculated. The results of the study were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results Overall, the price of a total of 23 drugs belonging to 6 different categories available in 52 different formulations were analysed. Among alkylating agents, oxaliplatin (50mg; injection) showed the maximum price variation of 125.02%. In anti-metabolites, methotrexate (2.5mg; tablet) showed the maximum price variation of 75.30%. The maximum price variation among natural products was seen with paclitaxel (260 mg; injection) of 146.98%, among hormonal drugs, was seen with flutamide (250mg; tablet) of 714.24%, among targeted drugs was seen with imatinib mesylate (100mg; film coated tablet) of 5.56% and among supportive drugs, granisetron (1mg; tablet) showed the maximum price variation of 388.68%. Conclusion The average percentage variations of different brands of the same anti-cancer drug in same dose and dosage form manufactured in India is very wide. The government and drug manufacturing companies must direct their efforts in reducing the cost of anti-cancer drugs and

  5. Australia's 'fourth hurdle' drug review comparing costs and benefits holds lessons for the United States.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Elshaug, Adam G

    2013-04-01

    Two decades ago Australia introduced an assessment of value as a prerequisite for adding new medicines to its national drug formulary. Australia's program--a "fourth hurdle" process after a drug is assessed for safety, efficacy, and quality--stands in stark contrast to the situation in the United States, where comparing the clinical and economic value of a proposed new drug to those of existing ones only rarely plays a role in the drug coverage determination process. This article describes the role that Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, a statutory independent expert committee, plays in determining which new drugs the government will help pay for in the nation's pharmaceutical benefit program. The program does not directly control drug prices or ration prescription drugs-policy options that are widely opposed in the United States. Australia's program supports patients' access to important, innovative medications deemed to be cost-effective. The US system could benefit if policy makers examined Australia's experience and adopted a comparative clinical and value review suited to the US political and economic landscape.

  6. Specialty drug coupons lower out-of-pocket costs and may improve adherence at the risk of increasing premiums.

    PubMed

    Starner, Catherine I; Alexander, G Caleb; Bowen, Kevin; Qiu, Yang; Wickersham, Peter J; Gleason, Patrick P

    2014-10-01

    Expenditures for specialty drugs account for more than 25 percent of total US drug spending and have been increasing at more than 13 percent annually. We examined insurers' role in maintaining the affordability and accessibility of specialty drugs while maximizing their value. We conducted two analyses: one using an administrative claims database with information on more than ten million commercially insured patients and another using the same database combined with the drug prescription records from a specialty pharmacy. First, we examined the prevalence of specialty drug coupons and the degree to which these reduced patients' out-of-pocket costs, focusing on 264,801 prescriptions. Second, we quantified the association between the magnitude of out-of-pocket costs for specialty drugs and patients' abandonment of their new or restarted therapy, focusing on a group of nearly 16,000 patients. We found that drug coupons accounted for $21.2 million of patients' $35.3 million annual out-of-pocket costs. In the vast majority of cases, coupons reduced monthly cost sharing to less than $250, a point at which patients were far less likely to abandon therapy with biologic anti-inflammatory drugs or with drugs for multiple sclerosis. However, by reducing cost sharing, coupons may also circumvent efforts to encourage patients to use the most cost-effective drugs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Changing environments and alternative perspectives in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of new antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, Robert; Doyle, Jefferson; Leslie, Douglas; Fontana, Alan

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which changes in the treatment environment and in measurement perspectives can affect the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of new medications. In three studies we reexamined data from a clinical trial of haloperidol and clozapine conducted from 1993 to 1996. The results of the studies are as follows: Study 1 found that clozapine treatment was associated with significantly reduced inpatient costs, and increased outpatient costs, suggesting that as systems use less inpatient care and more outpatient care, more effective medications may increase, rather than decrease, costs in sicker patients. Study 2 found that while provider assessments and standard measures favored clozapine over haloperidol, patient responses showed little evidence of a clinical advantage for clozapine and a less favorable side-effect profile. Study 3 found that while annual drug costs in the published trial were estimated to be dollars 4,545 for a full year of clozapine treatment, atypical antipsychotic costs in 2000 were estimated to range from dollars 1,254 to dollars 3,016 in the Department of Veterans Affairs system, and from dollars 2,221 to dollars 8,147 in the private sector. In conclusion, cost-effectiveness, as evaluated in studies like CATIE, will increasingly need to be tied to service system contingencies, environments, and evaluation perspectives.

  8. Cutting the cost of South African antiretroviral therapy using newer, safer drugs.

    PubMed

    Venter, W F; Kaiser, B; Pillay, Y; Conradie, F; Gomez, G B; Clayden, P; Matsolo, M; Amole, C; Rutter, L; Abdullah, F; Abrams, E J; Casas, C P; Barnhart, M; Pillay, A; Pozniak, A; Hill, A; Fairlie, L; Boffito, M; Moorhouse, M; Chersich, M; Serenata, C; Quevedo, J; Loots, G

    2016-12-21

    Antiretrovirals are a significant cost driver for HIV programmes. Current first-line regimens have performed well in real-life programmes, but have a low barrier to virological resistance and still carry toxicity that limits adherence. New drug developments may mean that we have access to safer, more robust and cheaper regimens, but only if the appropriate clinical trials are conducted. We briefly discuss these trials, and demonstrate the large cost savings to the South African HIV programme if these are successful.

  9. Health Costs and Outcomes Associated with Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Cost-Sharing in Beneficiaries on Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Haesuk; Rascati, Karen L; Lawson, Kenneth A; Barner, Jamie C; Richards, Kristin M; Malone, Daniel C

    2015-10-01

    High out-of-pocket costs for prescription medications have been associated with poor patient outcomes. A previous study found that the Part D coverage gap was significantly associated with decreases in adherence and persistence for medications frequently used in patients undergoing dialysis. It is not known what effect the decreased use of prescription drugs associated with the coverage gap had on utilization and spending for other medical care.  To determine the relationship between the Part D prescription drug cost-sharing structure and health and economic outcomes in Medicare beneficiaries on dialysis. A retrospective analysis using data from the United States Renal Data System (2006-2008) was conducted for Medicare-eligible patients receiving dialysis. Patients were grouped in 1 of 4 cohorts based on low-income subsidy (LIS) receipt and benefit phase in 2007: Cohort 1 (non-LIS and did not reach the coverage gap); Cohort 2 (non-LIS and reached the coverage gap); Cohort 3 (non-LIS and reached catastrophic coverage after the gap); and Cohort 4 (received an LIS, and none of the LIS patients reached the coverage gap). Outcomes included medical care utilization, direct medical costs, and mortality.  A total of 11,732 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Patients in Cohorts 1, 2, and 3 had $3,222 lower, $2,457 lower, and $1,182 higher adjusted pharmacy costs (P  less than  0.001), but their adjusted hospitalization costs were $1,499 (P = 0.09), $2,287 (P = 0.01), and $2,959 (P = 0.01) higher, respectively, compared with Cohort 4 (LIS). In the propensity score-matched cohorts, patients who reached the coverage gap (Cohort 2) had higher rates of hospitalization (relative risk [RR] = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.94-1.10), outpatient visits (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.08-1.25), and other visits (RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03-1.32) compared with those who had an LIS (Cohort 4). Patients in Cohort 3 had a higher rate of outpatient visits compared with

  10. The Marginal Costs of Adverse Drug Events Associated With Exposures to Anticoagulants and Hypoglycemic Agents During Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Spector, William D; Limcangco, Rhona; Furukawa, Michael F; Encinosa, William E

    2017-09-01

    Anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents are 2 of the most challenging drug classes for medical management in the hospital resulting in many adverse drug events (ADEs). Estimating the marginal cost (MC) of ADEs associated with anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents for adults in 5 patient groups during their hospital stay and the total annual ADE costs for all patients exposed to these drugs during their stay. Data are from 2010 to 2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases and Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS). Deidentified patients were linked using probabilistic matching in the same hospital and year for 5 patient groups. ADE information was obtained from the MPSMS using retrospective structured record review. Costs were derived using HCUP cost-to-charge ratios. MC estimates were made using Extended Estimating Equations controlling for patient characteristics, comorbidities, hospital procedures, and hospital characteristics. MC estimates were applied to the 2013 HCUP National Inpatient Sample to estimate annual ADE costs. Adjusted MC estimates were smaller than unadjusted measures with most groups showing estimates that were at least 50% less. Adjusted anticoagulant ADE costs added >45% and Hypoglycemic ADE costs added >20% to inpatient costs. The 2013 hospital cost estimates for ADEs associated with anticoagulants and hypoglycemic agents were >$2.5 billion for each drug class. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for confounders in the estimation of ADEs, and the importance of separate estimates of ADE costs by drug class.

  11. Bemfola(®) fixed dose pens potentially reduce drug wastage and associated costs of infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Foxon, Graham; Mitchell, Paul; Turner, Nikki; McConnell, Anne; Kendrew, Helen; Jenkins, Julian

    2017-05-26

    Bemfola(®) is a recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) used during infertility treatment. One main differentiator between FSH products is their delivery device; consisting of multi-dose pens (Gonal-f(®)), vials or multi-dose preparations (Menopur(®)), or adjustable daily disposable dose pens (Bemfola(®)). To determine the potential impact of delivery device on drug wastage during infertility treatment this study retrospectively analysed Gonal-f(®) and Menopur(®) prescription and usage data from five UK clinics. Incurred drug wastage was then compared to potential Bemfola(®) drug wastage. Data collected included: (i) number of treatment cycles; (ii) daily FSH dose; (iii) length of treatment; (iv) dose adjustment following ultrasound scan; (v) FSH formulation(s) prescribed and (vi) agonist/antagonist protocol used. Treatment with Gonal-f(®) (4078 cycles) and Menopur(®) (646 cycles) resulted in an average drug wastage of 160 and 294 IU per treatment cycle. Use of Bemfola(®) instead of Gonal-f(®) and Menopur(®) may reduce the wastage to 104 and 61 IU per cycle, respectively. The use of Bemfola(®), across all 4724 cycles, could result in a drug wastage reduction of up to 376,800 IUs with an associated cost saving of £100,011. Bemfola(®) is a viable alternative to Gonal-f(®) and Menopur(®) with its drug delivery system potentially reducing drug wastage and associated costs during infertility treatment.

  12. The financial and environmental costs of reusable and single-use plastic anaesthetic drug trays.

    PubMed

    McGain, F; McAlister, S; McGavin, A; Story, D

    2010-05-01

    We modelled the financial and environmental costs of two commonly used anaesthetic plastic drug trays. We proposed that, compared with single-use trays, reusable trays are less expensive, consume less water and produce less carbon dioxide, and that routinely adding cotton and paper increases financial and environmental costs. We used life cycle assessment to model the financial and environmental costs of reusable and single-use trays. From our life cycle assessment modelling, the reusable tray cost (Australian dollars) $0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] $0.21 to $0.25) while the single-use tray alone cost $0.47 (price range of $0.42 to $0.52) and the single-use tray with cotton and gauze added was $0.90 (no price range in Melbourne). Production of CO2 was 110 g CO2 (95% CI 98 to 122 g CO2) for the reusable tray, 126 g (95% CI 104 to 151 g) for single-use trays alone (mean difference of 16 g, 95% CI -8 to 40 g) and 204 g CO2 (95% CI 166 to 268 g CO2) for the single-use trays with cotton and paper Water use was 3.1 l (95% CI 2.5 to 3.7 l) for the reusable tray, 10.4 l (95% CI 8.2 to 12.7 l) for the single-use tray and 26.7 l (95% CI 20.5 to 35.4 l) for the single-use tray with cotton and paper Compared with reusable plastic trays, single-use trays alone cost twice as much, produced 15% more CO2 and consumed three times the amount of water Packaging cotton gauze and paper with single-use trays markedly increased the financial, energy and water costs. On both financial and environmental grounds it appears difficult to justify the use of single-use drug trays.

  13. Primary care and prescription drugs: coverage, cost-sharing, and financial protection in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Sarah; Mossialos, Elias

    2010-03-01

    This issue brief describes coverage, cost-sharing, and financial protection for pri-mary care and prescription drugs in Denmark, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Very few patients report unmet need for care or find general practitioner care unaffordable. Although none of the six countries spends more than 11 percent of gross domes-tic product on health care, compared with 16.2 percent in the United States, they are able to provide a level of access to and financial protection for primary care and prescription drugs that far exceeds what is available in the U.S. Several have focused recently on adapting cost-sharing design to reflect value by reducing user charges for highly effective care, preventive care, accepting referral to specialist care, adhering to clinical guidelines, and enrollment in dis-ease management programs. These innovations, and others described in the brief, could help inform U.S. policies for national health insurance reform.

  14. Reaching Prevention Professionals: The Mentor Portal Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Drug Misuse Prevention Portal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    productivity in research • Increase productivity in education, fundraising and project coordination • Increase of awareness and stimulate debate...about drug misuse prevention • Increase of fundraising • Increase of number of prevention programs worldwide • Increase of networking potential and...sending out material for fundraising and informing the interested public the information can be spread cost-effectively via internet. One example

  15. Costs of intravenous adverse drug events in academic and nonacademic intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Paddock, Susan M; Bower, Anthony G; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Carlson, Beverly; Panzer, Robert J; Hilborne, Lee H

    2008-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs), particularly those involving intravenous medications (IV-ADEs), are common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and may increase hospitalization costs. Precise cost estimates have not been reported for academic ICUs, and no studies have included nonacademic ICUs. To estimate increases in costs and length of stay after IV-ADEs at an academic and a nonacademic hospital. This study reviewed medical records to identify IV-ADEs, and then, using a nested case-control design with propensity-score matching, assessed differences in costs and length of stay between cases and controls. : A total of 4604 adult ICU patients in 3 ICUs at an academic hospital and 2 ICUs at a nonacademic hospital in 2003 and 2004. Increased cost and length of stay associated with IV-ADEs. : Three hundred ninety-seven IV-ADEs were identified: 79% temporary physical injuries, 0% permanent physical injuries, 20% interventions to sustain life, and 2% in-hospital deaths. In the academic ICUs, patients with IV-ADEs had $6647 greater costs (P < 0.0001) and 4.8-day longer stays (P = 0.0003) compared with controls. In the nonacademic ICUs, IV-ADEs were not associated with greater costs ($188, P = 0.4236) or lengths of stay (-0.3 days, P = 0.8016). Cost and length-of-stay differences between the hospitals were statistically significant (P = 0.0012). However, there were no differences in IV-ADE severity or preventability, and the characteristics of patients experiencing IV-ADEs differed only modestly. IV-ADEs substantially increased hospitalization costs and length of stay in ICUs at an academic hospital but not at a nonacademic hospital, likely because of differences in practices after IV-ADEs occurred.

  16. Influence of subcutaneous specific immunotherapy on drug costs in children suffering from allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment attenuating the progression of allergic asthma. To date, there is a lack of studies investigating the economic consequences of SCIT on health care expenditures. Methods A health-economic piggy-back analysis of SCIT was conducted based on a RCT that enrolled 65 children and adolescents with allergic asthma. Patients were allocated into two groups: A group receiving SCIT with a high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite preparation plus asthma medication and a control group receiving only asthma medication. For both groups asthma control was achieved before the start of the SCIT treatment and was maintained during the study. Both, costs and cost-effectiveness of SCIT with the high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite preparation were investigated based on total medication costs, incremental medication costs and treatment effects (measured as lung function), respectively. A bootstrap analysis was performed to validate the results. Results A steady decline in medication costs could be observed in the SCIT group one year after treatment start compared to the control group. This cost trend became statistically significant 3 years after SCIT started. The calculated potential savings in the SCIT group correlated with an improved lung function. The distribution of the bootstrap results revealed that the probability of SCIT having a superior effectiveness compared to the control group is around 90%. Conclusion SCIT with a high-dose hypoallergenic preparation received by children and adolescents suffering from mite induced allergic asthma reduces the allergic medication intake and has cost-saving effects. Additional costs associated with SCIT may be completely compensated by drug cost savings 4 years after end of SCIT. Additionally, SCIT is superior compared to routine care as measured by the lung function that improved in SCIT-treated patients. Trial registration: (EudraCT no. 2004 – 003892 – 35

  17. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2017-09-20

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  18. Do policy changes in the pharmaceutical reimbursement schedule affect drug expenditures? Interrupted time series analysis of cost, volume and cost per volume trends in Sweden 1986-2002.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Karolina; Petzold, Max Gustav; Sonesson, Christian; Lönnroth, Knut; Carlsten, Anders

    2006-12-01

    The last decades increasing pharmaceutical expenditures in Sweden and other western countries have created a need for reforms to reduce the trend. The aim was to analyse if reforms concerning the pharmaceutical reimbursement scheme in Sweden during the years 1986-2002 were associated with changes in cost, volume and cost per volume of pharmaceuticals. Effects of changes in the reimbursement schedule during the study period were evaluated for all registered pharmaceuticals in Sweden and for five indicator drug groups. Five policy changes during the study period were assessed. Three concerned increased patient co-payment (January 1, 1991; January 1, 1995 and June 1, 1999), one the introduction of reference based pricing and increased co-payment (January 1, 1993) and one a new structure of the reimbursement schedule (January 1, 1997). The National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies provided pharmaceutical delivery data for all Swedish pharmacies. Possible breaks in the trend associated with the investigated reforms were analysed with linear segmented regression analysis. This showed that increased co-payments were not associated with changed level or slope of cost and volume. The new reimbursement schedule was associated with a decreased level of cost and volume, both for all drugs combined and for several of the indicator drug groups. It was also associated with an increased slope for both volume and cost in some indicator drug groups and for all drugs. Introduction of reference based pricing was associated with a reduced slope of cost/defined daily doses (DDD) in all of the indicator drug groups and for all drugs. The analysis showed that major changes in the reimbursement system such as the introduction of a new reimbursement schedule and reference based pricing were associated with reductions in cost and volume for the new reimbursement schedule and cost per volume for reference based pricing.

  19. Spinal versus general anesthesia for orthopedic surgery: anesthesia drug and supply costs.

    PubMed

    Gonano, Christopher; Leitgeb, Ursula; Sitzwohl, Christian; Ihra, Gerald; Weinstabl, Christian; Kettner, Stephan C

    2006-02-01

    Total hip or knee replacement surgeries are common orthopedic interventions that can be performed with spinal anesthesia (SA) or general anesthesia (GA). No study has investigated the economic aspects associated with the two anesthetic techniques for this common surgery. We randomized 40 patients to receive either SA or GA and analyzed the drug and supply costs for anesthesia und recovery. Anesthesia-related times, hemodynamic variables, and pain scores were also recorded. Total costs per case without personnel costs were almost half in the SA group compared with the GA group; this was a result of less cost for anesthesia (P < 0.01) and for recovery (P < 0.05). This finding was supported by a sensitivity analysis. There were no relevant differences regarding anesthesia-related times. Patients in the GA group were admitted to the postanesthesia care unit with a higher pain score and needed more analgesics than patients in the SA group (both P < 0.01). We conclude that SA is a more cost-effective alternative to GA in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement, as it is associated with lower fixed and variable costs. Moreover, SA seems to be more effective, as patients in the SA group showed lower postoperative pain scores during their stay in the postanesthesia care unit.

  20. On the possibility of low cost, adherent therapeutic drug monitoring in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Marta, Silvia; Fornasaro, Stefano; Jaworska, Aleksandra; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter

    2016-05-01

    A frequent quantification of drugs concentrations in plasma of patients subject to chemotherapy is seldom performed, mostly because the standard methods (Gas or Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectroscopy) are expensive and time consuming. In this paper we report the approach pursued in one of the research units of the EU project RAMAN4CLINICS to tackle the problem of a low cost, time adherent quantification of drugs used for oncological patients using a Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. More specifically, the issues concerning the repeatability of the nanostructured substrates will be presented and some promising results to increase the selectivity of the measures toward specific drugs will be discussed, with examples concerning one cytotoxic agent, Irinotecan and one kinase inhibitor, Sunitinib.

  1. Impact of prepackaging antimalarial drugs on cost to patients and compliance with treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Yeboah-Antwi, K.; Gyapong, J. O.; Asare, I. K.; Barnish, G.; Evans, D. B.; Adjei, S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which district health teams could reduce the burden of malaria, a continuing major cause of mortality and morbidity, in a situation where severe resource constraints existed and integrated care was provided. METHODS: Antimalarial drugs were prepackaged into unit doses in an attempt to improve compliance with full courses of chemotherapy. FINDINGS: Compliance improved by approximately 20% in both adults and children. There were 50% reductions in cost to patients, waiting time at dispensaries and drug wastage at facilities. The intervention, which tended to improve both case and drug management at facilities, was well accepted by health staff and did not involve them in additional working time. CONCLUSION: The prepackaging of antimalarials at the district level offers the prospect of improved compliance and a reduction in the spread of resistance. PMID:11417034

  2. Transgenic plants as low-cost platform for chemotherapeutic drugs screening.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Daniele; de Domenico, Stefania; Maffia, Michele; Piro, Gabriella; Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro

    2015-01-20

    In this work we explored the possibility of using genetically modified Arabidopsis thaliana plants as a rapid and low-cost screening tool for evaluating human anticancer drugs action and efficacy. Here, four different inhibitors with a validated anticancer effect in humans and distinct mechanism of action were screened in the plant model for their ability to interfere with the cytoskeletal and endomembrane networks. We used plants expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged microtubule-protein (TUA6-GFP), and three soluble GFPs differently sorted to reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (GFPKDEL) or to accumulate in the vacuole through a COPII dependent (AleuGFP) or independent (GFPChi) mechanism. Our results demonstrated that drugs tested alone or in combination differentially influenced the monitored cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization and endomembrane trafficking. In conclusion, we demonstrated that A. thaliana plants are sensitive to the action of human chemotherapeutics and can be used for preliminary screening of drugs efficacy. The cost-effective subcellular imaging in plant cell may contribute to better clarify drugs subcellular targets and their anticancer effects.

  3. The future costs, risks and rewards of drug development: the economics of pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joseph; Hunter, Graeme; Vernon, John A

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the evolving field of pharmacogenomics, which is the science of using genomic markers to predict drug response, and how it may impact the future costs, risks and returns to pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). We uncover a number of factors and issues that are likely to influence the expected returns and, hence, the incentive to invest in new pharmaceutical R&D in tandem with the development of pharmacogenomics. Specifically, we identify how pharmacogenomics may lower the cost of drug development by shortening drug development times. Thus, pharmacogenomics may lead to an increase in a drug's effective patent life, and may also increase the demand and adoption rate for new products. For these and other reasons, pharmacogenomics may one day enhance expected future returns to R&D, leading to higher levels of R&D investment and an increased pace of pharmaceutical innovation. Our conclusions must be read with much caution, however, as there is considerable uncertainty as to how the area will evolve, both clinically and economically. The time horizon necessary for the science to develop and be adopted into clinical practice is not clear. Nevertheless, we think the issues and factors outlined in this article shed light on possible future economic outcomes and changes in the industry's structure, conduct and performance. Hopefully, this will provide researchers with avenues to pursue regarding a better understanding of the economics of pharmacogenomics.

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis. A Systematic Review Literature

    PubMed Central

    Benucci, Maurizio; Saviola, Gianantonio; Manfredi, Mariangela; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of treatments that have changed the “natural history” of a chronic progressive disease needs to be evaluated over the long term. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the standard treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and should be started as early as possible. A number of studies have shown that they are effective in improving disease activity and function, and in joint damage. Our review was focused on revision and critical evaluation of the studies including the literature on cost effectiveness of DMARDs (cyclosporine A, sulphasalazine, leflunomide, and methotrexate). The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations showed that traditional DMARDs are cost effective at the time of disease onset. They are less expensive than biological DMARDs and can be useful in controlling disease activity in early RA. PMID:22162693

  5. Modeling the Impact and Costs of Semiannual Mass Drug Administration for Accelerated Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    de Vlas, Sake J.; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.; Goldman, Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) has a target date of 2020. This program is progressing well in many countries. However, progress has been slow in some countries, and others have not yet started their mass drug administration (MDA) programs. Acceleration is needed. We studied how increasing MDA frequency from once to twice per year would affect program duration and costs by using computer simulation modeling and cost projections. We used the LYMFASIM simulation model to estimate how many annual or semiannual MDA rounds would be required to eliminate LF for Indian and West African scenarios with varied pre-control endemicity and coverage levels. Results were used to estimate total program costs assuming a target population of 100,000 eligibles, a 3% discount rate, and not counting the costs of donated drugs. A sensitivity analysis was done to investigate the robustness of these results with varied assumptions for key parameters. Model predictions suggested that semiannual MDA will require the same number of MDA rounds to achieve LF elimination as annual MDA in most scenarios. Thus semiannual MDA programs should achieve this goal in half of the time required for annual programs. Due to efficiency gains, total program costs for semiannual MDA programs are projected to be lower than those for annual MDA programs in most scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this conclusion is robust. Semiannual MDA is likely to shorten the time and lower the cost required for LF elimination in countries where it can be implemented. This strategy may improve prospects for global elimination of LF by the target year 2020. PMID:23301115

  6. Hidden costs of HIV treatment in Spain: inefficiency of the antiretroviral drug packaging.

    PubMed

    Llibre-Codina, Josep M; Andreu-Crespo, Angels; Cardona-Peitx, Gloria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet-Sala, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    treating 78 patients with rilpivirine/TDF/FTC during 1 month. Class A and B packages in bad condition represented only 1.1% of the cost. However, 75.805€ came from returned packages in good condition that could potentially be reused. Most of the treatment changes were not foreseeable. A significant economic budget is lost through socially inefficient antiretroviral packages. Newer treatments are packaged in C and D categories, therefore maintaining these hidden costs in the near future. Any improvement in the excellence of packaging by the manufacturer, and favouring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity and convenience are similar) should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets.

  7. The cost of antibiotic mass drug administration for trachoma control in a remote area of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P

    2011-10-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called "SAFE" strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as "integrated NTD control," is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available.

  8. The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available. PMID:22022632

  9. Reduction of costs for anemia-management drugs associated with the use of ferric citrate

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anila; Peterson, Leif E

    2014-01-01

    Background Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder which has the potential to reduce usage of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron used for anemia management during hemodialysis (HD) among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Currently, the potential health care cost savings on a national scale due to the use of ferric citrate in ESRD are undetermined. Methods Per-patient-per-year costs of ESAs (Epogen® and Aranesp® [Amgen Inc., CA, USA]) and IV iron (Venofer® [American Regent, Inc., NY, USA] and Ferrlecit® [Sanofi US, Bridgewater, NJ, USA]) were based on RED BOOK™ (Truven Health Analytics New York, NY, USA) costs combined with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) base rate and actual usage in 2011 for the four drugs. The annual number of outpatients undergoing HD in the US was based on frequencies reported by the USRDS (United States Renal Data System). Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed to determine total annual costs and cost reduction based on ferric citrate usage. Results Total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron for anemia management in ESRD determined by Monte Carlo analysis assuming CMS base rate value was 5.127 (3.664–6.260) billion USD. For actual utilization in 2011, total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron was 3.981 (2.780–4.930) billion USD. If ferric citrate usage reduced ESA utilization by 20% and IV iron by 40%, then total cost would be reduced by 21.2% to 4.038 (2.868–4.914) billion USD for the CMS base rate, and by 21.8% to 3.111 (2.148–3.845) billion USD, based on 2011 actual utilization. Conclusion It is likely that US health care costs for anemia-management drugs associated with ESRD among HD patients can be reduced by using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder. PMID:24899820

  10. Australian governments' spending on preventing and responding to drug abuse should target the main sources of drug-related harm and the most cost-effective interventions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David

    2011-01-01

    A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of one-time genetic testing to minimize lifetime adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, O; Durham, D; Kasirajan, K

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of one-time pharmacogenomic testing for preventing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) over a patient's lifetime. We developed a Markov-based Monte Carlo microsimulation model to represent the ADR events in the lifetime of each patient. The base-case considered a 40-year-old patient. We measured health outcomes in life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs) and estimated costs using 2013 US$. In the base-case, one-time genetic testing had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,165 (95% confidence interval (CI) is ($42,769,$43,561)) per additional LY and $53,680 per additional QALY (95% CI is ($53,182,$54,179)), hence under the base-case one-time genetic testing is cost-effective. The ICER values were most sensitive to the average probability of death due to ADR, reduction in ADR rate due to genetic testing, mean ADR rate and cost of genetic testing.

  12. Cost-effectiveness Analysis for Genotyping before Allopurinol Treatment to Prevent Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ching-Hua; Chung, Wen-Hung; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Tain, You-Lin; Wang, Yu-Ching Lily; Wu, Cheng-Chih; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-06-01

    Patients with an HLA-B*58:01 allele have an increased risk of developing severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR) when treated with allopurinol. Although one-off pharmacogenetic testing may prevent life-threatening adverse drug reactions, testing prior to allopurinol initiation incurs additional costs. The study objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HLA-B*58:01 screening compared with using other available urate-lowering agents (ULA). A decision-analytical model was used to compare direct medical costs and effectiveness [including lifetime saved, quality-adjusted life-yrs (QALY) gained] in treating new patients with the following options: (1) genetic screening followed by allopurinol prescribing for noncarriers of HLA-B*58:01, (2) prescribing benzbromarone without screening, (3) prescribing febuxostat without screening, and (4) prescribing allopurinol without screening. A 1-year time frame and third-party payer perspective were modeled for both the entire cohort (base-case) and for the subgroup of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of genetic screening prior to ULA therapy was estimated as New Taiwan (NT) $234,610 (US$7508) per QALY gained in the base-case cohort. For patients with CKD, it was estimated as NT$230,925 (US$7390) per QALY. The study results were sensitive to the probability of benzbromarone/febuxostat-related hypersensitivity, and a negative predicted value of genotyping. HLA-B*58:01 screening gave good value for money in preventing allopurinol-induced SCAR in patients indicated for ULA therapy. In addition to the costs of genotyping, it is important to monitor ULA safety closely in adopting HLA-B*58:01 screening in practice.

  13. Using a clinical data repository to estimate the frequency and costs of adverse drug events.

    PubMed Central

    Einbinder, J. S.; Scully, K.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of increased attention to medical errors, many institutions are contemplating increased use of information technology and clinical decision support. We conducted a retrospective analysis to estimate the frequency and cost of adverse drug events (ADEs) for inpatients at the University of Virginia. Applying published criteria for the detection of potential adverse events, we used a clinical data warehouse to identify patients and cases with potential ADEs. Again using published criteria, we then estimated the actual number of adverse drug events and preventable adverse drug events, as well as their attributable costs and excess length of stay. Our results showed a higher estimate (10.4-11.5 events per 100 admissions) for ADEs than seen in the ADE Prevention Study, highlighting the importance of considering the generalizability of published ADE studies to other settings. Our analysis demonstrates that retrospective analysis can be an efficient and powerful technique to evaluate rules and criteria used to detect ADEs and to assess their impact. PMID:11833476

  14. Estimating the differential costs of criminal activity for juvenile drug court participants: challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    McCollister, Kathryn E; French, Michael T; Sheidow, Ashli J; Henggeler, Scott W; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile drug court (JDC) programs have expanded rapidly over the past 20 years and are an increasingly popular option for rehabilitating juvenile offenders with substance use problems. Given the high cost of crime to society, an important economic question is whether and to what extent JDC programs reduce criminal activity among juvenile offenders. To address this question, the present study added an economic cost analysis to an ongoing randomized trial of JDC conducted in Charleston, South Carolina. Four treatment conditions were included in the parent study: Family Court with usual community-based treatment (FC, the comparison group), Drug Court with usual community-based treatment (DC), DC with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and DC/MST enhanced with Contingency Management (DC/MST/CM). The economic study estimated the cost of criminal activity for nine specific crimes at baseline (pretreatment) and 4 and 12 months thereafter. A number of methodological challenges were encountered, suggesting that it may be more difficult to economically quantify frequency and type of criminal activity for adolescents than for adults. The present paper addresses methodological approaches and challenges, and proposes guidelines for future economic evaluations of adolescent substance abuse and crime prevention programs.

  15. A dynamic perspective on pharmaceutical competition, drug development and cost effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Herings, Ron

    2011-04-01

    Limited healthcare budgets result in payers adopting policies at national, regional or local level to achieve allocative efficiency in drug spending. Some of these aim at creating a link between pharmaceutical prices and the value they provide by setting a cost effectiveness (CE) threshold as the maximum acceptable ratio between incremental costs and effects of new drugs. The clinical effectiveness of the comparator used in those CE analyses tends to be greater over time, whilst, due to market competition and loss of exclusivity, their price is expected to be lower. At the same time, research and development (R&D) costs increase with inflation and with efforts to address regulation towards increased safety concerns. As effective patent times decrease, a minimum price constraint raises for the new entrant. These features occur at different rates across disease areas and are expected to result in differently shaped innovation curves. In this scenario, we demonstrate that a general arbitrary threshold may prevent further efficient R&D. Investment may be withdrawn before the optimum innovation point is reached and affordable clinical effectiveness may be lost. We conclude that disease-specific characteristics are an additional consideration in CE decision rules to accommodate the particularities of innovation across disease areas.

  16. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? An explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Veisten, Knut; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, M P M René; Akhtar, Juned

    2013-03-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for decades in many countries, but new legislation and testing of drivers for drug use have recently been implemented in some countries. In this article we present a methodology for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of increased law enforcement of roadside drug screening. This is an analysis of the profitability for society, where costs of control are weighed against the reduction in injuries expected from fewer drugged drivers on the roads. We specify assumptions regarding costs and the effect of the specificity of the drug screening device, and quantify a deterrence effect related to sensitivity of the device yielding the benefit estimates. Three European countries with different current enforcement levels were studied, yielding benefit-cost ratios in the approximate range of 0.5-5 for a tripling of current levels of enforcement, with costs of about 4000 EUR per convicted and in the range of 1.5 and 13 million EUR per prevented fatality. The applied methodology for CBA has involved a simplistic behavioural response to enforcement increase and control efficiency. Although this methodology should be developed further, it is clearly indicated that the cost-efficiency of increased law enforcement of drug driving offences is dependent on the baseline situation of drug-use in traffic and on the current level of enforcement, as well as the RR and prevalence of drugs in road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    PubMed

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W; So, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W.; So, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15–25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10–19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32–75 (195–460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62–110 (379–670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63–120 (384–734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level. PMID:26536626

  19. The cost of multiple sclerosis drugs in the US and the pharmaceutical industry: Too big to fail?

    PubMed

    Hartung, Daniel M; Bourdette, Dennis N; Ahmed, Sharia M; Whitham, Ruth H

    2015-05-26

    To examine the pricing trajectories in the United States of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS) over the last 20 years and assess the influences on rising prices. We estimated the trend in annual drug costs for 9 DMTs using published drug pricing data from 1993 to 2013. We compared changes in DMT costs to general and prescription drug inflation during the same period. We also compared the cost trajectories for first-generation MS DMTs interferon (IFN)-β-1b, IFN-β-1a IM, and glatiramer acetate with contemporaneously approved biologic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. First-generation DMTs, originally costing $8,000 to $11,000, now cost about $60,000 per year. Costs for these agents have increased annually at rates 5 to 7 times higher than prescription drug inflation. Newer DMTs commonly entered the market with a cost 25%-60% higher than existing DMTs. Significant increases in the cost trajectory of the first-generation DMTs occurred following the Food and Drug Administration approvals of IFN-β-1a SC (2002) and natalizumab (reintroduced 2006) and remained high following introduction of fingolimod (2010). Similar changes did not occur with TNF inhibitor biologics during these time intervals. DMT costs in the United States currently are 2 to 3 times higher than in other comparable countries. MS DMT costs have accelerated at rates well beyond inflation and substantially above rates observed for drugs in a similar biologic class. There is an urgent need for clinicians, payers, and manufacturers in the United States to confront the soaring costs of DMTs. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Proper use of drugs and relation between purchasing power and cost of treatment prescribed in Casamance.

    PubMed

    Yankhoba Dramé, Y

    2016-08-01

    In Senegal, health insurance is available only to employees in the private and public sector and to the elderly (through the Sesame program). The rest of the population, especially different categories of vulnerable people, has no health insurance. Their access to healthcare and to medications is thus limited. In this study, we sought to analyze the relation between purchasing power and costs of treatment prescribed in one city. We questioned the customers leaving pharmacies in Ziguinchor, the administrative center of the lower Casamance, in southern Senegal, and analyzed their prescriptions and over-the-counter purchases. In all, we examined 255 prescriptions/purchases including 643 drugs; 29.4% were written by prescribers in the public health sector. The customers with these prescriptions were less educated, had lower incomes, used taxis more often, and consulted nurses more often than customers with prescriptions from the private health sector. Injectables and INN (international nonproprietary names) were dispensed most often to customers with prescriptions. Dispensing was usually better when the drug was prescribed, and when it was prescribed by a doctor. Nurses appeared to be inadequately trained in the proper use of medications. The percentage of drugs purchased did not depend on the patients' financial means or educational level. Those who most often acquired all of the drugs prescribed were those who had consulted a doctor rather than another type of healthcare provider.

  1. Medical cost-offset following treatment referral for alcohol and other drug use disorders in a group model HMO.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Freeborn, Donald K; Lynch, Frances L; Mullooly, John P; Dickinson, Daniel M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specialty alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment is associated with reduced subsequent medical care costs. AOD treatment costs and medical costs in a group model health maintenance organization (HMO) were collected for up to 6 years on 1,472 HMO members who were recommended for specialty AOD treatment, and on 738 members without AOD diagnoses or treatment. Addiction Severity Index measures were also obtained from a sample of 293 of those recommended for treatment. Changes in medical costs did not differ between treatment and comparison groups. Nor did individuals with improved treatment outcomes have greater reductions in medical costs. AOD treatment costs were not inversely related to subsequent medical costs, except for a subgroup with recent AOD treatment. In the interviewed sample, better treatment outcomes did not predict lower subsequent medical costs. Multiple treatment episodes may hold promise for producing cost-offsets.

  2. Cost and Efficacy Assessment of an Alternative Medication Compliance Urine Drug Testing Strategy.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Kelly; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the frequency at which quantitative results provide additional clinical benefit compared to qualitative results alone. A comparison between alternative urine drug screens and conventional screens including the assessment of cost-to-payer differences, accuracy of prescription compliance or polypharmacy/substance abuse was also included. In a reference laboratory evaluation of urine specimens from across the United States, 213 urine specimens with provided prescription medication information (302 prescriptions) were analyzed by two testing algorithms: 1) conventional immunoassay screen with subsequent reflexive testing of positive results by quantitative mass spectrometry; and 2) a combined immunoassay/qualitative mass-spectrometry screen that substantially reduced the need for subsequent testing. The qualitative screen was superior to immunoassay with reflex to mass spectrometry in confirming compliance per prescription (226/302 vs 205/302), and identifying non-prescription abuse (97 vs 71). Pharmaceutical impurities and inconsistent drug metabolite patterns were detected in only 3.8% of specimens, suggesting that quantitative results have limited benefit. The percentage difference between the conventional testing algorithm and the alternative screen was projected to be 55%, and a 2-year evaluation of test utilization as a measure of test order volume follows an exponential trend for alternative screen test orders over conventional immunoassay screens that require subsequent confirmation testing. Alternative, qualitative urine drug screens provide a less expensive, faster, and more comprehensive evaluation of patient medication compliance and drug abuse. The vast majority of results were interpretable with qualitative results alone indicating a reduced need to automatically reflex to quantitation or provide quantitation for the majority of patients. This strategy highlights a successful approach using an alternative strategy for both the

  3. Treatment patterns and annual drug costs of biologic therapies across indications from the Humana commercial database.

    PubMed

    Howe, Andrew; Eyck, Laura Ten; Dufour, Robert; Shah, Neel; Harrison, David J

    2014-12-01

    A variety of biologic therapies are currently used for the treatment of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis (PsO), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). These diseases require long-term treatment, and information regarding the use and costs of biologic therapies can be valuable in making treatment and formulary decisions for clinicians and payers. To evaluate current utilization and annual costs of biologic therapies for treatment of RA, PsO, PsA, and AS in a real-world setting. This retrospective observational cohort analysis utilized data from the Humana commercial claims database. Eligible patients had an index (first) claim between February 1, 2008, and September 30, 2011, for abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab, or ustekinumab and a diagnosis of RA, PsO, PsA, AS, or combination of these diseases. Patients with and without a claim for their index therapy within 180 days prior to their index dates were defined as continuing and new patients, respectively. Outcomes included 1-year rates of persistence; rates of restarting, discontinuing, or switching for patients who were not persistent; and annual costs. Costs were based on dose and the October 2013 wholesale acquisition cost (WAC). Total expenditure was calculated as the (total index biologic drug utilization × WAC) + (number of administrations × Medicare fee schedule) + Σ(biologic dose after discontinuation × associated WAC price). Of 2,721 patients analyzed, 1,308 (48%) were new patients, and 1,413 (52%) were continuing patients. Across approved indications, the most commonly used biologics were adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab. Continuing patients had higher rates of persistence on index therapy than new patients. The mean annual cost [SD] per treated patient for new patients across all indications was numerically lowest for adalimumab ($20,916 [$7,572]), followed by infliximab

  4. Opposite Drug Prescription and Cost Trajectories following Integrative and Conventional Care for Pain – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Tobias; Petzold, Max; Kohls, Niko; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacotherapy may have a limited role in long-term pain management. Comparative trajectories of drug prescriptions and costs, two quality-of-care indicators for pain conditions, are largely unknown subsequent to conventional or integrative care (IC) management. The objectives of this study were to compare prescribed defined daily doses (DDD) and cost of first line drugs for pain patients referred to conventional or anthroposophic IC in Stockholm County, Sweden. Methods In this retrospective high quality registry case-control study, IC and conventional care patients were identified through inpatient care registries and matched on pain diagnosis (ICD-10: M79), age, gender and socio-demographics. National drug registry data was used to investigate changes in DDD and costs from 90/180 days before, to 90/180 days after, index visits to IC and conventional care. The primary selected drug category was analgesics, complemented by musculo-skeletal system drugs (e.g. anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants) and psycholeptics (e.g. hypnotics, sedatives). Results After index care visits, conventional care pain patients (n = 1050) compared to IC patients (n = 213), were prescribed significantly more analgesics. The average (95% CI) group difference was 15.2 (6.0 to 24.3), p = 0.001, DDD/patient after 90 days; and 21.5 (7.4 to 35.6), p = 0.003, DDD/patient after 180 days. The cost of the prescribed and sold analgesics was significantly higher for conventional care after 90 days: euro/patient 10.7 (1.3 to 20.0), p = 0.025. Changes in drug prescription and costs for the other drug categories were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions Drug prescriptions and costs of analgesics increased following conventional care and decreased following IC, indicating potentially fewer adverse drug events and beneficial societal cost savings with IC. PMID:24827981

  5. Opposite drug prescription and cost trajectories following integrative and conventional care for pain--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Tobias; Petzold, Max; Kohls, Niko; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy may have a limited role in long-term pain management. Comparative trajectories of drug prescriptions and costs, two quality-of-care indicators for pain conditions, are largely unknown subsequent to conventional or integrative care (IC) management. The objectives of this study were to compare prescribed defined daily doses (DDD) and cost of first line drugs for pain patients referred to conventional or anthroposophic IC in Stockholm County, Sweden. In this retrospective high quality registry case-control study, IC and conventional care patients were identified through inpatient care registries and matched on pain diagnosis (ICD-10: M79), age, gender and socio-demographics. National drug registry data was used to investigate changes in DDD and costs from 90/180 days before, to 90/180 days after, index visits to IC and conventional care. The primary selected drug category was analgesics, complemented by musculo-skeletal system drugs (e.g. anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants) and psycholeptics (e.g. hypnotics, sedatives). After index care visits, conventional care pain patients (n = 1050) compared to IC patients (n = 213), were prescribed significantly more analgesics. The average (95% CI) group difference was 15.2 (6.0 to 24.3), p = 0.001, DDD/patient after 90 days; and 21.5 (7.4 to 35.6), p = 0.003, DDD/patient after 180 days. The cost of the prescribed and sold analgesics was significantly higher for conventional care after 90 days: euro/patient 10.7 (1.3 to 20.0), p = 0.025. Changes in drug prescription and costs for the other drug categories were not significantly different between groups. Drug prescriptions and costs of analgesics increased following conventional care and decreased following IC, indicating potentially fewer adverse drug events and beneficial societal cost savings with IC.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of drug-coated therapies in the superficial femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Natalie D; Boitet, Aureline; Smith, Kenneth; Noorbakhsh, Kathy; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Eslami, Mohammad H; Makaroun, Michel; Chaer, Rabih

    2017-09-25

    Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) may increase durability of endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease while avoiding stent-related risks. The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic data of DCB studies to compare the cost-effectiveness of potential SFA treatments: DCB, drug-eluting stent (DES), plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), or bare-metal stent (BMS). A search for randomized controlled trials comparing DCB with POBA for treatment of SFA disease was performed. Hazard ratios were extracted to account for the time-to-event primary outcome of target lesion revascularization. Odds ratios were calculated for the secondary outcomes of primary patency (PP) and major amputation. Incorporating pooled data from the meta-analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, assuming a payer perspective, used a decision model to simulate patency at 1 year and 2 years for each index treatment modality: POBA, BMS, DCB, or DES. Costs were based on current Medicare outpatient reimbursement rates. Eight studies (1352 patients) met inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. DCB outperformed POBA with respect to target lesion revascularization over time (pooled hazard ratio, 0.41; P < .001). Risk of major amputation at 12 months was not significantly different between groups. There was significantly improved 1-year PP in the DCB group compared with POBA (pooled odds ratio, 3.30; P < .001). In the decision model, the highest PP at 1 year was seen in the DES index therapy strategy (79%), followed by DCB (74%), BMS (71%), and POBA (64%). With a baseline cost of $9259.39 per patent limb at 1 year in the POBA-first group, the incremental cost per patent limb for each other strategy compared with POBA was calculated: $14,136.10/additional patent limb for DCB, $38,549.80/limb for DES, and $59,748,85/limb for BMS. The primary BMS option is dominated by being more expensive and less effective than DCB. Compared directly with DCB, DES costs $87,377.20 per additional patent

  7. Case study of the effects of office-based generic drug sampling on antibiotic drug costs and first-line antibiotic prescribing ratios.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Mark H; Culley, Eric J; O'Donnell, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Health plans and members benefit from the substitution of lower-cost drug therapies that achieve the same clinical outcomes as higher-cost drugs. Previous research suggests that generic sampling programs produce drug cost savings overall, but the effects attributable to acute therapies are unknown. Encouraging physicians to prescribe less expensive, first-line antibiotics may help reduce direct drug costs associated with prescribing potentially unnecessary, and more expensive, second-line agents. To determine the effects of an automated, office-based generic drug sampling kiosk on (a) prescribing of first-line oral antibiotic agents as a ratio of total antibiotic prescribing and (b) average antibiotic drug cost per claim. This managed care organization of 2.3 million members with pharmacy benefits collaborated with a vendor that developed an automated generic drug kiosk that allows for the dispensing of samples of generic medications within the prescriber's office. Among the samples contained in the kiosk were 6 generic, first-line oral antibiotics, representing 8 unique drug-strength options. Drug costs were defined as the ingredient cost of the drug claim, which includes plan cost, member cost share, and any dispensing fees or administrative program costs associated with the sampling program. In a difference-in-difference analysis, changes in outcome measures (antibiotic drug cost per claim and dispensing rates of first-line antibiotics) from 2003 (baseline year) to 2005 (post-implementation year) were compared among kiosk prescribers (n=179) and nonkiosk prescribers who were part of the same provider network (n=7,236). A cross-sectional analysis of the same outcome measures compared kiosk (n=396) and nonkiosk prescribers (n=10,267) in 2006. All statistical analyses were performed using t-tests of logtransformed data. The mean cost per claim dropped by $4.14 (12.3%) from $33.56 in 2003 to $29.42 in 2005 for the kiosk prescribers and by $3.35 (8.8%) from $38.26 in

  8. Current national initiatives about drug policies and cost control in Europe: the Italy example.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Francesca; Addis, Antonio; Martini, Nello

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is a challenge to the financial compatibility of health systems because it is growing faster (+11% per year in the last 5 years in Italy) than any other health sector. In order to curb public pharmaceutical expenditure 2 interventions are commonly used: delisting (de-reimbursement) and reference price, with the difference being paid by patients. The Italian Ministry of Health implemented a set of interventions with the general aim of pharmaceutical governance based on the following criteria: (a) to assure a complete coverage of all clinically and epidemiologically relevant diseases; (b) to provide health professionals with a range of different active drugs with the same therapeutic indications within the same therapeutic class; and (c) to identify a reimbursement threshold in order to save public money by narrowing the (wide) price differentials among drugs with comparable efficacy and safety. In this context, interventions have been undertaken at several levels including drug price reduction, generic drug promotion, delisting of drugs reimbursed, and direct distribution of medicines (by hospital services). Furthermore, a new National Pharmaceutical Formulary has been implemented. Medicines have been classified into homogeneous categories (ie, medicines with the same main indication(s) and with similar clinical efficacy and safety profile). Within each homogeneous category, a reimbursement level (cutoff) was then identified and, accordingly, pharmaceutical companies were asked to adjust their price. This adjustment was based on price per daily drug dose (DDD), cumulative expenditure (at least 50%), and cumulative utilization (at least 60%). This readjustment, at no cost for patients, is expected to save more than Euro 280 million of public money. Seventy-seven percent of this saving will be due to price readjustment of antiulcers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and some antibiotics (mainly

  9. Examining the Value of Subsidies of Health Plans and Cost-Sharing for Prescription Drugs in the Health Insurance Marketplace

    PubMed Central

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Mort, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) initiated federally and state-run health insurance exchanges, or marketplaces, with health plans offering subsidies for plan members as well as coverage for essential health benefits, to help individuals, families, and small businesses find health plans that fit their specific needs. A recent study found that the value of these healthcare subsidies varied with the number of health plans in the different geographic rating areas, but that study only examined the premiums and the deductibles of those health plans. Objectives To examine the value of subsidies of health plans, including cost-sharing for prescription drugs in the health insurance marketplace. Methods We have used publicly available health plan data from HealthCare.gov and from county population data obtained from the US Census Bureau in June 2015. The average-weighted premium; medical deductible; medical maximum out-of-pocket spending; and cost-sharing for generic drugs, preferred and nonpreferred brand-name drugs, and specialty drugs were calculated for the second lowest-cost silver plan in each geographic rating area. These were then compared across geographic areas with different numbers of plans to determine the value of the subsidies. We also compared the difference between the cost of the average silver plan and the second lowest-cost silver plan for each area to determine the cost to enrollees if they selected the average silver plan. Results The monetary value of the subsidies provided by health plans was lower in areas with a larger number of plans, because the second lowest-cost silver plans in these areas tended to have lower premiums and higher deductibles. For the most common type of cost-sharing for generic and for preferred brand-name drugs, plan enrollees would likely have a lower or similar copayment if they selected the average-cost silver plan instead of the second lowest-cost silver plan. However, they may end up paying approximately $8 less in

  10. Examining the Value of Subsidies of Health Plans and Cost-Sharing for Prescription Drugs in the Health Insurance Marketplace.

    PubMed

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Mort, Jane R

    2016-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) initiated federally and state-run health insurance exchanges, or marketplaces, with health plans offering subsidies for plan members as well as coverage for essential health benefits, to help individuals, families, and small businesses find health plans that fit their specific needs. A recent study found that the value of these healthcare subsidies varied with the number of health plans in the different geographic rating areas, but that study only examined the premiums and the deductibles of those health plans. To examine the value of subsidies of health plans, including cost-sharing for prescription drugs in the health insurance marketplace. We have used publicly available health plan data from HealthCare.gov and from county population data obtained from the US Census Bureau in June 2015. The average-weighted premium; medical deductible; medical maximum out-of-pocket spending; and cost-sharing for generic drugs, preferred and nonpreferred brand-name drugs, and specialty drugs were calculated for the second lowest-cost silver plan in each geographic rating area. These were then compared across geographic areas with different numbers of plans to determine the value of the subsidies. We also compared the difference between the cost of the average silver plan and the second lowest-cost silver plan for each area to determine the cost to enrollees if they selected the average silver plan. The monetary value of the subsidies provided by health plans was lower in areas with a larger number of plans, because the second lowest-cost silver plans in these areas tended to have lower premiums and higher deductibles. For the most common type of cost-sharing for generic and for preferred brand-name drugs, plan enrollees would likely have a lower or similar copayment if they selected the average-cost silver plan instead of the second lowest-cost silver plan. However, they may end up paying approximately $8 less in copayment for nonpreferred branded

  11. Costs of adverse drug events in German hospitals--a microcosting study.

    PubMed

    Rottenkolber, Dominik; Hasford, Joerg; Stausberg, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    In Germany, only limited data are available to quantify the attributable resource utilization associated with adverse drug events (ADEs). The aim of this study was twofold: first, to calculate the direct treatment costs associated with ADEs leading to hospitalization and, second, to derive the excess costs and extra hospital days attributable to ADEs of inpatient treatments in selected German hospitals. This was a retrospective and medical record-based study performed from the hospitals' perspective based on administrative accounting data from three hospitals (49,462 patients) in Germany. Total treatment costs ("analysis 1") and excess costs (i.e., incremental resource utilization) between patients suffering from an ADE and those without ADEs were calculated by means of a propensity score-based matching algorithm ("analysis 2"). Mean treatment costs ("analysis 1") of ADEs leading to hospitalization (n = 564) were €1,978 ± 2,036 (range €191-18,147; median €1,446; €843-2,480 [Q1-Q3]). In analysis 2, the mean costs of inpatients suffering from an ADE (n = 1,891) as a concomitant disease or complication (€5,113 ± 10,059; range €179-246,288; median €2,701; €1,636-5,111 [Q1-Q3]) were significantly higher (€970; P < 0.0001) than those of non-ADE inpatients (€4,143 ± 6,968; range €154-148,479; median €2,387; €1,432-4,701 [Q1-Q3]). Mean inpatient length of stay of ADE patients (12.7 ± 17.2 days) and non-ADE patients (9.8 ± 11.6 days) differed by 2.9 days (P < 0.0001). A nationwide extrapolation resulted in annual total treatment costs of €1.058 billion. This is one of the first administrative data-based analyses calculating the economic consequences of ADEs in Germany. Further efforts are necessary to improve pharmacotherapy and relieve health care payers of preventable treatment costs. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IMPACT OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN LITIGATION CONCERNING ACCESS TO HIGH-COST DRUGS.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Alicia; Perez Galan, Ana

    2017-07-31

    The impact of health technology assessment (HTA) in the judicialization of the right of health has not been deeply studied in Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to review the process of judicialization of the access to high cost drugs in Uruguay and assess the impact HTAs have had on this process. The methodology used for this study included a comprehensive literature search in electronic databases, local journals, internal documents developed in the Ministry of Health, as well as conducting interviews with key informants. Judicialization of the access of high cost drugs has been increasing since 2010. The strategy of the Ministry of Health of Uruguay to decrease this problem included the organization of roundtables with judges and other stakeholders on the basis of HTA, the training of defense lawyers in the use and interpretation of HTA, and the participation of a professional who develops HTA in the preparation of the defense arguments. A year after the implementation of this strategy, 25 percent of writs of protection were won by the Ministry of Health. Even though the strategy implemented was effective in reducing the loss of litigations, it was not effective in reducing the growing number of writs of protection. It is essential to address this problem in a broad debate and to promote understanding between the parties.

  13. A Performance/Cost Evaluation for a GPU-Based Drug Discovery Application on Volunteer Computing

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Ginés D.; Imbernón, Baldomero; García, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research field that develops tools for the analysis of large biological databases, and, thus, the use of high performance computing (HPC) platforms is mandatory for the generation of useful biological knowledge. The latest generation of graphics processing units (GPUs) has democratized the use of HPC as they push desktop computers to cluster-level performance. Many applications within this field have been developed to leverage these powerful and low-cost architectures. However, these applications still need to scale to larger GPU-based systems to enable remarkable advances in the fields of healthcare, drug discovery, genome research, etc. The inclusion of GPUs in HPC systems exacerbates power and temperature issues, increasing the total cost of ownership (TCO). This paper explores the benefits of volunteer computing to scale bioinformatics applications as an alternative to own large GPU-based local infrastructures. We use as a benchmark a GPU-based drug discovery application called BINDSURF that their computational requirements go beyond a single desktop machine. Volunteer computing is presented as a cheap and valid HPC system for those bioinformatics applications that need to process huge amounts of data and where the response time is not a critical factor. PMID:25025055

  14. A performance/cost evaluation for a GPU-based drug discovery application on volunteer computing.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Ginés D; Imbernón, Baldomero; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Sanz, Francisco; García, José M; Cecilia, José M

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research field that develops tools for the analysis of large biological databases, and, thus, the use of high performance computing (HPC) platforms is mandatory for the generation of useful biological knowledge. The latest generation of graphics processing units (GPUs) has democratized the use of HPC as they push desktop computers to cluster-level performance. Many applications within this field have been developed to leverage these powerful and low-cost architectures. However, these applications still need to scale to larger GPU-based systems to enable remarkable advances in the fields of healthcare, drug discovery, genome research, etc. The inclusion of GPUs in HPC systems exacerbates power and temperature issues, increasing the total cost of ownership (TCO). This paper explores the benefits of volunteer computing to scale bioinformatics applications as an alternative to own large GPU-based local infrastructures. We use as a benchmark a GPU-based drug discovery application called BINDSURF that their computational requirements go beyond a single desktop machine. Volunteer computing is presented as a cheap and valid HPC system for those bioinformatics applications that need to process huge amounts of data and where the response time is not a critical factor.

  15. The association of consumer cost-sharing and direct-to-consumer advertising with prescription drug use.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Schommer, Jon C; Cline, Richard R; Hadsall, Ronald S; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Nyman, John A

    2005-06-01

    Previous research on the impact of various cost-sharing strategies on prescription drug use has not considered the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. To explore the association of cost-containment strategies with prescription drug use and to determine if the association is moderated by DTC prescription drug advertising. The study population included 288 280 employees and dependents aged 18 to 65 years with employer-sponsored health insurance contributing to the MEDSTAT MarketScan administrative data set. Person-level enrollment and claims data were obtained for beneficiaries enrolled continuously during July 1997 through December 1998. Direct-to-consumer advertising data were obtained from Competitive Media Reporting and linked to the MEDSTAT enrollment files. Localized DTC advertising expenditures for one class of medication were evaluated and matched with prescription claims for eligible MEDSTAT contributors. The association of various types and levels of cost-sharing incentives with incident product use was evaluated, controlling for the level of DTC advertising, health status, and other demographic covariates. The relationship of cost-sharing amounts with drug use was modified by the level of DTC advertising in a geographic market. This relationship was dependent on the type of cost-sharing, distinguishing between co-payments for provider visits and co-payments for prescription drugs. Compared with low-advertising markets, individuals residing in markets with high levels of advertising and paying provider co-payments of $10.00 or more were more likely to use the advertised product. In the same markets, higher prescription drug co-payments were associated with a decreased likelihood of using the advertised product. A similar relationship was not observed for the nonadvertised competitor. Among insured individuals, response to cost-sharing strategies is moderated by DTC prescription drug advertising. The relative ability of cost-sharing strategies to

  16. Research and development costs for new drugs by therapeutic category. A study of the US pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    DiMasi, J A; Hansen, R W; Grabowski, H G; Lasagna, L

    1995-02-01

    The clinical period (i.e. clinical trial and long term animal testing) development costs of a random sample of new chemical entities (NCEs) were examined for differences in average cost. All of the NCEs studied were first tested in humans between 1970 and 1982, and were classified for the purposes of the study by therapeutic class. The costs of unsuccessful projects were included with those of projects that resulted in US marketing approval. Including income forgone from expending funds before returns are earned ('time costs'), the capitalised (i.e. out-of-pocket plus time) clinical period costs per approved NCE were $US70, $US98, $US103 and $US163 million (1993 dollars) for anti-infective, cardiovascular, neuropharmacological and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. Combining the data for all therapeutic categories, the mean clinical period cost per approved NCE was $US93 million. Omitting costs associated with unsuccessful projects, the mean capitalised clinical period costs for approved NCEs ranged from $US7.1 million (for topical steroids) to $US66.7 million (for cardiovascular agents) [1993 dollars]. The estimates of total clinical period costs per approved NCE depend on average out-of-pocket clinical phase costs, attrition rates across phases (i.e. the rates at which compounds drop out of active testing), the probability of marketing approval, and development and regulatory review times. Phase attrition and approval rates are the most important sources of variability in total clinical period costs between therapeutic categories. Development cost estimates by therapeutic category did not correlate strongly with US sales in the fifth year of marketing. Cardiovascular NCEs had much higher than average sales revenues, but clinical development costs for these drugs were only slightly above average. Conversely, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attained average sales revenues, but had much higher than average development costs.

  17. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children.

    PubMed

    Martial, Lisa C; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Schreuder, Michiel F; Henriet, Stefanie S; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Joore, Manuela A

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling.

  18. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children

    PubMed Central

    Martial, Lisa C.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Henriet, Stefanie S.; Brüggemann, Roger J. M.; Joore, Manuela A.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling. PMID:27941974

  19. Cost analysis of a provincial drug program to guide the treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bursey, F; Crowley, M; Janes, C; Turner, C J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concerned with the rising costs of its drug programs for seniors and social-assistance recipients, the government of Newfoundland and Labrador requested physicians and pharmacists at the Memorial University of Newfoundland, and members of the Newfoundland and Labrador Medical Association and the Newfoundland Pharmaceutical Association to provide guidance to the health care community for the use of drugs to treat upper gastrointestinal disorders. METHODS: Algorithms for the management of dyspepsia and gastrointestinal reflux disease were created and distributed to all physicians and pharmacists in the province in June 1996. On July 1, 1996, the provincial government implemented a program to restrict payment for proton-pump inhibitors through its drug programs to situations defined by the algorithms. Restrictions were not applied to the prescribing of cimetidine, ranitidine and prokinetic agents. The status of famotidine and nizatidine was changed from "open benefit" to "special consideration," which requires prescribers to request authorization of their use on a case-by-case basis. RESULTS: Between July 1 and Dec. 31, 1996, 973 of 1078 requests for a proton-pump inhibitor were approved (679 for gastroesophageal reflux, 186 for Helicobacter pylori eradication, 55 for ulcer treatment and 53 for other reasons). The program resulted in a sustained reduction in drug expenditures. Total drug expenditures, which had risen from $39.0 million in 1992/93 to $50.8 million in 1995/96, fell after implementation of the program to $46.4 million in 1996/97 because of a decrease of more than 80% in the use of proton-pump inhibitors. Expenditures on proton-pump inhibitors, which had increased from $0.7 million for the 6 months ending March 1993 to $1.6 million for the 6 months ending March 1996, decreased to $0.3 million for the 6 months ending March 1997. The use of H2-antagonists, but not prokinetic agents, increased concomitantly with the decline in proton

  20. Price pressure. As the number of costly specialty drugs grows, insurers and providers push for more reasonable alternatives.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2013-01-28

    Faced with a rising tide of specialty drugs with eyebrow-raising prices, hospitals and insurers are pushing back. That means looking for less-costly alternatives, though options are limited. "Our goal is, as more patients come along, we get them on Elelyso and not on more expensive Cerezyme," says Eric Cannon, chief of pharmacy for insurer SelectHealth. Elelyso entered the market in 2012 and costs about $150,000 per year for a patient, versus the more costly rival drug Cerezyme.

  1. Frequency, types, severity, preventability and costs of Adverse Drug Reactions at a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Geer, M I; Koul, P A; Tanki, S A; Shah, M Y

    2016-01-01

    Hospital-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring and reporting studies are conducted to identify, quantify and minimize such risks associated with the use of drugs particularly on long-term basis. Kashmir province of Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir presents a huge market for medicines that runs into millions of rupees. Yet there was no provision to monitor these drugs for their adverse effects prior to this study in any of the leading hospitals of the province. As such the present study, which was first of its kind in the valley, was undertaken to assess the frequency, preventability, category, severity, causality, extension of hospital stay and costs of drug-related adverse effects in Kashmiri patients at a Srinagar-based tertiary care hospital. A prospective, observational, cohort study on 5482 patients was undertaken over a 270day period. Adult patients admitted in Internal Medicine in-patient department (IPD), presenting to the Internal Medicine out-patient department (OPD) and those visiting the Accident and Emergency Department of the study hospital were included in the study. Patients belonging to both the sexes were screened and monitored on a daily basis for the occurrence of any ADRs. Definition of ADR given by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used and causality of suspected ADRs was determined using Naranjo's algorithm whereas severity was assessed using modified Hartwig's scale and preventability was determined using Hallas methodology. Costs of ADRs and extension in hospital stay were calculated as per Lagnaou and Nicholas methodology respectively. ADRs accounted for 6.23% of adult Kashmiri patients visiting the tertiary care hospital under study, either for referral or hospitalization, with the majority (81.57%) of these ADRs being preventable; 23.68% of patients had mild ADRs, 69.29% had ADRs of moderate severity, and 7.01% had severe ADRs. Four classes of drugs most frequently suspected in admissions due to ADRs were anti

  2. Effectiveness and costs of implementation strategies to reduce acid suppressive drug prescriptions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Hugo M; Hoes, Arno W; de Wit, Niek J

    2007-01-01

    Background Evaluation of evidence for the effectiveness of implementation strategies aimed at reducing prescriptions for the use of acid suppressive drugs (ASD). Methods A systematic review of intervention studies with a design according to research quality criteria and outcomes related to the effect of reduction of ASD medication retrieved from Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Outcome measures were the strategy of intervention, quality of methodology and results of treatment to differences of ASD prescriptions and costs. Results The intervention varied from a single passive method to multiple active interactions with GPs. Reports of study quality had shortcomings on subjects of data-analysis. Not all outcomes were calculated but if so rction of prescriptions varied from 8% up to 40% and the cost effectiveness was in some cases negative and in others positive. Few studies demonstrated good effects from the interventions to reduce ASD. Conclusion Poor quality of some studies is limiting the evidence for effective interventions. Also it is difficult to compare cost-effectiveness between studies. However, RCT studies demonstrate that active interventions are required to reduce ASD volume. Larger multi-intervention studies are necessary to evaluate the most successful intervention instruments. PMID:17983477

  3. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-05-06

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by:  Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; Locking in Canada's current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it;  Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics.CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada-not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA's provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes.As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada's single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care.

  4. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by: • Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; • Locking in Canada’s current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it; • Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics. CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada—not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA’s provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes. As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada’s single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care. PMID:24885309

  5. Use and cost of psychotropic drugs among recipients with autism in a state Medicaid fee-for-service programme.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R; Jariwala, K; West-Strum, D

    2013-02-01

    There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in Medicaid programme. A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid fee-for-service (FFS) programme administrative-claims data was performed. Study sample included recipients (<65 years) who had a medical services claim with a diagnosis of autism in 2007. Psychotropic drug patterns of use and costs were studied. Factors predicting the use of psychotropic drugs were identified using logistic regression analyses. Average number and cost of psychotropic drug claims per recipient were reported. Costs were reported from the perspective of MS Medicaid. In 2007, there were 1330 recipients with a diagnosis of autism in MS Medicaid FFS programme. Among these recipients, 66.32% had a claim for psychotropic drug during the year. Roughly 39% of recipients with autism had a claim for antipsychotics, 31.58% for stimulants, 19.55% for antidepressants, 19.40% for other psychotropics and 14.81% for anxiolytics/hypnotics/sedatives. Results from regression analyses highlighted variation in psychotropic drug use by demographic and co-morbid factors. There were a total of 12,618 claims for psychotropic drugs filled by recipients with autism in 2007, at an average of 14 (±12) claims per recipient. The total cost of these claims paid for by MS Medicaid FFS programme was ∼$2 million. Antipsychotics accounted for more than half (∼58%) of the total costs, and had the highest average cost per claim ($291 ± 205). The results of this study indicate a high use of psychotropic drugs among individuals with autism enrolled in a state Medicaid programme. There is an urgent need to study the risk-benefit profile of these drugs in this growing population. Psychotropic drug use was found to vary by demographic and co-morbid factors. Among the

  6. Drug therapies for chronic hepatitis C infection: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William W. L.; Lee, Karen M.; Singh, Sumeet; Wells, George; Feld, Jordan J.; Krahn, Murray

    2017-01-01

    Background: Before 2011, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin was the standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents were then approved. Although these treatments appear to be more effective, they are substantially more expensive. In anticipation of the need for information regarding the comparative cost-effectiveness of new regimens in a recent therapeutic review, we conducted the analysis to inform listing decision in Canada. Methods: A state-transition model was developed in the form of a cost-utility analysis. Regimens included in the analysis were comprehensive. The cohort under consideration had a mean age of 50 years. The cohort was defined by treatment status and cirrhosis status. Inputs for the model were derived from published sources and validated by clinical experts. Results: For each genotype 1 population, at least 1 of the interferon-free agents appeared to be economically attractive compared with pegylated interferon-ribavirin, at a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year. The drug that was the most cost-effective varied by population. For genotype 2-4 population, the direct-acting antiviral therapies appeared not to be economically attractive compared with pegylated interferon-ribavirin for the treatment-naive; however, there were direct-acting antiviral therapies that appeared to be attractive when compared with no treatment for the treatment-experienced. Interpretation: Public health policy should be informed by consideration of health benefit, social and ethical values, feasibility and cost-effectiveness. Our analysis assists the development of reimbursements and policies for interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agent regimens for chronic hepatitis C infection by informing the last criterion. Considering the rapid development of treatments for chronic hepatitis C, further update and expanded reviews will be necessary.

  7. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist drugs in cancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Hiromasa; Takayama, Shinji; Shiokawa, Mitsuru; Inoue, Tadao

    2008-04-01

    Recently, ambulatory treatment centers (ATC) are markedly increasingboth in number and scale. It is therefore important to consolidate an efficient therapeutic system. A decrease in both treatment time and waitingtime leads to not only the improvement of the quality of life (QOL) for patients but also the efficient use of personnel and running costs for medical institutions by reducingthe bed occupation rate. In ATC, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used for high emetic risk patients. However, their high cost and prolonged treatment causes one of the problems in improvingthe efficiency of the therapeutic system when they are administered by intravenous infusion. Amongthe 4 types of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (injections) currently available in Japan, azasetron is the only drugthat is not designated as a powerful drug and that can be administered by bolus intravenous infusion. In this study, we investigated azasetron and granisetron from the standpoint of pharmacoeconomics with a simulation model using the results of clinical studies in Japan. Accordingto the results of cost-effectiveness analysis, therapeutic and time costs per patient for azasetron 10 mgand granisetron 2 mg (calculated in consideration of both medical institutions and patients) was 8,219 and 10,193 yen, respectively. This gap was attributable to the time loss due to the difference in administration methods. The result suggests that this time loss is more significant not only for patients but also for medical staff than the loss attributable to the drugcost. Furthermore, the bolus intravenous infusion of azasetron is considered superior to the non-bolus intravenous infusion of granisetron from a pharmacoeconomic standpoint. It is desirable to choose the appropriate administration method of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in various chemotherapy regimens for the purpose of reducingthe treatment time and promotingthe efficiency of the therapeutic system at ATCs.

  8. The international pharmaceutical market as a source of low-cost prescription drugs for U.S. patients.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2008-04-15

    In response to increasing prescription drug costs, more U.S. patients and policymakers are importing less-expensive pharmaceutical products from other countries. Large-scale prescription drug importation is currently illegal, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration permits individuals to bring in 90-day supplies of drugs for personal use. As patient use of foreign-bought drugs has increased, federal legislators have continued to debate the full legalization of importation. Three factors help guide whether U.S. patients and policymakers can rely on other countries as sources of imported prescription drugs: whether the safety of the product can be ensured, how the import price compares with domestic prices, and how importation might affect the exporting country's pharmaceutical market. In wealthier countries with active regulatory systems, drug safety can be adequately ensured, and brand-name products are usually less expensive than in the United States (although generic drugs may be more expensive). However, implementing large-scale importation can negatively impact the originating country's market and can diminish the long-term cost savings for U.S. consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, prices may be reduced for both brand-name and generic drugs, but the prevalence of unauthorized products on the market makes ensuring drug safety more difficult. It may be reasonable for individual U.S. consumers to purchase essential medicines from certain international markets, but the most effective way to decrease drug costs overall is the appropriate use of domestic generic drugs, which are available for almost every major therapeutic class.

  9. Impact of pharmacist recommendations on the cost of drug therapy in ICU patients at a Malaysian hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Tabish Razi; Hassan, Yahaya; Postma, Maarten J; Ng, Seiw Hain

    2003-12-01

    To analyse clinical pharmacists interventions in the ICU of the Penang General Hospital (Penang, Malaysia) and to assess the pharmaco-economic impact of these interventions. A clinical pharmacist reviewed drug prescriptions during one month. Drug-related problems were documented on a prepared from including a suggestion for a change in prescribing. Such recommendations were submitted to the nursing/medical staff. Acceptance of the recommendation was entirely at the discretion of the medical staff. All recommendations were analysed with respect to potential pharmaco-economic impact: cost savings, cost avoidance or cost addition. The ICU pharmacist made 57 recommendations, of which the medical staff rejected only 5%. The majority of detected drug-related problems referred to unnecessary drug therapy (37%). Recommendations resulted in net cost savings of RM 15,227 (USD 4,007). This corresponded with RM 634 per patient intervened by the pharmacist. Pharmacists interventions in the ICU of a Malaysian hospital resulted in significant cost savings in terms of drug expenses and can therefore be suggested as a routine practice in our hospital.

  10. Synthesis of medicinally relevant terpenes: reducing the cost and time of drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Daniel J; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoids constitute a significant fraction of molecules produced by living organisms that have found use in medicine and other industries. Problems associated with their procurement and adaptation for human use can be solved using chemical synthesis, which is an increasingly economical option in the modern era of chemistry. This article documents, by way of individual case studies, strategies for reducing the time and cost of terpene synthesis for drug discovery. A major trend evident in recent syntheses is that complex terpenes are increasingly realistic starting points for both medicinal chemistry campaigns and large-scale syntheses, at least in the context of the academic laboratory, and this trend will likely penetrate the commercial sector in the near future. PMID:25078134

  11. Synthesis of medicinally relevant terpenes: reducing the cost and time of drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Daniel J; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2014-06-01

    Terpenoids constitute a significant fraction of molecules produced by living organisms that have found use in medicine and other industries. Problems associated with their procurement and adaptation for human use can be solved using chemical synthesis, which is an increasingly economical option in the modern era of chemistry. This article documents, by way of individual case studies, strategies for reducing the time and cost of terpene synthesis for drug discovery. A major trend evident in recent syntheses is that complex terpenes are increasingly realistic starting points for both medicinal chemistry campaigns and large-scale syntheses, at least in the context of the academic laboratory, and this trend will likely penetrate the commercial sector in the near future.

  12. [Assessment of cost-benefit analysis in integration projects on drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Ates, T; Langer, B; Erbas, B; Tretter, F; Wehner, B

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a cost-benefit-analysis for integration projects helping drug addicts and substitutes to reintegrate into society. The study is intended to contribute to a better allocation of resources under the trade-off-situation that only a limited number of integration projects can be realized due to budget limitations. This pilot study represents an economic evaluation of health activities on integration based on the example of study projects offered by Mudra e. V. As a result the study showed that the evaluated projects are economically advantageous during the investigated research period. Furthermore, the study contains a non-monetary analysis of intangible effects which shows significant improvements in quality of life. Although the results are substantial, further research is mandatory focussing on the economic benefits of integration projects.

  13. Changes in drug utilization and out-of-pocket costs associated with Medicare Part D implementation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Polinski, Jennifer M.; Kilabuk, Elaine; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Brennan, Troyen; Shrank, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Medicare Part D was implemented 4 years ago. Despite the fact that public-use Part D data were unavailable until late 2008, researchers have used alternate data to examine Part D's impact on drug utilization and out-of-pocket costs. In a systematic review of Medline from 2006 – October 2009, we sought to summarize the literature about drug use and costs after implementation and during the transition period and coverage gap. We included studies presenting original results regarding drug utilization and costs following Part D implementation. Case reports and series and simulation studies were excluded. Of 552 originally identified articles, 26 met selection criteria: 13 regarding Part D's overall impact in the year(s) following implementation, 7 describing the Part D transition period, and 6 concerning the coverage gap. Part D implementation was associated with a 6-13% increase in drug utilization and a 13-18% decrease in patients' costs. The transition period was associated with no significant changes in utilization or costs for elderly dual-eligible beneficiaries, but effects in other populations were mixed. Entry into the coverage gap was associated with a 9-16% decrease in drug utilization and increases in costs of up to 89%. In summary, studies examining disparate data associated Part D's implementation found consistent positive effects on drug utilization and costs but revealed unfavorable trends in the coverage gap. The effect of the Part D transition period remains unclear. While public-use data will validate these results, policymakers can use the existing evidence to inform changes and enhancements to Part D immediately. PMID:20863336

  14. The Impact of Reference Pricing of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents on the Use and Costs of Analgesic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Grootendorst, Paul V; Marshall, John K; Holbrook, Anne M; Dolovich, Lisa R; O'Brien, Bernie J; Levy, Adrian R

    2005-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of reference pricing (RP) of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on drug subsidy program and beneficiary expenditures on analgesic drugs. Data Sources/Study Setting Monthly claims data from Pharmacare, the public drug subsidy program for seniors in British Columbia, Canada, over the period of February 1993 to June 2001. Study Design RP limits drug plan reimbursement of interchangeable medicines to a reference price, which is typically equal to the price of the lowest cost interchangeable drug; any cost above that is borne by the patient. Pharmacare introduced two different forms of RP to the NSAIDs, Type 1 in April 1994 and Type 2 in November 1995. Under Type 1 RP, generic and brand versions of the same NSAID are considered interchangeable, whereas under Type 2 RP different NSAIDs are considered interchangeable. We extrapolated average reimbursement per day of NSAID therapy over the months before RP to estimate what expenditures would have been without the policies. These counterfactual predictions were compared with actual values to estimate the impact of the policies; the estimated impacts on reimbursement rates were multiplied by the postpolicy volume of NSAIDS dispensed, which appeared unaffected by the policies, to estimate expenditure changes. Principal Findings After Type 2 RP, program expenditures declined by $22.7 million (CAN), or $4 million (CAN), annually cutting expenditure by about half. Most savings accrued from the substitution of low-cost NSAIDs for more costly alternatives. About 20 percent of savings represented expenditures by seniors who elected to pay for partially reimbursed drugs. Type 1 RP produced one-quarter the savings of type 2 RP. Conclusions Type 2 RP of NSAIDs achieved its goal of reducing drug expenditures and was more effective than Type 1 RP. The effects of RP on patient health and associated health care costs remain to be investigated. PMID:16174135

  15. Impact of cost sharing on specialty drug utilization and outcomes: a review of the evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Jalpa A; Li, Pengxiang; Ladage, Vrushabh P; Pettit, Amy R; Taylor, Erin A

    2016-03-01

    Specialty drugs often represent major medical advances for patients with few other effective options available, but high costs have attracted the attention of both payers and policy makers. We reviewed the evidence regarding the impact of cost sharing on utilization of specialty drugs indicated for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), and cancer, and on the use of nondrug medical services, health outcomes, and spending. Systematic review of Medline-indexed studies identified via an OVID search for articles published in English from 1995 to 2014, using combinations of terms for cost sharing and specialty drugs, and/or our 3 conditions of interest. We identified additional studies from reference lists. We identified 19 articles focusing on specialty drugs indicated for MS (n = 9), cancer (n = 8), and RA (n = 8). Studies examined prescription abandonment (n = 3), initiation or any utilization (n = 8), adherence (n = 9), persistence/discontinuation (n = 7), number of claims (n = 1), and drug spending (n = 1). Findings varied by disease, but generally indicated stronger effects for noninitiation or abandonment of a prescription at the pharmacy and somewhat smaller effects for refill behavior and drug spending once patients initiated therapy. Studies have not examined specialty tier cost sharing seen under Medicare Part D or health insurance exchanges, nor effects on medical utilization, spending, or health outcomes. Evidence to date generally indicates reductions in specialty drug utilization associated with higher cost sharing; effects have varied by type of disease and specialty drug use outcome. We draw upon our findings and the gaps in evidence to summarize future directions for research and policy.

  16. Effects of a physician office generic drug sampling system on generic dispensing ratios and drug costs in a large managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Scott, Amy B; Culley, Eric J; O'Donnell, Jerry

    2007-06-01

    Greater use of generic drugs, particularly as measured by the generic utilization or dispensing ratio (GDR), is an effective means of managing care by attaining the same clinical outcome as brand drugs but at lower cost. Health plans encourage members to use generic drugs through copayments that are lower than for brand drugs. Encouraging physicians to prescribe generic drugs in therapeutic selection continues to be an opportunity for health plans to produce drug cost savings without compromising safety or efficacy. To determine if the addition of an automated generic drug sampling system in primary care physician offices would increase (1) the GDR of the sampled therapeutic categories and (2) the overall GDR. To encourage prescribers to increase their use of generic pharmaceuticals, this managed care organization of 2.3 million members with pharmacy benefits, who represent about two thirds of approximately 3.5 million total health plan members, collaborated with a vendor that developed an automated generic medication sampling intervention that takes place in the physician's office at the point of care. The generic sampling system (kiosk) included 21 distinct generic drugs in 36 variations of dose and strength. To isolate the effect of the generic sampling intervention from the general trend of greater generic drug use, we compared physicians participating in the generic sampling program with all other network physicians. Because formal statistical testing of program outcomes was precluded by incomplete physician data, we performed a descriptive, business-case analysis of the program. Before implementation of the generic sampling program, the physicians in the intervention group and the comparison group had the same GDR of 47.8%. In the first full year of the intervention in 2005, the 301 physicians participating in the generic sampling program had a GDR of 55.3% compared with 54.1% for all of the other approximately 33,000 network physicians. This absolute 1

  17. Cost-utility analyses of drug therapies in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nerich, Virginie; Saing, Sopany; Gamper, Eva Maria; Kemmler, Georg; Daval, Franck; Pivot, Xavier; Holzner, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    The economic evaluation (EE) of health care products has become a necessity. Their quality must be high in order to trust the results and make informed decisions. While cost-utility analyses (CUAs) should be preferred to cost-effectiveness analyses in the oncology area, the quality of breast cancer (BC)-related CUA has been given little attention so far. Thus, firstly, a systematic review of published CUA related to drug therapies for BC, gene expression profiling, and HER2 status testing was performed. Secondly, the quality of selected CUA was assessed and the factors associated with a high-quality CUA identified. The systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE/EMBASE, and Cochrane to identify published CUA between 2000 and 2014. After screening and data extraction, the quality of each selected CUA was assessed by two independent reviewers, using the checklist proposed by Drummond et al. The analysis of factors associated with a high-quality CUA (defined as a Drummond score ≥7) was performed using a two-step approach. Our systematic review was based on 140 CUAs and showed a wide variety of methodological approaches, including differences in the perspective adopted, the time horizon, measurement of cost and effectiveness, and more specially health-state utility values (HSUVs). The median Drummond score was 7 [range 3-10]. Only one in two of the CUA (n = 74) had a Drummond score ≥7, synonymous of "high quality." The statistically significant predictors of a high-quality CUA were article with "gene expression profiling" topic (p = 0.001), consulting or pharmaceutical company as main location of first author (p = 0.004), and articles with both incremental cost-utility ratio and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as outcomes of EE (p = 0.02). Our systematic review identified only 140 CUAs published over the past 15 years with one in two of high quality. It showed a wide variety of methodological approaches, especially focused on HSUVs. A

  18. The Cost of Costing Treatments Incorrectly: Errors in the Application of Drug Prices in Economic Evaluation Due to Failing to Account for the Distribution of Patient Weight.

    PubMed

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Porter, Joshua; Lee, Dawn; Hertel, Nadine; Latimer, Nicholas R

    2016-12-01

    The cost of pharmaceuticals dosed by weight or body surface area (BSA) can be estimated in several ways for economic evaluations. A review of 20 recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence appraisals showed that 17 of them took the mean weight or BSA of patients, 2 costed the individual patient data from trials, and 2 fitted a distribution to patient-level data. To investigate the estimated drug costs using different methodologies to account for patient characteristics for pharmaceuticals with a weight- or BSA-based posology. The secondary objective was to explore the suitability of general population data as a proxy for patient-level data. Patient-level data were pooled from three clinical trials and used to calculate a hypothetical cost per administration of eight licensed pharmaceuticals, applying the three methods used in recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence appraisals. The same analysis was performed using data from the Health Survey for England (in place of patient-level data) to investigate the validity of using general population data as a substitute for patient-level data. Compared with using patient-level data from clinical trials, the mean patient characteristics (weight or BSA) led to an underestimation of drug cost by 6.1% (range +1.5% to -25.5%). Fitting a distribution to patient-level data led to a mean difference of +0.04%. All estimates were consistent using general population data. Estimation of drug costs in health economic evaluation should account for the distribution in weight or BSA to produce accurate results. When patient data are not available, general population data may be used as an alternative. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health care costs of adults treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who received alternative drug therapies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Eric Q; Birnbaum, Howard G; Zhang, Huabin F; Ivanova, Jasmina I; Yang, Elaine; Mallet, David

    2007-09-01

    Many therapies exist for treating adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), also referred to as attention-deficit disorder (ADD), but there is no research regarding cost differences associated with initiating alternative ADD/ADHD drug therapies in adults. To compare from the perspective of a large self-insured employer the risk-adjusted direct health care costs associated with 3 alternative drug therapies for ADD in newly treated patients: extended-release methylphenidate (osmotic release oral system-MPH), mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS-XR), or atomoxetine. We analyzed data from a US claims database of 5 million beneficiaries from 31 large self-insured employers (1999-2004). Analysis was restricted to adults aged 18 to 64 years with at least 1 diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes 314.0x--attention deficit disorder; 314.00--attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity; or 314.01--attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity) and at least 1 pharmacy claim for OROS-MPH, MAS-XR, or atomoxetine identified using National Drug Codes. In preliminary analysis, we calculated the duration of index ADHD drug therapy as time from index therapy initiation to a minimum 60-day gap. Because the median duration of index ADHD drug therapy was found to be approximately 90 days, the primary measures were total direct medical plus drug costs and medical-only costs computed over 6 months following therapy initiation. Adults were required to have continuous eligibility 6 months before and 6 months after their latest drug therapy initiation and no ADHD therapy during the previous 6 months. Cost was measured as the payment amount made by the health plan to the provider rather than billed charges, and it excluded patient copayments and deductibles. Medical costs included costs incurred for all-cause inpatient and outpatient/other services. Costs were adjusted for inflation to

  20. A high efficiency, high quality and low cost internal regulated bioanalytical laboratory to support drug development needs.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Dhodda, Raj; Zhang, Jun; Sydor, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In the recent past, we have seen an increase in the outsourcing of bioanalysis in pharmaceutical companies in support of their drug development pipeline. This trend is largely driven by the effort to reduce internal cost, especially in support of late-stage pipeline assets where established bioanalytical assays are used to analyze a large volume of samples. This article will highlight our perspective of how bioanalytical laboratories within pharmaceutical companies can be developed into the best partner in the advancement of drug development pipelines with high-quality support at competitive cost.

  1. A cost-utility analysis of drug treatments in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only lamivudine has been included for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the National List of Essential Drugs (NLED), a pharmaceutical reimbursement list in Thailand. There have also been no economic evaluation studies of CHB drug treatments conducted in Thailand yet. In order to fill this gap in policy research, the objective of this study was to compare the cost-utility of each drug therapy (Figure 1) with palliative care in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB. Methods A cost-utility analysis using an economic evaluation model was performed to compare each drug treatment for HBeAg-positive CHB patients. A Markov model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes during a lifetime horizon based on a societal perspective. Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were included, and health outcomes were denoted in life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented as an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai baht (THB) per LY or QALY gained. One-way sensitivity and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate the effects of model parameter uncertainties. Results The ICER values of providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred, generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir based on the road map guideline, and tenofovir monotherapy were -14,000 (USD -467), -8,000 (USD -267) , and -5,000 (USD -167) THB per QALY gained, respectively. However, when taking into account all parameter uncertainties in the model, providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred (78% and 75%) and tenofovir monotherapy (18% and 24%) would yield higher probabilities of being cost-effective at the societal willingness to pay thresholds of 100,000 (USD 3,333) and 300,000 (USD 10,000) THB per QALY gained in Thailand, respectively. Conclusions Based on the policy recommendations from this

  2. A cost-utility analysis of drug treatments in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tantai, Narisa; Chaikledkaew, Usa; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2014-04-14

    Only lamivudine has been included for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the National List of Essential Drugs (NLED), a pharmaceutical reimbursement list in Thailand. There have also been no economic evaluation studies of CHB drug treatments conducted in Thailand yet. In order to fill this gap in policy research, the objective of this study was to compare the cost-utility of each drug therapy (Figure 1) with palliative care in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB. A cost-utility analysis using an economic evaluation model was performed to compare each drug treatment for HBeAg-positive CHB patients. A Markov model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes during a lifetime horizon based on a societal perspective. Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were included, and health outcomes were denoted in life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented as an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai baht (THB) per LY or QALY gained. One-way sensitivity and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate the effects of model parameter uncertainties. The ICER values of providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred, generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir based on the road map guideline, and tenofovir monotherapy were -14,000 (USD -467), -8,000 (USD -267) , and -5,000 (USD -167) THB per QALY gained, respectively. However, when taking into account all parameter uncertainties in the model, providing generic lamivudine with the addition of tenofovir when drug resistance occurred (78% and 75%) and tenofovir monotherapy (18% and 24%) would yield higher probabilities of being cost-effective at the societal willingness to pay thresholds of 100,000 (USD 3,333) and 300,000 (USD 10,000) THB per QALY gained in Thailand, respectively. Based on the policy recommendations from this study, the Thai government decided to

  3. Poor Prescription: The Costs of Imprisoning Drug Offenders in the United States. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Holman, Barry; Beatty, Phillip

    Using data from the National Corrections Reporting Program, this study examined trends in imprisoning drug offenders in the United States, focusing on the numbers of incarcerated drug offenders and the relationship between incarceration for drug use and rates of drug use. Overall, the increase in drug admissions to prison from 1986 to 1996 is…

  4. Impact of Cost-Sharing Increases on Continuity of Specialty Drug Use: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengxiang; Hu, Tianyan; Yu, Xinyan; Chahin, Salim; Dahodwala, Nabila; Blum, Marissa; Pettit, Amy R; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2017-07-24

    To examine the impact of cost-sharing increases on continuity of specialty drug use in Medicare beneficiaries with multiple sclerosis (MS) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Five percent Medicare claims data (2007-2010). Quasi-experimental study examining changes in specialty drug use among a group of Medicare Part D beneficiaries without low-income subsidies (non-LIS) as they transitioned from a 5 percent cost-sharing preperiod to a ≥25 percent cost-sharing postperiod, as compared to changes among a disease-matched contemporaneous control group of patients eligible for full low-income subsidies (LIS), who faced minor cost sharing (≤$6.30 copayment) in both the pre- and postperiods. Key variables were extracted from Medicare data. Relative to the LIS group, the non-LIS group had a greater increase in incidence of 30-day continuous gaps in any Part D treatment from the lower cost-sharing period to the higher cost-sharing period (MS, absolute increase = 10.1 percent, OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.19-2.17; RA, absolute increase = 21.9 percent, OR = 2.75, 95% CI 2.15-3.51). The increase in Part D treatment gaps was not offset by increased Part B specialty drug use. Cost-sharing increases due to specialty tier-level cost sharing were associated with interruptions in MS and RA specialty drug treatments. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Cost-utility analysis of competing treatment strategies for drug-resistant epilepsy in children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Aria; Weil, Alexander G; Wang, Shelly; Lewis, Evan; Baca, Christine B; Mathern, Gary W

    2016-10-01

    The management of drug-resistant epilepsy in children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is challenging because of the multitude of treatment options, wide range of associated costs, and uncertainty of seizure outcomes. The most cost-effective approach for children whose epilepsy has failed to improve with first-line medical therapy is uncertain. A review of MEDLINE from 1990 to 2015 was conducted. A cost-utility analysis, from a third-party payer perspective, was performed for children with drug-resistant epilepsy that had failed to improve with 2 antiseizure drugs (ASDs) and that was amenable to resective epilepsy surgery, across a time-horizon of 5years. Four strategies were included: (1) resective epilepsy surgery, (2) vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation, (3) ketogenic diet, and (4) addition of a third ASD (specifically, carbamazepine). The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was analyzed. Given a willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $100,000 per QALY, the addition of a third ASD ($6600 for a gain of 4.14 QALYs) was the most cost-effective treatment strategy. In a secondary analysis, if the child whose epilepsy had failed to improve with 3 ASDs, ketogenic diet, addition of a fourth ASD, and resective epilepsy surgery were incrementally cost-effective treatment strategies. Vagus nerve stimulator implantation was more expensive yet less effective than alternative strategies and should not be prioritized. The addition of a third ASD is a universally cost-effective treatment option in the management of children with drug-resistant epilepsy that has failed to improve with 2 ASDs. For children whose epilepsy has failed to improve with 3 ASDs, the most cost-effective treatment depends on the health-care resources available reflected by the WTP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does the cancer drugs fund lead to faster uptake of cost-effective drugs? A time-trend analysis comparing England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, C; Collin, S M; Stephens, P; Donovan, J; Bahl, A; Hollingworth, W

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) provides £200 million annually in England for ‘anti-cancer' drugs. Methods: We used a controlled pre-/post-intervention design to compare IMS Health dispensing data for 15 cancer drugs (2007–2012) in England vs Wales, stratified by pre-CDF NICE drug approval status (rejected, mixed recommendations, recommended, not appraised). Results: The CDF was associated with increased prescribing in England for three of five drugs rejected or with mixed NICE recommendations. The prescribing volume ratios (PVR) ranged from 1.29 (95% CI 1.00, 1.67) for sorafenib to 3.28 (2.59, 4.14) for bevacizumab (NICE rejected) and 0.93 (0.81, 1.06) and 1.35 (1.21, 1.49) for sunitinib and imatinib respectively (mixed recommendations). Post CDF prescribing in England increased for both drugs awaiting NICE appraisal pre-CDF (lapatinib PVR=7.44 (5.81, 9.54), panitumumab PVR=5.40 (1.20, 24.42)) and subsequently rejected. The CDF was not associated with increased prescribing in England of NICE-recommended drugs. The three most recently launched, subsequently recommended drugs were adopted faster in Wales (from pazopanib PVR=0.51 (0.28, 0.96) to abiraterone PVR=0.78 (0.61–0.99)). Interpretation: These data indicate that the CDF is used to access drugs deemed not cost-effective by NICE. The CDF did not expedite access to new cost-effective cancer agents prior to NICE approval. PMID:24569469

  7. High-cost generic drugs--implications for patients and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Jonathan D; Stauffer, William M; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2014-11-13

    Some older generic drugs have become very expensive, owing to factors including drug shortages, supply disruptions, and consolidations in the generic-drug industry. But generics manufacturers that legally obtain a market monopoly can also unilaterally raise prices.

  8. Costs of hospital-based methadone maintenance treatment in HIV/AIDS control among injecting drug users in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Afriandi, Irvan; Siregar, Adiatma Y M; Meheus, Filip; Hidayat, Teddy; van der Ven, Andre; van Crevel, Reinout; Baltussen, Rob

    2010-04-01

    To assess the cost of hospital-based methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for injecting drug users (IDUs) in Bandung, Indonesia; to address concerns of financial sustainability at the hospital level and financial accessibility and economic attractiveness at the health care policy level. In a 1 year observation period in 2006-2007, MMT service delivery costs were estimated on the basis of a micro-costing approach. Patient costs were estimated on the basis of a survey among 48 methadone clients. A total number of 129 clients attended the MMT clinic, resulting in a total of 16,335 client visits. Total annual societal costs of running the MMT clinic equalled Rp 1130 mln (US$123,672), or Rp 69,206 (US$7.57) per client visit. Of total costs, patient costs established the largest share (65%), followed by that of central government (20%), and the hospital (15%). Present consultation tariffs already cover hospital costs and the patient costs of accessing MMT services constitute almost 70% of their income. Under current circumstances, MMT services are financially sustainable to the hospital. MMT services are subsidized by the central government, and this is warranted considering the important role of the program in HIV/AIDS among IDUs. Still, the present user fee seems a barrier to utilization, and a higher level of subsidy might be justified to reduce the cost to the patient. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of 3-tier pharmacy benefit design and increased consumer cost-sharing on drug utilization.

    PubMed

    Landsman, Pamela B; Yu, Winnie; Liu, XiaoFeng; Teutsch, Steven M; Berger, Marc L

    2005-10-01

    To estimate responsiveness of prescription demand within 9 therapeutic classes to increased cost-sharing compared with constant cost-sharing. Retrospective prescription claims analysis. Between 1999 and 2001, 3 benefit plans changed from a 2-tier to a 3-tier design (cases); 1 plan kept a 2-tier design (controls). Study subjects needed 24 months of continuous coverage and a prescription filled < OR = 3 months before the benefit change for a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID), a cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitor, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), a statin, or a triptan. Changes in use were compared with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Elasticity of demand among cases was calculated. Generally, medication possession ratios decreased for cases and increased for controls between 1999 and 2000. Switch rates increased for cases and decreased for controls for all classes but CCBs. Switches to lower copayments for ACE inhibitors, statins, and triptans occurred more often for cases. Discontinuation-rate changes for cases were 2 to 8 times those for controls. Generic-substitution rates depended on availability and initial generic utilization. Elasticity of demand for drugs was generally low, -0.16 to -0.10, for asymptomatic conditions (ACE inhibitors, ARBs, CCBs, statins), and moderate, -0.60 to -0.24, for symptomatic conditions (COX-2 inhibitors, NSAIDs, triptans, SSRIs). Use of retail prescription medications within 9 specific therapeutic classes decreased as copayment increased. Demand for pharmaceuticals was relatively inelastic with these copayment increases.

  10. Evolution of Antiretroviral Drug Costs in Brazil in the Context of Free and Universal Access to AIDS Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy S; Fonseca, Elize M; Bastos, Francisco I; Gruskin, Sofia; Salomon, Joshua A

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. Methods and Findings We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir–ritonavir (lopinavir/r) have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six

  11. Are drug-coated balloons cost effective for femoropopliteal occlusive disease? A comparison of bare metal stents and uncoated balloons.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Fisette, Jean-François

    2016-07-01

    To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis to help hospital decision-makers with regard to the use of drug-coated balloons compared with bare metal stents and uncoated balloons for femoropopliteal occlusive disease. Clinical outcomes were extracted from the results of meta-analyses already published, and cost units are those used in the Quebec healthcare network. The literature review was limited to the last four years to obtain the most recent data. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on a 2-year perspective, and risk factors of reintervention were considered. The cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that drug-coated balloons were generally more efficient than bare metal stents, particularly for patients with higher risk of reintervention (up to CAD$1686 per patient TASC II C or D). Compared with uncoated balloons, results indicated that drug-coated balloons were more efficient if the reintervention rate associated with uncoated balloons is very high and for patients with higher risk of reintervention (up to CAD$3301 per patient). The higher a patient's risk of reintervention, the higher the savings associated with the use of a drug-coated balloon will be. For patients at lower risk, the uncoated balloon strategy is still recommended as a first choice for endovascular intervention.

  12. Cost analysis of biologic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis first line treatment after methotrexate failure according to patients' body weight.

    PubMed

    Román Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra, José; Monte-Boquet, Emilio; Canal, Cristina; Oyagüez, Itziar; Gómez-Barrera, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to assess the influence of patients' weight in the cost of rheumatoid arthritis treatment with biologic drugs used in first line after non-adequate response to methotrexate. Pharmaceutical and administration costs were calculated in two scenarios: non-optimization and optimization of intravenous (IV) vials. The retrospective analysis of 66 patients from a Spanish 1,000 beds-hospital Rheumatology Clinic Service was used to obtain posology and weight data. The study time horizon was two years. Costs were expressed in 2013 euros. For an average 69kg-weighted patient the lowest cost corresponded to abatacept subcutaneous (SC ABA) (€21,028.09) in the scenario without IV vials optimization and infliximab (IFX) (€20,779.29) with optimization. Considering patients' weight in the scenario without IV vials optimization infliximab (IFX) was the least expensive drug in patients ranged 45-49kg, IV ABA in 50-59kg and SC ABA in patients over 60kg. With IV vials optimization IFX was the least expensive drug in patients under 69kg and SC ABA over 70kg. Assuming comparable effectiveness of biological drugs, patient's weight is a variable to consider, potentials savings could reach €20,000 in two years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Use and Cost of Psychotropic Drugs among Recipients with Autism in a State Medicaid Fee-for-Service Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, R.; Jariwala, K.; West-Strum, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in the Medicaid programme. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid…

  14. Use and Cost of Psychotropic Drugs among Recipients with Autism in a State Medicaid Fee-for-Service Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, R.; Jariwala, K.; West-Strum, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of autism in the USA in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to provide recent estimates of psychotropic drug use and costs among individuals with autism enrolled in the Medicaid programme. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of 2007 Mississippi (MS) Medicaid…

  15. Cost-effectiveness of Strategies for Primary Prevention of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug-induced Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Cynthia W; Deyo, Richard A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase the risk of peptic ulcer disease by 5- to 7-fold in the first 3 months of treatment. This study examined the relative cost-effectiveness of different strategies for the primary prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers in patients that are starting NSAID treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS A decision analysis model was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of 6 prophylactic strategies relative to no prophylaxis for patients 65 years of age starting a 3-month course of NSAIDs: (1) testing for Helicobacter pylori infection and treating those with positive tests; (2) empiric treatment of all patients for Helicobacter pylori; (3) conventional-dose histamine2receptor antagonists; (4) high-dose histamine2receptor antagonists; (5) misoprostol; and (6) omeprazole. Costs were estimated from 1997 Medicare reimbursement schedules and the Drug Topics Red Book. Empiric treatment of Helicobacter pylori with bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline was cost-saving in the baseline analysis. Selective treatment of Helicobacter pylori, misoprostol, omeprazole, and conventional-dose or high-dose histamine2receptor antagonists cost $23,800, $46,100, $34,400, and $15,600 or $21,500 per year of life saved, respectively, relative to prophylaxis. The results were sensitive to the probability of an ulcer, the probability and mortality of ulcer complications, and the cost of, efficacy of, and compliance with prophylaxis. The cost-effectiveness estimates did not change substantially when costs associated with antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori were incorporated. CONCLUSIONS Several strategies for primary prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers in patients starting NSAIDs were estimated to have acceptable cost-effectiveness relative to prophylaxis. Empirically treating all patients for Helicobacter pylori with bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline was projected to be cost-saving in older patients. PMID:10886475

  16. Therapeutic and cost effectiveness of proton pump inhibitor regimens for idiopathic or drug-induced peptic ulcer complication.

    PubMed

    Nam, Doo Hyun; Park, So Young; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Chull

    2011-03-01

    Peptic ulcer (PU) disease has a high rate of occurrence and recurrence in Korean and the selection of drug for treatment is diverse. In this study, the therapeutical effectiveness of regimens including proton pump inhibitors (PPI) was compared with the single PPI therapy. The clinical data were collected from 1,658 patients having idiopathic or drug-induced PU complication from a Medical Center in Daegu, Korea, and analyzed retrospectively based on the results of endoscopic examination, the drug history and the therapeutic cost depending on drugs used. The comparison of complete healing rate and recurrence rate showed no significant differences between the single PPI groups and the combination group with antacids, prokinetic agent or mucosa protectants. However, the combination therapy of PPI with mucosa protectants gave a slightly better therapeutic outcome than single PPI treatment in gastric ulcer patients. Comparatively, the combination of PPI with antacids significantly reduced the therapeutic effectiveness in duodenal ulcer patients. The analysis of cost-based therapeutic effectiveness reveals that any economic benefits in PU treatment were not gained by the combination of other class of ulcer drugs. Even though the rapidity of healing rate was not considered, it can be concluded that the PPI combination therapy might be not desirable in PU treatment. Particularly triplet or quartet combination therapy in PPI regimen was absolutely economically ineffective therapy in spite of the increase of medication costs.

  17. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lim, Hwijoon; Myung, Hyun

    2016-06-22

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  18. [Access to high-cost drugs in Brazil from the perspective of physicians, pharmacists and patients].

    PubMed

    Rover, Marina Raijche Mattozo; Vargas-Pelaez, Claudia Marcela; Rocha Farias, Mareni; Nair Leite, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    To explore perceptions on access to medication supplied by the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Assistance (CEAF) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (which includes high-cost drugs) by the actors involved in the healthcare services of this component. A descriptive, qualitative study was carried out by using a focal group with 7 users and 11 semi-structured interviews with health professionals (physicians and pharmacist) in the state of Santa Catarina. According to the participants, access to medicines had improved. Two main perceptions of the CEAF Clinical Guidelines were identified: the requirements constitute a bureaucracy that limits access, and the requisites increase the demand for tests and specialized healthcare services, exceeding the capacity of the healthcare services network. These assumptions generated the search for other means of access that revealed a lack of information and understanding of the right to health among the users. In addition, according to the participants, because of the difficulties of accessing services as a whole, full access to CEAF medicines is a goal that remains to be achieved. Although access to CEAF medicines has improved, there are still some difficulties in guaranteeing treatment access and comprehensiveness. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lim, Hwijoon; Myung, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online. PMID:27338406

  20. Drug-class-specific changes in the volume and cost of antidiabetic medications in Poland between 2012 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Brzozowska, Melania; Jacyna, Andrzej; Iltchev, Petre; Iwańczuk, Tymoteusz; Wierzba, Waldemar; Marczak, Michał; Orlewska, Katarzyna; Szymański, Piotr; Orlewska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the drug-class-specific changes in the volume and cost of antidiabetic medications in Poland in 2012-2015. This retrospective analysis was conducted based on the National Health Fund database covering an entire Polish population. The volume of antidiabetic medications is reported according to ATC/DDD methodology, costs-in current international dollars, based on purchasing power parity. During a 4-year observational period the number of patients, consumption of antidiabetic drugs and costs increased by 17%, 21% and 20%, respectively. Biguanides are the basic diabetes medication with a 39% market share. The insulin market is still dominated by human insulins, new antidiabetics (incretins, thiazolidinediones) are practically absent. Insulins had the largest share in diabetes medications expenditures (67% in 2015). The increase in antidiabetic medications costs over the analysed period of time was mainly caused by the increased use of insulin analogues. The observed tendencies correspond to the evidence-based HTA recommendations. The reimbursement status, the ratio of cost to clinical outcomes and data on the long-term safety have a deciding impact on how a drug is used.

  1. Academic Detailing Has a Positive Effect on Prescribing and Decreasing Prescription Drug Costs: A Health Plan's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Ndefo, Uche Anadu; Norman, Rolicia; Henry, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    When initiated by a health plan, academic detailing can be used to change prescribing practices, which can lead to increased safety and savings. To evaluate the impact of academic detailing on prescribing and prescription drug costs of cefixime to a health plan. A prospective intervention study was carried out that evaluated the prescribing practices and prescription drug costs of cefixime. A total of 11 prescribers were detailed by 1 pharmacist between August 2014 and March 2015. Two of the 11 prescribers did not respond to the academic detailing and were not followed up. The physicians' prescribing habits and prescription costs were compared before and after detailing to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Data were collected for approximately 5 months before and after the intervention. Each prescriber served as his or her own control. Overall, an approximate 36% reduction in the number of cefixime prescriptions written and an approximate 20% decrease in prescription costs was seen with academic detailing compared with the year before the intervention. In 9 of 11 (82%) prescribers, intervention with academic detailing was successful and resulted in fewer prescriptions for cefixime during the study period. Academic detailing had a positive impact on prescribing, by decreasing the number of cefixime prescriptions and lowering the drug costs to the health plan.

  2. Drug shortages in European countries: a trade-off between market attractiveness and cost containment?

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Kim; Huys, Isabelle; Casteels, Minne; Simoens, Steven

    2014-09-26

    Drug shortages are a global problem. While extensively studied in the United States, numbers about drug shortages in European countries are scarce. This study aims to collect and present data about drug shortages in European countries. A reporting template for the collection of data about drug shortages was designed based on a literature search. Countries offering a reporting system for drug shortages such as Belgium, the Netherlands, England, Italy, France, Germany and Spain were included in this study. Data about the characteristics of the drugs in shortage and the causes of the shortage were collected from publicly available online reporting systems. Descriptive analyses were performed. Drug shortages included in the considered reporting systems can be characterized as branded, oral drugs that affect different disease domains. When considering essential medicines and oncology drugs, generic injectables are more involved. Causes for drug shortages are largely underreported. In case the cause is known, production problems take the lead. Reporting of drug shortages in Europe needs to be standardized and more transparency about the reasons for drug shortage is required to investigate the problem. A link between production problems and market attractiveness and market capacity is recognized to be at the root of drug shortages in U.S. Such insights are highly lacking in Europe. Monitoring of the effect of national and European health policies on the sustainability of the drug market is required to present fundamental solutions and to tackle the problem of drug shortages in Europe.

  3. Drug costs and bacterial susceptibility after implementing a single-fluoroquinolone use policy at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Robert P; Evans, Martin E; Martin, Craig; Ofotokum, Igho; Empey, Kerry L; Armitstead, John A

    2004-04-01

    The University of Kentucky Hospital investigated the feasibility of choosing a sole fluoroquinolone for its formulary in an effort to reduce costs without affecting clinical outcomes. A three-step process was used to plan, implement, and monitor the selection program. Based on the range of clinical indications, safety profile, local susceptibility, cost, and dosing convenience, levofloxacin was chosen over ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin as the sole fluoroquinolone. Since the implementation of the program in May 2001, susceptibility to levofloxacin has been maintained or increased for the most common pathogens. In addition, University Hospital has saved nearly 100,000 dollars in antibiotic acquisition costs during the first 12 months after the switch. This assessment did not take into account effects in clinical outcomes, such as clinical failures (such as readmission rates), mortality, and adverse events, or measure changes in overall medical expenditures beyond drug acquisition costs. In the future, monitoring of overall patient care and medical care costs, in addition to susceptibility patterns and drug costs, will allow for a better understanding of the long-term benefits of this switch.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of different dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitor drugs for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cazarim, Maurílio de Souza; da Cruz-Cazarim, Estael Luzia Coelho; Baldoni, André de Oliveira; Dos Santos, Thais Bueno Enes; de Souza, Paula Gonçalves; Silva, Ingrid de Almeida; Rodrigues, Roberta Niriam Reis; Maia, Alda Cristina Franco Correa; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira; Sanches, Cristina

    2017-07-03

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has burdened health systems in the world to the value of 500 billion dollars/year. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4 Inhibitors) have been strongly associated with spending on the treatment of T2DM by the courts in Brazil. The aim of this study was to estimate the most cost-effective DPP-4 Inhibitor for T2DM treatment. A pharmacoeconomic study of cost-effectiveness was performed in a medium-sized municipality in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The data are from legalization in municipal health in 2013. The effectiveness of DPP-4 Inhibitors was measured by the reduction in glycated hemoglobin (A1c). The direct medical costs of drug and adverse drug reactions were identified. With these data, a cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) and construction of the decision tree for sensitivity analysis were performed. The representative of the most effective in reducing A1c gliptins was sitagliptin in combination with metformin, it was able to reduce A1c by 1.16% (1.09 to 1.22, CI 95%). The drug with the lowest cost was linagliptin, with a cost per patient/year of US$ 481.42. Sensitivity analysis performed by the decision tree shows that sitagliptin in association with metformin had the CER of US$ 1,506.75 per patient/year, to reduce A1c by 1%. The most cost-effective DPP-4 Inhibitor was sitagliptin with metformin. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistence, switch rates, drug consumption and costs of biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an observational study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Sangiorgi, Diego; Di Turi, Roberta; Farina, Giuseppina; Gambera, Marco; Ravasio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (persistence, switch rate and drug consumption) on biologics and the corresponding costs (drugs, admissions and specialist care) incurred by the Italian National Health Service in the management of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of three local health units. We considered all patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of RA and at least one biologic drug prescription between January 2010 and December 2012 (recruitment period). Persistence was defined as maintenance over the last 3 months of the follow-up period of the same biological therapy administered at the index date. A switch was defined as the presence of a biological therapy other than that administered at the index date during the last 3 months of the follow-up period. Hospital admissions (with a diagnosis of RA or other RA-related diagnoses), specialist outpatient services, instrumental diagnostics and pharmaceutical consumption were assessed. Results The drug utilization analysis took into account only biologics with at least 90 patients on treatment at baseline (adalimumab n=144, etanercept n=236 and infliximab n=94). In each year, etanercept showed better persistence with initial treatment than adalimumab or infliximab. Etanercept was characterized by the lowest number of patients increasing the initial drug consumption (2.6%) and by the highest number of patients reducing the initial drug consumption (10.5%). The mean cost of treatment for a patient persisting with the initial treatment was €12,388 (€14,182 for adalimumab, €12,103 for etanercept and €11,002 for infliximab). The treatment costs for patients switching from initial treatment during the first year of follow-up were higher than for patients who did not switch (€12,710 vs. €11,332). Conclusion Persistence, switch rate

  6. Persistence, switch rates, drug consumption and costs of biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: an observational study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Sangiorgi, Diego; Di Turi, Roberta; Farina, Giuseppina; Gambera, Marco; Ravasio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (persistence, switch rate and drug consumption) on biologics and the corresponding costs (drugs, admissions and specialist care) incurred by the Italian National Health Service in the management of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of three local health units. We considered all patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of RA and at least one biologic drug prescription between January 2010 and December 2012 (recruitment period). Persistence was defined as maintenance over the last 3 months of the follow-up period of the same biological therapy administered at the index date. A switch was defined as the presence of a biological therapy other than that administered at the index date during the last 3 months of the follow-up period. Hospital admissions (with a diagnosis of RA or other RA-related diagnoses), specialist outpatient services, instrumental diagnostics and pharmaceutical consumption were assessed. The drug utilization analysis took into account only biologics with at least 90 patients on treatment at baseline (adalimumab n=144, etanercept n=236 and infliximab n=94). In each year, etanercept showed better persistence with initial treatment than adalimumab or infliximab. Etanercept was characterized by the lowest number of patients increasing the initial drug consumption (2.6%) and by the highest number of patients reducing the initial drug consumption (10.5%). The mean cost of treatment for a patient persisting with the initial treatment was €12,388 (€14,182 for adalimumab, €12,103 for etanercept and €11,002 for infliximab). The treatment costs for patients switching from initial treatment during the first year of follow-up were higher than for patients who did not switch (€12,710 vs. €11,332). Persistence, switch rate and drug consumption seem to directly

  7. Drug development costs when financial risk is measured using the Fama-French three-factor model.

    PubMed

    Vernon, John A; Golec, Joseph H; Dimasi, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    In a widely cited article, DiMasi, Hansen, and Grabowski (2003) estimate the average pre-tax cost of bringing a new molecular entity to market. Their base case estimate, excluding post-marketing studies, was $802 million (in $US 2000). Strikingly, almost half of this cost (or $399 million) is the cost of capital (COC) used to fund clinical development expenses to the point of FDA marketing approval. The authors used an 11% real COC computed using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). But the CAPM is a single factor risk model, and multi-factor risk models are the current state of the art in finance. Using the Fama-French three factor model we find that the cost of drug development to be higher than the earlier estimate.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of HIV drug resistance testing to inform switching to second line antiretroviral therapy in low income settings.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Mabugu, Travor; Magubu, Travor; Miners, Alec; Ford, Debbie; Pillay, Deenan; De Luca, Andrea; Lundgren, Jens; Revill, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To guide future need for cheap resistance tests for use in low income settings, we assessed cost-effectiveness of drug resistance testing as part of monitoring of people on first line ART - with switching from first to second line ART being conditional on NNRTI drug resistance mutations being identified. An individual level simulation model of HIV transmission, progression and the effect of ART which accounts for adherence and resistance development was used to compare outcomes of various potential monitoring strategies in a typical low income setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Underlying monitoring strategies considered were based on clinical disease, CD4 count or viral load. Within each we considered a strategy in which no further measures are performed, one with a viral load measure to confirm failure, and one with both a viral load measure and a resistance test. Predicted outcomes were assessed over 2015-2025 in terms of viral suppression, first line failure, switching to second line regimen, death, HIV incidence, disability-adjusted-life-years averted and costs. Potential future low costs of resistance tests ($30) were used. The most effective strategy, in terms of DALYs averted, was one using viral load monitoring without confirmation. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for this strategy was $2113 (the same as that for viral load monitoring with confirmation). ART monitoring strategies which involved resistance testing did not emerge as being more effective or cost effective than strategies not using it. The slightly reduced ART costs resulting from use of resistance testing, due to less use of second line regimens, was of similar magnitude to the costs of resistance tests. Use of resistance testing at the time of first line failure as part of the decision whether to switch to second line therapy was not cost-effective, even though the test was assumed to be very inexpensive.

  9. Economic impact of combination therapy with infliximab plus azathioprine for drug-refractory Crohn's disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shota; Shimizu, Utako; Nan, Zhang; Mandai, Nozomu; Yokoyama, Junji; Terajima, Kenshi; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2013-03-01

    Combination therapy with infliximab (IFX) and azathioprine (AZA) is significantly more effective for treatment of active Crohn's disease (CD) than IFX monotherapy. However, AZA is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA for drug-refractory CD. A decision analysis model is constructed to compare, over a time horizon of 1year, the cost-effectiveness of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA and that of IFX monotherapy for CD patients refractory to conventional non-anti-TNF-α therapy. The treatment efficacy, adverse effects, quality-of-life scores, and treatment costs are derived from published data. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses are performed to estimate the uncertainty in the results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of combination therapy with IFX plus AZA is 24,917 GBP/QALY when compared with IFX monotherapy. The sensitivity analyses reveal that the utility score of nonresponding active disease has the strongest influence on the cost-effectiveness, with ICERs ranging from 17,147 to 45,564 GBP/QALY. Assuming that policy makers are willing to pay 30,000 GBP/QALY, the probability that combination therapy with IFX plus AZA is cost-effective is 0.750. Combination therapy with IFX plus AZA appears to be a cost-effective treatment for drug-refractory CD when compared with IFX monotherapy. Furthermore, the additional lymphoma risk of combination therapy has little significance on its cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The mass-action law based algorithm for cost-effective approach for cancer drug discovery and development

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ting-Chao

    2011-01-01

    The mass-action law based system analysis via mathematical induction and deduction lead to the generalized theory and algorithm that allows computerized simulation of dose-effect dynamics with small size experiments using a small number of data points in vitro, in animals, and in humans. The median-effect equation of the mass-action law deduced from over 300 mechanism specific-equations has been shown to be the unified theory that serves as the common-link for complicated biomedical systems. After using the median-effect principle as the common denominator, its applications are mechanism-independent, drug unit-independent, and dynamic order-independent; and can be used generally for single drug analysis or for multiple drug combinations in constant-ratio or non-constant ratios. Since the “median” is the common link and universal reference point in biological systems, these general enabling lead to computerized quantitative bio-informatics for econo-green bio-research in broad disciplines. Specific applications of the theory, especially relevant to drug discovery, drug combination, and clinical trials, have been cited or illustrated in terms of algorithms, experimental design and computerized simulation for data analysis. Lessons learned from cancer research during the past fifty years provide a valuable opportunity to reflect, and to improve the conventional divergent approach and to introduce a new convergent avenue, based on the mass-action law principle, for the efficient cancer drug discovery and the low-cost drug development. PMID:22016837

  11. Personalised treatment using serum drug levels of adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an evaluation of costs and effects.

    PubMed

    Krieckaert, C L M; Nair, S C; Nurmohamed, M T; van Dongen, C J J; Lems, W F; Lafeber, F P J G; Bijlsma, J W J; Koffijberg, H; Wolbink, G; Welsing, P M J

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of personalised treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using clinical response and serum adalimumab levels. A personalised treatment algorithm defined, based on clinical (European League Against Rheumatism) response and drug levels at 6 months, whether adalimumab treatment should be continued in a specific dose or discontinued and/or switched to a next biological. Outcomes were simulated using a patient level Markov model, with 3 months cycles, based on a cohort of 272 adalimumab-treated patients with RA for 3 years and data of patients from the Utrecht Rheumatoid Arthritis Cohort. Costs, clinical effectiveness and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were compared with outcomes as observed in usual care and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Analyses were performed probabilistically. Clinical effectiveness was higher for the cohort simulated to receive personalised care compared with usual care; the average difference in QALYs was 3.84 (95 percentile range -8.39 to 16.20). Costs were saved on drugs: €2 314 354. Testing costs amounted to €10 872. Mean total savings were €2 561 648 (95 percentile range -3 252 529 to -1 898 087), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €666 500 or €646 266 saved per QALY gained from a societal or healthcare perspective, respectively. In 72% of simulations personalised care saved costs and resulted in more QALYs, in 28% it was cost saving with lower QALYs. Scenario analyses showed cost saving along with QALYs gain or limited loss. Tailoring biological treatment to individual patients with RA starting adalimumab using drug levels and short-term outcome is cost-effective. Results underscore the potential merit of personalised biological treatment in RA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Association between drug insurance cost sharing strategies and outcomes in patients with chronic diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mann, Bikaramjit S; Barnieh, Lianne; Tang, Karen; Campbell, David J T; Clement, Fiona; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Tonelli, Marcello; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden J

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drugs are used in people with hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease to manage their illness. Patient cost sharing strategies such as copayments and deductibles are often employed to lower expenditures for prescription drug insurance plans, but the impact on health outcomes in these patients is unclear. To determine the association between drug insurance and patient cost sharing strategies on medication adherence, clinical and economic outcomes in those with chronic diseases (defined herein as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease). Studies were included if they examined various cost sharing strategies including copayments, coinsurance, fixed copayments, deductibles and maximum out-of-pocket expenditures. Value-based insurance design and reference based pricing studies were excluded. Two reviewers independently identified original intervention studies (randomized controlled trials, interrupted time series, and controlled before-after designs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and relevant reference lists were searched until March 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, quality, and extracted data. Eleven studies, assessing the impact of seven policy changes, were included: 2 separate reports of one randomized controlled trial, 4 interrupted time series, and 5 controlled before-after studies. Outcomes included medication adherence, clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke, death), quality of life, healthcare utilization, or cost. The heterogeneity among the studies precluded meta-analysis. Few studies reported the impact of cost sharing strategies on mortality, clinical and economic outcomes. The association between patient copayments and medication adherence varied across studies, ranging from no difference to significantly lower adherence, depending on the amount of the copayment. Lowering cost sharing in patients with chronic diseases

  13. Association between Drug Insurance Cost Sharing Strategies and Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Bikaramjit S.; Barnieh, Lianne; Tang, Karen; Campbell, David J. T.; Clement, Fiona; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Tonelli, Marcello; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prescription drugs are used in people with hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease to manage their illness. Patient cost sharing strategies such as copayments and deductibles are often employed to lower expenditures for prescription drug insurance plans, but the impact on health outcomes in these patients is unclear. Objective To determine the association between drug insurance and patient cost sharing strategies on medication adherence, clinical and economic outcomes in those with chronic diseases (defined herein as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease). Methods Studies were included if they examined various cost sharing strategies including copayments, coinsurance, fixed copayments, deductibles and maximum out-of-pocket expenditures. Value-based insurance design and reference based pricing studies were excluded. Two reviewers independently identified original intervention studies (randomized controlled trials, interrupted time series, and controlled before-after designs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and relevant reference lists were searched until March 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, quality, and extracted data. Eleven studies, assessing the impact of seven policy changes, were included: 2 separate reports of one randomized controlled trial, 4 interrupted time series, and 5 controlled before-after studies. Findings Outcomes included medication adherence, clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke, death), quality of life, healthcare utilization, or cost. The heterogeneity among the studies precluded meta-analysis. Few studies reported the impact of cost sharing strategies on mortality, clinical and economic outcomes. The association between patient copayments and medication adherence varied across studies, ranging from no difference to significantly lower adherence, depending on the amount of the copayment. Conclusion Lowering

  14. National Burden of Preventable Adverse Drug Events Associated with Inpatient Injectable Medications: Healthcare and Medical Professional Liability Costs

    PubMed Central

    Lahue, Betsy J.; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Blumen, Helen E.; Forray, Susan; Rothschild, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Harmful medication errors, or preventable adverse drug events (ADEs), are a prominent quality and cost issue in healthcare. Injectable medications are important therapeutic agents, but they are associated with a greater potential for serious harm than oral medications. The national burden of preventable ADEs associated with inpatient injectable medications and the associated medical professional liability (MPL) costs have not been previously described in the literature. Objective To quantify the economic burden of preventable ADEs related to inpatient injectable medications in the United States. Methods Medical error data (MedMarx 2009–2011) were utilized to derive the distribution of errors by injectable medication types. Hospital data (Premier 2010–2011) identified the numbers and the types of injections per hospitalization. US payer claims (2009–2010 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare 5% Sample) were used to calculate the incremental cost of ADEs by payer and by diagnosis-related group (DRG). The incremental cost of ADEs was defined as inclusive of the time of inpatient admission and the following 4 months. Actuarial calculations, assumptions based on published literature, and DRG proportions from 17 state discharge databases were used to derive the probability of preventable ADEs per hospitalization and their annual costs. MPL costs were assessed from state- and national-level industry reports, premium rates, and from closed claims databases between 1990 and 2011. The 2010 American Hospital Association database was used for hospital-level statistics. All costs were adjusted to 2013 dollars. Results Based on this medication-level analysis of reported harmful errors and the frequency of inpatient administrations with actuarial projections, we estimate that preventable ADEs associated with injectable medications impact 1.2 million hospitalizations annually. Using a matched cohort analysis of healthcare claims as a basis for evaluating incremental

  15. National burden of preventable adverse drug events associated with inpatient injectable medications: healthcare and medical professional liability costs.

    PubMed

    Lahue, Betsy J; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Blumen, Helen E; Forray, Susan; Rothschild, Jeffrey M

    2012-11-01

    Harmful medication errors, or preventable adverse drug events (ADEs), are a prominent quality and cost issue in healthcare. Injectable medications are important therapeutic agents, but they are associated with a greater potential for serious harm than oral medications. The national burden of preventable ADEs associated with inpatient injectable medications and the associated medical professional liability (MPL) costs have not been previously described in the literature. To quantify the economic burden of preventable ADEs related to inpatient injectable medications in the United States. Medical error data (MedMarx 2009-2011) were utilized to derive the distribution of errors by injectable medication types. Hospital data (Premier 2010-2011) identified the numbers and the types of injections per hospitalization. US payer claims (2009-2010 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare 5% Sample) were used to calculate the incremental cost of ADEs by payer and by diagnosis-related group (DRG). The incremental cost of ADEs was defined as inclusive of the time of inpatient admission and the following 4 months. Actuarial calculations, assumptions based on published literature, and DRG proportions from 17 state discharge databases were used to derive the probability of preventable ADEs per hospitalization and their annual costs. MPL costs were assessed from state- and national-level industry reports, premium rates, and from closed claims databases between 1990 and 2011. The 2010 American Hospital Association database was used for hospital-level statistics. All costs were adjusted to 2013 dollars. Based on this medication-level analysis of reported harmful errors and the frequency of inpatient administrations with actuarial projections, we estimate that preventable ADEs associated with injectable medications impact 1.2 million hospitalizations annually. Using a matched cohort analysis of healthcare claims as a basis for evaluating incremental costs, we estimate that inpatient

  16. Does anesthesiology residency training result in decreasing intraoperative drug cost from a resident's first to second month's experience in adult cardiac anesthesiology?

    PubMed

    Steyn, Johannes W; Broussard, David M; DiGiovanni, Neil; Babin, Sheena; Dornelles, Adrianna C

    2012-01-01

    All physicians bear the responsibility of minimizing cost while providing care that meets or exceeds national quality benchmarks. Intraoperative anesthetic drug costs constitute a small but significant fraction of the total cost in the perioperative period. Previous studies have revealed that anesthesiologists are generally unaware of drug costs. In order to determine if experience and education improve anesthetic drug cost containment, we compared the total anesthetic drug cost per case as residents progressed through their rotations in cardiac anesthesia. We considered the total anesthetic drug cost for 202 adult cardiac cases, including coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve repair/replacement, and aortic valve repair/replacement. 77 of the cases analyzed were done by residents in their first month of cardiac anesthesia, and 125 were done by residents in their second month of cardiac anesthesia. In the interval between these rotations, residents participate in didactics and other educational activities including a practice management rotation in the CA-3 year where they are exposed to financial topics in healthcare. The average total drug cost per case for residents in their first month was $193.50; SD= $82.00. The average total cost per case for residents in their second month was $223.30; SD=$96.10. With multivariate analysis considering case type, length of procedure and patient age, the resident training level did not impact the cost in a significant way (p=0.062). In the multivariate analysis considering case type, length of procedure and patient age, more experienced residents did not have a significantly different total drug cost per case. This finding suggests that didactic educational efforts and implicit modeling over time did not reduce drug costs in the operating room during adult cardiac surgery.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of Statin Drug Therapy in the Lowering of Cholesterol in Patients at Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    effectiveness of Statins 6 INTRODUCTION Conditions Which Prompted the Study Coronary heart disease (CHD) is and most likely will remain the leading cause of...Thompson, S. (1994). By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower the risk of ischaemic heart disease ...Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Cost Effectiveness of Statin Drug Therapy in the Lowering of Cholesterol in

  18. Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

  19. Cost-utility analysis comparing radioactive iodine, anti-thyroid drugs and total thyroidectomy for primary treatment of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Peter J; McLeod, Donald S A; Little, Richard; Gordon, Louisa

    2016-12-01

    Little data is in existence about the most cost-effective primary treatment for Graves' disease. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing radioactive iodine (RAI), anti-thyroid drugs (ATD) and total thyroidectomy (TT) as first-line therapy for Graves' disease in England and Australia. We used a Markov model to compare lifetime costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)). The model included efficacy, rates of relapse and major complications associated with each treatment, and alternative second-line therapies. Model parameters were obtained from published literature. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. Costs were presented in 2015£ or Australian Dollars (AUD). RAI was the least expensive therapy in both England (£5425; QALYs 34.73) and Australia (AUD5601; 30.97 QALYs). In base case results, in both countries, ATD was a cost-effective alternative to RAI (£16 866; 35.17 QALYs; incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) £26 279 per QALY gained England; AUD8924; 31.37 QALYs; ICER AUD9687 per QALY gained Australia), while RAI dominated TT (£7115; QALYs 33.93 England; AUD15 668; 30.25 QALYs Australia). In sensitivity analysis, base case results were stable to changes in most cost, transition probabilities and health-relative quality-of-life (HRQoL) weights; however, in England, the results were sensitive to changes in the HRQoL weights of hypothyroidism and euthyroidism on ATD. In this analysis, RAI is the least expensive choice for first-line treatment strategy for Graves' disease. In England and Australia, ATD is likely to be a cost-effective alternative, while TT is unlikely to be cost-effective. Further research into HRQoL in Graves' disease could improve the quality of future studies. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of the use of vector control and mass drug administration, separately or in combination, against lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, K; Rajendran, R; Sunish, I P; Reuben, R

    2002-12-01

    The costs and effects of two intervention strategies for the control of bancroftian filariasis-annual mass drug administrations (MDA) with a combination of diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin, with or without integrated vector control (VC)-were estimated in rural villages in South India. The aim was to compare the cost-effectiveness of MDA alone with that of MDA plus VC. Control of the local vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, was based on the application of polystyrene beads to cesspits, the treatment of drains with larvicidal Bacillus sphaericus and the stocking of wells with larvivorous fish. An itemized cost menu was used to cost MDA and MDA + VC, retrospectively. The annual transmission potential was used to assess the direct outcome of the disease-control methods, whereas the prevalence and intensity of microfilaraemia were used as indicators of the impact of each method. The per-capita costs were 1.49 U.S. dollars for two rounds of MDA, 1.70 U.S. dollars for 2 years of VC and, therefore, 3.19 U.S. dollars for 2 years of MDA + VC. Integration of VC with MDA did not appear to be cost-effective: it cost an estimated 1.80 U.S. dollars to stop an infective mosquito biting a villager using MDA alone but 3.32 U.S. dollars to achieve the same result using MDA + VC. Similarly, the cost to reduce the prevalence of microfilaraemia in a three-village group by 1% was only 96.62 U.S. dollars for MDA alone but 201.16 U.S. dollars when vector control was integrated. The implications of these results for the control and elimination of filariasis in Indian village communities, and the options for sharing and minimizing costs, are discussed.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Baschet, Louise; Bourguignon, Sandrine; Marque, Sébastien; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Teiger, Emmanuel; Wilquin, Fanny; Levesque, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients requiring a percutaneous coronary intervention in France, using a recent meta-analysis including second-generation DES. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed in the French National Health Insurance setting. Effectiveness settings were taken from a meta-analysis of 117 762 patient-years with 76 randomised trials. The main effectiveness criterion was major cardiac event-free survival. Effectiveness and costs were modelled over a 5-year horizon using a three-state Markov model. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve were calculated for a range of thresholds for willingness to pay per year without major cardiac event gain. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results Base case results demonstrated that DES are dominant over BMS, with an increase in event-free survival and a cost-reduction of €184, primarily due to a diminution of second revascularisations, and an absence of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis. These results are robust for uncertainty on one-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Using a cost-effectiveness threshold of €7000 per major cardiac event-free year gained, DES has a >95% probability of being cost-effective versus BMS. Conclusions Following DES price decrease, new-generation DES development and taking into account recent meta-analyses results, the DES can now be considered cost-effective regardless of selective indication in France, according to European recommendations. PMID:27621830

  2. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose: Impact of Quantity Limits in Public Drug Formularies on Provincial Costs Across Canada.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Sandra R; Lee, Kathy; Paterson, J Michael; Shah, Baiju R; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2017-04-01

    For most patients with diabetes, routine use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS) has not been shown to be beneficial, yet the economic implications of broad publicly funded reimbursement for BGTS are substantial. We assessed the potential impact of BGTS quantity limits on utilization and costs for 6 publicly funded drug plans across Canada. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 6 provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island) for patients who received at least 1 prescription for BGTS in 2014 through the public drug program. We determined the number of BGTS that would have exceeded the quantity limits and the associated costs to the provincial drug program. A total of $38,051,026 was spent on BGTS reimbursed through public drug programs among the 6 provinces. In provinces where BGTS use is largely restricted to patients using insulin, the potential annual savings were minimal, ranging from 0.4% to 2.3%, whereas in provinces with more liberal listings, potential savings ranged from 12.4% to 19.8%. Combining these results with data from a previous analysis in Ontario and British Columbia, the cost savings associated with BGTS quantity limits for 8 provinces across Canada (capturing approximately three-quarters of the Canadian population) is estimated to be $30.3 million annually. The national implementation of a quantity limit policy for BGTS that aligns with evidence of efficacy, optimal prescribing and patient safety can lead to considerable savings for most public drug plans across Canada. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ANTHELMINTIC DRUGS: THEIR EFFICACY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS IN DIFFERENT PARITY CATTLE.

    PubMed

    Saqib Ali, Muhammad; Saeed, Khalid; Rashid, Muhmmad Imran; Ijaz, Muhammad; Akbar, Haroon; Rashid, Muhammad; Ashraf, Kamran

    2017-10-04

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are responsible for economic losses in bovines and are characterized by reduced milk production, decreased working efficiency and even death. In our study, the effect of different anthelmintic treatments on nematode control in different parity cattle (Friesian Crossbreds) at calving and their effect on milk yield was evaluated. Economic of anthelmintic and farm benefit in term of increase milk production after deworming was also calculated. We screened cattle of first and second parity for nematodes. Animals were randomly selected in each group. In first parity animals, there found 23 positive cattle which were divided into 3 different groups while in second parity animals; there were 20 positive cattle which were divided into 3 groups. For treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes, used Albendazole (Velbazine) at 10mg/kg body weight and levamisole (Nilverm) at 7.5mg/kg. In this study, both drugs were found effective in controlling nematodes infections in cattle. Percentage reduction of EPG by albendazole was 48.20%, 85.34%, 93.90% and 51.54%, 81.43%, 91.74% on day 7, 14 and 21 in first and second parity animals, respectively. Percentage reduction of EPG by levamisole was 44.45%, 76.92%, 88.03% and 46.60%, 73.78%, 85.43% on day 7, 14 and 21 in first and second parity animals respectively. The average increase in milk production in albandazole treated groups were 0.39 and 0.92 litre per day, while it increases in levamisole treated groups were 0.27 and 0.55 litre per days in first and second parity cattle respectively. After treatment, albendazole increased the milk fat by 0.07 % and 0.1% while levamisole decreased 0.02 % and 0.05 % in first and second parity cattle respectively. It is concluded that anthelmintic treatments of recently calved cattle have significant effect on milk production due to the nematode control. Milk production increased significantly in second parity cattle following anthelmintic treatment as compared to first

  4. Relationship of the use and costs of physician office visits and prescription drugs to travel distance and increases in member cost share.

    PubMed

    Cecil, William T; Barnes, John; Shea, Terence; Coulter, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The prescription drug benefit is commonly designed and managed as a stand-alone health insurance product without consideration of how the design of other medical benefits may impact its use. To determine the effects of member cost (copayment/coinsurance) increases on the relationship between the use of physician office visits and the type/tier of prescription medication purchased in a commercially insured population. Our research model utilized managed care organization member costshare levels that were changed as part of the annual benefit renewal process to estimate the price.quantity.expenditure relationship between cost sharing and use of physician office visits/prescription drugs by benefit tier. The price.quantity. expenditure relationship was measured across a benefit copayment price change to determine the effect of a price increase on utilization/expenditures. We included the distance from the member.s residence to the physician.s office as a proxy for the time cost of an office visit. The study sample included 44,828 members who were fully insured for the full 12 months of 2002, continued coverage for the full 12 months of 2003, and whose benefit renewal occurred on January 1, 2003. We hypothesize that a relationship exists between office visit use and its expenditures and prescription drug use and its expenditures based on out-of-pocket cost. Hypotheses were tested using a least squares dummy variable regression model across claims records for years 2002 and 2003, containing consecutive yearly records for the same members. The unit of analysis was the member. Demand was estimated by benefit category and copayment tier to provide the study variables, price elasticity of demand, cross-price elasticity of demand, and distance elasticity. Expenditure is net health plan cost after subtraction of member cost share (including copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles). The expenditure categories in this study were pharmacy, medical office visits, and total

  5. New drugs for osteoporosis. Comparison of the costs and required returns with those of other drugs intended for long-term use.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M

    1999-03-01

    Specific regulatory guidelines dictate that developing a new drug for osteoporosis will be significantly more expensive and take at least 2 years longer in comparison with other long-term therapies developed using the International Committee on Harmonisation (ICH) general guidelines. Assuming similar attrition rates, the minimal additional uncapitalised cost is $US86 million for nonestrogen osteoporosis compounds following a minimum programme designed to gain indications for both treatment and prevention. The excess expenditure is created by the size requirements for phase III fracture trials in both the European Union (EU)/US and Japan. The after-tax cash flows to the point of launch discounted at 11% are $US102 million greater, reflecting the additional effect of delayed time to market. Assuming similar lifecycles, the peak sales required to return the investment on an osteoporosis drug will be a minimum of $US95 million greater per launched compound. Many ongoing osteoporosis programmes are substantially larger than the theoretical minimum. The costs of substantially increasing the sample size in phase III trials mean that blockbuster revenues will be required to break even. However, the potential cost of a delayed launch because of fracture efficacy being incompletely proved is so substantial that fracture trials need to be powered conservatively to decrease the chances of this eventuality.

  6. A low-cost, high-quality new drug discovery process using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2015-01-01

    Knockout, knock-in and conditional mutant gene-targeted mice are routinely used for disease modeling in the drug discovery process, but the human response is often difficult to predict from these models. It is believed that patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could replace millions of animals currently sacrificed in preclinical testing and provide a route to new safer pharmaceutical products. In this review, we discuss the use of IPSCs in the drug discovery process. We highlight how they can be used to assess the toxicity and clinical efficacy of drug candidates before the latter are moved into costly and lengthy preclinical and clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost of illness of patient-reported adverse drug events: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K; Petzold, Max; Carlsten, Anders; Andersson Sundell, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost of illness (COI) of individuals with self-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) from a societal perspective and to compare these estimates with the COI for individuals without ADE. Furthermore, to estimate the direct costs resulting from two ADE categories, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and subtherapeutic effects of medication therapy (STE). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The adult Swedish general population. Participants The survey was distributed to a random sample of 14 000 Swedish residents aged 18 years and older, of which 7099 responded, 1377 reported at least one ADE and 943 reported an ADR or STE. Main outcome measures Societal COI, including direct and indirect costs, for individuals with at least one self-reported ADE, and the direct costs for prescription drugs and healthcare use resulting from self-reported ADRs and STEs were estimated during 30 days using a bottom-up approach. Results The economic burden for individuals with ADEs were (95% CI) 442.7 to 599.8 international dollars (Int$), of which direct costs were Int$ 279.6 to 420.0 (67.1%) and indirect costs were Int$ 143.0 to 199.8 (32.9%). The average COI was higher among those reporting ADEs compared with other respondents (COI: Int$ 442.7 to 599.8 versus Int$ 185.8 to 231.2). The COI of respondents reporting at least one ADR or STE was Int$ 468.9 to 652.9. Direct costs resulting from ADRs or STEs were Int$ 15.0 to 48.4. The reported resource use occurred both in hospitals and outside in primary care. Conclusions Self-reported ADRs and STEs cause resource use both in hospitals and in primary care. Moreover, ADEs seem to be associated with high overall COI from a societal perspective when comparing respondents with and without ADEs. There is a need to further examine this relationship and to study the indirect costs resulting from ADEs. PMID:23794552

  8. The Distribution of Fitness Costs of Resistance-Conferring Mutations Is a Key Determinant for the Future Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Model-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Gwenan M; Colijn, Caroline; Shrestha, Sourya; Fofana, Mariam; Cobelens, Frank; White, Richard G; Dowdy, David W; Cohen, Ted

    2015-10-15

    Drug resistance poses a serious challenge for the control of tuberculosis in many settings. It is well established that the expected future trend in resistance depends on the reproductive fitness of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the variability in fitness between strains with different resistance-conferring mutations has been largely ignored when making these predictions. We developed a novel approach for incorporating the variable fitness costs of drug resistance-conferring mutations and for tracking this distribution of fitness costs over time within a transmission model. We used this approach to describe the effects of realistic fitness cost distributions on the future prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The shape of the distribution of fitness costs was a strong predictor of the long-term prevalence of resistance. While, as expected, lower average fitness costs of drug resistance-conferring mutations were associated with more severe epidemics of drug-resistant tuberculosis, fitness distributions with greater variance also led to higher levels of drug resistance. For example, compared to simulations in which the fitness cost of resistance was fixed, introducing a realistic amount of variance resulted in a 40% increase in prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis after 20 years. The differences in the fitness costs associated with drug resistance-conferring mutations are a key determinant of the future burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Future studies that can better establish the range of fitness costs associated with drug resistance-conferring mutations will improve projections and thus facilitate better public health planning efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Distribution of Fitness Costs of Resistance-Conferring Mutations Is a Key Determinant for the Future Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Model-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Gwenan M.; Colijn, Caroline; Shrestha, Sourya; Fofana, Mariam; Cobelens, Frank; White, Richard G.; Dowdy, David W.; Cohen, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Background. Drug resistance poses a serious challenge for the control of tuberculosis in many settings. It is well established that the expected future trend in resistance depends on the reproductive fitness of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the variability in fitness between strains with different resistance-conferring mutations has been largely ignored when making these predictions. Methods. We developed a novel approach for incorporating the variable fitness costs of drug resistance-conferring mutations and for tracking this distribution of fitness costs over time within a transmission model. We used this approach to describe the effects of realistic fitness cost distributions on the future prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Results. The shape of the distribution of fitness costs was a strong predictor of the long-term prevalence of resistance. While, as expected, lower average fitness costs of drug resistance–conferring mutations were associated with more severe epidemics of drug-resistant tuberculosis, fitness distributions with greater variance also led to higher levels of drug resistance. For example, compared to simulations in which the fitness cost of resistance was fixed, introducing a realistic amount of variance resulted in a 40% increase in prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis after 20 years. Conclusions. The differences in the fitness costs associated with drug resistance–conferring mutations are a key determinant of the future burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Future studies that can better establish the range of fitness costs associated with drug resistance–conferring mutations will improve projections and thus facilitate better public health planning efforts. PMID:26409276

  10. Costs of tumor necrosis factor blockers per treated patient using real-world drug data in a managed care population.

    PubMed

    Schabert, Vernon F; Watson, Crystal; Joseph, George J; Iversen, Paige; Burudpakdee, Chakkarin; Harrison, David J

    2013-10-01

    Several anti-inflammatory biologic medications are available in the United States for the treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis, moderate-to-severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or ankylosing spondylitis. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab are approved for use in adults with any of these conditions, but predicting the annual costs of TNF-blocker treatment is complex due to differences in dosing schedules, treatment gaps, switching between TNF blockers, and dose escalation over time. To estimate the annual cost per treated patient from the payer perspective for etanercept, adalimumab, or infliximab in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or ankylosing spondylitis. Adults in the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database were analyzed if they had at least 1 claim for etanercept, adalimumab, or infliximab between February 1, 2008, and July 5, 2010, and were continuously enrolled for at least 180 days before (pre-index period) through 360 days after the index claim (the first TNF-blocker claim after 6 months of continuous enrollment in the study period). Patients had a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or ankylosing spondylitis, or a combination of these conditions, in the pre-index period. Cost was based on dose and price using April 2012 wholesale acquisition cost. Costs of administration were included for the first subcutaneous dose (etanercept or adalimumab) for new patients and for every intravenous dose (infliximab). Total TNF-blocker drug and administration costs, including nonindex TNF-blocker costs among patients who switched treatments, were divided by number of patients to yield cost per treated patient for each index TNF blocker. Subgroup analyses included cost by condition and cost for patients who were new to TNF-blocker treatment (no index TNF-blocker claim in the pre-index period) or continuing TNF-blocker treatment. Of the 30

  11. The Cost of Drug Use in Adolescence: Young People, Money and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; Higgins, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    It is now common for young people in full-time compulsory education to hold part-time jobs. However, while the 1990s experienced a rise in illicit drug use particularly among young people and an increase in the level of interest in identifying factors associated with drug use, little attention has been paid to the influence of the money young…

  12. The cost impact of outreach testing and treatment for hepatitis C in an urban Drug Treatment Unit.

    PubMed

    Selvapatt, Nowlan; Ward, Thomas; Harrison, Lorna; Lombardini, Jody; Thursz, Mark; McEwan, Phil; Brown, Ashley

    2017-03-01

    In developed countries persons who inject drugs (PWID) represents a significant risk for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is reported that up to half of persons with chronic HCV remain undiagnosed and reliance on attendance to specialist clinics remain a barrier to treatment. This study assesses the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of outreach screening and treatment within a Drug Treatment Unit (DTU). All persons attending a London DTU were offered HCV testing, and where appropriate follow-up and treatment by a specialist nurse at the DTU. Three years of data informed a cost-effective-analysis using a validated Markov model. A hypothetical scenario in which only direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatments were used was also assessed. Of 321 persons eligible, 216 were screened, 89 were HCV positive and 66 had confirmatory evidence of viraemia. All were infected with either HCV genotype 1 or 3. Treatment was initiated in 29 persons, 22 with interferon based and 7 DAA only regimens. Following initial treatment 21 (72%) achieved SVR12. It is estimated that this programme represents an average per-patient cost-saving of £2498 and a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain of 4.10 over a lifetime. In a hypothetical scenario of all oral DAA treatment, an incremental cost per QALY of £1029 was estimated. This study demonstrates feasibility and cost effectiveness of outreach testing and treatment of hepatitis C within comparable DTU settings. Additional costs of newer DAA therapies would not be prohibitive when considering willingness-to-pay thresholds commonly used by policy makers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of treating chronic hepatitis C virus in people who inject drugs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Adam J; Doyle, Joseph S; Weir, Amanda; Shiell, Alan M; Hellard, Margaret E

    2013-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C virus treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in current and former people who inject drugs (PWID). A decision analytic model simulated the lifetime costs and outcomes of four treatment options: early treatment with mild fibrosis, standard treatment with moderate fibrosis, late treatment with compensated cirrhosis, and no treatment. Treatment modalities were simulated across current, former, and never-injector cohorts of 1000 hypothetical patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. The main outcome measures were incremental costs ($AUD) per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for each cohort. Treatment of current PWID during mild fibrosis resulted in a discounted average gain of 1.60 QALYs (95% confidence interval 0.93-2.26) for an added cost of $12,723 ($11,153-$14,396) compared with no treatment, yielding an ICER of $7941 per QALY gained ($6347-$12,017). Former PWID gained 1.80 QALYs (1.29-2.33) for $10,441 ($8843-$12,074) for early treatment compared with no treatment, resulting in an ICER of $5808 per QALY gained ($5189-$6849). Never-injectors gained 2.33 QALYs (1.87-2.80) for $9290 ($7642-$10,912) compared with no treatment-an ICER of $3985 per QALY gained ($3896-$4080). Early treatment was more cost-effective than late treatment in all cohorts. Despite comorbidities, increased mortality, and reduced adherence, treatment of both current and former PWID is cost-effective. Our estimates fall below the unofficial Australian cost-effectiveness threshold of $AUD 50,000 per QALY for public subsidies. Scaling up treatment for PWID can be justified on purely economic grounds. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Drug utilization pattern and cost for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock in critically ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nazer, Lama; Al-Shaer, Mohammad; Hawari, Feras

    2013-12-01

    Cancer patients are at high risk for developing sepsis. To our knowledge, there are no studies that evaluated the type of medications utilized and the associated cost in cancer patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. To describe the drug utilization pattern and drug cost in the treatment of cancer patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. 12-bed medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a comprehensive teaching cancer center. A retrospective cohort study of cancer patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who were treated in the ICU between January and December, 2010. The ICU sepsis database was used to identify patients. The patient demographics and characteristics were recorded. In addition, the number and type of prescribed medications, total cost for each medication, type of infection, and culture results were determined. The main outcomes were the type of medication classes utilized and the cost of the medications. During the study period, 116 cases were identified. Upon presentation, the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 21.8 (SD ± 7.8), 30 (25.9 %) patients had neutropenia, and 94 (81 %) had positive cultures. The total cost of the medications prescribed for this cohort of patients was 291,030 Euro. The mean number of medications prescribed per patient and the mean total cost per patient were 11.7 (SD ± 4.7) and 2,509 Euro (SD ± 2,844), respectively. The most commonly prescribed medication classes were acid suppressive therapy, glycopeptides, penicillins/cephalosporins and vasopressors prescribed in 113 (97 %), 104 (89.7 %), 103 (88.9 %), and 102 (88 %) patients, respectively. The highest medication costs were associated with antifungals (mean 1,288 Euro/patient) and colony stimulating factors (mean 829 Euro/patient), prescribed in 55 (47.4 %) and 37 (31.9 %) patients, respectively. Medication costs were higher in non-survivors, compared to survivors (3,664 Euro vs. 1,430 Euro, p = 0.0001), and in

  15. Antiretroviral drug costs and prescription patterns in British Columbia, Canada: 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Montaner, Julio S G; Yip, Benita; Lima, Viviane D; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    Treatment options and therapeutic guidelines have evolved substantially since highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) became the standard of HIV care in 1996. We conducted the present population-based analysis to characterize the determinants of direct costs of HAART over time in British Columbia, Canada. We considered individuals ever receiving HAART in British Columbia from 1996 to 2011. Linear mixed-effects regression models were constructed to determine the effects of demographic indicators, clinical stage, and treatment characteristics on quarterly costs of HAART (in 2010$CDN) among individuals initiating in different temporal periods. The least-square mean values were estimated by CD4 category and over time for each temporal cohort. Longitudinal data on HAART recipients (N = 9601, 17.6% female, mean age at initiation = 40.5) were analyzed. Multiple regression analyses identified demographics, treatment adherence, and pharmacological class to be independently associated with quarterly HAART costs. Higher CD4 cell counts were associated with modestly lower costs among pre-HAART initiators [least-square means (95% confidence interval), CD4 > 500: 4674 (4632-4716); CD4: 350-499: 4765 (4721-4809) CD4: 200-349: 4826 (4780-4871); CD4 <200: 4809 (4759-4859)]; however these differences were not significant among post-2003 HAART initiators. Population-level mean costs increased through 2006 and stabilized post-2003 HAART initiators incurred quarterly costs up to 23% lower than pre-2000 HAART initiators in 2010. Our results highlight the magnitude of the temporal changes in HAART costs, and disparities between recent and pre-HAART initiators. This methodology can improve the precision of economic modeling efforts by using detailed cost functions for annual, population-level medication costs according to the distribution of clients by clinical stage and era of treatment initiation.

  16. Treatment in Kenyan rural health facilities: projected drug costs using the WHO-UNICEF integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, L. L.; Lee, L. A.; Odhacha, A.

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) in peripheral health facilities have been developed by WHO and UNICEF to improve the recognition and treatment of common causes of childhood death. To evaluate the impact of the guidelines on treatment costs, we compared the cost of drugs actually prescribed to a sample of 747 sick children aged 2-59 months in rural health facilities in western Kenya with the cost of drugs had the children been managed using the IMCI guidelines. The average cost of drugs actually prescribed per child was US$ 0.44 (1996 US$). Antibiotics were the most costly component, with phenoxymethylpenicillin syrup accounting for 59% of the cost of all the drugs prescribed. Of the 295 prescriptions for phenoxymethylpenicillin syrup, 223 (76%) were for treatment of colds or cough. The cost of drugs that would have been prescribed had the same children been managed with the IMCI guidelines ranged from US$ 0.16 per patient (based on a formulary of larger-dose tablets and a home remedy for cough) to US$ 0.39 per patient (based on a formulary of syrups or paediatric-dose tablets and a commercial cough preparation). Treatment of coughs and colds with antibiotics is not recommended in the Kenyan or in the IMCI guidelines. Compliance with existing treatment guidelines for the management of acute respiratory infections would have halved the cost of the drugs prescribed. The estimated cost of the drugs needed to treat children using the IMCI guidelines was less than the cost of the drugs actually prescribed, but varied considerably depending on the dosage forms and whether a commercial cough preparation was used. PMID:10593034

  17. Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shah, Maunank; Chihota, Violet; Coetzee, Gerrit; Churchyard, Gavin; Dorman, Susan E

    2013-07-29

    The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference laboratories for diagnosis of TB and drug-resistance, but their costs have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a detailed reference laboratory cost analysis of new rapid molecular assays (Xpert and MTBDRplus) for tuberculosis testing and drug-resistance testing in South Africa, and compared with the costs of conventional approaches involving sputum microscopy, liquid mycobacterial culture, and phenotypic drug sensitivity testing. From a laboratory perspective, Xpert MTB/RIF cost $14.93/sample and the MTBDRplus line probe assay cost $23.46/sample, compared to $16.88/sample using conventional automated liquid culture-based methods. Laboratory costs of Xpert and MTBDRplus were most influenced by cost of consumables (60-80%). At current public sector pricing, Xpert MTB/RIF and MTBDRplus are comparable in cost to mycobacterial culture and conventional drug sensitivity testing. Overall, reference laboratories must balance costs with performance characteristics and the need for rapid results.

  18. 45 CFR 156.295 - Prescription drug distribution and cost reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the percentage of prescriptions for which a generic drug was available and dispensed compared to all... medication to the general public, that is paid by the QHP issuer or the QHP issuer's contracted PBM; (2) The...

  19. Can a medical need clause help manage the growing costs of prescription drugs in the EU?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Innovation in the development of new drugs has to balance the needs of health actors and administrators, the pharmaceutical industry and patients. Differing perspectives on what constitutes an innovation, where research and development should be directed and how new drugs should be evaluated and priced cause ongoing tensions within the regulatory framework. In the current climate, where Europe's health systems face rising demand for health services and increasingly restricted resources, the efficiency of pharmaceutical regulation and drug development is under even greater scrutiny. How can regulation foster innovation and industry growth while also serving the public health needs of society, and what is the EU's role in pursuing this objective? Drawing on a provision which formerly existed in Norwegian pharmaceutical legislation, this article explores the potential of a medical need clause (MNC) in addressing these issues. In restricting market authorisations to those drugs that offer an added therapeutic value, might a MNC foster innovation and spending efficiency in Europe's health systems?

  20. A cost-utility analysis of alternative drug regimens for newly diagnosed severe lupus nephritis patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mohara, Adun; Pérez Velasco, Román; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of four drug regimens for newly diagnosed severe LN from a societal perspective. A model-based cost-utility analysis was devised to measure lifetime costs and health outcomes. Current treatment options consisting of different combinations of i.v. CYC, AZA and MMF were compared with a baseline regimen of i.v. CYC in both the induction and maintenance phases. Resource use and costs were derived from medical records reviews and databases. Event rates were elicited from randomized controlled trials. Relative treatment effects were obtained from meta-analyses. Health utilities were obtained from a real cohort of patients to estimate the outcome of quality-adjusted life years. It was found that a treatment regimen that combined i.v. CYC in the induction phase with AZA in the maintenance phase was cost saving compared with the baseline regimen. Treatment with i.v. CYC in the induction phase and MMF in the maintenance phase and treatment with MMF in the induction phase and a reduced dose of the same in the maintenance phase turned out to be a negatively dominated regimen. In the Thai context, the combination of i.v. CYC for the induction phase followed by AZA for the maintenance phase should be considered as the first-line therapy for newly diagnosed severe LN, as it seems to be the most cost-saving regimen.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of drug therapies for Alzheimer’s disease: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Geldmacher, David S

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an important and rapidly expanding public health problem. Its large economic burden is a result of its disabling nature, chronicity, and high prevalence in older segments of the population. Current treatments of AD have been criticized for providing insufficient benefit to justify their costs, but variability in assessing both costs and benefits make evaluation of the existing data problematic. Inclusion of the value of caregiver time is a major driver of the determination of cost-effectiveness. Population-based studies and those based on application of economic models to other study outcomes tend to identify greater cost-effectiveness than prospectively collected data. Differences in healthcare economics across countries also limit generalization of specific study findings. The current state of evidence suggests that treatment decisions in AD should be based on assessment of benefit in individual patients rather than broader societal economic factors. PMID:18830441

  2. Hospitalizations for Endocarditis and Associated Health Care Costs Among Persons with Diagnosed Drug Dependence - North Carolina, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Fleischauer, Aaron T; Ruhl, Laura; Rhea, Sarah; Barnes, Erin

    2017-06-09

    Opioid dependence and overdose have increased to epidemic levels in the United States. The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that 4.3 million persons were nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers (1). These users are 40 times more likely than the general population to use heroin or other injection drugs (2). Furthermore, CDC estimated a near quadrupling of heroin-related overdose deaths during 2002-2014 (3). Although overdose contributes most to drug-associated mortality, infectious complications of intravenous drug use constitute a major cause of morbidity leading to hospitalization (4). In addition to infections from hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), injecting drug users are at increased risk for acquiring invasive bacterial infections, including endocarditis (5,6). Evidence that hospitalizations for endocarditis are increasing in association with the current opioid epidemic exists (7-9). To examine trends in hospitalizations for endocarditis among persons in North Carolina with drug dependence during 2010-2015, data from the North Carolina Hospital Discharge database were analyzed. The incidence of hospital discharge diagnoses for drug dependence combined with endocarditis increased more than twelvefold from 0.2 to 2.7 per 100,000 persons per year over this 6-year period. Correspondingly, hospital costs for these patients increased eighteenfold, from $1.1 million in 2010 to $22.2 million in 2015. To reduce the risk for morbidity and mortality related to opioid-associated endocarditis, public health programs and health care systems should consider collaborating to implement syringe service programs, harm reduction strategies, and opioid treatment programs.

  3. Longevity and cost of implantable intrathecal drug delivery systems for chronic pain management: a retrospective analysis of 365 patients.

    PubMed

    Bolash, Robert; Udeh, Belinda; Saweris, Youssef; Guirguis, Maged; Dalton, Jarrod E; Makarova, Natalya; Mekhail, Nagy

    2015-02-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery systems represent an important component of interventional strategies for refractory chronic pain syndromes. Continuous intrathecal administration of opioids results in higher subarachnoid drug concentrations, improved pain scores, and less frequent side effects when compared with systemic opioid administration. Substantial costs arise at the time of surgical implantation and at revision for battery depletion or treatment of a complication. Despite current widespread use, the real-world longevity and cost of implanted intrathecal pumps (ITP) has not been fully quantified. Patients with an ITP implanted at Cleveland Clinic Pain Management Center between January 1998 and December 2012 were included. ITP longevity was calculated as the time between implant and explant for depletion of the system's battery. Using the 2013 fee schedule of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the daily cost of having a functioning ITP was calculated. The costs of office visits for pump refills and the cost of intrathecal medications were not included, nor were the possible savings due to decreased utilization of alternate medical services. Three hundred sixty-five patients had 559 pumps implanted. Postlaminectomy syndrome was the most common indication (40%). The median system longevity for all pumps was 5.4 years (97.5% confidence interval: [5.0, 5.8]), including pumps extracted prematurely, as well as those that reached the elective replacement interval. The median ITP longevity was 5.9 years (95% confidence interval: [5.6, 6.1]) for pumps explanted for end of battery life. The median system cost per day was $10.46. The median cost per day of pumps explanted for end of battery life was $9.26, versus $44.59 for pumps explanted prematurely due to complications. Overall, the cohort experienced an increased incidence of pump-related complications and a device longevity that was within the range of the manufacturer's anticipated lifespan. Increasing the

  4. Hospital care and drug costs from five years before until two years after the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in a Finnish nationwide cohort.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Heidi; Purhonen, Maija; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tanskanen, Antti; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate costs related to hospital care and drugs utilizing register-based data from five years before until two years after the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a nationwide cohort. Finnish nationwide MEDALZ cohort includes all incident cases with clinically verified diagnosis of AD diagnosed during 2005-2011. The study population included 70,718 persons with AD and age-, gender- and region-of-residence-matched control persons. Data of medical care costs was derived from the prescription register and hospital discharge register. Costs of hospital care were calculated according to Finnish healthcare system unit costs. Costs in six month periods before and after the diagnosis per person-years were analyzed. Persons with AD had higher mean total medical care costs per person-years starting from 0.5-1 years before the diagnosis of AD and remained at a higher level until two years after the diagnosis. The difference in mean total medical care costs was at its highest at six months after the diagnosis (cost difference €5088). After that, persons with AD had costs that reached approximately double those without AD. Hospital care costs constituted the major share (78-84%) of the total medical care costs in both persons with and without AD, whereas drug costs had a minor role. Increase in drug costs was caused by anti-dementia drugs. Costs of hospital stays constituted the most significant portion of medical care costs for persons with AD. Further research should be focused on the causes of hospitalization periods. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Comparative cost-effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing the global burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Dan; Doran, Chris; Shibuya, Kenji; Rehm, Jürgen

    2006-11-01

    Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use together pose a formidable challenge to international public health. Building on earlier estimates of the demonstrated burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use at the global level, this review aims to consider the comparative cost-effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for reducing the global burden of disease from these three risk factors. Although the number of published cost-effectiveness studies in the addictions field is now extensive (reviewed briefly here) there are a series of practical problems in using them for sector-wide decision making, including methodological heterogeneity, differences in analytical reference point and the specificity of findings to a particular context. In response to these limitations, a more generalised form of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is proposed, which enables like-with-like comparisons of the relative efficiency of preventive or individual-based strategies to be made, not only within but also across diseases or their risk factors. The application of generalised CEA to a range of personal and non-personal interventions for reducing the burden of addictive substances is described. While such a development avoids many of the obstacles that have plagued earlier attempts and in so doing opens up new opportunities to address important policy questions, there remain a number of caveats to population-level analysis of this kind, particularly when conducted at the global level. These issues are the subject of the final section of this review.

  6. Compliance, persistence, costs and quality of life in young patients treated with antipsychotic drugs: results from the COMETA study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little data is available on the real-world socio-economic burden and outcomes in schizophrenia. This study aimed to assess persistence, compliance, costs and Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL) in young patients undergoing antipsychotic treatment according to clinical practice. Methods A naturalistic, longitudinal, multicentre cohort study was conducted: we involved 637 patients aged 18–40 years, with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder diagnosed ≤10 years before, enrolled in 86 Italian Mental Health Centres and followed-up for 1 year. Comparisons were conducted between naïve (i.e., patients visiting the centre for the first time and starting a new treatment regimen) and non naïve patients. Results At enrolment, 84% of patients were taking atypical drugs, 3.7% typical, 10% a combination of the two classes, and 2% were untreated. During follow-up, 23% of patients switched at least once to a different class of treatment, a combination or no treatment. The mean Drug-Attitude-Inventory score was 43.4, with 94.3% of the patients considered compliant by the clinicians. On average, medical costs at baseline were 390.93€/patient-month, mostly for drug treatment (29.5%), psychotherapy (29.2%), and hospitalizations (27.1%). Patients and caregivers lost 3.5 days/patient-month of productivity. During follow-up, attitude toward treatment remained fairly similar, medical costs were generally stable, while productivity, clinical statusand HRQoL significantly improved. While no significantly different overall direct costs trends were found between naïve and non naïve patients, naïve patients showed generally a significant mean higher improvement of clinical outcomes, HRQoL and indirect costs, compared to the others. Conclusions Our results suggest how tailoring the treatment strategy according to the complex and specific patient needs make it possible to achieve benefits and to allocate more efficiently resources. This study can also provide

  7. Fixed-dose combination and single active ingredient drugs: a comparative cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jing; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fixed-dose combination (FDC) drugs are formulations of two or more active ingredients. To assess the pricing structure and price difference of all US FDA-approved FDCs and single drugs included in the combination. Data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Average Wholesale Price (AWP) unit price data were derived from The Red Book. The FDA approved 117 FDC. The average AWP difference percentage between the FDC and the sum of the single drugs in the FDC is 84.9 ± 26.2%, and varied by therapeutic class (p < 0.001). The FDC AWP averaged 83.3 ± 23.4% of the single drug AWP sum when there are no generics, and 95.1 ± 42.3% (p < 0.01) when there are two generic single active ingredients in the FDC. The price difference between FDC and single active ingredients in the combination is correlated with the therapeutic class, the year of FDC approval, and the number of single ingredients in the combination that have generics.

  8. A PERMISSION SYSTEM FOR CARBAPENEM USE REDUCED INCIDENCE OF DRUG-RESISTANT BACTERIA AND COST OF ANTIMICROBIALS AT A GENERAL HOSPITAL IN JAPAN

    PubMed Central

    IKEDA, YOSHIAKI; MAMIYA, TAKAYOSHI; NISHIYAMA, HIDEKI; NARUSAWA, SHIHO; KOSEKI, TAKENAO; MOURI, AKIHIRO; NABESHIMA, TOSHITAKA

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some drug management systems have been established in Japanese hospitals to reduce medical costs and regulate drug usage. Among the many available prescription drugs, antimicrobials should be given special attention because their inappropriate use often leads to sudden outbreaks of resistant bacteria. As drug specialists, pharmacists should monitor the use of all drugs, particularly antimicrobials. Carbapenems are a class of broad-spectrum antimicrobials that are widely used to treat infections worldwide. However, their inappropriate use has led to an increase in the incidence of drug-resistant bacteria and consequently, medical costs, at hospitals. To reduce inappropriate use and drug resistance, we have established a permission system to control the use of carbapenems at the Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the applicability of the new permission system compared to that of the notification system and the non control system for 14 months each. The two management systems were able to maintain total antibiotic use density and control the outbreak of drug-resistant bacteria (P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae). The number of carbapenem prescriptions was decreased dramatically when this permission system was enforced. Compared to the non control system, the cost of antimicrobials was reduced by $757,470 for the 14-month study period using the permission system. These results suggest that our system to control the use of antimicrobials can efficiently suppress the incidence of drug-resistant bacteria and medical costs at hospitals. PMID:22515115

  9. Reducing drug costs at a Veterans Affairs hospital by increasing market-share of generic fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Dobscha, Steven K; Winterbottom, Lisa M; Snodgrass, Leann S

    2007-02-01

    We previously showed that a multifaceted intervention designed to contain costs of prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) at a Veterans Affairs hospital resulted in substantial projected savings. Intervention components included clinician education and pharmacy and computer information process changes. We now report on effects of altering the intervention to promote prescribing of generic fluoxetine. Over 30 months, fluoxetine's market-share increased from 12 to 32% of all SSRIs prescribed. A total of $2,500,000 in cost avoidance resulted from substituting generic for brand fluoxetine, and $600,000 resulted from increases in market-share of fluoxetine. The results highlight the robustness and flexibility of the intervention approach.

  10. How state and federal policies as well as advances in genome science contribute to the high cost of cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    During a time when cancer drug prices are increasing at an unprecedented rate, a debate has emerged as to whether these drugs continue to provide good value. In this article I argue that this debate is irrelevant because under today's highly distorted market, prices will not be set with value considerations in mind. As an alternative, I suggest considering the "value" of three policy changes—Medicare's "average sales price plus 6 percent" payment program, laws that require insurance coverage of all new cancer drugs, and the Affordable Care Act—that are fueling manufacturers' willingness to set higher prices. More important than these issues, however, is the revolution that is occurring in molecular biology and its impact on scientists' ability to detect changes in the cancer genome. The lowered cost of discovery is driving more competitors into the market, which under distorted pricing paradoxically encourages drug makers to charge ever higher prices for their products. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Effect of off-label use of oncology drugs on pharmaceutical costs: the rituximab experience.

    PubMed

    Kocs, Darren; Fendrick, A Mark

    2003-05-01

    While the off-label use of oncology interventions is widespread, the factors influencing off-label use and the resultant influence on oncology drug expenditures are not well understood. To assess the indications for rituximab use, a retrospective review was undertaken at a single academic center between September 1998 and June 2001. Patient diagnoses were linked to pharmacy records, and each administration of rituximab was classified as either on-label or off-label as defined by FDA-approved indications. The resultant utilization patterns were the foundation for a conceptual model designed to identify factors that influence off-label use of oncology-related therapeutics and forecast the effect of off-label use on aggregate oncology drug expenditures. One hundred one patients received a total of 428 rituximab administrations during the study period. Most (320, 75%) of the administrations were for off-label indications. Although the extent of off-label and on-label use grew at a similar rate initially, off-label utilization increased nearly exponentially over time as on-label uses lessened. A conceptual model that describes factors that promote, inhibit, or have a mixed influence on off-label use may help predict future patterns of off-label utilization and allow better forecasting of oncology drug expenditures. The off-label use of rituximab is substantial. Projections of oncology-related patterns of care and drug expenditures must account for the potential for off-label use.

  12. [Safety notice for the use of drugs for intravesical instillations and cost analysis].

    PubMed

    Zanni, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Among the objectives outlined in the National Health Plan 1998-2000 are some interventions to improve the safety of public and private health-care facilities. One of the significant risks in the health sector is the one resulting from exposure to chemotherapy drugs. The Health Surveillance must take into account that anticancer drugs are cytotoxic compounds, which can cause cancer. It is necessary that occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents be kept within the lowest possible level. The potential absorption due to exposure to chemotherapy may be significantly reduced by adopting preventive measures specific to particular concern in a centralization of structures and activities. To ensure an adequate system of protection for people who use these substances in professional health-care settings, there should be the establishment of a specific "Anticancer Drugs Unit" to entrust the working cycle. The places reserved for the preparation of cytotoxic chemotherapy must be equipped with floor and walls up to heights of appropriate plastic material easily washable. Inside the room there must be a "point of decontamination" for washing hands and eyes. The preparation of antineoplastic agents should be performed under hoods positioned away from heat sources and any air currents. It is advisable to use disposable surgical gowns with long sleeves with elastic cuffs or knitted sleeve to allow the gloves sticking above the gown itself. In the preparation of drugs the vial opening procedure must be implemented after verifying that no liquid is left at the top, and by wrapping the neck of the vial with a sterile gauze. Any accidental contamination must be reported to the Physician. All waste materials produced from the handling of cytotoxic chemotherapy should be considered as special hospital waste. To achieve high standards of safety and prevention for the personnel exposed to antineoplastic agents, it is necessary that workers are adequately informed about the risks and

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of oral anti-viral drugs used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kockaya, Guvenc; Kose, Akin; Yenilmez, Fatma Betul; Ozdemir, Oktay; Kucuksayrac, Ece

    2015-01-01

    All international guidelines suggested that Tenofovir and Entecavir are the primary drugs at the first line therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, in Turkey these medications reimbursed at the second line therapy according to the Healthcare Implementation Notification. The aim of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of oral antiviral treatment strategies in CHB for Turkey using lamuvidine, telbuvidine, entecavir, and tenofovir as medications. The analysis was conducted using Markov models. The analysis scenarios based on first line treatment options with Lamuvidine, Telbuvidine, Entecavir, and Tenofovir as the medications. In the analysis, inadequate response or resistance after receiving 12 months of the treatment with Entecavir and Telbivudine were compared to the results found from switching from Entecavir to Tenofovir or from switching from Telbuvidine to Tenofovir. In additional, inadequate response or resistance after receiving 6 months of the treatment for Lamivudine was compared to the results found from switching from Lamivudine to Tenofovir. The study population included men and women, who were 40 years of age. The patients` compliance was estimated 100 % for all of the therapy options. The model duration was constructed to evaluate, treatment strategy duration of 40 years. The cost of medications, examinations/follow-ups and complications were included in the model. Years of Potential Life Lost was used as the health outcome. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio analysis has been conducted. While the minimum years of life lost was found as 0.22 with tenofovir treatment in 5 years, treatment cost was calculated as 12,169 TL. These values were detected as 0.56 years and 7727 TL, 0.37 years and 12,770 TL, respectively for lamuvidine and telbuvidine treatments. The maximum years of life lost and treatment cost was with lamuvidine treatment were detected as 1.60 years and 18,813 TL and, secondly 0.89 years and

  14. Viral fitness cost prevents HIV-1 from evading dolutegravir drug pressure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have shown that integrase strand transfer inhibitors can be used to treat HIV-1 infection. Although the first-generation integrase inhibitors are susceptible to the emergence of resistance mutations that impair their efficacy in therapy, such resistance has not been identified to date in drug-naïve patients who have been treated with the second-generation inhibitor dolutegravir. During previous in vitro selection study, we identified a R263K mutation as the most common substitution to arise in the presence of dolutegravir with H51Y arising as a secondary mutation. Additional experiments reported here provide a plausible explanation for the absence of reported dolutegravir resistance among integrase inhibitor-naïve patients to date. Results We now show that H51Y in combination with R263K increases resistance to dolutegravir but is accompanied by dramatic decreases in both enzymatic activity and viral replication. Conclusions Since H51Y and R263K may define a unique resistance pathway to dolutegravir, our results are consistent with the absence of resistance mutations in antiretroviral drug-naive patients treated with this drug. PMID:23432922

  15. Viral fitness cost prevents HIV-1 from evading dolutegravir drug pressure.

    PubMed

    Mesplède, Thibault; Quashie, Peter K; Osman, Nathan; Han, Yingshan; Singhroy, Diane N; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J; Huang, Wei; Wainberg, Mark A

    2013-02-22

    Clinical studies have shown that integrase strand transfer inhibitors can be used to treat HIV-1 infection. Although the first-generation integrase inhibitors are susceptible to the emergence of resistance mutations that impair their efficacy in therapy, such resistance has not been identified to date in drug-naïve patients who have been treated with the second-generation inhibitor dolutegravir. During previous in vitro selection study, we identified a R263K mutation as the most common substitution to arise in the presence of dolutegravir with H51Y arising as a secondary mutation. Additional experiments reported here provide a plausible explanation for the absence of reported dolutegravir resistance among integrase inhibitor-naïve patients to date. We now show that H51Y in combination with R263K increases resistance to dolutegravir but is accompanied by dramatic decreases in both enzymatic activity and viral replication. Since H51Y and R263K may define a unique resistance pathway to dolutegravir, our results are consistent with the absence of resistance mutations in antiretroviral drug-naive patients treated with this drug.

  16. Cost Sharing, Family Health Care Burden, and the Use of Specialty Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Joyce, Geoffrey F; Goldman, Dana P; Laouri, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of benefit generosity and household health care financial burden on the demand for specialty drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data Sources/Study Setting Enrollment, claims, and benefit design information for 35 large private employers during 2000–2005. Study Design We estimated multivariate models of the effects of benefit generosity and household financial burden on initiation and continuation of biologic therapies. Data Extraction Methods We defined initiation of biologic therapy as first-time use of etanercept, adalimumab, or infliximab, and we constructed an index of plan generosity based on coverage of biologic therapies in each plan. We estimated the household's burden by summing up the annual out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses of other family members. Principal Findings Benefit generosity affected both the likelihood of initiating a biologic and continuing drug therapy, although the effects were stronger for initiation. Initiation of a biologic was lower in households where other family members incurred high OOP expenses. Conclusions The use of biologic therapy for RA is sensitive to benefit generosity and household financial burden. The increasing use of coinsurance rates for specialty drugs (as under Medicare Part D) raises concern about adverse health consequences. PMID:20831715

  17. A cost-effective smartphone-based antimicrobial susceptibility test reader for drug resistance testing (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Steve W.; Tseng, Derek; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is commonly used for determining microbial drug resistance, but routine testing, which can significantly reduce the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, is not regularly performed in resource-limited and field-settings due to technological challenges and lack of trained diagnosticians. We developed a portable cost-effective smartphone-based colorimetric 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) reader capable of automated AST without the need for a trained diagnostician. This system is composed of a smartphone used in conjunction with a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment, which holds a set of inexpensive light-emitting-diodes and fiber-optic cables coupled to the 96-well MTP for enabling the capture of the transmitted light through each well by the smartphone camera. Images of the MTP plate are captured at multiple exposures and uploaded to a local or remote server (e.g., a laptop) for automated processing/analysis of the results using a custom-designed smartphone application. Each set of images are combined to generate a high dynamic-range image and analyzed for well turbidity (indicative of bacterial growth), followed by interpretative analysis per plate to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and drug susceptibility for the specific bacterium. Results are returned to the originating device within 1 minute and shown to the user in tabular form. We demonstrated the capability of this platform using MTPs prepared with 17 antibiotic drugs targeting Gram-negative bacteria and tested 82 patient isolate MTPs of Klebsiella pneumoniae, achieving well turbidity accuracy of 98.19%, MIC accuracy of 95.15%, and drug susceptibility interpretation accuracy of 99.06%, meeting the FDA defined criteria for AST.

  18. Universal access to HIV treatment versus universal 'test and treat': transmission, drug resistance & treatment costs.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa (SA) universal access to treatment for HIV-infected individuals in need has yet to be achieved. Currently ~1 million receive treatment, but an additional 1.6 million are in need. It is being debated whether to use a universal 'test and treat' (T&T) strategy to try to eliminate HIV in SA; treatment reduces infectivity and hence transmission. Under a T&T strategy all HIV-infected individuals would receive treatment whether in need or not. This would require treating 5 million individuals almost immediately and providing treatment for several decades. We use a validated mathematical model to predict impact and costs of: (i) a universal T&T strategy and (ii) achieving universal access to treatment. Using modeling the WHO has predicted a universal T&T strategy in SA would eliminate HIV within a decade, and (after 40 years) cost ~$10 billion less than achieving universal access. In contrast, we predict a universal T&T strategy in SA could eliminate HIV, but take 40 years and cost ~$12 billion more than achieving universal access. We determine the difference in predictions is because the WHO has under-estimated survival time on treatment and ignored the risk of resistance. We predict, after 20 years, ~2 million individuals would need second-line regimens if a universal T&T strategy is implemented versus ~1.5 million if universal access is achieved. Costs need to be realistically estimated and multiple evaluation criteria used to compare 'treatment as prevention' with other prevention strategies. Before implementing a universal T&T strategy, which may not be sustainable, we recommend striving to achieve universal access to treatment as quickly as possible. We predict achieving universal access to treatment would be a very effective 'treatment as prevention' approach and bring the HIV epidemic in SA close to elimination, preventing ~4 million infections after 20 years and ~11 million after 40 years.

  19. Clinical importance and cost of bacteremia caused by nosocomial multi drug resistant acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Tugba Arslan; Guner, Rahmet; Celikbilek, Nevreste; Keske, Siran; Tasyaran, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    A. baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with high mortality, morbidity and medical cost. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for MDR A. baumannii bacteremia and also evaluate cost of hospitalization of these patients. Study was conducted in Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital. Patients who were hospitalized in ICU and diagnosed for nosocomial blood stream infection (BSI) between January 2007 and December 2010 were checked retrospectively. Patients with nosocomial BSI caused by multidrug resistant A. baumannii were compared with the patients who had BSI caused by other Gram-negative microorganisms in terms of risk factors, mortality and medical costs. In multivariate analysis previous use of carbapenem, quinolone and metronidazole, and SAPS II score were found as independent risk factors. In case group; immunosupression, SAPS II score, and hospital stay until infection were independently associated with mortality in multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the occurrence of MDR A.baumannii bacteremia was related with the usage of the wide spectrum antibiotics, and mortality rates were increased in patients that high SAPS II scores, long term hospitalization. Infection control procedures and limited antibiotic usage are very important for prevent nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment Practices, Outcomes, and Costs of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States, 2005–2007

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Jennifer; Seaworth, Barbara; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Armstrong, Lori; Mase, Sundari; Salcedo, Katya; Oh, Peter; Graviss, Edward A.; Colson, Paul W.; Armitige, Lisa; Revuelta, Manuel; Sheeran, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    To describe factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR), including extensively-drug-resistant (XDR), tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, we abstracted inpatient, laboratory, and public health clinic records of a sample of MDR TB patients reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from California, New York City, and Texas during 2005–2007. At initial diagnosis, MDR TB was detected in 94% of 130 MDR TB patients and XDR TB in 80% of 5 XDR TB patients. Mutually exclusive resistance was 4% XDR, 17% pre-XDR, 24% total first-line resistance, 43% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-plus-other resistance, and 13% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-only resistance. Nearly three-quarters of patients were hospitalized, 78% completed treatment, and 9% died during treatment. Direct costs, mostly covered by the public sector, averaged $134,000 per MDR TB and $430,000 per XDR TB patient; in comparison, estimated cost per non-MDR TB patient is $17,000. Drug resistance was extensive, care was complex, treatment completion rates were high, and treatment was expensive. PMID:24751166

  1. Erythropoietin-induced treatment costs in patients suffering from renal anemia - a comparison between biosimilar and originator drugs.

    PubMed

    Hörbrand, F; Rottenkolber, D; Fischaleck, J; Hasford, J

    2014-11-01

    Renal anemia is a serious concern for morbidity and lower quality-of-life of patients suffering from chronic kidney disease resulting in a high economic burden when administering erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). The aim of this study was to estimate erythropoietin-induced treatment costs in patients suffering from renal anemia undergoing dialysis treated with originator or biosimilar drugs. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of ESA-related pharmacotherapy between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010 based on treatment and pharmacy claims data of 16,895 dialysis patients contained in the database of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians, Bavaria. All patients received an ESA treatment (ATC code B03XA) and chronic maintenance hemodialysis due to chronic kidney disease stage 5. Total drug expenditures for ESA-originators and biosimilars amounted to € 78.447 million for the 3-year study period. In hemodialysis patients cumulative defined daily doses (DDDs) were 7,727,782.14. Mean costs per DDD were € 10.79 (originators) and € 8.56 (biosimilars). A biosimilar substitution quota of 50% provides a savings potential of € 6.14 million [range € 3.07-9.22 million (25-75% quota)]. A more common biosimilar prescription in renal anemia patients suffering from chronic kidney disease provides a noteworthy economic savings potential. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Cost and appropriateness of treating asthma with fixed-combination drugs in local health care units in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Isabella; Bragato, Donatello; Colombo, Giorgio L; Valla, Emanuela; Di Matteo, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Background Bronchial asthma is a chronic airways disease and is considered to be one of the major health problems in the Western world. During the last decade, a significant increase in the use of β2-agonists in combination with inhaled corticosteroids has been observed. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of expenditure on these agents in an asthmatic population treated in a real practice setting. Methods This study used data for a resident population of 635,906 citizens in the integrated patient database (Banca Dati Assistito) of a local health care unit (Milano 2 Azienda Sanitaria Locale) in the Lombardy region over 3 years (2007–2009). The sample included 3787–4808 patients selected from all citizens aged ≥ 18 years entitled to social security benefits, having a prescription for a corticosteroid + β2-agonist combination, and an ATC code corresponding to R03AK, divided into three groups, ie, pressurized (spray) drugs, inhaled powders, and extrafine formulations. Patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were excluded. Indicators of appropriateness were 1–3 packs per year (underdosed, inappropriate), 4–12 packs per year (presumably appropriate), and ≥13 packs per year (overtreatment, inappropriate). Results The corticosteroid + β2-agonist combination per treated asthmatic patient increased from 37% in 2007 to 45% in 2009 for the total of prescribed antiasthma drugs, and 28%–32% of patients used the drugs in an appropriate manner (4–12 packs per years). The cost of inappropriately used packs increased combination drug expenditure by about 40%, leading to inefficient use of health care resources. This trend improved during the 3-year observation period. The mean annual cost per patient was higher for powders (€223.95) and sprays (€224.83) than for extrafine formulation (€142.71). Conclusion Based on this analysis, we suggest implementation of better health care planning and more appropriate prescription practices

  3. Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Kimberly R.; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamine), but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil) and glutamate activators (ampakine) are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits—dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation), and/or norepinephrine—stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as MPH and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain. PMID:24860437

  4. The effect of a closed formulary on prescription drug use and costs.

    PubMed

    Motheral, B R; Henderson, R

    This study examines the effect of a closed formulary on pharmaceutical use and spending. We compared an employer plan that implemented a closed formulary in July 1997 to a control group with an open formulary, for the nine months preceding and following implementation of the formulary. When controlling for age, gender, and chronic disease score, the closed formulary was associated with significantly lower increases in utilization and expenditures, a higher prior authorization rate, and a reduced rate of continuation with chronic medications in the nine months following its implementation. These findings have implications for the design of prescription drug benefits.

  5. Life cycle assessment and costing of urine source separation: Focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug removal.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2016-11-15

    Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic costs to manage nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (i.e., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) and nutrients in human urine. Urine source separation was compared with centralized wastewater treatment (WWT) (biological or upgraded with ozonation). The current treatment method (i.e., centralized biological WWT) was compared with hypothetical treatment scenarios (i.e., centralized biological WWT upgraded with ozonation, and urine source separation). Alternative urine source separation scenarios included varying collection and handling methods (i.e., collection by vacuum truck, vacuum sewer, or decentralized treatment), pharmaceuticals removal by ion-exchange, and struvite precipitation. Urine source separation scenarios had 90% lower environmental impact (based on the TRACI impact assessment method) compared with the centralized wastewater scenarios due to reduced potable water production for flush water, reduced electricity use at the wastewater treatment plant, and nutrient offsets from struvite precipitation. Despite the greatest reduction of pharmaceutical toxicity, centralized treatment upgraded with ozone had the greatest ecotoxicity impacts due to ozonation operation and infrastructure. Among urine source separation scenarios, decentralized treatment of urine and centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum truck had negligible cost differences compared with centralized wastewater treatment. Centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum sewer and centralized treatment with ozone cost 30% more compared with conventional wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bringing in health technology assessment and cost-effectiveness considerations at an early stage of drug development.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Bengt

    2015-05-01

    This paper reviews the issues involved in undertaking HTA studies early in the development of new cancer therapies, and discusses the data and methods for estimating the cost-effectiveness of new diagnostics and treatments. The value for patients of new cancer therapies is based on access to the treatment and optimal use. Realising potential value depends on successful completion of a series of steps, from the initial economic evaluations based on clinical trial data, to the reimbursement decisions based on the evaluations and the implementation of these decisions in clinical practice. Considerable resources have been devoted to the study of the cost-effectiveness of new cancer drugs as a basis for decisions about payment and use. Such resources could be used much more effectively if industry and HTA agencies were to collaborate at an early stage in the development process. The traditional clinical trial approach of using progression-free survival and cross-overs has serious shortcomings, producing data that cannot be used to determine outcomes and, so, cost-effectiveness. A new standard is needed; both regulatory and HTA authorities should be involved in its development.

  7. Association between osteoporosis treatment change and adherence, incident fracture, and total healthcare costs in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug plan.

    PubMed

    Ward, M A; Xu, Y; Viswanathan, H N; Stolshek, B S; Clay, B; Adams, J L; Kallich, J D; Fine, S; Saag, K G

    2013-04-01

    We examined the association between osteoporosis treatment change and adherence, incident fractures, and healthcare costs among Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) plan members. Treatment change was associated with a small but significant increase in adherence, but was not associated with incident fracture or total healthcare costs. Overall adherence remained low. We examined the association between osteoporosis treatment change and adherence, incident fractures, and healthcare costs among MAPD plan members in a large US health plan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of MAPD plan members aged≥50 years newly initiated on an osteoporosis medication between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2008. Members were identified as having or not having an osteoporosis treatment change within 12 months after initiating osteoporosis medication. Logistic regression analyses and difference-in-difference (DID) generalized linear models were used to investigate the association between osteoporosis treatment change and (1) adherence to treatment, (2) incident fracture, and (3) healthcare costs at 12 and 24 months follow-up. Of the 33,823 members newly initiated on osteoporosis treatment, 3,573 (10.6%) changed osteoporosis treatment within 12 months. After controlling for covariates, osteoporosis treatment change was associated with significantly higher odds of being adherent (medication possession ratio [MPR]≥0.8) at 12 months (odds ratio [OR]=1.18) and 24 months (OR=1.13) follow-up. However, overall adherence remained low (MPR=0.59 and 0.51 for the change cohort and MPR=0.51 and 0.44 for the no-change cohort at 12 and 24 months, respectively). Osteoporosis treatment change was not significantly associated with incident fracture (OR=1.00 at 12 months and OR=0.98 at 24 months) or total direct healthcare costs (p>0.4) in the DID analysis, but was associated with higher pharmacy costs (p<0.004). Osteoporosis treatment change was associated with a small but significant

  8. Novel low cost fabrication of microneedle arrays for drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pei Ying J.; Xu, Yuan; Chew, Yong T.; Li, Zongli; Kong, Yen P.

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports a process used for the microfabrication of an array of hollow microneedles. The purpose of the array is for painless transdermal drug delivery. The fabrication process uses wet bulk silicon technology and copper electroplating technology. First, a microneedle array mold on <100>-oriented silicon was fabricated by wet anisotropic etching using KOH solution, then the silicon mold was electroplated with copper. After which, the hollow copper microneedle array was released by a lift-off process or by etching off the silicon mold in KOH solution. The hollow copper microneedle array has been mounted on a polycarbonate platform, which consist of laser ablated cavities and channel for external connection to drug source. In consideration of the contour of human"s skin and the geometry of the microneedle tip, which has walls of sloping gradient corresponding to the (111)-planes, the height of the microneedle array is 200 μm. Two arrays of hollow copper microneedle were fabricated. They have square base of dimensions 390 μm and 400 μm and square tips of size 100 μm and 120 μm with square holes of size 88 μm and 94 μm respectively. Both arrays have microneedle tips at 1900 μm apart from one another and consist of 10 × 10 microneedle tips.

  9. A systematic review of cost-sharing strategies used within publicly-funded drug plans in member countries of the organisation for economic co-operation and development.

    PubMed

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  10. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  11. Cost Analysis of Using a Closed-System Transfer Device (CSTD) for Antineoplastic Drug preparation in a Malaysian Government-Funded Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Huan Keat; Lim, Yik Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apart from reducing occupational exposure to cytotoxic hazards, the PhaSeal® closed-system transfer device (CSTD) can extend the beyond-use dates (BUDs) of unfinished vials of antineoplastic drugs for up to 168 hours (seven days). In this study, the total material cost incurred by its use in a Malaysian government-funded hospital was calculated. Methods: A list of vial stability following initial needle punctures of 29 commonly-used antineoplastic drugs was compiled. The amount of the materials used, including drugs, infusion bottles, the PhaSeal® CSTD and other consumables, was recorded on a daily basis for three months in 2015. The total cost was calculated based on the actual acquisition costs, and was compared with that of a hypothetical scenario, whereby conventional syringe-needle sets were used for the same amounts of preparations. Results: The use of the PhaSeal® CSTD incurred a cost of MYR 383,634.52 (USD 92,072.28) in three months, representing an average of MYR 170.5 (USD 40.92) per preparation or an estimated annual cost of MYR 1,534,538.08 (USD 368,289.14). Compared with conventional syringe-needle approach, it is estimated to lead to an additional spending of MYR 148,627.68 (USD 35,670.64) yearly. Conclusion: Although there was a reduction of drug wastage achieved by extending BUDs of unfinished vials using the PhaSeal® CSTD, cost saving was not observed, likely attributable to the wide use of lower-priced generic drugs in Malaysia. Future studies should further evaluate the possibility of cost saving, especially in health settings where branded and high-cost antineoplastic drugs are more commonly used. PMID:28032722

  12. Cost Analysis of Using a Closed-System Transfer Device (CSTD) for Antineoplastic Drug preparation in a Malaysian Government-Funded Hospital

    PubMed

    Chan, Huan Keat; Lim, Yik Ming

    2016-11-01

    Background: Apart from reducing occupational exposure to cytotoxic hazards, the PhaSeal® closed-system transfer device (CSTD) can extend the beyond-use dates (BUDs) of unfinished vials of antineoplastic drugs for up to 168 hours (seven days). In this study, the total material cost incurred by its use in a Malaysian government-funded hospital was calculated. Methods: A list of vial stability following initial needle punctures of 29 commonly-used antineoplastic drugs was compiled. The amount of the materials used, including drugs, infusion bottles, the PhaSeal® CSTD and other consumables, was recorded on a daily basis for three months in 2015. The total cost was calculated based on the actual acquisition costs, and was compared with that of a hypothetical scenario, whereby conventional syringe-needle sets were used for the same amounts of preparations. Results: The use of the PhaSeal® CSTD incurred a cost of MYR 383,634.52 (USD 92,072.28) in three months, representing an average of MYR 170.5 (USD 40.92) per preparation or an estimated annual cost of MYR 1,534,538.08 (USD 368,289.14). Compared with conventional syringe-needle approach, it is estimated to lead to an additional spending of MYR 148,627.68 (USD 35,670.64) yearly. Conclusion: Although there was a reduction of drug wastage achieved by extending BUDs of unfinished vials using the PhaSeal® CSTD, cost saving was not observed, likely attributable to the wide use of lower-priced generic drugs in Malaysia. Future studies should further evaluate the possibility of cost saving, especially in health settings where branded and high-cost antineoplastic drugs are more commonly used. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of newer drugs for children with epilepsy. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connock, M; Frew, E; Evans, B-W; Bryan, S; Cummins, C; Fry-Smith, A; Li Wan Po, A; Sandercock, J

    2006-03-01

    To examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for epilepsy in children: gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, topiramate and vigabatrin. Electronic databases. Drug company submissions. For the systematic review of clinical and cost-effectiveness, studies were assessed for inclusion according to predefined criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment were also undertaken. A decision-analytic model was constructed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the newer agents in children with partial seizures, the only condition where there were sufficient trial data to inform a model. The quality of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) data was generally poor. For each of the epilepsy subtypes considered in RCTs identified for this review (partial epilepsy with or without secondary generalisation, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, absence epilepsy and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes), there is some evidence from placebo-controlled trials that the newer agents tested are of some value in the treatment of these conditions. Where active controls have been used, the limited evidence available does not indicate a difference in effectiveness between newer and older drugs. The data are not sufficient to inform a prescribing strategy for any of the newer agents in any of these conditions. In particular, there is no clinical evidence to suggest that the newer agents should be considered as a first-choice treatment in any form of epilepsy in children. Annual drug costs of the newer agents ranges from around 400 pound to 1200 pound, depending on age and concomitant medications. An AED that is ineffective or has intolerable side-effects will only be used for a short period of time, and many patients achieving seizure freedom will successfully withdraw from drug treatment without relapsing. The results of the decision-analytic model do not suggest that the use of the newer agents in

  14. Fitness Costs of Drug Resistance Mutations in Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Household-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Phillip P; Becerra, Mercedes C; Abel zur Wiesch, Pia; Hinkley, Trevor; Kaur, Devinder; Sloutsky, Alexander; Cohen, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The projected long-term prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis depends upon the relative fitness of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, compared with non-MDR strains. While many experimental models have tested the in vitro or in vivo fitness costs of various drug resistance mutations, fewer epidemiologic studies have attempted to validate these experimental findings. We performed a case-control study comparing drug resistance-associated mutations from MDR M. tuberculosis strains causing multiple cases in a household to matched MDR strains without evidence of secondary household cases. Eighty-eight multiple-case and 88 single-case household MDR strains were analyzed for 10 specific drug resistance-associated polymorphisms previously associated with fitness effects. We found that the isoniazid-resistant katG Ser315Thr mutation occurred more than twice as frequently in multiple-case households than in single-case households (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.70), corroborating previous experimental findings. However, strains carrying both the katG Ser315Thr mutation and the rpsL Lys43Arg mutation were less likely to be found in multiple-case households (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, .01-.73), suggesting a negative epistatic interaction which contrasts previous findings. The case-control design presents a useful approach for assessing in vivo fitness effects of drug resistance mutations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of diversion and aftercare programmes for offenders using class A drugs: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hayhurst, Karen P; Leitner, Maria; Davies, Linda; Flentje, Rachel; Millar, Tim; Jones, Andrew; King, Carlene; Donmall, Michael; Farrell, Michael; Fazel, Seena; Harris, Rochelle; Hickman, Matthew; Lennox, Charlotte; Mayet, Soraya; Senior, Jane; Shaw, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The societal costs of problematic class A drug use in England and Wales exceed £15B; drug-related crime accounts for almost 90% of costs. Diversion plus treatment and/or aftercare programmes may reduce drug-related crime and costs. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of diversion and aftercare for class A drug-using offenders, compared with no diversion. Adult class A drug-using offenders diverted to treatment or an aftercare programme for their drug use. Programmes to identify and divert problematic drug users to treatment (voluntary, court mandated or monitored services) at any point within the criminal justice system (CJS). Aftercare follows diversion and treatment, excluding care following prison or non-diversionary drug treatment. Thirty-three electronic databases and government online resources were searched for studies published between January 1985 and January 2012, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science. Bibliographies of identified studies were screened. The UK Drug Data Warehouse, the UK Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study and published statistics and reports provided data for the economic evaluation. Included studies evaluated diversion in adult class A drug-using offenders, in contact with the CJS. The main outcomes were drug use and offending behaviour, and these were pooled using meta-analysis. The economic review included full economic evaluations for adult opiate and/or crack, or powder, cocaine users. An economic decision analytic model, estimated incremental costs per unit of outcome gained by diversion and aftercare, over a 12-month time horizon. The perspectives included the CJS, NHS, social care providers and offenders. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis and one-way sensitivity analysis explored variance in parameter estimates, longer time horizons and structural uncertainty. Sixteen studies met the effectiveness review inclusion criteria, characterised by poor methodological quality, with modest sample sizes

  16. Cost-effectiveness of models for prevention of vertical HIV transmission – voluntary counseling and testing and choices of drug regimen

    PubMed Central

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Vos, Theo; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Mugford, Miranda

    2005-01-01

    Objectives From a health care provider prospective, to assess the cost-effectiveness of four Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens given in addition to voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a) Zidovudine (AZT); b) Nevirapine (NVP); c) a combination of AZT for early antenatal attenders and NVP for late arrivals; and d) combined administration of AZT and NVP and to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness of adding a second VCT session in late pregnancy. Design & Setting We examine a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 pregnancies as a decision model. Cost and outcome parameters are estimated as they would apply under Thai routine health service conditions. Effectiveness probabilities are based on best available evidence, from systematic reviews where possible. The main outcome is the number of cases of paediatric HIV averted. Results The combining administration of AZT and NVP is the most cost-effective drug option. One VCT session with AZT+NVP averts 337 cases of infection at 556 USD per case averted, while two VCT with the same drug regimen averts 16 additional cases at cost of 1,266 USD per infection averted. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of moving from 1VCT, AZT+NVP to 2VCT, AZT+NVP is 16,000 USD per additional averted case, which is much lower than the recommended threshold value for HIV infection averted in Thailand. Multivariate uncertainty analysis supports the findings, showing that at a threshold of 35,000 USD, 2VCT, AZT+NVP is preferable to other VCT and drug strategies. Conclusion Interventions for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV are cost-effective. Further costs and negative effects of drug resistance, are unlikely to outweigh the social benefits of reduce transmission of HIV. This model suggests that the new drug regimen is a cost-effective option in the Thai health system at currently accepted thresholds for adopting health technologies. PMID:16026626

  17. Prevention of adverse drug events and cost savings associated with PharmD interventions in an academic Level I trauma center: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Susan; Rumbaugh, Kelli; Miller, Richard

    2012-12-01

    The financial benefit of an established clinical pharmacy service in the trauma intensive care unit has not been well-described. This study was conducted to identify adverse drug events prevented by the clinical pharmacy team and to determine the net cost savings associated with their input on a multidisciplinary trauma service. Between July 2010 and June 2011, we conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical pharmacy activities and interventions on our 31-bed trauma unit managed by a multidisciplinary team. At the initiation of the study, a Web-based pharmacy documentation system was officially integrated into the trauma pharmacy work process. Based on this system, the type of intervention and a value of cost savings ($0-$6,000) were assigned to each activity. Cost-saving values for interventions were calculated from the literature describing the costs of adverse drug events and average drug costs. Over the year, a total of 2,574 pharmacy activity entries were documented in the Quantifi system. The total conservative estimate of cost savings associated with clinical pharmacy interventions amounted to $565,664. Considering the mean US hospital pharmacist salary and the highest quoted cost associated with the Quantifi program, the net cost savings associated with our clinical pharmacist interventions on the trauma service was $428,327. Most of the interventions (53%) fell under the category of pharmacotherapy improvement, with 21% in the category of quality/safety improvement and 18% as antibiotic stewardship. Prevention of 34 serious adverse drug events was documented. Antibiotic changes and discontinuing medications were other common interventions. Antimicrobial medications (668), anticoagulants (270), and gastrointestinal medications (231) were the most common medication classes involved in pharmacy interventions. Using a Web-based pharmacy documentation system, we were able to demonstrate prevention of serious adverse drug events and a significant cost savings

  18. Does higher cost mean better quality? evidence from highly-regarded adolescent drug treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Schackman, Bruce R; Rojas, Erick G; Gans, Jeremy; Falco, Mathea; Millman, Robert B

    2007-07-31

    We conducted a survey to examine whether reimbursement levels are associated with the quality of adolescent substance use treatment programs in the United States. Between March and September 2005, telephone and written surveys were administered to program, clinical, and finance directors of previously surveyed highly regarded programs. Differences in quality scores were compared for programs with above versus below median reimbursement levels and examined in multivariate regression models constructed separately for programs offering residential and outpatient treatment. In residential treatment multivariate regression models, higher quality scores were associated with higher reimbursement, but this relationship was not observed for outpatient treatment. Even the highest level of outpatient reimbursement received may be too low to support quality improvement initiatives. Our results suggest that higher reimbursement may be a necessary component of quality improvement for residential adolescent drug treatment programs, and emphasize the need for further research to determine what levels of reimbursement and insurance coverage policies will encourage the expansion of high quality outpatient programs.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies using combination disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wailoo, Allan; Hernández Alava, Mónica; Scott, Ian C; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Scott, David L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of combination DMARDs with short-term glucocorticoids in early active RA using data from the 2-year Combination of Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Early RA (CARDERA) trial. CARDERA enrolled 467 patients with active RA of <24-months duration. All patients received MTX; half received step-down prednisolone and half ciclosporin in a placebo-controlled factorial design. Differences in mean costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) over 24-months follow-up were estimated using patient-level data from a UK health service perspective and 2011-12 costs. Two-year costs for each treatment strategy showed primary care costs were negligible across all groups. Drug costs were lowest with MTX/ciclosporin and triple therapy. Hospital costs were lowest with MTX/prednisolone and triple therapy. Triple therapy was least costly and most effective; it dominated all other strategies. At positive values for a QALY in the typical UK range (£20 000-30 000) the probability that triple therapy was the most cost-effective strategy was 0.9. Results were robust to methods used to impute missing data. Intensive treatment of early RA with triple therapy (two DMARDs and short-term glucocorticoids) is both clinically effective and cost effective. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Drugs in Early versus Late Stages of Cancer; Review of the Literature and a Case Study in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dvortsin, Evgeni; Gout-Zwart, Judith; Eijssen, Ernst-Lodewijk Marie; van Brussel, Jan; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Many oncological drugs that are being used in the adjuvant setting were first submitted for reimbursement in the metastatic stage, with differences in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in both settings having potential implications for reimbursement and pricing. The aim of this study is to identify a possible trend in the cost-effectiveness for the early/adjuvant and late/metastatic stages of oncological drugs through review and case study. We reviewed pairs of cost-effectiveness analyses of the same oncological drug in different stages for Scotland and the Netherlands. The case study in this report was directed at trastuzumab in the Dutch situation. Using a simplified Markov model, the cost-effectiveness in early and late stage of breast cancer was calculated and compared to the findings from the review. Comparable studies were found for cetuximab, bortezomib and bosutinib. Treatments in the late stage were found to be more expensive per QALY by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 12. The case study provided a similar result; late stage treatment was more expensive by a factor 10. Using, for example, a threshold of € 80,000/QALY, the early stage of cetuximab, bosutinib and trastuzumab are deemed cost-effective, while their compared late stage is lifted over the threshold and potentially considered not cost-effective. ICERs of oncological drugs used in different stages are more unfavourable in the late stage than in the early stage. Applying a reasonable threshold may result in early stage treatment being deemed cost-effective while late stage potentially not. Authorities should be aware of this when assessing oncological drugs and interpreting the corresponding ICERs, in the situation where oncological drugs are generally most submitted for reimbursement in the late stage initially.

  1. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Drugs in Early versus Late Stages of Cancer; Review of the Literature and a Case Study in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dvortsin, Evgeni; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many oncological drugs that are being used in the adjuvant setting were first submitted for reimbursement in the metastatic stage, with differences in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in both settings having potential implications for reimbursement and pricing. The aim of this study is to identify a possible trend in the cost-effectiveness for the early/adjuvant and late/metastatic stages of oncological drugs through review and case study. Methods We reviewed pairs of cost-effectiveness analyses of the same oncological drug in different stages for Scotland and the Netherlands. The case study in this report was directed at trastuzumab in the Dutch situation. Using a simplified Markov model, the cost-effectiveness in early and late stage of breast cancer was calculated and compared to the findings from the review. Results Comparable studies were found for cetuximab, bortezomib and bosutinib. Treatments in the late stage were found to be more expensive per QALY by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 12. The case study provided a similar result; late stage treatment was more expensive by a factor 10. Using, for example, a threshold of €80,000/QALY, the early stage of cetuximab, bosutinib and trastuzumab are deemed cost-effective, while their compared late stage is lifted over the threshold and potentially considered not cost-effective. Conclusion ICERs of oncological drugs used in different stages are more unfavourable in the late stage than in the early stage. Applying a reasonable threshold may result in early stage treatment being deemed cost-effective while late stage potentially not. Authorities should be aware of this when assessing oncological drugs and interpreting the corresponding ICERs, in the situation where oncological drugs are generally most submitted for reimbursement in the late stage initially. PMID:26800029

  2. Old-School Chemotherapy in Immunotherapeutic Combination in Cancer, A Low-cost Drug Repurposed.

    PubMed

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Razavi, Ghazaleh Shoja E; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Janik, John; Khleif, Samir N

    2016-05-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has proven to be a potent treatment modality. Although often successful in generating antitumor immune responses, cancer immunotherapy is frequently hindered by tumor immune-escape mechanisms. Among immunosuppressive strategies within the tumor microenvironment, suppressive immune regulatory cells play a key role in promoting tumor progression through inhibiting the effector arm of the immune response. Targeting these suppressive cells can greatly enhance antitumor immune therapies, hence augmenting a highly effective therapeutic antitumor response. Several approaches are being tested to enhance the effector arm of the immune system while simultaneously inhibiting the suppressor arm. Some of these approaches are none other than traditional drugs repurposed as immune modulators. Cyclophosphamide, an old-school chemotherapeutic agent used across a wide range of malignancies, was found to be a potent immune modulator that targets suppressive regulatory immune cells within the tumor microenvironment while enhancing effector cells. Preclinical and clinical findings have confirmed the ability of low doses of cyclophosphamide to selectively deplete regulatory T cells while enhancing effector and memory cytotoxic T cells within the tumor microenvironment. These immune effects translate to suppressed tumor growth and enhanced survival, evidence of antitumor therapeutic efficacy. This article discusses the reincarnation of cyclophosphamide as an immune modulator that augments novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(5); 377-82. ©2016 AACR.

  3. Development, validation and clinical evaluation of a low cost in-house HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Arpan; Vaniawala, Salil; Shah, Parth; Misra, Rabindra Nath; Wani, Minal; Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance genotyping assay is a part of clinical management of HIV-1 positive individuals under treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Routine monitoring of drug resistance mutations in resource limited settings like India is not possible due to high cost of commercial drug resistance assays. In this study we developed an in-house, cost effective HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients and validated it against the US-FDA-approved ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system. A reference panel of 20 clinical samples was used to develop and validate the assay against ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system which was subsequently used to genotype a clinical panel of 225 samples. The Stanford HIV database was used to identify drug resistant mutations. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml of plasma sample while precision and reproducibility was 99.68 ± 0.16% and 99.76 ± 0.18% respectively. One hundred and one drug resistant mutations were detected by the in-house assay compared to 104 by ViroSeq system in the reference panel. The assay had 91.55% success rate in genotyping the clinical panel samples and was able to detect drug resistant mutations related to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) as well as protease inhibitor (PI) classes of antiretroviral drugs. It was found to be around 71.9% more cost effective compared to ViroSeq genotyping system. This evaluation of the assay on the clinical panel demonstrates its potential for monitoring clinical HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and population-based surveillance in resource limited settings like India.

  4. Development, Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Low Cost In-House HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotyping Assay for Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Arpan; Vaniawala, Salil; Shah, Parth; Misra, Rabindra Nath; Wani, Minal; Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N.

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance genotyping assay is a part of clinical management of HIV-1 positive individuals under treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Routine monitoring of drug resistance mutations in resource limited settings like India is not possible due to high cost of commercial drug resistance assays. In this study we developed an in-house, cost effective HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients and validated it against the US-FDA-approved ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system. A reference panel of 20 clinical samples was used to develop and validate the assay against ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system which was subsequently used to genotype a clinical panel of 225 samples. The Stanford HIV database was used to identify drug resistant mutations. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml of plasma sample while precision and reproducibility was 99.68±0.16% and 99.76±0.18% respectively. One hundred and one drug resistant mutations were detected by the in-house assay compared to 104 by ViroSeq system in the reference panel. The assay had 91.55% success rate in genotyping the clinical panel samples and was able to detect drug resistant mutations related to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) as well as protease inhibitor (PI) classes of antiretroviral drugs. It was found to be around 71.9% more cost effective compared to ViroSeq genotyping system. This evaluation of the assay on the clinical panel demonstrates its potential for monitoring clinical HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and population-based surveillance in resource limited settings like India. PMID:25157501

  5. Low-cost, high-speed identification of counterfeit antimalarial drugs on paper.

    PubMed

    Koesdjojo, Myra T; Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Dunfield, Elizabeth M; Remcho, Vincent T

    2014-12-01

    With the emergence of artesunate antimalarial counterfeiting in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, we present the production of a rapid, inexpensive and simple colorimetric-based testing kit for the detection of counterfeit artesunate in order to preserve life and prevent the development of multi-drug resistant malaria. The kit works based on paper microfluidics which offer several advantages over conventional microfluidics, and has great potential to generate inexpensive, easy-to-use, rapid and disposable diagnostic devices. Here, we have developed a colorimetric assay that is specific to artesunate and turns yellow upon addition of the sample. The test can be done within minutes, and allows for a semi-quantitative analysis of the artesunate tablets by comparing the developed yellow color on the paper test to a color-coded key chart that comes with the kit. A more accurate and precise analysis is done by utilizing a color analyzer on an iPhone camera that measures the color intensity of the developed color on the paper chip. A digital image of the chip was taken and analyzed by measuring the average gray intensity of the color developed on the paper circle. A plot of the artesunate concentration versus the average gray scale intensity was generated. Results show that the intensity of the yellow color developed on the paper test was consistent and proportional to the amount of artesunate present in the sample. With artesunate concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 20mg/mL, a linear calibration plot was obtained with a detection limit of 0.98 mg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Compact and cost effective instrument for detecting drug precursors in different environments based on fluorescence polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolín-Urbaneja, J. C.; Eguizabal, I.; Briz, N.; Dominguez, A.; Estensoro, P.; Secchi, A.; Varriale, A.; Di Giovanni, S.; D'Auria, S.

    2013-05-01

    Several techniques for detecting chemical drug precursors have been developed in the last decade. Most of them are able to identify molecules at very low concentration under lab conditions. Other commercial devices are able to detect a fixed number and type of target substances based on a single detection technique providing an absence of flexibility with respect to target compounds. The construction of compact and easy to use detection systems providing screening for a large number of compounds being able to discriminate them with low false alarm rate and high probability of detection is still an open concern. Under CUSTOM project, funded by the European Commission within the FP7, a stand-alone portable sensing device based on multiple techniques is being developed. One of these techniques is based on the LED induced fluorescence polarization to detect Ephedrine and Benzyl Methyl Keton (BMK) as a first approach. This technique is highly selective with respect to the target compounds due to the generation of properly engineered fluorescent proteins which are able to bind the target analytes, as it happens in an "immune-type reaction". This paper deals with the advances in the design, construction and validation of the LED induced fluorescence sensor to detect BMK analytes. This sensor includes an analysis module based on high performance LED and PMT detector, a fluidic system to dose suitable quantities of reagents and some printed circuit boards, all of them fixed in a small structure (167mm × 193mm × 228mm) with the capability of working as a stand-alone application.

  7. Automated Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Lateral Flow Saliva Test Reader for Drugs-of-Abuse Detection

    PubMed Central

    Carrio, Adrian; Sampedro, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Pimienta, Miguel; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow assay tests are nowadays becoming powerful, low-cost diagnostic tools. Obtaining a result is usually subject to visual interpretation of colored areas on the test by a human operator, introducing subjectivity and the possibility of errors in the extraction of the results. While automated test readers providing a result-consistent solution are widely available, they usually lack portability. In this paper, we present a smartphone-based automated reader for drug-of-abuse lateral flow assay tests, consisting of an inexpensive light box and a smartphone device. Test images captured with the smartphone camera are processed in the device using computer vision and machine learning techniques to perform automatic extraction of the results. A deep validation of the system has been carried out showing the high accuracy of the system. The proposed approach, applicable to any line-based or color-based lateral flow test in the market, effectively reduces the manufacturing costs of the reader and makes it portable and massively available while providing accurate, reliable results. PMID:26610513

  8. Automated Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Lateral Flow Saliva Test Reader for Drugs-of-Abuse Detection.

    PubMed

    Carrio, Adrian; Sampedro, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Pimienta, Miguel; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-11-24

    Lateral flow assay tests are nowadays becoming powerful, low-cost diagnostic tools. Obtaining a result is usually subject to visual interpretation of colored areas on the test by a human operator, introducing subjectivity and the possibility of errors in the extraction of the results. While automated test readers providing a result-consistent solution are widely available, they usually lack portability. In this paper, we present a smartphone-based automated reader for drug-of-abuse lateral flow assay tests, consisting of an inexpensive light box and a smartphone device. Test images captured with the smartphone camera are processed in the device using computer vision and machine learning techniques to perform automatic extraction of the results. A deep validation of the system has been carried out showing the high accuracy of the system. The proposed approach, applicable to any line-based or color-based lateral flow test in the market, effectively reduces the manufacturing costs of the reader and makes it portable and massively available while providing accurate, reliable results.

  9. Significant cost savings achieved by in-sourcing urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Snyder, Marion L; Darragh, Alicia; Quade, Cathleen; Jarolim, Petr

    2013-06-25

    Reference laboratory testing can represent a significant component of the laboratory budget. Therefore, most laboratories continually reassess the feasibility of in-sourcing various tests. We describe the transfer of urine drug testing performed for monitoring medication compliance in pain management from a reference laboratory into an academic clinical laboratory. The process of implementing of both screening immunoassays and confirmatory LC-MS/MS testing and the associated cost savings is outlined. The initial proposal for in-sourcing this testing, which included the tests to be in-sourced, resources required, estimated cost savings and timeline for implementation, was approved in January 2009. All proposed testing was implemented by March 2011. Keys to the successful implementation included budgeting adequate resources and developing a realistic timeline, incorporating the changes with the highest budget impact first. We were able to in-source testing in 27 months and save the laboratory approximately $1 million in the first 3 year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bias within economic evaluations – the impact of considering the future entry of lower-cost generics on currently estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of a new drug

    PubMed Central

    Guertin, Jason R; Mitchell, Dominic; Ali, Farzad; LeLorier, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Most economic evaluation models compare a new patented drug (NPRx) to a generic comparator. Drug costs within these models are usually limited to the retail cost of both drugs at the time of model conception. However, the retail cost of the NPRx is expected to drop once generic versions of this molecule are introduced following the expiration of the NPRx’s patent. The objective of this study was to examine the impact on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the future introduction of lower-cost generic versions of the NPRx within the model’s time horizon. Methods We examined the impact of this parameter with the use of two approaches: 1) a mathematical proof identifying its impact on the NPRx’s ICER; and 2) applying this parameter to a previously published economic model comparing a NPRx to a generic comparator and identifying what would have been the NPRx’s ICER had this model considered this parameter. Results As expected, both the mathematical proof and the application to the previously published economic model showed that considering the future introduction of lower-cost generic versions of the NPRx within the model’s time horizon lowers the NPRx’s ICER. The timing of the future entry of lower-cost generic molecules, their relative price compared to that of the patented version, and the discount rate applied to future costs all influenced the results. Conclusion An ICER estimated within economic evaluations comparing NPRx to generic comparators which ignore the future introduction of lower-cost generic versions of the NPRx within the model’s time horizon will tend to be overestimated. Inclusion of this parameter should be considered within future economic evaluations. PMID:26504402

  11. The use of generic drugs in prevention of chronic disease is far more cost-effective than thought, and may save money.

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Liberman, Joshua N; Brennan, Troyen A

    2011-07-01

    In this article we highlight the important role that medication therapy can play in preventing disease and controlling costs. Focusing on coronary artery disease, we demonstrate that prevention, with the appropriate use of generic medications, appears far more cost-effective than previously documented, and it may even save on costs. For example, an earlier study estimated that reducing blood pressure to widely established clinical guidelines in nondiabetic patients cost an estimated $52,983 per quality-adjusted life-year if a brand-name drug was used. However, we estimate that the cost is just $7,753 per quality-adjusted life-year at generic medication prices. As the nation attempts to find strategies to improve population health without adding to the unsustainably high cost of care, policy makers should focus on ensuring that patients have access to essential generic medications.

  12. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  13. Cost-effectiveness of triple drug administration (TDA) with praziquantel, ivermectin and albendazole for the prevention of neglected tropical diseases in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Evans, D; McFarland, D; Adamani, W; Eigege, A; Miri, E; Schulz, J; Pede, E; Umbugadu, C; Ogbu-Pearse, P; Richards, F O

    2011-12-01

    Onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil transmitted, helminthiasis (STH) are all co-endemic in Nigeria. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis), albendazole (for STH and with ivermectin for LF) and praziquantel (for schistosomiasis) is the WHO-recommended treatment strategy for preventive chemotherapy. Separate delivery rounds for distribution of these drugs have been the usual approach to MDA. All three drugs, however, have now been shown to be clinically and programmatically safe for co-administration with what has come to be known as triple drug administration (TDA). We examined the cost savings of converting from separate delivery rounds to TDA in two states in Nigeria. In 2008, eight local government areas received a single round of ivermectin with albendazole followed at least 1 week later by a single round of praziquantel to school-aged children. The following year, a single round was administered with TDA. The number of treated individuals was essentially unchanged during both years (1,301,864 in 2008 and 1,297,509 in 2009) and no change in adverse events was reported. The total programmatic costs for the MDA, not including drug and overhead costs, reduced by 41% from $123,624 to $72,870. Cost savings were limited in larger populations due to economies of scale. TDA is recommended for mature MDA.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of triple drug administration (TDA) with praziquantel, ivermectin and albendazole for the prevention of neglected tropical diseases in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D; Mcfarland, D; Adamani, W; Eigege, A; Miri, E; Schulz, J; Pede, E; Umbugadu, C; Ogbu-Pearse, P; Richards, F O

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil transmitted, helminthiasis (STH) are all co-endemic in Nigeria. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis), albendazole (for STH and with ivermectin for LF) and praziquantel (for schistosomiasis) is the WHO-recommended treatment strategy for preventive chemotherapy. Separate delivery rounds for distribution of these drugs have been the usual approach to MDA. All three drugs, however, have now been shown to be clinically and programmatically safe for co-administration with what has come to be known as triple drug administration (TDA). We examined the cost savings of converting from separate delivery rounds to TDA in two states in Nigeria. In 2008, eight local government areas received a single round of ivermectin with albendazole followed at least 1 week later by a single round of praziquantel to school-aged children. The following year, a single round was administered with TDA. The number of treated individuals was essentially unchanged during both years (1 301 864 in 2008 and 1 297 509 in 2009) and no change in adverse events was reported. The total programmatic costs for the MDA, not including drug and overhead costs, reduced by 41% from $123, 624 to $72, 870. Cost savings were limited in larger populations due to economies of scale. TDA is recommended for mature MDA. PMID:22325813

  15. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of celecoxib versus non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis in Spain: A current perspective].

    PubMed

    De Lossada, A; Oteo-Álvaro, Á; Giménez, S; Oyagüez, I; Rejas, J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of celecoxib and non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of osteoarthritis in clinical practice in Spain. A decision-tree model using distribution, doses, treatment duration and incidence of GI and CV events observed in the pragmatic PROBE-designed «GI-Reasons» trial was used for cost-effectiveness. Effectiveness was expressed in terms of event averted and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained. QALY were calculated based on utility decrement in case of any adverse events reported in GI-Reasons trial. The National Health System perspective in Spain was applied; cost calculations included current prices of drugs plus cost of adverse events occurred. The analysis was expressed as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per QALY gained and per event averted. One-way and probabilistic analyses were performed. Compared with non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at current prices, celecoxib treatment had higher overall treatment costs €201 and €157, respectively. However, celecoxib was associated with a slight increase in QALY gain and significantly lower incidence of gastrointestinal events (p<.001), with mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €13,286 per QALY gained and €4,471 per event averted. Sensitivity analyses were robust, and confirmed the results of the base case. Celecoxib at current price may be considered as a cost-effective alternative vs. non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis in daily practice in the Spanish NHS. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The economic impact of introducing serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors into the Brazilian national drug formulary: cost-effectiveness and budget-impact analyses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Márcio; Iskedjian, Michael; Ruiz, Inés A; Einarson, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    To determine the cost effectiveness, from the Brazilian Ministry of Health viewpoint, of three antidepressant classes for major depressive disorder (MDD), and the budget impact of introducing serotonin-noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) into the current Brazilian national drug formulary, assuming a 6-month treatment duration. An existing decision-tree model was adapted to Brazil, based on local guidelines. Clinical data were obtained from published meta-analyses. Patients included adults aged > or =18 years with MDD, diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third and fourth editions (DSM-III/IV), with moderate-to-severe disease (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD] > or =15 or Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] > or =18), without co-morbidities or co-medications, receiving > or =6 weeks of treatment with SNRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and/or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Clinical outcome was remission (HAMD < or =7 or MADRS < or =12). Direct costs (drugs, physician visits, hospitalisations) were included. Drug costs were obtained from the 2006 Brazilian National Drug Price List, and hospitalisation and physician costs from the 2006 Healthcare System database. Costs were valued in Brazilian Reais ($Brz), year 2006 values ($Brz1 = $US0.47). Univariate and Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses tested model robustness. Expected costs per patient treated were SNRIs $Brz4848; SSRIs $Brz5466; and TCAs $Brz5046, and overall success rates (primary plus secondary treatment across all decision tree branches) were SNRIs 78.1%; SSRIs 74.0%; and TCAs 76.4%. Average costs/success were SNRIs $Brz6209; SSRIs $Brz7385; and TCAs $Brz6602. SNRIs dominated in incremental cost-effectiveness analyses. Monte Carlo analysis confirmed drug classes' relative positions; however, there was considerable uncertainty. Introducing SNRIs into the formulary could generate average savings of 1% of the

  17. Cost effectiveness of 'on demand' HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for non-injection drug-using men who have sex with men in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Estelle; Durand, Madeleine; Guertin, Jason R; LeLorier, Jacques; Tremblay, Cécile L

    2015-01-01

    Recent trials report the efficacy of continuous tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV infection. The cost effectiveness of 'on demand' PrEP for non-injection drug-using men who have sex with men at high risk of HIV acquisition has not been evaluated. To conduct an economic evaluation of the societal costs of HIV in Canada and evaluate the potential benefits of this PrEP strategy. Direct HIV costs comprised outpatient, inpatient and emergency department costs, psychosocial costs and antiretroviral costs. Resource consumption estimates were derived from the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal HIV cohort. Estimates of indirect costs included employment rate and work absenteeism. Costs for 'on demand' PrEP were modelled after an ongoing clinical trial. Cost-effectiveness analysis compared costs of 'on demand' PrEP to prevent one infection with lifetime costs of one HIV infection. Benefits were presented in terms of life-years and quality-adjusted life-years. The average annual direct cost of one HIV infection was $16,109 in the least expensive antiretroviral regimen scenario and $24,056 in the most expensive scenario. The total indirect cost was $11,550 per year. Total costs for the first year of HIV infection ranged from $27,410 to $35,358. Undiscounted lifetime costs ranged from $1,439,984 ($662,295 discounted at 3% and $448,901 at 5%) to $1,482,502 ($690,075 at 3% and $485,806 at 5%). The annual cost of PrEP was $12,001 per participant, and $621,390 per infection prevented. The PrEP strategy was cost-saving in all scenarios for undiscounted and 3% discounting rates. At 5% discounting rates, the strategy is largely cost-effective: according to least and most expensive scenarios, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $60,311 to $47,407 per quality-adjusted life-year. This 'on demand' PrEP strategy ranges from cost-saving to largely cost-effective. The authors believe it represents an important public health

  18. Model-based evaluation of cost-effectiveness of nerve growth factor inhibitors in knee osteoarthritis: impact of drug cost, toxicity, and means of administration.

    PubMed

    Losina, E; Michl, G; Collins, J E; Hunter, D J; Jordan, J M; Yelin, E; Paltiel, A D; Katz, J N

    2016-05-01

    Studies suggest nerve growth factor inhibitors (NGFi) relieve pain but may accelerate disease progression in some patients with osteoarthritis (OA). We sought cost and toxicity thresholds that would make NGFi a cost-effective treatment for moderate-to-severe knee OA. We used the Osteoarthritis Policy (OAPol) model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of NGFi compared to standard of care (SOC) in OA, using Tanezumab as an example. Efficacy and rates of accelerated OA progression were based on published studies. We varied the price/dose from $200 to $1000. We considered self-administered subcutaneous (SC) injections (no administration cost) vs provider-administered intravenous (IV) infusion ($69-$433/dose). Strategies were defined as cost-effective if their incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was less than $100,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY). In sensitivity analyses we varied efficacy, toxicity, and costs. SOC in patients with high levels of pain led to an average discounted quality-adjusted life expectancy of 11.15 QALYs, a lifetime risk of total knee replacement surgery (TKR) of 74%, and cumulative discounted direct medical costs of $148,700. Adding Tanezumab increased QALYs to 11.42, reduced primary TKR utilization to 63%, and increased costs to between $155,400 and $199,500. In the base-case analysis, Tanezumab at $600/dose was cost-effective when delivered outside of a hospital. At $1000/dose, Tanezumab was not cost-effective in all but the most optimistic scenario. Only at rates of accelerated OA progression of 10% or more (10-fold higher than reported values) did Tanezumab decrease QALYs and fail to represent a viable option. At $100,000/QALY, Tanezumab would be cost effective if priced ≤$400/dose in all settings except IV hospital delivery. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventing Unnecessary Costs of Drug-Induced Hypoglycemia in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boulin, Mathieu; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Background The costs of drug-induced hypoglycemia are a critical but often neglected component of value-based arguments to reduce tight glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods An economic (decision-tree) analysis compared rates, costs, quality-adjusted life-years, and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained associated with mild, moderate and severe hypoglycemic events for 6 glucose-lowering medication classes in type 2 diabetic adults aged 65–79 versus those 80 years and older. The national U.S. (Center for Medicare Services) and Canadian public health payer perspectives were adopted. Findings Incidence rates of drug-induced hypoglycemia were the highest for basal insulin and sulfonylureas: 8.64 and 4.32 events per person-year in 65–79 year olds, and 12.06 and 6.03 events per person-year for 80 years and older. In both the U.S. and Canada, metformin dominated sulfonylureas, basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide1 receptor agonists. Relative to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones had the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in the U.S. and dominated sulfonylureas in Canada for adults 80 years and older. Relative to sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase4 inhibitors were cost-effective for adults 80 years and older in both countries, and for 65–79 year olds in Canada. Annual costs of hypoglycemia for older adults attaining very tight glycemic control with the use of insulin or sulfonylureas were estimated at U.S.$509,214,473 in the U.S. and CAN$65,497,849 in Canada. Conclusions Optimizing drug therapy for older type 2 diabetic adults through the avoidance of drug-induced hypoglycemia will dramatically improve patient health while also generating millions of dollars by saving unnecessary medical costs. PMID:27648831

  20. Preventing Unnecessary Costs of Drug-Induced Hypoglycemia in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Boulin, Mathieu; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2016-01-01

    The costs of drug-induced hypoglycemia are a critical but often neglected component of value-based arguments to reduce tight glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. An economic (decision-tree) analysis compared rates, costs, quality-adjusted life-years, and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained associated with mild, moderate and severe hypoglycemic events for 6 glucose-lowering medication classes in type 2 diabetic adults aged 65-79 versus those 80 years and older. The national U.S. (Center for Medicare Services) and Canadian public health payer perspectives were adopted. Incidence rates of drug-induced hypoglycemia were the highest for basal insulin and sulfonylureas: 8.64 and 4.32 events per person-year in 65-79 year olds, and 12.06 and 6.03 events per person-year for 80 years and older. In both the U.S. and Canada, metformin dominated sulfonylureas, basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide1 receptor agonists. Relative to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones had the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in the U.S. and dominated sulfonylureas in Canada for adults 80 years and older. Relative to sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase4 inhibitors were cost-effective for adults 80 years and older in both countries, and for 65-79 year olds in Canada. Annual costs of hypoglycemia for older adults attaining very tight glycemic control with the use of insulin or sulfonylureas were estimated at U.S.$509,214,473 in the U.S. and CAN$65,497,849 in Canada. Optimizing drug therapy for older type 2 diabetic adults through the avoidance of drug-induced hypoglycemia will dramatically improve patient health while also generating millions of dollars by saving unnecessary medical costs.

  1. [Non-antiretroviral drugs uses among HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy in Senegal: Costs and factors associated with prescription].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A; Youbong, T J; Maynart, M; Ndoye, M; Diéye, F L; Ndiaye, N A; Koita-Fall, M B; Ndiaye, B; Seydi, M

    2017-08-01

    In addition to antiretroviral therapy, non-antiretroviral drugs are necessary for the appropriate care of people living with HIV. The costs of such drugs are totally or partially supported by the people living with HIV. We aimed to evaluate the overall costs, the costs supported by the people living with HIV and factors associated with the prescription of non-antiretroviral drugs in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Senegal. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 331 people living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy between 2009 and 2011 and followed until March 2012. The costs of non-antiretroviral drugs were those of the national pharmacy for essential drugs; otherwise they were the lowest costs in the private pharmacies. Associated factors were identified through a logistic regression model. The study population was 61 % female. At baseline, 39 % of patients were classified at WHO clinical stage 3 and 40 % at WHO clinical stage 4. Median age, body mass index and CD4 cells count were 41 years, 18kg/m(2) and 93 cells/μL, respectively. After a mean duration of 11.4 months of antiretroviral therapy, 85 % of patients received at least one prescription for a non-antiretroviral drug. Over the entire study period, the most frequently prescribed non-antiretroviral drugs were cotrimoxazole (78.9 % of patients), iron (33.2 %), vitamins (21.1 %) and antibiotics (19.6 %). The mean cost per patient was 34 Euros and the mean cost supported per patient was 14 Euros. The most expensive drugs per treated patient were antihypertensives (168 Euros), anti-ulcer agents (12 Euros), vitamins (8.5 Euros) and antihistamines (7 Euros). The prescription for a non-antiretroviral drug was associated with advanced clinical stage (WHO clinical stage 3/4 versus stage 1/2): OR=2.25; 95 % CI=1.11-4.57 and viral type (HIV-2 versus HIV-1/HIV-1+HIV-2): OR=0.36; 95 % CI=0.14-0.89. Non-antiretroviral drugs are frequently prescribed to

  2. Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in a Portfolio of Prevention Programs for Injection Drug Users in Mixed HIV Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Alistar, Sabina S.; Owens, Douglas K.; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral antiretroviral treatment (oral PrEP) for HIV-uninfected injection drug users (IDUs) is potentially useful in controlling HIV epidemics with a significant injection drug use component. We estimated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of strategies for using oral PrEP in various combinations with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Ukraine, a representative case for mixed HIV epidemics. Methods and Findings We developed a dynamic compartmental model of the HIV epidemic in a population of non-IDUs, IDUs who inject opiates, and IDUs in MMT, adding an oral PrEP program (tenofovir/emtricitabine, 49% susceptibility reduction) for uninfected IDUs. We analyzed intervention portfolios consisting of oral PrEP (25% or 50% of uninfected IDUs), MMT (25% of IDUs), and ART (80% of all eligible patients). We measured health care costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), HIV prevalence, HIV infections averted, and incremental cost effectiveness. A combination of PrEP for 50% of IDUs and MMT lowered HIV prevalence the most in both IDUs and the general population. ART combined with MMT and PrEP (50% access) averted the most infections (14,267). For a PrEP cost of $950, the most cost-effective strategy was MMT, at $520/QALY gained versus no intervention. The next most cost-effective strategy consisted of MMT and ART, costing $1,000/QALY gained compared to MMT alone. Further adding PrEP (25% access) was also cost effective by World Health Organization standards, at $1,700/QALY gained. PrEP alone became as cost effective as MMT at a cost of $650, and cost saving at $370 or less. Conclusions Oral PrEP for IDUs can be part of an effective and cost-effective strategy to control HIV in regions where injection drug use is a significant driver of the epidemic. Where budgets are limited, focusing on MMT and ART access should be the priority, unless PrEP has low cost. PMID:24489747

  3. Drug pricing and control of health expenditures: a comparison between a proportional decision rule and a cost-per-QALY rule.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) makes recommendations for reimbursement prices of drugs on the basis of a proportional relationship between costs and health benefits. This paper analyzed the potential of IQWiG's decision rule to control health expenditures and used a cost-per-quality-adjusted life year (QALY) rule as a comparison. A literature search was conducted, and a theoretical model of health expenditure growth was built. The literature search shows that the median incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of German cost-effectiveness analyses was €7650 per QALY gained, thus yielding a much lower threshold cost-effectiveness ratio for IQWiG's rule than an absolute rule at €30 000 per QALY. The theoretical model shows that IQWiG's rule is able to contain the long-term growth of health expenditures under the conservative assumption that future health increases at a constant absolute rate and that the threshold incremental cost-effectiveness ratio increases at a smaller rate than health expenditures. In contrast, an absolute rule offers the potential for manufacturers to raise drug prices in response to the threshold, thus resulting in an initial spike in expenditures. Results suggest that IQWiG's proportional rule will lead to lower drug prices and a slower growth of health expenditures than an absolute cost-effectiveness threshold at €30 000 per QALY. This finding is surprising as IQWiG's rule-in contrast to a cost-per-QALY rule-does not start from a fixed budget. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Estimated cost savings associated with the transfer of office-administered specialty pharmaceuticals to a specialty pharmacy provider in a Medical Injectable Drug program.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Christopher G; Culley, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    A large managed care organization (MCO) in western Pennsylvania initiated a Medical Injectable Drug (MID) program in 2002 that transferred a specific subset of specialty drugs from physician reimbursement under the traditional "buy-and-bill" model in the medical benefit to MCO purchase from a specialty pharmacy provider (SPP) that supplied physician offices with the MIDs. The MID program was initiated with 4 drugs in 2002 (palivizumab and 3 hyaluronate products/derivatives) growing to more than 50 drugs by 2007-2008. To (a) describe the MID program as a method to manage the cost and delivery of this subset of specialty drugs, and (b) estimate the MID program cost savings in 2007 and 2008 in an MCO with approximately 4.6 million members. Cost savings generated by the MID program were calculated by comparing the total actual expenditure (plan cost plus member cost) on medications included in the MID program for calendar years 2007 and 2008 with the total estimated expenditure that would have been paid to physicians during the same time period for the same medication if reimbursement had been made using HCPCS (J code) billing under the physician "buy-and-bill" reimbursement rates. For the approximately 50 drugs in the MID program in 2007 and 2008, the drug cost savings in 2007 were estimated to be $15.5 million (18.2%) or $290 per claim ($0.28 per member per month [PMPM]) and about $13 million (12.7%) or $201 per claim ($0.23 PMPM) in 2008. Although 28% of MID claims continued to be billed by physicians using J codes in 2007 and 22% in 2008, all claims for MIDs were limited to the SPP reimbursement rates. This MID program was associated with health plan cost savings of approximately $28.5 million over 2 years, achieved by the transfer of about 50 physician-administered injectable pharmaceuticals from reimbursement to physicians to reimbursement to a single SPP and payment of physician claims for MIDs at the SPP reimbursement rates.

  5. The effect of the Rx-to-OTC switch of loratadine and changes in prescription drug benefits on utilization and cost of therapy.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick W; Nair, Kavita V; Patel, Bimal V

    2005-06-01

    Numerous prescription products have become available over the counter (OTC) in recent years. Previous simulation models have shown the Rx-to-OTC switch of loratadine to be cost effective. To empirically assess the overall effect of the Rx-to-OTC switch of loratadine and the specific effect of different pharmacy benefit structures on prescription drug utilization and cost among different plan sponsors. Data from a national pharmacy benefit management organization covering lives throughout the United States were used. The analysis included a comparison of the before and after change in prescription utilization and cost for plan sponsors that instituted 1 of 3 second-generation antihistamine (SGA) benefit responses: made no change, moved SGAs to the third tier, or restricted SGA benefits through a requirement for prior authorization. Multivariate regression analysis was used to control for differences across the study groups. There was a substantial decrease in utilization and cost of all prescription drugs and combinations of drug classes. Patients with allergic rhinitis facing restricted prescription benefits for SGAs did not appear to increase utilization of other allergic rhinitis medications or other medications used to treat comorbid conditions such as asthma, sinusitis, and otitis media. Utilization and cost decreased substantially for all types of medications and all pharmacy benefit structures. Future studies need to examine the effect of the Rx-to-OTC switch of loratadine and resultant prescription benefit policies on medical utilization and OTC antihistamine utilization.

  6. Maintaining cost-effective access to antiretroviral drug therapy through a collaborative approach to drug procurement, consensus treatment guidelines and regular audit: the experience of London HIV commissioners and providers.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Claire; Gazzard, Brian; Johnson, Margaret; Sharott, Peter; Collins, Simon

    2012-03-01

    In the UK, meeting the £ 20 billion efficiency challenge in the NHS requires new approaches to protect quality and improve productivity. In London, clinicians, people living with HIV and commissioners are collaborating to reduce the cost of antiretrovirals as part of the Quality Innovation Productivity and Prevention agenda. To describe how collaboration in antiretroviral procurement in 2011/2012 aimed to significantly reduce drug acquisition costs, ensure equity of prescribing and protect the quality and experience of care and treatment for patients. Greater clinical leadership and engagement and involvement of patient representatives enabled an approach to drug procurement focused on clinical outcomes at a patient and population level while reducing cost. Consensus guidelines for implementation were developed and agreed by all London lead clinicians while people living with HIV produced a patient information leaflet to explain the tender process and outcomes. A planned audit is underway at all services to monitor prescribing changes and outcomes for those on treatment. HIV clinicians, pharmacists and patient representatives were directly involved in this novel therapeutic tendering approach to antiretroviral drug procurement. Modelling indicates that £ 8-£ 10 million savings will be released through the process over 2 years. Clinically led therapeutic tendering of antiretroviral drugs provides an opportunity to protect quality and improve productivity in HIV. The approach is novel in HIV in the UK, and the emergent learning has implications for quality and cost improvement in HIV spending in the UK and potentially in other countries.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug Eluting Stents versus Bypass Surgery for Patients with Diabetes and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the FREEDOM Trial

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Fuster, Valentin; Wang, Kaijun; Vilain, Katherine; Li, Haiyan; Appelwick, Jaime; Muratov, Victoria; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Boineau, Robin; Abdallah, Mouin; Cohen, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies from the balloon angioplasty and bare metal stent eras have demonstrated that CABG is cost-effective compared with PCI for patients undergoing multivessel coronary revascularization—particularly among patients with complex CAD or diabetes. Whether these results apply in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era is unknown. Methods and Results Between 2005 and 2010, 1900 patients with diabetes and multivessel CAD were randomized to PCI with DES (DES-PCI; n=953) or CABG (n=947). Costs were assessed from the perspective of the U.S. health care system. Health state utilities were assessed using the EuroQOL. A patient-level microsimulation model based on U.S. life-tables and in-trial results was used to estimate lifetime cost-effectiveness. Although initial procedural costs were lower for CABG, total costs for the index hospitalization were $8,622/patient higher. Over the next 5 years, follow-up costs were higher with PCI, owing to more frequent repeat revascularization and higher outpatient medication costs. Nonetheless, cumulative 5-year costs remained $3,641/patient higher with CABG. Although there were only modest gains in survival with CABG during the trial period, when the in-trial results were extended to a lifetime horizon, CABG was projected to be economically attractive relative to DES-PCI, with substantial gains in both life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios <$10,000 per life-year or quality-adjusted life-year gained across a broad range of assumptions regarding the effect of CABG on post-trial survival and costs. Conclusions Despite higher initial costs, CABG is a highly cost-effective revascularization strategy compared with DES-PCI for patients with diabetes and multivessel CAD. PMID:23277307

  8. Treatment of very early rheumatoid arthritis with symptomatic therapy, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, or biologic agents: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Finckh, Axel; Bansback, Nick; Marra, Carlo A; Anis, Aslam H; Michaud, Kaleb; Lubin, Stanley; White, Marc; Sizto, Sonia; Liang, Matthew H

    2009-11-03

    Long-term control or remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be possible with very early treatment. However, no optimal first therapeutic strategy has been determined. To assess the potential cost-effectiveness of major therapeutic strategies for very early RA. Decision analytic model with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Published data, the National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases, and actual 2007 hospital costs. U.S. adults with very early RA (symptom duration drugs, patient education, pain management, and low-dose glucocorticoids, and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at 1 year for nonresponders; early DMARD therapy with methotrexate; and early therapy with biologics and methotrexate. Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. By reducing the progression of joint erosions and subsequent functional disability, both early intervention strategies increase quality-adjusted life more than the pyramid strategy and save long-term costs. When the cost of very early intervention is factored in, the cost-effectiveness ratio of the early DMARD strategy is $4849 per QALY (95% CI, $0 to $16 354 per QALY) compared with the pyramid strategy, whereas the benefits gained through the early biologic strategy come at a substantial incremental cost. The early DMARD strategy maximizes the effectiveness of early DMARDs and reserves the use of biologics for patients with more treatment-resistant disease of longer duration, for which the incremental benefit of biologics is greater. The early biologic strategy becomes more cost-effective if drug prices are reduced, risk for death is permanently lowered through biologic therapy, patients experience drug-free remission, responders can be selected before therapy initiation, or effective alternative antirheumatic agents are available for

  9. The Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of 2-Drug Dolutegravir-Lamivudine Regimens for the Treatment of HIV Infection in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Girouard, Michael P.; Sax, Paul E.; Parker, Robert A.; Taiwo, Babafemi; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Gulick, Roy M.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Paltiel, A. David; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Recommended human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment regimens in the United States contain 3 antiretroviral agents, costing >$30 000/person/year. Pilot studies are evaluating the efficacy of dual therapy with dolutegravir (DTG) and lamivudine (3TC). We examined the potential cost-effectiveness and budget impact of DTG + 3TC regimens in the United States. Methods. Using a mathematical model, we projected the clinical and economic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART)–naive patients under 4 strategies: (1) no ART (for modeling comparison); (2) 2-drug: initial regimen of DTG + 3TC; (3) induction-maintenance: 48-week induction regimen of 3 drugs (DTG/abacavir [ABC]/3TC), followed by DTG + 3TC maintenance if virologically suppressed; and (4) standard of care: 3-drug regimen of DTG/ABC/3TC. Strategy-dependent model inputs, varied widely in sensitivity analyses, included 48-week virologic suppression (88%–93%), subsequent virologic failure (0.1%–0.6%/month), and Medicaid-discounted ART costs ($15 200–$39 600/year). A strategy was considered cost-effective if its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was <$100 000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Results. The 3 ART strategies had the same 5-year survival rates (90%). The ICER was $22 500/QALY for induction-maintenance and >$500 000/QALY for standard of care. Two-drug was the preferred strategy only when DTG + 3TC 48-week virologic suppression rate exceeded 90%. With 50% uptake of either induction-maintenance or 2-drug for ART-naive patients, cost savings totaled $550 million and $800 million, respectively, within 5 years; savings reached >$3 billion if 25% of currently suppressed patients were switched to DTG + 3TC maintenance. Conclusions. Should DTG + 3TC demonstrate high rates of virologic suppression, this regimen will be cost-effective and would save >$500 million in ART costs in the United States over 5 years. PMID:26658053

  10. Twelve-month drug cost savings related to use of an electronic prescribing system with integrated decision support in primary care.

    PubMed

    McMullin, S Troy; Lonergan, Thomas P; Rynearson, Charles S

    2005-05-01

    We reported previously the results of a 6-month controlled trial in which the use of a commercially available electronic prescribing system with integrated clinical decision support and evidence-based message capability was associated with significantly lower primary care drug costs. The original study focused on new prescriptions, defined as claims for a medication that the patient had not received in the previous 12 months. The main objectives of this follow-up report were to (a) determine if the 6-month savings on new prescriptions were sustained during 12 months of follow-up, (b) evaluate the impact of the computerized decision support system (CDSS) on all pharmacy claims and per-member-per-month (PMPM) expenditures, and (c) evaluate the prescribing behaviors within 8 high-cost therapeutic categories that were frequently targeted by the electronic messages to prescribers to help verify that the drug cost savings were due to the recommendations in the electronic prescribing system. Two database queries were performed to identify additional pharmacy claims data for all Network Health Plan patients who were cared for by the 38 primary care clinicians (32 physicians, 4 nurse practitioners, and 2 physician assistants) included in our original 6-month study. This follow-up analysis (a) identified all new prescription claims for the 2 groups of clinicians throughout the 12-month follow-up period (June 2002 through May 2003) and (b) assessed all pharmacy claims during the same 12-month period to provide more complete savings estimates and to examine between-group differences in PMPM expenditures. During 12 months of follow-up, clinicians using the electronic prescribing system continued to have lower prescription costs than the controls. Clinicians using the electronic prescribing system had average costs for 26,674 new prescriptions that were dollar 4.12 lower (95% confidence interval, dollar 1.53-dollar 6.71; P=0.003) and PMPM expenditures that were dollar 0.57 lower

  11. Burden of non-adherence to latent tuberculosis infection drug therapy and the potential cost-effectiveness of adherence interventions in Canada: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anik R; Campbell, Jonathon R; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Marra, Fawziah; Johnston, James C; Smillie, Kirsten; Lester, Richard T

    2017-09-15

    Pharmaceutical treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reduces the risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB); however, poor adherence tempers the protective effect. We aimed to estimate the health burden of non-adherence, the maximum allowable cost of hypothetical new adherence interventions to be cost-effective and the potential value of existing adherence interventions for patients with low-risk LTBI in Canada. A microsimulation model of LTBI progression over 25 years. General practice in Canada. Individuals with LTBI who are initiating drug therapy. A hypothetical intervention with a range of effectiveness was evaluated. Existing drug adherence interventions including peer support, two-way text messaging support, enhanced adherence counselling and adherence incentives were also evaluated. Simulation outcomes included healthcare costs, TB incidence, TB deaths and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Base case results were interpreted against a willingness-to-pay threshold of $C50 000/QALY. Compared with current adherence levels, full adherence to LTBI drug therapy could reduce new TB cases from 90.3 cases per 100 000 person-years to 35.9 cases per 100 000 person-years and reduce TB-related deaths from 7.9 deaths per 100 000 person-years to 3.1 deaths per 100 000 person-years. An intervention that increases relative adherence by 40% would bring the population near full adherence to drug therapy and could have a maximum allowable annual cost of approximately $C450 per person to be cost-effective. Based on estimates of effect sizes and costs of existing adherence interventions, we found that they yielded between 900 and 2400 additional QALYs per million people, reduced TB deaths by 5%-25% and were likely to be cost-effective over 25 years. Full adherence could reduce the number of future TB cases by nearly 60%, offsetting TB-related costs and health burden. Several existing interventions are could be cost-effective to help achieve this

  12. Cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance and antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam's injection-driven HIV epidemics.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Vu, Phu Xuan; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip

    2012-10-01

    Drug use negatively affects adherence to and outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART). This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with ART for HIV-positive drug users (DUs) in Vietnam. A decision analytical model was developed to compare the costs and consequences of 3 HIV/AIDS treatment strategies for DUs: (1) only ART, (2) providing ART and MMT in separated sites (ART-MMT), and (3) integrating ART and MMT with direct administration (DAART-MMT). The model was parameterized using empirical data of costs and outcomes extracted from the MMT and ART cohort studies in Vietnam, and international published sources. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the model's robustness. The base-case analysis showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio of ART, DAART-MMT, and ART-MMT strategies was USD 1358.9, 1118.0 and 1327.1 per 1 Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY), equivalent to 1.22, 1.00, and 1.19 times Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DAART-MMT and ART-MMT versus ART strategy was 569.4 and 1227.8, approximately 0.51 and 1.10 times GDPpc/QALY. At the willingness to pay threshold of 3 times GDPpc, the probability of being cost-effective of DAART-MMT versus ART was 86.1%. These findings indicated that providing MMT along with ART for HIV-positive DUs is a cost-effective intervention in Vietnam. Integrating MMT and ART services could facilitate the use of directly observed therapy that supports treatment adherence and brings about clinically important improvements in health outcomes. This approach is also incrementally cost-effective in this large injection-driven HIV epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of cost of treatment of drug-related events in a tertiary care public sector hospital in Northern India: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Smita; Dhamija, Punit; Malhotra, Samir; Sharma, Navneet; Pandhi, Promila

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Drug related events (DREs) contribute significantly to hospital admissions. These are largely preventable events and require optimum use of the therapeutic agents. The study was conducted to analyze the cost of treatment of DREs. PATIENTS & METHODS All visits to medical emergency department of a tertiary care public sector hospital in northern India were recorded in a prospective, non-interventional manner over a period of 4 months. DREs were recognized and were followed up till their stay in the hospital. Data about the cost generating components of direct and indirect costs of treatment of DREs were collected. The projected cost of treatment of the same DREs in a private sector hospital was estimated and compared. RESULTS Out of 1833 admissions, 92(5.01%) were due to DREs. Maximum cases were due to non compliance (66%) followed by ADR (28%) and drug overdose(6%). The common DREs leading to ED visits were cerebrovascular accident(19.44%), followed by accelerated hypertension(18.36%) and diabetic ketoacidosis(14.04%). Total cost of management of all the 92 DREs in our hospital was calculated to be INR17,37,339(€30,215). The direct cost was INR1,72,961(€3008) and the approximate indirect cost was INR15,64, 378(€27, 206). The projected cost of management of all the 92 DREs was estimated to be INR63,63,872(€1,01, 676) in a private sector hospital. CONCLUSION The study shows that ADEs leading to emergency department visits and hospitalizations constitute a significant economic burden. Training of the patients and the prescribers may lessen the economic burden on the patient as well as the health care system. PMID:19523017

  14. Estimated cost efficacy of systemic treatments that are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Logan S; Payette, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Newer psoriasis treatments tout higher efficacy but are generally more expensive. We sought to estimate the cost efficacy of systemic psoriasis treatments that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A literature review of systemic psoriasis treatments that have been approved by the FDA was performed for the primary end point of a 75% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (PASI 75). Medication cost was referenced by wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), laboratory fees were obtained from the American Medical Association, and office visit fees are standard at our university. Total expenses were standardized by calculating cost per month of treatment considering the number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve PASI 75. Methotrexate ($794.05-1502.51) and cyclosporine ($1410.14-1843.55) had the lowest monthly costs per NNT to achieve PASI 75. The most costly therapies were infliximab ($8704.68-15,235.52) and ustekinumab 90 mg ($12,505.26-14,256.75). Monthly costs per NNT to achieve PASI 75 for other therapies were as follows: narrowband ultraviolet B light phototherapy ($2924.73), adalimumab ($3974.61-7678.78), acitretin ($4137.71-14,148.53), ustekinumab 45 mg ($7177.89-7263.99), psoralen plus ultraviolet A light phototherapy ($7499.46-8834.98), and etanercept ($8284.71-10,674.89). Drug rebates and incentives, potential adverse effects, comorbidity risk reduction, ambassador programs, and combination therapies were excluded. Our study provides meaningful cost efficacy data that may influence psoriasis treatment selection. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The cost-effectiveness and budget impact of Vietnam's methadone maintenance treatment programme in HIV prevention and treatment among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Vu, Phu Xuan; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme in HIV prevention and treatment among injection drug users (DUs) in Vietnam. The costs and health outcomes of providing MMT for opioid-dependent DUs versus non-MMT were estimated using a decision analytical model. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to justify uncertainties of model parameters simultaneously. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of MMT in HIV prevention was US$3324 per one averted HIV case. The decision model showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio of MMT and non-MMT strategies was US$480 and US$204 per 1 quality-adjusted life year (QALY), equivalent to 0.43 and 0.18 times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc). The ICER for MMT versus non-MMT strategy was US$1964, approximately 1.76 times the GDPpc/QALY, classifying MMT as a cost-effective intervention. At the willingness to pay threshold of three times the GDPpc, the probability of MMT and non-MMT strategies being cost-effective was 80.3 and 19.7%, respectively. The budget impact of scaling up MMT from 2011 to 2015 will be US$97 million for 65% coverage or US$49 million for treating 80,000 DUs. The results indicated that MMT was cost-effective in HIV prevention and treatment among DUs who were opioid dependent.

  16. Schistosomiais and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Control in Niger: Cost Effectiveness of School Based and Community Distributed Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Jacqueline; Garba, Amadou; Oliva, Elisa Bosque; Barkire, Arouna; Tinni, Amadou Aboubacar; Djibo, Ali; Mounkaila, Idrissa; Fenwick, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004 Niger established a large scale schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths control programme targeting children aged 5–14 years and adults. In two years 4.3 million treatments were delivered in 40 districts using school based and community distribution. Method and Findings Four districts were surveyed in 2006 to estimate the economic cost per district, per treatment and per schistosomiasis infection averted. The study compares the costs of treatment at start up and in a subsequent year, identifies the allocation of costs by activity, input and organisation, and assesses the cost of treatment. The cost of delivery provided by teachers is compared to cost of delivery by community distributers (CDD). The total economic cost of the programme including programmatic, national and local government costs and international support in four study districts, over two years, was US$ 456,718; an economic cost/treatment of $0.58. The full economic delivery cost of school based treatment in 2005/06 was $0.76, and for community distribution was $0.46. Including only the programme costs the figures are $0.47 and $0.41 respectively. Differences at sub-district are more marked. This is partly explained by the fact that a CDD treats 5.8 people for every one treated in school. The range in cost effectiveness for both direct and direct and indirect treatments is quantified and the need to develop and refine such estimates is emphasised. Conclusions The relative cost effectiveness of school and community delivery differs by country according to the composition of the population treated, the numbers targeted and treated at school and in the community, the cost and frequency of training teachers and CDDs. Options analysis of technical and implementation alternatives including a financial analysis should form part of the programme design process. PMID:22022622

  17. Long-term use and cost-effectiveness of secondary prevention drugs for heart disease in Western Australian seniors (WAMACH): a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gunnell, Anthony S; Knuiman, Matthew W; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Hobbs, Michael S T; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Hung, Joseph; Rankin, Jamie M; Nedkoff, Lee; Briffa, Thomas G; Ortiz, Michael; Gillies, Malcolm; Cordingley, Anne; Messer, Mitch; Gardner, Christian; Lopez, Derrick; Atkins, Emily; Mai, Qun; Sanfilippo, Frank M

    2014-09-18

    Secondary prevention drugs for cardiac disease have been demonstrated by clinical trials to be effective in reducing future cardiovascular and mortality events (WAMACH is the Western Australian Medication Adherence and Costs in Heart disease study). Hence, most countries have adopted health policies and guidelines for the use of these drugs, and included them in government subsidised drug lists to encourage their use. However, suboptimal prescribing and non-adherence to these drugs remains a universal problem. Our study will investigate trends in dispensing patterns of drugs for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and will also identify factors influencing these patterns. It will also assess the clinical and economic consequences of non-adherence and the cost-effectiveness of using these drugs. This population-based cohort study will use longitudinal data on almost 40,000 people aged 65 years or older who were hospitalised in Western Australia between 2003 and 2008 for coronary heart disease, heart failure or atrial fibrillation. Linking of several State and Federal government administrative data sets will provide person-based information on drugs dispensed precardiac and postcardiac event, reasons for hospital admission, emergency department visits, mortality and medical visits. Dispensed drug trends will be described, drug adherence measured and their association with future all-cause/cardiovascular events will be estimated. The cost-effectiveness of these long-term therapies for cardiac disease and the impact of adherence will be evaluated. Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approvals have been obtained from the Department of Health (Western Australian #2011/62 and Federal) and the University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/1130), in addition to HREC approvals from all participating hospitals. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals and presented at local, national and international conferences. Results will also be disseminated

  18. In A Survey, Marked Inconsistency In How Oncologists Judged Value Of High-Cost Cancer Drugs In Relation To Gains In Survival

    PubMed Central

    Ubel, Peter A.; Berry, Scott R.; Nadler, Eric; Bell, Chaim M.; Kozminski, Michael A.; Palmer, Jennifer A.; Evans, William K.; Strevel, Elizabeth L.; Neumann, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Amid calls for physicians to become better stewards of the nation’s health care resources, it is important to gain insight into how physicians think about the cost-effectiveness of new treatments. Expensive new cancer treatments that can extend life raise questions about whether physicians are prepared to make “value for money” tradeoffs when treating patients. We asked oncologists in the United States and Canada how much benefit, in additional months of life expectancy, a new drug would need to provide to justify its cost and warrant its use in an individual patient. The majority of oncologists agreed that a new cancer treatment that might add a year to a patient’s life would be worthwhile if the cost was less than $100,000. But when given a hypothetical case of an individual patient to review, the oncologists also endorsed a hypothetical drug whose cost might be as high as $250,000 per life-year gained. The results show that oncologists are not consistent in deciding how many months an expensive new therapy should extend a person’s life before the cost of therapy is justified. Moreover, the benefit that oncologists demand from new treatments in terms of length of survival does not necessarily increase according to the price of the treatment. The findings suggest that policy makers should find ways to improve how physicians are educated on the use of cost-effectiveness information and to influence physician decision making through clinical guidelines that incorporate cost-effectiveness information. PMID:22492887

  19. The Impact of the US Food and Drug Administration Chlorofluorocarbon Ban on Out-of-pocket Costs and Use of Albuterol Inhalers Among Individuals With Asthma.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Ho, Oliver; Goldman, Dana P; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar

    2015-07-01

    The US Clean Air Act prohibits use of nonessential ozone-depleting substances. In 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration announced the ban of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) albuterol inhalers by December 31, 2008. The policy resulted in the controversial replacement of generic CFC inhalers by more expensive, branded hydrofluoroalkane inhalers. The policy's impact on out-of-pocket costs and utilization of albuterol is unknown. To study the impact of the US Food and Drug Administration's CFC ban on out-of-pocket costs and utilization of albuterol inhalers. Using private insurance data from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2010, we investigated the effect of the CFC ban on out-of-pocket costs and utilization of albuterol inhalers among individuals with asthma (109,428 adults; 37,281 children), as well as asthma-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits. We estimated multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and mean out-of-pocket costs of albuterol inhalers in an individual's drug plan. We analyzed whether effects varied between adults vs children and those with persistent vs nonpersistent asthma. Pharmacy claims for albuterol inhalers, as well as asthma-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits. The mean out-of-pocket albuterol cost rose from $13.60 (95% CI, $13.40-$13.70) per prescription in 2004 to $25.00 (95% CI, $24.80-$25.20) immediately after the 2008 ban. By the end of 2010, costs had lowered to $21.00 (95% CI, $20.80-$21.20) per prescription. Overall albuterol inhaler use steadily declined from 2004 to 2010. Steep declines in use of generic CFC inhalers occurred after the fourth quarter of 2006 and were almost fully offset by increases in use of hydrofluoroalkane inhalers. In multivariable analyses, a $10 increase in out-of-pocket albuterol prescription costs was estimated to lower utilization by 0.92 percentage points (95% CI, -1.39 to -0.44; P < .001) for adults and 0

  20. Medicare Part D and Changes in Prescription Drug Use and Cost Burden: National Estimates for the Medicare Population, 2000–2007

    PubMed Central

    Briesacher, Becky A.; Zhao, Yanfang; Madden, Jeanne M.; Zhang, Fang; Adams, Alyce S.; Tjia, Jennifer; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Soumerai, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Context The full effect of Medicare Part D, after the initial policy transition period and across the U.S. Medicare population, remains unclear. Objective To estimate nationally-representative changes in prescription drug use and out-of-pocket drug costs two years after implementation of Part D. Design, Setting, and Participants We examined study outcomes over 8 years (2000–2008) and estimated changes after Part D, accounting for prior trends. Our analyses used the community-dwelling sample of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (unweighted unique n=38,798). Actual post-Part D outcomes were compared to projected values using 2000–2005 data. Subgroup analyses and standardization weights were used to address population-level shifts over time in health status and demographic characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Annual prescription drug fills and out-of-pocket drug costs. Results We observed significant average per person increases of 1.8 prescription fills (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 2.5) in 2006 and 3.4 prescription fills (95% CI: 2.7, 4.1) in 2007 above pre-Part D increases of 0.9 prescription fills per year. Average out-of-pocket drug costs decreased significantly by $143 (95% CI:−182.5,−103.1) in 2006 and $148 (95% CI: −181.2, −114.1) in 2007 above average pre-Part D increases of $12 per year. Prescription fills did not change for beneficiaries with fair to poor health until 2007 when large increases occurred (increases of 3.7 to 11.0 fills above pre-Part D trends). Poor beneficiaries without Medicaid had no reductions in out-of-pocket drug costs in 2006 or 2007. Conclusion After the transition year of 2006, the impact of Part D appeared larger and more consistent across the Medicare population. Of note, sick and poor beneficiaries experienced significant improvements in prescription drug use in 2007. PMID:21544002

  1. Monitoring drug effectiveness in kala-azar in Bihar, India: cost and feasibility of periodic random surveys versus a health service - based reporting system

    PubMed Central

    Paritosh, Malaviya; Singh, RP; Singh, SP; Epco, Hasker; Bart, Ostyn; Ravi, Shankar; Marleen, Boelaert; Shyam, Sundar

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic infectious disease that is of major public health importance in the state of Bihar in India. A regional VL Elimination Initiative was launched in 2005 based on the use of the oral drug miltefosine. However, concerns were raised about development of drug resistance. Drug effectiveness cannot be assessed accurately based on the current recording and reporting system of health facilities. In 2009 a random survey was conducted in Muzaffarpur district to document the clinical outcomes of VL patients treated by the public health care system in 2008. We analyze the operational feasibility and cost of such periodic random survey as compared to health facility based routine monitoring. Methods A random sample of 150 patients was drawn from registers kept at Primary Health Care centers (PHCs). Patient records were examined and the patients were located at their residence. Both patients and physicians were interviewed with the help of two specifically designed questionnaires by a team of one supervisor, one physician and one field worker. Costs incurred during this survey were properly documented and vehicle log books were maintained for present analysis. Results Only 115 (76.7%) of the patients could be located in the first effort and finally 11 patients were not traceable on account of erroneous recording of patients’ characteristics and addresses at the CHCs. Per patient follow-up cost was US$ 15.51 and on average 2.27 patients could be visited per team-day. Human resource involvement constituted 75% of the total cost whereas involvement of physician costs 51% of the total cost. Interpretation and conclusion A random survey to document clinical outcomes is costly and labor intensive, but gives probably the most accurate information on drug effectiveness. A health service based retrospective cohort reporting system modeled on the monitoring system developed by tuberculosis programs could be a better

  2. Do the current performance-based schemes in Italy really work? "Success fee": a novel measure for cost-containment of drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Navarria, Andrea; Drago, Valentina; Gozzo, Lucia; Longo, Laura; Mansueto, Silvana; Pignataro, Giacomo; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Drug costs have risen rapidly in the last decade, driving third-party payers to adopt performance-based agreements that provide either a discount before payment or an ex post reimbursement on the basis of treatments' effectiveness and/or safety issues. This article analyses the strategies currently approved in Italy and proposes a novel model called "success fee" to improve payment-by-result schemes and to guarantee patients rapid access to novel therapies. A review of the existing risk-sharing schemes in Italy has been performed, and data provided by the Italian National report (2012) on drug use have been analyzed to assess the impact on drug expenditure deriving from the application of "traditional" performance-based strategies since their introduction in 2006. Such schemes have poorly contributed to the fulfillment of the purpose in Italy, producing a trifling refund, compared with relevant drugs costs for the National Health System : €121 million out of a total of €3696 million paid. The novel risk-sharing agreement called "success fee" has been adopted for a new high-cost therapy approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pirfenidone, and consists of an ex post payment made by the National Health System to the manufacturer for those patients who received a real benefit from treatment. "Success fee" represents an effective strategy to promote value-based pricing, making available to patients a rapid access to innovative and expensive therapies, with an affordable impact on drug expenditure and, simultaneously, ensuring third-party payers to share with manufacturers the risk deriving from uncertain safety and effectiveness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Use and cost of branded and generic drugs in patients with coronary heart disease--results from a prospective survey of 1008 patients in two London hospitals.

    PubMed

    Corp, E V; Antoniou, S; Wright, P G; Khachi, H; Vercaeren, S; Wald, D S

    2009-12-01

    Combination therapy with three classes of drug, antiplatelet, cholesterol and blood pressure lowering treatment markedly reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Within each class, generic and branded (patented) drugs are available which have similar efficacy but differ in cost. (i) To assess the extent to which preventive medical drugs are prescribed in patients with CHD and to examine the reasons for drug omissions and (ii) to assess the relative use of branded and generic drugs and the reasons for drug selection. The medication charts and hospital notes of consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at a large cardiothoracic centre were reviewed over a 3-month period. Interviews with patients, attending cardiologists and general practitioners were undertaken to establish why drugs were and were not prescribed. Among 1008 patients (755 who had PCI and 253 who had CABG) the use of aspirin, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), beta blockers and calcium channel blockers were, respectively, 97, 98, 81, 76 and 18%. The combination of any 4 classes of drug were used in 65% of patients. Almost all patients who did not receive aspirin or a statin had clinical contraindications and were on alternative drugs. In about 12% of patients without an ACE inhibitor (or ARB) and 7% of patients without a beta blocker, no reason to withhold such treatment was identified. Branded drugs were used in 52% of patients; the most commonly prescribed being atorvastatin in 33%. Clinical reasons for using branded rather than generic drugs were identified in 13% of cases. Our results show a high rate of use of secondary preventive cardiac medications in patients undergoing coronary revascularization procedures, but the use of ACE inhibitors or beta blockers is still overlooked in about 1 in 10 patients

  4. Consolidated Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis in the WHO European Region 2011-2015: Cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Acosta, Colleen D; Kluge, Hans H; Dara, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has increased at an alarming rate in the WHO European Region. Of the 27 countries worldwide with a high burden of multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB), 15 are in the European Region. An estimated 78,000 new cases of MDR-TB occur annually in the Region, of which approximately 10% are extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. In response, the WHO Regional Office for Europe developed a Consolidated Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (2011-2015). Our objective was to analyse the cost-effectiveness of implementing the plan, with the expected achievements of diagnosing 85% of estimated MDR-TB cases and treating at least 75% successfully. A transmission model, using epidemiological data reported to WHO was developed to calculate expected achievements. WHO-CHOICE database was used for cost analyses. The highly cost-effective plan is expected to prevent the emergence of 250,000 new MDR-TB and 13,000 XDR-TB patients respectively, saving US$7 billion and 120,000 lives. The plan and accompanying Resolution were fully endorsed by the sixty-first session of the WHO Regional Committee for Europe in 2011. Member States need to continuously improve health system performance and address TB determinants. Research and development of new medicines, tools and patient-friendly services are also crucial. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Present, old and future strategies for anti-HCV treatment in patients infected by genotype-1: estimation of the drug costs in the Calabria Region in the era of the directly acting antivirals.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, Alessio; Costa, Chiara; Pisani, Vincenzo; De Maria, Vincenzo; Giancotti, Francesca; Di Salvo, Sebastiano; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Basso, Monica; Franzetti, Marzia Maria; Marascio, Nadia; Liberto, Maria Carla; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Zicca, Emilia; Postorino, Maria Concetta; Matera, Giovanni; Focà, Alfredo; Torti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, anti-HCV drugs are provided free of charge by the National Health System. Since 2011, three drug regimens including a directly acting antiviral (DAA) are considered the gold standard for HCV treatment. However, these drugs add a significant cost (roughly €26,000) to the combination of pegylated-interferon-α/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV), which before DAA represented the unique treatment. To provide the National Health System potential useful information, we estimated costs to provide anti-HCV drugs to treat a population experienced for PEG-INF/RBV. Genotype 1 HCV mono-infected or HIV/HCV co-infected individuals who were treated with PEG-IFN/RBV between 2008 and 2013 were included. The cost to treat these patients with PEG-IFN/RBV was calculated (cost 1). We also estimated costs if we had to treat these patients with a lead-in period of PEG-INF/RBV followed by PEG-IFN/RBV and a DAA in naïves (cost 2), in addition to cost 1 plus the estimated cost to re-treat with PEG-IFN/RBV and a DAA patients who had a relapse or a non response (cost 3). Moreover, all costs were normalized by SVR. Rates of foreseen response with DAA were obtained from literature data. The overall study population consisted of 104 patients. The rate of sustained virological response (SVR) was 55%, while it was estimated that SVR would be obtained in 75% of patients with a lead-in period with PEG-IFN/RBV followed by a DAA combination, and in 78% if this treatment is used to re-treat experienced patients with a DAA. Drug costs associated with these treatments were: €1,214,283 for cost 1, €3,474,977 for cost 2 and €3,002,095 for cost 3. Costs per SVR achieved were: €22,284 for cost 1, €44,643 for cost 2 and €38,322 for cost 3. Treatments including DAAs achieve a SVR in more patients than PEG-IFN/RBV but they cost around three times more than PEG-IFN/RBV alone regimens. Also, cost per SVR is almost twofold greater than PEG-IFN/RBV regimens. Therefore, it is mandatory to implement use

  6. Deliberating Tarceva: A case study of how British NHS managers decide whether to purchase a high-cost drug in the shadow of NICE guidance.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David; Doheny, Shane

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines audio-recorded data from meetings in which NHS managers decide whether to fund high-cost drugs for individual patients. It investigates the work of a Welsh individual patient commissioning (IPC) panel responsible for sanctioning the purchase of 'un-commissioned' treatments for exceptional cases. The case study presented highlights the changing rationales used for approving or denying a cancer drug, Tarceva, during a period when NICE first suggested it was not cost effective, but then changed its position in a final technology appraisal recommending use when the cost did not exceed that of an alternative product. Our data show how decisions taken in the shadow of NICE guidance remain complex and subject to local discretion. Guidance that takes time to prepare, is released in stages, and relates to particular disease stages, must be interpreted in the context of particular cases. The case-based IPC panel discourse stands in tension with the standardised population-based recommendations in guidance. Panel members, who based their decisions on the central notions of 'efficacy' and 'exceptionality', often struggled to apply NICE information on cost-effectiveness to their deliberations on efficacy (clinical effectiveness). The case study suggests that the complex nature of decision making makes standardization of outcomes very difficult to achieve, so that local professional judgement is likely to remain central to health care rationing at this level.

  7. Impact of telephone medication therapy management on medication and health-related problems, medication adherence, and Medicare Part D drug costs: a 6-month follow up.

    PubMed

    Moczygemba, Leticia R; Barner, Jamie C; Lawson, Kenneth A; Brown, Carolyn M; Gabrillo, Evelyn R; Godley, Paul; Johnsrud, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 mandated the provision of medication therapy management (MTM) to eligible Part D beneficiaries to improve medication-related outcomes. As MTM programs evolve, evaluation is necessary to help inform MTM best practices. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of pharmacist-provided telephone MTM on: (1) medication and health-related problems (MHRPs); (2) medication adherence; and (3) Part D drug costs. This quasi-experimental study included Part D beneficiaries from a Texas health plan. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use served as the study framework. MTM utilization was the health behavior. Age, gender, and race were predisposing factors, and number of medications, chronic diseases, and medication regimen complexity were need factors. Outcomes were pre-to-post changes in: (1) MHRPs; (2) medication adherence, using the medication possession ratio (MPR); and (3) total drug costs. Multiple regression was used to analyze group differences while controlling for predisposing and need factors. At baseline, the intervention (n = 60) and control (n = 60) groups were not statistically different regarding predisposing and need factors, with the exception of gender. The intervention group had significantly (P = 0.009) more men compared with the control group (51.7% vs 28.3%). There were 4.8 (2.7) and 9.2 (2.9) MHRPs identified at baseline and 2.5 (2.0) and 7.9 (3.0) MHRPs remained at the 6-month follow up in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The intervention group (vs control) had significantly more MHRPs resolved (P = 0.0003). There were no significant predictors of change in MPR or total drug costs from baseline to follow up, although total drug costs decreased by $158 in the intervention group compared with a $118 increase in the control group. A telephone MTM program resolved significantly more MHRPs compared with a control group, but there were no significant changes in adherence and