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Sample records for drug policy reform

  1. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures. PMID:25395346

  2. Interest Groups' Influence over Drug Pricing Policy Reform in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woojin

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way. PMID:15988802

  3. Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Thoumi, Francisco E

    2012-01-01

    This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change.

  4. The politics of pharmaceutical reform: the case of the Philippine National Drug Policy.

    PubMed

    Lee, M B

    1994-01-01

    A national drug policy was formulated in the Philippines after the rise of the Aquino government in 1986. In this article, the author discusses the pharmaceutical situation before the policy was announced, and argues that the major push for a policy came from the confluence of four factors: a change in the structures of political power, especially the rise of a new government and the empowerment of health non-governmental organizations as new participants in the policy process; members of the Department of Health who pushed for a policy; a more conductive social and political climate, both locally and internationally; and a growing body of knowledge about the drug issue. The author discusses the policy's achievements as well as the limitations that have beset the policy from 1987 to 1992.

  5. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals. PMID:25300503

  6. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.

  7. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  8. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-04-17

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility.

  9. Social Problems of Drug Use and Drug Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Joel

    The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…

  10. When grammars collide: Harm reduction, drug detention and the challenges of international policy reform efforts in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Edington, Claire; Bayer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, a dramatic rise in HIV prevalence rates among drug users in Vietnam attracted the attention of international observers concerned about the prospect of a more generalised epidemic. Vietnam subsequently became the target of extensive funding and advocacy which sought to introduce needle exchange and methadone in a country where drug use was considered a 'social evil', and drug users were subjected to what international observers viewed as draconian incarceration measures. What were the goals of proponents of harm reduction when they came to Vietnam? How did they perceive the state of prevailing approaches to drug users in the context of the Vietnamese HIV epidemic? How did they understand the strategic challenges they faced and the dilemmas they had to confront? Based on in-depth interviews with international harm reduction proponents working in Vietnam, this paper explores the encounter of two grammars of harm reduction, one based on broadly accepted international approaches, the other rooted in Vietnam's own history and politics. From this encounter a set of policies and practices characterised by needle exchange and methadone maintenance emerged, as well as an extensive network of closed centres where tens of thousands of drug users are currently detained.

  11. POLICE BRIBERY AND ACCESS TO METHADONE MAINTENANCE THERAPY WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF DRUG POLICY REFORM IN TIJUANA, MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    Werb, D; Wagner, KD; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, SA

    2015-01-01

    Aims In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Methods Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Results Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1,825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.69, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02 – 2.81, p = 0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Discussion Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. PMID:25655577

  12. Evaluating the impact of Mexico’s drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States—where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal—and Mexico—where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Methods Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012–2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Results Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local

  13. Policy and Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…

  14. Implications of Bullying to School Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Nina Marie

    2014-01-01

    Governmental attention to bullying in kindergarten through Grade 3 continues to be a challenge in a metropolitan school district in the eastern United States. This has presented a case for school policy reform. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine how bullying and office discipline related to suspension referrals,…

  15. Policy Dilemmas for Serrano Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Now that the courts have affirmed "Serrano" and specified a rigid fiscal neutrality remedy, state policymakers are confronted with numerous dilemmas and potential unintended consequences. Discusses some of the those policy dilemmas and how school finance systems need to be overhauled. (Author/RK)

  16. Drug pricing reform in China: analysis of piloted approaches and potential impact of the reform

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yixi; Hu, Shanlian; Dong, Peng; Kornfeld, Åsa; Jaros, Patrycja; Yan, Jing; Ma, Fangfang; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In 2009, the Chinese government launched a national healthcare reform programme aiming to control healthcare expenditure and increase the quality of care. As part of this programme, a new drug pricing reform was initiated on 1 June 2015. The objective of this study was to describe the changing landscape of drug pricing policy in China and analyse the potential impact of the reform. Methods The authors conducted thorough research on the drug pricing reform using three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang, and Weipu), Chinese health authority websites, relevant press releases, and pharmaceutical blogs and discussion forums. This research was complemented with qualitative research based on targeted interviews with key Chinese opinion leaders representing the authorities’ and prescribers’ perspectives. Results With the current reform, the government has attempted to replace its direct control over the prices of reimbursable drugs with indirect, incentive-driven influence. Although the exact implementation of the reform remains unclear at the moment, the changes introduced so far and the pilot project designs indicate that China is considering adaptation of some form of internal and external reference pricing policies, commonly used in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Several challenges related to the potential new mechanism were identified: 1) the risk of hospital underfunding, if hospital funding reform is not prioritised; 2) the risk of promoting the use of cheap, low-quality drugs, if a reliable quality control system is not in place and discrepancy between the available drugs is present; 3) the risk of increasing disparity in access to care between poor and rich regions, in case of country-wide price convergence; and 4) the risk of industry underinvestment, resulting in reduced competition, issues with quality and sustainability of supply, and potentially negative social impact. Conclusions Foreign pricing policies

  17. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  18. Steady Work. Policy, Practice, and the Reform of American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.; McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin

    This report analyzes the relationship between educational policymaking and educational practice in schools and classrooms by drawing lessons from recent attempts to reform schools with policy. Educational reform operates on the following loosely connected levels: (1) policy; (2) administration; and (3) practice. Policy can set the conditions for…

  19. Teachers' Professional Development and Education Reform. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, New Brunswick, NJ.

    This policy brief presents excerpts from an article by Judith Warren Little that addresses the problem of the "fit" between current state and local reforms and prevailing approaches to professional development. The brief addresses first five major themes of reform and their implications for teaching. These themes are: reforms in subject matter…

  20. Swedish Educational Policy and Reforms--Intention versus Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odin, Bjorn

    1987-01-01

    Swedish school reform since the 1970s has involved a shift in policy and underlying values throughout the entire implementation process. Educational reform has broken into loosely connected fragments with relevant reform makers at all educational levels. Despite a newly decentralized process, observed changes are not really structural. Includes…

  1. Crafting an Education Reform Agenda through Economic Stimulus Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The economic stimulus enacted during President Obama's initial weeks included a down payment on his ambitious education reform agenda. By combining short-term policy with reform, the strategy gained his administration three advantages: a discretionary funding source with little Congressional scrutiny; flexibility in pursuing education reform goals…

  2. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. PMID:27140431

  3. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting.

  4. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Adams, Owen

    2015-09-04

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action.

  5. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  6. Reform and Relapse in Bilingual Policy in Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciscel, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, language education policy has shifted since independence from an uneven Soviet policy, in which minority Russian dominated, towards somewhat more equitable European norms. Although many reforms in language education have been beneficial in producing a more balanced bilingualism, official policy has at times tended…

  7. Measurement-Driven Reform: Research on Policy, Practice, Repercussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Audrey J.; Smith, Mary Lee

    The Arizona Student Assessment Program (ASAP) epitomizes the principle on which measurement-driven reform is based, "You get what you assess." This policy study examines the ideologies and intentions of groups instrumental in the creation and implementation of a performance-based assessment reform. The study was conducted by interviewing members…

  8. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  9. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  10. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area. PMID:27119389

  11. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area.

  12. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: What is Policy?," this article refers to the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must…

  13. Curriculum Policy Implementation: How Schools Respond to Government's "Soft" Policy in the Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jacqueline K. S.

    2012-01-01

    "Soft" policy has newly emerged as a policy implementation concept in relation to governance. Non-binding in character, "soft" policy is designed for multi-level systems of governance in which there is relative autonomy at different levels of collective decision-making. "Soft" policy has gained attention since the adoption of curriculum reforms in…

  14. Policy "Partnerships"? Power Dynamics in Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Joanne; Vidovich, Lesley; Chapman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    In curriculum policy, discourses of "policy partnerships" and "communities of practice" have become increasingly prevalent and were reflected in Western Australian curriculum policy processes from the mid-1990s to the late 2000s--a period of significant, highly contested change. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study into the…

  15. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  16. Understanding Reason in Policy Reform: Engaging "Problematic" Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Kym

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine current policy reforms that situate education as a means of addressing social inclusion. Borrowing from the work of Popkewitz and Lindblad, the paper takes the form of a cross-disciplinary literature review that informs understanding of the relationship between educational governance and social inclusion/exclusion in…

  17. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  18. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  19. Reform in Teacher Education through the CLAD/BCLAD Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Ramona Maile

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes obstacles facing multicultural/bilingual teacher education reform in the context of California's Crosscultural Language and Academic Development (CLAD) or Bilingual Crosscultural Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) programs, which try to translate theoretical frameworks concerned with cultural difference into credentialing policy.…

  20. School Reform: The Policy Implications of the Effective Schools Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purkey, Stewart C.; Smith, Marshall S.

    Based on recent school effectiveness literature, this paper suggests local policies to stimulate and facilitate school reform. After discussing the goals of the effective schools movement and briefly reviewing the literature, it presents a two-phase model for school improvement projects, based on the premise that a school's culture primarily…

  1. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  2. New Directions in Education? A Critique of Contemporary Policy Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on facets of Foucault's theoretical resources to critique current education policy reform from within the Australian State of Victoria, namely the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development's (DEECD) discussion paper "New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession." Implicit in the reform…

  3. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  4. Reforming Higher Education Systems: Some Lessons to Guide Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisemon, Thomas Owen; Holm-Nielsen, Lauritz

    1995-01-01

    Experiences of different countries in establishing mechanisms to coordinate development of higher education systems, diversify institutional financing, and increase efficiency of public investments are examined. Attention is drawn to the need for effective policy structures to manage higher education, link reform costs to benefits, acknowledge…

  5. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  6. The Culture of Education Policy Making: Curriculum Reform in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the culture of education policy making in Shanghai using the conceptual tool of a "global assemblage". A global assemblage is essentially a collection of ideas and practices that arise from the interplay between a global form and situated sociocultural elements. Focusing on the global form of curriculum reform, this paper…

  7. Health Policy Roundtable—Policy by Numbers: The Role of Budget Estimates and Scoring in Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Folz, Christina E

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this roundtable is to explore the imperfect art of estimating the budget costs of health insurance proposals—called scoring when done by government agencies. The panel addresses the complexities involved in generating these estimates, which usually depend on many untested and untestable assumptions. For example, the Medicare prescription drug “donut hole” was invented so that policymakers could achieve budget targets. These budget scores play a critical role in the design of health policies, as well as in the reform proposals put forth by candidates in an election. The roundtable discusses how policymakers can and do use health policy estimates and budget scores. PMID:15762895

  8. Is the pro-competition policy an effective solution for China's public hospital reform?

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2016-10-01

    The new round of health care reforms in China achieved significant initial results. New and emerging problems coinciding with the deepening of the reforms, however, require further institutional changes to strengthen the competition mechanism and promote public hospital efficiency. This paper provides a conceptual framework and preliminary assessment of public hospital competition in China. Specifically, we distinguish between two closely related concepts - competition and privatization, and identify several critical conditions under which hospital competition can be used as a policy instrument to improve health care delivery in China. We also investigate the current performance and identify several unintended consequences of public hospital competition - mainly, medical arms race, drug over-prescription and the erosion of a trusting relationship between patients and physicians. Finally, we discuss the policy options for enhancing the internal competition in China's hospital market, and conclude that public investment on information provision is key to reaping the positive outcomes of pro-competition policies.

  9. Effective Faith-Based Treatment Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents witness testimonies from a hearing discussing two issues critical to the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources: insuring government support for effective programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and facilitating the inclusion of faith-based providers in the…

  10. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda. What is Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    This article is related to the impacts on teachers of the increasing marginalization of their voices in educational policy making and policy debates. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must construct their own…

  11. The World Bank, pharmaceutical policies, and health reforms in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio; Forns, Joan Rovira

    2005-01-01

    Health care systems spend a relatively high percentage of their resources on the purchase of medicines, and the poor spend a disproportionate amount of their income on pharmaceuticals. There is ample evidence in the literature that drugs are very poorly used. World Bank-led health reforms aim at improving equity, efficiency, quality, and users' satisfaction, and it will be difficult to achieve these goals without making medicines accessible and affordable. The purpose of this article is to examine the adequacy of World Bank pharmaceutical policies, as recommended in various Bank documents, for Latin America and to examine the implementation of the policy recommendations. The authors found that the World Bank identified and recommended a set of pharmaceutical policies that matched the needs of the region. But, as revealed through fieldwork and a review of the literature, the recommended pharmaceutical interventions were left out of the health reforms, and most of the loans that included pharmaceutical interventions allocated funds only to the purchase of drugs. The authors formulate four hypotheses that may explain the lack of congruence between the recommended policies and the strategies financed by World Bank health reform loans to the Latin American region.

  12. Layoff Policies Could Diminish Teacher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that with the poor economy endangering more novice teachers' jobs, researchers and policymakers have begun to question the human-capital costs of "last hired, first fired" layoff policies. Such layoffs, those experts argue, do not consider teacher effectiveness, meaning that teachers who make vital contributions to school…

  13. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Policy (ISP) and applies a modified version to Cuba. The Commission amends its rules and procedures to... international routes to which it continues to apply, with the exception of Cuba. The market has seen significant... international routes with the exception of Cuba, to which we continue to apply a limited form of the ISP as...

  14. Drug Testing in Schools: An Effective Deterrent? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (May 30, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents testimonies from a hearing discussing the drug threat in the nations schools and the issue of whether drug testing is an effective deterrent. The subcommittee conducted the hearing as part of an effort to fully understand the nations drug crisis, how it impacts different parts of our nation, and what effective drug control…

  15. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  16. FDA reform floated in DC. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Hodel, D

    1995-06-01

    Legislative proposals to reform the mandate of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are underway in Washington. An ad hoc coalition has been formed by many leading AIDS groups to participate in the debate. The group is drafting principles for evaluating FDA reform proposals from the standpoint of people with life-threatening disease. Items under discussion for the reform include shifting more efficacy studies to a post-marketing setting. This would enable drugs to reach the market much faster; however, the risks are greater because more people will be taking the drugs with less data about hazards. Another measure would utilize local Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) to review proposals for the early human testing (phase I clinical trials) on drugs. In addition, a measure was proposed that would privatize certain drug safety reviews, by relegating them to independent testing or accrediting institutions. Another measure would permit the promotion of FDA-approved drugs for off-label uses. A measure to impose statutory time limits on FDA review is also under discussion. Finally, the possible removal of export barriers for non-FDA-approved drugs is under review.

  17. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  18. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  19. Policy Capacity in the Learning Healthcare System Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gardner, William

    2015-01-01

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest and his colleagues make a strong argument for the need to expand policy capacity among healthcare actors. In this commentary, I develop an additional argument in support of Forest et al view. Forest et al rightly point to the need to have embedded policy experts to successfully translate healthcare reform policy into healthcare change. Translation of externally generated innovation policy into local solutions is only one source of healthcare system change. We also need to build learning healthcare systems that can discover new health solutions at the frontline of care. Enhanced policy capacity staffing in those organizations will be key to building continuously learning health systems. PMID:26673470

  20. Reforming the health sector in Thailand: the role of policy actors on the policy stage.

    PubMed

    Green, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on exploratory research carried out into the processes of policy-making, and in particular health sector reform, in the health sector of Thailand. It is one of a set of studies examining health sector reform processes in a number of countries. Though in the period under study (1970-1996) there had been no single health sector reform package in Thailand, there was interest in a number of quarters in the development of such an initiative. It is clear, however, that despite recognition of the need for reform such a policy was far from being formulated, let alone implemented. The research, based on both documentary analysis and interviews, explores the reasons underpinning the failure of the policy process to respond to such a perceived need. The research findings suggest that the policy formation process in Thailand successfully occurs when there is a critical mass of support from strategic interest groups. The relative power of these interest groups is constantly changing. In particular the last two decades has seen a decline in the power of the bureaucratic élites (military and civilian) and a related rise in the power of the economic élites either directly or through their influence on political parties and government. Other critical groups include the media, NGOs and the professions. Informal policy groups are also significant. A number of implications for policy makers operating under such circumstances are drawn.

  1. Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

    This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

  2. National drug policy: implications of the 'tough on drugs' ideology.

    PubMed

    Norman, R

    2001-10-01

    Australia has emerged over the last decade as a world leader in drug policy. According to Single and Rohl (1997 pvii) Australia's National Drug Strategy 'has been characterised by a unique combination of features which have brought it international attention and acclaim'. The strength of Australia's policy has been its emphasis on both licit and illicit drugs, and also its clear articulation of harm minimisation as a guiding principle in all areas of action. The key policy goals recognised the harm associated with all substances and sought results in key areas of alcohol-related problems, tobacco-related problems, under-age consumption, prescription medication problems and illicit drug use. However, Australia has a new drug policy document for the new millennium, The National Drug Strategic Framework 1998 - 2002. As a result of a conservative influence in national politics, this framework has moved from the harm minimisation philosophy to a moralistic 'tough on drugs' philosophy that stresses zero tolerance, law enforcement and abstinence. There is a risk that Australia will experience an increase in adverse health, social and economic consequences as a result of this new policy direction. Nurses need to think critically about the 'tough on drugs' ideology. There is a risk that significant adverse affects may occur for their drug-using patients as a result of this policy change. In their practice, nurses need to challenge the validity of a punitive response, and to commit themselves to improving the health and safety of the illicit drug-using community.

  3. Social construction and the evidence-based drug policy endeavour.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kari

    2014-09-01

    'Evidence-based policy' has become the catch-cry of the drug policy field. A growing literature has been dedicated to better realising the goal of evidence-based drug policy: to maximise the use of the best quality research to inform policy decision-making and help answer the question of 'what works'. Alternative accounts in the policy processes literature conceptualise policy activity as an ambiguous and contested process, and the role of evidence as being only marginally influential. Multiple participants jostle for influence and seek to define what may be regarded as a policy problem, how it may be appropriately addressed, which participants may speak authoritatively, and what knowledge(s) may be brought to bear. The question posited in this article is whether the conceptual shift offered by thinking about policy activity as a process of social construction may be valuable for beginning to explore different perspectives of the evidence-based drug policy endeavour. Within a constructionist account of policy, what counts as valid 'evidence' will always be a constructed notion within a dynamic system, based on the privileging and silencing of participants and discourse, and the contestation of those many positions and perspectives. The social construction account shifts our focus from the inherent value of 'evidence' for addressing 'problems' to the ways in which policy knowledge is made valid, by whom and in what contexts. As such, social construction provides a framework for critically analysing the ways in which 'policy-relevant knowledge' may not be a stable concept but rather one which is constructed through the policy process, and, through a process of validation, is rendered useful. We have limited knowledge in the drug policy field about how this happens; how ambiguity about the problems to be addressed, which voices should be heard, and what activities may be appropriate is contested and managed. By unpicking the values and assumptions which underlie drug

  4. Regulation and competition: an analysis of natural gas policy reforms

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 the federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued Order 436, a set of reforms intended to extend competition by opening transportation to all shippers and allowing market entry by competing pipelines. This thesis assesses the reforms' efficiency and equity. Efficient pricing and investment rules are derived and applied to the new policy. The reforms are probably an improvement, but the attempt to ensure parity with traditional sales service may hamstring potential gains, and rate design to stimulate competition may forgo benefits of multi-part tariffs and discourage efficient risk-sharing and investment. The analysis also addresses problems of competition in a regulated utility's traditional market. Even if wellhead markets are competitive, it may prove difficult to separate the commodity from pipeline market power. An industry simulation model is constructed from estimates of demand and supply, representing thirteen major interstate pipelines. The simulation is over 1985-90 for nine combinations of trading arrangements, regulation of commodity prices, and distortions from rigid purchase contracts. Deregulation policies risk large efficiency losses if contractual constraints distort prices. However, if new gas prices are flexible, rigidity in high-cost contracts and partial deregulation of old gas yield little efficiency loss relative to fully-flexible scenarios.

  5. [Reflections on drug policies in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Tarcísio Matos

    2011-12-01

    This article contains some reflections on drug policies in Brazil. In the first two chapters, taking the needle exchange programs (SEPs) as the starting point, the author discusses the trajectory of the Harm Reduction Policy in Brazil and the role played in it by the Department of STD, AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. The third chapter examines the actions developed by the National Coordination of Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drugs and the Office of Drug Policies - SENAD, after the retraction of the Department of STD and AIDS from drug policies, as well as the introduction of PEAD and the "Crack Plan" in the country. In the fourth and fifth chapters the provisions of the current Brazilian policy on drugs and its limitations related mainly to the fragility of the Family Health Strategy are discussed, and some of the actions foreseen in the PEAD and the "Crack Plan" are critically analyzed. In the sixth chapter the author examines the effects of repression in the name of combating trafficking in the Brazilian policy on drugs having as background of the marginalization and social exclusion of users. Finally, some proposals are presented for the Alcohol and Drugs Policy in Brazil. PMID:22124907

  6. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up. PMID:21733667

  7. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up.

  8. Policy challenges in US health care system reform.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aftab; Rivers, Patrick A

    2010-01-01

    Once again, efforts are being made to overhaul the US health care system. Democrats and Republicans have conflicting views on how to repair this ailing system. However, this is not a new phenomenon. Reformers have long struggled to form a universal health care system only to find themselves in conflict with groups whose financial stake is threatened as well as numerous labor associations who are concerned about a loss of power. This struggle is also caused by differences in ideologies. This article surveys social movements for national health insurance (NHI) that occurred in the United States and will examine features that prevented NHI policy formation. PMID:22329329

  9. [An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies].

    PubMed

    Pitta, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly, has resisted the force of time and stigma in the ten years since the Law was enacted? These and other questions need to be worked on. It is time to recycle the focus of assessment and analysis in order to identify what threatens its vitality. This is the challenge to which the writer and debaters will be enjoined to contribute. PMID:22124894

  10. [An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies].

    PubMed

    Pitta, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly, has resisted the force of time and stigma in the ten years since the Law was enacted? These and other questions need to be worked on. It is time to recycle the focus of assessment and analysis in order to identify what threatens its vitality. This is the challenge to which the writer and debaters will be enjoined to contribute.

  11. The Controlled Substances Act: how a "big tent" reform became a punitive drug law.

    PubMed

    Courtwright, David T

    2004-10-01

    The 1970 Controlled Substances Act was part of an omnibus reform package designed to rationalize, and in some respects to liberalize, American drug policy. While the legislation provided additional resources for law enforcement and a systematic means for regulating the use of most psychoactive drugs, it also did away with mandatory minimum sentences and provided more support for treatment and research. Over the next three decades, and in response to public alarm about drug abuse, the US Congress continuously amended the law to produce a more punitive system of drug control. The amendments, which gave the Drug Enforcement Administration greater control over scheduling and maintenance and which substantially increased penalties for illicit trafficking, transformed the law into the legal foundation of America's "drug war," as the stricter criminal approach came to be known. By the 1980s, the flexibility and innovative spirit of the original Controlled Substances Act (and that of Nixon-era drug strategy generally) had largely disappeared from American drug policy. PMID:15380284

  12. On a national drug policy for Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, N

    1984-01-01

    On April 27, 1982 the Ministry of Health of the government of Bangladesh, set up an 8-man expert committee to evaluate all the registered pharmaceutical products presently available, and to formulate a draft National Drug Policy. Objectives are: 1) to provide support for ensuring quality and availability of drugs; 2) to reduce drug prices; 3) to eliminate useless, nonessential, and harmful drugs from the market; 4) to promote local production of finished drugs; 5) to ensure coordination among government branches; 6) to develop a drug monitoring and information system; 7) to promote the scientific development and application of unani, ayurvedic, and homeopathic medicines; 8) to improve the standard of hospital and retail pharmacies; and 9) to insure good manufacturing practices. 16 criteria were agreed on as guidelines for evaluating the drugs on the country's market. Drugs in Bangladesh have been classified into 3 categories. The 1st is drugs that are positively harmful. They should be banned immediately and withdrawn from the market. There are 265 locally manufactured drugs and 40 imported drugs in this category. The 2nd, drugs to be slightly reformulated by eliminating some of their requirements. There are 134 drugs in this category. The 3rd is drugs that do not conform to 1 or more of the 16 criteria/guidelines. There are over 500 drugs in this category. The new drug policy will produce a saving of 800 million taka (US $32.4 million). Drug supply in Bangladesh is a problem. The public sector distributes 20% of the total. In the private sector, drugs are supplied through import and local production. Investment for research by the pharmaceutical companies is essential. The principles laid down by the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations for the supply of good medicine needs to be put into practice. PMID:6729960

  13. Why do policies change? Institutions, interests, ideas and networks in three cases of policy reform.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. PMID:27233927

  14. Can pharmacogenomics improve malaria drug policy?

    PubMed

    Roederer, Mary W; McLeod, Howard; Juliano, Jonathan J

    2011-11-01

    Coordinated global efforts to prevent and control malaria have been a tour-de-force for public health, but success appears to have reached a plateau in many parts of the world. While this is a multifaceted problem, policy strategies have largely ignored genetic variations in humans as a factor that influences both selection and dosing of antimalarial drugs. This includes attempts to decrease toxicity, increase effectiveness and reduce the development of drug resistance, thereby lowering health care costs. We review the potential hurdles to developing and implementing pharmacogenetic-guided policies at a national or regional scale for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. We also consider current knowledge on some component drugs of artemisinin combination therapies and ways to increase our understanding of host genetics, with the goal of guiding policy decisions for drug selection.

  15. Can pharmacogenomics improve malaria drug policy?

    PubMed

    Roederer, Mary W; McLeod, Howard; Juliano, Jonathan J

    2011-11-01

    Coordinated global efforts to prevent and control malaria have been a tour-de-force for public health, but success appears to have reached a plateau in many parts of the world. While this is a multifaceted problem, policy strategies have largely ignored genetic variations in humans as a factor that influences both selection and dosing of antimalarial drugs. This includes attempts to decrease toxicity, increase effectiveness and reduce the development of drug resistance, thereby lowering health care costs. We review the potential hurdles to developing and implementing pharmacogenetic-guided policies at a national or regional scale for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. We also consider current knowledge on some component drugs of artemisinin combination therapies and ways to increase our understanding of host genetics, with the goal of guiding policy decisions for drug selection. PMID:22084530

  16. Managing la malilla: Exploring drug treatment experiences among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico, and their implications for drug law reform

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer; Pollini, Robin A.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In August 2009, Mexico reformed its drug laws and decriminalized small quantities of drugs for personal use; offenders caught three times will be mandated to enter drug treatment. However, little is known about the quality or effectiveness of drug treatment programs in Mexico. We examined injection drug users’ (IDUs) experiences in drug treatment in Tijuana, Mexico, with the goal of informing program planning and policy. Methods We examined qualitative and quantitative data from Proyecto El Cuete, a multi-phased research study on HIV risk among IDUs in Tijuana. Phase I consisted of 20 in-depth interviews and Phase II employed respondent-driven sampling to recruit 222 IDUs for a quantitative survey. We also reviewed national drug policy documents, surveillance data, and media reports to situate drug users’ experiences within the broader sociopolitical context. Results Participants in the qualitative study were 50% male with a mean age of 32; most injected heroin (85.0%) and methamphetamine (60.0%). The quantitative sample was 91.4% male with a mean age of 35; 98.2% injected heroin and 83.7% injected heroin and methamphetamine together. The majority of participants reported receiving treatment: residential treatment was most common, followed by methadone; other types of services were infrequently reported. Participants’ perceptions of program acceptability and effectiveness were mixed. Mistreatment emerged as a theme in the qualitative interviews and was reported by 21.6% of Phase II participants, primarily physical (72.0%) and verbal (52.0%) abuse. Conclusions Our results point to the need for political, economic, and social investment in the drug treatment system before offenders are sentenced to treatment under the revised national drug law. Resources are needed to strengthen program quality and ensure accountability. The public health impact of the new legislation that attempts to bring drug treatment to the forefront of national drug policy

  17. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  18. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  19. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  20. Reform at FDA: faster access to promising drugs? Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1995-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the government agency responsible for ensuring that drugs, vaccines, and medical devices are safe and effective, is under hot debate by Congress, the Clinton administration, and the AIDS community. The Clinton/Gore proposal favors excluding drug and biologic manufacturers from requirements for more environmental assessments and only indirectly addresses drug development. Oregon Democratic Congressman Ron Wyden introduced an FDA reform bill which calls for the FDA to use expert panels, independent testing organizations, and institutional review boards (IRB) to help speed new drugs and devices through the approval process. The bill calls for the use of the IRB for the approval (or denial) of applications for Phase I review of new drugs. Not surprisingly, the AIDS community has differing views on the reform at the FDA. The Treatment Action Group (TAG), whose members hold key positions in well-known AIDS groups, supports the status quo at FDA and is lobbying AIDS organizations across the country to sign on to its FDA Reform Principles. Other AIDS treatment activists, such as members of ACT UP, favor local IRB jurisdiction over Phase I research.

  1. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  2. Postmarket policy considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Weymann, Deirdre; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Oncology biological products are some of the most expensive drugs on the market and are a growing financial burden on patients and health-care systems. By 2020, numerous major biological cancer drugs will lose their patent protection allowing follow-on competitors, known as biosimilars, to enter the market. Clinical and regulatory considerations for biosimilars have begun to harmonise in Europe and the USA to help to define and streamline the pathway for biosimilar market authorisation. Yet, substantial international variation still exists in the pricing and market uptake of approved biosimilar oncology drugs. Differences in national postmarket policies for biosimilars might explain these disparities in pricing and uptake. In this Policy Review, policy approaches to competition between biosimilars and originators used by seven European countries--Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK--and the USA are discussed, chosen because these countries represent a variety of postmarket policies and build on conclusions from previous work. We discuss these policies within the context of interchangeability, physician prescribing, substitutability, pharmacist dispensing, hospital financing and tendering, and pricing. PMID:26758759

  3. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  4. A drug policy for our times.

    PubMed

    Nahas, G G; Frick, H C; Gleaton, T; Schuchard, K; Moulton, O

    1986-01-01

    Three erroneous assumptions have influenced illicit drug abuse control policy. The first states that dependence-producing drugs are not different from many other substances consumed by people. This assumption underestimates the inherent neuro-behavioural properties of dependence-producing drugs that lead their users to adopt a compulsive pattern of daily consumption that is damaging to health. The second assumption states that even a young person may learn to use these drugs in a reasonable and responsible fashion, taking advantage of their redeeming qualities and avoiding their damaging effects. This assumption overestimates the ability of the human neocortex (new brain) to override the chemical stimuli induced by dependence-producing drugs in the pleasure and reward centres, which seem to be located in the limbic system of the old primitive brain. The third assumption states that social acceptance and commercial availability of illicit drugs would eliminate the social costs associated with their illegal traffic, which breeds crime and corruption. This assumption ignores historical precedents and the results of epidemiological surveys that demonstrate the damaging effects that social acceptance of these drugs and their widespread use may have on the individual and society. Surveys of drug consumers indicate that the percentage of addicts is significantly related to the dependence-producing potential of the drug used. In a population where alcohol is commonly consumed, 7-9 per cent of the consumers drink in amounts that are damaging to health. In a population where cannabis is socially accepted and easily available, more than half of cannabis consumers use the drugs in doses damaging to health. Approximately 90-95 per cent of cocaine or heroin users consume their drug of choice on a daily basis. Therefore, the dependence-producing potential of cannabis and that of cocaine or heroin would be, respectively, 7 and 14 times greater than the dependence potential of

  5. Reference drug programs: effectiveness and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2007-04-01

    In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering

  6. Transitioning to a national health system in Cyprus: a stakeholder analysis of pharmaceutical policy reform

    PubMed Central

    Kanavos, Panos G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the pharmaceutical sector in Cyprus in terms of the availability and affordability of medicines and to explore pharmaceutical policy options for the national health system finance reform expected to be introduced in 2016. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in April 2014 with senior representatives from seven key national organizations involved in pharmaceutical care. The captured data were coded and analysed using the predetermined themes of pricing, reimbursement, prescribing, dispensing and cost sharing. We also examined secondary data provided by the Cypriot Ministry of Health; these data included the prices and volumes of prescription medicines in 2013. Findings We identified several key issues, including high medicine prices, underuse of generic medicines and high out-of-pocket drug spending. Most stakeholders recommended that the national government review existing pricing policies to ensure medicines within the forthcoming national health system are affordable and available, introduce a national reimbursement system and incentivize the prescribing and dispensing of generic medicines. There were disagreements over how to (i) allocate responsibilities to governmental agencies in the national health system, (ii) reconcile differences in opinion between stakeholders and (iii) raise awareness among patients, physicians and pharmacists about the benefits of greater generic drug use. Conclusion In Cyprus, if the national health system is going to provide universal health coverage in a sustainable fashion, then the national government must address the current issues in the pharmaceutical sector. Importantly, the country will need to increase the market share of generic medicines to contain drug spending. PMID:26478624

  7. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  8. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    PubMed

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  9. Policy Diffusion and Transfer and Teachers' Perceptions within the Bologna Reforms: The Armenia case of Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper seeks to understand how higher education policy from the European Community is defused and transferred to Armenia, a developing country. Particularly, this study aims to delve deeper in the actual implementation process of higher education reforms in Armenia through teachers' perceptions. The findings mainly reveal that teachers do long…

  10. The Contribution of Stuart Hall to Analyzing Educational Policy and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandin, Luis Armando

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the contribution of Stuart Hall to the study of educational policy and reform, using the experience of the Citizen School initiative in Porto Alegre, Brazil as a concrete example. This experience was a participatory educational reform implemented during the 16 years of the Workers' Party tenure in Porto Alegre's municipal…

  11. How Do School Leaders Navigate ICT Educational Reform? Policy Learning Narratives from a Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua Reyes, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research inquiry focuses on how school leaders "make sense" of educational reform in their local contexts. In order to do this, an exploratory qualitative case study of two schools that took part in policy reform initiatives directed at ubiquitous use of information communication and technology (ICT) in the Singapore…

  12. Educational Reform: The Need To Redefine State-Local Governance of Schools. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B.

    This document examines recent state school reform efforts from two perspectives: the strategies states adopt to improve educational excellence and the influence those strategies have on the functional dimensions of education policy. The paper reports the research findings of a study that examined state reform strategies nationally. The study…

  13. Policy Networks and Boundary Objects: Enacting Curriculum Reform in the Absence of Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Indira; Donnelly, Jim; Ryder, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the concept of "boundary object", first developed within science studies by Star and Griesemer, to analyse curriculum policy implementation. It employs as a vehicle a significant but contested reform of the science curriculum in schools in England from 2006 onwards, drawing empirically on an extended study of the reform, using…

  14. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  15. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  16. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  17. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  18. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  19. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  20. Education Reform and the Limits of Policy: Lessons from Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Michael F.; Kearney, C. Philip

    2012-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the United States has experienced more attempts at education reform than at any other time in its history. Efforts to reform financing, the assessment of student performance, accountability and equity, and school choice have all been implemented--with varying levels of success. Michael F. Addonizio and C. Philip Kearney…

  1. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Educational Reforms in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the successes and problems of educational reforms in Sweden. Examiners from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) collected data and information for the report from published and unpublished documents and from a two-week tour of the country. The reforms are judged by three main objectives: equality;…

  2. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  3. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  4. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  5. Generic drug policy in Australia: a community pharmacy perspective

    PubMed Central

    Beecroft, Grahame

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a commentary, from a community pharmacy perspective, on the policy environment for the pharmacy sector in Australia, with a particular focus on present challenges arising from proposals to achieve substantial PBS cost savings from an anticipated surge of new generic drugs. Some $2 billion of medicines currently on the PBS will come off patent in the next 4 years. This growth comes from a low base where generics currently account for only 15% of the total PBS budget. Remuneration for PBS dispensing is fixed through five year agreements with the government, so trading terms on generics are important for the cross-subsidy of other dispensing activities and professional services. These trading terms (discounts provided by generics suppliers) have become part of the overall cost and revenue structure of pharmacies. Despite these arrangements, generic substitution rates in Australia are lower than in most comparable countries, which the government views as an opportunity to promote generic use. The future of generic drug supply via the PBS is important to allow consumers access to medications at the lowest possible price and to provide space for PBS listing of new and expensive drugs. But considerations of PBS reform need to take account of the role and viability of community pharmacy sector as provider of pharmaceuticals in a timely and efficient manner to Australian residents. PMID:17543112

  6. One Policy, Disparate Reactions: Institutional Responses in Florida's Developmental Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.; Tandberg, David A.; Hu, Shouping; Hankerson, Dava

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to better understand how community colleges in Florida planned to implement a new sweeping state policy pertaining to developmental education. Via a cluster analysis, we identify three distinct patterns in the ways in which the colleges responded to the policy: reformers, responders, and resisters. Further, we find that these…

  7. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  8. Educational Turbulence: The Influence of Macro and Micro-Policy on Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2013-01-01

    Enactment of federal educational policy has direct implications for states and local school districts across the nation, particularly in the areas of accountability and funding. This study utilized constructivist grounded theory to examine the impact of policy on science education reform in a large, urban school district over a 5-year period. The…

  9. FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

  10. Integrated Practice in the Early Years in Australia: The Assumptions, Omissions and Contradictions of Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea; Cartmel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine current national early years' policy reform, which emphasises the importance of service integration, national quality standards and a quality knowledge base for educators concerning the provision of early childhood education and care. Using Queensland, Australia, as an example, a policy discourse analysis…

  11. Knaves or Knights, Pawns or Queens?: An Evaluation of Australian Higher Education Reform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollery, Brian; Murray, David; Crase, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To invoke Julian Le Grand's conceptual model of the interaction between human motivation and policy formulation in order to explain how motivational endogeneity in the university environment has distorted policy outcomes in the Australian higher education reform program. Design/methodology/approach: Le Grand contends that changes in the…

  12. The Impact of Reform Policies on Teachers' Work and Professionalism in the Chinese Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai; Lai, Manhong; Wang, Lijia

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reform policies on the work of Chinese teachers. It explores the policy context in which a fragile teaching profession attempts to develop and discusses the dynamics of interacting societal forces that have created the dilemmas for the teachers. The authors argue that while the continual implementation of reform…

  13. Have VET Reforms Resulted in Improvements in Quality? Illustrations from the Alcohol and Other Drugs Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Ann; Kostadinov, Victoria; White, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Australian vocational education and training (VET) has undergone major reforms since the 1990s, including the introduction of competency based training (CBT) and the "streamlining" of qualifications. This paper examines the impact of these reforms, using the alcohol and other drugs sector as a case illustration. A survey of alcohol and…

  14. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform. PMID:22069793

  15. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  16. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  17. Nursing's agenda for health care reform: policy, politics, and power through professional leadership.

    PubMed

    Betts, V T

    1996-01-01

    This article is an eye witness account of nursing's participation in the health care reform debate from 1991 to 1994. In that debate, the nursing profession achieved high visibility and recognition for the cogency of its policy positions as developed in Nursing's Agenda for Health Care Reform and for its united voice through the leadership of the American Nurses Association, the Tricouncil for Nursing, and the Nursing Organization Liaison Forum. While comprehensive health care reform failed to pass the 103rd Congress, nursing and nurses gained much in the process of their participation.

  18. Proposed Policy: Drug Testing of Hawaii's Public School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bebi

    2007-01-01

    Because of a proposed policy, public school teachers in Hawaii are facing the possibility of being randomly tested for illegal drugs. Random drug testing has many implications and its impact is questionable. In this article, the author scrutinizes the controversial drug-testing policy for both troubling and promising aspects and how educators may…

  19. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  20. [On the formulation of TCM foreign exchange policy after the reform and opening-up].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfang; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine are conducted under the guidance of the policy of the CPC and Chinese government. After the carrying out of the reform and opening-up policy, foreign exchange policy of TCM has experienced the process of growing up from nothing, from less to more, and from coarse to fine, which is closely related to our country's foreign policy, the cause of Chinese medicine development, and urgent need of international communication. In the three decades after the reform and opening-up policy, the formulation of foreign exchange policy of TCM can be divided into three stages: viz., inclusion in the framework of national foreign policy (1978-1985), embodiment in the policy of developing TCM cause (1986-1996), and appearance in the special policy of foreign exchange of Chinese medicine (since 1997). From the development process of these policies, the development of each policy gradually complies with the process of the development of the times, with its contents basically in line with the requirements of the times. The implementation of some policies promotes the foreign exchanges and cooperation of Chinese medicine.

  1. An Analysis of Free Primary Education Reform Policy in Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacJessie-Mbewe, Samson

    2002-01-01

    Describes the socioeconomic and political context of the formation of the government's free primary-education policy in Malawi. Assesses the impact of the policy on educational access, equity, and quality. Reviews and critiques policies related to free primary education. (Contains 22 references.) (PKP)

  2. Policies and Initiatives: Reforming Teacher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi, Martha Nkechinyere

    2012-01-01

    Much discussion surrounding educational policy currently is international in character. Governments, policy makers, stakeholders and many international organizations of both developed and developing countries have become concerned with how policies, practices, and outcomes in one country can be compared with those in other countries. Comparative…

  3. Teacher Tenure Reform: Problem Definition in Policy Formulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Ann L.

    When Colorado's Tenure Reform Bill, House Bill 1159, was signed into law, the work of teachers was not significantly changed. However, the law did make some significant inroads in the work of administrators and streamlined the due process accorded to teachers in the event that dismissal becomes necessary. This paper addresses whether the…

  4. Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity of…

  5. Arts Integration as School Reform: Exploring How Teachers Experience Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Lara; Huxhold, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the perceptions and experiences of general elementary educators as they engage in a school reform process that requires them to learn and implement an arts infused curriculum intended to raise student achievement on standardized tests in non-arts subjects. This qualitative study reveals not only how one arts-based school…

  6. Shaping Educational Policy in Maryland: Teacher Education Reform and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Dennis E.; Proffitt, Thomas D.; Pilato, Virginia H.; Rosenthal, Michael

    Maryland's teacher education reform began in 1991, when the Maryland Higher Education Council (MHEC) charged a task force with recommending a comprehensive approach to educating teachers that combined a solid foundation in academic preparation with promising developments in professional practice. The task force report recommended a 4+1 model for…

  7. The income distributive implications of recent private health insurance policy reforms in Australia.

    PubMed

    Palangkaraya, Alfons; Yong, Jongsay; Webster, Elizabeth; Dawkins, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The Australian government implemented a series of private health insurance (PHI) policy reforms between 1997 and 2000. As a result, the proportion of the population with PHI coverage increased by more than 35%. However, this study found significant evidence that the policy reform disproportionately favours high-income earners. In particular, the 30% premium subsidy represents a windfall gain for households which would have purchased PHI even without the rebate. The amount of such gain is estimated to be around $900 million per year, a large proportion of which went to higher income households.

  8. The income distributive implications of recent private health insurance policy reforms in Australia.

    PubMed

    Palangkaraya, Alfons; Yong, Jongsay; Webster, Elizabeth; Dawkins, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The Australian government implemented a series of private health insurance (PHI) policy reforms between 1997 and 2000. As a result, the proportion of the population with PHI coverage increased by more than 35%. However, this study found significant evidence that the policy reform disproportionately favours high-income earners. In particular, the 30% premium subsidy represents a windfall gain for households which would have purchased PHI even without the rebate. The amount of such gain is estimated to be around $900 million per year, a large proportion of which went to higher income households. PMID:18548303

  9. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  10. Essential drugs policy in three rural counties in China: what does a complexity lens add?

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yue; Zhao, Kun; Bishai, David M; Peters, David H

    2013-09-01

    In 2009 the government of China identified an essential drugs policy as one of five priority areas for health system reform. Since then, a national essential drugs policy has been defined, along with plans to implement it. As a large scale social intervention, the policy will have a significant impact on various local health actors. This paper uses the lens of complex adaptive systems to examine how the policy has been implemented in three rural Chinese counties. Using material gathered from interviews with key actors in county health bureaus and township health centers, we illustrate how a single policy can lead to multiple unanticipated outcomes. The complexity lens applied to the material gathered in interviews helps to identify relevant actors, their different relationships and policy responses and a new framework to better understand heterogeneous pathways and outcomes. Decision-makers and policy implementers are advised to embrace the complex and dynamic realities of policy implementation. This involves developing mechanisms to monitor different behaviors of key actors as well as the intended outcomes and unintended consequences of the policy.

  11. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D

    2003-09-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995-2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children.

  12. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  13. Employee Drug Testing Policies in Police Departments. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, J. Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of drug testing policies and the implementation of drug testing procedures involve legal, ethical, medical, and labor relations issues. To learn how police departments are addressing the problem of drug use and drug testing of police officers, the National Institute of Justice sponsored a telephone survey of 33 major police…

  14. Peter Bourne's drug policy and the perils of a public health ethic, 1976-1978.

    PubMed

    Clark, Claire D; Dufton, Emily

    2015-02-01

    As President Jimmy Carter's advisor for health issues, Peter Bourne promoted a rational and comprehensive drug strategy that combined new supply-side efforts to prevent drug use with previously established demand-side addiction treatment programs. Using a public health ethic that allowed the impact of substances on overall population health to guide drug control, Bourne advocated for marijuana decriminalization as well as increased regulations for barbiturates. A hostile political climate, a series of rumors, and pressure from both drug legalizers and prohibitionists caused Bourne to resign in disgrace in 1978. We argue that Bourne's critics used his own public health framework to challenge him, describe the health critiques that contributed to Bourne's resignation, and present the story of his departure as a cautionary tale for today's drug policy reformers. PMID:25521893

  15. Empirical research on the insanity defense and attempted reforms: evidence toward informed policy.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Fulero, S M

    1999-02-01

    This paper addresses some common questions about the insanity defense and issues raised by commonly proposed "reforms." The first section begins with a brief description of the insanity defense and the reasons for its existence in the law. It then examines some of the popular myths and public misperceptions surrounding the insanity defense. The next three sections discuss proposed "reforms" and the empirical research that addresses their effect. These reforms, including various procedural changes in definitions, burden of proof, and expert testimony, the institution of a guilty but mentally ill verdict, and the abolition of the insanity defense itself, are reviewed, along with relevant research findings and policy issues. Finally, the development of sound conditional release programs for criminal defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity is proposed as a reform option which could serve the objectives of enhancing public safety and access to appropriate treatment while continuing to meet the objectives of the insanity defense within criminal jurisprudence.

  16. Empirical research on the insanity defense and attempted reforms: evidence toward informed policy.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Fulero, S M

    1999-06-01

    The paper addresses some common questions about the insanity defense and issues raised by commonly proposed "reforms." The first section begins with a brief description of the insanity defense and the reasons for its existence in the law. It then examines some of the popular myths and public misperceptions surrounding the insanity defense. The next three sections discuss proposed "reforms" and the empirical research that addresses their effect. These reforms, including various procedural changes in definitions, burden of proof, and expert testimony, the institution of a guilty but mentally ill verdict, and the abolition of the insanity defense itself, are reviewed, along with relevant research findings and policy issues. Finally, the development of sound conditional release programs for criminal defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity is proposed as a reform option which could serve the objectives of enhancing public safety and access to appropriate treatment while continuing to meet the objectives of the insanity defense within criminal jurisprudence.

  17. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  18. The Intersection of Policy, Reform, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Policy affecting teacher education evolves from a wide range of sources, including public perceptions and attitudes, federal initiatives, current trends in public schools and higher education, the visions and whims of politicians, and the profession's own initiatives. No matter how it emerges, it is not unusual for policy ebbs and flows to result…

  19. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    PubMed

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  20. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    PubMed

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  1. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act.

  2. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. PMID:25854958

  3. Need for multicriteria evaluation of generic drug policies.

    PubMed

    Kaló, Zoltán; Holtorf, Anke-Peggy; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Shen, Jie; Ágh, Tamás; Inotai, András; Brixner, Diana

    2015-03-01

    Policymakers tend to focus on improving patented drug policies because they are under pressure from patients, physicians, and manufacturers to increase access to novel therapies. The success of pharmaceutical innovation over the last few decades has led to the availability of many off-patent drugs to treat disease areas with the greatest public health need. Therefore, the success of public health programs in improving the health status of the total population is highly dependent on the efficiency of generic drug policies. The objective of this article was to explore factors influencing the true efficiency of generic prescription drug policies in supporting public health initiatives in the developed world. Health care decision makers often assess the efficiency of generic drug policies by the level of price erosion and market share of generics. Drug quality, bioequivalence, in some cases drug formulations, supply reliability, medical adherence and persistence, health outcomes, and nondrug costs, however, are also attributes of success for generic drug policies. Further methodological research is needed to measure and improve the efficiency of generic drug policies. This also requires extension of the evidence base of the impact of generic drugs, partly based on real-world evidence. Multicriteria decision analysis may assist policymakers and researchers to evaluate the true value of generic drugs.

  4. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). ACTION: Advance notice of...

  5. Reconstructions of Nordic Teachers: Reform Policies and Teachers' Work during the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Klette, Kirsti

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how the restructuring of educational systems in Nordic countries affects teachers' working conditions. It is based on results from the project "Restructuring in Education: Reform policy and teacher professionalism in different Nordic contexts" in which the construction of the "New Teacher" in Nordic…

  6. Promoting Educational Reforms in Weak States: The Case of Radical Policy Discontinuity in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarin, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the making of education policies in weak states, particularly in the context of developing nations and in view of the increasing influence of international organisations, such as the World Bank, in definition of education reform agendas. The discussion seeks to contribute to the theory of weak states by highlighting…

  7. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  8. Threat Rigidity, School Reform, and How Teachers View Their Work inside Current Education Policy Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Brad; Sexton, Dena

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of teachers at one reforming high school. Though it is not their task to debate No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the authors locate their investigation inside the current policy context to which NCLB is attached. Specifically, they present their analysis through the organizational behavior lens of threat rigidity to…

  9. Moving Middle Schooling Reform from Policy to Practice: Issues for Queensland Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryer, Fiona; Main, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Three well-established issues for educational reform to insert middle schooling into the traditional primary-secondary tiers are (a) lack of preservice training of specialist middle school teachers, (b) the absence of clear positive educational outcomes linked to the promotion of middle schooling policy as a philosophy of teaching, and (c) the ad…

  10. Vehicles of Logics: The Role of Policy Documents and Instructional Materials in Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the complexities of education policy implementation, it is necessary to consider how artifacts associated with reform are imbued with ideas, meanings, and values. This empirical paper draws on neo-institutional theory to reveal how artifacts carried particular logics (D'Adderio in "J Inst Econ" 7(2):197-230, 2011; Feldman…

  11. The Evidence on the "Florida Formula" for Education Reform. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Carlo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    During the late 1990s and 2000s, the State of Florida enacted a set of education reforms spearheaded by Governor Jeb Bush. These policies, which emphasize test-based accountability, competition, and choice, have since become known as the "Florida Formula for education success," or, simply, the "Florida Formula." In recent…

  12. Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

  13. Why Are Studies of Neighborhoods and Communities Central to Education Policy and Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    To understand the long shadow of education policy and reform in the United States, especially in the urban core, requires a full and elaborate understanding of the neighborhoods and communities that have transformed in the last 20 or 30 years. Studying classrooms and educational spaces without concomitant understanding of the dynamics and facets…

  14. Hungary: Reform of Social Policy and Expenditures. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study evaluates the overall social policy system of Hungary and proposes reforms aimed at strengthening its role as a defense against poverty, raising the quality and equity of social programs, ensuring financial sustainability of the system, and restoring incentives (in particular relating to demand and supply for labor) suitable to a market…

  15. Postcolonial Teacher Education Reform in Namibia: Travelling of Policies and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreman, Inger Erixon; Erixon, Per-Olof; Rehn, Karl-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Long before Namibia's independence in 1990, Sweden initiated a policy dialogue with Namibia's future political leadership. This article reviews the impact of an educational reform in Namibia in the early 1990s called the Integrated Teacher Training Programme (ITTP), which was an outcome of collaboration between the South West African People's…

  16. Public and Private in South Korea's Education Reform Vocabulary: An Evolving Statist Culture of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2004-01-01

    Statism is a political economy that prevails in many East Asian countries. This paper explores its negative role in South Korea's education reform since the restoration of civilian democracy in 1993. It takes note of South Koreans' aberrant use of the terms "public education" and "private education" and the frame of reference for policy discourses…

  17. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s, have been…

  18. Carrier detection in childhood: a need for policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Current policy statements discourage identification of disease carrier status in minors on the grounds that carrier information is of mainly reproductive significance. Such policies fail to consider that the carrier state may have important health implications for minors. They also fail to consider that carrier status of newborns is routinely discovered as an incidental finding in newborn screening programs. Finally, such policies fail to take into account that it may not be parents but adolescents who are seeking out this information and that adolescence may be a valid time to learn about one's reproductive risks. Here, I consider the issues that need to be addressed in revising current policies about the carrier detection of minors. PMID:20416117

  19. Unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi reforms in China: interplay of agricultural reform and population control policy.

    PubMed

    Yen, W; Carter, L F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the discussion of unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi policy reforms in China is to show how isolating problems and developing solutions in isolation can lead to serious consequences. The Ze Ren Zhi reforms in 1978 were intended to increase agricultural productivity by changing from the collective system to an individual responsibility system, but the unintended and undesirable consequences were a growth in family size and discouragement of some environmentally sound land use practices. The prior system gave an equal share of collective income for an equal number of days worked. Under the new reform, "Baochan Daohu," each household had responsibility for a contracted quantity of grain production. Within 2-4 years, economic conditions improved considerably. A discussion is provided of the transition from rights and duties of the collectives to the new responsibility system and the experimentation with different systems. Specific attention is directed to land reforms, mutual aid teams, cooperatives, communes, variations of Ze Ren Zhi, contracting output to individual laborers, contracting jobs to households, and contracting output quotas to households. During the reforms, beginning in the 1950s and lasting until 1978, other changes were taking place. Death rates were declining and birth rates were increasing, such that in 1971 a campaign was established to promote the Late, Sparse, and Few policy for marrying and giving birth later, increasing birth intervals, and having fewer children. This voluntary program eventually took on a more universally mandatory nature. The 1950 Marriage Law stipulated 20 years as the legal age for marriage (18 years for females), and family planning (FP) workers during the 1970s were encouraging even later marriage, and by 1980 a system of rewards and penalties was established to reinforce small family size. After 1978 and a period of birth declines, the crude birth rate increased to 3.06 in 1983. The new responsibility

  20. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-12-10

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results.

  1. Benchmarks of fairness for health care reform: a policy tool for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, N.; Bryant, J.; Castano, R. A.; Dantes, O. G.; Khan, K. S.; Pannarunothai, S.

    2000-01-01

    Teams of collaborators from Colombia, Mexico, Pakistan, and Thailand have adapted a policy tool originally developed for evaluating health insurance reforms in the United States into "benchmarks of fairness" for assessing health system reform in developing countries. We describe briefly the history of the benchmark approach, the tool itself, and the uses to which it may be put. Fairness is a wide term that includes exposure to risk factors, access to all forms of care, and to financing. It also includes efficiency of management and resource allocation, accountability, and patient and provider autonomy. The benchmarks standardize the criteria for fairness. Reforms are then evaluated by scoring according to the degree to which they improve the situation, i.e. on a scale of -5 to 5, with zero representing the status quo. The object is to promote discussion about fairness across the disciplinary divisions that keep policy analysts and the public from understanding how trade-offs between different effects of reforms can affect the overall fairness of the reform. The benchmarks can be used at both national and provincial or district levels, and we describe plans for such uses in the collaborating sites. A striking feature of the adaptation process is that there was wide agreement on this ethical framework among the collaborating sites despite their large historical, political and cultural differences. PMID:10916911

  2. Making drug policy together: reflections on evidence, engagement and participation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marcus

    2014-09-01

    This commentary considers the relationship between evidence, engagement and participation in drug policy governance. It argues that the use of various forms of evidence (for example, statistical data and service user narratives) is critical for meaningful stakeholder engagement and public participation in drug policy, as well as effective policy design and implementation. The respective roles of these different kinds of evidence in consultation processes need to be better understood. It discusses the limits of evidence, which it suggests is rarely conclusive or decisive for drug policy. This is partly because of the incompleteness of most research agendas and the lack of consensus among researchers, but also because issues in drug policy are inherently contestable, involving considerations that lie outside the competency of drug policy specialist as such. In particular, this is because they involve normative and evaluative issues that are properly political (for example, about the relative weight to be accorded to different kinds of harm and benefit). It concludes by supporting calls for a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between evidence, engagement and politics than is implicit in the term 'evidence based policy'. It also argues that we should view the inherent contestability of drug policy not as something that can or should be resolved by 'objective' evidence, but as a source of vitality and creativity in policy development and evaluation.

  3. Past, current, and future directions in Canadian drug policy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P G

    Canada's earliest drug laws were directed at the opiates and cocaine. More recent concerns have been with cannabis, other hallucinogens, and the reemergence of cocaine, especially in the form of crack. Renewed enforcement efforts, combined with the redirection of priorities toward demand reduction via educational intervention, have been the hallmarks of recent Canadian drug policy initiatives. Some implications of these strategies for the future definition of the boundaries of Canada's drug problems, and likely policy directions, are discussed. PMID:2289838

  4. On the choice of farm management practices after the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-02-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers are likely to adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on the financial aspects of the reforms. Using an agricultural sector model for Austria, we show that the reform will further decrease agricultural outputs, reduce farm inputs, lessen nitrogen surpluses and make environmentally friendly management practices more attractive for farmers.

  5. Overview of graduate medical education. Funding streams, policy problems, and options for reform.

    PubMed Central

    Young, J Q; Coffman, J M

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we examine the financing mechanisms for graduate medical education (GME) in the United States. In so doing, we identify Medicare as the single largest contributor to GME and the most important barrier to producing a physician workforce that is appropriately sized, balanced, and skilled. Until passage of the 1997 Budget Reconciliation Agreement, the structure of Medicare payments promoted overproduction and skewed production toward training specialists in tertiary settings. We then examine the various reform proposals put forward by major health care organizations and policy bodies. These organizations generally agree on seven policy objectives: Remove incentives that promote expanded resident production; Base the GME subsidy on actual costs and distribute it more uniformly; Focus reductions on specialty residency positions; Provide GME payments for training provided in ambulatory, community, and managed care sites; Decouple Medicare GME reimbursement from payments to health maintenance organizations for patient care; Require all health insurers to contribute to GME; and Ensure that reductions in the GME subsidy do not reduce access to care for low-income persons. A myriad of different mechanisms for achieving these objectives have been recommended, many of which could be melded together to form a comprehensive approach to GME reform. The prospects for meaningful GME reform are dim in the absence of broader Medicare reform. The costs to stake-holders are too concentrated while the benefits to the public are too diffuse for GME reform to stand alone. But the political imperative to deal with the federal budget's short-term deficit and Medicare's long-term solvency will likely create an opportunity for GME reform. An addendum has been added that shows how the 1997 Budget Reconciliation Agreement addresses most of the major reform objectives identified but that several important issues remain unresolved. PMID:9614800

  6. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health.

  7. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and

  8. Reformers or Roadblocks: Educational Interest Groups and State Policy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Joseph; Lemasters, Linda; Howerton, Everett

    2008-01-01

    Given the overt political nature of this topic, an additional theoretical postulate, the Triadic Theory of Power was also presented as another framework to conceptualize the external and internal forces which shape the formation of contemporary education policy. Predicated upon the scholarship of Nobel laureate James Q. Wilson, Andrew McFarland…

  9. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  10. Brokering Knowledge Mobilization Networks: Policy Reforms, Partnerships, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas; Kane, Ruth G.; Butler, Jesse K.; Glithero, Lisa; Forte, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Educational researchers and policy-makers are now expected by funding agencies and their institutions to innovate the multi-directional ways in which our production of knowledge can impact the classrooms of teachers (practitioners), while also integrating their experiential knowledge into the landscape of our research. In this article, we draw on…

  11. School, Parent, and Student Perspectives of School Drug Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools use a number of measures to reduce harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use by students. One important component is the school's drug policy, which serves to set normative values and expectations for student behavior as well as to document procedures for dealing with drug-related incidents. There is little empirical evidence of…

  12. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools.

  13. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  14. Health Care Reform: Ethical Foundations, Policy, and Law

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Health care system reform has enormous implications for the future of American society and economic life. Since the early days of the republic, 2 world views have vied for determination of this country’s political system: the view of the individual as sovereign vs government as sovereign. As they developed the foundations of our nation’s governance, the founders were heavily influenced by the Enlightenment philosophy of the late 17th and 18th centuries—the US Constitution sharply limited the power of central government to specific narrowly defined functions, and the economic system was largely laissez faire, that is, economic exchange was mostly free of government regulation and securing individual liberty was a high priority. This situation has slowly reversed—the federal government originally was narrowly limited, but now it dominates states and individuals. The economic system has followed, lagging by several decades, so although it still retains some features of laissez faire capitalism, federal and state regulation have produced a decidedly mixed economy. PMID:22626914

  15. Land reform policies, the sources of violent conflict, and implications for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, L.J.; Libecap, G.D.; Mueller, B.

    2000-03-01

    The authors examine land reform policies and their implications for violent conflict and resource use in the Brazilian Amazon. They identify the protagonists (land owners and squatters), derive their incentives to use violence, and show the role of legal inconsistencies as a basis for conflict. The authors describe the government agency involved in land reform, INCRA, and show that its intervention critically affects the actions of both squatters and land owners. Further, they point out the incentives for deforestation under land reform and associated insecure property rights to land. Forested lands are vulnerable to invasion by squatters and redistribution by INCRA. Using data from the Brazilian census and the Pastoral Land Commission, the authors examine the characteristics of regions where violent conflict predominates.

  16. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  17. 77 FR 20025 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Compliance Policy for Reporting Drug Sample Distribution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Compliance Policy for... guidance for industry entitled ``Compliance Policy on Reporting Drug Sample Distribution Information Under... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Compliance Policy on Reporting Drug...

  18. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  19. Legislative and policy analysis of HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who use drugs and incarcerated people in Central Asia and Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David; Elliott, Richard

    2011-04-01

    In January 2011, the Regional Office for Central Asia of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released an extensive report assessing the legislative and policy environment affecting the response to HIV in six countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The report, which draws in part upon the work of a national expert group in each country, puts forward dozens of recommendations for legislative and policy reform, including recommendations for specific reform tailored to the situation in each of the participating countries, with a particular focus on addressing the fast-growing HIV epidemic linked to injection drug use and in prisons.

  20. Steering without navigation equipment: the lamentable state of Australian health policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (relatively) minor improvement. Results This paper comments on some issues of particular concern to Australian health policy makers and some areas needing urgent reform. The two sets of issues do not overlap. It is suggested that there are two fundamental reasons for this. The first is the failure to develop governance structures which promote the identification and resolution of problems according to their importance. The second and related failure is the failure to equip the health services industry with satisfactory navigation equipment - independent research capacity, independent reporting and evaluation - on a scale commensurate with the needs of the country's largest industry. These two failures together deprive the health system - as a system - of the chief driver of progress in every successful industry in the 20th Century. Conclusion Concluding comment is made on the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC). This continued the tradition of largely evidence free argument and decision making. It failed to identify and properly analyse major system failures, the reasons for them and the form of governance which would maximise the likelihood of future error leaning. The NHHRC itself failed to error learn from past policy failures, a key lesson from which is that a major - and possibly the major - obstacle to reform, is government itself. The Commission virtually ignored the issue of governance. The endorsement of a monopolised system, driven by benevolent managers will miss the major lesson of history which is illustrated by Australia's own failures. PMID:19948044

  1. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  2. Mapping Educational Equity and Reform Policy in the Borderlands: LatCrit Spatial Analysis of Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal; Amador, Adam; Tarango, B. Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to investigate reform policy, specifically a proposed third grade reading retention policy within the Borderlands. Under this policy, students not performing proficiently on the third grade reading standardized exam will be automatically retained in the third grade. The research methods and approach used in this study…

  3. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick

    2016-03-01

    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons. PMID:26872702

  4. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and…

  5. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  6. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives. PMID:1955823

  7. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  8. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  9. Antimalarial drug policy in India: Past, present & future

    PubMed Central

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Arora, Usha; Sonal, G.S.; Mishra, Neelima; Shahi, Bharatendu; Savargaonkar, Deepali; Kumar, Navin; Shah, Naman K.; Valecha, Neena

    2014-01-01

    The use of antimalarial drugs in India has evolved since the introduction of quinine in the 17th century. Since the formal establishment of a malaria control programme in 1953, shortly after independence, treatments provided by the public sector ranged from chloroquine, the mainstay drug for many decades, to the newer, recently introduced artemisinin based combination therapy. The complexity of considerations in antimalarial treatment led to the formulation of a National Antimalarial Drug Policy to guide procurement as well as communicate best practices to both public and private healthcare providers. Challenges addressed in the policy include the use of presumptive treatment, the introduction of alternate treatments for drug-resistant malaria, the duration of primaquine therapy to prevent relapses of vivax malaria, the treatment of malaria in pregnancy, and the choice of drugs for chemoprophylaxis. While data on antimalarial drug resistance and both public and private sector treatment practices have been recently reviewed, the policy process of setting national standards has not. In this perspective on antimalarial drug policy, this review highlights its relevant history, analyzes the current policy, and examines future directions. PMID:24718394

  10. Office of National Drug Control Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... See All Top Issues Civil Rights Climate Change Economy Education Foreign Policy Health Care Immigration Iran Deal ... Seniors & Social Security Taxes Technology Trade Urban and Economic Mobility Veterans Women The Administration People President Barack ...

  11. ICT Policy Planning in a Context of Curriculum Reform: Disentanglement of ICT Policy Domains and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan; Dexter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers around the world are increasingly acknowledging the importance of developing a school-based ICT policy plan to facilitate the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Despite this interest, not much is known about how schools can develop their local ICT policy capacity and how to…

  12. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  13. Reforming Further Education Teacher Training: A Policy Communities and Policy Networks Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and 1990s teacher preparation for the schools sector in the United Kingdom was subject to a series of reforms and innovations including the establishment of new institutional arrangements to oversee the sector, namely the Teacher Training Agency (TTA--now the Training and Development Agency, TDA). Since 2002 the arrangements…

  14. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  15. Drug Exposed Infants and Children: Service Needs and Policy Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feig, Laura

    This paper brings together information on the conditions and needs of children who have been exposed to drugs, federal programs that affect the well-being of these children, and policy questions that need resolution. Discussion concerns: (1) characteristics of infants who have been exposed to drugs and their families, including prevalence and…

  16. The regulation of pharmacogenomics-based drugs and policy making.

    PubMed

    Issa, Amalia M

    2004-01-01

    In addition to potential future clinical benefits such as reducing adverse drug reactions and optimizing therapeutic efficacy, pharmacogenomic applications promise numerous benefits for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, including decreasing the size and expense of clinical trials and streamlining the drug development process. The application of pharmacogenomics and related technological advances to drug development has prompted various regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration to issue guidance documents and other advisory statements. This article delineates the impact of pharmacogenomic-guided drug development on the regulatory process in the United States including relevant highlights of industry guidance documents and policy statements. Hypothetical vignettes are used to illustrate a number of issues that are challenging to policy makers and the potential impact of pharmacogenomic based drug research and development on the regulatory environment. PMID:15379657

  17. Misuse of "study drugs:" prevalence, consequences, and implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Miller, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Background Non-medical/illegal use of prescription stimulants popularly have been referred to as "study drugs". This paper discusses the current prevalence and consequences of misuse of these drugs and implications of this information for drug policy. Results Study drugs are being misused annually by approximately 4% of older teens and emerging adults. Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications. Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education. Conclusion Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts. PMID:16764722

  18. Squeezing the balloon: international drugs policy.

    PubMed

    Seccombe, R

    1995-01-01

    Recent experience of supply reduction activities in a major opium-producing country, Pakistan, is reviewed. It is concluded that international efforts to reduce the supply of illicit drugs are ineffective, inadvertently promote use of more dangerous forms of drugs and exacerbate health problems in supplier countries. In addition, source country supply reduction activities are associated with serious unintended negative consequences, including corruption and poor governance in supplier countries. This leads to a vicious circle as these adverse social consequences make it harder to restrict drug production.

  19. Setting goals for drug policy: harm reduction or use reduction?

    PubMed

    Caulkins, J P; Reuter, P

    1997-09-01

    Historically, United States drug policy has focused on use reduction; harm reduction is a prominent alternative. This paper aims to provoke and inform more debate about the relative merits of these two. Since harm is not necessarily proportional to use, use reduction and harm reduction differ. Both terms are somewhat ambiguous; precisely defining them clarifies thinking and policy implications. Measures associated with use reduction goals are poor; those associated with harm reduction are even worse. National goals influence the many decentralized individuals who collectively make drug policy; clearly enunciating goals makes some policy choices transparent and goals serve a variety of purposes besides guiding programmatic decisions. We recommend that the overall objective be to minimize the total harm associated with drug production, distribution, consumption and control. Reducing use should be seen as a principal means of attaining that end.

  20. Multifaceted national and regional drug reforms and initiatives in ambulatory care in Sweden: global relevance.

    PubMed

    Godman, Brian; Wettermark, Björn; Hoffmann, Mikael; Andersson, Karolina; Haycox, Alan; Gustafsson, Lars L

    2009-02-01

    It is a continual challenge trying to improve the quality of prescribing while concurrently trying to address increasing pharmaceutical development, utilization and expenditure. National and regional reforms and initiatives in Sweden have moderated growth in ambulatory drug expenditure to 2.7% per annum in recent years despite increasing volumes. National reforms include mandatory generic substitution and value-based pricing alongside devolution of drug budgets to the regions. Regional initiatives include strengthening the role of the regional Drug and Therapeutic Committees, further budget devolution as well as strategies incorporating prescribing guidance and monitoring coupled with financial incentives. The extent and nature of the regional initiatives vary depending on their characteristics. In this article, we compare initiatives undertaken in two major counties, Stockholm and Ostergötland, and their outcomes. Outcomes include annual drug budget savings while achieving agreed quality as well as increased adherence to prescribing targets and guidance; the latter associated with savings. Appraising these multifaceted reforms can provide guidance to other countries and regions in view of their diversity. Future steps must incorporate measures to improve the utilization of new expensive drugs, which should include horizon scanning and forecasting activities as well as post-launch activities involving monitoring of prescribing and registries. This may well require cooperation with other European countries.

  1. The Impact of College Drug Policy on Students' Drug Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Holly N.

    2012-01-01

    Illicit drug usage at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) is a topic of limited research. The research questions that guided this study were (a) What is the relationship between college policy on illicit drugs and students' frequency of drug usage after controlling for college location (urban or rural) and students' age,…

  2. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  3. Legal workplace policies for drugs and alcohol in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgür, Serap Annette; Erdem, Aslı; Coşkunol, Hakan

    2012-02-01

    The widespread of individual and social problems related to substance use/abuse provoked the new approaches for workplace drug testing systems in the world. Workplace drug testing laws are constructed to protect the community from the consequences of drug use by workers. In Turkey, the legal arrangements on workplace drug testing exist in Turkish Penal Code, Turkish Labour Law, Workplace Physicians Regulations, Maritime Labour Law and Medical Examination Instructions in Highway Transportation Although Turkey has made the initial attempts to develop homogeneous and reliable regulations for workplace drug testing, a detailed workplace policy for drug testing at workplace has still not been provided.. An amendment has been done in the Regulations on Seafarers and a drug test (marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine like drugs and opiate) has been added into the routine tests to take a "Seafarer Health Report".

  4. Health policy thoughtleaders' views of the health workforce in an era of health reform.

    PubMed

    Donelan, Karen; Buerhaus, Peter I; DesRoches, Catherine; Burke, Sheila P

    2010-01-01

    Although registered nurses rank similarly with physicians in the public's esteem, physicians are more visible than nurses in media coverage, public policy, and political spheres. Thus, nursing workforce issues are overshadowed by those of other health priorities, including Medicare and health reform. The purpose of this research was to understand the visibility and salience of the health workforce in general, gain an understanding about the effectiveness of messages concerning the nursing workforce in particular, and to understand why nursing workforce issues do not appear to have gained more traction in national health care policymaking. The National Survey of Thoughtleaders about the Health Workforce was administered via mail, telephone and online to health workforce and policy thoughtleaders from August 2009-October 2009. Of 301 thoughtleaders contacted, 123 completed questionnaires for a response rate of 41%. Thoughtleaders agree that nurses are critical to the quality and safety of our healthcare system, that there are current nursing shortages, and that nursing shortages will be intensified by health reform. Thoughtleaders reported that while they do hear about nursing issues frequently, they do not view most sources of information as proposing effective policy solutions. This study highlights a critical gap in effective policy advocacy and leadership to advance nurse workforce issues higher on the national health agenda. PMID:20637930

  5. The 'drug policy ratchet': why do sanctions for new psychoactive drugs typically only go up?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Alex; Measham, Fiona

    2014-08-01

    It has been much more common for drugs to be subjected to tighter rather than looser control as drugs and evidence about their effects have has emerged. We argue that there is in place a drug policy ratchet which subjects new psychoactive substances (NPS) to increasing control through the continuation of historical patterns that involve the attribution to emerging drugs of guilt by three different kinds of association: guilt by deviant association; guilt by lunatic association; and guilt by molecular association. We use our contemporary ethnographic experience of drug policy-making to show how these processes continue to be applied to policy on NPS, alongside selective, narrative use of evidence and the 'silent silencing' by absorption of the concept of evidence-based policy. We show that the drug policy ratchet cannot be justified as an example of the precautionary principle in action, as this principle is itself not rationally justified. We conclude that recognition of the drug policy ratchet and its mechanisms may help researchers and policy-makers to improve regulation of NPS.

  6. Adolescent drug testing policies in schools.

    PubMed

    Levy, Sharon; Schizer, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    More than a decade after the US Supreme Court established the legality of school-based drug testing, these programs remain controversial, and the evidence evaluating efficacy and risks is inconclusive. The objective of this technical report is to review the relevant literature that explores the benefits, risks, and costs of these programs.

  7. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    PubMed Central

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  8. Success in the College Preparatory Mathematics Pipeline: The Role of Policies and Practices Employed by Three High School Reform Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arshavsky, Nina; Edmunds, Julie A.; Miller, Luke C.; Corritore, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of the policies and practices employed by 3 high school reform models--Early College High Schools, Redesigned High Schools, and High Schools That Work--with student success in college preparatory mathematics courses by the end of the 10th grade. Data on policies and practices collected through a survey of…

  9. A Policy Sociology Reflection on School Reform in England: From the "Third Way" to the "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a policy sociology reflection on Bernard Barker's book, "The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform". The book represents Barker's attempt to intervene in education policy during the lead-up to the 2010 UK general election and is framed by what he imagined might be possible under a new Conservative government. Barker…

  10. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  11. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed. PMID:22292173

  12. Methods for comparing drug policies--the utility of composite drug harm indexes.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges for drug policy research is being able to compare policy options and outcomes. The development of indexes, such as the UK Drug Harm Index or the UNODC Illicit Drug Index is a way to systematically enable such comparisons. An Index is a single common metric that represents the diverse outcomes or consequences of drug use. An Index may be used for performance monitoring within one country/region over time; to establish societal benefit of drug policies as expressed in social costs saved; to compare countries or regions; or for comparative policy analysis. Clarity of purpose is important in how an Index is used. The consequences or outcomes that can be combined into a single Index include health consequences, crime consequences, public amenity, pain and suffering, labour market outcomes, and drug manufacture and trafficking activity. The choice of outcomes for inclusion is driven by the purpose but also often by practical considerations, such as data availability. The weighting of the consequences is an important consideration in translating the outcomes into a common metric. A monetary unit has a number of advantages: it is a unit that can be measured across diverse impacts; it gives implicit "weighting" of harms; and it is intuitive for policy makers and community. On the other hand, it represents an economic perspective. No one Index will be regarded as suitable and appropriate by every stakeholder and ongoing research effort on Indexes is an important foundational research activity to advance illicit drug policy. PMID:19356915

  13. Health Care Reform and Concurrent Curative Care for Terminally Ill Children: A Policy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 or health care reform, is a relatively small provision about concurrent curative care that significantly affects terminally ill children. Effective on March 23, 2010, terminally ill children, who are enrolled in a Medicaid or state Children’s Health Insurance Plans (CHIP) hospice benefit, may concurrently receive curative care related to their terminal health condition. The purpose of this article was to conduct a policy analysis of the concurrent curative care legislation by examining the intended goals of the policy to improve access to care and enhance quality of end of life care for terminally ill children. In addition, the policy analysis explored the political feasibility of implementing concurrent curative care at the state-level. Based on this policy analysis, the federal policy of concurrent curative care for children would generally achieve its intended goals. However, important policy omissions focus attention on the need for further federal end of life care legislation for children. These findings have implications nurses. PMID:22822304

  14. Drug Policy and Rationality: An Exploration of the Research-Policy Interface in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study which aimed to explore the extent to which drug policy making in Ireland might be deemed to be a rational, evidence-based process. The research was completed during the first half of 2008, as the National Drug Strategy 2001-2008--which explicitly claimed to have research as one of its main "pillars"--was coming to…

  15. "Knights" or "knaves"? Public policy, professional power, and reforming maternity services.

    PubMed

    Reiger, Kerreen M

    2011-01-01

    Recent quality and safety discourse stresses locating "human errors and mistakes" within an institutional framework. I go further to contend that, in spite of well-meaning individual practitioners, aspects of a powerful, self-interested obstetric professional culture pose a major barrier to quality childbirth care. Using my analysis, I contrast the profession's "knightly" self-image with critical scholarship, and it examine evidence given to public inquiries into obstetric misdemeanors and mistakes in Australia, England, and Ireland. Policy incentives to reform maternity care need to go beyond technical auditing measures to foster collaboration, social as well as institutional accountability, and critical self-reflection within the obstetric profession.

  16. Do national medicinal drug policies and essential drug programs improve drug use?: a review of experiences in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ratanawijitrasin, S; Soumerai, S B; Weerasuriya, K

    2001-10-01

    Increasing concerns regarding access to and appropriateness of medicinal drug use have led many governments in developing countries to develop national policies and regulations intended to increase the affordability, supply, safety, and rational use of pharmaceuticals. However, little is known about the intended and unintended impacts of these social experiments on actual drug use. We conducted a critical review and synthesis of the international literature in an attempt to define the current state of knowledge regarding drug policy effects on drug use, and to extract from the evidence important lessons for future policy and research. Literature sources included the archives and computerized databases, articles published in medical and pharmacy journals, as well as published annotated bibliographies. The evaluated interventions included three broad categories: (1) multi-component national drug policies including essential drug programs; (2) drug supply and cost-sharing programs; and (3) regulatory measures. Most of these studies utilized weak research designs that evaluated programs solely on the basis of post-intervention measures. Only two studies measured pre-policy utilization, but did not include a control group. Thus, none of the results are conclusive, and the findings represent, at best, hypotheses for more rigorous studies of policy impacts. Some suggestive findings include an association between increases in the supply of essential drugs (combined with training) and more appropriate use of medications in primary care settings. In addition, preliminary data suggest some unintended effects of de-registration of drugs or upward reclassification of specific medicines. Similarly, loosening restrictions have sometimes been accompanied by increased dispensing of specific drugs by unqualified personnel. The available studies focused only on a few categories of national and regulatory policies. Because of poor study design, the results do not provide valid data to

  17. Multisource drug policies in Latin America: survey of 10 countries.

    PubMed

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Essential drug lists and generic drug policies have been promoted as strategies to improve access to pharmaceuticals and control their rapidly escalating costs. This article reports the results of a preliminary survey conducted in 10 Latin American countries. The study aimed to document the experiences of different countries in defining and implementing generic drug policies, determine the cost of registering different types of pharmaceutical products and the time needed to register them, and uncover the incentives governments have developed to promote the use of multisource drugs. The survey instrument was administered in person in Chile, Ecuador and Peru and by email in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Uruguay. There was a total of 22 respondents. Survey responses indicated that countries use the terms generic and bioequivalence differently. We suggest there is a need to harmonize definitions and technical concepts.

  18. Multisource drug policies in Latin America: survey of 10 countries.

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Essential drug lists and generic drug policies have been promoted as strategies to improve access to pharmaceuticals and control their rapidly escalating costs. This article reports the results of a preliminary survey conducted in 10 Latin American countries. The study aimed to document the experiences of different countries in defining and implementing generic drug policies, determine the cost of registering different types of pharmaceutical products and the time needed to register them, and uncover the incentives governments have developed to promote the use of multisource drugs. The survey instrument was administered in person in Chile, Ecuador and Peru and by email in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Uruguay. There was a total of 22 respondents. Survey responses indicated that countries use the terms generic and bioequivalence differently. We suggest there is a need to harmonize definitions and technical concepts. PMID:15682251

  19. Petro-state constraints on health policy: guidelines for workable reform in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the performance of the Venezuelan health care sector and suggests guidelines for workable health policy under difficult conditions. Two special circumstances constrain policy options. First, Venezuelans share a traditional value, solidarity, which includes a strong desire for equity. Reforms must comply with this norm to succeed. Second, foreign sales of state-controlled oil constitute the bulk of the government budget and the gross domestic product (GDP). Petroleum market fluctuations expose the country to extreme economic cycles. In response, policy making and stakeholders adopt a rentier attitude, focusing on preserving or enlarging entitlements to government oil monies. The side effects of this largesse include poor productivity, a weak private sector, a widespread sense of entitlement without accountability, and a crippled state which controls most of the available resources yet is unable to effectively tax, regulate, steer the economy, or pursue long-term policies. The health care sector shares these problems. As a result, Venezuela's health systems are fragmented, poorly coordinated, excessively centralized, inequitable, and ineffective. Policies to improve public health and public and private medical care must take into account these constraints.

  20. Viewpoint: methanol poisoning outbreak in Libya: a need for policy reforms.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed

    2014-11-01

    We address the controversies surrounding a 2013 outbreak of methanol poisoning in Tripoli, Libya. We critically examine and systematically analyze the outbreak to highlight the lessons learned from this disaster and how to act properly to prevent similar outbreaks in future. Many health problems have been directly attributed to drinking alcohol; the type and quality of alcohol determines the detrimental effects. An unregulated and flourishing black market in alcohol is among the factors behind the Libyan tragedy, where approximately 90 deaths and about 1000 hospital admissions were reported. We reviewed gaps in local and regional alcohol policy, and highlighted the issue of illegally produced and home-made alcohol. Collaboration between countries in the region plus critical health and policy reforms in Libya, with emphasis on public health preparedness, can dramatically decrease morbidity and mortality associated with such outbreaks.

  1. The science of green chemistry and its role in chemicals policy and educational reform.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Amy S; Warner, John C

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the science of green chemistry has continued to evolve and has been adopted in research labs in industry and academia. At the same time, new innovations in chemicals policy have widened opportunities for legislative action to protect human health and the environment. This article addresses the mechanisms by which the science of green chemistry and chemicals policy can work together to help attain a more sustainable future. It also speaks to the pitfalls of inappropriately merging these two, and explores how such a merger could inhibit the creation of sustainable technologies. Green chemistry's role in educational reform is discussed as a means for training students who are prepared to create truly sustainable technologies. PMID:22001044

  2. The science of green chemistry and its role in chemicals policy and educational reform.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Amy S; Warner, John C

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the science of green chemistry has continued to evolve and has been adopted in research labs in industry and academia. At the same time, new innovations in chemicals policy have widened opportunities for legislative action to protect human health and the environment. This article addresses the mechanisms by which the science of green chemistry and chemicals policy can work together to help attain a more sustainable future. It also speaks to the pitfalls of inappropriately merging these two, and explores how such a merger could inhibit the creation of sustainable technologies. Green chemistry's role in educational reform is discussed as a means for training students who are prepared to create truly sustainable technologies.

  3. The debate on FDA reform: a view from the U.S. Senate. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1995-09-01

    The recently released concept paper on Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reform from Republican Senator, Nancy Kassebaum, is reviewed. Senator Kassebaum chairs the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources that will influence the Senate's action on FDA reform. The paper outlines the Senator's priorities for Congressional legislation on FDA reform in the following areas: the FDA mission and its accountability; creation of a Performance Review Panel and Industry Advisory Council; approval and access of products for seriously ill patients; the FDA's responsibility for good manufacturing practices; establishment of an Ombudsman Office for resolving disputes; dissemination of information on unapproved uses of approved products; and approval standards for new drugs.

  4. Costs and Benefits of Eyewitness Identification Reform: Psychological Science and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E

    2012-05-01

    Psychological science has come to play an increasingly important role in the legal system by informing the court through expert testimony and by shaping public policy. In recent years, psychological research has driven a movement to reform the procedures that police use to obtain eyewitness identification evidence. This reform movement has been based in part on an argument suggesting that recommended procedures reduce the risk of false identifications with little or no reduction in the rate of correct identifications. A review of the empirical literature, however, challenges this no-cost view. With only one exception, changes in eyewitness identification procedures that reduce the risk of false identification of the innocent also reduce the likelihood of correct identification of the guilty. The implication that criminals may escape prosecution as a result of procedures implemented to protect the innocent makes policy decisions far more complicated than they would otherwise be under the no-cost view. These costs (correct identifications lost) and benefits (false identifications avoided) are discussed in terms of probative value and expected utility. PMID:26168461

  5. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  6. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and...

  7. Drug Utilisation Study in a Tertiary Care Center: Recommendations for Improving Hospital Drug Dispensing Policies

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R.; Singh, I.; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

  8. Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards. Policy Symposium Proceedings (Arlington, VA, February 4-6, 2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Reform Research Institute, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Educational Policy Reform Research Institute (EPRRI) and the US Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) held a policy symposium entitled "Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards" February 4-6, 2004 at the Crystal City Marriott in Arlington,…

  9. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  10. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  11. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 310.100 New drug status opinions; statement of policy. (a) Over the years since 1938 the Food and...

  12. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  13. The Promise of Wisconsin's 1999 Comprehensive Planning Law: Land-Use Policy Reforms to Support Active Living.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph; Keyes, Sheila D

    2008-06-01

    Weaving together the disciplines of planning and policy change with the emerging research of active living, this article explores the competing interests and underlying political forces behind the design and passage of Wisconsin's Comprehensive Planning Law of 1999. While Wisconsin's law remains a work in progress, it illustrates the contemporary policy battles over land use and smart growth and the resurgence of the property-rights movement. It further highlights the influence of smart-growth coalitions and policy networks on planning reform. The authors suggest that planning practitioners and active-living proponents can adapt and transfer these policy lessons from Wisconsin to address the complex relationships of the built environment, physical activity, and the nation's current obesity problem through state and local planning reforms.

  14. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate.

  15. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate. PMID:26371707

  16. Stories of Reform in Science Education: Commentary on Opp(reg)ressive Policies and Tempered Radicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This response to the two papers (by Rodriguez and Carlone et al.) on science education reform acknowledges first the coherence of the arguments presented around four reform narratives; that of the process of becoming science-enthusiastic, the nature of beliefs of science reform teachers, the barriers to reform, and the institutional expressions of…

  17. Managed care in Latin America: the new common sense in health policy reform.

    PubMed

    Iriart, C; Merhy, E E; Waitzkin, H

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of the comparative research project, "Managed Care in Latin America: Its Role in Health System Reform." Conducted by teams in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and the United States, the study focused on the exportation of managed care, especially from the United States, and its adoption in Latin American countries. Our research methods included qualitative and quantitative techniques. The adoption of managed care reflects the process of transnationalization in the health sector. Our findings demonstrate the entrance of the main multinational corporations of finance capital into the private sector of insurance and health services, and these corporations' intention to assume administrative responsibilities for state institutions and to secure access to medical social security funds. International lending agencies, especially the World Bank, support the corporatization and privatization of health care services, as a condition of further loans to Latin American countries. We conclude that this process of change, which involves the gradual adoption of managed care as an officially favored policy, reflects ideologically based discourses that accept the inexorable nature of managed care reforms.

  18. Alcohol policy reform in Australia: what can we learn from the evidence?

    PubMed

    Doran, Christopher M; Hall, Wayne D; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Vos, Theo; Cobiac, Linda J

    2010-04-19

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor contributing to the burden of disease in Australia. The National Preventative Health Taskforce recommends the long-term goal of reshaping Australia's drinking culture to produce healthier and safer outcomes. A study of the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm in Australia suggests that policymakers could achieve over 10 times the health gain if they reallocated the current level of investment. The optimal package of interventions identified in the study comprises, in order of cost-effectiveness, volumetric taxation, advertising bans, an increase in the minimum legal drinking age to 21 years, brief intervention by primary care practitioners, licensing controls, a drink-driving mass media campaign, and random breath testing. Australia has a window of opportunity to significantly expand activities to reduce alcohol-related harm. It is important that federal and state governments take this opportunity to reform alcohol policy in Australia. PMID:20402613

  19. Problems in the regulatory policy of the drug market

    PubMed Central

    Miziara, Nathália Molleis; Coutinho, Diogo Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the implementation of drug price regulation policy by the Drug Market Regulation Chamber. METHODS This is an interview-based study, which was undertaken in 2012, using semi-structured questionnaires with social actors from the pharmaceutical market, the pharmaceuticals industry, consumers and the regulatory agency. In addition, drug prices were compiled based on surveys conducted in the state of Sao Paulo, at the point of sale, between February 2009 and May 2012. RESULTS The mean drug prices charged at the point of sale (pharmacies) were well below the maximum price to the consumer, compared with many drugs sold in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, 44 of the 129 prices, corresponding to 99 drugs listed in the database of compiled prices, showed a variation of more than 20.0% in the mean prices at the point of sale and the maximum price to the consumer. In addition, many laboratories have refused to apply the price adequacy coefficient in their sales to government agencies. CONCLUSIONS The regulation implemented by the pharmaceutical market regulator was unable to significantly control prices of marketed drugs, without succeeding to push them to levels lower than those determined by the pharmaceutical industry and failing, therefore, in its objective to promote pharmaceutical support for the public. It is necessary reconstruct the regulatory law to allow market prices to be reduced by the regulator as well as institutional strengthen this government body. PMID:26083945

  20. Curriculum Testing on the Persistent Fringes: Neoliberal Policy and the New Regime of Title I High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Neoliberal policies have opened the door to a steady stream of contract providers who assist struggling schools while producing market-ready reforms. This ethnographic example of Allport High School illustrates how constant aid, in combination with internal market expansion, destabilizes school structures, obscures curricula, and transfers local…

  1. Past/Forward Policy-Making: Transforming Chinese Engineering Education since the Reform and Opening-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K.; Gong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Although engineering education has played important roles in China's growing power and influence on the world stage, engineering education policy since the Reform and Opening-up in the late 1970s has not been well documented in current English-language scholarship. Informed by historical and sociological studies of education, engineering and…

  2. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  3. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

  4. Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World. International Summit on the Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    If the quality of an education system can never exceed the quality of its teachers, then countries need to do all they can to build a high-quality teaching force. "Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World," the background report to the sixth International Summit on the Teaching…

  5. Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    The guide presents facts and issues concerning drug and alcohol abuse so that college and university administration and governing boards can make informed decisions about programs, policy, and procedures to minimize their occurrence on campus. Chapter 1 examines issues related to substance abuse on campus: risk factors in the campus community; the…

  6. 3 CFR 101.6 - Office of National Drug Control Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ACT § 101.6 Office of National Drug Control Policy. Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of National Drug Control Policy appear at 21 CFR parts 1400-1499. ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of National Drug Control Policy....

  7. Principles For Evidence-Based Drug Formulary Policy

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory E; Psaty, Bruce M; Hrachovec, Jennifer Berg; Mora, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Expenditures for prescription drugs continue to increase, prompting insurers and health systems to adopt formulary or coverage policies restricting the use of more expensive drugs. Those establishing formulary policies face a complex array of claims regarding differences in efficacy, safety, treatment cost, or cost-effectiveness. We describe and illustrate 5 specific principles for applying research evidence to formulary decisions: (1) Experimental data should take precedence over models or simulations, and assumptions of such models should be carefully examined. (2) Morbidity or mortality outcomes should take precedence over surrogate or intermediate outcomes. (3) Claims for advantages of new treatments should consider the full range of alternatives rather than those selected by industry. (4) Variation in effects across individuals or subgroups argue against restrictions on first-line treatment, but only if those differences are predictable. (5) Variation in effects argues against requiring changes in ongoing treatment. We also discuss how economic incentives are likely to influence selection of research questions, especially research related to drug-gene interactions and to identifying new indications for existing drugs. PMID:16191151

  8. Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison

    2010-07-01

    The application of regulatory theory to the problem of illicit drugs has generally been thought about only in terms of 'command and control'. The international treaties governing global illicit drug control and the use of law enforcement to dissuade and punish offenders have been primary strategies. In this paper I explore the application of other aspects of regulatory theory to illicit drugs-primarily self-regulation and market regulation. There has been an overreliance on strategies from the top of the regulatory pyramid. Two other regulatory strategies--self-regulation and market regulation--can be applied to illicit drugs. Self-regulation, driven by the proactive support of consumer groups may reduce drug-related harms. Market strategies such as pill-testing can change consumer preferences and encourage alternate seller behaviour. Regulatory theory is also concerned with partnerships between the state and third parties: strategies in these areas include partnerships between police and pharmacies regarding sale of potential precursor chemicals. Regulatory theory and practice is a rich and well-developed field in the social sciences. I argue that governments should consider the full array of regulatory strategies. Using regulatory theory provides a rationale and justification to strategies that are currently at the whim of politics, such as funding for user groups. The greater application of regulatory approaches may produce more flexible and structured illicit drug policies.

  9. Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison

    2010-07-01

    The application of regulatory theory to the problem of illicit drugs has generally been thought about only in terms of 'command and control'. The international treaties governing global illicit drug control and the use of law enforcement to dissuade and punish offenders have been primary strategies. In this paper I explore the application of other aspects of regulatory theory to illicit drugs-primarily self-regulation and market regulation. There has been an overreliance on strategies from the top of the regulatory pyramid. Two other regulatory strategies--self-regulation and market regulation--can be applied to illicit drugs. Self-regulation, driven by the proactive support of consumer groups may reduce drug-related harms. Market strategies such as pill-testing can change consumer preferences and encourage alternate seller behaviour. Regulatory theory is also concerned with partnerships between the state and third parties: strategies in these areas include partnerships between police and pharmacies regarding sale of potential precursor chemicals. Regulatory theory and practice is a rich and well-developed field in the social sciences. I argue that governments should consider the full array of regulatory strategies. Using regulatory theory provides a rationale and justification to strategies that are currently at the whim of politics, such as funding for user groups. The greater application of regulatory approaches may produce more flexible and structured illicit drug policies. PMID:20005691

  10. Policy trends and reforms in the German DRG-based hospital payment system.

    PubMed

    Klein-Hitpaß, Uwe; Scheller-Kreinsen, David

    2015-03-01

    A central structural point in all DRG-based hospital payment systems is the conversion of relative weights into actual payments. In this context policy makers need to address (amongst other things) (a) how the price level of DRG-payments from one period to the following period is changed and (b) whether and how hospital payments based on DRGs are to be differentiated beyond patient characteristics, e.g. by organizational, regional or state-level factors. Both policy problems can be and in international comparison often are empirically addressed. In Germany relative weights are derived from a highly sophisticated empirical cost calculation, whereas the annual changes of DRG-based payments (base rates) as well as the differentiation of DRG-based hospital payments beyond patient characteristics are not empirically addressed. Rather a complex set of regulations and quasi-market negotiations are applied. There were over the last decade also timid attempts to foster the use of empirical data to address these points. However, these reforms failed to increase the fairness, transparency and rationality of the mechanism to convert relative weights into actual DRG-based hospital payments. PMID:25638648

  11. 21 CFR 369.4 - Warnings suggested for drugs by formal or informal statements of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warnings suggested for drugs by formal or informal statements of policy. 369.4 Section 369.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS...

  12. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery.

  13. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery. PMID:26683746

  14. [War on Drugs or War against Health? The pitfalls for public health of Puerto Rican drug policy].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Negrón, Salvador; Albizu-García, Carmen E

    2003-03-01

    Puerto Rico has followed the United States in adopting drug policy sustained on a criminal justice model that limits the opportunities to address problematic drug use through public health interventions. Demand for illegal drugs is controlled by criminalizing drug use and applying jail sentences for drug offenses. These strategies marginalize drug users and reduce opportunities to minimize health risks applying public health measures. Production and sale of illegal drugs is criminalized with the intent of dissuading drug use, with adverse unintended health effects that impact both drug users and non-drug users in the community. The present work reviews the assumptions of the punitive prohibitionist model and its outcomes that present themselves as public health challenges in Puerto Rico. It also presents those principles that should sustain pragmatic drug policy to address problematic drug use from a health and social perspective.

  15. Legislative and policy analysis of HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who use drugs and incarcerated people in Central Asia and Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David; Elliott, Richard

    2011-04-01

    In January 2011, the Regional Office for Central Asia of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released an extensive report assessing the legislative and policy environment affecting the response to HIV in six countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The report, which draws in part upon the work of a national expert group in each country, puts forward dozens of recommendations for legislative and policy reform, including recommendations for specific reform tailored to the situation in each of the participating countries, with a particular focus on addressing the fast-growing HIV epidemic linked to injection drug use and in prisons. PMID:21688698

  16. Educational Reform in China: Tensions in National Policy and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yujin; Dunne, Mairead

    2009-01-01

    In the post-Mao era, the Chinese government carried out a series of education reforms to modernise education provision. This paper explores two related aspects of these reforms through comparative case study research in three different school locations within the same region in China. The first focus is upon system reform initiated through…

  17. Social policy and drug dependence: an historical case study.

    PubMed

    Smart, C

    1985-11-01

    A detailed examination is presented of the background to the reports and policy developments concerning drug dependence which emerged in Britain during the 1960s. Analysis of documents and interviews with policy makers, officials and doctors involved in the events of the period, reveal that explanatory models in terms of 'moral panic' or 'power struggle' tend to oversimplify the complex processes involved. The role in policy formation of the media, government departments and groups within the medical profession is considered. The patterns of conflict and convergence are seen to overlap simple lines of 'interest'--we find conflict within the medical profession, convergence between the Home Office (legal) and elements of the medical professions (medical). The resulting legal and institutional framework involved only loose guidelines from the centre about treatment, and the shape of policy was determined by individual doctors in the new hospital treatment centres. The apparent re-run of the 1960s being staged in the 1980s will require detailed research in the future in order to avoid superficial comparisons.

  18. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug

  19. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug

  20. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica

    2014-10-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  1. Science as an Early Driver of Policy: Child Labor Reform in the Early Progressive Era, 1870–1900

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children’s biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children’s health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children’s environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  2. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica

    2014-10-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today.

  3. [Gender equity in health sector reform policies in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly being acknowledged as an essential aspect of sustainable development and more specifically, of health development. The Pan American Health Organization's Program for Women, Health, and Development has been piloting for a year now a project known as Equidad de género en las políticas de reforma del sector de salud, whose objective is to promote gender equity in the health sector reform efforts in the Region. The first stage of the project is being conducted in Chile and Peru, along with some activities throughout the Region. The core of the project is the production and use of information as a tool for introducing changes geared toward achieving greater gender equity in health, particularly in connection with malefemale disparities that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision-making within the health system. We expect that in three years the project will have brought about changes in the production of information and knowledge, advocacy, and information dissemination, as well as in the development, appropriation, and identification of intersectoral mechanisms that will make it possible for key figures in government and civil society to work together in setting and surveying policy on gender equity in health.

  4. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration records. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will make the fullest possible disclosure of records... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  5. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration records. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will make the fullest possible disclosure of records... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records. 20.20 Section 20.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  6. Tanzania's policy on biodiversity prospecting and drug discovery programs.

    PubMed

    Mahunnah, R L; Mshigeni, K E

    1996-04-01

    Tanzania is endowed with a rich natural resource. The biodiversity comprises over 10,000 plant species, a rich fauna and marine resources. The collection of biological resources is guided by a set of formalities, namely: (i) entry visas, (ii) research permits, (iii) designation of a relevant collaborating host institution or organization, and (iv) eventual joint field work with the collaborating host institution. A facility exists whereby an institution within the country can collaborate with a technologically developed institution or country through mutual research agreement in short and long-term programs. In such a case, Tanzanian scientists collect and export biological materials for drug testing by the collaborating partner. The research agreement is based on the understanding that benefits of the discovery are shared among all parties, namely, the host country's collaborating institution(s), government and indigenous cultures. Rules and regulations governing biodiversity prospecting fall under the categories of (a) floristic resources, (b) fauna or animal substances and (c) marine biological resources. The collection and export of CITES-listed organisms is governed by a separate policy package. Various national institutions are directly involved in overseeing the implementation of these policies. In this paper, these are reviewed to accommodate new conventions concerning research management policies on biological diversity and the sustainable utilization and conservation of these resources. PMID:9213620

  7. The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A; Field, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

  8. Policy options for deploying anti-malarial drugs in endemic countries: a population genetics approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anti-malarial drugs are constantly exposed to the threat of evolving drug resistance so good stewardship of existing therapy is an essential component of public health policy. However, the widespread availability of numerous different drugs through informal providers could undermine official drug deployment policies. A policy of multiple first-line therapy (MFT) is compared with the conventional policy of sequential drug deployment, i.e., where one drug is used until resistance evolves and then replaced by the next drug in the sequence. Methods Population genetic models of drug resistance are used to make the comparison; this methodology explicitly tracks the genetics of drug resistance (including, importantly, recombination in the sexual stage, intrahost dynamics, and direction of linkage disequilibrium). Results A policy of MFT outlasts sequential application providing drug usages are low to moderate, and appears not to drive widespread multi-drug resistance. Inadequate dosing is an even more potent driver of drug resistance than the MFT/sequential policy decision. Conclusions The provision of MFT as a deliberate policy can be encouraged provided overall treatment rates are low or moderate (less than around half of malaria infections are treated) and the ad hoc provision of MFT through the private sector may be tolerated. This must be fully supported by education to ensure people take adequate doses of each of the drugs. PMID:23244624

  9. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  10. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  11. Exploring Motivational Factors for Educational Reform: Do International Comparisons Dictate Educational Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachelek, AJ

    2010-01-01

    In mathematics education, utilizing international comparisons to support implementation of educational reforms has become increasingly common. With the advent of "Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study" (TIMSS), educational reform seems to have transitioned to a reactionary process rather than a calculated adaptation of…

  12. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but much vaunted…

  13. School Reforms in England, Japan, Korea and the U.S.: Policy Variation and Educational Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    Education reform during the last 2 decades has been shaped by the forces of growing public distrust of educational bureaucracies in a climate of rapid political change and growing international competition in the context of a global economy. Major school reforms in four selected industrial countries that differ significantly in terms of…

  14. What Educational Reform Means: Lessons from Teachers, Research and Policy Working Together for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airini; McNaughton, Stuart; Langley, John; Sauni, Pale

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes education reform projects designed to bring about major improvements in school and tertiary student outcomes. Individually the projects illustrate characteristics of educational reform in local contexts for primary, secondary and tertiary education. In combination they signal key components essential to getting large scale…

  15. Irrational Exuberance for Market-Based Reform: How Federal Turnaround Policies Thwart Democratic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…

  16. A system dynamics model for national drug policy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data modeling techniques can create a virtual world to analyze decision systems. National drug authorities can use such techniques to take care of their deficiencies in decision making processes. This study was designed to build a system dynamics model to simulate the effects of market mix variables (5 P’s) on the national drug policy (NDP) indicators including availability, affordability, quality, and rationality. This was aimed to investigate how to increase the rationality of decision making, evaluate different alternatives, reduce the costs and identify the system obstacles. System dynamics is a computer-based approach for analyzing and designing complex systems over time. In this study the cognitive casualty map was developed to make a concept about the system then the stock-flow model was set up based on the market demand and supply concept. Results The model demonstrates the interdependencies between the NDP variables through four cognitive maps. Some issues in availability, willingness to pay, rational use and quality of medicines are pointed in the model. The stock-flow diagram shows how the demand for a medicine is formed and how it is responded through NDP objectives. The effects of changing variables on the other NDP variables can be studied after running the stock-flow model. Conclusion The model can initiate a fundamental structure for analyzing NDP. The conceptual model made a cognitive map to show many causes’ and effects’ trees and reveals some relations between NDP variables that are usually forgotten in the medicines affairs. The model also provides an opportunity to be expanded with more details on a specific disease for better policy making about medication. PMID:24690531

  17. Early adoption of cyclosporine and recombinant human erythropoietin: clinical, economic, and policy issues with emergence of high-cost drugs.

    PubMed

    Powe, N R; Eggers, P W; Johnson, C B

    1994-07-01

    The discovery of new drugs and their introduction into US markets will become an intense area of focus should health care reform result in Medicare insurance coverage for prescription drugs. Particular attention will be focused on high-cost drugs. Two high-cost drugs, cyclosporine and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), introduced into the clinical management of patients with kidney disease during the past decade, provide some experience concerning the forces affecting the use of expensive drugs in a cost-conscious health care system. The decision to prescribe a drug will depend on provider's judgements of the drug's clinical benefits and costs compared with those of other possible therapies. It may also depend on payment policy. Both cyclosporine and rHuEPO were adopted rapidly and extensively by providers of end-stage renal disease care following US Food and Drug Administration approval, despite their high costs. Both drugs were remarkably effective, relatively safe, and able to be administered without great difficulty compared with the therapies they have replaced. There was no additional payment to hospitals for the initial use of cyclosporine, which was introduced in 1983 at the time when Medicare's prospective payment was established, since choice of immunosuppressive agent did not affect the fixed, per-admission payment determined by the diagnosis-related group for kidney transplantation. Medicare coverage for continuing outpatient use of cyclosporine was not initially provided, in contrast to rHuEPO, which was introduced in 1989 with Medicare outpatient coverage and payment of 80% of the allowed charge. Despite their high costs and different methods of insurance payment both drugs achieved a rather quick and high penetration rate into their respective populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.

    PubMed

    Emilien, G

    1997-01-01

    The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market.

  19. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... substantial evidence of effectiveness as a result of reports of the National Academy of...

  20. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... substantial evidence of effectiveness as a result of reports of the National Academy of...

  1. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... substantial evidence of effectiveness as a result of reports of the National Academy of...

  2. Holding Policy-Makers to Account: Exploring "Soft" and "Hard" Policy and the Implications for Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Chan, Jacqueline Kin-sang; Fok, Ping Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum implementation as both an educational practice and a policy conundrum has been the focus of academic research since the 1970s. A new perspective is taken in this article by borrowing from the literature on policy implementation in multilevel systems of government. The concepts of "hard" and "soft" policy are used to show that…

  3. Digital Social Media, Youth, and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs: The Need for Reform

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    The tragic death of 18-year-old Ryan Haight highlighted the ethical, public health, and youth patient safety concerns posed by illicit online nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NUPM) sourcing, leading to a federal law in an effort to address this concern. Yet despite the tragedy and resulting law, the NUPM epidemic in the United States has continued to escalate and represents a dangerous and growing trend among youth and adolescents. A critical point of access associated with youth NUPM is the Internet. Internet use among this vulnerable patient group is ubiquitous and includes new, emerging, and rapidly developing technologies—particularly social media networking (eg, Facebook and Twitter). These unregulated technologies may pose a potential risk for enabling youth NUPM behavior. In order to address limitations of current regulations and promote online safety, we advocate for legislative reform to specifically address NUPM promotion via social media and other new online platforms. Using more comprehensive and modernized federal legislation that anticipates future online developments is critical in substantively addressing youth NUPM behavior occurring through the Internet. PMID:23892156

  4. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    PubMed

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability. PMID:25217142

  5. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    PubMed

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability.

  6. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions. PMID:21692242

  7. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is your policy on illegal... NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL...

  9. Local Implementation of Drug Policy and Access to Treatment Services for Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is a vigorous national debate regarding effective drug policy, such policies are implemented at the local level. Using a national sample of prosecutors, we examine reported typical processing for first-time juvenile marijuana, cocaine, or crack possession/sales offenders. The relationship between drug offense charge and adjudication…

  10. [The War on "Red Drugs": Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960].

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs. PMID:27301856

  11. [The War on "Red Drugs": Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960].

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.

  12. Science education reform for the 21st century: Analyzing policy imperatives for effective teaching through recruitment, renewal, and retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeaux, Amy Venning

    2002-09-01

    Concern with science education reform and how to achieve it has a long history in our education system. In recent years, national reports have targeted enhancing teaching quality as the number one priority in the list of research-based education reform efforts that will have the most impact on promoting student achievement (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). However, defining the policy imperatives and delineating the priorities must occur before reform can be achieved. Using the Delphi Technique, a total of 33 expert panelists representing universities, K--12 educators, informal science education organizations, national and federal organizations such as NSF, NASA, and the Department of Education, and parents grappled with policy imperatives needed for effective science teaching. Through a series of three iterative questionnaires, panelists had the opportunity to build consensus, pool judgments, and forecast themes that could potentially influence policymakers in science education for the "Three R's" of professional development---renewal, retention, and recruitment. The study focused on the following three objectives: (1) analyzing feedback from panelists regarding issues and strategies identified in the Glenn Commission Report for enhancing teaching quality, (2) building group consensus regarding visions, actions, and strategies for effective science teaching and professional development, and (3) moving from rhetoric to reality in addressing the policy imperatives needed in the next 10 years for policymakers to instigate at the national, state and local levels for enhancing effective science teaching practice. The results of this study validated the findings in the Glenn Commission Report and identified five major priorities. The priorities identified policy imperatives for upgrading the quality of undergraduate and graduate science education programs, changing the reward system and career ladder for teachers, designing systemic and sustained professional

  13. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  14. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  15. A Profile of Substance Abuse, Gender, Crime, and Drug Policy in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The climate of domestic drug policy in the United States as it pertains to both women and men at the beginning of the 21st century is the criminalization mode of regulation--a mode that is based on the model of addiction as a crime and one that is used to prohibit the use of illegal drugs. In Canada, drug policy is based mainly on the harm…

  16. 76 FR 58398 - Revised Guidance on Marketed Unapproved Drugs; Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100; Marketed New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Drugs; Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100; Marketed New Drugs Without Approved NDAs or ANDAs... ``Marketed Unapproved Drugs--Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 440.100, Marketed New Drugs Without Approved NDAs... exercise of enforcement discretion discussed in the CPG apply only to unapproved new drug products that...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.635 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action? 1404.635 Section 1404.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG... Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1404.635 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a...

  18. Market- and Performance-Based Reforms of Teacher Compensation: A Review of Recent Practices, Policies, and Research. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael J.; Springer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent policy initiatives to reform teacher compensation systems and evidence regarding the effect of these policies. The first section examines the current structure of teacher compensation in the U.S. K-12 public education system. The compensation "system" for teachers is fragmented and uncoordinated. Teacher…

  19. Policy and the Re-Formation of Hospice: Lessons from the Past for the Future of Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Buck, Joy

    2011-11-01

    During the twentieth-century, dramatic changes in the manner and location of care for the dying resulted in the conception and birth of the modern American hospice movement. Idealistic nurses, clergy, and others concerned about the plight of terminally ill cancer patients launched hospice as a necessary health care reform. As new hospice programs opened across the country, the idealism of the early leaders gave way to more pragmatic issues such as program viability. As hospice was studied and integrated into the health care system, it came to be redefined by the politics of health policy and the health care industry. As a result, there is a disarticulation between the needs of seriously ill persons and their families and the health care that is available to them. Important lessons can be learned from the history of the Medicare hospice benefit to help guide current palliative care policy initiatives. While formalized reimbursement for hospice enhanced organizational sustainability, many critical issues remain. PMID:22184500

  20. The "amnesty" aftermath: current policy issues stemming from the legalization programs of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act.

    PubMed

    Baker, S G

    1997-01-01

    "The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) created two one-time only legalization programs affecting nearly 3 million undocumented immigrants. Legalization has produced important changes among immigrants and in immigration policy. These changes include new patterns of immigrant social and economic adaptation to the United States and new immigrant flows through family ties to IRCA-legalized aliens.... This article combines data from a longitudinal survey of the IRCA-legalized population with qualitative field data on current immigration issues from key informants in eight high-immigration metropolitan areas. It reviews the political evolution and early implementation of legalization, the current socioeconomic position of legalized aliens, and changes in the immigration ¿policy space' resulting from legalization."

  1. Policy and the Re-Formation of Hospice: Lessons from the Past for the Future of Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Joy

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth-century, dramatic changes in the manner and location of care for the dying resulted in the conception and birth of the modern American hospice movement. Idealistic nurses, clergy, and others concerned about the plight of terminally ill cancer patients launched hospice as a necessary health care reform. As new hospice programs opened across the country, the idealism of the early leaders gave way to more pragmatic issues such as program viability. As hospice was studied and integrated into the health care system, it came to be redefined by the politics of health policy and the health care industry. As a result, there is a disarticulation between the needs of seriously ill persons and their families and the health care that is available to them. Important lessons can be learned from the history of the Medicare hospice benefit to help guide current palliative care policy initiatives. While formalized reimbursement for hospice enhanced organizational sustainability, many critical issues remain. PMID:22184500

  2. Teachers' Responses to Policy Implementation: Interactions of New Accountability Policies and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in Urban School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Helen H.

    This paper explores how new accountability policies interact with culturally relevant teaching at the classroom level. When teachers are under the constraints of accountability and student testing policies, are they able to adopt and practice culturally relevant pedagogy in their classrooms? Previous research indicates that high-stakes…

  3. Decolonizing the Evidence-Based Education and Policy Movement: Revealing the Colonial Vestiges in Educational Policy, Research, and Neoliberal Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature discussing evidence-based education, practice, policy, and decision-making from a critical perspective. In this article, drawing on the literature and policy documents related to evidence-based education in the USA, Britain, and Canada, I join this critique and offer an anticolonial perspective. I argue that…

  4. [PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF PERSONNEL POLICY IN REFORMING OF UKRAINIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM USING THE EXAMPLE OF DERMATOVENEREOLOGICAL SERVICE].

    PubMed

    Korolenko, V V; Dykun, O P; Isayenko, R M; Remennyk, O I; Avramenko, T P; Stepanenko, V I; Petrova, K I; Volosovets, O P; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2014-01-01

    The health care system, its modernization and optimization are among the most important functions of the modern Ukrainian state. The main goal of the reforms in the field of healthcare is to improve the health of the population, equal and fair access for all to health services of adequate quality. Important place in the health sector reform belongs to optimizing the structure and function of dermatovenereological service. The aim of this work is to address the issue of human resources management of dermatovenereological services during health sector reform in Ukraine, taking into account the real possibility of disengagement dermatovenereological providing care between providers of primary medical care level (general practitioners) and providers of secondary (specialized) and tertiary (high-specialized) medical care (dermatovenerologists and pediatrician dermatovenerologists), and coordinating interaction between these levels. During research has been found, that the major problems of human resources of dermatovenereological service are insufficient staffing and provision of health-care providers;,growth in the number of health workers of retirement age; sectoral and regional disparity of staffing; the problem of improving the skills of medical personnel; regulatory support personnel policy areas and create incentives for staff motivation; problems of rational use of human resources for health care; problems of personnel training for dermatovenereological service. Currently reforming health sector should primarily serve the needs of the population in a fairly effective medical care at all levels, to ensure that there must be sufficient qualitatively trained and motivated health workers. To achieve this goal directed overall work of the Ministry of Health of Uktaine, the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, medical universities, regional health authorities, professional medical associations. Therefore Ukrainian dermatovenereological care, in particular

  5. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  8. Travelling Policy Reforms Reconfiguring the Work of Early Childhood Educators in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise; Wood, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Interventions in the field of early childhood education policy, drawn from global policy flows, are reconfiguring the work of early childhood educators in Australia. One such intervention is the requirement to designate an "educational leader" (EL) in each service for young children and their families. This policy intervention has its…

  9. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  10. State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

  11. Teacher Development against the Policy Reform Grain: An Argument for Recapturing Relationships in Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John

    2007-01-01

    As public schools in countries like the UK, USA, Australia, Canada and New Zealand continue to suffer from the damaging effects of poorly conceptualized educational reforms, educators struggle to come up with alternatives with which to reclaim schools. While acknowledging the situational, contextual and temporal differences between these…

  12. Reforming School Science Education: A Commentary on Selected Reports and Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Edgar W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a commentary upon a number of recent documents from different countries concerned with the reform of school science education. It identifies and considers in turn four issues drawn from the documents: the way in which science is defined; the reference to science as a whole rather than as discrete disciplines; the nature of…

  13. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research…

  14. Evaluation and Follow-Up of Policies, Plans and Reforms of Education: Round Table V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Educational Policy and Planning.

    The proceedings from a round table held at an international symposium focuses on the planning and management of educational development. The following papers are included in this document: "Overall View on the Evaluation of Educational Plans and Reforms (Ingemar Fagerlind); "Evaluation and Research Capacity-Building in Education Meeting the Needs…

  15. Regulation and Deregulation in Education Policy: New Reforms and School Sports in Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, neoliberal reforms in Sweden increased local school actors' possibilities to develop school profiles regarding both organization and content. This restructuring has increased the total number of school sports programs as well as the possibilities for upper secondary schools and sports clubs to develop elite and amateur…

  16. Soviet Industrial Strategy and Reforms in Vocational Education, 1984-88: Policy Implications and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowtis, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, Soviet educational reforms increased the number of vocational secondary schools, introduced pupils to vocational education at an earlier age, and strengthened vertical integration between local enterprises and schools. Unintended consequences may be occupational rigidity, course offerings based on obsolete manpower needs, and…

  17. A National Perspective: Teacher Incentives and Educational Reform Measures. Policy Perspectives on Teacher Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    Many recent reports have predicted an impending crisis in the teaching profession. At the heart of the reports and the reform effort lies the notion that in order to improve school experience for children, school experiences for teachers ought to be improved. This paper deals with teacher incentives as a means of attracting, retaining, and…

  18. Teacher Education Policies, Practices, and Reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are…

  19. Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shober, Arnold F.

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

  20. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  1. Educational Reform at the State Level: The Politics and Problems of Implementation. Education Policy Perspective Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Jean

    This book provides insights into how one state department of education perceived its role in the interpretation and implementation of educational reform legislation. It is based on the experiences of a former state department of education employee and her coworker, who were hired to administer three new programs to increase teacher retention--a…

  2. Learning from Leaders: Welfare Reform Politics and Policy in Five Midwestern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissert, Carol S., Ed.

    This book examines welfare reform, occasioned by the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It is based on research in Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan that…

  3. Success for All and Comprehensive School Reform: Evidence-Based Policies for Urban Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.

    This paper discusses comprehensive school reform (CSR), which accepts the importance of standards and accountability but adds to these strategies for introducing innovations in curriculum, instruction, school organization, governance, parent interactions, and other core features of practice. The paper reviews research on the nature and quality of…

  4. Sustaining Higher Education Reforms: Knowledge and Policy Implications Learned from Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phusavat, Kongkiti; Ketsarapong, Suphattra; Ooi, Keng-Boon; Shyu, Stacy H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to share experiences in Thailand's higher educational reforms in which academic excellence cannot be sustained without proper financial and fiscal consideration. The overall goal is to disclose the experiences and future issues facing public universities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on actual involvement…

  5. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  6. Switzerland, HIV and the power of pragmatism: lessons for drug policy development.

    PubMed

    Csete, Joanne; Grob, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Switzerland in the 1980s was an epicentre of HIV as open drug injection became part of the urban scene, especially in Zurich. Cracks appeared in Switzerland's long commitment to policing as the main drug-control strategy as law enforcement was unable to contain the health and social consequences of the rapid spread of drug injection. In the early stages of the epidemic, the pioneering health care providers who brought technically illegal harm reduction services into the open drug scene in Zurich helped open the exploration at the federal level of more balanced drug policy. Carefully evaluated pilot experiences in low-threshold methadone, needle exchange, and eventually heroin-assisted therapy yielded evidence of significant HIV prevention and crime reduction that was convincing not only to policy-makers but also to a skeptical Swiss public. Whilst not all countries have Switzerland's resource base, the Swiss experience still holds many useful lessons for establishing evidence-based policy on illicit drugs.

  7. Testimony of Edwin Meese III, Attorney General and Chairman, National Drug Policy Board, before U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Regarding Coordination of National Drug Policy and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    The testimony of the United States Attorney General which appears in this document concentrates on three areas: (1) the coordination of federal drug control efforts and the reorganization of the National Drug Policy Board; (2) the performance of the National Drug Policy Board; and (3) the Administration's views on the proposed "Drug Czar" bill, S.…

  8. Competency to be resentenced and the Rockefeller Drug Law reform act: how does it affect the mentally Ill?

    PubMed

    Ford, Elizabeth; Winkler, Barry; Barber-Rioja, Virginia; Dell'anno, Christina; Cohen, Shelly

    2009-01-01

    Many of the mentally ill prisoners in this country have been convicted of drug crimes. New York State's Rockefeller Drug Laws from the 1970s established harsh sentences for drug crimes to quell a perceived epidemic. These laws were reformed in 2004 to allow the option of resentencing, with the possibility of lighter sentences. However, there is no formal mechanism in New York for a postconviction hearing for competency to be resentenced, thus affecting the severely mentally ill who were sentenced under the old Rockefeller laws. The purpose of this article is to highlight the psychiatric and legal difficulties that can arise without an option for a resentencing competency hearing and to argue that despite the low number of inmates to whom this would apply, there is an important duty to ensure due process to the mentally ill.

  9. Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, J L

    1985-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, the market-based, dependent-development-conditioned structure of Latin American health systems reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most (including government) health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. But for many countries of the area, the 1964 PAHO-led efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a first step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Since then, this commitment has been reaffirmed in the Latin American Ministers of Health's 1973 adoption of the primary care approach as the cornerstone of their national health plans, and their ongoing endorsement and pursuit of "Health For All by 2000." Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Guatemalan technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively. But, far more fundamentally, the Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built, and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed "additive reform." Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these "reforms" will prove evanescent.

  10. 21 CFR 1404.610 - What procedures does the Office of National Drug Control Policy use in suspension and debarment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What procedures does the Office of National Drug Control Policy use in suspension and debarment actions? 1404.610 Section 1404.610 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General...

  11. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  12. Why Do Policy Frames Change? Actor-Idea Coevolution in Debates over Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steensland, Brian

    2008-01-01

    One shortcoming in the literature on policy framing has been the absence of analytic models through which to explicate change. This paper advances research in this area in three related ways. First, it links policy frames to the actors who employ them. Second, based upon this linkage it proposes two complementary approaches for examining…

  13. The Rise of School Choice in Education Funding Reform: An Analysis of Two Policy Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the analysis of the global spread of support for school choice and to the understanding of how a particular form of policy development reflects and cements this support. It maps the growing dominance of school choice within a reconfiguration of politics, policy making, and research. To establish the nature of this…

  14. Policy Intermediaries and the Reform of e-Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandeyar, Thirusellvan

    2015-01-01

    Utilising a case study approach and backward mapping principles to policy implementation, this study set out to explore how well district and province's e-learning officials are equipped for the task of implementing the national e-Education policy. Qualitative methods were employed to capture data through interviews and document analysis. Data…

  15. The Open Society and Coach Education: A Philosophical Agenda for Policy Reform and Future Sociological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggott, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: The realisation of the strategic importance of high quality coaching to the achievement of national sport policy objectives is resulting in extensive movements to professionalise the coaching industry. Interest in coach education is therefore growing among academics and policy-makers alike. A recent review of literature in this field,…

  16. Comparison of antineoplastic drug handling policies of hospitals with OSHA guidelines: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Valanis, B; Driscoll, K; McNeil, V

    1990-04-01

    Hospital antineoplastic drug handling policies of 24 hospitals in eight Southwestern Ohio counties were compared with recommendations of the 1986 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines. Although most study facilities where antineoplastics are handled have policies, content varies and is generally less complete than OSHA guidelines, particularly regarding storing, transporting, and disposing of drugs; managing equipment; informing personnel of risk; and surveillance. Recommendations for personal protection concur more closely with OSHA guidelines than do other content areas. PMID:2316776

  17. Legitimacy and modernity via policy transfer: the utility of the 2003 Afghan National Drug Control Strategy.

    PubMed

    Bewley-Taylor, David R

    2014-09-01

    Very much an exercise in historical reconstruction, this article is concerned with the development of the first version of the Afghan NDCS. It is hoped that this domain of enquiry will contribute to discussions around the 'governance of drug policy' in this special issue of the International Journal of Drug Policy by focusing on how different policy actors operate in influencing the policy process; or parts thereof. More specifically, exploration of the formulation of the Strategy does much to help us understand not only the origins and shifting nature of ownership of drug policy within Afghanistan but also the relationship between the NDCS and the broader normative expectations of what has been referred to as the global drug prohibition regime (Andreas & Nadelmann, 2006, p. 38). As will be discussed, while indisputably the product of a process of policy transfer involving a number of non-Afghan actors - and as such arguably not always appropriate to the peculiarities of the drug market within the country - it can be argued that the 2003 National Drug Control Strategy fulfilled a useful functional role that in many ways exceeded its utility as a guiding document beyond the confines of Kabul.

  18. What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs. An Office of National Drug Control Policy Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of illicit drugs consumed and available for consumption in the United States. Estimates of the number of drug users were multiplied by estimates of the average amount of drugs consumed. Then the supply of drugs available for consumption was examined by estimating the amount of drugs that enters the…

  19. Urging College Alcohol and Drug Policies That Target Adverse Behavior, Not Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Although zero tolerance policies are being enacted on campuses nationwide, they may not be the most effective means of creating safer and healthier environments for students. Many historical precedents illustrate the value of moderation over prohibition. College drug and alcohol policies should focus primarily on dysfunctional and disruptive…

  20. School Development Planning in England and Wales (1988-1992): An Insight into the Impact of Policy Recontextualization on the Initiation and Early Implementation of Decentralized Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Corrie

    2006-01-01

    The predictable failure of reform has been a characteristic of education systems for some years. However, the tendency of policy makers to attribute blame for any implementation deficit solely to schools and school systems is somewhat at odds with the historical evidence presented in this article. Through the lens of school development planning,…

  1. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  2. Hearing on Telecommunications Policy Reform. Hearing of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This document presents witness testimony and supplemental materials from a Congressional hearing regarding reform to national telecommunications policy, namely, replacing a regime of heavy regulation with a true market system. Statements are featured by Senators John Ashcroft, Conrad Burns, Ernest Hollings, Kay Baily Hutchison, John D. Rockefeller…

  3. Testimony on the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1985 (S. 1200) before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Policy, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yzaguirre, Raul

    The National Council of La Raza's opposition to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1985 (S. 1200) is explained in this paper, which was presented as testimony before the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Three provisions of the proposed bill are analyzed: employer sanctions, legalization, and guestworkers. First, the…

  4. ETF Yearbook 2012: Evaluation and Monitoring of Vocational Education and Training Systems and the Role of Evidence-Based Policy in Their Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "ETF Yearbook 2012" continues the tradition of highlighting a thematic field of particular importance to the work of the European Training Foundation (ETF). The theme of this yearbook is evaluation and monitoring of vocational education and training (VET) systems and the role of evidence-based policy in VET reforms in ETF partner countries. As…

  5. Hearing on Telecommunications Policy Reform. Hearing of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This document presents witness testimony and supplemental materials from a Congressional hearing regarding legislation to reform national telecommunications policy. Most of the proposed changes would allow Americans greater freedom to choose among communication products and services. Among the topics this hearing addresses are increasing…

  6. Health care policy reform: a microanalytic model for comparing hospitals in the United States and Germany.

    PubMed

    Parsons, R J; Woller, G M; Neubauer, G; Rothaemel, F T; Zelle, B

    1999-01-01

    Microcomparison, or single-component analysis, of health care systems offers a potentially better basis for reform than traditional macrocomparison analysis of aggregate elements. Using macroanalysis, available evidence shows that Germany provides cheaper but more effective hospital care than the United States. To find the causes for this outcome, we developed a microanalytic model of hospital administrators' perceptions, financial ratios, medical outcomes, and pharmaceutical costs. However, only data on pharmaceutical costs were available, and these were similar in both countries. Our significant outcome was development of a microcomparative model that gives world medical care providers new criteria for analyzing and improving cost to care ratios.

  7. The pricing of breakthrough drugs: theory and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Levy, Moshe; Rizansky Nir, Adi

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical sales exceed $850 billion a year, of which 84% are accounted for by brand drugs. Drug prices are the focus of an ongoing heated debate. While some argue that pharmaceutical companies exploit monopolistic power granted by patent protection to set prices that are "too high", others claim that these prices are necessary to motivate the high R&D investments required in the pharmaceutical industry. This paper employs a recently documented utility function of health and wealth to derive the theoretically optimal pricing of monopolistic breakthrough drugs. This model provides a framework for a quantitative discussion of drug price regulation. We show that mild price regulation can substantially increase consumer surplus and the number of patients who purchase the drug, while having only a marginal effect on the revenues of the pharmaceutical company.

  8. The Chinese government's response to drug use and HIV/AIDS: A review of policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use has become popular in China. Acknowledging the challenge of illicit drug use, China has adopted several new policies on the management of illicit drug use in recent years. This study reviews the current policies on drug use and assesses the harm reduction interventions among drug users in China. The review documents that the new policies on drug use provide a variety of choices of detoxification treatment for drug users. The methadone maintenance treatment and needle exchange programs have been adopted as harm reduction models in China. Most of the reviewed harm reduction programs have been successfully implemented and yielded positive effects in reducing drug related risk behaviors among drug users. Although there remain barriers to the effective implementation of policies on drug use and harm reduction programs, Chinese government has shown their commitment to support the expansion of harm reduction interventions for drug users throughout the country. PMID:20205729

  9. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  10. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Office of the General Counsel, publishes and provides interpretations of rules related to 49 CFR... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol...

  11. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Office of the General Counsel, publishes and provides interpretations of rules related to 49 CFR... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol...

  12. Current Drug Education Policies in NCAA Institutions: Perceptions of Head Athletic Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirazi, Aida; Tricker, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the perceptions of head athletic trainers (HATS) from NCAA member Divisions I, II, and III regarding current athletic department drug education policies in their institutions. A Web-based questionnaire collected responses from 353 HATS. Drug education programs focused more on providing information about the negative…

  13. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  14. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  15. The Relationship between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The purposes of this study are (1) to provide descriptive information on drug testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and (2) to examine the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by…

  16. Understanding post 9/11 drug control policy and politics in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Latypov, Alisher

    2009-09-01

    This paper exposes contemporary drug policy challenges in Central Asia by focusing on a single point in the history of drug control, in a single region of the global war against drugs and terrorism, and on one agency whose mission is to help make the world safer from crime, drugs and terrorism. By looking closely at the post 9/11 security-oriented donor priorities, I conclude that, in Central Asia, the rhetoric of the taking a more 'balanced approach' to drug policy is bankrupt. When enacted by the national law enforcement agencies in the Central Asian republics, the 'Drug Free' aspirational goal is driving the HIV epidemic among IDUs. The face-saving 'containment' thesis does not reflect the drug situation in this region but rather the failure to adopt an evidence-based approach. The harm reduction agenda continues to face many challenges including resistance to substitution treatment, the harm from drug treatment, from poorly designed drug prevention programmes and from repressive counter-narcotics policies and practices.

  17. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. National institute on alcohol and drugs policies, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin

    2012-04-01

    The National Institute of Public Policy for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INPAD) is based at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, and was created to collect scientific evidence regarding epidemiology, develop new therapeutic approaches, study health economics and provide education to subsidize the proper measures to change the Brazilian scenario of alcohol and drug consumption. Policies directed towards the control of alcohol and drugs in Brazil are fragmented, poorly enforced and therefore ineffective. The unregulated market of alcohol in Brazil has contributed to the worsening health of the Brazilian population. Since 1994, INPAD has participated actively in academic debates and discussions about alcohol and drug policies and their effects on the political welfare of the country. Many scientific papers and books have been published on this subject, and the internet and other media have provided excellent opportunities for the dissemination of specialized information to the general population.

  18. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  19. New Mexico community voices: policy reform to reduce oral health disparities.

    PubMed

    Powell, Wayne; Hollis, Christine; de la Rosa, Mario; Helitzer, Deborah L; Derksen, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    Using a socio-ecological framework to guide the initiative, New Mexico Community Voices developed, with state and local stakeholders, responsive oral health policies to address oral health disparities. Several policy objectives were achieved: increasing awareness of the public health importance of oral health; improving access to dental services for uninsured or underserved populations; enhancing dental services specialty care; and increasing sustainable oral health infrastructure through pipeline development of oral health providers to relieve service shortages and diversify the oral health workforce. Improving access to oral health and augmenting numbers of dental providers in rural areas were also successful. The governor has appointed the New Mexico Oral Health Advisory Council to address state oral health issues. The New Mexico partnerships have demonstrated how effective policy change can generate important incremental shifts in oral health care delivery and provide best practice models that diminish the oral health crisis faced by underserved populations.

  20. Incremental health system reform policy: Ecuador's law for the provision of free maternity and child care.

    PubMed

    Chiriboga, Sonia Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the impact that the Ley de Maternidad Gratuita y Atencion a la Infancia (LMGAI) [Law for the Provision of Free Maternity and Child Care] in Ecuador has had on health services utilization and infant mortality. These outcomes were also examined by socioeconomic status. This retrospective study used demographic and health surveys, ENDEMAIN 1999 and 2004, with multivariate logistic regression to assess the impact post-LMGAI, controlling for mother's socioeconomic status, maternal and birth history, and demographic characteristics. Primary healthcare services utilization outcomes significantly improved post-LMGAI. Neonatal mortality decreased post-LMGAI. Further evaluation is needed as implementation continues to understand the expansion of primary healthcare services in future health system reforms.

  1. Implementing Family Health Nursing in Tajikistan: from policy to practice in primary health care reform.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Barbara Ann; Cornish, Flora

    2007-10-01

    The health systems of former Soviet Union countries are undergoing reform away from the highly centralised, resource-intensive, specialised and hierarchical Soviet system, towards a more generalist, efficient health service with greater focus on primary health care. Family Health Nursing is a new model designed by WHO Europe in which skilled generalist community nurses deliver primary health care to local communities. This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of the implementation of Family Health Nursing in Tajikistan. Using Stufflebeam's 'Context, Input, Process, and Product' model, the paper aims to evaluate the progress of this reform, and to understand the factors that help or hinder its implementation. A four-phase research design investigates the development of the Family Health Nurse role over time. In 5 rural areas, 6 focus groups and 18 interviews with Family Health Nurses, 4 observations of their practice, 7 interviews with families and 9 interviews with physicians were carried out. Data were analysed according to the components of Stufflebeam's model. Although the legacy of the Soviet health system did not set a precedent for a nurse who is capable of decision-making and who works in partnership with the physician, Family Health Nurses were successfully implementing new practices. Crucial to their ability to do so were the co-operation of physicians and families. Physicians were impressed by the nurses' development of knowledge, and families were impressed that the nurses could offer real solutions to their problems. However, failure to pay the nurses regular salaries had led to serious attrition of the workforce. We conclude that the success of the Family Health Nurse role in other countries will depend upon its position in relation to the historical health care system. PMID:17651876

  2. 77 FR 52741 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 420.300 Changes in Compendial Specifications and New Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Specifications and New Drug Application Supplements; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) Sec. 420.300 Changes in Compendial Specifications and New Drug.... Ouderkirk, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire...

  3. Radical Reform or Incremental Change? Student Loan Policy Alternatives for the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladieux, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The federal student loan program is examined with focus on how well it will serve the country's needs in the 1990s and beyond. A series of papers are presented in two parts. Part one, Student Loan Policy and Proposals for Change, includes the following papers: "Appearance and Reality in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program" (M. McPherson); "Neither…

  4. Community Schools as Urban District Reform: Analyzing Oakland's Policy Landscape through Oral Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina M.; Hernández, Laura E.; Jarrell, Tonja; Kissell, René

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the multiple political histories that have coalesced to produce support for or resistance to the Oakland Unified School District's full-service community schools policy. It analyzes oral history interview data from eight stakeholders who represent the district's major constituencies to…

  5. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  6. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  7. The Effect of Jail Reform Policies on Guard/Management Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrebin, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed 60 jail corrections officers in four types of jails to examine views about working relations and judgments of institutional policy. Respondents reported feeling unappreciated by superiors and powerless in relation to inmates. Officers were caught between administration demands for safety and recently acquired rights of inmates. (NB)

  8. Education Policy and "Friedmanomics": Free Market Ideology and Its Impact on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiala, Thomas J.; Owens, Deborah Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of neoliberal ideology, and in particular, the economic and social theories of Milton Friedman on education policy. The paper takes a critical theoretical approach in that ultimately the paper is an ideological critique of conservative thought and action that impacts twenty-first century education…

  9. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  10. The New Education Philanthropy: Politics, Policy, and Reform. Educational Innovations Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M., Ed.; Henig, Jeffrey R., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Philanthropic foundations play an increasingly influential role in education research, policy, and practice--yet this sector has been subject to little research-informed analysis. In "The New Education Philanthropy," Frederick M. Hess and Jeffrey R. Henig convene a diverse group of scholars and analysts to examine the shifting role of…

  11. Developing and Implementing Academic Standards: A Template for Legislative and Policy Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Lance T.

    This template is part of a series that recommends best practices and highlights problems that arise when policy deviates from these best practices. The booklet defines and outlines the critical components of a successful academic standards system using examples of good and bad standards to illustrate key points. The template addresses such…

  12. Competency-based Training: Evidence of a Failed Policy in Training Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornford, Ian R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines whether competency-based training is working in practice in Australian vocational education and whether it is producing superior skill performance. Explores the ideological nature of the competency-based training policy framework and the nature of related research commissioned by government agencies. Reviews the empirical evidence that…

  13. Evidence, Policy and the Reform of Primary Education: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Here, at "FORUM's" invitation, is the text of the 2014 Godfrey Thomson Trust public lecture at the University of Edinburgh. Its backdrop is the centralisation of educational decision-making in England since 1988 and the power and patronage exercised by the Secretary of State. Taking as examples recent policies on childhood,…

  14. The Medicalization of Current Educational Research and Its Effects on Education Policy and School Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tröhler, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption of the emergence of an educationalized culture over the last 200 years according to which perceived social problems are translated into educational challenges. As a result, both educational institutions and educational research grew, and educational policy resulted from negotiations between professionals,…

  15. Rhode Island Pension Reform: Implications and Opportunities for Education. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2011-01-01

    On August 24, 2010, the state of Rhode Island received some outstanding news. Its yearlong, bipartisan effort to develop new policies to spur educational improvement was about to pay off. The state, along with eight others and the District of Columbia, was named a winner of the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top grant competition. The…

  16. The Impact of 2002 National Teacher Contract Policy Reform on Teacher Absenteeism in Lahore, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Masooma

    2010-01-01

    Teacher absenteeism is a persistent problem in Pakistani government schools. Under a new policy, teachers hired in Pakistani schools after 2002 are hired on fixed term contracts that are renewed, in part, based on low absenteeism. This study uses qualitative analysis techniques to assess the impact of contractual hiring on teacher absenteeism…

  17. The Role of Learning Progressions in Standards-Based Education Reform. Policy Brief. RB-52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Frederic A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "learning progressions" has begun to show up in discussions of education policy and research as a potential answer to the question of how to specify what being "on track" might mean. A number of recent NRC (National Research Council) reports on science education highlight the concept (National Research Council, 2001; National…

  18. An Exploration of E-Learning Benefits for Saudi Arabia: Toward Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrashidi, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine policies and solutions addressing (a) improving education for citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and (b) providing alternative instructional delivery methods, including e-learning for those living in remote areas. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this study was based on the…

  19. Educational Outcomes, Policy Reform and Cultural Capital in Italian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polesel, John

    2010-01-01

    Italy's poor performance in various indicators of educational achievement, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), has featured strongly in analyses of Italian education policy, and its progress towards the Lisbon objectives has been slow. With weak outcomes often linked to a highly stratified system of upper secondary…

  20. Reflection on the Education Policy Orientation in Post-May 31 Reform in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Jae; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    For the last 70 years, since the establishment of the Republic of Korea, Korean education has achieved universal expansion of educational opportunity from elementary to secondary to higher education. Planning, centralized policy making, top-down implementation, and administrative control had been the standards of the first few decades of Korean…

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400...

  2. Binarisms, regressive outcomes and biases in the drug policy interventions: a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József

    2005-01-01

    The golden age of drug policy was characterized by the informal regulation of drug use. Formalization of the control over regulation and its increasingly strict, aggressive character led to the emergence of a binary attitude. The main binarisms: pharmaceutical or drug; ban or tolerance; punishment or treatment; psychopathological or pathopsychological approach; subjective or objective knowledge; traditional or alternative. On the basis of Kuhn's paradigm theory, these binarisms can be integrated. Drug policy interventions based on the binary attitude have had regressive effects. Using the work of Sam Sieber, the author distinguishes nine regressive influences: functional imbalance, perverse diagnosis, ricochet, overload, goal displacement, exploitation, provocation, classification, and placation. The regressive influences have caused the escalation of "the drug problem," which in turn has led to further regressive interventions. This vicious circle could be broken by eliminating the four biases--the paternalistic, elitist, rationalist, and activist biases--underlying the regressive interventions.

  3. Hospitalization due to drug use did not change after a decade of the Psychiatric Reform

    PubMed Central

    Balbinot, Alexandre Dido; Horta, Rogério Lessa; da Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias; Araújo, Renata Brasil; Poletto, Simone; Teixeira, Marina Bressaneli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the psychiatric hospitalization rates due to use of psychoactive substances and average time of hospitalization suffered any changes after the first decade of effective implementation of the psychiatric reform in Brazil. METHODS This article examines the evolution of hospitalizations due to disorders arising from the use of alcohol or other substances in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2012. This is an ecological, time-series study, which uses data from admissions obtained by the Informatics Service of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Hospitalization rates by 100,000 inhabitants and average time of occupancy of beds were estimated. Coefficients of variation of these rates were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The total and male hospitalization rates did not vary (p = 0.056 and p = 0.244, respectively). We observed an increase of 3.0% for the female sex (p = 0.049). We did not observe any significant variation for occupancy time of beds. CONCLUSIONS The deployment of services triggered by the Brazilian psychiatric reform was not accompanied by a reduction of hospitalization rates or mean occupancy time of hospitalized patients during this first decade of implementation of the reform. PMID:27253902

  4. Reforming private drug coverage in Canada: inefficient drug benefit design and the barriers to change in unionized settings.

    PubMed

    O'Brady, Sean; Gagnon, Marc-André; Cassels, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Prescription drugs are the highest single cost component for employees' benefits packages in Canada. While industry literature considers cost-containment for prescription drug costs to be a priority for insurers and employers, the implementation of cost-containment measures for private drug plans in Canada remains more of a myth than a reality. Through 18 semi-structured phone interviews conducted with experts from private sector companies, unions, insurers and plan advisors, this study explores the reasons behind this incapacity to implement cost-containment measures by examining how private sector employers negotiate drug benefit design in unionized settings. Respondents were asked questions on how employee benefits are negotiated; the relationships between the players who influence drug benefit design; the role of these players' strategies in influencing plan design; the broad system that underpins drug benefit design; and the potential for a universal pharmacare program in Canada. The study shows that there is consensus about the need to educate employees and employers, more collaboration and data-sharing between these two sets of players, and for external intervention from government to help transform established norms in terms of private drug plan design. PMID:25498311

  5. Orphan drug incentives in the pharmacogenomic context: policy responses in the US and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Shannon; von Tigerstrom, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Advances in pharmacogenomic research and increasing industry interest in personalized medicine have important implications for the way that orphan drug policies are interpreted and applied. Concerns have been raised about the potential impact of pharmacogenomics and new genomic technologies on our understanding of how disease categories are delineated, and subsequently, how the concept of rare disease should be defined for the purposes of orphan drug policies. This article considers whether orphan drug legislation can be drafted in a way that will maximize benefits and minimize concerns relating to the impact of pharmacogenomics on orphan drug research and development. After reviewing the issues that may arise at the intersection of orphan drug policies and pharmacogenomics, this article will discuss the potential impact of pharmacogenomics at two critical points: orphan designation and approval of the drug product. At each of these points, the relevant aspects of current US orphan drug legislation are examined, focusing on the extent to which recent amendments may address concerns that have been raised previously. This analysis will then provide the foundation for a critical review and recommendations regarding the proposed new Canadian orphan drug framework. PMID:27774196

  6. Methaqualone misuse: foreign experience and United States drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Falco, M

    1976-01-01

    In 1972 methaqualone emerged as a major drug of nonmedical use in the United States--a subject of widespread publicity and public concern. In late 1973, government officials responded by taking the unprecedented measure of imposing the strictest controls available under United States law on a drug which had previously been subject only to a simple prescription requirement. Methaqualone had a similar history in other countries, particularly in Germany, Japan, and Great Britain. However, this history was ignored by United States officials until nonmedical methaqualone use had become a substantial problem in the United States.

  7. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm.

  8. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. PMID:23809914

  9. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. PMID:25975381

  10. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors.

  11. Tobacco, the Common Enemy and a Gateway Drug: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Jun, Mi Kyung; Nowicke, Carole; de Martinez, Barbara Seitz; Gassman, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    For the four leading causes of death in the United States (heart disease, cancer, stroke and chronic respiratory disease), tobacco use is a common risk factor. Tobacco use is responsible for almost 450,000 deaths per year and impacts the health of every member of our society. Tobacco is a gateway drug for substance abuse. That role is critical to…

  12. Justice Implications of a Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the…

  13. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. RAND's Drug Policy Research Center.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Peter; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Caulkins, Jonathan P

    2011-02-01

    In September 1989, amid an emotional and ideological debate regarding problematic drug use in the United States and the 'war on drugs', RAND's Drug Policy Research Center (DPRC) was created through private foundation funds. The purpose of this new research center was to provide objective empirical analysis on which to base sound drug policy. Twenty years later, RAND's DPRC continues its work, drawing on a broad range of analytical expertise to evaluate, compare and assess the effectiveness of a similarly broad range of drug policies. More than 60 affiliated researchers in the United States and Europe make up the Center, which attempts to provide objective empirical analyses to better inform drug policies within the United States and abroad. This paper provides a look back at the creation, evolution and growth of the Center. It then describes how the Center operates today and how it has maintained its clear identity and focus by drawing on the analytical capabilities of a talented group of researchers from a broad range of academic disciplines.

  14. 21 CFR 1405.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) Office of National Drug Control Policy awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Drug Control Policy awarding official? 1405.400 Section 1405.400 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug Control Policy Awarding Officials § 1405.400 What are...

  15. Consequences of birth policies and practices in post-reform China.

    PubMed

    Harris, Amanda; Gao, Yu; Barclay, Lesley; Belton, Suzanne; Yue, Zweng Wei; Min, Hao; Auqun, Xu; Hua, Liao; Yun, Zhou

    2007-11-01

    This paper comments on the provision of birthing services in Sichuan and Shanxi Provinces in China within a policy context. The goal was to understand possible unintended and harmful health outcomes for women in the light of international evidence, to better inform practice and policy development. Data were collected from October 2005 to April 2007 in 25 hospitals across 13 counties and one city. Normal and caesarean birth records were audited, observations made of facilities and interviews conducted with officials, administrators, health workers, women who delivered in hospital facilities and women who delivered at home. We argue that in the context of a neo-liberal health economy with poorly developed government regulatory policies, those with the power to pay for maternity care may be vulnerable to a new range of risks to their health from those positioned to make a profit. While poor communities may lack access to basic services, wealthier socio-economic groups may risk an increase in maternal morbidity and mortality through the overuse of avoidable intervention. We recommend a stronger evidence base for hospital maternity services and changes to the role of the State in countering systemic problems.

  16. Has United States Drug Policy Failed? And How Could We Know?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Rossi, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of drug policy tend not to consider whether the stated goals of policies are an accurate statement of what they are meant to do and also may not consider the fact that what benefits some people may harm others. We explore these issues and present an agenda for research in this area that, while not eliminating these difficulties, both illuminates them and can help guide actors toward more effective action. PMID:23186421

  17. [The list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program and the Brazilian National Pharmaceutical Care Policy].

    PubMed

    Yamauti, Sueli Miyuki; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the list of drugs in the Popular Pharmacy Program in Brazil (PFPB) in relation to the country's pharmaceutical care policy. The list of drugs in the PFPB was compared to the Brazilian and international reference lists of essential medicines, the components of pharmaceutical care in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), and drug production by the country's government pharmaceutical laboratories. The PFPB list includes 119 drugs, of which 19.3% and 47.1% were not selected on the Brazilian and international reference lists, respectively; 16.8% are not used in primary care, and 40.3% are not produced by the country's government laboratories. A revision of the PFPB list based on the essential medicines concept (World Health Organization), alignment of pharmaceutical care policies, and production by government laboratories are essential to improve quality of health care, management, training of prescribers, and information for the population.

  18. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

    PubMed

    Nay, Olivier; Béjean, Sophie; Benamouzig, Daniel; Bergeron, Henri; Castel, Patrick; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-05-28

    Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. PMID:27145707

  19. Reforming agricultural nonpoint pollution policy in an increasingly budget-constrained environment.

    PubMed

    Shortle, James S; Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D; Blandford, David

    2012-02-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution has long been recognized as an important contributor to U.S. water quality problems and the subject of an array of local, state, and federal initiatives to reduce the problem. A "pay-the-polluter" approach to getting farmers to adopt best management practices has not succeeded in improving water quality in many impaired watersheds. With the prospects of reduced funding for the types of financial and technical assistance programs that have been the mainstay of agricultural water quality policy, alternative approaches need to be considered. Some changes to the way current conservation programs are implemented could increase their efficiency, but there are limits to how effective a purely voluntary approach can be. An alternative paradigm is the "polluter pays" approach, which has been successfully employed to reduce point source pollution. A wholesale implementation of the polluter-pays approach to agriculture is likely infeasible, but elements of the polluter-pays approach could be incorporated into agricultural water quality policy.

  20. A window of opportunity for reform in post-conflict settings? The case of Human Resources for Health policies in Sierra Leone, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is recognized that decisions taken in the early recovery period may affect the development of health systems. Additionally, some suggest that the immediate post-conflict period may allow for the opening of a political ‘window of opportunity’ for reform. For these reasons, it is useful to reflect on the policy space that exists in this period, by what it is shaped, how decisions are made, and what are their long-term implications. Examining the policy trajectory and its determinants can be helpful to explore the specific features of the post-conflict policy-making environment. With this aim, the study looks at the development of policies on human resources for health (HRH) in Sierra Leone over the decade after the conflict (2002–2012). Methods Multiple sources were used to collect qualitative data on the period between 2002 and 2012: a stakeholder mapping workshop, a document review and a series of key informant interviews. The analysis draws from political economy and policy analysis tools, focusing on the drivers of reform, the processes, the contextual features, and the actors and agendas. Findings Our findings identify three stages of policy-making. At first characterized by political uncertainty, incremental policies and stop-gap measures, the context substantially changed in 2009. The launch of the Free Health Care Initiative provided to be an instrumental event and catalyst for health system, and HRH, reform. However, after the launch of the initiative, the pace of HRH decision-making again slowed down. Conclusions Our study identifies the key drivers of HRH policy trajectory in Sierra Leone: (i) the political situation, at first uncertain and later on more defined; (ii) the availability of funding and the stances of agencies providing such funds; (iii) the sense of need for radical change – which is perhaps the only element related to the post-conflict setting. It also emerges that a ‘windows of opportunity’ for reform did not open

  1. Policy advocacy for female injecting drug users in eastern and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakowicz, Anna

    2010-10-01

    A key reason for hosting AIDS 2010 in Vienna was to highlight the spread of HIV through injecting drug use, something that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In this article, based on a presentation at the conference, Anna Zakowicz discusses the options for promoting policy advocacy for female injecting drug users (IDUs) in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:21413621

  2. Psychedelics and cognitive liberty: Reimagining drug policy through the prism of human rights.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This paper reimagines drug policy--specifically psychedelic drug policy--through the prism of human rights. Challenges to the incumbent prohibitionist paradigm that have been brought from this perspective to date--namely by calling for exemptions from criminalisation on therapeutic or religious grounds--are considered, before the assertion is made that there is a need to go beyond such reified constructs, calling for an end to psychedelic drug prohibitions on the basis of the more fundamental right to cognitive liberty. This central concept is explicated, asserted as being a crucial component of freedom of thought, as enshrined within Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It is argued that the right to cognitive liberty is routinely breached by the existence of the system of drug prohibition in the United Kingdom (UK), as encoded within the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (MDA). On this basis, it is proposed that Article 9 could be wielded to challenge the prohibitive system in the courts. This legal argument is supported by a parallel and entwined argument grounded in the political philosophy of classical liberalism: namely, that the state should only deploy the criminal law where an individual's actions demonstrably run a high risk of causing harm to others. Beyond the courts, it is recommended that this liberal, rights-based approach also inform psychedelic drug policy activism, moving past the current predominant focus on harm reduction, towards a prioritization of benefit maximization. How this might translate in to a different regulatory model for psychedelic drugs, a third way, distinct from the traditional criminal and medical systems of control, is tentatively considered. However, given the dominant political climate in the UK--with its move away from rights and towards a more authoritarian drug policy--the possibility that it is only through underground movements that cognitive liberty will be assured in the foreseeable future is

  3. Psychedelics and cognitive liberty: Reimagining drug policy through the prism of human rights.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This paper reimagines drug policy--specifically psychedelic drug policy--through the prism of human rights. Challenges to the incumbent prohibitionist paradigm that have been brought from this perspective to date--namely by calling for exemptions from criminalisation on therapeutic or religious grounds--are considered, before the assertion is made that there is a need to go beyond such reified constructs, calling for an end to psychedelic drug prohibitions on the basis of the more fundamental right to cognitive liberty. This central concept is explicated, asserted as being a crucial component of freedom of thought, as enshrined within Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It is argued that the right to cognitive liberty is routinely breached by the existence of the system of drug prohibition in the United Kingdom (UK), as encoded within the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (MDA). On this basis, it is proposed that Article 9 could be wielded to challenge the prohibitive system in the courts. This legal argument is supported by a parallel and entwined argument grounded in the political philosophy of classical liberalism: namely, that the state should only deploy the criminal law where an individual's actions demonstrably run a high risk of causing harm to others. Beyond the courts, it is recommended that this liberal, rights-based approach also inform psychedelic drug policy activism, moving past the current predominant focus on harm reduction, towards a prioritization of benefit maximization. How this might translate in to a different regulatory model for psychedelic drugs, a third way, distinct from the traditional criminal and medical systems of control, is tentatively considered. However, given the dominant political climate in the UK--with its move away from rights and towards a more authoritarian drug policy--the possibility that it is only through underground movements that cognitive liberty will be assured in the foreseeable future is

  4. Comprehensive Legislative Reform to Protect the Integrity of the 340B Drug Discount Program.

    PubMed

    Zeta, Lowell M

    2015-01-01

    The 40B Drug Discount Program (340B Program) is a federally facilitated program that requires drug manufacturers to provide steep discounts on outpatient prescription drugs to qualifying safety net health care providers. The federal program is intended as a safeguard to ensure access to affordable drugs to the indigeut. However, over the last two decades safety net health care providers have exploited financial incentives under the 340B Program at the expense of drug manufacturers and patients, including the most needy and vulnerable populations-they are committed to serve. Although the federal government has been applauded for increasing effortsto combat health care fraud and abuse including recovering $3.3 billion in 2014, federal officials and the general public have paid markedly less attention to pervasive abuse of the 340B Program. In 2014, drug purchases of 340B-designated drugs totaled $7 billion and are expected to increase to $12 billion: by 2016 as a result of the expansion of the program under the Affordable Care Act. The 340B Program has completely lost its way, and comprehensive legislation is necessary to realign the program with its intent.

  5. Comprehensive Legislative Reform to Protect the Integrity of the 340B Drug Discount Program.

    PubMed

    Zeta, Lowell M

    2015-01-01

    The 40B Drug Discount Program (340B Program) is a federally facilitated program that requires drug manufacturers to provide steep discounts on outpatient prescription drugs to qualifying safety net health care providers. The federal program is intended as a safeguard to ensure access to affordable drugs to the indigeut. However, over the last two decades safety net health care providers have exploited financial incentives under the 340B Program at the expense of drug manufacturers and patients, including the most needy and vulnerable populations-they are committed to serve. Although the federal government has been applauded for increasing effortsto combat health care fraud and abuse including recovering $3.3 billion in 2014, federal officials and the general public have paid markedly less attention to pervasive abuse of the 340B Program. In 2014, drug purchases of 340B-designated drugs totaled $7 billion and are expected to increase to $12 billion: by 2016 as a result of the expansion of the program under the Affordable Care Act. The 340B Program has completely lost its way, and comprehensive legislation is necessary to realign the program with its intent. PMID:26827389

  6. Improving community health and safety in Canada through evidence-based policies on illegal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Evan; McKinnon, Moira; Strang, Robert; Kendall, Perry R

    2012-01-01

    Illegal drug use remains a serious threat to community health in Canada, yet there has been a remarkable discordance between scientific evidence and policy in this area, with most resources going to drug use prevention and drug law enforcement activities that have proven ineffective. Conversely, evidence-based drug treatment programs have been chronically underfunded, despite their cost-effectiveness. Similarly, various harm reduction strategies, such as needle exchange, supervised injecting programs and opioid substitution therapy, have also proven effective at reducing drug-related harm but receive limited government support. Accordingly, Canadian society would greatly benefit from reorienting its drug policies on addiction, with consideration of addiction as a health issue, rather than primarily a criminal justice issue. In this context, and in light of the simple reality that drug prohibition has not effectively reduced the availability of most illegal drugs and has instead contributed to a vast criminal enterprise and related violence, among other harms, alternatives should be prioritized for evaluation. PMID:22567081

  7. Explaining medical disputes in Chinese public hospitals: the doctor-patient relationship and its implications for health policy reforms.

    PubMed

    He, Alex Jingwei; Qian, Jiwei

    2016-10-01

    In recent years China has witnessed a surge in medical disputes, including many widely reported violent riots, attacks, and protests in hospitals. This is the result of a confluence of inappropriate incentives in the health system, the consequent distorted behaviors of physicians, mounting social distrust of the medical profession, and institutional failures of the legal framework. The detrimental effects of the damaged doctor-patient relationship have begun to emerge, calling for rigorous study and serious policy intervention. Using a sequential exploratory design, this article seeks to explain medical disputes in Chinese public hospitals with primary data collected from Shenzhen City. The analysis finds that medical disputes of various forms are disturbingly widespread and reveals that inappropriate internal incentives in hospitals and the heavy workload of physicians undermine the quality of clinical encounters, which easily triggers disputes. Empirically, a heavy workload is associated with a larger number of disputes. A greater number of disputes are associated with higher-level hospitals, which can afford larger financial settlements. The resolution of disputes via the legal channel appears to be unpopular. This article argues that restoring a healthy doctor-patient relationship is no less important than other institutional aspects of health care reform.

  8. Explaining medical disputes in Chinese public hospitals: the doctor-patient relationship and its implications for health policy reforms.

    PubMed

    He, Alex Jingwei; Qian, Jiwei

    2016-10-01

    In recent years China has witnessed a surge in medical disputes, including many widely reported violent riots, attacks, and protests in hospitals. This is the result of a confluence of inappropriate incentives in the health system, the consequent distorted behaviors of physicians, mounting social distrust of the medical profession, and institutional failures of the legal framework. The detrimental effects of the damaged doctor-patient relationship have begun to emerge, calling for rigorous study and serious policy intervention. Using a sequential exploratory design, this article seeks to explain medical disputes in Chinese public hospitals with primary data collected from Shenzhen City. The analysis finds that medical disputes of various forms are disturbingly widespread and reveals that inappropriate internal incentives in hospitals and the heavy workload of physicians undermine the quality of clinical encounters, which easily triggers disputes. Empirically, a heavy workload is associated with a larger number of disputes. A greater number of disputes are associated with higher-level hospitals, which can afford larger financial settlements. The resolution of disputes via the legal channel appears to be unpopular. This article argues that restoring a healthy doctor-patient relationship is no less important than other institutional aspects of health care reform. PMID:27018911

  9. Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Schools: A Practical Policy Guide for Administrators and Teachers on How to Combat Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John F.; And Others

    This manual focuses on legal issues confronting schools in the area of substance abuse and provides practical policy guidance to public school managers in enforcing a substance abuse policy. After a brief introduction, section 2 examines barriers to action, commenting on several myths affecting drug abuse policy. Section 3 deals with substance…

  10. Public policy update. Welfare reform and teen parents: are we missing the point?

    PubMed

    Wacker, B L; Gambrell, A E

    1994-01-01

    The aim of teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives should be to provide sexuality education that is age-appropriate, medically accurate, and available at each grade level with a positive view of sexuality and information and skills that contribute to sexual health and the ability to make decisions. Abstinence should be included as long as it is not fear-based and is part of the promotion of responsible sexuality. Contraceptive information must be available to those already sexually active. Subsidized day care for children of poor adolescent mothers must be at the top of the agenda of services integrated with job programs and school-to-work initiatives. Quality child care can provide a solid foundation in personal health, negotiation, self-esteem, and individual rights and responsibilities. Quick-fix and punitive measures are out of place in programs that rely on growth in individual responsibility. An innovative approach to social welfare programming would include comprehensive sexuality education, reproductive health services, child care, health insurance, and job training. The Clinton welfare reform drafts combine elements of teen pregnancy prevention with punitive action. What is needed is greater investment in programs enhancing sexuality education, acceptance and understanding of sexuality, and access to affordable reproductive health services. The Clinton plan focuses primarily on the National Mobilization for Youth Opportunity and Responsibility, which is a national media campaign to educate youth about responsibility and the benefits of staying in school and delaying childbearing. About 1000 middle and high schools in high-poverty areas would be targeted. Opportunities would be offered to go to college or have access to job training. Controls would be placed on adolescents by requiring minor parents to live with a responsible adult, minor mothers to stay in school, and to limit disbursements for additional children while on Aid to Families with Dependent

  11. Longitudinal Effects of School Drug Policies on Student Marijuana Use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the longitudinal effect of schools’ drug policies on student marijuana use. Methods. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Results. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Conclusions. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions. PMID:25790384

  12. [Trends and reforms in long-term care policies for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Matus-López, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    One of the main public health concerns in medium and high-income countries is how to deal with problems of functional dependency of a growing number of elderly individuals. This study aimed to identify converging issues in 30 countries with formal long-term care systems. A systematic review included articles, studies, and comparative international reports published from 2010 to 2015. The results show three trends in the design and development of these policies: (a) focus on the oldest or most dependent elderly, (b) expansion of financing based on individual contribution, and (c) promotion of home care and financial benefits for care in specialized centers (nursing homes and similar establishments). All three have positive effects on cost containment, despite limited evidence of impacts on people's health. PMID:26872224

  13. [Trends and reforms in long-term care policies for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Matus-López, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    One of the main public health concerns in medium and high-income countries is how to deal with problems of functional dependency of a growing number of elderly individuals. This study aimed to identify converging issues in 30 countries with formal long-term care systems. A systematic review included articles, studies, and comparative international reports published from 2010 to 2015. The results show three trends in the design and development of these policies: (a) focus on the oldest or most dependent elderly, (b) expansion of financing based on individual contribution, and (c) promotion of home care and financial benefits for care in specialized centers (nursing homes and similar establishments). All three have positive effects on cost containment, despite limited evidence of impacts on people's health.

  14. A cross-national comparison of school drug policies in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Beyers, Jennifer M; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Mathers, Megan; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2005-04-01

    Using mail survey data collected from primary and secondary school administrators in Washington State, United States, and in Victoria, Australia, this study compared aspects of the school drug policy environment in the 2 states. Documented substance-use policies were prevalent in Washington and Victoria but less prevalent.in primary schools, especially in Victoria. Victorian school policy-setting processes were significantly more likely to involve teachers, parents, and students than processes in Washington schools. Consistent with expectations based on their respective national drug policy frameworks, school drug policies in Washington schools were more oriented toward total abstinence and more frequently enforced with harsh punishment (such as expulsion or calling law enforcement), whereas policies in Victorian schools were more reflective of harm-minimization principles. Within both states, however, schools more regularly used harsh punishment and remediation consequences for alcohol and illicit-drug violations compared to tobacco policy violations, which were treated more leniently.

  15. Public and private sector responses to essential drugs policies: a multilevel analysis of drug prescription and selling practices in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Fatoumata Ina; Haddad, Slim; Fournier, Pierre; Gauvin, Lise

    2003-09-01

    Many African countries have introduced cost recovery mechanisms based on the sale of drugs and measures aimed at improving drug supply. This study compares prescribing and selling practices in Mali, in 3 cities where the public sector contributes differentially to the supply of drugs on the market. Multilevel models are used to analyse the content and cost of 700 medication transactions observed in 14 private and public legal points of sale. Results show that the objective of improving access to drugs seems to have been achieved in the sites studied. Costs of prescriptions were lower where public health services had been revitalized. Affordable generic drugs were accessible and widely used, even in the private sector. However, measures intended to rationalize the prescription and delivery of drugs did not always have the desired effect. While agents in the public sector tended to prescribe fewer antibiotics, injectables, or brand-name drugs, the data confirm the virtual absence of advice concerning the use or the side effects of the drugs in both public and private sectors. In addition, data supported the notion that the public and private sectors are closely intertwined. Notably, availability of drugs in the public sector contributed to diminishing the prices charged in the private sector. Similarly, the use that agents in the public sector made of the opportunities afforded by the presence of the private pharmaceutical sector provided another illustration of interrelatedness. Finally, the data showed that the presence of a private sector, which has not been affected by measures aimed at rationalizing prescription and sales practices, limits the effects of measures implemented in the public sector. More assertive policies, based on strategies encompassing actors in the private sector, are needed to increase the safety and effectiveness of prescription and sales practices.

  16. Drug procurement, the Global Fund and misguided competition policies.

    PubMed

    Tren, Richard; Hess, Kimberly; Bate, Roger

    2009-12-22

    In an effort to increase competition and decrease price, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria recently began asking some grant recipients to use international competitive bidding processes for certain drug purchases. Unfortunately, for countries like Kenya, this request has caused more harm than good. After awarding the tender for its annual supply of the anti-malarial artemether-lumefantrine to the lowest bidder, Ajanta Pharma, Kenya experienced wide stock-outs in part due to the company's inability to supply the order in full and on time. Similar problems could arise in Uganda. Despite Kenya's experience, Uganda has awarded its next tender for artemether-lumefantrine to Ajanta Pharma. Uganda is already facing wide stock-outs and risks exacerbating an already dire situation the longer it takes to fulfil the procurement contract. A tender process based primarily on price cannot account for a company's ability to consistently supply sufficient product in time.

  17. Why Do Policy Leaders Adopt Global Education Reforms? A Political Analysis of SBM Reform Adoption in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a political analysis of school-based management reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). School-based management (SBM), based on the principle of school autonomy and community participation, is a school governance system introduced in many parts of the world, including post-conflict nations. Such a phenomenon seems to follow the…

  18. Identifying the Needs of Drug-Affected Children: Public Policy Issues. OSAP Prevention Monograph-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This monograph explores the research findings and experiential knowledge base on toddlers and preschool-age children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol and other drugs. It is designed to influence public policy relating to the needs and early intervention plans for this population, from the medical, child welfare, psychosocial, developmental,…

  19. 21 CFR 1404.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Office of National Drug Control Policy agrees to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Drug Control Policy agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1404.645 Section 1404.645 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General... Office of National Drug Control Policy agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we enter...

  20. Engaging people who use drugs in policy and program development: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Health policies and programs are increasingly being driven by people from the community to more effectively address their needs. While a large body of evidence supports peer engagement in the context of policy and program development for various populations, little is known about this form of engagement among people who use drugs (PWUD). Therefore, a narrative literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of this topic. Searches of PubMed and Academic Search Premier databases covering 1995–2010 were conducted to identify articles assessing peer engagement in policy and program development. In total, 19 articles were included for review. Our findings indicate that PWUD face many challenges that restrict their ability to engage with public health professionals and policy makers, including the high levels of stigma and discrimination that persist among this population. Although the literature shows that many international organizations are recommending the involvement of PWUD in policy and program development, our findings revealed a lack of published data on the implementation of these efforts. Gaps in the current evidence highlight the need for additional research to explore and document the engagement of PWUD in the areas of policy and program development. Further, efforts to minimize stigmatizing barriers associated with illicit drug use are urgently needed to improve the engagement of PWUD in decision making processes. PMID:23176382

  1. Doctors commitment and long-term effectiveness for cost containment policies: lesson learned from biosimilar drugs

    PubMed Central

    Menditto, Enrica; Orlando, Valentina; Coretti, Silvia; Putignano, Daria; Fiorentino, Denise; Ruggeri, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Background Agency is a pervasive feature of the health care market, with doctors acting as agents for both patients and the health care system. In a context of scarce resources, doctors are required to take opportunity cost into account when prescribing treatments, while cost containment policies cannot overlook their active role in determining health care resource allocation. This paper addresses this issue, investigating the effects of cost containment measures in the market of biosimilar drugs that represent a viable and cost-saving strategy for the reduction of health care expenditure. The analysis focuses on a particular region in Italy, where several timely policies to incentivize biosimilar prescribing were launched. Methods Drugs were identified by the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Information about biosimilar drugs and their originator biological products was extracted from the IMS Health regional database. Drug consumption was expressed in terms of counting units, while expenditure was evaluated in Euro (€). The market penetration of biosimilars was analyzed by year and quarterly. Results In the Campania region of Italy, the effects of cost containment policies, launched between 2009 and 2013, showed the prescription of biosimilars strongly increasing in 2010 until prescribing levels reached and exceeded the market share of the reference biological products in 2012. After a slight reduction, a plateau was observed at the beginning of 2013. At the same time, the use of the originator products had been decreasing until the first quarter of 2011. However, after a 1-year plateau, this trend was reversed, with a new increase in the consumption of the originators observed. Conclusion Results show that the cost containment policies, applied to cut health expenditure “to cure and not to care”, did not produce the cultural change necessary to make these policies effective in the long run. Therefore, top-down policies for cost

  2. Urineschool: A Study of the Impact of the Earls Decision on High School Random Drug Testing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Cynthia Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Examines impact of Supreme Court's 2002 decision in "Board of Education v. Earls" on high school random drug-testing policies and practices. Court held that random drug-testing policy at Tecumseh, Oklahoma, school district did not violate students' Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable searches. (Contains 46 references.) (PKP)

  3. Science, law, and politics in the Food and Drug Administration's genetically engineered foods policy: FDA's 1992 policy statement.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David L

    2005-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) 1992 policy statement was developed in the context of critical gaps in scientific knowledge concerning the compositional effects of genetic transformation and severe limitations in methods for safety testing. FDA acknowledged that pleiotropy and insertional mutagenesis may cause unintended changes, but it was unknown whether this happens to a greater extent in genetic engineering compared with traditional breeding. Moreover, the agency was not able to identify methods by which producers could screen for unintended allergens and toxicants. Despite these uncertainties, FDA granted genetically engineered foods the presumption of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and recommended that producers use voluntary consultations before marketing them.

  4. Walking a Policy Tightrope: The Dilemma of Balancing Diversification and Equality in Chinese College Entrance Examination Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Zhuran; Hu, Yingzi

    2013-01-01

    The past decade or so has witnessed a large-scale reform of the Chinese national college entrance exam (the gaokao) system, which nonetheless has been trapped within a dilemma of balancing diversification and equality. Specifically speaking, the reform needs to reconcile the clash between adopting diverse and holistic college admissions to fix the…

  5. Policy Reforms, Trojan Horses, and Imaginary Friends: The Role of External Stakeholders in Internal Quality Assurance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria João; Teixeira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The governance of higher education has been changing across Europe, most notably in response to the reform agenda that has been pervading many higher education systems. This wave of reforms has given enhanced visibility to external stakeholders, which has been often received with contrasting views. Some regarded it as a factor that would undermine…

  6. School Finance Reform: Courts and Legislatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ronald D.

    1974-01-01

    This article examines how legal arguments advocating school finance reform do not provide an adequate basis for dealing with practical problems of implementing such policies. Guidelines for reform of fiscal policy are suggested. (DE)

  7. Effective policy initiatives to constrain lipid-lowering drug expenditure growth in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of prescription drug expenditures is a major problem in South Korea. Accordingly, the South Korean government introduced a positive listing system in 2006. They also adopted various price reduction policies. Nevertheless, the total expenditure for lipid-lowering drugs have steadily increased throughout South Korea. The present study explores the factors that have influenced the increased expenditures of lipid-lowering drugs with a particular focus on the effects of statins in this process. Methods This paper investigates the National Health Insurance claims data for prescribed lipid-lowering drugs collected between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. We specifically focused on statins and assessed the yearly variation of statin expenditure by calculating the increased rate of paired pharmaceutical expenditures over a 2 year period. Our study classified statins into three categories: new entrants, core medicines and exiting medicines. For core medicines, we further examined influencing factors such as price, amount of drugs consumed by volume, and prescription changes (substitutes for other drug). Results Statin expenditure showed an average annual increase of 25.7% between 2005 and 2009. Among the different statins, the expenditure of atorvastatin showed a 36.6% annual increase rate, which was the most dramatic among all statins. Also we divided expenditure for core medicines by the price factor, volume factor, and prescription change. The result showed that annual weighted average prices of individual drug decreased each year, which clearly showed that price influenced statin expenditure in a negative direction. The use of generic drugs containing the same active ingredient as name-brand drugs increased and negatively affected statin expenditure (Generic Mix effect). However, the use of relatively expensive ingredients within statin increase, Ingredient Mix effect contributed to increased statin expenditure (Ingredient Mix effect

  8. Management of clandestine drug laboratories: need for evidence-based environmental health policies.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Tamara A; Fletcher, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    Clandestine drug laboratories (CDLs) have been emerging and increasing as a public health problem in Australia, with methamphetamine being the dominant illegally manufactured drug. However, management and remediation of contaminated properties are still limited in terms of regulation and direction, especially in relation to public and environmental health practice. Therefore, this review provides an update on the hazards and health effects associated with CDLs, with a specific look at the management of these labs from an Australian perspective. Particularly, the paper attempts to describe the policy landscape for management of CDLs, and identifies current gaps and how further research may be utilised to advance understanding and management of CDLs and inform public health policies. The paper highlights a significant lack of evidence-based policies and guidelines to guide regulatory authority including environmental health officers in Australia. Only recently, the national Clandestine Drug Laboratory Guidelines were developed to assist relevant authority and specialists manage and carry out investigations and remediation of contaminated sites. However, only three states have developed state-based guidelines, some of which are inadequate to meet environmental health requirements. The review recommends well-needed inter-sectoral collaborations and further research to provide an evidence base for the development of robust policies and standard operating procedures for safe and effective environmental health management and remediation of CDLs.

  9. Paradigms of public policies for licit and illicit drugs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Analice; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Tapia Aguilera, Amarílis; Rezende, Elton; Ogata Perrenoud, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions that, over the last 3 decades, has been making increased efforts to develop effective public policies for controlling the use of both licit and illicit psychoactive substances. In the case of licit drugs, Brazil was a pioneer in following the guidance of the World Health Organization for tobacco control and has witnessed surprising results relating to reduction of smoking prevalence and correlated morbidity and mortality. Today, Brazil has a national structure for organizing, applying, and monitoring laws relating to tobacco. However, in the field of illicit drugs, with crack consumption as a paradigm, the situation is the opposite: its use has been increasing year by year and is being consumed at increasingly young ages and by all social classes. Thus, it is becoming an enormous challenge for public policies relating to prevention and treatment. In this context, the aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological data relating to tobacco and crack use in Brazil, with an analysis on the impact of public policies for controlling consumption over recent years. Despite the efforts made over the last 3 decades, Brazil still has a long way to go in order to construct a consistent and effective national drugs policy.

  10. A Decade of Controversy: Balancing Policy With Evidence in the Regulation of Prescription Drug Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Grande, David; Tarn, Derjung M.; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has remained controversial since regulations were liberalized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1997. We reviewed empirical evidence addressing the claims made in the policy debate for and against DTCA. This advertising has some benefits, but significant risks are evident as well, magnified by the prominence of DTCA in population-level health communications. To minimize potential harm and maximize the benefits of DTCA for population health, the quality and quantity of information should be improved to enable consumers to better self-identify whether treatment is indicated, more realistically appraise the benefits, and better attend to the risks associated with prescription drugs. We propose guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising. PMID:19910354

  11. Expert committee to formulate policy and guidelines for approval of new drugs, clinical trials and banning of drugs-comments

    PubMed Central

    Ghooi, Ravindra B.

    2014-01-01

    All is not well with the clinical research industry. Instances of scientific misconduct by investigators, cutting corners by sponsors, irregularities by regulators, have brought a bad name to the industry. These however form a small part of the clinical research done in this country. The US FDA has conducted over 40 audits, and not made any major observations, suggesting that the clinical research in India is by and large above board. Regulators have amended trial rules recently which have cost the industry dear. A committee appointed to formulate the policy and guidelines for approval of new drugs, clinical trials and banning of the drugs has made 25 recommendations of which most are either superfluous or not likely produce the desired effect. Clubbing banning of the drugs with approval of new drugs and clinical trials also does not make sense, since the mechanisms involved are totally different. Barring a few, most recommendations are counterproductive and should be rejected outright. It is time we learnt that appointment of a committee is not the best way to solve a problem. PMID:24987579

  12. Research influence on antimalarial drug policy change in Tanzania: case study of replacing chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as the first-line drug

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Research is an essential tool in facing the challenges of scaling up interventions and improving access to services. As in many other countries, the translation of research evidence into drug policy action in Tanzania is often constrained by poor communication between researchers and policy decision-makers, individual perceptions or attitudes towards the drug and hesitation by some policy decision-makers to approve change when they anticipate possible undesirable repercussions should the policy change as proposed. Internationally, literature on the role of researchers on national antimalarial drug policy change is limited. Objectives To describe the (a) role of researchers in producing evidence that influenced the Tanzanian government replace chloroquine (CQ) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the first-line drug and the challenges faced in convincing policy-makers, general practitioners, pharmaceutical industry and the general public on the need for change (b) challenges ahead before a new drug combination treatment policy is introduced in Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews were held with national-level policy-makers, malaria control programme managers, pharmaceutical officers, general medical practitioners, medical research library and publications officers, university academicians, heads of medical research institutions and district and regional medical officers. Additional data were obtained through a review of malaria drug policy documents and participant observations were also done. Results In year 2001, the Tanzanian Government officially changed its malaria treatment policy guidelines whereby CQ – the first-line drug for a long time was replaced with SP. This policy decision was supported by research evidence indicating parasite resistance to CQ and clinical CQ treatment failure rates to have reached intolerable levels as compared to SP and amodiaquine (AQ). Research also indicated that since SP was also facing rising resistance trend

  13. In Defense of the Alien. Volume VII. Immigration Reform and Refugee Developments. Proceedings of the Center for Migration Studies Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy (7th, Washington, DC, March 29-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1984 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy are collected in this book. Following a brief introduction, 16 papers are presented under three major headings: Immigration Legislation Reform; Immigration Legislation Practice; and Refugees: Policy and Legal Developments. The papers (and their authors)…

  14. Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Ireland: Institutional Reform and Policy Developments since the 1960s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heraty, Noreen; Morley, Michael J.; McCarthy, Alma

    2000-01-01

    This overview of the Irish educational system examines vocational education and training, the role of the European Union, legislative measures, and institutional reforms. The following challenges are discussed: economic infrastructure, skill shortages, and the inclusiveness of the educational system. (SK)

  15. Drug policy and global regulatory capitalism: the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS).

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2014-09-01

    The recent emergence of vibrant markets in 'new psychoactive substances' or 'legal highs' has posed significant new challenges for drug policy. These partly concern what to do about them but the speed and complexity of change has also raised difficulties for how policy responses should be developed. Existing drug policy systems appear too slow and cumbersome to keep up with the pace of change, remaining locked in large part within 'old' ways of thinking that centre almost exclusively around the deployment (or not) of the criminal law and its related enforcement apparatus. In this paper, it is argued that we need to rethink the problem through the lens of regulation, in order to learn lessons from other sectors where more agile responses to changing markets and business innovation have often proved possible. By examining examples drawn from these other areas, an alternative policy-making framework can be developed, involving a more flexible mix of state regulation, civil society action and private law mechanisms. This new approach is founded on a recognition of the networked and polycentric character of effective market governance in an era of global regulatory capitalism. PMID:24768473

  16. Drug policy and global regulatory capitalism: the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS).

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2014-09-01

    The recent emergence of vibrant markets in 'new psychoactive substances' or 'legal highs' has posed significant new challenges for drug policy. These partly concern what to do about them but the speed and complexity of change has also raised difficulties for how policy responses should be developed. Existing drug policy systems appear too slow and cumbersome to keep up with the pace of change, remaining locked in large part within 'old' ways of thinking that centre almost exclusively around the deployment (or not) of the criminal law and its related enforcement apparatus. In this paper, it is argued that we need to rethink the problem through the lens of regulation, in order to learn lessons from other sectors where more agile responses to changing markets and business innovation have often proved possible. By examining examples drawn from these other areas, an alternative policy-making framework can be developed, involving a more flexible mix of state regulation, civil society action and private law mechanisms. This new approach is founded on a recognition of the networked and polycentric character of effective market governance in an era of global regulatory capitalism.

  17. A review of drug policy in the Golden Crescent: towards the development of more effective solutions.

    PubMed

    Talpur, Anushka; George, Tony P

    2014-12-01

    There is a high prevalence of drug trafficking and misuse in Asia. Drugs grown in Afghanistan are trafficked through Iran and Pakistan to the rest of the world. This has led to an increase in the prevalence of drug use disorders in these regions, especially heroin. This has in turn led to an increase in the use of syringes and syringe sharing which has resulted in the exponential spread of blood borne diseases such as HIV/AIDS. A lack of awareness of the detrimental use of heroin, syringe sharing and the concept of HIV has been revealed. The literature reviewed provides evidence for a change in policy with an increase in epidemiological and clinical research in these regions as well as an increase in public awareness. PMID:25440559

  18. Changes in prescribing behaviors after implementing drug reimbursement rate reduction policy in Taiwan: implications for the medicare system.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsuan-Lien; Liu, Shuen-Zen; Romeis, James C

    2008-01-01

    Prescription drug costs are the fastest rising component of health care spending worldwide. To control drug costs, the Bureau of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan has taken a series of actions over the years to reduce drug reimbursement rates. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in physicians' prescribing behaviors after initial implementation of drug reimbursement rate reduction policy in Taiwan. For the study, variance cost analysis was used to investigate how physicians reacted after implementation of a policy that reduced selected drug reimbursement rates. The results indicate that the existence of financial benefits from prescribing drugs seems to create an incentive for physicians to increase prescription duration and drug items per prescription. In addition, differences in drug reimbursement rates may create incentives to prescribe drugs with higher revenue instead of lower revenue. From Taiwan's experience, we know that price is merely one of the many factors that influences drug expenditures. Taiwan's experience may offer lessons for the future of the Medicare system, as well as for non-US health policy officials when they design similar policies for their own countries. PMID:18468378

  19. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  20. The role of coalitions in drug policy. Some theoretical and observational considerations.

    PubMed

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2011-01-01

    Democratically organised societies have to find ways how to proceed when in need of a reformulation of strategies in face of new societal and technological developments, especially in dealing with controversial preferences and interests. The area of drug policy change presents an excellent example for discussing the problem and the process of coalition building for finding acceptable answers to new challenges. Modern sociological theory has developed concepts and tools for a description and analysis of such processes. Some concrete case studies from Swiss cities are available as a basis for advanced discussion of theoretical concepts. The observational description of the coalition building in the city of Zurich helps to illustrate the inherent elements, problems and outcomes; a more detailed process analysis focuses on the initial phases and further development of the various formal and informal coalitions, introducing the importance of shared objectives for action and the need for concerted activities. A clear policy concept and a consistent action plan were not available at first, but they proved to be an important step in the consolidation of what was a non-systematic beginning. What started at local level and led to a new national policy was not so much a continued clash between two ideologies - harm reduction versus strict prohibition -, but was the beginning of a new thinking about how the various policy elements could successfully work together in the pursuit of a shared concrete objective. These observations may be considered in further theory development and policy considerations. PMID:21814706

  1. The role of coalitions in drug policy. Some theoretical and observational considerations.

    PubMed

    Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2011-01-01

    Democratically organised societies have to find ways how to proceed when in need of a reformulation of strategies in face of new societal and technological developments, especially in dealing with controversial preferences and interests. The area of drug policy change presents an excellent example for discussing the problem and the process of coalition building for finding acceptable answers to new challenges. Modern sociological theory has developed concepts and tools for a description and analysis of such processes. Some concrete case studies from Swiss cities are available as a basis for advanced discussion of theoretical concepts. The observational description of the coalition building in the city of Zurich helps to illustrate the inherent elements, problems and outcomes; a more detailed process analysis focuses on the initial phases and further development of the various formal and informal coalitions, introducing the importance of shared objectives for action and the need for concerted activities. A clear policy concept and a consistent action plan were not available at first, but they proved to be an important step in the consolidation of what was a non-systematic beginning. What started at local level and led to a new national policy was not so much a continued clash between two ideologies - harm reduction versus strict prohibition -, but was the beginning of a new thinking about how the various policy elements could successfully work together in the pursuit of a shared concrete objective. These observations may be considered in further theory development and policy considerations.

  2. 21 CFR 1404.615 - How does the Office of National Drug Control Policy notify a person of a suspension or debarment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the Office of National Drug Control Policy notify a person of a suspension or debarment action? 1404.615 Section 1404.615 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT)...

  3. Policy and Practice Model of Public-Private Partnership in Public Hospitals during the New Medical Reform Period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets. PMID:27273961

  4. Policy and Practice Model of Public-Private Partnership in Public Hospitals during the New Medical Reform Period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets.

  5. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: review of current situation, prevention and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  6. Mandatory Drug Testing of Student Athletes: A Policy Response to "Vernonia School District, 47J v. Acton."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.; Carroll, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Vernonia (Oregon) School District passed a mandatory random drug testing policy for student athletes that was later upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. A survey of randomly selected superintendents in five geographic regions disclosed that a majority of respondents who knew about the case were leaning toward not adopting a similar policy. (28…

  7. 77 FR 48159 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... draft guidance entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for 510(k)s.'' The purpose of this document is to... (510(k)) submission is administratively complete, which determines whether it should be accepted...

  8. A Cross-National Comparison of School Drug Policies in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Jennifer M.; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Mathers, Megan; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Using mail survey data collected from primary and secondary school administrators in Washington State, United States, and in Victoria, Australia, this study compared aspects of the school drug policy, environment in the 2 states. Documented substance-use policies were prevalent in Washington and Victoria but less prevalent in primary schools,…

  9. Seeking Common Ground on Education Reform: An Annotated Collection of Resources [and] Policy Options for Seeking Common Ground in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crohn, Leslie; Hagans, Rex W.

    Reforming schools involves change and, like all change, it faces opposition. This 2-part report is designed to help local school and community leaders involved in education who are experiencing growing opposition to school improvement efforts. The first part includes materials and resources educational leaders can use to promote change. Each entry…

  10. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  11. Financial Policies for Education in the "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline (2010-20)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liansheng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The "National Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Guideline (2010-20)" (hereafter abbreviated as the "Guideline"), formulated by the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and the State Council, posits the basic completion of the modernization of China's education and other development targets by 2020. As measures to…

  12. Implementing the U.S. Legalization Program: The Influence of Immigrant Communities and Local Agencies on Immigration Policy Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Jacqueline Maria; Baker, Susan Gonzalez

    1993-01-01

    Results of two longitudinal studies in a southwestern city suggest that local interpretations of the legalization program of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act affected program outcomes by expanding the scope of the program beyond the participation rate projected by national policymakers. (SLD)

  13. Launching Comprehensive School Reform: Early Lessons for State and Federal Policymakers. Policy Issues, September 1999. Issue 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lawrence B.; Hanson, Matthew

    This publication examines education stakeholders' initial responses to the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) program in six states in the North Central region of the U.S. Created by Congress in 1997 to help raise student achievement in public schools, the CSRD program is a multi-year initiative that provides financial incentives to…

  14. The Future of Vouchers as Educational Reform, Political Strategy, Economic Solution, and Public Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan Brown, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies. Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives. To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats. To others, they signify a threat to the very…

  15. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  17. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  18. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.400 - What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other drugs? 102-74.400 Section 102-74.400 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Narcotics and Other Drugs § 102-74.400 What is the policy concerning the possession and use of narcotics and other...

  20. Beyond America’s War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S.; Elliott, Luther

    2015-01-01

    This paper places America’s “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America’s experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America’s Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society. PMID:25893215

  1. Manganese-induced Parkinsonism among ephedrone users and drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Kołodziejczyk, Iwona; Gajda, Tomasz; Majkowska-Zwolińska, Beata; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    A recent government's prohibition policy in Poland was partially successful with a reduction of the synthetic drugs market and a decrease in drug-related poisoning mortality rates. However, a new threatening trend is observed. There are a growing number of individuals in Poland and other European countries using legal pharmaceuticals containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to produce stimulants. This case report describes a history of a male patient with polysubstance dependence who administered self-designed ephedrone derived from Sudafed using potassium permanganate. He revealed significant clinical symptoms of manganese-induced parkinsonism. No effective treatment could be recommended. Awareness of this severe neurological and social consequences should lead to prevention efforts including educational programs and initiatives reducing availability of the legal medications containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. More research is needed to enhance our knowledge about manganism and potential treatment regimens.

  2. Health promotion interventions and policies addressing excessive alcohol use: A systematic review of national and global evidence as a guide to health-care reform in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Babor, Thomas F.; Zeigler, Donald; Xuan, Ziming; Morisky, Donald; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nelson, Toben F.; Shen, Weixing; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Aims Steady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiologic transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform. Methods We searched in Chinese and English language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the WHO Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability. Results In contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of ten in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, workplaces, the health sector, and taxation. Conclusions China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy, and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico, and the USA, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems, and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies. PMID:25533866

  3. The assessment on impact of essential drugs policy on primary health care system in rural areas of Shandong Province policy and regulation division of the Health Department of Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuge; Shu, Defeng; Xia, Mei; Gao, Dehai; Lu, Dan; Huang, Ning; Tian, Xiaoqing; An, Limei; Li, Shixue; Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    At present, China has achieved an initial establishment and gradual implementation of a framework for national essential drugs policy. With the further implementation of the national essential drugs policy, it is not clear how the policy works, whether it achieves the original intention of essential drugs policy, and what impact essential drugs policy exerts on the primary health care system. In view of it, we conducted a field research on sample areas of Shandong Province to understand the conditions of the implementation of the essential drugs policy in Shandong Province. From three perspectives of medical institutions, patients and medical staff, this thesis analyzes the impact of essential drugs policy on village-level and township-level health service system, summarizes the effectiveness of implementing essential drugs policy, discovers the problems of various aspects and conducts an in-depth analysis of the causes, and puts forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for improving the essential drugs policy. The assessment results show that the implementation of essential drugs policy in Shandong Province has played a positive role in promoting the sound development of the primary health care system, changed the situation of covering hospital expenses with medicine revenue in the past, contributed to the return of medical institutions to public welfare, and reduced the patient's economic burden of disease. But there emerge many problems as follows: impact on the doctor's diagnosis and treatment due to incompleteness of drug types, and distribution not in place, patient loss and operational difficulty of village clinic. Thus, this thesis makes recommendations of drugs catalog formulation, drug procurement, sales and use, and meanwhile points out that the supporting financial compensation policy and performance appraisal policy and other measures in place are a prerequisite for a positive role of essential drugs policy.

  4. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  5. Examining Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

  6. Playing Hopscotch in Inclusive Education Reform: Examining Promises and Limitations of Policy and Practice in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Thorius, Kathleen King

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide commentary on the "state of play" of inclusive education in the United States. We focus on the promises and limitations of inter-related accountability- and market-driven policies and Response to Intervention (RTI) (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). We argue that these policies and practice have "hopscotched"…

  7. A Way of Policy Bricolage or Translation: The Case of Taiwan's Higher Education Reform of Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chuo-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process and mechanism of higher education policy change related to quality assurance in a globalized world. In particular, the purpose of the study was to identify the impact of globalization on domestic policy change in Taiwan, characterized as a peripheral country. Taiwan's experience in terms of developing a national…

  8. Spatial Microsimulation for Rural Policy Analysis in Ireland: The Implications of CAP Reforms for the National Spatial Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballas, D.; Clarke, G. P.; Wiemers, E.

    2006-01-01

    Microsimulation attempts to describe economic and social events by modelling the behaviour of individual agents. These models have proved useful in evaluating the impact of policy changes at the micro level. Spatial microsimulation models contain geographic information and allow for a regional or local approach to policy analysis. This paper…

  9. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare.

  10. Exploring the impact of austerity-driven policy reforms on the quality of the long-term care provision for older people in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Janssen, David; Jongen, Wesley; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this case study, European quality benchmarks were used to explore the contemporary quality of the long-term care provision for older people in the Belgian region of Flanders and the Netherlands following recent policy reforms. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with various experts on the long-term care provision. The results show that in the wake of the economic crisis and the reforms that followed, certain vulnerable groups of older people in Belgium and the Netherlands are at risk of being deprived of long-term care that is available, affordable and person-centred. Various suggestions were provided on how to improve the quality of the long-term care provision. The main conclusion drawn in this study is that while national and regional governments set the stage through regulatory frameworks and financing mechanisms, it is subsequently up to long-term care organisations, local social networks and informal caregivers to give substance to a high quality long-term care provision. An increased reliance on social networks and informal caregivers is seen as vital to ensure the sustainability of the long-term care systems in Belgium and in the Netherlands, although this simultaneously introduces new predicaments and difficulties. Structural governmental measures have to be introduced to support and protect informal caregivers and informal care networks. PMID:27531456

  11. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. PMID:26403650

  12. Reforming Science: Structural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

  13. The Neo-Liberal Turn in Understanding Teachers' and School Leaders' Work Practices in Curriculum Innovation and Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Newly Proposed Reform Policy in Lower Secondary Education in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2014-01-01

    The study in this article involved a critical discourse analysis of five policy documents in relation to a curriculum reform proposed for lower secondary education in the Republic of Ireland. It examined the (re)positioning of governance in relation to curriculum and teacher education. Findings indicate a predominant clinical discourse closely…

  14. Review of Progress in Vocational Education and Training Reform of the Candidate Countries for Accession to the European Union in the Light of Developments in European Policy on Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reviews progress in vocational education and training (VET) reform in the candidate countries for accession to the European Union in light of developments in European policy on vocational training. The document consists of a cross-country overview and individual overviews of VET in 12 candidate countries: Bulgaria, the Czech…

  15. Welfare: Reform or Replacement? (Child Support Enforcement---II). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy of the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This transcript is from the third in a series of hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy focusing on whether the present welfare system should be reformed or replaced. A series of public officials, child and family advocates, and other interested parties testified on the issue of enforcement of child support…

  16. Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association with Student Drug Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…

  17. Other people, other drugs: the policy response to petrol sniffing among indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    d'Abbs, Peter; Brady, Maggie

    2004-09-01

    This paper examines the policy response of Australian governments to petrol sniffing in Indigenous communities from the 1980s until the present. During this period, despite the formation of numerous inquiries, working parties and intergovernmental committees, there has been little accumulation of knowledge about the nature and causes of sniffing, or about the effectiveness of interventions. Policies are fragmentary; programmes are rarely evaluated, and most rely on short-term funding. The paper sets out to explain why this should be so. It draws upon a conceptual framework known as 'analytics of government' to examine the ways in which petrol sniffing comes to the attention of government agencies and is perceived as an issue; the mechanisms deployed by governments to address petrol sniffing; ways in which knowledge about sniffing is generated; and the underlying assumptions about people that inform policy-making. Drawing upon case studies of policy responses, the paper argues that a number of structural factors combine to marginalize petrol sniffing as an issue, and to encourage reliance on short-term, one-off interventions in place of a sustained policy commitment. Four recommendations are advanced to help overcome these factors: (1) agreements should be reached within and between levels of government on steps to be taken to reduce risk factors before the eruption of petrol-sniffing crises; (2) the evidence base relevant to petrol sniffing (and other inhalants) should be improved by funding and directing one or more existing national drug research centres to collate data on inhalant-caused mortality and morbidity, and to conduct or commission research into prevalence patterns, effectiveness of interventions and other gaps in knowledge; (3) the current pattern of short-term, pilot and project funding should be replaced with longer-term, evidence-based interventions that address the multiple risk and protective factors present in communities; and (4) insistence by

  18. Other people, other drugs: the policy response to petrol sniffing among indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    d'Abbs, Peter; Brady, Maggie

    2004-09-01

    This paper examines the policy response of Australian governments to petrol sniffing in Indigenous communities from the 1980s until the present. During this period, despite the formation of numerous inquiries, working parties and intergovernmental committees, there has been little accumulation of knowledge about the nature and causes of sniffing, or about the effectiveness of interventions. Policies are fragmentary; programmes are rarely evaluated, and most rely on short-term funding. The paper sets out to explain why this should be so. It draws upon a conceptual framework known as 'analytics of government' to examine the ways in which petrol sniffing comes to the attention of government agencies and is perceived as an issue; the mechanisms deployed by governments to address petrol sniffing; ways in which knowledge about sniffing is generated; and the underlying assumptions about people that inform policy-making. Drawing upon case studies of policy responses, the paper argues that a number of structural factors combine to marginalize petrol sniffing as an issue, and to encourage reliance on short-term, one-off interventions in place of a sustained policy commitment. Four recommendations are advanced to help overcome these factors: (1) agreements should be reached within and between levels of government on steps to be taken to reduce risk factors before the eruption of petrol-sniffing crises; (2) the evidence base relevant to petrol sniffing (and other inhalants) should be improved by funding and directing one or more existing national drug research centres to collate data on inhalant-caused mortality and morbidity, and to conduct or commission research into prevalence patterns, effectiveness of interventions and other gaps in knowledge; (3) the current pattern of short-term, pilot and project funding should be replaced with longer-term, evidence-based interventions that address the multiple risk and protective factors present in communities; and (4) insistence by

  19. Post-market safety warnings for drugs approved in Canada under the Notice of Compliance with conditions policy

    PubMed Central

    Lexchin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Aims Health Canada has developed a pathway to approve drugs that have limited efficacy and safety data, the Notice of Compliance with conditions (NOC/c) policy. Increased safety reporting is required for these drugs but there has not been any systematic review of their post-market safety. This study compares safety warnings for NOC/c drugs with drugs with a priority and a standard review. Methods A list of drugs approved between January 1 1998 and March 31 2013 was developed and serious safety warnings for these drugs were identified. Drugs were put into one of three groups based on the way that they were approved. Kaplan−Meier curves were generated to examine the likelihood of NOC/c drugs receiving a serious safety warning compared with drugs with a priority and a standard review. The time spent in the review process for each of the groups was also measured. Results Compared with drugs with a priority review, NOC/c drugs were not more likely to receive a serious safety warning (P = 0.5940) but were more likely than drugs with a standard review (P = 0.0113). NOC/c drugs spent less time in the review process compared with drugs with a standard review. Conclusions Possible reasons for the increase likelihood of a serious safety warning are the limited knowledge of the safety of NOC/c drugs when they are approved and the length of time that they spend in the review process. Health Canada should consider spending longer reviewing these drugs and monitor their post-market safety more closely. PMID:25393960

  20. Articulating addiction in alcohol and other drug policy: A multiverse of habits.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Concepts of addiction differ across time and place. This article is based on an international research project currently exploring this variation and change in concepts of addiction, in particular in the field of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Taking AOD policy in Australia and Canada as its empirical focus, and in-depth interviews with policy makers, service providers and advocates in each country as its key method (N=60), the article compares the addiction concepts articulated by professionals working in each setting. Drawing on Bruno Latour's theoretical work on the body and his proposal for a better science based on the 'articulation of differences', it explores the accounts of addiction offered across the Australian and Canadian project sites, identifying a shared dynamic in all: the juggling of difference and unity in discussions of the nature of addiction, its composite parts and how best to respond to it. The article maps two simultaneous trajectories in the data - one moving towards difference in participants' insistence on the multitude and diversity of factors that make up addiction problems and solutions, and the other towards unity in their tendency to return to narrow disease models of addiction in uncomfortable, sometimes dissonant, strategic choices. As I will argue, the AOD professionals interviewed for my project operate in two modes treated as distinct in Latour's proposal: in turning to reifying disease labels of addiction they take for granted, and work within, a 'universe of essences', but in articulating the multiplicity and diversity of addiction, they grope towards a vision of a 'multiverse of habits'. The article concludes by addressing this tension directly, scrutinising its practical implications for the development of policy and delivery of services in the future, asking how new thinking, and therefore new opportunities, might be allowed to emerge. PMID:26656000

  1. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation. PMID:25480854

  2. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation.

  3. Drug development for neglected diseases: a deficient market and a public-health policy failure.

    PubMed

    Trouiller, Patrice; Olliaro, Piero; Torreele, Els; Orbinski, James; Laing, Richard; Ford, Nathan

    2002-06-22

    There is a lack of effective, safe, and affordable pharmaceuticals to control infectious diseases that cause high mortality and morbidity among poor people in the developing world. We analysed outcomes of pharmaceutical research and development over the past 25 years, and reviewed current public and private initiatives aimed at correcting the imbalance in research and development that leaves diseases that occur predominantly in the developing world largely unaddressed. We compiled data by searches of Medline and databases of the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, and reviewed current public and private initiatives through an analysis of recently published studies. We found that, of 1393 new chemical entities marketed between 1975 and 1999, only 16 were for tropical diseases and tuberculosis. There is a 13-fold greater chance of a drug being brought to market for central-nervous-system disorders or cancer than for a neglected disease. The pharmaceutical industry argues that research and development is too costly and risky to invest in low-return neglected diseases, and public and private initiatives have tried to overcome this market limitation through incentive packages and public-private partnerships. The lack of drug research and development for "non-profitable" infectious diseases will require new strategies. No sustainable solution will result for diseases that predominantly affect poor people in the South without the establishment of an international pharmaceutical policy for all neglected diseases. Private-sector research obligations should be explored, and a public-sector not-for-profit research and development capacity promoted.

  4. Austin, Texas: An Educator/Business Collaboration in Support of Teacher Compensation Reform. Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality: Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In its 2009 report "Teacher Compensation and Teacher Quality," the Committee for Economic Development urged business leaders to be active participants in school district deliberations about teacher compensation policies. The Committee for Economic Development (CED) noted that "business leaders can make the case to the public that current policies…

  5. School Vouchers and Student Achievement: What We Know So Far. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2003-01-01

    Although small, carefully managed voucher programs might provide a helpful safety valve for some disadvantaged children, policy makers should be under no illusion that such programs will address the fundamental challenge of providing an adequate education to the large numbers of such students in many urban centers. Contrary to the claims of many…

  6. Laboratories of Reform? Human Resource Management Strategies in Illinois Charter Schools. Policy Research: IERC 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bradford R.

    2016-01-01

    Charter schools are publicly-funded educational entities that operate independently from local school districts and are exempt from certain state and local requirements, particularly with regard to teacher personnel policy. In exchange for this flexibility, charter schools are held more accountable for results and may be shut down if they fail to…

  7. Global Knowledge-Based Policy in Fragmented Societies: The Case of Curriculum Reform in French-Speaking Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangez, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between knowledge and policy in French-speaking Belgium. It starts by describing Belgium as a consociational democracy, i.e. a society that is largely organised around integrated pillars of society (Catholic, secular), each of which provides a wide range of services (educational, training, health, health…

  8. The No Child Left Behind Act and the Teacher Shortage. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 2, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Spurred on by regulations outlined in the No Child Left Behind Education Act of 2001 (NCLB), educators and policy makers are gearing up to solve the problem of producing enough highly qualified teachers to meet the country's rapidly growing demand. According to the U.S. Department of Education, rising enrollments and increasing teacher retirements…

  9. The Shaping of Federal Education Policy over Time. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 16, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of our nation's existence, the federal role in K-12 education has evolved many times. From an initial limited role to one that is more focused today on access and equity, the federal role in education policy has seldom been without controversy. During each twist and turn there has been ongoing debate over federal versus state…

  10. The Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong Revisited: Policy and Practice in the Reformed Chinese and English Streams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In September 1998, the Education Department of the fledgling Hong Kong Special Administrative Region implemented a controversial medium-of-instruction policy which compelled around three-quarters of the territory's hitherto English-medium secondary schools to switch to Chinese-medium teaching in Forms 1-3 (years 7-9). Only 112 schools were…

  11. The Editorial Policy as a Mirror of Petrine Reforms: Textbooks and Their Translators in Early 18th Century Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouzevitch, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Peter I's editorial policy appears as a starting point in the birth of secular Russian textbooks. Since the printing production was then organized on a massive scale as a response to the needs of European-like modernization, it should be safely suggested that nearly "all" books produced during this pioneering period focused teaching objectives. To…

  12. Learning Organizations and Policy Transfer in the EU: Greece's State Scholarships Foundation in a Reform-Resistant Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavdas, Kostas A.; Papadakis, Nikos E.; Rigopoulou, Yiota G.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of policy change in the EU, lifelong-learning has acquired a growing significance due to its promise to foster both professional development and personal fulfillment and thus contribute to the enhancement of social inclusion, active citizenship, competitiveness, and employability. The need for developing a smart and sustainable…

  13. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardinier, Meg P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  14. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-07-09

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people's expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  15. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies. PMID:26184252

  16. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions.

  17. Engaging Teachers in Ed Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steans, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Teacher engagement is crucial to the success of education reforms. Not only can teachers serve as policymakers' eyes and ears on the ground, sharing firsthand knowledge of challenges in the classroom, but their advocacy can be instrumental to passing smart, sensible policies, and their buy-in can make or break reform implementation. Ongoing…

  18. Satellite needle distribution among injection drug users: policy and practice in two canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Mark W; Bruneau, Julie; Brogly, Susan; Spittal, Patricia; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V; Schechter, Martin T

    2002-09-01

    Access to clean needles and syringes through needle exchange programs (NEPs) has reduced both high-risk behaviors and the transmission of blood-borne infections among injection drug users (IDUs). However, policies regarding "needle-for-needle" exchange versus unrestricted needle distribution remain controversial. The objective of this study was to compare sources of needles, trends in needle distribution, and the practice of satellite needle distribution (SND) among IDUs in Vancouver and Montreal. SND was defined as receiving a new syringe from another individual through trading, purchasing, borrowing, or being given the syringe outright, or supplying a syringe to another individual through trading, selling, lending, or giving a syringe outright. This was practiced by 46% of IDUs in Vancouver and 50% of IDUs in Montreal. SND was associated with borrowing used injection equipment (adjusted OR [AOR], 2.62; 95% CI: 1.85-3.71), conducting bulk needle exchanges (AOR, 1.85; 95% CI: 1.34-2.54), being married or in a common-law relationship (AOR, 1.85; 95% CI: 1.34-2.54), and regular visits to the NEP (> weekly) (AOR, 1.54; 95% CI: 1.17-2.13). In Vancouver, SND was also associated with borrowing used needles (AOR, 2.07; 95% CI: 1.22-3.52). In these two cities, despite different distribution policies, almost half of the participants reported SND, and this was associated with high risk sharing. The practice of SND appears to be an important mechanism for needle acquisition, especially for those at highest risk for HIV and hepatitis C transmission. PMID:12352156

  19. Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?

    PubMed

    Crawford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance. PMID:19305659

  20. Different policy outcomes of the new drugs and currently listed drugs under the positive list system in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Mi-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Four years have passed since the positive list system was implemented in South Korea. The system was received well because it has fulfilled its intended objective of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of new drugs. With regard to currently listed drugs, however, debate has lingered since the reevaluation of the cost-effectiveness by therapeutic group. This study intended to review the lessons learned and compromises reached in implementing an evidence-based national formulary. Currently listed drugs are very different from new drugs. In terms of effectiveness, the level of existing evidence tends to be lower for currently listed drugs. Also, the evaluation plan was quite delayed because of the vast amount of literature. In the political decision-making process, a coalition was formed by the pharmaceutical companies with physicians, and the government had difficulty responding because of the strong resistance against the reevaluation of currently listed drugs. Although idealistic, it was an attempt to apply the same standard of cost-effectiveness for currently listed drugs as that for new drugs. To successfully implement the system, however, some factors that need to be considered were limitation of available evidence on currently listed drugs and specific strategies employed against political resistance. PMID:22265054