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Sample records for drug policy reform

  1. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  2. Reform of drug control policy for palliative care in Romania.

    PubMed

    Mosoiu, Daniela; Ryan, Karen M; Joranson, David E; Garthwaite, Jody P

    2006-06-24

    Unrelieved pain from cancer and HIV/AIDS is a substantial worldwide public-health problem. Inadequate pain relief is partly due to excessively strict national drug-control policies that constrain medical use of essential medicines such as morphine. Romania's drug-control policies are more than 35 years old and impose an antiquated regulatory system that is based on inpatient post-surgical management of acute pain that restricts prescription authority and makes access to opioid treatment difficult for outpatients with severe chronic pain due to cancer or HIV/AIDS. A Ministry of Health palliative-care commission used WHO guidelines to assess and recommend changes to Romania's national drug control law and regulations. The Romanian parliament has adopted a new law that will simplify prescribing requirements and allow modern pain management. Achievement of adequate pain relief is a vital part of worldwide health and will be dependent on reform of antidrug regulations in many countries.

  3. Civil Society-Driven Drug Policy Reform for Health and Human Welfare-India.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Nandini; Tandon, Tripti; Pastrana, Tania; Lohman, Diederik; Husain, S Asra; Cleary, James; Ramanath, Ganpati; Rajagopal, M R

    2017-03-01

    The lack of adequate access to opioids in India as analgesics and for agonist therapies, forces millions to live with severe unalleviated pain, or languish with suffering associated with drug dependence. Although India is a major opium exporter, the excessively prohibitive 1985 narcotics law formulated to control harmful use of drugs, impeded the availability and access to opioids for medical and scientific purposes. Amendment of this law in 2014 established a new national regulatory framework for improved access to essential opioid analgesics. This article reflects on key elements and processes that led to this landmark achievement. Unlike quick timelines associated with effecting policy reforms for law enforcement, realizing the 2014 drug policy change primarily to mitigate human suffering, was a 22-year-long process. The most exacting challenges included recognizing the multilayered complexities of the prior policy framework and understanding their adverse impact on field practices to chart an appropriate and viable path for reform. The evolution of an informal civil society movement involving health care professionals, lawyers, media, policy analysts, government officials, and the public was pivotal in addressing these challenges and garnering momentum for reform. The success of the effort for improving access to opioid medications was underpinned by a three-pronged strategy of 1) persuading the executive arm of the government to take interim enabling measures; 2) leveraging judicial intervention through public interest litigation; and 3) crafting a viable policy document for legislative approval and implementation. We hope our findings are useful for realizing drug policy reforms, given the current transformed global policy mandates emphasizing humanitarian, healthcare, and quality-of-life considerations. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Thoumi, Francisco E

    2012-01-01

    This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change.

  5. Reimbursement-Based Economics--What Is It and How Can We Use It to Inform Drug Policy Reform?

    PubMed

    Coyle, Doug; Lee, Karen M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Tingley, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    In Ontario, approximately $3.8 billion is spent annually on publicly funded drug programs. The annual growth in Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP) expenditure has been limited to 1.2% over the course of 3 years. Concurrently, the Ontario Drug Policy Research Network (ODPRN) was appointed to conduct drug class review research relating to formulary modernization within the OPDP. Drug class reviews by ODPRN incorporate a novel methodological technique called reimbursement-based economics, which focuses on reimbursement strategies and may be particularly relevant for policy-makers. To describe the reimbursement-based economics approach. Reimbursement-based economics aims to identify the optimal reimbursement strategy for drug classes by incorporating a review of economic literature, comprehensive budget impact analyses, and consideration of cost-effectiveness. This 3-step approach is novel in its focus on the economic impact of alternate reimbursement strategies rather than individual therapies. The methods involved within the reimbursement-based approach are detailed. To facilitate the description, summary methods and findings from a recent application to formulary modernization with respect to the drug class tryptamine-based selective serotonin receptor agonists (triptans) used to treat migraine headaches are presented. The application of reimbursement-based economics in drug policy reforms allows policy-makers to consider the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of different reimbursement strategies allowing consideration of the trade-off between potential cost savings vs increased access to cost-effective treatments. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  6. Drug policy reform and the reclassification of cannabis in England and Wales: A cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Michael

    2015-07-01

    When the legal classification of cannabis was downgraded in 2004 it represented the most significant liberalisation of British drug law in more than 30 years. Paradoxically, however, this apparently progressive reform led to an intensification of police efforts targeting minor possession offences and its failure was confirmed in January 2009 when the decision to downgrade cannabis was reversed. This article documents the impact that reclassification had on law enforcement activities and seeks to explain why it failed to deliver a more progressive approach. Drawing on official statistics, the analysis charts the process of net-widening that followed the reform, identifying a sharp increase in the number of people caught in the criminal justice net for minor possession offences. While police targeting of such offences was an unintended consequence of performance targets, broader political influences were also at play. The contradictions and reversals involved in the reclassification of cannabis, it is argued, can be readily understood in terms of the broader politics of crime and control and the 'structured ambivalence' of state responses.

  7. Examining the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters among people who inject drugs after implementation of Mexico's drug policy reform.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.

  8. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Treesearch

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  9. The Spatial-Temporal Pattern of Policing Following a Drug Policy Reform: Triangulating Self-Reported Arrests With Official Crime Statistics.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Werb, Daniel; Arredondo, Jaime; Alaniz, Victor M; Vilalta, Carlos; Beletsky, Leo

    2017-01-28

    In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was mapped across city neighborhoods. Official police reports detailing drug-related arrests was triangulated with PWID self-reported arrests. Exploratory spatial data analysis examined the distribution of arrests and spatial association between both datasets across three successive years, 2011-2013. In 2011, over half of PWID reported being detained but not officially charged with a criminal offense; in 2013, 90% of arrests led to criminal charges. Official drug-related arrests increased by 67.8% (p <.01) from 2011 to 2013 despite overall arrest rates remaining stable throughout Tijuana. For each successive year, we identified a high degree of spatial association between the location of self-reported and official arrests (p <.05). Two independent data sources suggest that intensity of drug law enforcement had risen in Tijuana despite the promulgation of a public health-oriented drug policy reform. The highest concentrations of arrests were in areas traditionally characterized by higher rates of drug crime. High correlation between self-reported and official arrest data underscores opportunities for future research on the role of policing as a structural determinant of public health.

  10. Power sector policy reforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moscote, R.A. . LAC Technical Dept.)

    1994-06-01

    This article discusses the changes in energy policy of most countries in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. The topics of the article include the new legal and regulatory frameworks being developed, investment, privatized power producers, government regulation, power distribution, power transmission, access to transmission lines, pricing regulations, and increasing capacity of the power systems.

  11. Ten years after the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS): assessing drug problems, policies and reform proposals.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Peter

    2009-04-01

    In 1998 the United Nations General Assembly Special Session resolved that governments would reduce drug production and consumption greatly within 10 years. With that period now elapsed, there is an interest in reviewing how successful this was and considering how drug policy could be improved. The demand for drugs in the world has stabilized mainly as a result of the interaction of epidemic forces, culture and economic development. Supply has become more concentrated and the menu of drugs has changed surprisingly slowly. Drug policy is shifting to a more explicitly tolerant configuration in Europe and a few other countries, but retains its ferocity in most of the world. The most prominent innovations under discussion have limited potential effects (heroin maintenance), have as yet been unproductive of policy interventions ('addiction is a brain disease') or have no political appeal (legalization). The option with the most scope is increased effort at diverting arrested drug users out of criminal justice systems. No prevention, treatment or enforcement strategies have demonstrated an ability to substantially affect the extent of drug use and addiction. The best that government interventions can do is to reduce the damaging consequences of drug use and drug control. More attention should be given to reductions in the intensity of drug enforcement, which has many unintended adverse consequences and yields few of the claimed gains.

  12. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-04-17

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. Breaking the Consensus in Educational Policy Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The paper contributes to the debate on the implementation of policy reforms developing a typology for implementation based on the initial agreement on means and goals at the time of reform design. It is argued that the volume and nature of knowledge gathering and stakeholder involvement required to gain approval of a policy and avoid the…

  14. When grammars collide: Harm reduction, drug detention and the challenges of international policy reform efforts in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Edington, Claire; Bayer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, a dramatic rise in HIV prevalence rates among drug users in Vietnam attracted the attention of international observers concerned about the prospect of a more generalised epidemic. Vietnam subsequently became the target of extensive funding and advocacy which sought to introduce needle exchange and methadone in a country where drug use was considered a 'social evil', and drug users were subjected to what international observers viewed as draconian incarceration measures. What were the goals of proponents of harm reduction when they came to Vietnam? How did they perceive the state of prevailing approaches to drug users in the context of the Vietnamese HIV epidemic? How did they understand the strategic challenges they faced and the dilemmas they had to confront? Based on in-depth interviews with international harm reduction proponents working in Vietnam, this paper explores the encounter of two grammars of harm reduction, one based on broadly accepted international approaches, the other rooted in Vietnam's own history and politics. From this encounter a set of policies and practices characterised by needle exchange and methadone maintenance emerged, as well as an extensive network of closed centres where tens of thousands of drug users are currently detained.

  15. POLICE BRIBERY AND ACCESS TO METHADONE MAINTENANCE THERAPY WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF DRUG POLICY REFORM IN TIJUANA, MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    Werb, D; Wagner, KD; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, SA

    2015-01-01

    Aims In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Methods Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Results Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1,825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.69, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.02 – 2.81, p = 0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Discussion Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. PMID:25655577

  16. Police bribery and access to methadone maintenance therapy within the context of drug policy reform in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Werb, D; Wagner, K D; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, S A

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (adjusted odds ratio=1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.81, p=0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social Problems of Drug Use and Drug Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Joel

    The social and legal policies that control or prevent the use of mind-altering drugs are the main cause of the social problems arising from their use. The existing policies are ineffective; the wrong drugs receive the most attention and laws are directed at the wrong phase of the cycle of promotion, distribution and use. The following reforms are…

  18. Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela M; Garfein, Richard S; Wagner, Karla D; Mehta, Sanjay R; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Moreno-Zuniga, Patricia Gonzalez; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-02-12

    Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing "war on drugs," Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States-where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal-and Mexico-where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012-2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local phenomena. As a result, recruitment and data

  19. Evaluating the impact of Mexico’s drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States—where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal—and Mexico—where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Methods Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012–2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Results Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local

  20. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: Becoming Policy Aware, Policy Wise and Policy Active.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis," this article describes the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Here, I illustrate that traditionally teachers have been, to a certain degree, involved in policy processes. However, the degree to which…

  1. Drug legalization, harm reduction, and drug policy.

    PubMed

    DuPont, R L; Voth, E A

    1995-09-15

    The current U.S. policy options on drug use are reviewed in the context of the history of drug policy in the United States. A restrictive drug policy is a deterrent to drug use and helps reduce drug-related costs and societal problems. Although legalization or decriminalization of drugs might reduce some of the legal consequences of drug use, increased drug use would result in harmful consequences.

  2. Russian Higher Education Reforms: Shifting Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounko, Tatiana; Smale, William

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyze the existing higher education policies in the Russian Federation and discuss the implications of current reforms for the future of the higher education sector and those involved in it. The authors' analytical framework was based on the work of Olssen, Codd, and O'Neill (2004), outlining the major tenets of the…

  3. Policy and Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…

  4. Policy and Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…

  5. [Educational Reform and Discipline Policy Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria Joint Union High School District, CA.

    The program description and the newspaper advertisement presented describe the efforts of the Santa Maria Joint Union High School District (California) to implement the reforms mandated in California's SB 813, especially in the area of discipline policy, and to keep the public informed of those efforts. The program description provides an overview…

  6. Implications of Bullying to School Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Nina Marie

    2014-01-01

    Governmental attention to bullying in kindergarten through Grade 3 continues to be a challenge in a metropolitan school district in the eastern United States. This has presented a case for school policy reform. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine how bullying and office discipline related to suspension referrals,…

  7. Implications of Bullying to School Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Nina Marie

    2014-01-01

    Governmental attention to bullying in kindergarten through Grade 3 continues to be a challenge in a metropolitan school district in the eastern United States. This has presented a case for school policy reform. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine how bullying and office discipline related to suspension referrals,…

  8. A Policy Analysis of Reserve Retirement Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    beyond policy simulations to discuss issues related to reserve retirement reform. These include a description of the context of active and reserve...estimates we produced for the 11th QRMC. Therefore, our description of the estimation approach, simulation approach, and model fit draw from Mattock...reporting period that includes demographic and work experience information. Demographic information includes scrambled Social Security number (SSN), name

  9. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  10. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  11. Drug pricing reform in China: analysis of piloted approaches and potential impact of the reform

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yixi; Hu, Shanlian; Dong, Peng; Kornfeld, Åsa; Jaros, Patrycja; Yan, Jing; Ma, Fangfang; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In 2009, the Chinese government launched a national healthcare reform programme aiming to control healthcare expenditure and increase the quality of care. As part of this programme, a new drug pricing reform was initiated on 1 June 2015. The objective of this study was to describe the changing landscape of drug pricing policy in China and analyse the potential impact of the reform. Methods The authors conducted thorough research on the drug pricing reform using three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang, and Weipu), Chinese health authority websites, relevant press releases, and pharmaceutical blogs and discussion forums. This research was complemented with qualitative research based on targeted interviews with key Chinese opinion leaders representing the authorities’ and prescribers’ perspectives. Results With the current reform, the government has attempted to replace its direct control over the prices of reimbursable drugs with indirect, incentive-driven influence. Although the exact implementation of the reform remains unclear at the moment, the changes introduced so far and the pilot project designs indicate that China is considering adaptation of some form of internal and external reference pricing policies, commonly used in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Several challenges related to the potential new mechanism were identified: 1) the risk of hospital underfunding, if hospital funding reform is not prioritised; 2) the risk of promoting the use of cheap, low-quality drugs, if a reliable quality control system is not in place and discrepancy between the available drugs is present; 3) the risk of increasing disparity in access to care between poor and rich regions, in case of country-wide price convergence; and 4) the risk of industry underinvestment, resulting in reduced competition, issues with quality and sustainability of supply, and potentially negative social impact. Conclusions Foreign pricing policies

  12. Optimal drug use and rational drug policy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Geoffrey F

    2011-12-01

    The Müller & Schumann (M&S) view of drug use is courageous and compelling, with radical implications for drug policy and research. It implies that most nations prohibit most drugs that could promote happiness, social capital, and economic growth; that most individuals underuse rather than overuse drugs; and that behavioral scientists could use drugs more effectively in generating hypotheses and collaborating empathically.

  13. Swedish Educational Policy and Reforms--Intention versus Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odin, Bjorn

    1987-01-01

    Swedish school reform since the 1970s has involved a shift in policy and underlying values throughout the entire implementation process. Educational reform has broken into loosely connected fragments with relevant reform makers at all educational levels. Despite a newly decentralized process, observed changes are not really structural. Includes…

  14. Crafting an Education Reform Agenda through Economic Stimulus Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Lorraine M.; Weatherford, M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The economic stimulus enacted during President Obama's initial weeks included a down payment on his ambitious education reform agenda. By combining short-term policy with reform, the strategy gained his administration three advantages: a discretionary funding source with little Congressional scrutiny; flexibility in pursuing education reform goals…

  15. Drug policy in China: pharmaceutical distribution in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Dong, H; Bogg, L; Rehnberg, C; Diwan, V

    1999-03-01

    In 1978, China decided to reform its economy and since then has gradually opened up to the world. The economy has grown rapidly at an average of 9.8% per year from 1978 to 1994. Medical expenditure, especially for drugs, has grown even more rapidly. The increase in medical expenditure can be attributed to changing disease patterns, a higher proportion of older people in the population and fee-for-service incentives for hospitals. Due to the changing economic system and higher cost of health care, the Chinese government has reformed its health care system, including its health and drug policy. The drug policy reform has led to more comprehensive policy elements, including registration, production, distribution, utilization and administration. As a part of drug policy reform, the drug distribution network has also been changed, from a centrally controlled supply system (push system) to a market-oriented demand system (pull system). Hospitals can now purchase drugs directly from drug companies, factories and retailers, leading to increased price competition. Patients have easier access to drugs as more drugs are available on the market. At the same time, this has also entailed negative effects. The old drug administrative system is not suitable for the new drug distribution network. It is easy for people to get drugs on the market and this can lead to overuse and misuse. Marketing factors have influenced drug distribution so strongly that there is a risk of fake or low quality drugs being distributed. The government has taken some measures to fight these negative effects. This paper describes the drug policy reform in China, particularly the distribution of drugs to health care facilities.

  16. Policy Reforms and De-Professionalization of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV.

    2013-01-01

    This brief discusses how three recent popular educational reform policies move teaching towards or away from professionalization. These reforms are (1) policies that evaluate teachers based on students' annual standardized test score gains, and specifically, those based on value-added assessment; (2) fast-track teacher preparation and licensure;…

  17. Sociology and American Drug Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inciardi, James A.

    1987-01-01

    States that, although sociologists have made contributions to the drug abuse research literature, they have been absent in the formulation of drug policy. Argues that sociologists should take a pragmatic approach, using the tools of their science within the context of existing policy, to reduce drug abuse and thereby limit the need for punitive…

  18. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Adams, Owen

    2015-09-04

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action.

  19. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session (October 14, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing focuses on reviewing the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Discussion focuses on the role of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) in the media campaign, the research base of the campaign, an overview of the integrated campaign, the results attained to date by the campaign, and the contributions of ONDCPs principal…

  20. Drug Abuse: The Company Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Roy D.

    This paper establishes a uniform drug abuse policy for organizational employees. This policy is modeled after recommendations made by the National Council on Alcoholism, Inc., and deals with alcoholism as an element of the drug abuse problem. Organizational behavior understudy involves the standard of on-the-job-performance. When…

  1. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-21

    CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Bahrain: Reform , Security, and U.S. Policy Kenneth Katzman...COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bahrain: Reform , Security, and U.S. Policy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Bahrain: Reform , Security, and U.S. Policy

  2. Reform and Relapse in Bilingual Policy in Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciscel, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, language education policy has shifted since independence from an uneven Soviet policy, in which minority Russian dominated, towards somewhat more equitable European norms. Although many reforms in language education have been beneficial in producing a more balanced bilingualism, official policy has at times tended…

  3. Reform and Relapse in Bilingual Policy in Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciscel, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, language education policy has shifted since independence from an uneven Soviet policy, in which minority Russian dominated, towards somewhat more equitable European norms. Although many reforms in language education have been beneficial in producing a more balanced bilingualism, official policy has at times tended…

  4. Politics and Systemic Education Reform. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrman, Susan

    This brief describes political challenges to systemic reform and explores the conditions under which coherent policymaking might occur. A focus is the role of states in achieving policy integration. The first section describes political challenges to systemic reform, which include a lack of consensus on student standards, a focus on inputs and…

  5. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  6. Reforms in the Policy of English Language Teaching in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Radzuwan A. B.; Abdul Rahman, Shireena Basree; Yunus, Kamariah

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews reforms related to English language teaching in the Malaysian education system. It begins by tracing the history of Malaysia as a former British colony which has had significant influences on the status of English in the country. Then, it reviews the key educational reforms which have mainly centred on language policy, thus…

  7. Credible Immigration Policy Reform: A Response to Briggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The authors agree with Vernon M. Briggs, Jr., that U.S. immigration policy has had unexpected consequences. The 1965 immigration reforms led to unanticipated chain migration from developing countries whereas the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act failed to slow unauthorized immigration. The result is a large foreign-born population with…

  8. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting.

  9. Pharmaceutical policy reform in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, Caroline; Vandoros, Sotiris; Antoun, Joseph George

    2014-06-01

    Of Russia's 142 million citizens, fewer than 20 million are enrolled in outpatient drug coverage plans. The current government aims to establish universal health insurance including outpatient medicines. Based on the current political and regulatory environment, this report explores pharmaceutical pricing options for Russia that balance greater access to medicines with achieving government plans of boosting local pharmaceutical production. To match innovative medicine prices with their health benefits, in the long run, we suggest that Russia consider adopting value-based pricing, and in the short term, that it introduce direct price negotiations and price drugs according to reference countries that use health technology assessment. Although generic market shares are high, generic medicine prices are higher than they should be. We propose tenders at the manufacturer level for the pricing of high-selling generics, and free pricing for products with sufficient market competition. These policy recommendations are a jumping-off point for further discussion about how pharmaceutical policy could aid this major economy to achieve its population health and health service goals.

  10. Welfare reform at 15 and the state of policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and opponents alike expected the law to have profound consequences, the article considers two ways to explain this surprising outcome, showing that (1) quantitative policy analysis has been ill equipped to capture the PRWORA's effects and (2) expectations were nonetheless wrong because they failed to appreciate how thoroughly Aid to Families with Dependent Children had already been eroded in the decades prior to its reform. Welfare reform was not the beginning of a process of policy change; it was the end of one. In response to these findings, the article describes how a more critical perspective on reform matters for social work researchers, advocates, and practitioners.

  11. National water policy: the need for institutional reform

    SciTech Connect

    Viessman, W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The water policy of the United States of America has evolved over many years from an uncoordinated and often narrowly focused collection of legislative and administrative actions. Unfortunately, these elements are frequently in conflict, with the result that efforts to assure adequate water supplies for the future are ineffective. Water policy reform is urgently needed to preclude a major scale water crisis.

  12. National water policy: The need for institutional reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viessman, Warren

    1982-01-01

    The water policy of the United States of America has evolved over many years from an uncoordinated and often narrowly focused collection of legislative and administrative actions. Unfortunately, these elements are frequently in conflict, with the result that efforts to assure adequate water supplies for the future are ineffective. Water policy reform is urgently needed to preclude a major scale water crisis.

  13. Intended and unintended consequences of China's zero markup drug policy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongmei; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Linxiu; Li, Shaoping; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue.

  14. Commentary: malpractice reform in policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Bovbjerg, Randall R

    2007-06-01

    Enacted caps on malpractice awards and proposed early offer reform address the sometimes excessive verdicts of conventional liability and its very high overhead costs. However, such reforms greatly benefit medical defendants while doing too little for claimants or patients in general. Caps and early offer only affect current claims; far broader reforms are therefore needed to improve the woeful performance of liability as a general promoter of patient safety and injury compensation. Broad reforms, however desirable, seldom surmount high political and practical hurdles. A good, more evenhanded start would seek to make claims resolution faster, more accurate, more predictable, and less expensive, while separately promoting medical quality and safety as well as greater transparency for law, medicine, and insurance.

  15. Commentary: Malpractice Reform in Policy Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bovbjerg, Randall R

    2007-01-01

    Enacted caps on malpractice awards and proposed early offer reform address the sometimes excessive verdicts of conventional liability and its very high overhead costs. However, such reforms greatly benefit medical defendants while doing too little for claimants or patients in general. Caps and early offer only affect current claims; far broader reforms are therefore needed to improve the woeful performance of liability as a general promoter of patient safety and injury compensation. Broad reforms, however desirable, seldom surmount high political and practical hurdles. A good, more evenhanded start would seek to make claims resolution faster, more accurate, more predictable, and less expensive, while separately promoting medical quality and safety as well as greater transparency for law, medicine, and insurance. PMID:17517117

  16. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: What is Policy?," this article refers to the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must…

  17. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Certification Process ..................................................................... 7 Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals...LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine . Examples of other related substances include precursor chemicals used to make narcotic drugs and psychotropic...substances—such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine—which are used to make methamphetamine , and potassium permanganate, which is used to make cocaine

  18. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-23

    Certification Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Crop...Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,1 LSD,2 amphetamine, and methamphetamine . Examples of other related substances include precursor chemicals used to...make narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances — such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine — which are used to make methamphetamine , and potassium

  19. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-24

    9 Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals........................................................................ 11 Other Drug-Related...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine . Examples of other...are used to make methamphetamine , and potassium permanganate, which is used to make cocaine. With few exceptions, production and sale of controlled

  20. Spain: Restructuring, Reform and Research Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio

    1984-01-01

    Scientific and technological research in Spain has been hindered more by lack of organization than by lack of funds. The 1983 Universty Reform Act to restructure the curriculum and improve research quality represents a major step in bringing Spanish research up to the levels of other modern university systems and to promote economic development.…

  1. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  2. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M; Reichman, Nancy E; Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use.

  3. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  4. Forestry policy reform in Mali: An analysis of implementation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, D.W.; Gage, J.D.

    1993-09-01

    Mali is revising its forestry code to facilitate natural resource management at the local level. Issues involved in implementing the new code, which is expected to be formally adopted in the near future, are analyzed in the report. Section II discusses the evolution of Mali's forestry code from the 1935 decree which vested authority of natural resources in the hands of the state. Section III examines the forthcoming code using a model that associates six conditions with successful policy implementation, namely, the extent to which the policy and/or its statutes. Faced with these problems, Mali's forestry policy reformers need to adopt a strategic perspective on managing policy change.

  5. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  6. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  7. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  8. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  9. International Perspectives on Educational Reform and Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David S. G., Ed.; O'Neill, Marnie H., Ed.

    This book focuses on educational change processes in the context of larger scale educational reform. The first of 2 volumes, the book contains 11 chapters that examine the historical, social, and economic forces at work in the formulation and implementation of educational policy. The chapters present different cross-cultural experiences of…

  10. New Directions in Education? A Critique of Contemporary Policy Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on facets of Foucault's theoretical resources to critique current education policy reform from within the Australian State of Victoria, namely the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development's (DEECD) discussion paper "New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession." Implicit in the reform…

  11. Policy Reform: Testing Times for Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In Australia as well as elsewhere, initial teacher education has become centre stage to a political agenda that calls for global competitiveness in the knowledge economy. The common problem cited has been declining educational standards linked with the quality of teaching and teacher education. The avalanche of review and policy reform has exposed…

  12. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  13. Stigma and Roma Education Policy Reform in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses reform of Roma education in Slovakia against the backdrop of continued stigmatization of Roma students. Transnational NGOs and IGOs promote rights-based solutions leading to the fullest possible inclusion of Roma students in mainstream education. The Slovak state promotes educational policies that lead to the fullest…

  14. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  15. New Directions in Education? A Critique of Contemporary Policy Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on facets of Foucault's theoretical resources to critique current education policy reform from within the Australian State of Victoria, namely the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development's (DEECD) discussion paper "New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession." Implicit in the reform…

  16. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam's social policy reforms in the transition to a market economy included the introduction of fees for primary and secondary school in the late 1980s. Using data from the Viet Nam Living Standards Surveys, this paper examines how the increasing costs of education to households have impacted on school enrollment between 1993 and 1998, giving…

  17. Is the pro-competition policy an effective solution for China's public hospital reform?

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2016-10-01

    The new round of health care reforms in China achieved significant initial results. New and emerging problems coinciding with the deepening of the reforms, however, require further institutional changes to strengthen the competition mechanism and promote public hospital efficiency. This paper provides a conceptual framework and preliminary assessment of public hospital competition in China. Specifically, we distinguish between two closely related concepts - competition and privatization, and identify several critical conditions under which hospital competition can be used as a policy instrument to improve health care delivery in China. We also investigate the current performance and identify several unintended consequences of public hospital competition - mainly, medical arms race, drug over-prescription and the erosion of a trusting relationship between patients and physicians. Finally, we discuss the policy options for enhancing the internal competition in China's hospital market, and conclude that public investment on information provision is key to reaping the positive outcomes of pro-competition policies.

  18. Policy entrepreneurship and policy networks in healthcare systems - the case of Israel's pediatric dentistry reform.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nissim; Horev, Tuvia

    2017-04-21

    Can the entry of a policy entrepreneur challenge the equilibrium of a policy network and promote changes that might clash with the goals of powerful civil-servants and/or interest groups and, if so, why and how? Our goal is to examine two sides of the same coin: how does an in-depth analysis of Israel's dental care reform enrich our understanding of policy networks and policy entrepreneurship? Second, how does the literature on policy networks and policy entrepreneurship help us understand this reform? Based on a theoretical framework that appears in the literature of policy entrepreneurship and policy networks, we analyze the motivations, goals and strategies of the main actors involved in the process of reforming pediatric dental care in Israel. We demonstrate how a policy entrepreneur navigated within a policy network and managed to promote a reform that, until his appearance, no one else in that network had succeeded in enacting. Our goals are advanced through a case study of a reform in pediatric dentistry implemented in Israel in 2010. It rests on textual analyses of the literature, reports, committee minutes, parliamentary proceedings, print and online media, and updates in relevant legislation and case law between 2009 and 2015. In addition, the case study draws on the insights of one of the authors (TH), who played a role in the reform process. Historical circumstances and the Israeli public's longstanding lack of interest in changing the existing model as well as interest groups that preferred the dominance of the private sector in the dental healthcare system kept that area out of the services supplied, universally, under the National Health Insurance Law. This situation changed significantly following the publication in 2007 of a policy analysis that contributed to shifts in the motivations and balance of power within the policy network, which in turn prepared the ground for a policy change. In this environment a determined policy entrepreneur, who

  19. Policy entrepreneurship and policy networks in healthcare systems - the case of Israel's pediatric dentistry reform.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nissim; Horev, Tuvia

    2017-01-01

    Can the entry of a policy entrepreneur challenge the equilibrium of a policy network and promote changes that might clash with the goals of powerful civil-servants and/or interest groups and, if so, why and how? Our goal is to examine two sides of the same coin: how does an in-depth analysis of Israel's dental care reform enrich our understanding of policy networks and policy entrepreneurship? Second, how does the literature on policy networks and policy entrepreneurship help us understand this reform? Based on a theoretical framework that appears in the literature of policy entrepreneurship and policy networks, we analyze the motivations, goals and strategies of the main actors involved in the process of reforming pediatric dental care in Israel. We demonstrate how a policy entrepreneur navigated within a policy network and managed to promote a reform that, until his appearance, no one else in that network had succeeded in enacting. Our goals are advanced through a case study of a reform in pediatric dentistry implemented in Israel in 2010. It rests on textual analyses of the literature, reports, committee minutes, parliamentary proceedings, print and online media, and updates in relevant legislation and case law between 2009 and 2015. In addition, the case study draws on the insights of one of the authors (TH), who played a role in the reform process. Historical circumstances and the Israeli public's longstanding lack of interest in changing the existing model as well as interest groups that preferred the dominance of the private sector in the dental healthcare system kept that area out of the services supplied, universally, under the National Health Insurance Law. This situation changed significantly following the publication in 2007 of a policy analysis that contributed to shifts in the motivations and balance of power within the policy network, which in turn prepared the ground for a policy change. In this environment a determined policy entrepreneur, who

  20. Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda. What is Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    This article is related to the impacts on teachers of the increasing marginalization of their voices in educational policy making and policy debates. Policy influences the nature of teaching and learning and if teachers are to re-centre teachers' voices and combat the neo-liberal agenda underpinning public education, they must construct their own…

  1. A primer for nurses on advancing health reform policy.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Nancy; Trautman, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Health care reform is a high priority on the federal policy agenda. The authors present insights from their experiences as Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Fellows working in Speaker Nancy Pelosi's office and on the House Committee on Ways and Means. Nursing has many opportunities at this juncture to engage in policy discussions and advance solutions for issues related to increasing quality and access while dampening the escalating cost of care. Strategies where nursing's voice can inform reform conversations include chronic disease management, prevention and health promotion, community-based care, nurse-managed care, interdisciplinary education, safety and quality, use of health information technology, and testing the comparative effectiveness of interventions and delivery systems.

  2. Health workforce policy and Turkey's health care reform.

    PubMed

    Agartan, Tuba I

    2015-12-01

    The health care industry is labor intensive and depends on well-trained and appropriately deployed health professionals to deliver services. This article examines the health workforce challenges in the context of Turkey's recent health reform initiative, Health Transformation Program (HTP). Reformers identified shortages, imbalances in the skills-mix, and inequities in the geographical distribution of health professionals as among the major problems. A comprehensive set of policies was implemented within the HTP framework to address these problems. The article argues that these policies addressed some of the health workforce challenges, while on the other hand exacerbating others and hence may have resulted in increasing the burden on the workforce. So far HTP's governance reforms and health human resource policy have not encouraged meaningful participation of other key stakeholders in the governance of the health care system. Without effective participation of health professionals, the next stages of HTP implementation that focus on managerial reforms such as restructuring public hospitals, improving the primary care system and implementing new initiatives on quality improvement could be very difficult. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The World Bank, pharmaceutical policies, and health reforms in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio; Forns, Joan Rovira

    2005-01-01

    Health care systems spend a relatively high percentage of their resources on the purchase of medicines, and the poor spend a disproportionate amount of their income on pharmaceuticals. There is ample evidence in the literature that drugs are very poorly used. World Bank-led health reforms aim at improving equity, efficiency, quality, and users' satisfaction, and it will be difficult to achieve these goals without making medicines accessible and affordable. The purpose of this article is to examine the adequacy of World Bank pharmaceutical policies, as recommended in various Bank documents, for Latin America and to examine the implementation of the policy recommendations. The authors found that the World Bank identified and recommended a set of pharmaceutical policies that matched the needs of the region. But, as revealed through fieldwork and a review of the literature, the recommended pharmaceutical interventions were left out of the health reforms, and most of the loans that included pharmaceutical interventions allocated funds only to the purchase of drugs. The authors formulate four hypotheses that may explain the lack of congruence between the recommended policies and the strategies financed by World Bank health reform loans to the Latin American region.

  4. Public Health and International Drug Policy

    PubMed Central

    Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    monitoring of practices. In too many countries, beatings, forced labor, and denial of health care and adequate sanitation are offered in the name of treatment, including in compulsory detention centres that are more like prisons than treatment facilities. Where there are humane treatment options, it is often the case that those most in need of it cannot afford it. In many countries, there is no treatment designed particularly for women, though it is known that women’s motivations for and physiological reactions to drug use differ from those of men. The pursuit of the elimination of drugs has led to aggressive and harmful practices targeting people who grow crops used in the manufacture of drugs, especially coca leaf, opium poppy, and cannabis. Aerial spraying of coca fields in the Andes with the defoliant glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) has been associated with respiratory and dermatological disorders and with miscarriages. Forced displacement of poor rural families who have no secure land tenure exacerbates their poverty and food insecurity and in some cases forces them to move their cultivation to more marginal land. Geographic isolation makes it difficult for state authorities to reach drug crop cultivators in public health and education campaigns and it cuts cultivators off from basic health services. Alternative development programmes meant to offer other livelihood opportunities have poor records and have rarely been conceived, implemented, or evaluated with respect to their impact on people’s health. Research on drugs and drug policy has suffered from the lack of a diversified funding base and assumptions about drug use and drug pathologies on the part of the dominant funder, the US government. At a time when drug policy discussions are opening up around the world, there is an urgent to bring the best of non-ideologically-driven health science, social science and policy analysis to the study of drugs and the potential for policy reform. Policy alternatives

  5. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Policy (ISP) and applies a modified version to Cuba. The Commission amends its rules and procedures to... international routes to which it continues to apply, with the exception of Cuba. The market has seen significant... international routes with the exception of Cuba, to which we continue to apply a limited form of the ISP as well...

  6. Layoff Policies Could Diminish Teacher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that with the poor economy endangering more novice teachers' jobs, researchers and policymakers have begun to question the human-capital costs of "last hired, first fired" layoff policies. Such layoffs, those experts argue, do not consider teacher effectiveness, meaning that teachers who make vital contributions to school…

  7. Layoff Policies Could Diminish Teacher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that with the poor economy endangering more novice teachers' jobs, researchers and policymakers have begun to question the human-capital costs of "last hired, first fired" layoff policies. Such layoffs, those experts argue, do not consider teacher effectiveness, meaning that teachers who make vital contributions to school…

  8. Advocacy Groups and the Discourse of Teacher Policy Reform: An Analysis of Policy Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several states have engaged in significant action surrounding a key policy area-- teacher policy reform. In Florida, for example, the passage of Senate Bill (SB) 736, the Student Success Act, heralded substantial shifts in the boundaries defining the profession of teaching in the state. Through SB 736 and its unsuccessful…

  9. Advocacy Groups and the Discourse of Teacher Policy Reform: An Analysis of Policy Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several states have engaged in significant action surrounding a key policy area-- teacher policy reform. In Florida, for example, the passage of Senate Bill (SB) 736, the Student Success Act, heralded substantial shifts in the boundaries defining the profession of teaching in the state. Through SB 736 and its unsuccessful…

  10. Reform and retreat in United States immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G P

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of changes in US Immigration Policy that compartmentalize legal from illegal immigration. Legal immigration was not reformed in the recent past, with the exception of welfare benefit restrictions among legal immigrants who were not citizens and income requirements for sponsors of permanent immigrants. Restrictions on illegal immigration were substantial, and included patrolling the border. Some reforms of illegal immigration were narrowly defeated or defeated through the efforts of organized Christian Coalitions. Reforms of legal immigration included few organized or effective allies, but did include environmental and population control organizations with influence in the capital. After Republican control of Congress in 1994, illegal immigration bargaining was replaced by partisanship. Populist pressures came from Proposition 187 in the state of California (local costs of a failed national policy to control immigration) and Presidential candidate Patrick Buchanan. The courts generally countered populist politics and supported immigrants. At present, expansionist measures continue to be adopted. Client politics that dominated over 3 or 4 decades no longer prevail. Client politics are defined by J. Q. Wilson as confined to small groups of people who are economically supported by the larger population. Congress sets policy according to organized interests which benefit directly from large numbers of legal and illegal permanent and temporary migrants. The most prominent struggle over immigration occurred in 1996. This policy period is reviewed.

  11. Effective Faith-Based Treatment Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents witness testimonies from a hearing discussing two issues critical to the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources: insuring government support for effective programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and facilitating the inclusion of faith-based providers in the…

  12. Healthcare policies over the last 20 years: reforms and counter-reforms.

    PubMed

    Toth, Federico

    2010-04-01

    The case argued in this article is that the last two decades have been characterised by distinct waves of healthcare reforms. The first, in the early 1990s, aimed to introduce more patients' choice and greater competition between the components of the healthcare system. The second, from 1995 to 2000, had the opposite aim of introducing greater integration and regulation. From 2000 onwards, the policy issue more in vogue has been the strengthening of patients' rights. Looking for the motives behind these reform strategies, this article aims to show how the ideological leaning of the governments in power affects the content of reform initiatives. The analysis presents evidence drawn from six OECD countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and UK. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reforming primary healthcare: from public policy to organizational change.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Denis, Jean-Louis; Lamothe, Lise; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; D'amour, Danielle; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Governments everywhere are implementing reform to improve primary care. However, the existence of a high degree of professional autonomy makes large-scale change difficult to achieve. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the change dynamics and the involvement of professionals in a primary healthcare reform initiative carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. An empirical approach was used to investigate change processes from the inception of a public policy to the execution of changes in professional practices. The data were analysed from a multi-level, combined contextualist-processual perspective. Results are based on a longitudinal multiple-case study of five family medicine groups, which was informed by over 100 interviews, questionnaires, and documentary analysis. The results illustrate the multiple processes observed with the introduction of planned large-scale change in primary care services. The analysis of change content revealed that similar post-change states concealed variations between groups in the scale of their respective changes. The analysis also demonstrated more precisely how change evolved through the introduction of "intermediate change" and how cycles of prescribed and emergent mechanisms distinctively drove change process and change content, from the emergence of the public policy to the change in primary care service delivery. This research was conducted among a limited number of early policy adopters. However, given the international interest in turning to the medical profession to improve primary care, the results offer avenues for both policy development and implementation. The findings offer practical insights for those studying and managing large-scale transformations. They provide a better understanding of how deliberate reforms coexist with professional autonomy through an intertwining of change content and processes. This research is one of few studies to examine a primary care reform from emergence to implementation

  14. Korea‧s Engineering Education Reform Policy and the Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheongsig

    The Korean government is setting up an ambitious policy for an engineering innovation program called “engineering education innovation program.” Its primary goal is to resolve quantitative and qualitative imbalance problems in industrial manpower of the country. It is also a policy that aims at progressively reforming engineering education in Korea in cooperation with the Ministries of Education (MOE) and Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE) . The development of specialized centers for engineering education programs by engineering schools, in particular, can help the government provide suitable supports for enhancing industrial competitiveness.

  15. Understanding policy persistence-The case of police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari; Hoppe, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Significant research attention has been given to understanding the processes of drug policy reform. However, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the persistence of policy in the face of opposition and evidence of ineffectiveness. In this article we analysed just such a case - police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia. We sought to identify factors which may account for the continuation of this policy, in spite of counter-evidence and concerted advocacy. The analysis was conducted using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). We collated documents relating to NSW drug detection dog policy from 1995 to 2016, including parliamentary records (NSW Parliament Hansard), government and institutional reports, legislation, police procedures, books, media, and academic publications. Texts were then read, coded and classified against the core dimensions of the ACF, including subsystem actors and coalitions, their belief systems and resources and venues employed for policy debate. Three coalitions were identified as competing in the policy subsystem: security/law and order, civil liberties and harm reduction. Factors that aided policy stability were the continued dominance of the security/law and order coalition since they introduced the drug dog policy; a power imbalance enabling the ruling coalition to limit when and where the policy was discussed; and a highly adversarial policy subsystem. In this context even technical knowledge that dogs infringed civil liberties and increased risks of overdose were readily downplayed, leading to only incremental changes in implementation rather than policy cessation or wholesale revision. The analysis provides new insights into why the accumulation of new evidence and advocacy efforts can be insufficient to drive significant policy change. It poses a challenge for the evidence-based paradigm suggesting that in highly adversarial policy subsystems new evidence is unlikely to generate policy change without broader

  16. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  17. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  18. Policy Capacity in the Learning Healthcare System Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gardner, William

    2015-08-07

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest and his colleagues make a strong argument for the need to expand policy capacity among healthcare actors. In this commentary, I develop an additional argument in support of Forest et al view. Forest et al rightly point to the need to have embedded policy experts to successfully translate healthcare reform policy into healthcare change. Translation of externally generated innovation policy into local solutions is only one source of healthcare system change. We also need to build learning healthcare systems that can discover new health solutions at the frontline of care. Enhanced policy capacity staffing in those organizations will be key to building continuously learning health systems.

  19. The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Reich, M R

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.

  20. Drug Testing in Schools: An Effective Deterrent? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (May 30, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents testimonies from a hearing discussing the drug threat in the nations schools and the issue of whether drug testing is an effective deterrent. The subcommittee conducted the hearing as part of an effort to fully understand the nations drug crisis, how it impacts different parts of our nation, and what effective drug control…

  1. U.S. immigration reform: policy issues and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Mcdowell, J M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the US immigration issue which has resurfaced in the last 10 years because the foreign born population grew by 4.5 million between 1970 and 1980. Because immigration accounts for 25% of the US population growth during the 1970s, reconsideration of US immigration policy by the government is underway. The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy was established in 1979 to evaluate existing laws and policies on admitting immigrants into the US. Presently, these policies focus on family reunification, as opposed to labor considerations. In 1984, the Senate and House passed the Simpson-Mazzoli Bill, but the bill died in the conference committee that was established to reconcile the differences between the 2 versions. 3 provisions of debate surround the proposed act: 1) control of illegal immigration - - the Senate arguing for the requirement of a national identification card to verify an individual is authorized for US employment; 2) legalization of alien status - - the House refusing to confer immediate permanent resident status on any alien; and 3) reform of legal immigration - - a provision that the House altogether ignores. Immigration takes jobs from Americans, depresses domestic wages, and worsens working conditions. On the other hand, immigrants fill the jobs which domestic workers find undesirable. The compromises reached by the conference committee concentrate on employer sanctions and the legalization of illegal aliens; reform of legal immigration failed to gain approval.

  2. US health care policy and reform: implications for cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Turakhia, Mintu P; Ullal, Aditya J

    2013-03-01

    In response to unsustainably rising costs, variable quality and access to health care, and the projected insolvency of vital safety net insurance programs, the federal government has proposed important health policy and regulatory changes in the USA. The US Supreme Court's decision to uphold most of the major provisions of the Affordable Care Act will lead to some of the most sweeping government reforms on entitlements since the creation of Medicare. Furthermore, implementation of new organizational, reimbursement, and health care delivery models will strongly affect the practice of cardiac electrophysiology. In this brief review, we will provide background and context to the problem of rising health care costs and describe salient reforms and their projected impacts on the field and practice of cardiac electrophysiology.

  3. Social security reform in Latin America: policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Kay, Stephen J; Kritzer, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade Latin American countries have served as the world's laboratory for pension systems based on individual retirement savings accounts. Some countries have adopted defined-contribution individual accounts as a replacement for state-run pension systems; other countries have embraced mixed systems of have made individual accounts optional and supplementary. This article outlines some of the most significant elements of recent Latin American pension reforms and examines some of the most serious policy challenges faced by governments implementing the new systems of individual accounts, including the need to reduce administrative costs, limit evasion, incorporate new categories of workers into the system, and improve competition in the pension fund industry. The authors conclude that there is no single Latin America model, and that reform itself has been and will continue to be an incremental process.

  4. Higher Education Reform: The NEA Perspective [and] New Policy Statements Highlight NEA Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Jane, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    National Education Association (NEA) policy statements on areas of higher education reform are considered in two newsletter issues. The policy statements were drafted by an advisory group of seven NEA members from both two-year and four-year institutions. The advisory group reviewed existing NEA policy and addressed the reform reports of various…

  5. Underlying Policy Assumptions of Charter School Reform: The Multiple Meanings of a Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Grutzik, Cynthia; Carnochan, Sibyll; Slayton, Julie; Vasudeva, Ash

    1999-01-01

    Based on interviews with state-level policy makers in six states, examines the policies of charter-school reform, arguing that the bipartisan support for these schools masks often-opposing viewpoints regarding the purpose of the reform. Identifies three salient and conflicting themes that emerge from the policy makers' explanations of their…

  6. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and... proposes these reforms to the guidance for Federal policies relating to grants in order to ensure that... of this proposal and a crosswalk of policy changes from the existing guidance are available on...

  7. Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (July 11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing focuses on the evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Specifically, the subcommittee was interested in measuring whether significant taxpayer investment has been effective in accomplishing the objectives of the campaign-- reaching the target audience, changing young peoples attitudes about drugs, encouraging…

  8. Social construction and the evidence-based drug policy endeavour.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kari

    2014-09-01

    'Evidence-based policy' has become the catch-cry of the drug policy field. A growing literature has been dedicated to better realising the goal of evidence-based drug policy: to maximise the use of the best quality research to inform policy decision-making and help answer the question of 'what works'. Alternative accounts in the policy processes literature conceptualise policy activity as an ambiguous and contested process, and the role of evidence as being only marginally influential. Multiple participants jostle for influence and seek to define what may be regarded as a policy problem, how it may be appropriately addressed, which participants may speak authoritatively, and what knowledge(s) may be brought to bear. The question posited in this article is whether the conceptual shift offered by thinking about policy activity as a process of social construction may be valuable for beginning to explore different perspectives of the evidence-based drug policy endeavour. Within a constructionist account of policy, what counts as valid 'evidence' will always be a constructed notion within a dynamic system, based on the privileging and silencing of participants and discourse, and the contestation of those many positions and perspectives. The social construction account shifts our focus from the inherent value of 'evidence' for addressing 'problems' to the ways in which policy knowledge is made valid, by whom and in what contexts. As such, social construction provides a framework for critically analysing the ways in which 'policy-relevant knowledge' may not be a stable concept but rather one which is constructed through the policy process, and, through a process of validation, is rendered useful. We have limited knowledge in the drug policy field about how this happens; how ambiguity about the problems to be addressed, which voices should be heard, and what activities may be appropriate is contested and managed. By unpicking the values and assumptions which underlie drug

  9. Why do policies change? Institutions, interests, ideas and networks in three cases of policy reform.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For

  10. National drug policy: implications of the 'tough on drugs' ideology.

    PubMed

    Norman, R

    2001-10-01

    Australia has emerged over the last decade as a world leader in drug policy. According to Single and Rohl (1997 pvii) Australia's National Drug Strategy 'has been characterised by a unique combination of features which have brought it international attention and acclaim'. The strength of Australia's policy has been its emphasis on both licit and illicit drugs, and also its clear articulation of harm minimisation as a guiding principle in all areas of action. The key policy goals recognised the harm associated with all substances and sought results in key areas of alcohol-related problems, tobacco-related problems, under-age consumption, prescription medication problems and illicit drug use. However, Australia has a new drug policy document for the new millennium, The National Drug Strategic Framework 1998 - 2002. As a result of a conservative influence in national politics, this framework has moved from the harm minimisation philosophy to a moralistic 'tough on drugs' philosophy that stresses zero tolerance, law enforcement and abstinence. There is a risk that Australia will experience an increase in adverse health, social and economic consequences as a result of this new policy direction. Nurses need to think critically about the 'tough on drugs' ideology. There is a risk that significant adverse affects may occur for their drug-using patients as a result of this policy change. In their practice, nurses need to challenge the validity of a punitive response, and to commit themselves to improving the health and safety of the illicit drug-using community.

  11. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Toby

    2011-11-01

    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug Addiction and Pregnancy: Policy Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavkin, Wendy

    1990-01-01

    Explores the following policy approaches to drug use by pregnant women: (1) criminal prosecution of the mother; (2) allegations of child neglect against the mother with interruption of custody; and (3) drug treatment. Discusses whether each reduces drug use during pregnancy or improves maternal and infant health and well-being. (JS)

  13. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Allison L.; Haas, Ingrid J.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform. PMID:27462294

  14. Perceived Threat Associated with Police Officers and Black Men Predicts Support for Policing Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.

  15. Policy process for health sector reforms: a case study of Punjab Province (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Tarin, Ehsanullah; Green, Andrew; Omar, Maye; Shaw, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The health sector in the Punjab (Pakistan) faces many problems, and, the government introduced reforms during 1993-2000. This paper explores the policy process for the reforms. A case study method was used and, to assist this, a conceptual framework was developed. Analysis of four initiatives indicated that there were deviations from the government guidelines and that the policy processes used were weak. The progress of different reforms was affected by a variety of factors: the immaturity of the political process and civil society, which together with innate conservatism and resistance to change on the part of the bureaucracy resulted in weak strategic sectoral leadership and a lack of clear purpose underpinning the reforms. It also resulted in weaknesses in preparation of the detail of reforms leading to poor implementation. The study suggests a need for broadening the stakeholders' base, building the capacity of policy-makers in policy analysis and strengthening the institutional basis of policymaking bodies.

  16. Sustaining the Drone Enterprise: How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-17

    Sustaining the Drone Enterprise How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force Major Kiel M. Martin, Ph.D...CT 06510 Abstract The Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), colloquially labeled the “ drone ,” has become iconic of American military campaigns this...Sustaining the Drone Enterprise: How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force’ informed policy decisions by the Office of

  17. China's Health Reform Update.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Vortherms, Samantha A; Hong, Xuezhi

    2017-03-20

    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management. This article reviews these major policy changes and the literature-based evidence of the effects of reforms on cost, access, and quality of care. It then highlights the outlook for future reforms. We argue that a better understanding of the unintended consequences of reform policies and of how practitioners' and patients' interests can be better aligned is essential for reforms to succeed.

  18. United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-28

    related to increased membership are discussed in the “Mechanics of Implementing Reform,” section of this report . 2 The General Assembly approved...proposals in Boutrous-Ghali’s reports , the General Assembly created five open-ended working groups to consider reforms in specific areas, including peace...information on the report , (continued...) Reform Efforts (1997 to 2005) Kofi Annan ran for Secretary- General on a platform of reform and introduced many

  19. Educational Reform and Policy Implementation in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul; Scott, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between educational reform in Hong Kong and the changing political system. Finds that political problems (regime legitimacy, destructive political culture) have obstructed the meaningful implementation of educational reform. Thus reform initiatives have been largely symbolic. (Contains 30 references.) (PKP)

  20. Managing la malilla: Exploring drug treatment experiences among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico, and their implications for drug law reform

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer; Pollini, Robin A.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In August 2009, Mexico reformed its drug laws and decriminalized small quantities of drugs for personal use; offenders caught three times will be mandated to enter drug treatment. However, little is known about the quality or effectiveness of drug treatment programs in Mexico. We examined injection drug users’ (IDUs) experiences in drug treatment in Tijuana, Mexico, with the goal of informing program planning and policy. Methods We examined qualitative and quantitative data from Proyecto El Cuete, a multi-phased research study on HIV risk among IDUs in Tijuana. Phase I consisted of 20 in-depth interviews and Phase II employed respondent-driven sampling to recruit 222 IDUs for a quantitative survey. We also reviewed national drug policy documents, surveillance data, and media reports to situate drug users’ experiences within the broader sociopolitical context. Results Participants in the qualitative study were 50% male with a mean age of 32; most injected heroin (85.0%) and methamphetamine (60.0%). The quantitative sample was 91.4% male with a mean age of 35; 98.2% injected heroin and 83.7% injected heroin and methamphetamine together. The majority of participants reported receiving treatment: residential treatment was most common, followed by methadone; other types of services were infrequently reported. Participants’ perceptions of program acceptability and effectiveness were mixed. Mistreatment emerged as a theme in the qualitative interviews and was reported by 21.6% of Phase II participants, primarily physical (72.0%) and verbal (52.0%) abuse. Conclusions Our results point to the need for political, economic, and social investment in the drug treatment system before offenders are sentenced to treatment under the revised national drug law. Resources are needed to strengthen program quality and ensure accountability. The public health impact of the new legislation that attempts to bring drug treatment to the forefront of national drug policy

  1. Managing la malilla: Exploring drug treatment experiences among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico, and their implications for drug law reform.

    PubMed

    Syvertsen, Jennifer; Pollini, Robin A; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2010-11-01

    In August 2009, Mexico reformed its drug laws and decriminalized small quantities of drugs for personal use; offenders caught three times will be mandated to enter drug treatment. However, little is known about the quality or effectiveness of drug treatment programs in Mexico. We examined injection drug users' (IDUs) experiences in drug treatment in Tijuana, Mexico, with the goal of informing program planning and policy. We examined qualitative and quantitative data from Proyecto El Cuete, a multi-phased research study on HIV risk among IDUs in Tijuana. Phase I consisted of 20 in-depth interviews and Phase II employed respondent-driven sampling to recruit 222 IDUs for a quantitative survey. We also reviewed national drug policy documents, surveillance data, and media reports to situate drug users' experiences within the broader sociopolitical context. Participants in the qualitative study were 50% male with a mean age of 32; most injected heroin (85.0%) and methamphetamine (60.0%). The quantitative sample was 91.4% male with a mean age of 35; 98.2% injected heroin and 83.7% injected heroin and methamphetamine together. The majority of participants reported receiving treatment: residential treatment was most common, followed by methadone; other types of services were infrequently reported. Participants' perceptions of program acceptability and effectiveness were mixed. Mistreatment emerged as a theme in the qualitative interviews and was reported by 21.6% of Phase II participants, primarily physical (72.0%) and verbal (52.0%) abuse. Our results point to the need for political, economic, and social investment in the drug treatment system before offenders are sentenced to treatment under the revised national drug law. Resources are needed to strengthen program quality and ensure accountability. The public health impact of the new legislation that attempts to bring drug treatment to the forefront of national drug policy should be systematically evaluated. Copyright

  2. Health policy reform in China: lessons from Asia.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, M; Wu, Xun

    2009-06-01

    Declining access to health care and rapidly rising health expenditures are a matter of grave public concern in China. After decades of efforts to reduce its involvement, the Chinese government is currently in the process of reforming the sector through increase in public expenditures and expansion of health insurance. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential of the reform direction in light of international experiences with similar reforms. It argues--on the basis of examination of reform experiences in Korea, Singapore and Thailand--that financing reforms without parallel measures to improve the provision system, especially how providers are paid, are unlikely to address the problems and may actually aggravate them. If the financing reforms are to succeed, it is vital for China to reform the incentives that guide the providers' behaviour.

  3. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    PubMed

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  4. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  5. The Contribution of Stuart Hall to Analyzing Educational Policy and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandin, Luis Armando

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the contribution of Stuart Hall to the study of educational policy and reform, using the experience of the Citizen School initiative in Porto Alegre, Brazil as a concrete example. This experience was a participatory educational reform implemented during the 16 years of the Workers' Party tenure in Porto Alegre's municipal…

  6. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  7. Educational Reform: The Need To Redefine State-Local Governance of Schools. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Thomas B.

    This document examines recent state school reform efforts from two perspectives: the strategies states adopt to improve educational excellence and the influence those strategies have on the functional dimensions of education policy. The paper reports the research findings of a study that examined state reform strategies nationally. The study…

  8. How Do School Leaders Navigate ICT Educational Reform? Policy Learning Narratives from a Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua Reyes, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research inquiry focuses on how school leaders "make sense" of educational reform in their local contexts. In order to do this, an exploratory qualitative case study of two schools that took part in policy reform initiatives directed at ubiquitous use of information communication and technology (ICT) in the Singapore…

  9. The Contribution of Stuart Hall to Analyzing Educational Policy and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandin, Luis Armando

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the contribution of Stuart Hall to the study of educational policy and reform, using the experience of the Citizen School initiative in Porto Alegre, Brazil as a concrete example. This experience was a participatory educational reform implemented during the 16 years of the Workers' Party tenure in Porto Alegre's municipal…

  10. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  11. How Do School Leaders Navigate ICT Educational Reform? Policy Learning Narratives from a Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua Reyes, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research inquiry focuses on how school leaders "make sense" of educational reform in their local contexts. In order to do this, an exploratory qualitative case study of two schools that took part in policy reform initiatives directed at ubiquitous use of information communication and technology (ICT) in the Singapore…

  12. Niche markets and evidence assessment in transition: a critical review of proposed drug reforms.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Shannon G; Lemmens, Trudo

    2014-01-01

    In response to rising demands and treatment costs, and the need to achieve better value for money in the face of tight fiscal constraints, both the National Health Service and the public drug reimbursement system are undergoing important reforms. Concurrently, the pharmaceutical sector itself is also alleged to be experiencing significant changes, perhaps most notably, a decline of the blockbuster model of drug development and a growing focus on niche market products. As pharmaceutical development strategies evolve and the resulting drug products become more complex, regulatory and policy responses must be able to evolve along with them. We explore how in numerous jurisdictions, including the UK, proposals for 'adaptive licensing' on the regulatory side and 'performance-based risk sharing agreements' on the funding side are shifting the focus of drug regulation and reimbursement towards more incremental access to new therapies and more post-market evidence generation. However, serious questions remain about how such reforms can be successfully implemented and whether they can balance demands for earlier access to promising new therapies with the need for robust evidence on safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness.

  13. Transitioning to a national health system in Cyprus: a stakeholder analysis of pharmaceutical policy reform

    PubMed Central

    Kanavos, Panos G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the pharmaceutical sector in Cyprus in terms of the availability and affordability of medicines and to explore pharmaceutical policy options for the national health system finance reform expected to be introduced in 2016. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in April 2014 with senior representatives from seven key national organizations involved in pharmaceutical care. The captured data were coded and analysed using the predetermined themes of pricing, reimbursement, prescribing, dispensing and cost sharing. We also examined secondary data provided by the Cypriot Ministry of Health; these data included the prices and volumes of prescription medicines in 2013. Findings We identified several key issues, including high medicine prices, underuse of generic medicines and high out-of-pocket drug spending. Most stakeholders recommended that the national government review existing pricing policies to ensure medicines within the forthcoming national health system are affordable and available, introduce a national reimbursement system and incentivize the prescribing and dispensing of generic medicines. There were disagreements over how to (i) allocate responsibilities to governmental agencies in the national health system, (ii) reconcile differences in opinion between stakeholders and (iii) raise awareness among patients, physicians and pharmacists about the benefits of greater generic drug use. Conclusion In Cyprus, if the national health system is going to provide universal health coverage in a sustainable fashion, then the national government must address the current issues in the pharmaceutical sector. Importantly, the country will need to increase the market share of generic medicines to contain drug spending. PMID:26478624

  14. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  15. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  16. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  17. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  18. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  19. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  20. From Agitating in the Streets to Implementing in the Suites: Understanding Education Policy Reforms Initiated by Local Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne; Deschenes, Sarah; Hopkins, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Community organizing for education reform continues to expand across U.S. cities, and this article provides a framework for understanding how grassroots advocacy organizations influence local education policy. Comparing two landmark policy reforms achieved by advocates in California, we analyze the complicated role advocates have in reform that…

  1. Reform at FDA: faster access to promising drugs? Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1995-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the government agency responsible for ensuring that drugs, vaccines, and medical devices are safe and effective, is under hot debate by Congress, the Clinton administration, and the AIDS community. The Clinton/Gore proposal favors excluding drug and biologic manufacturers from requirements for more environmental assessments and only indirectly addresses drug development. Oregon Democratic Congressman Ron Wyden introduced an FDA reform bill which calls for the FDA to use expert panels, independent testing organizations, and institutional review boards (IRB) to help speed new drugs and devices through the approval process. The bill calls for the use of the IRB for the approval (or denial) of applications for Phase I review of new drugs. Not surprisingly, the AIDS community has differing views on the reform at the FDA. The Treatment Action Group (TAG), whose members hold key positions in well-known AIDS groups, supports the status quo at FDA and is lobbying AIDS organizations across the country to sign on to its FDA Reform Principles. Other AIDS treatment activists, such as members of ACT UP, favor local IRB jurisdiction over Phase I research.

  2. United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-22

    organizations delivered a letter to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice that offered their “continued support” for the management reforms proposed by Annan...Council, and strengthening the U.N. Security Council. Member states also agreed to Secretariat and management reforms including improving internal U.N... management reforms, for example, whereas developing countries fear that giving the Secretary-General more authority may undermine the power of the U.N

  3. United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-05

    Secretary- General in January 2007, has indicated that he will continue to support U.N. reform efforts. This report focuses on current U.N. reform efforts... report . 2 The General Assembly approved some, but not all, of the recommendations in 1977. For more information on this group and other U.N. reform...of this report . 4 In response to the proposals in Boutrous-Ghali’s reports , the General Assembly created five open-ended working groups to consider

  4. Policy experimentation and innovation as a response to complexity in China's management of health reforms.

    PubMed

    Husain, Lewis

    2017-08-03

    There are increasing criticisms of dominant models for scaling up health systems in developing countries and a recognition that approaches are needed that better take into account the complexity of health interventions. Since Reform and Opening in the late 1970s, Chinese government has managed complex, rapid and intersecting reforms across many policy areas. As with reforms in other policy areas, reform of the health system has been through a process of trial and error. There is increasing understanding of the importance of policy experimentation and innovation in many of China's reforms; this article argues that these processes have been important in rebuilding China's health system. While China's current system still has many problems, progress is being made in developing a functioning system able to ensure broad population access. The article analyses Chinese thinking on policy experimentation and innovation and their use in management of complex reforms. It argues that China's management of reform allows space for policy tailoring and innovation by sub-national governments under a broad agreement over the ends of reform, and that shared understandings of policy innovation, alongside informational infrastructures for the systemic propagation and codification of useful practices, provide a framework for managing change in complex environments and under conditions of uncertainty in which 'what works' is not knowable in advance. The article situates China's use of experimentation and innovation in management of health system reform in relation to recent literature which applies complex systems thinking to global health, and concludes that there are lessons to be learnt from China's approaches to managing complexity in development of health systems for the benefit of the poor.

  5. Mental Health Policy and Psychotropic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Richard G; Conti, Rena M; Goldman, Howard H

    2005-01-01

    The pace of innovation in psychotropic drugs has been rapid over the past 15 years. There also have been unprecedented increases in spending on prescription drugs generally and psychotropic medications specifically. Psychotropic medications are playing a more central role in treatment. They also are receiving close scrutiny from health insurers, state budget makers, and ordinary citizens. Public policy actions regarding prescription drugs have the potential to significantly affect clinical care for mental disorders, the costs of this care to individuals and society at large, and the prospects for future scientific advances. This article outlines the policy issues related to psychotropic drugs with respect to their role in determining access to mental health treatment and the cost and quality of mental health care. PMID:15960772

  6. Mental health policy and psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard G; Conti, Rena M; Goldman, Howard H

    2005-01-01

    The pace of innovation in psychotropic drugs has been rapid over the past 15 years. There also have been unprecedented increases in spending on prescription drugs generally and psychotropic medications specifically. Psychotropic medications are playing a more central role in treatment. They also are receiving close scrutiny from health insurers, state budget makers, and ordinary citizens. Public policy actions regarding prescription drugs have the potential to significantly affect clinical care for mental disorders, the costs of this care to individuals and society at large, and the prospects for future scientific advances. This article outlines the policy issues related to psychotropic drugs with respect to their role in determining access to mental health treatment and the cost and quality of mental health care.

  7. International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik N G

    2017-09-27

    The carbon dioxide embodied in Chinese exports to developed countries increased rapidly from 1995 to 2008. We test the extent to which institutional reforms in China can explain this increase. We focus on five areas of reforms: trade liberalization, environmental institutions, legal and property rights, institutional risk and exchange rate policy. Our results show that trade liberalization, weak environmental institutions, exchange rate policy, and legal and property rights affect emissions. Our results also indicate that the lack of reform in the utilities sector is an important factor in the rapid increase in embodied emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitudes towards drug policies in Latin America: Results from a Latin-American Survey.

    PubMed

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Vargas, Salvador; Oyanedel, Juan C; Torres, Francisca; Vergara, Eduardo; Hough, Mike

    2017-03-01

    In recent years Latin American countries have increasingly rejected the traditional prohibitionist paradigm of drug policy, reflecting its failure to reduce either consumption or trafficking. The extent to which these policy trends currently command pubic support is unclear, however. This article goes some way to filling this gap, providing a snapshot of public attitudes towards drug policies in nine Latin American countries. The 2014 Annual Survey of the Observatory of Drug Policies and Public Opinion, which has representative population samples, was used to measure public opinion. Country comparisons are made using descriptive and inferential statistics. Countries fall into three groups: Peru, Bolivia and El Salvador are the most conservative countries on drug policy and perceptions of risks of cannabis use; they also score lowest on Human Development Index. On the other hand, the public in Chile and Uruguay are more likely to support drug policy reform. The remaining four countries (Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Peru) tend to occupy the middle ground between these extremes. In addition, cannabis legalization is explained by its recreational use, being this the main meaning attached to cannabis policy among Latin American citizens. There is a significant heterogeneity in attitudes towards drug policies in Latin American countries, which suggests that people are questioning the policies that set the norm in Latin America without achieving any consensus regarding future measures for each country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent national and regional drug reforms in Sweden: implications for pharmaceutical companies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wettermark, Björn; Godman, Brian; Andersson, Karolina; Gustafsson, Lars L; Haycox, Alan; Bertele, Vittorio

    2008-01-01

    With an aging population and increased prevalence of chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, drug reforms are needed across Europe to ensure the continued provision of comprehensive healthcare. It is also a challenge, with the limited resources available, to fund new innovative drugs that significantly improve patient health. Recent national and regional reforms in Sweden have moderated the rate of increase in drug expenditure, despite increased volumes of drug use and the launch of new, expensive drugs. National reforms include the adoption of economic principles when assessing the value and subsequent reimbursement of new and existing drugs, as well as reforms to obtain low prices for generic drugs. Regional reforms aim to encourage the rational use of medicines through the establishment of drug and therapeutic committees, development of guidelines, academic detailing, continuous benchmarking of prescribing patterns, and financial incentives. Some of these reforms provide examples to other European countries, whilst others duplicate existing measures. As such, we believe other European countries can benefit from an analysis of the Swedish reforms. We believe the pharmaceutical industry can also benefit from this analysis by working with key regional payers involved with developing and implementing the reforms as they moderate and refine their future activities, including finding acceptable ways of introducing new expensive drugs.

  10. Undocumented Immigrants and Access to Health Care: Making a Case for Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Edward, Jean

    2014-02-01

    The growth in undocumented immigration in the United States has garnered increasing interest in the arenas of immigration and health care policy reform. Undocumented immigrants are restricted from accessing public health and social service as a result of their immigration status. The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act restricts undocumented immigrants from participating in state exchange insurance market places, further limiting them from accessing equitable health care services. This commentary calls for comprehensive policy reform that expands access to health care for undocumented immigrants based on an analysis of immigrant health policies and their impact on health care expenditures, public health, and the role of health care providers. The intersectional nature of immigration and health care policy emphasizes the need for nurse policymakers to advocate for comprehensive policy reform aimed at improving the health and well-being of immigrants and the nation as a whole. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  12. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Educational Reforms in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the successes and problems of educational reforms in Sweden. Examiners from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) collected data and information for the report from published and unpublished documents and from a two-week tour of the country. The reforms are judged by three main objectives: equality;…

  13. School Reform in Chicago: Lessons in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "School Reform in Chicago" shares the lessons learned from the city of Chicago's school reform efforts over the past two decades, the most ambitious in history, becoming a huge laboratory for innovations in areas such as school governance, leadership, accountability, and community involvement. In 1987, The U.S. Secretary of Education…

  14. Education Reform and the Limits of Policy: Lessons from Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Michael F.; Kearney, C. Philip

    2012-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the United States has experienced more attempts at education reform than at any other time in its history. Efforts to reform financing, the assessment of student performance, accountability and equity, and school choice have all been implemented--with varying levels of success. Michael F. Addonizio and C. Philip Kearney…

  15. Reinventing Tenure: What Schools Can Learn from Public Reform Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick; Maranto, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Tenure has lost public legitimacy. Of 30 states reforming civil-service systems or proposing reforms, Georgia has gone the farthest. Since 1996, new state government hires have been "at will" employees. Erosion of private-sector union strength may aid antitenure political leaders' efforts. A sidebar outlines states' actions. (10…

  16. School Reform in Chicago: Lessons in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "School Reform in Chicago" shares the lessons learned from the city of Chicago's school reform efforts over the past two decades, the most ambitious in history, becoming a huge laboratory for innovations in areas such as school governance, leadership, accountability, and community involvement. In 1987, The U.S. Secretary of Education…

  17. Education Reform and the Limits of Policy: Lessons from Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Michael F.; Kearney, C. Philip

    2012-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the United States has experienced more attempts at education reform than at any other time in its history. Efforts to reform financing, the assessment of student performance, accountability and equity, and school choice have all been implemented--with varying levels of success. Michael F. Addonizio and C. Philip Kearney…

  18. Reform and Non-Reform in Education: The Political Costs and Benefits of Reform Policies in France and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.; Miyake, Eriko

    This paper examines how the perception and anticipation of political costs and benefits affects decisions about whether and how plans for educational reforms are to be pursued. Two case studies of major educational reform attempts are described: France and Japan. The study analyzes the two societies' underlying dilemmas, which manifest themselves…

  19. Drug price reform in the UK: debunking the myths.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Simeon

    2007-10-01

    The OFT report into the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS) called for reform of the scheme, replacing existing profit and price controls with a system of value-based pricing (VBP). The report argued that VBP would be much more effective than the current PPRS both at providing value for money for the NHS and giving pharmaceutical companies the right incentives to invest in drugs in the future. The report has sparked a widespread debate about drug pricing in the UK and has been controversial in some quarters. Some of the more negative responses are, however, based on fundamental misconceptions about the OFT recommendations. In particular, contrary to some claims, the recommended system would provide strong incentives for incremental innovation and the right balance of rewards for first in class and follow-on products. Nor, as is sometimes argued, would VBP have an adverse effect on investment in the UK.Certainly, real challenges lie ahead if VBP is to be implemented. These concern the definition of value, particularly where patient benefits differ significantly by subgroup or indication, and the level of resource required to implement VBP. The OFT report contains proposals for addressing each of these areas. Perhaps the most difficult challenge is the political one: securing acceptance for a reform package that would create winners and losers among pharmaceutical companies according to their success in producing valuable drugs. Ultimately, however, only a scheme that does precisely this can hope to meet the needs of patients, the NHS and innovative companies in the long run. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [National pharmaceutical policy in Colombia and social security reform: access and rational use of medicines].

    PubMed

    Mejia Restrepo, Samuel; Velez Arango, Alba Lucía; Buritica Arboleda, Olga Clemencia; Arango Mejia, María Cristina; Rio Gomez, Jaime Alberto del

    2002-01-01

    Based on the new social security system in Colombia (1993), which establishes equity and mandatory care as the basis for public health care provision, the authors analyze whether the formulation and implementation of pharmaceutical policy promote accessibility, availability, and rational use of medicines, thereby contributing to equity in health. Two approaches were used: a macro approach centered on the legal framework and various actors in the reform process and a micro approach related to the processes and results in the drug supply system. The authors studied the legal instruments backing the country's pharmaceutical policy and evaluated their application, using indicators and a specific disease (diabetes mellitus) as a marker. Although there is a legal framework providing the people's right to access health care services and essential medicines, the country lacks a comprehensive pharmaceuticals policy. Most of the institutions experience problems in distributing the medicines listed under the Mandatory Health Plan, a low percentage of medicines is dispensed at zero cost, and a major portion of patients purchase medicines through associations of diabetics or rely on alternative medicine. The study unveiled several obstacles to equity in health care coverage and access to essential medicines.

  1. Providers' payment and delivery system reforms hold both threats and opportunities for the drug and device industries.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2012-09-01

    For decades, medical device and specialty drug makers have produced a steady stream of breakthroughs and incremental improvements, from cancer therapies to orthopedic joint replacements, drug-eluting stents, and cardiac pacemakers. The advances were financed by a fragmented health care system that paid for whichever clinical technologies were favored by physicians without strong concern for cost. But now hospitals, health systems, insurers, and policy makers are embracing payment reforms that seek to control costs and foster uniformity in the adoption of new drugs and devices. This article explores payment reforms that will have an impact on the medical technology industry and describes opportunities for the industry to flourish in this new, more financially constrained landscape.

  2. Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications☆

    PubMed Central

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering

  3. The politics of drug control in Nigeria: Exclusion, repression and obstacles to policy change.

    PubMed

    Klantschnig, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    International agencies have viewed West Africa as a major player in the global trade in cocaine and heroin and in efforts to control that trade, as there have been reports of escalating arrests of drug smugglers, large-scale drug seizures and 'narco-states' in the subregion. It is claimed that a substantial share of the drugs available in Western markets transit through West Africa today and are increasingly used there as well. Notwithstanding this growing alarm, there is little serious scholarship addressing the issue of drugs and drug policy in West Africa. The article assesses and challenges some of the existing depictions of drugs and drug policy in West Africa through an empirical case study of drug control in Nigeria - one of West Africa's most notorious 'drug hubs' and recently hailed as a policy model by international experts. Based on previously inaccessible government documents, interviews with key officials in Nigeria, as well as ethnographic work at Nigeria's key drug agency, the article provides a unique insight into the politics of drug policy-making and implementation in West Africa. After describing the dominant official narratives of Nigeria's drug control, the article shows how the key political dynamics underlying drug policy remain obscured by these narratives. Nigerian drug policy has been characterised by a highly exclusive policy-making process, repression as the sole means of implementation and a strong bond with international drug agencies. This policy emerged in the 1980s and 1990s and has remained the unchallenged norm until today. The political processes underlying Nigerian drug policy also explain why policy reform has been and will be difficult to accomplish. These domestic political processes have largely been ignored in the existing depictions of drugs in West Africa, as they have mainly focused on externally driven drug threats and foreign policy responses. Most importantly, they have ignored the role played by the state. Rather

  4. [Drugs, health policy and AIDS: changes in a dependent policy].

    PubMed

    Loyola, Maria Andréa

    2008-04-01

    Since the 1970s the Brazilian government has made efforts to implement a pharmaceutical policy that, in spite of a market predominantly oligopolized and dominated by multinational pharmaceutical industries, guarantees access to essential drugs for the population. In this context, in 1999, a law regarding generics was approved. This article aims at analyzing the elements that interfered in the implementation process of this law. Based on specialized bibliography, on the debate in the Brazilian press (1992-2002) and on interviews with industry members, physicians, politicians, activists and civil servants we try to show that the implementation of generics in Brazil is strongly related to the AIDS epidemic. More precisely, it is related to the successful health policy against this disease involving different actors and a variety of elements to be analyzed here, among them the policy of copycat versions of drugs, the law of universal access to anti-AIDS drugs, the struggle of organized social movements, the governmental bureaucracy implemented for fighting this epidemic and the strong mobilization of the media.

  5. One Policy, Disparate Reactions: Institutional Responses in Florida's Developmental Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.; Tandberg, David A.; Hu, Shouping; Hankerson, Dava

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to better understand how community colleges in Florida planned to implement a new sweeping state policy pertaining to developmental education. Via a cluster analysis, we identify three distinct patterns in the ways in which the colleges responded to the policy: reformers, responders, and resisters. Further, we find that these…

  6. FYI: Reforming Social Welfare Policy...Indiana's Children...Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes results of reports and resources concerning the reform of social welfare policy. Focuses on a profile of Indiana children, hospital policies and programs designed to meet the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children and their families, a senior center/latchkey program, and lead poisoning prevention. (BB)

  7. Educational Turbulence: The Influence of Macro and Micro-Policy on Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2013-01-01

    Enactment of federal educational policy has direct implications for states and local school districts across the nation, particularly in the areas of accountability and funding. This study utilized constructivist grounded theory to examine the impact of policy on science education reform in a large, urban school district over a 5-year period. The…

  8. Integrated Practice in the Early Years in Australia: The Assumptions, Omissions and Contradictions of Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea; Cartmel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine current national early years' policy reform, which emphasises the importance of service integration, national quality standards and a quality knowledge base for educators concerning the provision of early childhood education and care. Using Queensland, Australia, as an example, a policy discourse analysis…

  9. Curriculum Convergence in Chile: The Global and Local Context of Reforms in Curriculum Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Gilbert A.

    2004-01-01

    In the 14 years since Chile's return to democracy, educational reform has figured prominently in the social policy agenda. As is true throughout Latin America, Chilean policy makers have placed the quality of educational opportunities among their main concerns. Having previously focused on the numerical expansion of enrollment, Chile's leadership…

  10. Educational Turbulence: The Influence of Macro and Micro-Policy on Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2013-01-01

    Enactment of federal educational policy has direct implications for states and local school districts across the nation, particularly in the areas of accountability and funding. This study utilized constructivist grounded theory to examine the impact of policy on science education reform in a large, urban school district over a 5-year period. The…

  11. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  12. Tumultuous Times of Education Reform: A Critical Reflection on Caring in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mary G.; Tucker, Janice L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines "caring" in the context of radical education reform in one Canadian province and school district. Historical provincial policy documents set the context for the district analysis. Drawing on our experiences both as participants and researchers, we use theories of care, critical policy, and the tools of critical…

  13. Institutional Complexity and Policy Implementation: How Underlying Logics Drive Teacher Interpretations of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.; Sherer, David G.

    2017-01-01

    One critical factor in policy implementation is how teachers interpret policy. Previous research largely overlooks how the broader culture shapes teachers' interpretations. In the current research, we explore how teachers' interpretations of instructional reforms are associated with the logics of broad societal institutions. Our longitudinal…

  14. One Policy, Disparate Reactions: Institutional Responses in Florida's Developmental Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.; Tandberg, David A.; Hu, Shouping; Hankerson, Dava

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to better understand how community colleges in Florida planned to implement a new sweeping state policy pertaining to developmental education. Via a cluster analysis, we identify three distinct patterns in the ways in which the colleges responded to the policy: reformers, responders, and resisters. Further, we find that these…

  15. The Impact of Reform Policies on Teachers' Work and Professionalism in the Chinese Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai; Lai, Manhong; Wang, Lijia

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reform policies on the work of Chinese teachers. It explores the policy context in which a fragile teaching profession attempts to develop and discusses the dynamics of interacting societal forces that have created the dilemmas for the teachers. The authors argue that while the continual implementation of reform…

  16. Knaves or Knights, Pawns or Queens?: An Evaluation of Australian Higher Education Reform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollery, Brian; Murray, David; Crase, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To invoke Julian Le Grand's conceptual model of the interaction between human motivation and policy formulation in order to explain how motivational endogeneity in the university environment has distorted policy outcomes in the Australian higher education reform program. Design/methodology/approach: Le Grand contends that changes in the…

  17. Controlling the Front Gates: Effective Admissions Policies and Practices. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Frank

    This report identifies policies and practices essential to overcoming problems with admissions to juvenile detention facilities, using information from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI). Chapter 1, "Why Objective Admissions Policies and Practices Are Critical to Detention Reform," describes factors contributing to…

  18. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  19. Integrated Practice in the Early Years in Australia: The Assumptions, Omissions and Contradictions of Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea; Cartmel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine current national early years' policy reform, which emphasises the importance of service integration, national quality standards and a quality knowledge base for educators concerning the provision of early childhood education and care. Using Queensland, Australia, as an example, a policy discourse analysis…

  20. Knaves or Knights, Pawns or Queens?: An Evaluation of Australian Higher Education Reform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollery, Brian; Murray, David; Crase, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To invoke Julian Le Grand's conceptual model of the interaction between human motivation and policy formulation in order to explain how motivational endogeneity in the university environment has distorted policy outcomes in the Australian higher education reform program. Design/methodology/approach: Le Grand contends that changes in the…

  1. Tumultuous Times of Education Reform: A Critical Reflection on Caring in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mary G.; Tucker, Janice L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines "caring" in the context of radical education reform in one Canadian province and school district. Historical provincial policy documents set the context for the district analysis. Drawing on our experiences both as participants and researchers, we use theories of care, critical policy, and the tools of critical…

  2. United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-27

    assumed the position of Secretary- General in January 2007, has stated that he will continue to support U.N. reform efforts. This report focuses on...process. See “Previous Reform Legislation” section of this report . 4 In response to the proposals in Boutrous-Ghali’s reports , the General Assembly created...group, see “The Mechanics of Implementing Reform” section of this report . 5 Notably, in 1994 the General Assembly established the Office of

  3. Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

    2009-01-01

    During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States.

  4. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  5. An analysis of policy levers used to implement mental health reform in Australia 1992-2012.

    PubMed

    Grace, Francesca C; Meurk, Carla S; Head, Brian W; Hall, Wayne D; Carstensen, Georgia; Harris, Meredith G; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2015-10-24

    Over the past two decades, mental health reform in Australia has received unprecedented government attention. This study explored how five policy levers (organisation, regulation, community education, finance and payment) were used by the Australian Federal Government to implement mental health reforms. Australian Government publications, including the four mental health plans (published in 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2008) were analysed according to policy levers used to drive reform across five priority areas: [1] human rights and community attitudes; [2] responding to community need; [3] service structures; [4] service quality and effectiveness; and [5] resources and service access. Policy levers were applied in varying ways; with two or three levers often concurrently used to implement a single initiative or strategy. For example, changes to service structures were achieved using various combinations of all five levers. Attempts to improve service quality and effectiveness were instead made through a single lever-regulation. The use of some levers changed over time, including a move away from prescriptive, legislative use of regulation, towards a greater focus on monitoring service standards and consumer outcomes. Patterns in the application of policy levers across the National Mental Health Strategy, as identified in this analysis, represent a novel way of conceptualising the history of mental health reform in Australia. An improved understanding of the strategic targeting and appropriate utilisation of policy levers may assist in the delivery and evaluation of evidence-based mental health reform in the future.

  6. How State Education Reform Can Improve Secondary Schools, Part II: Background and Technical Appendices. Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE) Policy Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan R.

    By June 1983, California enacted Senate Bill 813, a sweeping, comprehensive education reform program that contained over 80 education policy and program reforms. The state legislature asked the research team to analyze schools that were effectively responding to reform stimuli and to identify how Senate Bill 813 aided, hindered, or was irrelevant…

  7. [On the formulation of TCM foreign exchange policy after the reform and opening-up].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfang; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine are conducted under the guidance of the policy of the CPC and Chinese government. After the carrying out of the reform and opening-up policy, foreign exchange policy of TCM has experienced the process of growing up from nothing, from less to more, and from coarse to fine, which is closely related to our country's foreign policy, the cause of Chinese medicine development, and urgent need of international communication. In the three decades after the reform and opening-up policy, the formulation of foreign exchange policy of TCM can be divided into three stages: viz., inclusion in the framework of national foreign policy (1978-1985), embodiment in the policy of developing TCM cause (1986-1996), and appearance in the special policy of foreign exchange of Chinese medicine (since 1997). From the development process of these policies, the development of each policy gradually complies with the process of the development of the times, with its contents basically in line with the requirements of the times. The implementation of some policies promotes the foreign exchanges and cooperation of Chinese medicine.

  8. Early Educational Provision--Emphasised in Education Policy Reforms in Norway? An Analysis of Education Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses how the intentions of early provision in Norwegian schools have been expressed in the education policy reforms in Norway from the 1970s to the present day. The first area deals with the intentions that most explicitly cover early provision; prevention, early detection and intervention. The second area of analysis relates to…

  9. Early Educational Provision--Emphasised in Education Policy Reforms in Norway? An Analysis of Education Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses how the intentions of early provision in Norwegian schools have been expressed in the education policy reforms in Norway from the 1970s to the present day. The first area deals with the intentions that most explicitly cover early provision; prevention, early detection and intervention. The second area of analysis relates to…

  10. The Ontario Drug Policy Research Network: bridging the gap between Research and Drug Policy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sobia; Moore, Julia E; Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Tran, Judy; McAuley, Glenn; Juurlink, David N; Paterson, Michael; Laupacis, Andreas; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2014-09-01

    Policymakers have cited several barriers to using evidence in policy decisions, including lack of research relevance and timeliness. In recent years, several reports have focused on the successes and challenges of researcher-policymaker collaborations, a form of policy engagement intended to help overcome barriers to the use of research evidence in policymaking. Although these reports often demonstrate an increase in research relevance, rarely do they provide concrete methods of enhancing research timeliness, which is surprising given policymakers' expressed need to receive "rapid-response" research. Additionally, the impact of researcher-policymaker collaborations is not well-discussed. In this paper, we aim to describe the collaboration between the Ontario Drug Policy Research Network (ODPRN) and its policymaker partner, the Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP), with a particular focus on the ODPRN's research methodology and unique rapid-response approach for policy engagement. This approach is illustrated through a specific case example regarding drug funding policies for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Moreover, we discuss the impact of the ODPRN's research on pharmaceutical policy and lessons learned throughout the ODPRN and OPDP's five-year partnership. The described experiences will be valuable to those seeking to enhance evidence uptake in policymaking for immediate policy needs.

  11. Public Policy and School Reform: A Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, Philadelphia, PA.

    Educational policy alone will not create successful educational improvement. This summary presents key findings from 5 years of research on policy and finance, conducted by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). Key findings include: (1) U.S. schools have demonstrated important, positive changes in practice, attitude, and student…

  12. Policies and Initiatives: Reforming Teacher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi, Martha Nkechinyere

    2012-01-01

    Much discussion surrounding educational policy currently is international in character. Governments, policy makers, stakeholders and many international organizations of both developed and developing countries have become concerned with how policies, practices, and outcomes in one country can be compared with those in other countries. Comparative…

  13. Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity of…

  14. Arts Integration as School Reform: Exploring How Teachers Experience Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Lara; Huxhold, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the perceptions and experiences of general elementary educators as they engage in a school reform process that requires them to learn and implement an arts infused curriculum intended to raise student achievement on standardized tests in non-arts subjects. This qualitative study reveals not only how one arts-based school…

  15. Fiscal Policy Implications of the Education Reform Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; McKeown, Mary P.

    This paper examines fiscal implications of five 1983 reports that recommend reform of America's schools. Greater rigor in curriculum and textbook content is a common report theme, while three call for specific graduation requirements. Generally, reports recommend increasing time for key courses and requiring regular homework, achievement tests,…

  16. Arts Integration as School Reform: Exploring How Teachers Experience Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Lara; Huxhold, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the perceptions and experiences of general elementary educators as they engage in a school reform process that requires them to learn and implement an arts infused curriculum intended to raise student achievement on standardized tests in non-arts subjects. This qualitative study reveals not only how one arts-based school…

  17. Shaping Educational Policy in Maryland: Teacher Education Reform and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Dennis E.; Proffitt, Thomas D.; Pilato, Virginia H.; Rosenthal, Michael

    Maryland's teacher education reform began in 1991, when the Maryland Higher Education Council (MHEC) charged a task force with recommending a comprehensive approach to educating teachers that combined a solid foundation in academic preparation with promising developments in professional practice. The task force report recommended a 4+1 model for…

  18. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  19. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  20. 28 CFR 0.102 - Drug enforcement policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug enforcement policy coordination. 0... JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.102 Drug enforcement policy coordination. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall report to the Attorney General, through the Deputy...

  1. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  2. The Small State, Markets and Tertiary Education Reform in a Globalised Knowledge Economy: Decoding Policy Texts in Botswana's Tertiary Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polelo, Mompati Mino

    2009-01-01

    A number of global discourses have gained currency in national education policies. The need to reform education systems is coated in economic terms, the rationale of which is efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Education is assigned the task of producing a competitive workforce in the global market. In these reforms, education is…

  3. Mixing drink and drugs: 'Underclass' politics, the recovery agenda and the partial convergence of English alcohol and drugs policy.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Mark; Yeomans, Henry

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol policy and illicit drugs policy are typically presented as separate and different in academic discussion. This is understandable, to a degree, as the criminal law upholds a 'great regulatory divide' (Seddon, 2010: 56) separating the licit trade in alcohol from the illicit trade in substances classified as either class A, B or C under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. This paper takes a different stance. In doing so, it draws upon Berridge's (2013) argument that policies governing various psychoactive substances have been converging since the mid-twentieth century and seeks to elaborate it using recent developments relating to the control and regulation of drugs and alcohol in the broader areas of criminal justice and welfare reform. Significantly, the article examines how recent policy directions relating to both drugs and alcohol in England have, under the aegis of the 'recovery agenda', been connected to a broader behavioural politics oriented towards the actions and lifestyles of an apparently problematic subgroup of the population or 'underclass'. The paper thus concludes that, although the great regulatory divide remains intact, an underclass politics is contributing towards the greater alignment of illicit drugs and alcohol policies, especially in regards to the respective significance of abstinence (or abstinence-based 'recovery').

  4. Have VET Reforms Resulted in Improvements in Quality? Illustrations from the Alcohol and Other Drugs Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Ann; Kostadinov, Victoria; White, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Australian vocational education and training (VET) has undergone major reforms since the 1990s, including the introduction of competency based training (CBT) and the "streamlining" of qualifications. This paper examines the impact of these reforms, using the alcohol and other drugs sector as a case illustration. A survey of alcohol and…

  5. In Search of a Coherent Policy of Reform: A Longitudinal Examination of Educational Reform in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the social, cultural, and political context for educational reform in Utah, highlighting Mormon influences, high educational valuation and aspiration, booming public school enrollments, moderate revenue growth, and the state's "minimalist" tax mood. Discusses the character and impact of efficiency, effectiveness, strategic…

  6. Education Reform Support: A Framework for Scaling Up School Reform. Policy Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, F. Henry; DeStefano, Joseph

    The Bureau for Africa of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has been examining in detail the question of how best to support and sustain sectorwide education reform in Africa. The USAID and Education Commission of the States jointly sponsored a seminar in October 1996 to examine the issue of "scaling up" and…

  7. In Search of a Coherent Policy of Reform: A Longitudinal Examination of Educational Reform in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the social, cultural, and political context for educational reform in Utah, highlighting Mormon influences, high educational valuation and aspiration, booming public school enrollments, moderate revenue growth, and the state's "minimalist" tax mood. Discusses the character and impact of efficiency, effectiveness, strategic…

  8. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform. PMID:22192901

  9. Health policy in the concertación era (1990-2010): Reforms the chilean way.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Gutierrez, María Soledad; Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2017-06-01

    The Chilean health system has experienced important transformations in the last decades with a neoliberal turn to privatization of the health insurance and healthcare market since the Pinochet reforms of the 1980s. During 20 years of center-left political coalition governments several reforms were attempted to regulate and reform such markets. This paper analyzes regulatory policies for the private health insurance and health care delivery market, adopted during the 1990-2010 period. A framework of variation in market types developed by Gingrich is adopted as analytical perspective. The set of policies advanced in this period could be expected to shift the responsibility of access to care from individuals to the collective and give control to the State or the consumers vis a vis producers. Nevertheless, the effect of the implemented reforms has been mixed. Regulations on private health insurers were ineffective in terms of shifting power to the consumer or the state. In contrast, the healthcare delivery market showed a trend of increasing payers' and consumers' control and the set of implemented reforms partially steered the market toward collective responsibility of access by creating a submarket of guaranteed services (AUGE) with lower copayments and fully funded services. Emerging unintended consequences of the adopted policies and potential explanations are discussed. In sum, attempts to use regulation to improve the collective dimension of the Chilean health system has enabled some progress, but several challenges had persisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-29

    Administration has not called for a change of the Al Khalifa regime but it has criticized the regime’s use of force against protesters and urged...who believe the United States is downplaying regime abuses because the U.S. security relationship with the Al Khalifa regime is critical to U.S...Reform, and Human Rights1 The Al Khalifa family, which is Sunni Muslim and generally not as religiously conservative as the leaders of neighboring

  11. United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-15

    process. See “Previous Reform Legislation” section of this report . 4 In response to the proposals in Boutrous-Ghali’s reports , the General Assembly...working group, see “The Mechanics of Implementing Reform” section of this report . 5 Notably, in 1994 the General Assembly established the Office of...enhancing the role of the Secretary- General . Annan drew from many of the Panel’s recommendations in his 2005 report , In Larger Freedom: Toward Development

  12. Seeing through the public health smoke-screen in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Csete, Joanne; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-03-23

    In deliberations on drug policy in United Nations fora, a consensus has emerged that drug use and drug dependence should be treated primarily as public health concerns rather than as crimes. But what some member states mean by "public health approach" merits scrutiny. Some governments that espouse treating people who use drugs as "patients, not criminals" still subject them to prison-like detention in the name of drug-dependence treatment or otherwise do not take measures to provide scientifically sound treatment and humane social support to those who need them. Even drug treatment courts, which the U.S. and other countries hold up as examples of a public health approach to drug dependence, can serve rather to tighten the hold of the criminal justice sector on concerns that should be addressed in the health sector. The political popularity of demonisation of drugs and visibly repressive approaches is an obvious challenge to leadership for truly health-oriented drug control. This commentary offers some thoughts for judging whether a public health approach is worthy of the name and cautions drug policy reformers not to rely on facile commitments to health approaches that are largely rhetorical or that mask policies and activities not in keeping with good public health practise.

  13. Personal and political histories in the designing of health reform policy in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Alissa

    2017-03-01

    While health policies are a major focus in disciplines such as public health and public policy, there is a dearth of work on the histories, social contexts, and personalities behind the development of these policies. This article takes an anthropological approach to the study of a health policy's origins, based on ethnographic research conducted in Bolivia between 2010 and 2012. Bolivia began a process of health care reform in 2006, following the election of Evo Morales Ayma, the country's first indigenous president, and leader of the Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialism). Brought into power through the momentum of indigenous social movements, the MAS government platform addressed racism, colonialism, and human rights in a number of major reforms, with a focus on cultural identity and indigeneity. One of the MAS's projects was the design of a new national health policy in 2008 called The Family Community Intercultural Health Policy (Salud Familiar Comunitaria Intercultural). This policy aimed to address major health inequities through primary care in a country that is over 60% indigenous. Methods used were interviews with Bolivian policymakers and other stakeholders, participant observation at health policy conferences and in rural community health programs that served as models for aspects of the policy, and document analysis to identify core premises and ideological areas. I argue that health policies are historical both in their relationship to national contexts and events on a timeline, but also because of the ways they intertwine with participants' personal histories, theoretical frameworks, and reflections on national historical events. By studying the Bolivian policymaking process, and particularly those who helped design the policy, it is possible to understand how and why particular progressive ideas were able to translate into policy. More broadly, this work also suggests how a uniquely anthropological approach to the study of health policy

  14. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  15. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  16. The Intersection of Policy, Reform, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Policy affecting teacher education evolves from a wide range of sources, including public perceptions and attitudes, federal initiatives, current trends in public schools and higher education, the visions and whims of politicians, and the profession's own initiatives. No matter how it emerges, it is not unusual for policy ebbs and flows to result…

  17. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act.

  18. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  19. The Evidence on the "Florida Formula" for Education Reform. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Carlo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    During the late 1990s and 2000s, the State of Florida enacted a set of education reforms spearheaded by Governor Jeb Bush. These policies, which emphasize test-based accountability, competition, and choice, have since become known as the "Florida Formula for education success," or, simply, the "Florida Formula." In recent…

  20. Why Are Studies of Neighborhoods and Communities Central to Education Policy and Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    To understand the long shadow of education policy and reform in the United States, especially in the urban core, requires a full and elaborate understanding of the neighborhoods and communities that have transformed in the last 20 or 30 years. Studying classrooms and educational spaces without concomitant understanding of the dynamics and facets…

  1. Leandro: The Merging of Adequacy and Standards-Based Reforms. SERVE Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Ann

    This policy brief addresses the first two rulings of the North Carolina lawsuit on the state constitutional right to education, commonly referred to as "Leandro." The "Leandro" Supreme Court opinion and subsequent court rulings add a model of adequacy that dovetails almost perfectly with standards-based education reform. Model…

  2. Hungary: Reform of Social Policy and Expenditures. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study evaluates the overall social policy system of Hungary and proposes reforms aimed at strengthening its role as a defense against poverty, raising the quality and equity of social programs, ensuring financial sustainability of the system, and restoring incentives (in particular relating to demand and supply for labor) suitable to a market…

  3. Comparative Education, the "New Paradigm" and Policy Borrowing: Constructing Knowledge for Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Euan; Morris, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Education reform in England is increasingly portrayed as a quest to create "world class" schools through the transfer of features of "high performing" school systems. The demand for evidence to support policy borrowing has been serviced by an influential intermediary network, which uses international data banks to compare…

  4. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s,…

  5. Vehicles of Logics: The Role of Policy Documents and Instructional Materials in Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the complexities of education policy implementation, it is necessary to consider how artifacts associated with reform are imbued with ideas, meanings, and values. This empirical paper draws on neo-institutional theory to reveal how artifacts carried particular logics (D'Adderio in "J Inst Econ" 7(2):197-230, 2011; Feldman…

  6. Promoting Educational Reforms in Weak States: The Case of Radical Policy Discontinuity in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarin, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the making of education policies in weak states, particularly in the context of developing nations and in view of the increasing influence of international organisations, such as the World Bank, in definition of education reform agendas. The discussion seeks to contribute to the theory of weak states by highlighting…

  7. Earmark Reform Within the 110th Congress: Policy, Transparency and Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    duplicated in appropriations bills). 29 James V . Saturno , The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview, Congressional...Business and Public Policy iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Earmark spending has come under attack by, and scrutiny of...SUMMARY ...........................................58 V . SENATE EARMARK REFORM LEGISLATION IN THE 110TH CONGRESS 61 A. INTRODUCTION

  8. Local Capacity and State Policies in Colorado: Obstacles to Standards-Based Mathematics Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Carolyn A.

    This study is an investigation of the responses of four Colorado school districts to a set of standards-based education (SBE) policy instruments that originated from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), the state of Colorado, and the federal government. The paper first describes Colorado standards-based mathematics reform policy…

  9. Postcolonial Teacher Education Reform in Namibia: Travelling of Policies and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreman, Inger Erixon; Erixon, Per-Olof; Rehn, Karl-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Long before Namibia's independence in 1990, Sweden initiated a policy dialogue with Namibia's future political leadership. This article reviews the impact of an educational reform in Namibia in the early 1990s called the Integrated Teacher Training Programme (ITTP), which was an outcome of collaboration between the South West African People's…

  10. Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

  11. Promoting Educational Reforms in Weak States: The Case of Radical Policy Discontinuity in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarin, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the making of education policies in weak states, particularly in the context of developing nations and in view of the increasing influence of international organisations, such as the World Bank, in definition of education reform agendas. The discussion seeks to contribute to the theory of weak states by highlighting…

  12. Using Policy Attributes Theory to Examine Comprehensive School Reform Implementation in Two Title I Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jean A.; Campbell, J. K.; Johnson, Dawn M.; Marx, Gina; Whitener, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Findings from a qualitative study of two Title I middle schools that were in their second year of implementing an externally developed Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model are presented. Policy attributes theory was used as a framework for examining implementation. The theory argues fidelity of implementation of a CSR is strongest when it is…

  13. Vehicles of Logics: The Role of Policy Documents and Instructional Materials in Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the complexities of education policy implementation, it is necessary to consider how artifacts associated with reform are imbued with ideas, meanings, and values. This empirical paper draws on neo-institutional theory to reveal how artifacts carried particular logics (D'Adderio in "J Inst Econ" 7(2):197-230, 2011; Feldman…

  14. Bearing the Cost: An Examination of the Gendered Impacts of Water Policy Reform in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Water insecurity is one of the most pressing issues currently faced by Malawi. The consequences of these issues are borne significantly by women, who are most directly involved with water provision and use, particularly at the household level. Since the mid-1990s, Malawi has undertaken a process of water policy reform. Reflective of international…

  15. Postcolonial Teacher Education Reform in Namibia: Travelling of Policies and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreman, Inger Erixon; Erixon, Per-Olof; Rehn, Karl-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Long before Namibia's independence in 1990, Sweden initiated a policy dialogue with Namibia's future political leadership. This article reviews the impact of an educational reform in Namibia in the early 1990s called the Integrated Teacher Training Programme (ITTP), which was an outcome of collaboration between the South West African People's…

  16. Reform Policies, Procedures and Standards for the Approval of Teacher Education Programs in South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeze, Chester R.; And Others

    This paper explains some of the policies, procedures, and standards now in effect as a result of educational reform efforts within the State of South Carolina. Approval of a teacher education program is based on a comprehensive evaluation incorporating the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC). An…

  17. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  18. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). ACTION: Advance notice of proposed...

  19. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). ACTION: Extension of comment...

  20. Policy Networks and Boundary Objects: Enacting Curriculum Reform in the Absence of Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Indira; Donnelly, Jim; Ryder, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the concept of "boundary object", first developed within science studies by Star and Griesemer, to analyse curriculum policy implementation. It employs as a vehicle a significant but contested reform of the science curriculum in schools in England from 2006 onwards, drawing empirically on an extended study of the…

  1. Packaging policies to reform the water sector: The case of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Zilberman, David

    2005-07-01

    Existing water policies often deviate from measures suggested by economic and environmental analysis. This is particularly true in the case of drought response policies, where effective policies are rarely adopted. This study focuses on how to enhance the political feasibility of options rather than identifying the optimal water policies. It argues that a legislative policy package may be a mechanism both to unite divergent interest groups into a coalition with common policy agendas and also to fragment or realign existing and traditional alliances. This majority building approach may have a greater chance of obtaining the required political support to advance water reforms. The negotiation over the Central Valley Project Improvement Act in California is used as an example. The case study illustrates how the policy packaging strategy split the traditional power alliance between the agricultural sector and the urban sector in California and between the agricultural sector in California and their allies in other U.S. western states. At the same time, policy packaging has created new regional and sectoral advocacy coalitions in support of water reform. As a result, the Bureau of Reclamation changed its policies in the Central Valley in California relating to the establishment of water markets, water pricing, and wildlife restoration fund and allocating water for the environment.

  2. School, parent, and student perspectives of school drug policies.

    PubMed

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2007-03-01

    Schools use a number of measures to reduce harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use by students. One important component is the school's drug policy, which serves to set normative values and expectations for student behavior as well as to document procedures for dealing with drug-related incidents. There is little empirical evidence of how policy directly or indirectly influence students' drug taking. This study compares how effectively schools communicate school drug policies to parents and students, how they are implemented, and what policy variables impact students' drug use at school and their perceptions of other students' drug use at school. Data were obtained from 3876 students attending 205 schools from 2 states in the United States and Australia, countries with contrasting national drug policy frameworks. School policy data were collected from school personnel, parents, and students. Schools' policies and enforcement procedures reflected national policy approaches. Parents and students were knowledgeable of their school's policy orientation. When delivered effectively, policy messages are associated with reduced student drug use at school. Abstinence messages and harsh penalties convey a coherent message to students. Strong harm-minimization messages are also associated with reduced drug use at school, but effects are weaker than those for abstinence messages. This smaller effect may be acceptable if, in the longer term, it leads to a reduction in harmful use and school dropout within the student population.

  3. Unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi reforms in China: interplay of agricultural reform and population control policy.

    PubMed

    Yen, W; Carter, L F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the discussion of unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi policy reforms in China is to show how isolating problems and developing solutions in isolation can lead to serious consequences. The Ze Ren Zhi reforms in 1978 were intended to increase agricultural productivity by changing from the collective system to an individual responsibility system, but the unintended and undesirable consequences were a growth in family size and discouragement of some environmentally sound land use practices. The prior system gave an equal share of collective income for an equal number of days worked. Under the new reform, "Baochan Daohu," each household had responsibility for a contracted quantity of grain production. Within 2-4 years, economic conditions improved considerably. A discussion is provided of the transition from rights and duties of the collectives to the new responsibility system and the experimentation with different systems. Specific attention is directed to land reforms, mutual aid teams, cooperatives, communes, variations of Ze Ren Zhi, contracting output to individual laborers, contracting jobs to households, and contracting output quotas to households. During the reforms, beginning in the 1950s and lasting until 1978, other changes were taking place. Death rates were declining and birth rates were increasing, such that in 1971 a campaign was established to promote the Late, Sparse, and Few policy for marrying and giving birth later, increasing birth intervals, and having fewer children. This voluntary program eventually took on a more universally mandatory nature. The 1950 Marriage Law stipulated 20 years as the legal age for marriage (18 years for females), and family planning (FP) workers during the 1970s were encouraging even later marriage, and by 1980 a system of rewards and penalties was established to reinforce small family size. After 1978 and a period of birth declines, the crude birth rate increased to 3.06 in 1983. The new responsibility

  4. Proposed Policy: Drug Testing of Hawaii's Public School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bebi

    2007-01-01

    Because of a proposed policy, public school teachers in Hawaii are facing the possibility of being randomly tested for illegal drugs. Random drug testing has many implications and its impact is questionable. In this article, the author scrutinizes the controversial drug-testing policy for both troubling and promising aspects and how educators may…

  5. Essential drugs policy in three rural counties in China: what does a complexity lens add?

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yue; Zhao, Kun; Bishai, David M; Peters, David H

    2013-09-01

    In 2009 the government of China identified an essential drugs policy as one of five priority areas for health system reform. Since then, a national essential drugs policy has been defined, along with plans to implement it. As a large scale social intervention, the policy will have a significant impact on various local health actors. This paper uses the lens of complex adaptive systems to examine how the policy has been implemented in three rural Chinese counties. Using material gathered from interviews with key actors in county health bureaus and township health centers, we illustrate how a single policy can lead to multiple unanticipated outcomes. The complexity lens applied to the material gathered in interviews helps to identify relevant actors, their different relationships and policy responses and a new framework to better understand heterogeneous pathways and outcomes. Decision-makers and policy implementers are advised to embrace the complex and dynamic realities of policy implementation. This involves developing mechanisms to monitor different behaviors of key actors as well as the intended outcomes and unintended consequences of the policy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  7. Benchmarks of fairness for health care reform: a policy tool for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, N.; Bryant, J.; Castano, R. A.; Dantes, O. G.; Khan, K. S.; Pannarunothai, S.

    2000-01-01

    Teams of collaborators from Colombia, Mexico, Pakistan, and Thailand have adapted a policy tool originally developed for evaluating health insurance reforms in the United States into "benchmarks of fairness" for assessing health system reform in developing countries. We describe briefly the history of the benchmark approach, the tool itself, and the uses to which it may be put. Fairness is a wide term that includes exposure to risk factors, access to all forms of care, and to financing. It also includes efficiency of management and resource allocation, accountability, and patient and provider autonomy. The benchmarks standardize the criteria for fairness. Reforms are then evaluated by scoring according to the degree to which they improve the situation, i.e. on a scale of -5 to 5, with zero representing the status quo. The object is to promote discussion about fairness across the disciplinary divisions that keep policy analysts and the public from understanding how trade-offs between different effects of reforms can affect the overall fairness of the reform. The benchmarks can be used at both national and provincial or district levels, and we describe plans for such uses in the collaborating sites. A striking feature of the adaptation process is that there was wide agreement on this ethical framework among the collaborating sites despite their large historical, political and cultural differences. PMID:10916911

  8. Ethical and Human Rights Foundations of Health Policy: Lessons from Comprehensive Reform in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2015-12-10

    This paper discusses the use of an explicit ethical and human rights framework to guide a reform intended to provide universal and comprehensive social protection in health for all Mexicans, independently of their socio-economic status or labor market condition. This reform was designed, implemented, and evaluated by making use of what Michael Reich has identified as the three pillars of public policy: technical, political, and ethical. The use of evidence and political strategies in the design and negotiation of the Mexican health reform is briefly discussed in the first part of this paper. The second part examines the ethical component of the reform, including the guiding concept and values, as well as the specific entitlements that gave operational meaning to the right to health care that was enshrined in Mexico's 1983 Constitution. The impact of this rights-based health reform, measured through an external evaluation, is discussed in the final section. The main message of this paper is that a clear ethical framework, combined with technical excellence and political skill, can deliver major policy results.

  9. The demand for policy analysis in health reform: the view from the Romanian partnership.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, E F

    1998-01-01

    Health reform initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) assume the existence of two kinds of infrastructure: 1) health care resources that can be mobilized to provide services in a market context and 2) intellectual resources that can be mobilized to plan, design, analyze, implement and evaluate new policy. Considerable attention has been devoted to the requirements for management in health sector reform in the CEE (JHAE, Fall 1994). Relatively little attention has been paid to the intellectual and workforce requirements for policy analysis and leadership in the health sector as well as related policy areas (Berman 1995). This paper begins with an overview of the broad contours and expectations for health reform in the CEE region. It then asks what analytic and public management capital is necessary to guide these policy changes within countries. A specific example of the need for analytic and management capacity is drawn out of the recent Romanian proposal to create health insurance houses (plans) in the 40 judets (districts) across the country. Finally, the paper examines the obstacles and issues involved in expanding the role and number of policy analysts in the CEE.

  10. State welfare reform policies and declines in health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Chavkin, W; Romero, D; Wise, P H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether there is a relationship between state policies on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), declines in both TANF and Medicaid caseloads, and the rise in the number of uninsured. METHODS: Extant data sources of state TANF policies, TANF and Medicaid participation, and uninsurance rates were analyzed, with the state as the unit of analysis. The independent variables included state TANF policies that directly address receipt of benefits or relate to health; dependent variables included changes in state TANF enrollment, Medicaid enrollment, and health insurance status since the enactment of the law. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, declines in Medicaid were associated with sanction for work noncompliance, lack of a child care guarantee, and strategies to deter TANF enrollment; this last factor was also associated with increased uninsurance. In the multivariate analysis, lack of a child care guarantee and deterrent strategies predicted TANF declines; deterrent strategies predicted Medicaid decline and uninsurance increases. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that policies deterring TANF enrollment may contribute to declines in Medicaid and increased uninsurance. To maintain health insurance for the poor, policymakers should consider revising policies that deter TANF enrollment. PMID:10846507

  11. Winning Policy Change to Promote Community Health Workers: Lessons From Massachusetts in The Health Reform Era

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Terry; Wilkinson, Geoffrey W.; Nannini, Angela; Martin, Cindy Marti; Fox, Durrell J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a national movement among community health workers (CHWs) to improve compensation, working conditions, and recognition for the workforce through organizing for policy change. As some of the key advocates involved, we describe the development in Massachusetts of an authentic collaboration between strong CHW leaders of a growing statewide CHW association and their public health allies. Collaborators worked toward CHW workforce and public health objectives through alliance building and organizing, legislative advocacy, and education in the context of opportunities afforded by health care reform. This narrative of the path to policy achievements can inform other collaborative efforts attempting to promote a policy agenda for the CHW workforce across the nation. PMID:22021281

  12. Winning policy change to promote community health workers: lessons from massachusetts in the health reform era.

    PubMed

    Mason, Terry; Wilkinson, Geoffrey W; Nannini, Angela; Martin, Cindy Marti; Fox, Durrell J; Hirsch, Gail

    2011-12-01

    There is a national movement among community health workers (CHWs) to improve compensation, working conditions, and recognition for the workforce through organizing for policy change. As some of the key advocates involved, we describe the development in Massachusetts of an authentic collaboration between strong CHW leaders of a growing statewide CHW association and their public health allies. Collaborators worked toward CHW workforce and public health objectives through alliance building and organizing, legislative advocacy, and education in the context of opportunities afforded by health care reform. This narrative of the path to policy achievements can inform other collaborative efforts attempting to promote a policy agenda for the CHW workforce across the nation.

  13. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health.

  14. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and

  15. Peer, professional, and public: an analysis of the drugs policy advocacy community in Europe.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Aileen; Quigley, Eoghan; Zobel, Frank; Moore, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades a range of advocacy organisations have emerged on the drugs policy landscape seeking to shape the development of policy at national and international levels. This development has been facilitated by the expansion of 'democratic spaces' for civil society participation in governance fora at national and supranational level. However, little is known about these policy actors - their aims, scope, organisational structure, or the purpose of their engagement. Drug policy advocacy organisations were defined as organisations with a clearly stated aim to influence policy and which were based in Europe. Data on these organisations was collected through a systematic tri-lingual (English, French and Spanish) Internet search, supplemented by information provided by national agencies in the 28 EU member states, Norway and Turkey. In order to differentiate between the diverse range of activities, strategies and standpoints of these groups, information from the websites was used to categorise the organisations by their scope of operation, advocacy tools and policy constituencies; and by three key typologies - the type of advocacy they engaged in, their organisational type, and their advocacy objectives and orientation. The study identified over two hundred EU-based advocacy organisations (N=218) which included civil society associations, NGOs, and large-scale alliances and coalitions, operating at local, national and European levels. Three forms of advocacy emerged from the data analysis - peer, professional and public policy. These groups focused their campaigns on practice development (harm reduction or abstinence) and legislative reform (reducing or strengthening drug controls). The findings from this study provide a nuanced profile of civil society advocacy as a policy community in the drugs field; their legitimacy to represent cases, causes, social values and ideals; and their focus on both insider and outsider strategies to achieve their goals. The level of

  16. Ohio's Education Reform Challenges: Lessons from the Frontlines. Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Ryan, Terry; Lafferty, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Charter schools have emerged as one of the central policy debates in U.S. education--and the Thomas B. Fordham Institute team has been a key participant in this debate since day one, both nationally and in Ohio. Despite President Obama's call for states to strengthen the charter sector and widen the options it provides to needy youngsters,…

  17. "College Level" and "Critical Thinking": Public Policy and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Nancy Clover

    Designed to assist California community college personnel in implementing 1986 regulations concerning associate degree requirements, this paper analyzes the key terms in the new policy, "college level" and "critical thinking," and discusses practical implications for assessment, curriculum, and instruction. First, the paper…

  18. Islam and Education Policy Reform in the Southern Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    2008-01-01

    The devolution of control over education policy in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao of the southern Philippines has led, in recent years, to efforts to Islamise education in the region, a trend reflective of similar efforts in other Southeast Asian Muslim countries but often seen as worrisome by secular observers concerned about the…

  19. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  20. Primary School English Reform in Japan: Policies, Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011, the Ministry of Education in Japan formally introduced Primary School English (PSE) language teaching in Japanese elementary schools. The PSE policy made it mandatory for fourth- and fifth-graders to attend English lessons once a week. Using the theoretical framework on why educational language plans fail [Kaplan, R. B., Baldauf, R.…

  1. Reformers or Roadblocks: Educational Interest Groups and State Policy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Joseph; Lemasters, Linda; Howerton, Everett

    2008-01-01

    Given the overt political nature of this topic, an additional theoretical postulate, the Triadic Theory of Power was also presented as another framework to conceptualize the external and internal forces which shape the formation of contemporary education policy. Predicated upon the scholarship of Nobel laureate James Q. Wilson, Andrew McFarland…

  2. The Emperor's New Jobs: Welfare Reform, Unemployment and Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the relationship of education and training to employment and how this discourse shapes policy and programs for public assistance recipients and dislocated workers. Problematic assumptions about how education and training affect employment are discussed, along with statistical data that raise questions about these assumptions. Race,…

  3. Brokering Knowledge Mobilization Networks: Policy Reforms, Partnerships, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas; Kane, Ruth G.; Butler, Jesse K.; Glithero, Lisa; Forte, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Educational researchers and policy-makers are now expected by funding agencies and their institutions to innovate the multi-directional ways in which our production of knowledge can impact the classrooms of teachers (practitioners), while also integrating their experiential knowledge into the landscape of our research. In this article, we draw on…

  4. Policy entrepreneurship in the reform of pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L; Maas, William R

    2017-06-30

    In a recently published IJHPR article, Cohen and Horev ask whether an individual who holds rightful governmental power is able to effectively "challenge the equilibrium" in ways that might "clash with the goals" of an influential group". This question is raised within the context of a shift in governmental policy that imposed the potential for cost management by HMOs acting as financial intermediaries for pediatric dental care in an effort to provide Israeli children better access to affordable dental care. The influential group referred to consists of Israel's private dentists and the individual seeking to challenge the equilibrium was an Israeli Minister of Health whom the authors consider to be a policy entrepreneur.The Israeli health care system is similar to that of the United States in that private benefit plans and self-pay financing dominate in dental care. This is in contrast to the substantial role of government in the financing and regulation of medical care in both countries (with Israel having universal coverage financed by government and the US having government financing the care of the elderly and the poor as well as providing subsidies through the tax system for the care of most other Americans).Efforts to expand governmental involvement in dental care in both countries have either been opposed by organized dentistry or have suffered from ineffective advocacy for increased public investment in dental care.In the U.S., philanthropic foundations have acted as or have supported health policy entrepreneurs. The recent movement to introduce the dental therapist, a type of allied dental professional trained to provide a narrow set of commonly-needed procedures, to the U.S. is discussed as an example of a successful challenge to the equilibrium by groups supported by these foundations. This is a somewhat different, and complementary, model of policy entrepreneurship from the individual policy entrepreneur highlighted in the Cohen-Horev paper.The political

  5. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools.

  6. Peter Bourne's drug policy and the perils of a public health ethic, 1976-1978.

    PubMed

    Clark, Claire D; Dufton, Emily

    2015-02-01

    As President Jimmy Carter's advisor for health issues, Peter Bourne promoted a rational and comprehensive drug strategy that combined new supply-side efforts to prevent drug use with previously established demand-side addiction treatment programs. Using a public health ethic that allowed the impact of substances on overall population health to guide drug control, Bourne advocated for marijuana decriminalization as well as increased regulations for barbiturates. A hostile political climate, a series of rumors, and pressure from both drug legalizers and prohibitionists caused Bourne to resign in disgrace in 1978. We argue that Bourne's critics used his own public health framework to challenge him, describe the health critiques that contributed to Bourne's resignation, and present the story of his departure as a cautionary tale for today's drug policy reformers.

  7. Land reform policies, the sources of violent conflict, and implications for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, L.J.; Libecap, G.D.; Mueller, B.

    2000-03-01

    The authors examine land reform policies and their implications for violent conflict and resource use in the Brazilian Amazon. They identify the protagonists (land owners and squatters), derive their incentives to use violence, and show the role of legal inconsistencies as a basis for conflict. The authors describe the government agency involved in land reform, INCRA, and show that its intervention critically affects the actions of both squatters and land owners. Further, they point out the incentives for deforestation under land reform and associated insecure property rights to land. Forested lands are vulnerable to invasion by squatters and redistribution by INCRA. Using data from the Brazilian census and the Pastoral Land Commission, the authors examine the characteristics of regions where violent conflict predominates.

  8. What is good governance in the context of drug policy?

    PubMed

    Singleton, Nicola; Rubin, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The concept of governance is applied in a wide range of contexts, but this paper focuses on governance in relation to public administration, i.e. states and how they take action, and specifically governance of particular policy areas. In the current context of financial austerity and an era of globalisation, policy-makers face pressures and challenges from a growing range of interests and local, national and supranational actors. Drug policy is an example of a particularly contentious and polarised area in which governance-related challenges abound. In response to these challenges, interest has grown in developing agreed policy governance standards and processes and articulating policy-making guidelines, including the use of available evidence to inform policy-making. Attempts have been made to identify 'policy fundamentals' - factors or aspects of policy-making apparently associated with successful policy development and implementation (Hallsworth & Rutter, 2011; Laughrin, 2011) and, in the drug policy field, Hughes et al. (2010) reflecting on the co-ordination of Australian drug policy highlighted some of what they considered principles of good governance. But how useful is the concept of 'good governance'; how well can it be defined, and to what purpose? As part of a wider project considering the governance of drug policy, RAND Europe and the UK Drug Policy Commission undertook a targeted review of other research and sought expert views, from within and beyond drug policy, on principles, processes, structures and stakeholders associated with good drug policy governance. From this emerged some perceived characteristics of good governance that were then used by the UK Drug Policy Commission to assess the extent to which drug policy making in the UK fits with these perceived good governance characteristics, and to suggest possible improvements. Particular consideration was given to the range of interests at stake, the overarching aims of drug policy and the

  9. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  10. A Broken Immigration System: Two Vital Remedies Before Policy Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-16

    prompting President Jimmy Carter and Congress to create in 1979 the bipartisan Select Commission on 12 Immigration and Refugee Policy ( SCIRP ) to...a number the Commission believed would be sufficient to speed family reunification and clear the backlog of cases. SCIRP also felt that both...precursor to what is now known as the “diversity visa lottery” (DV) program. The “impact of SCIRP was to legitimize the duality of the employer

  11. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-29

    backed by Iran , have claimed responsibility for bombings and other attacks primarily against security officials. The Bahrain government’s use of...policy concern is Iran . Bahraini leaders, with corroboration from U.S. official reports, accuse Iran for providing material support to violent opposition...factions. Bahrain has expressed the same concerns about the Iran nuclear agreement (“Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action,” JCPOA) that most of the

  12. Employee Drug Testing Policies in Police Departments. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, J. Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of drug testing policies and the implementation of drug testing procedures involve legal, ethical, medical, and labor relations issues. To learn how police departments are addressing the problem of drug use and drug testing of police officers, the National Institute of Justice sponsored a telephone survey of 33 major police…

  13. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  14. Health Care Reform: Ethical Foundations, Policy, and Law

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Health care system reform has enormous implications for the future of American society and economic life. Since the early days of the republic, 2 world views have vied for determination of this country’s political system: the view of the individual as sovereign vs government as sovereign. As they developed the foundations of our nation’s governance, the founders were heavily influenced by the Enlightenment philosophy of the late 17th and 18th centuries—the US Constitution sharply limited the power of central government to specific narrowly defined functions, and the economic system was largely laissez faire, that is, economic exchange was mostly free of government regulation and securing individual liberty was a high priority. This situation has slowly reversed—the federal government originally was narrowly limited, but now it dominates states and individuals. The economic system has followed, lagging by several decades, so although it still retains some features of laissez faire capitalism, federal and state regulation have produced a decidedly mixed economy. PMID:22626914

  15. Legislating thresholds for drug trafficking: a policy development case study from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Ritter, Alison; Cowdery, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    Legal thresholds are used in many parts of the world to define the quantity of illicit drugs over which possession is deemed "trafficking" as opposed to "possession for personal use". There is limited knowledge about why or how such laws were developed. In this study we analyse the policy processes underpinning the introduction and expansion of the drug trafficking legal threshold system in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A critical legal and historical analysis was undertaken sourcing data from legislation, Parliamentary Hansard debates, government inquiries, police reports and research. A timeline of policy developments was constructed from 1970 until 2013 outlining key steps including threshold introduction (1970), expansion (1985), and wholesale revision (1988). We then critically analysed the drivers of each step and the roles played by formal policy actors, public opinion, research/data and the drug trafficking problem. We find evidence that while justified as a necessary tool for effective law enforcement of drug trafficking, their introduction largely preceded overt police calls for reform or actual increases in drug trafficking. Moreover, while the expansion from one to four thresholds had the intent of differentiating small from large scale traffickers, the quantities employed were based on government assumptions which led to "manifest problems" and the revision in 1988 of over 100 different quantities. Despite the revisions, there has remained no further formal review and new quantities for "legal highs" continue to be added based on assumption and an uncertain evidence-base. The development of legal thresholds for drug trafficking in NSW has been arbitrary and messy. That the arbitrariness persists from 1970 until the present day makes it hard to conclude the thresholds have been well designed. Our narrative provides a platform for future policy reform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  17. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  18. Steering without navigation equipment: the lamentable state of Australian health policy reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Commentary on health policy reform in Australia often commences with an unstated logical error: Australians' health is good, therefore the Australian Health System is good. This possibly explains the disconnect between the options discussed, the areas needing reform and the generally self-congratulatory tone of the discussion: a good system needs (relatively) minor improvement. Results This paper comments on some issues of particular concern to Australian health policy makers and some areas needing urgent reform. The two sets of issues do not overlap. It is suggested that there are two fundamental reasons for this. The first is the failure to develop governance structures which promote the identification and resolution of problems according to their importance. The second and related failure is the failure to equip the health services industry with satisfactory navigation equipment - independent research capacity, independent reporting and evaluation - on a scale commensurate with the needs of the country's largest industry. These two failures together deprive the health system - as a system - of the chief driver of progress in every successful industry in the 20th Century. Conclusion Concluding comment is made on the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC). This continued the tradition of largely evidence free argument and decision making. It failed to identify and properly analyse major system failures, the reasons for them and the form of governance which would maximise the likelihood of future error leaning. The NHHRC itself failed to error learn from past policy failures, a key lesson from which is that a major - and possibly the major - obstacle to reform, is government itself. The Commission virtually ignored the issue of governance. The endorsement of a monopolised system, driven by benevolent managers will miss the major lesson of history which is illustrated by Australia's own failures. PMID:19948044

  19. Mapping Educational Equity and Reform Policy in the Borderlands: LatCrit Spatial Analysis of Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal; Amador, Adam; Tarango, B. Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to investigate reform policy, specifically a proposed third grade reading retention policy within the Borderlands. Under this policy, students not performing proficiently on the third grade reading standardized exam will be automatically retained in the third grade. The research methods and approach used in this study…

  20. Admissions Policies and Risks to Equity and Educational Inclusion in the Context of School Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Policy discourses in support of school reform in England have linked the objective of raising standards with that of tackling inequality. The assumption that a single policy strategy can tackle both objectives simultaneously is problematic. In this article, I examine issues of equity by studying admissions policy and practice. Drawing on a…

  1. Strengthening the Profession? A Comparison of Recent Reforms in the UK and the USA. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Educational policy makers in many countries recognize the need to focus their policies more directly on factors affecting the quality of teachers. Common to these policies are attempts to reform teachers' pay systems and career paths to place greater value on teachers' work and give stronger incentives for professional development. Investing in…

  2. Mapping Educational Equity and Reform Policy in the Borderlands: LatCrit Spatial Analysis of Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal; Amador, Adam; Tarango, B. Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to investigate reform policy, specifically a proposed third grade reading retention policy within the Borderlands. Under this policy, students not performing proficiently on the third grade reading standardized exam will be automatically retained in the third grade. The research methods and approach used in this study…

  3. Admissions Policies and Risks to Equity and Educational Inclusion in the Context of School Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Policy discourses in support of school reform in England have linked the objective of raising standards with that of tackling inequality. The assumption that a single policy strategy can tackle both objectives simultaneously is problematic. In this article, I examine issues of equity by studying admissions policy and practice. Drawing on a…

  4. The policy and politics of the 2015 long-term care reform in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Maarse, J A M Hans; Jeurissen, P P Patrick

    2016-03-01

    As of 2015 a major reform in LTC is taking place in the Netherlands. An important objective of the reform is to reign in expenditure growth to safeguard the fiscal sustainability of LTC. Other objectives are to improve the quality of LTC by making it more client-tailored. The reform consists of four interrelated pillars: a normative reorientation, a shift from residential to non-residential care, decentralization of non-residential care and expenditure cuts. The article gives a brief overview of these pillars and their underlying assumptions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the political decision-making process and the politics of implementation and evaluation. Perceptions of the effects of the reform so far widely differ: positive views alternate with critical views. Though the reform is radical in various aspects, LTC care will remain a largely publicly funded provision. A statutory health insurance scheme will remain in place to cover residential care. The role of municipalities in publicly funded non-residential care is significantly upgraded. The final section contains a few policy lessons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and centralization…

  6. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  7. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  8. Do American and Korean Education Systems Converge? Tracking School Reform Policies and Outcomes in Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Park, Daekwon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines key school reform policies and outcomes of the USA and Korea over the past three decades from comparative perspectives. Since the two nations' unique educational problems brought divergent educational reform paths--standardization versus differentiation, high-stakes testing versus individualized assessment, and centralization…

  9. Considerations In the Formulation of School Drug Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jerrold

    1973-01-01

    This article delineates four areas of school drug policies which need consideration: confidentiality, pupil personnel records, school relationship with police, and rights of students. In addition, the need for and the security associated with written school drug policy are cited and defended. (Author)

  10. Curriculum Policy Implementation: How Schools Respond to Government's "Soft" Policy in the Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jacqueline K. S.

    2012-01-01

    "Soft" policy has newly emerged as a policy implementation concept in relation to governance. Non-binding in character, "soft" policy is designed for multi-level systems of governance in which there is relative autonomy at different levels of collective decision-making. "Soft" policy has gained attention since the…

  11. Do national drug policies influence antiretroviral drug prices? Evidence from the Southern African Development community.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries’ (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO). Ten of the most common ARV drugs (first-line and second-line) were selected. National drug policies were also assessed for 12 countries in the South African Development Community (SADC), which self-reported their policies through WHO surveys. The best predictor of ARV drug price was generic status—the generic versions of 8 out of 10 ARV drugs were priced lower than branded versions. However, other factors such as transaction volume, HIV prevalence, national drug policies and PEPFAR/CHAI involvement were either not associated with ARV drug price or were not consistent predictors of price across different ARV drugs. In the context of emerging international trade agreements, which aim to strengthen patent protections internationally and potentially delay the sale of generic drugs in LMIC, this study shines a spotlight on the importance of generic drugs in controlling ARV prices. Further research is needed to understand the impact of national drug policies on ARV prices.

  12. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  13. Office of National Drug Control Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Obama Administration’s balanced public health and safety approach to reducing drug use and its consequences in ... to prevent drug use, pursue ‘smart on crime’ approaches to drug enforcement, improve prescribing practices for pain ...

  14. FDA reform signed into law. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1997-12-05

    The laws under which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) operates have been changed by bipartisan Congressional efforts. The FDA Modernization Act of 1997, signed into law on November 21, 1997 modifies the mission of the FDA to include a goal of speeding research, innovation and access to care. The legislation allows fast track review for the most important drugs. It also allows drug companies to promote off label use of already-approved pharmaceuticals for other purposes. The controversial issue allows drug companies to provide physicians with documentation on the effectiveness of their drugs in treating other conditions. The industry supports the change since the revenue growth for off label use of drugs is especially important for smaller biotechnical companies, while consumer groups fear that it is a loophole for selling unproven drugs. The bill also renews the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), regulating the current practice of compounding, and monitoring medical devices and health care claims for foods.

  15. Legislative and policy analysis of HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who use drugs and incarcerated people in Central Asia and Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David; Elliott, Richard

    2011-04-01

    In January 2011, the Regional Office for Central Asia of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released an extensive report assessing the legislative and policy environment affecting the response to HIV in six countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The report, which draws in part upon the work of a national expert group in each country, puts forward dozens of recommendations for legislative and policy reform, including recommendations for specific reform tailored to the situation in each of the participating countries, with a particular focus on addressing the fast-growing HIV epidemic linked to injection drug use and in prisons.

  16. ICT Policy Planning in a Context of Curriculum Reform: Disentanglement of ICT Policy Domains and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan; Dexter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers around the world are increasingly acknowledging the importance of developing a school-based ICT policy plan to facilitate the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Despite this interest, not much is known about how schools can develop their local ICT policy capacity and how to…

  17. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  18. ICT Policy Planning in a Context of Curriculum Reform: Disentanglement of ICT Policy Domains and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan; Dexter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers around the world are increasingly acknowledging the importance of developing a school-based ICT policy plan to facilitate the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Despite this interest, not much is known about how schools can develop their local ICT policy capacity and how to…

  19. Reforming Further Education Teacher Training: A Policy Communities and Policy Networks Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and 1990s teacher preparation for the schools sector in the United Kingdom was subject to a series of reforms and innovations including the establishment of new institutional arrangements to oversee the sector, namely the Teacher Training Agency (TTA--now the Training and Development Agency, TDA). Since 2002 the arrangements…

  20. Reforming Further Education Teacher Training: A Policy Communities and Policy Networks Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and 1990s teacher preparation for the schools sector in the United Kingdom was subject to a series of reforms and innovations including the establishment of new institutional arrangements to oversee the sector, namely the Teacher Training Agency (TTA--now the Training and Development Agency, TDA). Since 2002 the arrangements…

  1. School, Parent, and Student Perspectives of School Drug Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools use a number of measures to reduce harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use by students. One important component is the school's drug policy, which serves to set normative values and expectations for student behavior as well as to document procedures for dealing with drug-related incidents. There is little empirical evidence of…

  2. School, Parent, and Student Perspectives of School Drug Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools use a number of measures to reduce harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use by students. One important component is the school's drug policy, which serves to set normative values and expectations for student behavior as well as to document procedures for dealing with drug-related incidents. There is little empirical evidence of…

  3. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  4. Health policy thoughtleaders' views of the health workforce in an era of health reform.

    PubMed

    Donelan, Karen; Buerhaus, Peter I; DesRoches, Catherine; Burke, Sheila P

    2010-01-01

    Although registered nurses rank similarly with physicians in the public's esteem, physicians are more visible than nurses in media coverage, public policy, and political spheres. Thus, nursing workforce issues are overshadowed by those of other health priorities, including Medicare and health reform. The purpose of this research was to understand the visibility and salience of the health workforce in general, gain an understanding about the effectiveness of messages concerning the nursing workforce in particular, and to understand why nursing workforce issues do not appear to have gained more traction in national health care policymaking. The National Survey of Thoughtleaders about the Health Workforce was administered via mail, telephone and online to health workforce and policy thoughtleaders from August 2009-October 2009. Of 301 thoughtleaders contacted, 123 completed questionnaires for a response rate of 41%. Thoughtleaders agree that nurses are critical to the quality and safety of our healthcare system, that there are current nursing shortages, and that nursing shortages will be intensified by health reform. Thoughtleaders reported that while they do hear about nursing issues frequently, they do not view most sources of information as proposing effective policy solutions. This study highlights a critical gap in effective policy advocacy and leadership to advance nurse workforce issues higher on the national health agenda.

  5. Between Accommodating and Activating: Framing Policy Reforms in Response to Workforce Aging across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Anne C.; Vliegenthart, Rens; van Selm, Martine

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, European governments have implemented activating policy reforms to maximize older workers’ employment and employability, representing a paradigmatic change in approaches to work and retirement. This study isolates the factors that explain the relative success and failure of competitive frames that are either in favor of or against activating policies in European news coverage, by applying time-series analysis (ordinary least squares with panel-corrected standard errors) to monthly aggregated news coverage in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Spain over the timespan 2006–2013. The results show that pro-activating and counteractivating frames generally coincide in competitive framing environments. The pro-activating frame proliferated in times of high employment protection, whereas the counteractivating frame prevailed stronger in conservative compared with progressive newspapers, and gained momentum during the aftermath of the financial crisis and in times governments on the economic left were in power. The study advances knowledge of competitive issue framing by demonstrating how the economic, policy, and political context matters for the emergence and evolvement of competing frames. In addition, the findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that contribute to news representations that promote active aging in European news, which may foster support for policy reforms that sustain older workers’ employability. PMID:28781719

  6. Party control, policy reforms, and the impact on health insurance coverage in the U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. One of the major policy concerns at the federal and state level is the rising number of individuals without health insurance. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether party control of government and various state reforms impact the percentage of the state population without health insurance.Methods. Using data from 1987–2007, I empirically examine whether party control and five state policy reforms reduce the uninsured population.Results. The results show that Republicans are more effective than Democrats at the state level at reducing insurance gaps and that three of five policy reforms explored appear to significantly expand insurance coverage.Conclusions. The results provide valuable insight into which components of health-care reform at the national level may help address the health insurance problem.

  7. Encouraging participation in health system reform: is clinical engagement a useful concept for policy and management?

    PubMed

    Bonias, Dimitra; Leggat, Sandra G; Bartram, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Recent health system enquiries and commissions, including the National Health and Hospital Reform Commission, have promoted clinical engagement as necessary for improving the Australian healthcare system. In fact, the Rudd Government identified clinician engagement as important for the success of the planned health system reform. Yet there is uncertainty about how clinical engagement is understood in health policy and management. This paper aims to clarify how clinical engagement is defined, measured and how it might be achieved in policy and management in Australia. We review the literature and consider clinical engagement in relation to employee engagement, a defined construct within the management literature. We consider the structure and employment relationships of the public health sector in assessing the relevance of this literature. Based on the evidence, we argue that clinical engagement is similar to employee engagement, but that engagement of clinicians who are employees requires a different construct to engagement of clinicians who are independent practitioners. The development of this second construct is illustrated using the case of Visiting Medical Officers in Victoria. Antecedent organisational and system conditions to clinical engagement appear to be lacking in the Australian public health system, suggesting meaningful engagement will be difficult to achieve in the short-term. This has the potential to threaten proposed reforms of the Australian healthcare system.

  8. Applying policy network theory to policy-making in China: the case of urban health insurance reform.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haitao; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether policy network theory can be applied in the People's Republic of China (PRC). We carried out a literature review of how this approach has already been dealt with in the Chinese policy sciences thus far. We then present the key concepts and research approach in policy networks theory in the Western literature and try these on a Chinese case to see the fit. We follow this with a description and analysis of the policy-making process regarding the health insurance reform in China from 1998 until the present. Based on this case study, we argue that this body of theory is useful to describe and explain policy-making processes in the Chinese context. However, limitations in the generic model appear in capturing the fundamentally different political and administrative systems, crucially different cultural values in the applicability of some research methods common in Western countries. Finally, we address which political and cultural aspects turn out to be different in the PRC and how they affect methodological and practical problems that PRC researchers will encounter when studying decision-making processes.

  9. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Drug policy in Vietnam: a decade of change?

    PubMed

    Vuong, Thu; Ali, Robert; Baldwin, Simon; Mills, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Driven by the rapid spread of HIV, Vietnam's response to drug use has undergone significant transformation in the past decade. This paper seeks to identify and analyse factors that prompted these changes and to investigate their impact on the lives of people who use drugs. This policy analysis is based on a review of Vietnamese Government documents, peer-reviewed publications and the authors' knowledge of and involvement in drug policy in Vietnam. The last decade has witnessed a progressive change in the mindset of political leaders in Vietnam around illicit drug use and HIV issues. This has led to adoption of evidence-based interventions and the evolution of drug policy that support the scale up of these interventions. However, HIV prevalence among drug users at 31.5% remains high due to limited access to effective interventions and impediments caused by the compulsory treatment centre system. The twin epidemics of HIV and illicit drug use have commanded high-level political attention in Vietnam. Significant policy changes have allowed the implementation of HIV prevention and drug dependence treatment services. Nevertheless, inconsistencies between policies and a continued commitment to compulsory treatment centres remain as major impediments to the provision of effective services to drug users. It is critical that Vietnamese government agencies recognise the social and health consequences of policy conflicts and acknowledge the relative ineffectiveness of centre-based compulsory treatment. In order to facilitate practical changes, the roles of the three ministries directly charged with HIV and illicit drug use need to be harmonised to ensure common goals. The participation of civil society in the policymaking process should also be encouraged. Finally, stronger links between local evidence, policy and practice would increase the impact on HIV prevention and drug addiction treatment programming. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug policy by popular referendum: This, too, shall pass.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Elwork, Amiram; Festinger, David S; McLellan, A Thomas

    2003-10-01

    In formulating policies for drug offenders, lawmakers must decide concrete questions about such matters as legal jurisdiction, burdens of proof, and reporting of progress information. Although these decisions may seem incidental to treatment and beyond the purview of science, they are based on empirically testable assumptions about the behavior of drug abusers and have a direct bearing on the efficacy of drug treatment interventions. Unfortunately, these assumptions have generally not been subjected to empirical inquiry. As a result, drug policy continues to be crafted by non-scientific advocates and subjected to popular vote by an insufficiently informed public. This article identifies several empirically answerable questions that underlie critical decision points in criminal statutes for drug offenders, reviews the available research evidence relevant to these questions, and encourages drug abuse researchers to conduct studies aimed squarely at informing these policy-relevant decisions.

  12. Policy Reform Efforts and Equal Opportunity--An Evidence-Based Link? An Analysis of Current Sector Reforms in the Austrian School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geppert, Corinna; Bauer-Hofmann, Sonja; Hopmann, Stefan Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity? Can these reform efforts sustain the current state of research, and what are the consequences for schooling? The paper draws on an analysis by…

  13. [The over the counter drugs reform in Israel--two years later].

    PubMed

    Vaknin, Sharona; Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Marom, Eli; Shemer, Joshua; Luxenburg, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades there has been a world wide increase in the number of drugs that are being switched from the prescription-only category to non-prescription categories. In Israel, until recently, non-prescription medicines were only permitted to be sold by a pharmacist in pharmacies. In May 2005, following amendments to the law, several non-prescription medicines which were previously sold under a pharmacist's supervision, were reclassified as general-sales-list (GSL) medicines and permitted to be displayed and sold directly off the shelves in pharmacies and in other places such as grocery stores and petrol stations. To study the change in the patterns of consumption of non-prescription drugs in Israel two years after the reform began. A representative sample of the population of Israel was chosen and interviews were conducted at two time points: before the reform commenced and two years after the beginning of the reform. Statistical processing was performed in order to examine the changes in patterns of consumption of non-prescription drugs in Israel between these two time points. In both surveys it was found that: approximately 70% of the Israeli public buys non-prescription medicines; 70% of the people interviewed said that they had been aware of the reform, but of these, about 75% continued buying nonprescription drugs from the pharmacist while 21% bought medicines off the shelves at the pharmacy and 4% purchased medications at grocery stores. The most common reasons for buying medicines off the shelves without a pharmacist were earlier knowLedge about the medication, convenience and availabiLity when the pharmacies were closed. An insignificant difference was observed for the purchase of non-prescription drugs from the different types of pharmacies: the health maintenance organizations (HMO) pharmacies continue to be the leading pharmacies from which the public purchased their non-prescription medicines, white there was a slight increase in the

  14. Managing between the agendas: implementing health care reform policy in an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Roslyn; Paull, Glenn; Magann, Linda; Davis, JanMaree

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess administrative and clinical manager stances on health system reform. Understanding these stances will help to identify cultural differences and competing agendas between these two key health service stakeholders and contribute to developing strategies to improve organisational performance. A qualitative methodology was used comprising in-depth open-ended interviews conducted in 2007 with 26 administrative and clinical managers who managed clinical units. This paper provides empirical insights into the ways that administrative and clinical mangers conceive of their managerial roles in relation to health care reform and performance improvement in health services. The findings suggest that developing a hybrid clinical manager culture as a means to bridge the gap between administrative and clinical manager stances on reform objectives, while possible, is not yet being realised. The research has relevance for health services that are experiencing organisational transformation. However, its location in one health service limits the generalisability of findings to other sites. Further research is needed to assess the opportunities for a hybrid culture to emerge as well as its effect. While attention is predominantly directed to clinician groups as a key stakeholder in implementing health reform policies, this paper has implications for how administrative managers also structure their roles and responsibilities to create an organisational climate conducive to change. This will include strategies to support clinical managers to make the transition from a predominantly clinical, to a clinical managerial, orientation. This paper addresses a significant problem in health service governance, namely the divide between the value stances of dual hierarchies. This problem is only now gaining prominence as a significant barrier to health reform.

  15. A Policy Sociology Reflection on School Reform in England: From the "Third Way" to the "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a policy sociology reflection on Bernard Barker's book, "The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform". The book represents Barker's attempt to intervene in education policy during the lead-up to the 2010 UK general election and is framed by what he imagined might be possible under a new Conservative government.…

  16. A Policy Sociology Reflection on School Reform in England: From the "Third Way" to the "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a policy sociology reflection on Bernard Barker's book, "The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform". The book represents Barker's attempt to intervene in education policy during the lead-up to the 2010 UK general election and is framed by what he imagined might be possible under a new Conservative government.…

  17. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed.

  18. [Effects of health-service reform in the field of medicinal drugs I. Analysis from the standpoint of a pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Macesková, Bozena; Streitová, Jana

    2011-06-01

    The paper examines the effects of changes in medicinal drug policy valid since 1 January 2008 by comparing the dispensation to patients in a pharmacy supplying a hospital in the years 2007 and 2008. The examination was performed using financial representation (sale price without VAT), the number of original packages and classification according to ATC groups. The data were obtained from the information system of the pharmacy. In the year 2008 the total number of received prescriptions decreased by 29.05% versus the year 2007, the payments from health insurance companies decreased by 12.85%, the total number of dispensed packages decreased by 18.20%, the number of packages dispensed on prescriptions decreased by 21.88%. There was an increase in the prescriptions not covered by health insurance by 33.94%, in the number of packages of medicinal drugs dispensed without prescription by 1.59%, and in the sales of medicinal drugs dispensed without prescription by 11.00%. The total annual cash of the pharmacy in the year 2008 increased by 21.14%, resulting from the complex effects of the individual measures of the reform. An analysis according to the ATC groups shows a decrease in the number of packages dispensed on prescription in all groups; in the dispensation without prescription there was an increase in the groups C05 (vasoprotectives, venopharmaceuticals) and M01 (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs). The results correspond with the statistics for the whole republic. The reform reduced the amount of public funds spent for the treatment of out-patients and at the same time resulted in an increase in the dispensation of medicinal drugs without prescription.

  19. Drug control policies in some parts of Asia.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, M

    1992-01-01

    The Asian region has experienced drug problems ever since opium was exported to China in the eighteenth century. Today, in some parts of the region, high priority is placed on drug control policies relating, for example, to the eradication of opium poppy cultivation, criminal sanctions against drug trafficking, and treatment programmes for drug-dependent persons. Some good results have been achieved in recent years: according to estimates, opium cultivation in at least one country in the region has decreased; the number of new cases involving drug-dependent persons is falling in a number of countries; and major drug trafficking syndicates have been disbanded.

  20. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  1. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  2. Drug policy in sport: hidden assumptions and inherent contradictions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron C T; Stewart, Bob

    2008-03-01

    This paper considers the assumptions underpinning the current drugs-in-sport policy arrangements. We examine the assumptions and contradictions inherent in the policy approach, paying particular attention to the evidence that supports different policy arrangements. We find that the current anti-doping policy of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) contains inconsistencies and ambiguities. WADA's policy position is predicated upon four fundamental principles; first, the need for sport to set a good example; secondly, the necessity of ensuring a level playing field; thirdly, the responsibility to protect the health of athletes; and fourthly, the importance of preserving the integrity of sport. A review of the evidence, however, suggests that sport is a problematic institution when it comes to setting a good example for the rest of society. Neither is it clear that sport has an inherent or essential integrity that can only be sustained through regulation. Furthermore, it is doubtful that WADA's anti-doping policy is effective in maintaining a level playing field, or is the best means of protecting the health of athletes. The WADA anti-doping policy is based too heavily on principals of minimising drug use, and gives insufficient weight to the minimisation of drug-related harms. As a result drug-related harms are being poorly managed in sport. We argue that anti-doping policy in sport would benefit from placing greater emphasis on a harm minimisation model.

  3. Reconsideration of contemporary U.S. drug policy.

    PubMed

    Solano, Paul L

    2002-12-01

    In their recent book Drug War Heresies: Learning From Other Vices, Times, and Places (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), MacCoun and Reuter challenge the continuation of contemporary U.S. drug policy. Depenalization and legalization of illicit drugs are evaluated as alternatives to U.S. prohibition policy, with harm reduction (mitigation of social damages) as the criterion for guiding drug regime change. The appraisal encompasses an analysis of underlying philosophical and social mechanisms of current U.S. policy as well as drawing analogies from a comprehensive review of American vices and also Western European governmental interventions into illicit drug activities. What is apparent is that the evaluation and the available evidence entail substantial complexity and do not readily present unequivocal positions. The evaluation also strongly indicates that considerable difficulty would be encountered not only for the implementation of alternative regimes but also for the engagement in open political discussion of prohibition alternatives.

  4. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed

    Hursh, S R

    1991-09-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives.

  5. "Knights" or "knaves"? Public policy, professional power, and reforming maternity services.

    PubMed

    Reiger, Kerreen M

    2011-01-01

    Recent quality and safety discourse stresses locating "human errors and mistakes" within an institutional framework. I go further to contend that, in spite of well-meaning individual practitioners, aspects of a powerful, self-interested obstetric professional culture pose a major barrier to quality childbirth care. Using my analysis, I contrast the profession's "knightly" self-image with critical scholarship, and it examine evidence given to public inquiries into obstetric misdemeanors and mistakes in Australia, England, and Ireland. Policy incentives to reform maternity care need to go beyond technical auditing measures to foster collaboration, social as well as institutional accountability, and critical self-reflection within the obstetric profession.

  6. Antimalarial drug policy in India: Past, present & future

    PubMed Central

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Arora, Usha; Sonal, G.S.; Mishra, Neelima; Shahi, Bharatendu; Savargaonkar, Deepali; Kumar, Navin; Shah, Naman K.; Valecha, Neena

    2014-01-01

    The use of antimalarial drugs in India has evolved since the introduction of quinine in the 17th century. Since the formal establishment of a malaria control programme in 1953, shortly after independence, treatments provided by the public sector ranged from chloroquine, the mainstay drug for many decades, to the newer, recently introduced artemisinin based combination therapy. The complexity of considerations in antimalarial treatment led to the formulation of a National Antimalarial Drug Policy to guide procurement as well as communicate best practices to both public and private healthcare providers. Challenges addressed in the policy include the use of presumptive treatment, the introduction of alternate treatments for drug-resistant malaria, the duration of primaquine therapy to prevent relapses of vivax malaria, the treatment of malaria in pregnancy, and the choice of drugs for chemoprophylaxis. While data on antimalarial drug resistance and both public and private sector treatment practices have been recently reviewed, the policy process of setting national standards has not. In this perspective on antimalarial drug policy, this review highlights its relevant history, analyzes the current policy, and examines future directions. PMID:24718394

  7. [Desperately seeking decentralisation: Mexican health policies in two periods of reform: the 1920s-30s and the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Birn, Anne-Emannuelle

    2005-01-01

    This article compares public health policy reforms in Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s with subsequent reforms initiated in the 1980s. The attempts at decentralization in the 1920s-30s were supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, which was interested in the formation of local cooperative health units. In the 1980s, the aim of the Mexican government and international financial agencies, such as the Inter-American Development Bank, was to reduce public spending (as part of "structural adjustment" policies). One of the hypotheses of this article is that, in the end, the public health reforms were unable to overcome the limitations imposed by Mexico's political centralization and longstanding inequities in public spending. At the same time, one of the unforeseen achievements of these reforms was an increase in local capabilities to demand a better distribution of social services.

  8. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  9. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  10. Bangladesh national drug policy: an example for the Third World?

    PubMed

    Islam, N

    1999-04-01

    The need and the lack of resources of the Third World poor urgently demands the elimination of 'luxury' drugs. The innocent victims can only be safe if these do not find their way on to the market. A National Drug Policy based on the ED Concept is essential for the developing countries and BNDP may provide a helpful model.

  11. Critical Choices: Making Drug Policy at the State Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report focuses on state drug policies and their budgetary consequences. Included are the observations of the Governors Leadership Council, composed of former governors from both parties, convened to help guide state governments in dealing with substance abuse. The report examines the growth rate of the drug offender population in state…

  12. Misuse of "study drugs:" prevalence, consequences, and implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Miller, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Background Non-medical/illegal use of prescription stimulants popularly have been referred to as "study drugs". This paper discusses the current prevalence and consequences of misuse of these drugs and implications of this information for drug policy. Results Study drugs are being misused annually by approximately 4% of older teens and emerging adults. Yet, there are numerous consequences of misuse of prescription stimulants including addiction, negative reactions to high dosages, and medical complications. Policy implications include continuing to limit access to study drugs, finding more safe prescription drug alternatives, interdiction, and public education. Conclusion Much more work is needed on prescription stimulant misuse assessment, identifying the extent of the social and economic costs of misuse, monitoring and reducing access, and developing prevention and cessation education efforts. PMID:16764722

  13. The science of green chemistry and its role in chemicals policy and educational reform.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Amy S; Warner, John C

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the science of green chemistry has continued to evolve and has been adopted in research labs in industry and academia. At the same time, new innovations in chemicals policy have widened opportunities for legislative action to protect human health and the environment. This article addresses the mechanisms by which the science of green chemistry and chemicals policy can work together to help attain a more sustainable future. It also speaks to the pitfalls of inappropriately merging these two, and explores how such a merger could inhibit the creation of sustainable technologies. Green chemistry's role in educational reform is discussed as a means for training students who are prepared to create truly sustainable technologies.

  14. Health Inequity and "Restoring Fairness" Through the Canadian Refugee Health Policy Reforms: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Antonipillai, Valentina; Baumann, Andrea; Hunter, Andrea; Wahoush, Olive; O'Shea, Timothy

    2016-09-02

    Refugees and refugee claimants experience increased health needs upon arrival in Canada. The Federal Government funded the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) since 1957, ensuring comprehensive healthcare insurance for all refugees and refugee claimants seeking protection in Canada. Over the past 4 years, the Canadian government implemented restrictions to essential healthcare services through retrenchments to the IFHP. This paper will review the IFHP, in conjunction with other immigration policies, to explore the issues associated with providing inequitable access to healthcare for refugee populations. It will examine changes made to the IFHP in 2012 and in response to the federal court decision in 2014. Findings of the review indicate that the retrenchments to the 2012 IFHP instigated health outcome disparities, social exclusion and increased costs for vulnerable refugee populations. The 2014 reforms reinstated some services; however the policy continued to produce inequitable healthcare access for some refugees and refugee claimants.

  15. Viewpoint: methanol poisoning outbreak in Libya: a need for policy reforms.

    PubMed

    Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed

    2014-11-01

    We address the controversies surrounding a 2013 outbreak of methanol poisoning in Tripoli, Libya. We critically examine and systematically analyze the outbreak to highlight the lessons learned from this disaster and how to act properly to prevent similar outbreaks in future. Many health problems have been directly attributed to drinking alcohol; the type and quality of alcohol determines the detrimental effects. An unregulated and flourishing black market in alcohol is among the factors behind the Libyan tragedy, where approximately 90 deaths and about 1000 hospital admissions were reported. We reviewed gaps in local and regional alcohol policy, and highlighted the issue of illegally produced and home-made alcohol. Collaboration between countries in the region plus critical health and policy reforms in Libya, with emphasis on public health preparedness, can dramatically decrease morbidity and mortality associated with such outbreaks.

  16. Squeezing the balloon: international drugs policy.

    PubMed

    Seccombe, R

    1995-01-01

    Recent experience of supply reduction activities in a major opium-producing country, Pakistan, is reviewed. It is concluded that international efforts to reduce the supply of illicit drugs are ineffective, inadvertently promote use of more dangerous forms of drugs and exacerbate health problems in supplier countries. In addition, source country supply reduction activities are associated with serious unintended negative consequences, including corruption and poor governance in supplier countries. This leads to a vicious circle as these adverse social consequences make it harder to restrict drug production.

  17. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  18. Legal workplace policies for drugs and alcohol in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgür, Serap Annette; Erdem, Aslı; Coşkunol, Hakan

    2012-02-01

    The widespread of individual and social problems related to substance use/abuse provoked the new approaches for workplace drug testing systems in the world. Workplace drug testing laws are constructed to protect the community from the consequences of drug use by workers. In Turkey, the legal arrangements on workplace drug testing exist in Turkish Penal Code, Turkish Labour Law, Workplace Physicians Regulations, Maritime Labour Law and Medical Examination Instructions in Highway Transportation Although Turkey has made the initial attempts to develop homogeneous and reliable regulations for workplace drug testing, a detailed workplace policy for drug testing at workplace has still not been provided.. An amendment has been done in the Regulations on Seafarers and a drug test (marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine like drugs and opiate) has been added into the routine tests to take a "Seafarer Health Report". Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Impact of College Drug Policy on Students' Drug Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Holly N.

    2012-01-01

    Illicit drug usage at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) is a topic of limited research. The research questions that guided this study were (a) What is the relationship between college policy on illicit drugs and students' frequency of drug usage after controlling for college location (urban or rural) and students' age,…

  20. The Impact of College Drug Policy on Students' Drug Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Holly N.

    2012-01-01

    Illicit drug usage at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) is a topic of limited research. The research questions that guided this study were (a) What is the relationship between college policy on illicit drugs and students' frequency of drug usage after controlling for college location (urban or rural) and students' age,…

  1. Health system reform in peri-urban communities: an exploratory study of policy strategies towards healthcare worker reform in Epworth, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan

    2016-01-01

    Background Human resources for health (HRH) remains a critical challenge, according to the Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action of 2008 and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Available literature on health system reforms does not provide a detailed narrative on strategies that have been used to reform HRH challenges in peri-urban communities. This study explores such strategies implemented in Epworth, Zimbabwe, during 2009–2014, and the implications these strategies might have on other peri-urban areas. Design Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in an exploratory and cross-sectional design. Purposive sampling was used to select key informants, a sample of healthcare workers that participated in in-depth interviews and community members who took part in focus group discussions. Secondary data were collected through a documentary search. Qualitative data were analysed through thematic analysis. Quantitative secondary data were examined using descriptive statistics and then compared with qualitative data to reinforce analysis. Results The HRH reform policy strategies that were identified included ministerial intervention; policy review; and revival of the human resource for health planning, financial planning, multi-sector collaboration, and community engagement. These had some positive effects; however, desired outcomes were undermined by financial, material, human resource, and social constraints. Conclusions Despite constraints, the strategies helped revive the health delivery system in Epworth. In turn, this had a favourable outlook on post-2008 efforts by the Global Health Alliance towards healthcare worker reform and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda in peri-urban communities. PMID:27938630

  2. Health system reform in peri-urban communities: an exploratory study of policy strategies towards healthcare worker reform in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan

    2016-01-01

    Background Human resources for health (HRH) remains a critical challenge, according to the Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action of 2008 and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Available literature on health system reforms does not provide a detailed narrative on strategies that have been used to reform HRH challenges in peri-urban communities. This study explores such strategies implemented in Epworth, Zimbabwe, during 2009-2014, and the implications these strategies might have on other peri-urban areas. Design Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in an exploratory and cross-sectional design. Purposive sampling was used to select key informants, a sample of healthcare workers that participated in in-depth interviews and community members who took part in focus group discussions. Secondary data were collected through a documentary search. Qualitative data were analysed through thematic analysis. Quantitative secondary data were examined using descriptive statistics and then compared with qualitative data to reinforce analysis. Results The HRH reform policy strategies that were identified included ministerial intervention; policy review; and revival of the human resource for health planning, financial planning, multi-sector collaboration, and community engagement. These had some positive effects; however, desired outcomes were undermined by financial, material, human resource, and social constraints. Conclusions Despite constraints, the strategies helped revive the health delivery system in Epworth. In turn, this had a favourable outlook on post-2008 efforts by the Global Health Alliance towards healthcare worker reform and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda in peri-urban communities.

  3. Health system reform in peri-urban communities: an exploratory study of policy strategies towards healthcare worker reform in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan

    2016-01-01

    Human resources for health (HRH) remains a critical challenge, according to the Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action of 2008 and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Available literature on health system reforms does not provide a detailed narrative on strategies that have been used to reform HRH challenges in peri-urban communities. This study explores such strategies implemented in Epworth, Zimbabwe, during 2009-2014, and the implications these strategies might have on other peri-urban areas. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in an exploratory and cross-sectional design. Purposive sampling was used to select key informants, a sample of healthcare workers that participated in in-depth interviews and community members who took part in focus group discussions. Secondary data were collected through a documentary search. Qualitative data were analysed through thematic analysis. Quantitative secondary data were examined using descriptive statistics and then compared with qualitative data to reinforce analysis. The HRH reform policy strategies that were identified included ministerial intervention; policy review; and revival of the human resource for health planning, financial planning, multi-sector collaboration, and community engagement. These had some positive effects; however, desired outcomes were undermined by financial, material, human resource, and social constraints. Despite constraints, the strategies helped revive the health delivery system in Epworth. In turn, this had a favourable outlook on post-2008 efforts by the Global Health Alliance towards healthcare worker reform and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda in peri-urban communities.

  4. High performance work systems: the gap between policy and practice in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Sandra G; Bartram, Timothy; Stanton, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Studies of high-performing organisations have consistently reported a positive relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) and performance outcomes. Although many of these studies have been conducted in manufacturing, similar findings of a positive correlation between aspects of HPWS and improved care delivery and patient outcomes have been reported in international health care studies. The purpose of this paper is to bring together the results from a series of studies conducted within Australian health care organisations. First, the authors seek to demonstrate the link found between high performance work systems and organisational performance, including the perceived quality of patient care. Second, the paper aims to show that the hospitals studied do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place and that there has been little consideration of HPWS in health system reform. The paper draws on a series of correlation studies using survey data from hospitals in Australia, supplemented by qualitative data collection and analysis. To demonstrate the link between HPWS and perceived quality of care delivery the authors conducted regression analysis with tests of mediation and moderation to analyse survey responses of 201 nurses in a large regional Australian health service and explored HRM and HPWS in detail in three casestudy organisations. To achieve the second aim, the authors surveyed human resource and other senior managers in all Victorian health sector organisations and reviewed policy documents related to health system reform planned for Australia. The findings suggest that there is a relationship between HPWS and the perceived quality of care that is mediated by human resource management (HRM) outcomes, such as psychological empowerment. It is also found that health care organisations in Australia generally do not have the necessary aspects of HPWS in place, creating a policy and practice gap. Although the chief executive officers of health

  5. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    PubMed Central

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  6. Prescription drug abuse: from epidemiology to public policy.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse.

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  8. Drug policy, intravenous drug use, and heroin addiction in the UK.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Jemell

    In order to fully understand and appreciate today's drug problem in the UK, the foundations of drug legislation and the history of drug evolution require exploration. This paper critically examines the history of drug policy and the growth of heroin addiction from the perspective of a novice researcher who works closely with intravenous drug users in relation to leg ulceration and wound care in the acute setting. Today's drug policy has come a long way in understanding the problems of heroin addiction and establishing services to meet intravenous drug users' needs and the needs of society. This paper highlights the early warning signs of drug addiction and growth within the UK from an early stage with key areas such as who the early users were and how addiction grew so rapidly between 1920 and 1960. Current policy and decision makers as well as clinicians and researchers in this field must understand the impacts of past policy and embed it within their decisions surrounding drug policy today.

  9. Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards. Policy Symposium Proceedings (Arlington, VA, February 4-6, 2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Reform Research Institute, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Educational Policy Reform Research Institute (EPRRI) and the US Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) held a policy symposium entitled "Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards" February 4-6, 2004 at the Crystal City Marriott in Arlington,…

  10. Relationship between student illicit drug use and school drug-testing policies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2003-04-01

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The study provides descriptive information on drug-testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and examines the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by students. School-level data on drug testing were obtained through the Youth, Education, and Society study, and student-level survey data were obtained from the same schools participating in the Monitoring the Future study. A relatively small percentage of schools (about 18%) reported testing students for drug use, with more high schools than middle schools reporting drug testing. Drug testing was not associated with students' reported illicit drug use, or with rate of use among experienced marijuana users. Drug testing of athletes was not associated with illicit drug use among male high school athletes. Policy implications are discussed.

  11. Drug Policy and Rationality: An Exploration of the Research-Policy Interface in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study which aimed to explore the extent to which drug policy making in Ireland might be deemed to be a rational, evidence-based process. The research was completed during the first half of 2008, as the National Drug Strategy 2001-2008--which explicitly claimed to have research as one of its main "pillars"--was…

  12. Drug Policy and Rationality: An Exploration of the Research-Policy Interface in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study which aimed to explore the extent to which drug policy making in Ireland might be deemed to be a rational, evidence-based process. The research was completed during the first half of 2008, as the National Drug Strategy 2001-2008--which explicitly claimed to have research as one of its main "pillars"--was…

  13. Methods for comparing drug policies--the utility of composite drug harm indexes.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges for drug policy research is being able to compare policy options and outcomes. The development of indexes, such as the UK Drug Harm Index or the UNODC Illicit Drug Index is a way to systematically enable such comparisons. An Index is a single common metric that represents the diverse outcomes or consequences of drug use. An Index may be used for performance monitoring within one country/region over time; to establish societal benefit of drug policies as expressed in social costs saved; to compare countries or regions; or for comparative policy analysis. Clarity of purpose is important in how an Index is used. The consequences or outcomes that can be combined into a single Index include health consequences, crime consequences, public amenity, pain and suffering, labour market outcomes, and drug manufacture and trafficking activity. The choice of outcomes for inclusion is driven by the purpose but also often by practical considerations, such as data availability. The weighting of the consequences is an important consideration in translating the outcomes into a common metric. A monetary unit has a number of advantages: it is a unit that can be measured across diverse impacts; it gives implicit "weighting" of harms; and it is intuitive for policy makers and community. On the other hand, it represents an economic perspective. No one Index will be regarded as suitable and appropriate by every stakeholder and ongoing research effort on Indexes is an important foundational research activity to advance illicit drug policy.

  14. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  15. The Promise of Wisconsin's 1999 Comprehensive Planning Law: Land-Use Policy Reforms to Support Active Living.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph; Keyes, Sheila D

    2008-06-01

    Weaving together the disciplines of planning and policy change with the emerging research of active living, this article explores the competing interests and underlying political forces behind the design and passage of Wisconsin's Comprehensive Planning Law of 1999. While Wisconsin's law remains a work in progress, it illustrates the contemporary policy battles over land use and smart growth and the resurgence of the property-rights movement. It further highlights the influence of smart-growth coalitions and policy networks on planning reform. The authors suggest that planning practitioners and active-living proponents can adapt and transfer these policy lessons from Wisconsin to address the complex relationships of the built environment, physical activity, and the nation's current obesity problem through state and local planning reforms.

  16. Using evidence to change antimalarial drug policy in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shretta, R; Omumbo, J; Rapuoda, B; Snow, R W

    2000-11-01

    Chloroquine resistance was first detected in Kenya in 1978 and escalated during the 1980s. Chloroquine remained the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria infections until revised guidelines were launched in 1998 despite a plethora of scientific evidence on failure. This review analyses the range and quality of the evidence base that was used to change the drug policy in Kenya from chloroquine to SP and examines the process of consensus building and decision making. Our review illustrates the difficulties in translating sensitivity data with gross geographical, temporal and methodological variations into national treatment policy. The process was complicated by limited options, unknown adverse effects of replacement therapies, cost, as well as limited guidance on factors pertinent to changing the drug policy for malaria. Although > 50% of the studies showed parasitological failures by 1995, there was a general lack of consensus on the principles for assessing drug failures, the inclusion criteria for the study subjects and the relative benefits of parasitological and clinical assessments. A change in international recommendations for assessment of drug efficacy in 1996 from parasitological to clinical response further perplexed the decisions. There is an urgent need for international standards and evidence-based guidelines to provide a framework to assist the process by which decision-makers in malaria-endemic countries can make rational choices for antimalarial drug policy change.

  17. Generic drug prices and policy in Australia: room for improvement? a comparative analysis with England.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Sarah J

    2014-02-01

    To assess the degree to which reimbursement prices in Australia and England differ for a range of generic drugs, and to analyse the supply- and demand-side factors that may contribute to these differences. Australian and English reimbursement prices were compared for a range of generic drugs using pricing information obtained from government websites. Next, a literature review was conducted to identify supply- and demand-side factors that could affect generic prices in Australia and England. Various search topics were identified addressing potential supply-side (e.g. market approval, intellectual property protection of patented drugs, generic pricing policy, market size, generic supply chain and discounting practices) and demand-side (consumers, prescribers and pharmacists) factors. Related terms were searched in academic databases, official government websites, national statistical databases and internet search engines. Analysis of drug reimbursement prices for 15 generic molecules (representing 45 different drug presentations) demonstrated that Australian prices were on average over 7-fold higher than in England. Significant supply-side differences included aspects of pricing policy, the relative size of the generics markets and the use of clawback policies. Major differences in demand-side policies related to generic prescribing, pharmacist substitution and consumer incentives. Despite recent reforms, the Australian Government continues to pay higher prices than its English counterpart for many generic medications. The results suggest that particular policy areas may benefit from review in Australia, including the length of the price-setting process, the frequency of subsequent price adjustments, the extent of price competition between originators and generics, medical professionals' knowledge about generic medicines and incentives for generic prescribing. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Prices of generic drugs have been the subject of much scrutiny over recent

  18. Multisource drug policies in Latin America: survey of 10 countries.

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Essential drug lists and generic drug policies have been promoted as strategies to improve access to pharmaceuticals and control their rapidly escalating costs. This article reports the results of a preliminary survey conducted in 10 Latin American countries. The study aimed to document the experiences of different countries in defining and implementing generic drug policies, determine the cost of registering different types of pharmaceutical products and the time needed to register them, and uncover the incentives governments have developed to promote the use of multisource drugs. The survey instrument was administered in person in Chile, Ecuador and Peru and by email in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Uruguay. There was a total of 22 respondents. Survey responses indicated that countries use the terms generic and bioequivalence differently. We suggest there is a need to harmonize definitions and technical concepts. PMID:15682251

  19. Policy reform to shift the health and human rights environment for vulnerable groups: the case of Kyrgyzstan's Instruction 417.

    PubMed

    Beletsky, Leo; Thomas, Rachel; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Artamonova, Irina; Shumskaya, Natalya; Dooronbekova, Aijan; Mukambetov, Aibek; Doyle, Heather; Tolson, Rebecca

    2012-12-15

    Police activities shape behavior and health outcomes among drug users, sex workers, and other vulnerable groups. Interventions to change the policing of drug consumption and sex work in ways that facilitate public health programming and respect for human rights have included policy reforms, education, and litigation. In 2009, the Kyrgyz government promulgated "Instruction 417," prohibiting police interference with "harm reduction" programs, re-enforcing citizen rights, addressing police occupational safety concerns, and institutionalizing police-public health collaboration. Although ample evidence points to gaps between intended and actual impact of policy and other structural interventions, there is little research on the impact of initiatives designed to align policing, health, and human rights. We conducted a police officer survey to assess links between Instruction 417 knowledge and legal and public health knowledge, attitudes towards harm reduction programs, and intended practices targeting vulnerable groups. In a 319-officer sample, 79% understood key due process regulations, 71.1% correctly characterized law on sex work, 54.3% understood syringe possession law, while only 44.4% reported familiarity with Instruction 417. Most (72.9%) expressed positive attitudes toward condom distribution, while only 56% viewed syringe access favorably. Almost half (44%) agreed that police should refer vulnerable groups to disease prevention programs, but only 20% reported doing so. In multivariate analysis, knowledge of Instruction 417 was associated with significantly better knowledge about (aOR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.12-3.00) and attitudes towards harm reduction programs (aOR=3.81, 95%CI:1.35-10.75), and knowledge of due process for the detention of sex workers (aOR=2.53, 95%CI:1.33-4.80). Younger, junior officers and those in rural areas may not be well-informed about the policy. While reflecting positively on Instruction 417 as a structural approach to aligning policing and

  20. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate.

  1. Stories of Reform in Science Education: Commentary on Opp(reg)ressive Policies and Tempered Radicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This response to the two papers (by Rodriguez and Carlone et al.) on science education reform acknowledges first the coherence of the arguments presented around four reform narratives; that of the process of becoming science-enthusiastic, the nature of beliefs of science reform teachers, the barriers to reform, and the institutional expressions of…

  2. Big Data: transforming drug development and health policy decision making.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Demissie; Berger, Marc L

    The explosion of data sources, accompanied by the evolution of technology and analytical techniques, has created considerable challenges and opportunities for drug development and healthcare resource utilization. We present a systematic overview these phenomena, and suggest measures to be taken for effective integration of the new developments in the traditional medical research paradigm and health policy decision making. Special attention is paid to pertinent issues in emerging areas, including rare disease drug development, personalized medicine, Comparative Effectiveness Research, and privacy and confidentiality concerns.

  3. Managed care in Latin America: the new common sense in health policy reform.

    PubMed

    Iriart, C; Merhy, E E; Waitzkin, H

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of the comparative research project, "Managed Care in Latin America: Its Role in Health System Reform." Conducted by teams in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and the United States, the study focused on the exportation of managed care, especially from the United States, and its adoption in Latin American countries. Our research methods included qualitative and quantitative techniques. The adoption of managed care reflects the process of transnationalization in the health sector. Our findings demonstrate the entrance of the main multinational corporations of finance capital into the private sector of insurance and health services, and these corporations' intention to assume administrative responsibilities for state institutions and to secure access to medical social security funds. International lending agencies, especially the World Bank, support the corporatization and privatization of health care services, as a condition of further loans to Latin American countries. We conclude that this process of change, which involves the gradual adoption of managed care as an officially favored policy, reflects ideologically based discourses that accept the inexorable nature of managed care reforms.

  4. Revocation of Office of Generic Drug's interim policy statement on inactive ingredients. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Notice.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revoking an interim policy statement on inactive ingredients in parenteral, ophthalmic, otic, and topical generic drug products (Interim Inactive Ingredient Policy). These generic drug products are the subjects of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDA's). The Interim Inactive Ingredient Policy was issued as a memorandum from the Acting Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's (CDER's) Office of Generic Drugs, FDA, to CDER's Associate Director for Science and Medical Affairs, FDA. FDA is taking this action because the Interim Inactive Ingredient Policy no longer represents current agency policy.

  5. Peter Bourne’s Drug Policy and the Perils of a Public Health Ethic, 1976–1978

    PubMed Central

    Dufton, Emily

    2015-01-01

    As President Jimmy Carter’s advisor for health issues, Peter Bourne promoted a rational and comprehensive drug strategy that combined new supply-side efforts to prevent drug use with previously established demand-side addiction treatment programs. Using a public health ethic that allowed the impact of substances on overall population health to guide drug control, Bourne advocated for marijuana decriminalization as well as increased regulations for barbiturates. A hostile political climate, a series of rumors, and pressure from both drug legalizers and prohibitionists caused Bourne to resign in disgrace in 1978. We argue that Bourne’s critics used his own public health framework to challenge him, describe the health critiques that contributed to Bourne’s resignation, and present the story of his departure as a cautionary tale for today’s drug policy reformers. PMID:25521893

  6. Institutional Norms and Policies that Influence College Mathematics Professors in the Process of Changing to Reform-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Graeber, Anna O.

    2003-01-01

    This case study was an investigation of the role of the institutional culture of a university in the process of changing to reform-based practices for two college mathematics professors. A framework is presented for identifying and analyzing institutional norms and policies that are present and those lacking in supporting faculty efforts toward…

  7. Curriculum Testing on the Persistent Fringes: Neoliberal Policy and the New Regime of Title I High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Neoliberal policies have opened the door to a steady stream of contract providers who assist struggling schools while producing market-ready reforms. This ethnographic example of Allport High School illustrates how constant aid, in combination with internal market expansion, destabilizes school structures, obscures curricula, and transfers local…

  8. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  9. Organizational Politics of Parental Engagement: The Intersections of School Reform, Anti-Immigration Policies, and Latinx Parent Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Fernández, Erica

    2017-01-01

    This article presents results from community-engaged research conducted with Latinx immigrant parents advocating for their students and themselves in and around an urban school engaged in multiple reforms, in a context affected by anti-immigrant policies and sentiments. The authors analyzed the intersection of organizing narratives related to…

  10. Curriculum Testing on the Persistent Fringes: Neoliberal Policy and the New Regime of Title I High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Neoliberal policies have opened the door to a steady stream of contract providers who assist struggling schools while producing market-ready reforms. This ethnographic example of Allport High School illustrates how constant aid, in combination with internal market expansion, destabilizes school structures, obscures curricula, and transfers local…

  11. Past/Forward Policy-Making: Transforming Chinese Engineering Education since the Reform and Opening-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K.; Gong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Although engineering education has played important roles in China's growing power and influence on the world stage, engineering education policy since the Reform and Opening-up in the late 1970s has not been well documented in current English-language scholarship. Informed by historical and sociological studies of education, engineering and…

  12. Sponsors of Policy: A Network Analysis of Wealthy Elites, Their Affiliated Philanthropies, and Charter School Reform in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne; Ferrare, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Charter school policy has evolved into a major component of the current education reform movement in the United States. As of 2012, all but nine U.S. states allowed charter schools, and in one of those nine, Washington State, charter school legislation was passed by popular vote in November 2012. There is a substantial, if…

  13. Past/Forward Policy-Making: Transforming Chinese Engineering Education since the Reform and Opening-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K.; Gong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Although engineering education has played important roles in China's growing power and influence on the world stage, engineering education policy since the Reform and Opening-up in the late 1970s has not been well documented in current English-language scholarship. Informed by historical and sociological studies of education, engineering and…

  14. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it…

  15. Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World. International Summit on the Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    If the quality of an education system can never exceed the quality of its teachers, then countries need to do all they can to build a high-quality teaching force. "Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World," the background report to the sixth International Summit on the Teaching…

  16. The High Cost of Prescription Drugs in the United States: Origins and Prospects for Reform.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Avorn, Jerry; Sarpatwari, Ameet

    The increasing cost of prescription drugs in the United States has become a source of concern for patients, prescribers, payers, and policy makers. To review the origins and effects of high drug prices in the US market and to consider policy options that could contain the cost of prescription drugs. We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature from January 2005 to July 2016 for articles addressing the sources of drug prices in the United States, the justifications and consequences of high prices, and possible solutions. Per capita prescription drug spending in the United States exceeds that in all other countries, largely driven by brand-name drug prices that have been increasing in recent years at rates far beyond the consumer price index. In 2013, per capita spending on prescription drugs was $858 compared with an average of $400 for 19 other industrialized nations. In the United States, prescription medications now comprise an estimated 17% of overall personal health care services. The most important factor that allows manufacturers to set high drug prices is market exclusivity, protected by monopoly rights awarded upon Food and Drug Administration approval and by patents. The availability of generic drugs after this exclusivity period is the main means of reducing prices in the United States, but access to them may be delayed by numerous business and legal strategies. The primary counterweight against excessive pricing during market exclusivity is the negotiating power of the payer, which is currently constrained by several factors, including the requirement that most government drug payment plans cover nearly all products. Another key contributor to drug spending is physician prescribing choices when comparable alternatives are available at different costs. Although prices are often justified by the high cost of drug development, there is no evidence of an association between research and development costs and prices; rather, prescription

  17. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  18. Guide to Ideas on Drug Abuse Programs and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula, Comp.; And Others

    The "GUIDE" was conceived as a way of accelerating the process of finding and working out viable approaches to solving the drug abuse problem. Policy changes are suggested which would recognize the necessity of medical and educational interventions. The wide variety of material, which was compiled, included: (1) summaries of currently operating…

  19. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  20. FDA/CVM's Compliance Policy Guide on compounding of drugs.

    PubMed

    1996-12-15

    As a veterinary practitioner, do you combine drug agents for anesthesia? Create antidotes? Dilute liquids for administration to small, young, or exotic species? Such efforts are examples of compounding. The FDA/CVM's new Compliance Policy Guide (CPG), which regulates the compounding of drugs by veterinarians and pharmacists for use in animals appears here, as originally published in the Compliance Policy Guide Manual. The CPG provides guidance to FDA's field and headquarters staff and serves as a source of useful information to veterinarians. The CPG for Compounding of Drugs for Use in Animals reflects the efforts of a task force made up of a diverse group of veterinarians, pharmacists, and regulators whose conclusions were published in the Symposium of Compounding in JAVMA, July 15, 1994, pp 189-303.

  1. Optimal Drug Policy in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sheng-Wen; Coulson, N. Edward; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The control of drug activity currently favors supply-side policies: drug suppliers in the U.S. face a higher arrest rate and longer sentences than demanders. We construct a simple model of drug activity with search and entry frictions in labor and drug markets. Our calibration analysis suggests a strong “dealer replacement effect.” As a result, given a variety of community objectives, it is beneficial to lower supplier arrests and raise the demand arrest rate from current values. A 10% shift from supply-side to demand-side arrests can reduce the population of potential drug dealers by 22–25,000 and raise aggregate local income by $380–400 million, at 2002 prices. (JEL Classification: D60, J60, K42, H70) PMID:27616878

  2. Drug Policy and the Public Good: a summary of the book.

    PubMed

    2010-07-01

    Drug Policy and the Public Good was written by an international group of scientists from the fields of addiction, public health, criminology and policy studies to improve the linkages between drug research and drug policy. The book provides a conceptual basis for evidence-informed drug policy and describes epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse. The core of the book is a critical review of the cumulative scientific evidence in five general areas of drug policy: primary prevention programmes in schools and other settings; health and social services for drug users; attempts to control the supply of drugs, including the international treaty system; law enforcement and ventures into decriminalization; and control of the psychotropic substance market through prescription drug regimes. The final chapters discuss the current state of drug policies in different parts of the world and describe the need for future approaches to drug policy that are coordinated and informed by evidence.

  3. Policy trends and reforms in the German DRG-based hospital payment system.

    PubMed

    Klein-Hitpaß, Uwe; Scheller-Kreinsen, David

    2015-03-01

    A central structural point in all DRG-based hospital payment systems is the conversion of relative weights into actual payments. In this context policy makers need to address (amongst other things) (a) how the price level of DRG-payments from one period to the following period is changed and (b) whether and how hospital payments based on DRGs are to be differentiated beyond patient characteristics, e.g. by organizational, regional or state-level factors. Both policy problems can be and in international comparison often are empirically addressed. In Germany relative weights are derived from a highly sophisticated empirical cost calculation, whereas the annual changes of DRG-based payments (base rates) as well as the differentiation of DRG-based hospital payments beyond patient characteristics are not empirically addressed. Rather a complex set of regulations and quasi-market negotiations are applied. There were over the last decade also timid attempts to foster the use of empirical data to address these points. However, these reforms failed to increase the fairness, transparency and rationality of the mechanism to convert relative weights into actual DRG-based hospital payments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoting Antibacterial Drug Development: Select Policies and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sertkaya, Aylin; Jessup, Amber; Wong, Hui-Hsing

    2017-02-01

    The development pipeline for antibacterial drugs has not met the demand of hospitals and healthcare providers struggling to cope with increasing problems of antibacterial resistance. Although the challenges associated with antibacterial drug development have been known for some time, previous efforts to address them have not been sufficient. There remains an urgent need for targeted incentives to foster antibacterial drug development while encouraging prudent use. We examine the effects of two types of incentives, a 5-year delay in competition from generics and a lump-sum US$50 million prize payment upon successful US Food and Drug Administration approval, on antibacterial drug company returns. We use the decision-tree framework developed in a study for the US Department of Health and Human Services, which models the drug company's decision process as a revenue maximizer under uncertainty. Our results show that, to maximize societal benefit, such incentives need to take into consideration the indication(s) the new antibacterial drug is designed to treat as well as the drug development stage. Optimal policies should maximize the difference between societal benefit, primarily measured as the reduction in public health burden from the development of a new antibacterial drug that treats an infectious disease while ensuring prudent use, and social cost. Here, we show that the two types of policies examined under-incentivize early-stage developers (i.e., do not achieve the desired outcome) and over-incentivize late-stage developers (i.e., achieve the desired outcome but at a cost that is higher than needed) ceteris paribus.

  5. Reform by subtraction: the path of denunciation of international drug treaties and reaccession with reservations.

    PubMed

    Room, Robin

    2012-09-01

    Almost all countries are parties to the international drug conventions of 1961, 1971 and 1988. These strongly bind parties with respect to their domestic regulation of controlled substances, including requirements that possession, growing or use be a criminal offense and that any regulated market in the substances be limited to use only for medical or scientific purposes. Even where countries have argued they have "wiggle room", reform within the bounds of the conventions has often resulted in "net-widening" which nullifies the intent of the reform. Among the options for effective reform, probably the most immediately viable is the route of denunciation and reaccession with reservations--the route which Bolivia has now taken in order to legalise a regulated domestic market in coca leaves for chewing. The paper considers the existing record of reservations (by more than 30 parties to each of the conventions). Also discussed are the options for response to the reservations by other parties, which vary between the treaties, and how pursuing the option of denunciation and reaccession with reservation might potentially play out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  7. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  8. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... New drug status opinions; statement of policy. (a) Over the years since 1938 the Food and...

  9. Educational Reform in China: Tensions in National Policy and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yujin; Dunne, Mairead

    2009-01-01

    In the post-Mao era, the Chinese government carried out a series of education reforms to modernise education provision. This paper explores two related aspects of these reforms through comparative case study research in three different school locations within the same region in China. The first focus is upon system reform initiated through…

  10. Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    The guide presents facts and issues concerning drug and alcohol abuse so that college and university administration and governing boards can make informed decisions about programs, policy, and procedures to minimize their occurrence on campus. Chapter 1 examines issues related to substance abuse on campus: risk factors in the campus community; the…

  11. Justice implications of a proposed Medicare prescription drug policy.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-07-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the historical context of Medicare and reviews the proposals for prescription drug coverage, identifying the concerns raised. Literature critiquing the justice dimensions of health care for the elderly population is reviewed. Justice claims are identified and refined, and social justice theories are used in the analysis of the proposed policies.

  12. How State Education Reform Can Improve Secondary Schools, Part I: Study Findings. Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE) Policy Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan R.; Marsh, David D.

    In 1983 California enacted a comprehensive bill containing dozens of education reform provisions (Senate Bill 813). A sample of 17 secondary schools was selected in order to understand if a number of state-level education reform features could be implemented locally. The major study findings listed below are described in greater detail in the…

  13. Problems in the regulatory policy of the drug market

    PubMed Central

    Miziara, Nathália Molleis; Coutinho, Diogo Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the implementation of drug price regulation policy by the Drug Market Regulation Chamber. METHODS This is an interview-based study, which was undertaken in 2012, using semi-structured questionnaires with social actors from the pharmaceutical market, the pharmaceuticals industry, consumers and the regulatory agency. In addition, drug prices were compiled based on surveys conducted in the state of Sao Paulo, at the point of sale, between February 2009 and May 2012. RESULTS The mean drug prices charged at the point of sale (pharmacies) were well below the maximum price to the consumer, compared with many drugs sold in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2012, 44 of the 129 prices, corresponding to 99 drugs listed in the database of compiled prices, showed a variation of more than 20.0% in the mean prices at the point of sale and the maximum price to the consumer. In addition, many laboratories have refused to apply the price adequacy coefficient in their sales to government agencies. CONCLUSIONS The regulation implemented by the pharmaceutical market regulator was unable to significantly control prices of marketed drugs, without succeeding to push them to levels lower than those determined by the pharmaceutical industry and failing, therefore, in its objective to promote pharmaceutical support for the public. It is necessary reconstruct the regulatory law to allow market prices to be reduced by the regulator as well as institutional strengthen this government body. PMID:26083945

  14. Prospective political analysis for policy design: enhancing the political viability of single-payer health reform in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Nathan J; Fox, Ashley M

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the state of Vermont adopted legislation that aims to create the nation's first state-level single-payer health care system, a system that would go well beyond national reform efforts. To conduct a prospective, institutional stakeholder analysis to guide development of a politically viable, universal health care reform proposal, as commissioned by Vermont's legislature in July 2010. A total of 64 semi-structured stakeholder interviews with nearly 120 individuals, representing 60 different groups/institutions, were conducted between July and December 2010. Interviews probed stakeholders regarding five major design components: financing options, decoupling insurance from employment, organization/governance, comprehensiveness of benefits, and payment reform. There was a range of opposition and support across stakeholder groups and components, and more remarkably a diversity of views within groups often believed to be unwavering supporters or detractors of comprehensive health reform. Given the balance of conflicting views, relative power, and acceptable trade-offs, the research team proposed a single-payer health care system financed through payroll taxes, decoupled from employment, with a generous benefit package, governed by a public-private intermediary. Prospective political analysis can assist in choosing among a range of technically sound policy options to create a more politically viable health reform package. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Retaining Teacher Talent: Convergence and Contradictions in Teachers' Perceptions of Policy Reform Ideas. A Retaining Teacher Talent Report from Learning Point Associates and Public Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggshall, Jane G.; Ott, Amber

    2010-01-01

    As a new decade dawns, teachers stand at the center of a policy vortex. They serve as the primary focus of one of the Obama administration's four pillars of educational reform--effective teachers and leaders. Educational reformers of all stripes have focused tremendous energy on thinking of ways to identify effective teachers and in turn recruit,…

  16. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. The Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance advises the Secretary on national...

  17. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. The Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance advises the Secretary on national...

  18. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. The Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance advises the Secretary on national...

  19. 21 CFR 20.20 - Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug Administration records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.20 Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Food and Drug... to the public, consistent with the rights of individuals to privacy, the property rights of persons...

  20. 78 FR 16679 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy Council; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy... interested organizations, on medical policy issues that may be considered by the CDER Medical Policy Council (Council) in FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). These comments will help the...

  1. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900.

    PubMed

    Perera, Frederica

    2014-10-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today.

  2. Science as an Early Driver of Policy: Child Labor Reform in the Early Progressive Era, 1870–1900

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children’s biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children’s health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children’s environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  3. Congressional Testimony: Testimony of Nikki Tinsley Before the Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs Committee on Government Reform United States House

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Testimony of the Honorable Nikki Tinsley Inspector General U.S. EPA Before the Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs Committee on Government Reform United States House of Representatives

  4. [Gender equity in health sector reform policies in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly being acknowledged as an essential aspect of sustainable development and more specifically, of health development. The Pan American Health Organization's Program for Women, Health, and Development has been piloting for a year now a project known as Equidad de género en las políticas de reforma del sector de salud, whose objective is to promote gender equity in the health sector reform efforts in the Region. The first stage of the project is being conducted in Chile and Peru, along with some activities throughout the Region. The core of the project is the production and use of information as a tool for introducing changes geared toward achieving greater gender equity in health, particularly in connection with malefemale disparities that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision-making within the health system. We expect that in three years the project will have brought about changes in the production of information and knowledge, advocacy, and information dissemination, as well as in the development, appropriation, and identification of intersectoral mechanisms that will make it possible for key figures in government and civil society to work together in setting and surveying policy on gender equity in health.

  5. Water stress, water transfer and social equity in Northern China--implications for policy reforms.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ximing

    2008-04-01

    Water stress in Northern China is characterized with major, inefficient irrigation water use and rapidly growing non-agricultural water demands, as well as limited water quantity and declining water quality. Water use in the region is undergoing transfer from agricultural to municipal and industrial sectors. Currently, part of the economic loss and environmental damage due to water stress can be considered as a consequence of water transfer failures, including the current transfers, which hurt farmers' livelihood and income, and the needed transfers, which industry and cities have been waiting for but have not received. This paper starts with a discussion of the causes of water stress in Northern China, which is fundamental to understand the necessity and complexity of agricultural water transfers. Following that, it reviews water transfers in Northern China as a cause for concern over the social stability, economy and environment of the region. Based on an integrated analysis of economic, environmental, fiscal and social implications, this paper begins by identifying critical barriers to smooth water redistribution; and ends with implications for policy reforms, ensuring that farmers can and will save water. It is concluded that the decisions of water reallocation under water stress should be shared by communities at all levels, from the local to the national, to ensure equal access of water, especially the availability of the basic water need for all groups.

  6. Policy reform dilemmas in promoting employment of persons with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Noble, J H

    1998-06-01

    Recent evaluations by the U.S. General Accounting Office and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill of reemployment efforts of the federal-state vocational rehabilitation program found that services offered by state vocational rehabilitation agencies do not produce long-term earnings for clients with emotional or physical disabilities. This paper examines reasons for these poor outcomes and the implications of recent policy reform recommendations. Congress must decide whether to take action at the federal level to upgrade programs affecting persons with severe mental illnesses or to continue to rely on state decision making. The federal-state program largely wastes an estimated $490 million annually on time-limited services to consumers with mental illnesses. Rechanneled into a variety of innovative and more appropriate integrated services models, the money could buy stable annual vocational rehabilitation funding for 62,000 to 90,000 consumers with severe mental illnesses. Larger macrosystem problems involve the dynamics of the labor market that limit job opportunities and the powerful work disincentives for consumers with severe disabilities now inherent in Social Security Disability Insurance, Supplemental Security Income, Medicare, and Medicaid.

  7. The current state of health care in the former Soviet Union: implications for health care policy and reform.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A; Field, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Given the many profound health care problems facing Russia and the other former Soviet republics, there are a number of fundamental policy questions that deserve close attention as part of the reform process. METHODS. Summary data regarding Soviet health care issues were drawn from government agency reports, scholarly books and journals, recent press reports, and the authors' personal research. RESULTS. Smoking, alcohol, accidents, poor sanitation, inadequate nutrition, and extensive environmental pollution contribute to illness and premature mortality in Russia and the other newly independent states. Hospitals and clinics are poorly maintained and equipped; most physicians are poorly trained and inadequately paid; and there is essentially no system of quality management. While efforts at reform, which emphasize shifting to a system of "insurance medicine," have been largely unsuccessful, they have raised several important policy issues that warrant extensive research and discussion. CONCLUSIONS. Without considering the implications and consequences of alternative policy directions, Russia and the other states face the very real possibility of developing health care systems that improve the overall level of care but also incorporate limited access and escalating costs. Russian health care reform leaders can learn from the health care successes in the West and avoid repeating our mistakes. PMID:8604753

  8. The policy of school autonomy and the reform of educational administration Hungarian changes in an East European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halász, Gábor

    1993-11-01

    The paper presents the background, the main elements and the contradictions of the reform of educational administration in Hungary in the late '80s in a Central and East European perspective. It also tries to provide an analysis of the challenges that have emerged with the political changes of the '90s. The introductory part of the paper analyses the differences between policies of decentralization in Eastern and Western Europe. In the second part, the most important changes introduced by the 1985 Hungarian Education Act are summarized, and the policy background of these changes is presented. It is assumed that the policy behind the decentralization measures had a negative character: it intended more to abolish the existing structures of control than to establish new ones. In the final part of the paper those factors are presented which may play a role in the future for or against the policy of decentralization.

  9. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery.

  10. Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies.

    PubMed

    Pongtavornpinyo, Wirichada; Yeung, Shunmay; Hastings, Ian M; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J

    2008-11-02

    Most malaria-endemic countries are implementing a change in anti-malarial drug policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). The impact of different drug choices and implementation strategies is uncertain. Data from many epidemiological studies in different levels of malaria endemicity and in areas with the highest prevalence of drug resistance like borders of Thailand are certainly valuable. Formulating an appropriate dynamic data-driven model is a powerful predictive tool for exploring the impact of these strategies quantitatively. A comprehensive model was constructed incorporating important epidemiological and biological factors of human, mosquito, parasite and treatment. The iterative process of developing the model, identifying data needed, and parameterization has been taken to strongly link the model to the empirical evidence. The model provides quantitative measures of outcomes, such as malaria prevalence/incidence and treatment failure, and illustrates the spread of resistance in low and high transmission settings. The model was used to evaluate different anti-malarial policy options focusing on ACT deployment. The model predicts robustly that in low transmission settings drug resistance spreads faster than in high transmission settings, and treatment failure is the main force driving the spread of drug resistance. In low transmission settings, ACT slows the spread of drug resistance to a partner drug, especially at high coverage rates. This effect decreases exponentially with increasing delay in deploying the ACT and decreasing rates of coverage. In the high transmission settings, however, drug resistance is driven by the proportion of the human population with a residual drug level, which gives resistant parasites some survival advantage. The spread of drug resistance could be slowed down by controlling presumptive drug use and avoiding the use of combination therapies containing drugs with mismatched half-lives, together with reducing malaria

  11. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Children and Welfare Reform: A Guide to Evaluating the Effects of State Welfare Policies on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Although targeted explicitly at changing adult behaviors and outcomes, welfare reform has direct implications for children. This guidebook details the results of the Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, designed to assist states in measuring child outcomes in the context of welfare reform programs. The guidebook is presented in three sections.…

  13. Irrational Exuberance for Market-Based Reform: How Federal Turnaround Policies Thwart Democratic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…

  14. The New Victors: A Progressive Policy Analysis of Work Reform for People with Very Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Ferguson, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Current efforts to reform vocational services for severely disabled adults are examined in the context of past reform efforts, the meaning of work, and the status of the labor force. Proposed solutions should avoid exclusion of the severely disabled due to reliance on economic utility as the price of social integration. (Author/DB)

  15. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  16. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  17. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  18. Revisiting the Storied Landscape of Language Policy Impact over Time: A Case of Successful Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna

    2005-01-01

    The many failures of large-scale top-down educational reforms are well documented in the reform literature. These failures are most evident when they are reviewed from the advantageous perspective of hindsight. What are less well documented are the extraordinarily interesting, centrally driven educational changes that have had important and…

  19. Reform of the College Entrance Examination: Ideology, Principles, and Policy Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Haifeng

    2013-01-01

    Reform of the College Entrance Examination is trending toward simultaneous unification and diversification. The objective of reforming the entrance exam is to establish a college enrollment examination system that is primarily based on a unified test, which would assess students' abilities, appraise them on multiple levels, and classify them.…

  20. School Reforms in England, Japan, Korea and the U.S.: Policy Variation and Educational Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    Education reform during the last 2 decades has been shaped by the forces of growing public distrust of educational bureaucracies in a climate of rapid political change and growing international competition in the context of a global economy. Major school reforms in four selected industrial countries that differ significantly in terms of…

  1. The Saudi Tatweer Education Reforms: Implications of Neoliberal Thought to Saudi Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayan, Bilal M.

    2017-01-01

    The King Abdullah Public Education Development Project or the "Tatweer" education reforms were created to improve the quality of teaching and learning in Saudi Arabia. It was a response to develop generations of Saudis who would contribute to the economic well-being of the nation. The Saudi Tatweer education reforms have been important…

  2. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  3. Irrational Exuberance for Market-Based Reform: How Federal Turnaround Policies Thwart Democratic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Obama Administration announced its intention to rapidly "turn around" 5,000 of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To do so, it relied on the School Improvement Grant (SIG) program to provide temporary funding for states and schools, and to mandate drastic, school-level reforms. Most of these reforms require…

  4. Principals and Local School Councils: An International Comparison of Judicial Policy Affecting School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menacker, Julius

    1996-01-01

    Compares the legal reasoning and results in two cases brought to courts by principals dismissed by local school governing boards under authority granted to these community groups by school reform laws in Chicago, Illinois, and New Zealand. Observations are made regarding the need for appropriate adjustments in school-based-management reform law…

  5. Do workplace policies work? An examination of the relationship between alcohol and other drug policies and workers' substance use.

    PubMed

    Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria; Roche, Ann

    2016-02-01

    There is growing interest in workplace policies as a strategy to prevent or manage alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems. This study is the first to explore the prevalence and impact of AOD policies in Australian workplaces using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey was conducted (n=13,590). Descriptive analyses explored the prevalence of AOD policies. Multinomial and logistic regression assessed the relationship between policies and health behaviours. Workplace AOD policies were associated with reduced employee substance use. Having any AOD policy in place was associated with significantly decreased odds of high risk drinking (OR: 0.61). In terms of specific policy types, policies on 'use' and 'use plus assistance' were associated with significantly decreased odds of high risk drinking (OR: 0.64 and 0.43, respectively). 'Comprehensive' policies were associated with significantly decreased odds of drug use (OR: 0.72). AOD policies were not significantly related to absence due to AOD use, attending work under the influence, or usually consuming AOD at work. These findings provide empirical support for the value and efficacy of policies to reduce alcohol and drug problems. While basic policies on 'use' were associated with a reduction in high risk drinking, more comprehensive policies were required to impact drug use. Notably, alcohol/drug testing in isolation does not appear to be related to reduced employee substance use. Scope exists for Australian workplaces to implement effective AOD policies. This could result in considerable benefits for both individuals and workplaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Public opinion and drug policy in Australia: engaging the 'affected community'.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kari; Ritter, Alison; Stafford, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Policy should be informed by the people it directly affects; however, the voices of people who use illicit drugs have been marginalised from drug policy debate. In Australia, the majority of survey data regarding attitudes to drug policy are collected at the population level and the opinions of people who inject drugs remain underexplored. This study aimed to investigate how people who inject drugs perceive drug policy in Australia and whether these opinions differ from those of the broader general population. Drug-related policy questions were drawn from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) and added to the 2011 Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) Survey (n = 868). The results were analysed for the full IDRS sample and by recent drug use. IDRS responses were compared with the general population using the 2010 NDSHS. There was a high level of support among IDRS participants for measures to reduce the problems associated with heroin, but heterogeneity in levels of support for legalisation and penalties for sale/supply across different drug types. Differences between the opinions of the IDRS sample and the NDSHS sample were identified regarding support for harm reduction, treatment, legalisation and penalties for sale/supply. These findings provide a springboard for further investigation of the attitudes of people who use illicit drugs towards drug policy in Australia, and challenge us to conceptualise how the opinions of this community should be solicited, heard and balanced in drug policy processes. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Multi-level governance: The way forward for European illicit drug policy?

    PubMed

    Chatwin, Caroline

    2007-12-01

    Illicit drug policy has long been an area that has attracted international policy intervention, however, the European Union has declared it an area of subsidiarity, leaving ultimate control to national governments. Nevertheless, European Union preoccupation with the illicit drug issue and international drug trafficking and organised crime concerns have ensured that continued and increased cooperation in illicit drug policy is never off the agenda. This article examines the history of European integration in contrasting areas of policy and considers both the desirability and the viability of an increasingly harmonised drug policy for Europe. Finally, it proposes a model of integrated illicit drug policy that is strongly connected to developing patterns of European social policy, calling on multi-level governance and close involvement at the level of the citizen.

  8. Education Reform Policy and Early Childhood Teacher Education in Hong Kong before and after the Transfer of Sovereignty to China in 1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Built on a sociocultural framework of policy analysis and Wertsch's concept of mediation, the present study examines how early childhood teacher education has changed as a result of interactions between reform policy and the action of teacher educators. Ten teacher educators participated in the study, along with eight early childhood leaders, 15…

  9. The impact of South Korea's new drug-pricing policy on market competition among off-patent drugs.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Kim, Hyungmin; Godman, Brian; Reich, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    A new pricing policy was introduced in Korea in April 2012 with the aim of strengthening competition among off-patent drugs by eliminating price gaps between originators and generics. Examine the effect of newly implemented pricing policy. Retrospectively examining the effects through extracting from the National Health Insurance claims data a 30-month panel dataset (January 2011-June 2013) containing consumption data in four major therapeutic classes (antihypertensives, lipid-lowering drugs, antiulcerants and antidepressants). Proxies for market competition were examined before and after the policy. The new pricing policy did not enhance competition among off-patent drugs. In fact, price dispersion significantly decreased as opposed to the expected change. Originator-to-generic utilization increased 6.12 times (p = 0.000) after the new policy. The new pricing policy made no impact on competition among off-patent drugs. Competition in the off-patent market cannot be enhanced unless both supply and demand side measures are coordinated.

  10. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug

  11. 21 CFR 310.100 - New drug status opinions; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., all opinions previously given by the Food and Drug Administration to the effect that an article is... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New drug status opinions; statement of policy. 310.100 Section 310.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions.

  13. Illicit drugs and the media: models of media effects for use in drug policy research.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kari; Hughes, Caitlin E; Spicer, Bridget; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Dillon, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Illicit drugs are never far from the media gaze and although identified almost a decade ago as 'a new battleground' for the alcohol and other drug (AOD) field there has been limited research examining the role of the news media and its effects on audiences and policy. This paper draws together media theories from communication literature to examine media functions. We illustrate how each function is relevant for media and drugs research by drawing upon the existing literature examining Australian media coverage during the late 1990s of escalating heroin-related problems and proposed solutions. Media can influence audiences in four key ways: by setting the agenda and defining public interest; framing issues through selection and salience; indirectly shaping individual and community attitudes towards risk; and feeding into political debate and decision making. Each has relevance for the AOD field. For example, media coverage of the escalating heroin-related problems in Australia played a strong role in generating interest in heroin overdoses, framing public discourse in terms of a health and/or criminal issue and affecting political decisions. Implications AND CONCLUSION: Media coverage in relation to illicit drugs can have multifarious effects. Incorporating media communication theories into future research and actions is critical to facilitate understanding of the short- and long-term impacts of media coverage on illicit drugs and the avenues by which the AOD field can mitigate or inform future media debates on illicit drugs. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Drug consumption rooms and the role of politics and governance in policy processes.

    PubMed

    Houborg, Esben; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen

    2014-09-01

    In 2012 after more than 20 years of discussion Denmark introduced drug consumption facilities as part of its drug policy. This article investigates the processes that led to this new policy and its implementation in Copenhagen. The aim of the article is to analyze if the new policy and its implementation can be understood in terms of a shift from 'government' to 'governance' in drug policy. On this basis the aim is also to discuss the possibilities and limitations of 'governance' as an analytical perspective for understanding policy change in the field of drug policy. Through the use of Kingdon's theory about policy change as following alignments of problem streams, policy streams and politics streams and deployment of Callon's concepts of 'framing' and 'overflowing' the article presents an analysis of recorded communication from the public debate and national and local policy processes. Politics and the authority of government played a key role in the policy change that led to the introduction of drug consumption facilities in Denmark. It was only after a change of government and a change of legislation that a new policy came about. Drug consumption facilities did exist on a small scale before this through acts of civil disobedience committed by civil society stakeholders. The space for governance seems to be limited in a drug policy that is prohibitive, at least when it touches upon issues that concern law enforcement and the sovereign power of the state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Science education reform for the 21st century: Analyzing policy imperatives for effective teaching through recruitment, renewal, and retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeaux, Amy Venning

    2002-09-01

    Concern with science education reform and how to achieve it has a long history in our education system. In recent years, national reports have targeted enhancing teaching quality as the number one priority in the list of research-based education reform efforts that will have the most impact on promoting student achievement (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). However, defining the policy imperatives and delineating the priorities must occur before reform can be achieved. Using the Delphi Technique, a total of 33 expert panelists representing universities, K--12 educators, informal science education organizations, national and federal organizations such as NSF, NASA, and the Department of Education, and parents grappled with policy imperatives needed for effective science teaching. Through a series of three iterative questionnaires, panelists had the opportunity to build consensus, pool judgments, and forecast themes that could potentially influence policymakers in science education for the "Three R's" of professional development---renewal, retention, and recruitment. The study focused on the following three objectives: (1) analyzing feedback from panelists regarding issues and strategies identified in the Glenn Commission Report for enhancing teaching quality, (2) building group consensus regarding visions, actions, and strategies for effective science teaching and professional development, and (3) moving from rhetoric to reality in addressing the policy imperatives needed in the next 10 years for policymakers to instigate at the national, state and local levels for enhancing effective science teaching practice. The results of this study validated the findings in the Glenn Commission Report and identified five major priorities. The priorities identified policy imperatives for upgrading the quality of undergraduate and graduate science education programs, changing the reward system and career ladder for teachers, designing systemic and sustained professional

  16. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  1. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  2. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  3. A review of school drug policies and their impact on youth substance use.

    PubMed

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Beyers, Jennifer M; Lloyd, Sian; Lafazia, Andrea N; Toumbourou, John W; Arthur, Michael W; Catalano, Richard F

    2004-06-01

    Youth substance use is an important social and health problem in the United States, Australia and other Western nations. Schools are recognized as important sites for prevention efforts and school substance use policies are a key component of health promotion in schools. The first part of this paper reviews the known status of school policies on tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs in a number of Western countries and the existing evidence for the effectiveness of school drug policy in preventing drug use. The review shows that most schools in developed countries have substance use policies but that there is substantial variation in the comprehensiveness of these policies (i.e. the breadth of people, places and times of day that are explicitly subject to policy prohibitions), and the orientation of their enforcement (e.g. punitive versus remedial), both across and within schools. The few studies of policy impact focus solely on tobacco policy and provide preliminary evidence that more comprehensive and strictly enforced school policies are associated with less smoking. The second part of the paper introduces the International Youth Development Study, a new longitudinal research project aimed at comparing school policies and the developmental course of youth drug use in the United States, where drug policies are abstinence-based, with Australia, which has adopted a harm minimization approach to drug policy.

  4. From policy to reality: clinical managers' views of the organizational challenges of primary care reform in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Dussault, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The primary healthcare reform in Portugal is based on the development of a new management model and clinical governance framework. The objective is to strengthen primary healthcare services to reduce the inappropriate utilization of secondary and emergency services and to make efficiency gains and to better control costs. New interventions include the introduction of a system of production-based incentives for family health units. This paper presents an initial assessment of the implementation of the new policies and tries to explain the gap between its expected results and what was observed in the field 5 years later. We used a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats analysis conducted in 12 regions, to collect the perceptions of members of Clinical Councils of Health Centers Groups, responsible for the implementation of the reform. The analysis looked at the dimensions of coverage, productivity, technical quality, and service quality. It identifies weaknesses in human resources management (shortages, incentives, team management) and lack of support from central and regional management. There is a perceived gap between the framework for reform as defined by law and the support made available for its implementation, leading to tensions between decision makers, managers, and health professionals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Does the EU sugar policy reform increase added sugar consumption? An empirical evidence on the soft drink market.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Céline; Requillart, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Whereas National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of 'added' sugar, a reform on the sugar market will lead to a 36% decrease of the sugar price in the EU. Using French data on soft drinks purchases, this paper investigates the anticipated impact of this reform on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The reform of the EU sugar policy leads to a decrease in regular soft drink prices by 3% and varies across brands. To assess substitution within this food category, we use a random-coefficients logit model that takes into account a large number of differentiated products and heterogeneity in consumers' behavior. Results suggest that price changes would lead to an increase in market shares of regular products by 7.5% and to substitutions between brands to the benefit of products with the highest sugar content. On the whole, it would raise consumption of regular soft drinks by more than 1 litre per person per year and consumption of added sugar by 124 g per person per year, this increase being larger in households composed of overweight and obese individuals. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Understanding the United States and Brazil's response to obesity: institutional conversion, policy reform, and the lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-06-10

    In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.

  7. Market- and Performance-Based Reforms of Teacher Compensation: A Review of Recent Practices, Policies, and Research. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael J.; Springer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent policy initiatives to reform teacher compensation systems and evidence regarding the effect of these policies. The first section examines the current structure of teacher compensation in the U.S. K-12 public education system. The compensation "system" for teachers is fragmented and uncoordinated. Teacher…

  8. Future European health care: cost containment, health care reform and scientific progress in drug research.

    PubMed

    Emilien, G

    1997-01-01

    The cost of the development of a new pharmaceutical product from its conception and synthesis through to the regulatory approval process has more than quadrupled in the last 20 years. Both clinical and total development times have increased substantially. To amortize the costs incurred, the pharmaceutical industry has taken an international dimension. The incentives for pharmaceutical firms to discover and develop new drugs depend on the length of the development and regulatory review process plus the potential market size. Recent regulatory, economic and political changes may have significant implications for the future of new drug developments in Europe. The European Union industrial policy felt that there is a need for convergence in the area of pricing. It is recommended that the policy should aim to contain growth in pharmaceutical expenses by means specific to reimbursement rather than direct price controls. By encouraging doctors to prescribe and customers to use generics, competition is enhanced to bring down drug prices. More emphasis is being laid by government in educating customers to cost-awareness and cost-benefit ratios with regard to pharmaceuticals. Concerning clinical trials, European harmonization has been achieved by significant developments: the rights and integrity of the trial subjects are protected; the credibility of the data is established; and the ethical, scientific and technical quality of the trials has improved. Future European health care forecasts a whole change in the pharmaceutical business. Important issues in cost and outcome measurement should be carefully planned and considered in drug development. Due to important mergers and acquisitions, the pharmaceutical sector will consist mainly of important multinational corporations. In this way, valuable new products may be brought to the market.

  9. A system dynamics model for national drug policy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data modeling techniques can create a virtual world to analyze decision systems. National drug authorities can use such techniques to take care of their deficiencies in decision making processes. This study was designed to build a system dynamics model to simulate the effects of market mix variables (5 P’s) on the national drug policy (NDP) indicators including availability, affordability, quality, and rationality. This was aimed to investigate how to increase the rationality of decision making, evaluate different alternatives, reduce the costs and identify the system obstacles. System dynamics is a computer-based approach for analyzing and designing complex systems over time. In this study the cognitive casualty map was developed to make a concept about the system then the stock-flow model was set up based on the market demand and supply concept. Results The model demonstrates the interdependencies between the NDP variables through four cognitive maps. Some issues in availability, willingness to pay, rational use and quality of medicines are pointed in the model. The stock-flow diagram shows how the demand for a medicine is formed and how it is responded through NDP objectives. The effects of changing variables on the other NDP variables can be studied after running the stock-flow model. Conclusion The model can initiate a fundamental structure for analyzing NDP. The conceptual model made a cognitive map to show many causes’ and effects’ trees and reveals some relations between NDP variables that are usually forgotten in the medicines affairs. The model also provides an opportunity to be expanded with more details on a specific disease for better policy making about medication. PMID:24690531

  10. Policy and the Re-Formation of Hospice: Lessons from the Past for the Future of Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Joy

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth-century, dramatic changes in the manner and location of care for the dying resulted in the conception and birth of the modern American hospice movement. Idealistic nurses, clergy, and others concerned about the plight of terminally ill cancer patients launched hospice as a necessary health care reform. As new hospice programs opened across the country, the idealism of the early leaders gave way to more pragmatic issues such as program viability. As hospice was studied and integrated into the health care system, it came to be redefined by the politics of health policy and the health care industry. As a result, there is a disarticulation between the needs of seriously ill persons and their families and the health care that is available to them. Important lessons can be learned from the history of the Medicare hospice benefit to help guide current palliative care policy initiatives. While formalized reimbursement for hospice enhanced organizational sustainability, many critical issues remain. PMID:22184500

  11. The "amnesty" aftermath: current policy issues stemming from the legalization programs of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act.

    PubMed

    Baker, S G

    1997-01-01

    "The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) created two one-time only legalization programs affecting nearly 3 million undocumented immigrants. Legalization has produced important changes among immigrants and in immigration policy. These changes include new patterns of immigrant social and economic adaptation to the United States and new immigrant flows through family ties to IRCA-legalized aliens.... This article combines data from a longitudinal survey of the IRCA-legalized population with qualitative field data on current immigration issues from key informants in eight high-immigration metropolitan areas. It reviews the political evolution and early implementation of legalization, the current socioeconomic position of legalized aliens, and changes in the immigration ¿policy space' resulting from legalization."

  12. [PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF PERSONNEL POLICY IN REFORMING OF UKRAINIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM USING THE EXAMPLE OF DERMATOVENEREOLOGICAL SERVICE].

    PubMed

    Korolenko, V V; Dykun, O P; Isayenko, R M; Remennyk, O I; Avramenko, T P; Stepanenko, V I; Petrova, K I; Volosovets, O P; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2014-01-01

    The health care system, its modernization and optimization are among the most important functions of the modern Ukrainian state. The main goal of the reforms in the field of healthcare is to improve the health of the population, equal and fair access for all to health services of adequate quality. Important place in the health sector reform belongs to optimizing the structure and function of dermatovenereological service. The aim of this work is to address the issue of human resources management of dermatovenereological services during health sector reform in Ukraine, taking into account the real possibility of disengagement dermatovenereological providing care between providers of primary medical care level (general practitioners) and providers of secondary (specialized) and tertiary (high-specialized) medical care (dermatovenerologists and pediatrician dermatovenerologists), and coordinating interaction between these levels. During research has been found, that the major problems of human resources of dermatovenereological service are insufficient staffing and provision of health-care providers;,growth in the number of health workers of retirement age; sectoral and regional disparity of staffing; the problem of improving the skills of medical personnel; regulatory support personnel policy areas and create incentives for staff motivation; problems of rational use of human resources for health care; problems of personnel training for dermatovenereological service. Currently reforming health sector should primarily serve the needs of the population in a fairly effective medical care at all levels, to ensure that there must be sufficient qualitatively trained and motivated health workers. To achieve this goal directed overall work of the Ministry of Health of Uktaine, the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, medical universities, regional health authorities, professional medical associations. Therefore Ukrainian dermatovenereological care, in particular

  13. How to reform western care payment systems according to physicians, policy makers, healthcare executives and researchers: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roselinde; Van Herck, Pieter; Dancet, Eline; Annemans, Lieven; Sermeus, Walter

    2015-05-06

    Many developed countries are reforming healthcare payment systems in order to limit costs and improve clinical outcomes. Knowledge on how different groups of professional stakeholders trade off the merits and downsides of healthcare payment systems is limited. Using a discrete choice experiment we asked a sample of physicians, policy makers, healthcare executives and researchers from Canada, Europe, Oceania, and the United States to choose between profiles of hypothetical outcomes on eleven healthcare performance objectives which may arise from a healthcare payment system reform. We used a Bayesian D-optimal design with partial profiles, which enables studying a large number of attributes, i.e. the eleven performance objectives, in the experiment. Our findings suggest that (a) moving from current payment systems to a value-based system is supported by physicians, despite an income trade-off, if effectiveness and long term cost containment improve. (b) Physicians would gain in terms of overall objective fulfillment in Eastern Europe and the US, but not in Canada, Oceania and Western Europe. Finally, (c) such payment reform more closely aligns the overall fulfillment of objectives between stakeholders such as physicians versus healthcare executives. Although the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the potential selection effects of participants, it seems that the value driven nature of newly proposed and/or introduced care payment reforms is more closely aligned with what stakeholders favor in some health systems, but not in others. Future studies, including the use of random samples, should examine the contextual factors that explain such differences in values and buy-in. C90, C99, E61, I11, I18, O57.

  14. Mental health policy and development in Egypt - integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen) 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the mental health reforms and mental health policy in Egypt 2002-2009. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of each level (national, governorate, district and primary care); development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at each level; integration of mental health into health management systems; and dedicated efforts to improve forensic services, rehabilitation services, and child psychiatry services. Results The project has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, mental health masterplan (policy guidelines) to accompany the general health policy, updated Egyptian mental health legislation, Code of Practice, adaptation of the WHO primary care guidelines, primary care training, construction of a quality system of roles and responsibilities, availability of medicines at primary care level, public education about mental health, and a research programme to inform future developments. Intersectoral liaison with education, social welfare, police and prisons at national level is underway, but has not yet been established for governorate and district levels, nor mental health training for police, prison staff and teachers. Conclusions The bilateral collaboration programme initiated a reform programme

  15. Decolonizing the Evidence-Based Education and Policy Movement: Revealing the Colonial Vestiges in Educational Policy, Research, and Neoliberal Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature discussing evidence-based education, practice, policy, and decision-making from a critical perspective. In this article, drawing on the literature and policy documents related to evidence-based education in the USA, Britain, and Canada, I join this critique and offer an anticolonial perspective. I argue that…

  16. Teachers' Responses to Policy Implementation: Interactions of New Accountability Policies and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in Urban School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Helen H.

    This paper explores how new accountability policies interact with culturally relevant teaching at the classroom level. When teachers are under the constraints of accountability and student testing policies, are they able to adopt and practice culturally relevant pedagogy in their classrooms? Previous research indicates that high-stakes…

  17. Mobilizing Drug Consumption Rooms: inter-place networks and harm reduction drug policy.

    PubMed

    McCann, Eugene; Temenos, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the learning and politics involved in spreading Drug Consumption Rooms (DCRs) globally. DCRs are health facilities, operating under a harm reduction philosophy, where people consume illicit drugs in a supervised setting. Approximately 90 are located in almost 60 cities in 11 countries. They are intensely local attempts to improve the lives of specific populations and urban neighborhoods. DCRs are also global models that travel. This article examines the relationship between DCRs as facilities that are fixed in place and DCRs as globally-mobilized models of drug policy and public health practice. Drawing on research from seven countries, we apply concepts from the policy mobilities literature to analyze the travels of the DCR model and the political strategies involved in the siting of these public health service facilities. We detail the networked mobilization of the DCR model from Europe to Canada and Australia, the learning among facilities, the strategies used to mold the DCR model to local contexts, and the role of DCR staff in promoting continued proliferation of DCRs. We conclude by identifying some immobilities of DCRs to identify questions about practices, principles and future directions of harm reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Digital Social Media, Youth, and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs: The Need for Reform

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    The tragic death of 18-year-old Ryan Haight highlighted the ethical, public health, and youth patient safety concerns posed by illicit online nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NUPM) sourcing, leading to a federal law in an effort to address this concern. Yet despite the tragedy and resulting law, the NUPM epidemic in the United States has continued to escalate and represents a dangerous and growing trend among youth and adolescents. A critical point of access associated with youth NUPM is the Internet. Internet use among this vulnerable patient group is ubiquitous and includes new, emerging, and rapidly developing technologies—particularly social media networking (eg, Facebook and Twitter). These unregulated technologies may pose a potential risk for enabling youth NUPM behavior. In order to address limitations of current regulations and promote online safety, we advocate for legislative reform to specifically address NUPM promotion via social media and other new online platforms. Using more comprehensive and modernized federal legislation that anticipates future online developments is critical in substantively addressing youth NUPM behavior occurring through the Internet. PMID:23892156

  19. Digital social media, youth, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs: the need for reform.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-07-26

    The tragic death of 18-year-old Ryan Haight highlighted the ethical, public health, and youth patient safety concerns posed by illicit online nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NUPM) sourcing, leading to a federal law in an effort to address this concern. Yet despite the tragedy and resulting law, the NUPM epidemic in the United States has continued to escalate and represents a dangerous and growing trend among youth and adolescents. A critical point of access associated with youth NUPM is the Internet. Internet use among this vulnerable patient group is ubiquitous and includes new, emerging, and rapidly developing technologies-particularly social media networking (eg, Facebook and Twitter). These unregulated technologies may pose a potential risk for enabling youth NUPM behavior. In order to address limitations of current regulations and promote online safety, we advocate for legislative reform to specifically address NUPM promotion via social media and other new online platforms. Using more comprehensive and modernized federal legislation that anticipates future online developments is critical in substantively addressing youth NUPM behavior occurring through the Internet.

  20. Tobacco smoking policies in Australian alcohol and other drug treatment services, agreement between staff awareness and the written policy document.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Eliza; Bonevski, Billie; Tzelepis, Flora; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Dunlop, Adrian; McCrabb, Sam; Palazzi, Kerrin

    2017-01-17

    Comprehensive smoke-free policy in the alcohol and other drug (AOD) setting provides an opportunity to reduce tobacco related harms among clients and staff. This study aimed to examine within AOD services: staff awareness of their service's smoking policy compared to the written policy document and staff and service factors associated with accurate awareness of a total ban and perceived enforcement of a total ban. An audit of written tobacco smoking policy documents and an online cross-sectional survey of staff from 31 Australian AOD services. In addition, a contact at each service was interviewed to gather service-related data. Overall, 506 staff participated in the survey (response rate: 57%). Nearly half (46%) perceived their service had a total ban with 54% indicating that this policy was always enforced. Over one-third (37%) reported a partial ban with 48% indicating that this policy was always enforced. The audit of written policies revealed that 19 (61%) services had total bans, 11 (36%) had partial bans and 1 (3%) did not have a written smoking policy. Agreement between staff policy awareness and their service's written policy was moderate (Kappa 0.48) for a total ban and fair (Kappa 0.38) for a partial ban. Age (1 year increase) of staff was associated with higher odds of correctly identifying a total ban at their service. Tobacco smoking within Australian AOD services is mostly regulated by a written policy document. Staff policy awareness was modest and perceived policy enforcement was poor.

  1. The Affordable Care Act, health care reform, prescription drug formularies and utilization management tools.

    PubMed

    Ung, Brian L; Mullins, C Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hence, Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010. Goals of the ACA include decreasing the number of uninsured people, controlling cost and spending on health care, increasing the quality of care provided, and increasing insurance coverage benefits. This manuscript focuses on how the ACA affects pharmacy benefit managers and consumers when they have prescriptions dispensed. PBMs use formularies and utilization control tools to steer drug usage toward cost-effective and efficacious agents. A logic model was developed to explain the effects of the new legislation. The model draws from peer-reviewed and gray literature commentary about current and future U.S. healthcare reform. Outcomes were identified as desired and undesired effects, and expected unintended consequences. The ACA extends health insurance benefits to almost 32 million people and provides financial assistance to those up to 400% of the poverty level. Increased access to care leads to a similar increase in overall health care demand and usage. This short-term increase is projected to decrease downstream spending on disease treatment and stunt the continued growth of health care costs, but may unintentionally exacerbate the current primary care physician shortage. The ACA eliminates limitations on insurance and increases the scope of benefits. Online health care insurance exchanges give patients a central location with multiple insurance options. Problems with prescription drug affordability and control utilization tools used by PBMs were not addressed by the ACA. Improving communication within the U.S. healthcare system either by innovative health care delivery models or increased usage of health information technology will help alleviate problems of health care spending and affordability.

  2. Travelling Policy Reforms Reconfiguring the Work of Early Childhood Educators in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise; Wood, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Interventions in the field of early childhood education policy, drawn from global policy flows, are reconfiguring the work of early childhood educators in Australia. One such intervention is the requirement to designate an "educational leader" (EL) in each service for young children and their families. This policy intervention has its…

  3. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  4. Travelling Policy Reforms Reconfiguring the Work of Early Childhood Educators in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise; Wood, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Interventions in the field of early childhood education policy, drawn from global policy flows, are reconfiguring the work of early childhood educators in Australia. One such intervention is the requirement to designate an "educational leader" (EL) in each service for young children and their families. This policy intervention has its…

  5. Regulation and Deregulation in Education Policy: New Reforms and School Sports in Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, neoliberal reforms in Sweden increased local school actors' possibilities to develop school profiles regarding both organization and content. This restructuring has increased the total number of school sports programs as well as the possibilities for upper secondary schools and sports clubs to develop elite and amateur sports on…

  6. A National Perspective: Teacher Incentives and Educational Reform Measures. Policy Perspectives on Teacher Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    Many recent reports have predicted an impending crisis in the teaching profession. At the heart of the reports and the reform effort lies the notion that in order to improve school experience for children, school experiences for teachers ought to be improved. This paper deals with teacher incentives as a means of attracting, retaining, and…

  7. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  8. Court Reform of Public Institutions: What Determines Impact? Policy Paper No. 85-C2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Donald N.

    Court intervention in special education systems and prisons has varied consequences. This paper comparatively reviews a series of case studies of court ordered prison and school reform. Several factors conspire to frustrate attempts to improve public services: the allocation of costs and benefits of the proposed change, the realities of the public…

  9. State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

  10. Teacher Education Policies, Practices, and Reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are…

  11. A National Perspective: Teacher Incentives and Educational Reform Measures. Policy Perspectives on Teacher Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    Many recent reports have predicted an impending crisis in the teaching profession. At the heart of the reports and the reform effort lies the notion that in order to improve school experience for children, school experiences for teachers ought to be improved. This paper deals with teacher incentives as a means of attracting, retaining, and…

  12. Sustaining Higher Education Reforms: Knowledge and Policy Implications Learned from Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phusavat, Kongkiti; Ketsarapong, Suphattra; Ooi, Keng-Boon; Shyu, Stacy H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to share experiences in Thailand's higher educational reforms in which academic excellence cannot be sustained without proper financial and fiscal consideration. The overall goal is to disclose the experiences and future issues facing public universities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on actual involvement…

  13. A Learning-Centered Framework for Education Reform: What Does It Mean for National Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demarest, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    In her new book, Betty Demarest describes a bold agenda for education reform--one that is firmly grounded in a synthesis of educational research about learning, teaching, and the contexts of education. The author's "learning-centered" framework includes: (1) a broad and balanced set of education goals, (2) a multi-faceted concept of…

  14. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research…

  15. Learning from Leaders: Welfare Reform Politics and Policy in Five Midwestern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissert, Carol S., Ed.

    This book examines welfare reform, occasioned by the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and replaced it with Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It is based on research in Ohio, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan that…

  16. A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

  17. Remedial Education Reform: Private Alternatives to Traditional Title I. Policy Study No. 266.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Lisa

    The focus on schoolwide reform that grew from the failure of traditional Title I programs to raise student achievement overlooks one of the few effective Title I programs, the private remedial education partnership. Since the early 1900s, some public schools have begun relying on private remedial education companies, such as Sylvan Learning…

  18. Teacher Education Policies, Practices, and Reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are…

  19. Health Reform for Communities: Financing Substance Abuse Services. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing not only substance use, but also the economic, health, and social costs associated with substance abuse. This document examines how health care reform can preserve and enhance community substance abuse services. The cost effectiveness of funding substance abuse prevention…

  20. Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shober, Arnold F.

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

  1. Sustaining Higher Education Reforms: Knowledge and Policy Implications Learned from Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phusavat, Kongkiti; Ketsarapong, Suphattra; Ooi, Keng-Boon; Shyu, Stacy H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to share experiences in Thailand's higher educational reforms in which academic excellence cannot be sustained without proper financial and fiscal consideration. The overall goal is to disclose the experiences and future issues facing public universities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on actual involvement…

  2. Regulation and Deregulation in Education Policy: New Reforms and School Sports in Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, neoliberal reforms in Sweden increased local school actors' possibilities to develop school profiles regarding both organization and content. This restructuring has increased the total number of school sports programs as well as the possibilities for upper secondary schools and sports clubs to develop elite and amateur sports on…

  3. The Structure of the TANF Block Grant. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Kent

    The 1996 welfare reform legislation replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with a new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant. This new program has a fixed funding level that is not altered by inflation or economic cycles or caseload size. Individual states' shares are based on the amount they…

  4. State-Level Support for Comprehensive School Reform: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett; Gracia, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the current context of standards-based reform and heightened accountability for school performance, state education agencies (SEAs) have an important, but not yet well-articulated, role to play in local school improvement efforts. This article starts to articulate such a role by examining the variety of approaches and strategies used by 7 SEAs…

  5. Evaluation and Follow-Up of Policies, Plans and Reforms of Education: Round Table V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Educational Policy and Planning.

    The proceedings from a round table held at an international symposium focuses on the planning and management of educational development. The following papers are included in this document: "Overall View on the Evaluation of Educational Plans and Reforms (Ingemar Fagerlind); "Evaluation and Research Capacity-Building in Education Meeting…

  6. High School Reform and Work: Facing Labor Market Realities. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the current high school reform movement goes beyond qualifying students to enter college. It extends to raising the rigor of coursework so that students are prepared for college-level classes, rather than forced to enter remedial courses. This need is based on extensive study of the gap between college admissions criteria and the more…

  7. Soviet Industrial Strategy and Reforms in Vocational Education, 1984-88: Policy Implications and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowtis, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, Soviet educational reforms increased the number of vocational secondary schools, introduced pupils to vocational education at an earlier age, and strengthened vertical integration between local enterprises and schools. Unintended consequences may be occupational rigidity, course offerings based on obsolete manpower needs, and…

  8. Evaluation and Follow-Up of Policies, Plans and Reforms of Education: Round Table V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Educational Policy and Planning.

    The proceedings from a round table held at an international symposium focuses on the planning and management of educational development. The following papers are included in this document: "Overall View on the Evaluation of Educational Plans and Reforms (Ingemar Fagerlind); "Evaluation and Research Capacity-Building in Education Meeting…

  9. Policy-Making for Education Reform in Developing Countries: Contexts and Processes. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Cummings, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Here is the first book in a two-volume series designed to help those working, or preparing to work, as education change agents in developing countries. Each volume describes an approach to education reform that is: (1) Political and empirical; (2) A series of choices rather than a single best approach; (3) Implementation-centered; and (4)…

  10. Highway to Reform: The Coupling of District Reading Policy and Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings on teachers' implementation of a reading reform in an urban school district. Findings are based in observation, interview, and document data related to 12 elementary teachers' responses to a new reading program, the Teachers College Reading and Writing Workshop. Utilizing coupling theory and the concept of routines,…

  11. Public and Private in South Korea's Education Reform Vocabulary: An Evolving Statist Culture of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2004-01-01

    Statism is a political economy that prevails in many East Asian countries. This paper explores its negative role in South Korea's education reform since the restoration of civilian democracy in 1993. It takes note of South Koreans' aberrant use of the terms "public education" and "private education" and the frame of reference…

  12. Examining the Streams of a Retention Policy to Understand the Politics of High-Stakes Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2007-01-01

    Using John Kingdon's (2003) multiple streams approach to agenda setting, I analyze how key actors within the state of Wisconsin understood the need to construct and implement the state's No Social Promotion statutes to improve students' academic performance. Policymakers within the state focused their standards-based reforms on the issue of…

  13. Highway to Reform: The Coupling of District Reading Policy and Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings on teachers' implementation of a reading reform in an urban school district. Findings are based in observation, interview, and document data related to 12 elementary teachers' responses to a new reading program, the Teachers College Reading and Writing Workshop. Utilizing coupling theory and the concept of routines,…

  14. No consensus on fighting the drug war: differences between state policy elites and the mass public.

    PubMed

    Koven, S G; Shelley, M C

    1993-12-01

    This article explores implications for the implementation of drug policy in the United States, based on the findings from a 1990 survey of state drug policy coordinators in all 50 states and the responses to a national mass public survey. State drug policy elites' perceptions of the relative seriousness of nine different specific drugs are assessed, together with their evaluations of federal drug policy. Significant differences in state elites' attitudes are found for certain regional effects, for the relative degree of state urbanism, and for relative state income levels. These results are compared against the findings from a 1989 CBS News/New York Times mass opinion survey measuring citizen perceptions on drug misuse and the efficacy of Bush administration policy initiatives. This comparison reveals a wide disparity between elite and mass attitudes regarding appropriate funding of the drug war, the rating of federal drug policy initiatives, and federal drug policy strategies. Such mass/elite perceptual disparities accentuate the difficulties inherent in pursuing a "drug war" strategy.

  15. If supply-oriented drug policy is broken, can harm reduction help fix it? Melding disciplines and methods to advance international drug-control policy.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Victoria A; Paoli, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the international drug-control regime contend that supply-oriented policy interventions are not just ineffective, but, in focusing almost exclusively on supply reduction, they also produce unintended adverse consequences. Evidence from the world heroin market supports their claims. The balance of the effects of policy is yet unknown, but the prospect of adverse consequences underlies a central paradox of contemporary supply-oriented policy. In this paper, we evaluate whether harm reduction, a subject of intense debate in the demand-oriented drug-policy community, can provide a unifying foundation for supply-oriented drug policy and speak more directly to policy goals. Our analysis rests on an extensive review of the literature on harm reduction and draws insight from other policy communities' disciplines and methods. First, we explore the paradoxes of supply-oriented policy that initially motivated our interest in harm reduction; second, we consider the conceptual and technical challenges that have contributed to the debate on harm reduction and assess their relevance to a supply-oriented application; third, we examine responses to those challenges, i.e., various tools (taxonomies, models, and measurement strategies), that can be used to identify, categorize, and assess harms. Despite substantial conceptual and technical challenges, we find that harm reduction can provide a basis for assessing the net consequences of supply-oriented drug policy, choosing more rigorously amongst policy options, and identifying new options. In addition, we outline a practical path forward for assessing harms and policy options. On the basis of our analysis, we suggest pursuing a harm-based approach and making a clearer distinction between supply-oriented and supply-reduction policy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  17. 3 CFR 101.6 - Office of National Drug Control Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of National Drug Control Policy. 101.6 Section 101.6 Presidential Documents EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT PUBLIC INFORMATION PROVISIONS OF... Information regulations for the Office of National Drug Control Policy appear at 21 CFR parts 1400-1499. ...

  18. Local Implementation of Drug Policy and Access to Treatment Services for Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is a vigorous national debate regarding effective drug policy, such policies are implemented at the local level. Using a national sample of prosecutors, we examine reported typical processing for first-time juvenile marijuana, cocaine, or crack possession/sales offenders. The relationship between drug offense charge and adjudication…

  19. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    PubMed

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  20. School Drug Abuse Policy Development Guide: For School and Community Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Inst. for Research and Evaluation, Napa, CA.

    This training guide is designed to provide communities with the information they will need to hold a substance abuse policy conference and to implement and evaluate the developed policy. The introduction provides background information on the Drug Enforcement Administration's 1976 conference on School Policy Development, and lists the 15…