Science.gov

Sample records for drug research information

  1. Interaction Patterns among Drug Dealers. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkyns, Robert L.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    Drug dealers are often popularly stereotyped as "pushers" who actively engage in enticing young people into the drug habit, but there have been no scientific studies of their behavior or their attitudes on drug abuse or public health. In an attempt to gain information about behavior characteristics and communication patterns of middle…

  2. Real Research in Drug Education. Real Research in Drug Education; Drug Information: The Irrelevant Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, John D.; Hoffman, Alan M.

    These 2 articles argue that the presentation of drug information in drug education has no relevance. Hoffman reviews the various approaches to drug education, most of which are based upon the idea that giving people information will act as a deterrent to their use of drugs. A scale was administered to a large and varied population of students to…

  3. The Search for Drug Abuse Information. Drug Abuse Information Research Project (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; Pet, Marilyn L.

    A large proportion of those who seek drug abuse information from a telephone hotline service have immediate drug information needs, either for themselves or to assist others. Requests for general or pharmacological information are less frequent. Content analysis was applied in a study of telephone calls to a Hartford, Connecticut, "drug abuse…

  4. An Experimental Analysis of Reaction to Filmed Drug Abuse Information. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; McEwen, William J.

    Message strategies relating to information about social problems such as drug abuse have been based on the assumption that exposure to relevant information via mass media will result in behavior modification. There is need, however, for scientific inquiry into methods of information acquisition and perceptual response to information. A two-part…

  5. Drug Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NBOD2, a program developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to solve equations of motion coupled N-body systems is used by E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. to model potential drugs as a series of elements. The program analyses the vibrational and static motions of independent components in drugs. Information generated from this process is used to design specific drugs to interact with enzymes in designated ways.

  6. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy.

  7. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  8. Communicating Drug Information to Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Colman M.; Rodowskas, Christopher A.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews the studies of researchers who have attempted to identify the sources of drug information, both professional and commercial, utilized by physicians, discussing relationship between physicians' sources and the choice of drugs and severity of conditions being treated. Also notes new sources of drug information being considered by the Food…

  9. Dimensions of Drug Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  10. Dimensions of Drug Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  11. Communicating drug information to physicians.

    PubMed

    Herman, C M; Rodowskas, C A

    1976-03-01

    In this paper the authors present a review of the multitudinous studies of researchers who have attempted to identify the sources of drug information utilized by physicians. Consideration is given to both professional sources (for example, journal articles, colleagues, meetings, and pharmacists) and commercial sources (for example, detailmen, journal advertisements, mail advertisements, and samples). Also included is a discussion of the relationship between physicians' sources of drug information and their choice of drugs and of the relationship between the sources of information and the severity of the conditions being treated. The paper concludes with a brief review of some of the new sources of drug information being considered for utilization by the Food and Drug Administration.

  12. Health economics in drug development: efficient research to inform healthcare funding decisions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter S; McCabe, Christopher; Brown, Julia M; Cameron, David A

    2010-10-01

    In order to decide whether a new treatment should be used in patients, a robust estimate of efficacy and toxicity is no longer sufficient. As a result of increasing healthcare costs across the globe healthcare payers and providers now seek estimates of cost-effectiveness as well. Most trials currently being designed still only consider the need for prospective efficacy and toxicity data during the development life-cycle of a new intervention. Hence the cost-effectiveness estimates are inevitably less precise than the clinical data on which they are based. Methods based on decision theory are being developed by health economists that can contribute to the design of clinical trials in such a way that they can more effectively lead to better informed drug funding decisions on the basis of cost-effectiveness in addition to clinical outcomes. There is an opportunity to apply these techniques prospectively in the design of future clinical trials. This article describes the problems encountered by those responsible for drug reimbursement decisions as a consequence of the current drug development pathway. The potential for decision theoretic methods to help overcome these problems is introduced and potential obstacles in implementation are highlighted.

  13. Review of Geographic Variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications in Prescription Drug Use Research

    PubMed Central

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I.

    2013-01-01

    Background While understanding geography’s role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. Objective To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Methods Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. Results From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Conclusion Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. PMID:23333430

  14. A review of geographic variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in prescription drug use research.

    PubMed

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I

    2013-01-01

    While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tobacco regulatory science: research to inform regulatory action at the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Ashley, David L; Backinger, Cathy L; van Bemmel, Dana M; Neveleff, Deborah J

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) promotes the development of regulatory science to ensure that a strong evidence base informs all of its regulatory activities related to the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products as well as public education about tobacco product constituents and effects. Toward that end, the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) provides funding for research studies with scientific aims that fall within its defined regulatory authority. However, given their traditional biomedical focus on basic and applied research, some researchers may not understand the principles of regulatory science or the types of studies CTP funds. The purpose of this paper is (1) to clarify the definition of regulatory science as a distinct scientific discipline, (2) to explore the role of tobacco regulatory science in order to help researchers understand the parameters and types of research that can be funded by CTP, and (3) to describe the types of research efforts that will inform the FDA's public health framework for tobacco product regulation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Information Resources Glossary Abbreviations SEARCH THE LIVERTOX DATABASE Search for a specific medication, herbal or supplement: ... About Us . Disclaimer. Information presented in the LiverTox database is derived from the scientific literature and public ...

  17. An Analysis of Televised Public Service Advertising. Drug Abuse Information Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.; And Others

    Government regulations state that broadcasters are obligated to allot program time to matters of public interest, but neither law nor precedent have determined their commitment to present messages on social problems. To determine the amount of public service advertising (PSA) that is broadcast, particularly anti-drug appeals, a content analysis…

  18. Pharmacogenetic information for patients on drug labels

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Susanne B; Mills, Rachel; Moaddeb, Jivan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in pharmacogenetic research have improved our understanding of adverse drug responses and have led to the development of pharmacogenetic tests and targeted drugs. However, the extent of the communication process and provision of information to patients about pharmacogenetics is unclear. Pharmacogenetic information may be included in sections of a drug’s package insert intended for patients, which is provided directly to patients or communicated via the health provider. To determine what pharmacogenetic information, if any, is included in patient-targeted sections of the drug label, we reviewed the labels listed in the US Food and Drug Administration’s Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. To date, 140 drugs include pharmacogenetic-related information in the approved label. Our analysis revealed that pharmacogenetic information is included in patient-targeted sections for a minority (n=29; 21%) of drug labels, with no obvious pattern associated with the inclusion of pharmacogenetic information. Therefore, patients are unlikely to learn about pharmacogenetics through written materials dispensed with the drug. Given that there are also inconsistencies with regard to inclusion of pharmacogenetic information in the patient counseling information section, it is also unlikely that patients are receiving adequate pharmacogenetic information from their provider. The inconsistent presence of pharmacogenetic information in patient-targeted sections of drug labels suggests a need to review the criteria for inclusion of information in patient-targeted sections in order to increase consistency and patient knowledge of pharmacogenetic information. PMID:25342916

  19. Sources of Information about "Drugs".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Information about drugs is a basic component of any drug education program. This information must be perceived as credible and trustworthy by the target audience. Results of 16 studies indicate that friends, mass media, and professionals rank highly for most of the population as credible, trusted sources of information. (Author)

  20. The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J.; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R.; Nutt, David

    2014-01-01

    Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neurodynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of “primary states” is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. Indeed, since there is a greater repertoire of connectivity motifs in the psychedelic state than in normal waking consciousness, this implies that primary states may exhibit “criticality,” i.e., the property of being poised at a “critical” point in a transition zone between order and disorder where certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. Moreover, if primary states are critical, then this suggests that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes normal waking consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organized activity within the default-mode network (DMN) and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled). These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and early psychosis and comparing

  1. The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Leech, Robert; Hellyer, Peter J; Shanahan, Murray; Feilding, Amanda; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Chialvo, Dante R; Nutt, David

    2014-01-01

    Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neurodynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of "primary states" is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time. Indeed, since there is a greater repertoire of connectivity motifs in the psychedelic state than in normal waking consciousness, this implies that primary states may exhibit "criticality," i.e., the property of being poised at a "critical" point in a transition zone between order and disorder where certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. Moreover, if primary states are critical, then this suggests that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality. It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes normal waking consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organized activity within the default-mode network (DMN) and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled). These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with

  2. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication Health Fraud Using Medicine Safely Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Generic Drugs Understanding Over-the-Counter Medicines Ensuring ... Questions & Answers Buying & Using Medicine Safely Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Buying Medicines Over the Internet Buying Medicine from ...

  3. Indian aspects of drug information resources and impact of drug information centre on community

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nitesh; Moin, Sabeeya; Pandey, Anushree; Mittal, Ashu; Bajaj, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    Drug information centre refer to facility specially set aside for, and specializing in the provision of drug information and related issues. The purpose of drug information center is to provide authentic individualized, accurate, relevant and unbiased drug information to the consumers and healthcare professionals regarding medication related inquiries to the nation for health care and drug safety aspects by answering their call regarding the all critical problems on drug information, their uses and their side effects. Apart from that the center also provides in-depth, impartial source of crucial drug information to meet the needs of the practicing physicians, pharmacists and other health care professionals to safeguard the health, financial and legal interests of the patient and to broaden the pharmacist role visible in the society and community. The service should include collecting, reviewing, evaluating, indexing and distributing information on drugs to health workers. Drug and poisons information centers are best established within major teaching hospitals. This allows access to clinical experience, libraries, research facilities and educational activities. Information present in the current paper will not only enlighten the role of drug information center but also focused on the rational use of drug. PMID:23833748

  4. Indian aspects of drug information resources and impact of drug information centre on community.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitesh; Moin, Sabeeya; Pandey, Anushree; Mittal, Ashu; Bajaj, Umakant

    2013-04-01

    Drug information centre refer to facility specially set aside for, and specializing in the provision of drug information and related issues. The purpose of drug information center is to provide authentic individualized, accurate, relevant and unbiased drug information to the consumers and healthcare professionals regarding medication related inquiries to the nation for health care and drug safety aspects by answering their call regarding the all critical problems on drug information, their uses and their side effects. Apart from that the center also provides in-depth, impartial source of crucial drug information to meet the needs of the practicing physicians, pharmacists and other health care professionals to safeguard the health, financial and legal interests of the patient and to broaden the pharmacist role visible in the society and community. The service should include collecting, reviewing, evaluating, indexing and distributing information on drugs to health workers. Drug and poisons information centers are best established within major teaching hospitals. This allows access to clinical experience, libraries, research facilities and educational activities. Information present in the current paper will not only enlighten the role of drug information center but also focused on the rational use of drug.

  5. Quantitative Information on Oncology Prescription Drug Websites.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Helen W; Aikin, Kathryn J; Squiers, Linda B

    2016-09-02

    Our objective was to determine whether and how quantitative information about drug benefits and risks is presented to consumers and healthcare professionals on cancer-related prescription drug websites. We analyzed the content of 65 active cancer-related prescription drug websites. We assessed the inclusion and presentation of quantitative information for two audiences (consumers and healthcare professionals) and two types of information (drug benefits and risks). Websites were equally likely to present quantitative information for benefits (96.9 %) and risks (95.4 %). However, the amount of the information differed significantly: Both consumer-directed and healthcare-professional-directed webpages were more likely to have quantitative information for every benefit (consumer 38.5 %; healthcare professional 86.1 %) compared with every risk (consumer 3.1 %; healthcare professional 6.2 %). The numeric and graphic presentations also differed by audience and information type. Consumers have access to quantitative information about oncology drugs and, in particular, about the benefits of these drugs. Research has shown that using quantitative information to communicate treatment benefits and risks can increase patients' and physicians' understanding and can aid in treatment decision-making, although some numeric and graphic formats are more useful than others.

  6. Antiarrhythmic drug research

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M J A

    2006-01-01

    This article was written as part of the 75th anniversary celebration of the British Pharmacological Society (BPS). It discusses antiarrhythmic drug research conducted by members of BPS, and as published in the British Journal of Pharmacology (BJP). BPS members, past and present, as well as antiarrhythmic manuscripts published in the BJP have been identified. From these data, the article attempts to semiquantitatively summarize results published in the journal, but only quotes selected manuscripts and individuals. Apologies are offered for omissions and errors, but as in any history, a writer's biases and opinions are unavoidable. PMID:16402108

  7. Physician perceptions of prescription drug information.

    PubMed

    Evans, K R; Beltramini, R F

    1986-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an investigation designed to explore the importance of prescription drug information source characteristics among physicians. Differences were found to exist among the importance ratings both in aggregate, and between, categories of physician specialty and years in practice. Conclusions for pharmaceutical marketers and the implications for future research efforts are discussed.

  8. National audit of drug information centers.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, S R; Visconti, J A

    1985-04-01

    A comprehensive audit of drug information centers (DICs) was conducted to obtain information on sources of funding, staffing, information resources, computerization, workload, and scope of services and activities and to examine the role of DICs in education, patient care, and research. Responses were obtained from 98 of the 121 DICs surveyed. The scope of activities and services varied considerably between centers and depended on such factors as source of funding, size of institution, academic affiliation, staffing, and workload. Many DICs are involved in writing newsletters, preparing information for pharmacy and therapeutics committee meetings, developing and updating formularies, and providing contract services to other organizations. The patient-care activities of DICs include providing consultations, performing drug-use reviews, monitoring adverse drug reactions, and coordinating investigational drug studies; DICs are also involved in training undergraduate and graduate pharmacy students and residents and conducting research projects. Large workloads and lack of time were cited most often as factors limiting DIC participation in patient-care, educational, and research activities. Because DICs are involved in a wide variety of educational, research, and patient-care activities, more emphasis should be placed on documenting the costs of these services in relation to their benefits to the institution.

  9. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Vernonia School District v. Acton Supreme Court decision in 1995, forever changed the landscape of the legality of drug testing in schools. This decision stated that students who were involved in athletic programs could be drug tested as long as the student's privacy was not invaded. According to some in the medical profession, there are two…

  10. Drug Testing. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the United States Supreme Court confirmed that in the school's role of in loco parentis, drug testing of students who were involved in athletics and extracurricular activities was constitutional. In a state of the union address, George W. Bush stated that drug testing in schools had been effective and was part of "our aggressive…

  11. Management Information Systems Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Research on management information systems is illusive in many respects. Part of the basic research problem in MIS stems from the absence of standard...definitions and the lack of a unified body of theory. Organizations continue to develop large and often very efficient information systems , but...decision making. But the transition from these results to the realization of ’satisfactory’ management information systems remains difficult indeed. The

  12. A Framework for Characterizing Drug Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Mark; Bodenreider, Olivier; Wacholder, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Drug information is complex, voluminous, heterogeneous, and dynamic. Multiple sources are available, each providing some elements of information about drugs (usually for a given purpose), but there exists no integrated view or directory that could be used to locate sources appropriate to a given purpose. We examined 23 sources that provide drug information in the pharmacy, chemistry, biology, and clinical medicine domains. Their drug information content could be categorized with 39 dimensions. We propose this list of dimensions as a framework for characterizing drug information sources. As an evaluation, we show that this framework is useful for comparing drug information sources and selecting sources most relevant to a given use case. PMID:18999182

  13. Informed consent and research

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Informed consent is the central doctrine to any research based on the principles of autonomy and self-determination. For it to be genuine and effective, it should be in simple regional language catering to the cultural and psychological and social requisites of the participant. The information entailed in the consent form must be true, should cover all the relevant aspects, and no fact should be hidden however seemingly important or unimportant. Every research volunteer puts his or her health and life at risk for the sake of science, and this must be respected at all times during the research. PMID:25250226

  14. Drug information: from education to practice.

    PubMed

    Bernknopf, Allison C; Karpinski, Julie P; McKeever, Andrea L; Peak, Amy S; Smith, Kelly M; Smith, Wendy D; Timpe, Erin M; Ward, Kristina E

    2009-03-01

    Drug information is a specialty area within the realm of clinical pharmacy that has evolved as technology and clinical practice have changed. Drug information specialists are trained individuals who have clinical knowledge and skills that allow them to provide clear, concise, and accurate recommendations regarding drug use. The constant changing culture of drug information and health care in general has prompted the need for continual growth and refinement of the standards that govern drug information practice. This article outlines specific standards to help ensure that the education and practice of drug information will continue to meet the needs of the health care community. This opinion paper is divided into two sections: Education and Training, and Practice Areas. The Education and Training section is organized to describe the role of drug information and that of the drug information specialist in the training of all pharmacy students and advanced trainees, as well as to describe the role of focused training for those individuals wishing to specialize in drug information. This article also affirms the recommendations for the standards-based approach to drug information education and specialty training. The Practice Areas section is organized to describe the role of the drug information specialist within various practice settings, to identify some of the challenges faced by the drug information specialist within those settings, and to provide recommendations for the different practice areas. The areas found within this section include academia, institutional health systems, managed care, industry, medical writing, and informatics.

  15. Informed consent in pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Leibson, Tom; Koren, Gideon

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric drug research is gradually becoming more and more accepted as the norm for assessing whether a drug is safe and efficacious for infants and children. The process of informed consent and assent for these trials presents a major challenge. The aim of this review is to map historical, ethical and legal aspects relevant to the challenges of informed consent in the setting of pediatric drug research. The impact of age, level of maturity and life circumstances on the process of obtaining informed consent as well as the relations between consent and assent are discussed. There appears to be a lack of regulatory clarity in the area of pediatric clinical trials; while numerous statements have been made regarding children's rights to autonomy and their ability to care for themselves and for younger ones, the ever changing status of adolescence is still difficult to translate to informed consent. This may delay scientific and clinical advancement for children who are at the very junction of being independent and not needing parental permission. Obtaining consent and assent for pediatric clinical trials is a delicate matter, as both parent and child need to agree to participate. The appropriate transfer of information to guardians and the children, especially concerning potential risks and benefits, is at the heart of informed consent, as it serves to protect both patient and physician. As many adults lack health literacy, one must ensure that guardians receive relevant information at a level and in forms they can understand regarding the trials their children are asked to participate in.

  16. Summarizing drug information in Medline citations.

    PubMed

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Kilicoglu, Halil

    2006-01-01

    Adverse drug events and drug-drug interactions are a major concern in patient care. Although databases exist to provide information about drugs, they are not always up-to-date and complete (particularly regarding pharmacogenetics). We propose a methodology based on automatic summarization to identify drug information in Medline citations and present results to the user in a convenient form. We evaluate the method on a selection of citations discussing ten drugs ranging from the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole to the vasoconstrictor sumatriptan. We suggest that automatic summarization can provide a valuable adjunct to curated drug databases in supporting quality patient care.

  17. Researching Drug Robbery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Street robbery is widely seen as the epitome of acquisitive instrumentality, yet recent research suggests that the crime may be designed more to send a message than to generate capital. Drawing from in-depth, semistructured interviews with active offenders, we find that moralistic street robbery is a response to one of three types of violations.…

  18. Drug Abuse Information, Teacher Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Haskell, Comp.

    This informational publication is to be used as an aid for teachers, bringing them basic facts regarding drugs and drug abuse. Its purpose is to (1) give additional teacher background information and (2) enrich any course of study that has been developed on drug abuse. To use the material most effectively, it is suggested the teacher have an…

  19. Drug Information and Attitudes of Delinquent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibelson, I.; Coughlin, Francis

    1974-01-01

    An informational and attitudinal survey of delinquent boys revealed a serious lack of basic information regarding commonly used drugs, the body's reaction to drugs, the functioning of the body, as well as fairly strong pro-drug attitudes. The school was viewed as the best place to focus on these problems. (Author/PC)

  20. Prenatal drugs: patient information and its source.

    PubMed

    Doering, P L; Brackbill, Y; McManus, K; Woodward, L; McClave, J T

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant women consume numerous medications, some of which are potentially harmful to the fetus. It is especially important that these women are provided with information about these drugs. This study was undertaken, in part, to document the amount of information pregnant women have about the drugs they consume and the sources of their information. Study participants were 304 women selected at random from the postpartum inpatients at a teaching hospital. Mothers were interviewed to obtain drug exposure data and to determine what, if any, information they had about the drugs. The source of information for each drug consumed was also determined. Results show that pregnant women have little information for each drugs they consume. Mothers most often cited primary medical personnel (physicians and nurses) as sources of information about specific drugs. In contrast, only six patients cited the pharmacist as a source of information about specific drugs. However, patients ranked the pharmacist high as a source of general drug information. This report emphasizes the need for more drug information for pregnant women and highlights the role of the pharmacist in providing such information.

  1. Drug dependence: some research issues*

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    This paper examines some problems of drug dependence, stressing the importance of a balanced approach. Consideration must be given to the demand for, as well as the supply of, drugs. Without a demand, there would be no continuing supply of man-made agents and no need to control the availability of naturally occurring agents. To achieve a balanced approach, increased research is needed into the effects on man of taking various dependence-producing drugs (particularly when these are used for long periods of time), the natural history of drug taking, the relative effectiveness of various preventive, therapeutic and restorative approaches and techniques, and means of identifying substances that, because of their dependence-producing properties, are apt to induce individual or public health problems. Attention is also called to some problems that may inhibit, but do not preclude, the initiation of studies in the field of drug dependence. PMID:5313071

  2. 75 FR 45130 - Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive...) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry and researchers entitled ``The Radioactive... guidance provides information to those using radioactive drugs for certain research purposes to help...

  3. Clinical trials and E-health: impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research.

    PubMed

    Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Within the last few years, new technology has come to play an important part in our professional and private daily environment. Healthcare has not escaped this progressive mutation with computers reaching the bedside. Clinical research has also shown growing interest in these new tools available to the clinical investigator, the patient, as well as to specialist departments for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and to the different professions in clinical research. If the use of new technology seems to make life easier, by centralizing data or by simplifying data-sharing between different teams, it is still a matter of private data which must remain reliable, confidential and secure, whether it is being used in ordinary healthcare or in academic or industrial research. The aim of the round table was to estimate the impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research. First, an inventory was made of the development of these new technologies in the healthcare system. The second point developed was identification of expected benefits in order to issue guidelines for their good use and hazard warnings in clinical trials. Finally, the impact of these new technologies on the investigator as well as the project manager was analysed.

  4. [The precautionary principle, research and drugs].

    PubMed

    Joly, P

    2000-01-01

    The research, in general, the medical research and the research of new drugs are following the same rules. To be fruitful, they have not to be "a priori" censured, but they have to be prudent on the means they are using and the aims they are pursuing. It's up to the researcher to explain to the public the necessity of the used means and the utility of his discovery. The public, indeed, may be not significantly informed and can be afraid by what is difficult to understand or by what is changing its customs. At the end of the pre-clinic period of research, the discovered substance has to confirm on human being its innocuity and its efficiency. At this time, the experimentation is controlled by several procedures under the control of French and European administrations. All these procedures have to be conducted according to several "Good Practices". The aims are to protect the human being, to define if the new drug is well-tolerated and efficient and what is the ratio Benefit/Risk. Even after the marketing of the new drug, the usage of the new drug is controlled (Drug Safety). So we can consider that precautionary principle is soon applied to the drug according to a very sophisticated and evolutionary mechanism. But as satisfactory it can appear, we must keep vigilant because the zero risk does not exist.

  5. "Lookalike" Drugs. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about "lookalike drugs." Article 1 presents readers with a look at "peashooters" (lookalike drugs which are usually replicas of pharmaceutical amphetamines, but increasingly used to describe simulations of cocaine and prescription downers). Lookalikes, although usually legal, are…

  6. [Information technology for ensuring drug safety].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Fumito

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, information technology (IT) in the medical field has prevailed as a means for handling claims for health insurance reimbursement. In contrast, IT is primarily used for electronic medical records in Western countries. Originally, preparation of health insurance claims was one of the outcomes of computerized medical information in Japan. As its protocols are already well established in Japan, information from the insurance claim system is hard to integrate into the Electronic Medical Chart system. To ensure drug safety, it is necessary to determine the number of users, and to accurately tabulate the incidence of adverse events. For this purpose, three kinds of information are required: prescription information, dispensing information, and drug administration information. Prescription information and dispensing information should be consistent with each other in content. Dispensing information is essential to identify the "substance" when adverse events occur. Drug administration information is the "true drug history". With these three kinds of information, it should be possible to enter drug safety data as evidence. To accurately capture these three kinds of information, it is necessary to utilize Standard Drug Code and Standard Usage Master, suggesting that it may be necessary to reconstruct the current system.

  7. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  8. Drug Information Residency Rotation with Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Program objectives of a drug information rotation at the Upjohn Company include improving communication between the pharmaceutical industry and hospital pharmacy/academia, exposing the resident to the challenges the industry encounters, improving proficiency in drug information practice, and providing insight into the working relationships of…

  9. Use of toxicological information in drug design.

    PubMed

    Matthews, E J; Benz, R D; Contrera, J F

    2000-12-01

    This paper is an extension of the keynote address and another talk at the Symposium on the Use of Toxiciological Information in Drug Design. The symposium was organized by American Chemical Society's Chemical Information Division at the 220th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC, August 20-24, 2000. We outline an approach for meeting the scientific information needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Ready access to scientific information is critical to support safety-related regulatory decisions and is especially valuable in situations where available experimental information from in vivo/in vitro studies are inadequate or unavailable. This approach also has applications for lead selection in drug discovery. A pilot electronic toxicology/safety knowledge base and computational toxicology initiative is underway in the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) that may be a prototype for an FDA knowledge base. The objectives of this effort are: (i) to strengthen and broaden the scientific basis of regulatory decisions, (ii) to provide the Agency with an electronic scientific institutional memory, (iii) to create a scientific resource for regulatory and applied research, and (iv) to establish an internal Web-based support service that can provide decision support information for regulators that will facilitate the review process and improve consistency and uniformity. An essential component of this scientific knowledge base is the creation of a comprehensive electronic inventory of CDER-regulated substances that permit identification of clusters of substances having similar chemical, pharmacological or toxicological activities, and molecular structure/substructures. Furthermore, the inventory acts as a pointer and link to other databases and critical non-clinical and clinical pharmacology/toxicology studies and reviews in FDA archives. Clusters of related substances are identified through the use of: (i) an

  10. Clinical Drug-Drug Interaction Evaluations to Inform Drug Use and Enable Drug Access.

    PubMed

    Rekić, Dinko; Reynolds, Kellie S; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Lei; Yoshida, Kenta; Sachar, Madhav; Piquette Miller, Micheline; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Zineh, Issam

    2017-09-01

    Clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can occur when multiple drugs are taken by the same patient. Significant DDIs can result in clinical toxicity or treatment failure. Therefore, DDI assessment is an integral part of drug development and the benefit-risk assessment of new therapies. Regulatory agencies including the Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan have made recommendations in their DDI guidance documents on various methodologies (in vitro, in silico, and clinical) to assess DDI potential and inform patient management strategies. This commentary focuses on clinical DDI evaluation for the purpose of drug development and regulatory evaluation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Online illegal drug use information: an exploratory analysis of drug-related website viewing by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dugosh, Karen L; Lynch, Kevin; Mericle, Amy A; Pich, Michele; Forman, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Given the uncertain effects of antidrug media campaigns, and the ease of finding online illegal drug information, research is needed on the Internet role in disseminating drug information to youths. This exploratory study analyzes National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) data on drug website viewing among 12-18 year olds (N = 7,145). Approximately 10.4% reported drug-related website exposure: 5.4% viewed only websites that communicated how to avoid drugs or bad things about drugs (antidrug websites); 1.7% only viewed websites that communicated how to use drugs and good things about drugs (prodrug websites); and 3.2% viewed both types of websites. The low rates of viewing antidrug websites occurred despite efforts in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign (NYAMC) to encourage youths to visit such websites. Prodrug website viewers had used inhalants and been offered marijuana, perceived little risk in trying marijuana, intended to use marijuana, had close friends who used drugs, reported low parental monitoring, and had been exposed to antidrug media messages. Viewing antidrug websites was related to gender, income, likelihood of using marijuana in the next 12 months, having close friends who use drugs and talking to friends about avoiding drugs, parental monitoring, and drug prevention exposure. Prior prevention exposure increased drug website viewing overall, perhaps by increasing general curiosity about drugs. Because adolescents increasingly seek health information online, research is needed on how they use the Internet as a drug information source, the temporal relationships of prevention exposure and drug website viewing, and the effects of viewing prodrug websites on drug risk.

  12. 75 FR 34452 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Plan; Availability for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Plan... development of a comprehensive data standards program in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER... Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New...

  13. 75 FR 74059 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Radioactive Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Radioactive Drug Research Committees AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... on the information collection contained in regulations governing the use of radioactive drugs for... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Radioactive Drug Research Committees--(OMB Control...

  14. Drug Information, the Pharmacist, and the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W.; Fedder, Donald O.

    1977-01-01

    After a review of the state of the pharmacy practice, attention is focused on a set of problems that are strategic barriers or opportunities for the effective dissemination of drug information. The roles of manufacturers, government, professional groups, drug trade press, and pharmacy education are discussed. (LBH)

  15. Automatic indexing in a drug information portal.

    PubMed

    Sakji, Saoussen; Letord, Catherine; Dahamna, Badisse; Kergourlay, Ivan; Pereira, Suzanne; Joubert, Michel; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to create a bilingual (French/English) Drug Information Portal (DIP), in a multi-terminological context and to emphasize its exploitation by an ATC automatic indexing allowing having more pertinent information about substances, organs or systems on which drugs act and their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. The development of the DIP was based on the CISMeF portal, which catalogues and indexes the most important and quality-controlled sources of institutional health information in French. DIP has created specific functionalities and uses specific drugs terminologies such as the ATC classification which used to automatic index the DIP resources. DIP is the result of collaboration between the CISMeF team and the VIDAL Company, specialized in drug information. DIP is conceived to facilitate the user information retrieval. The ATC automatic indexing provided relevant results in 76% of cases. Using multi-terminological context and in the framework of the drug field, indexing drugs with the appropriate codes or/and terms revealed to be very important to have the appropriate information storage and retrieval. The main challenge in the coming year is to increase the accuracy of the approach.

  16. Evaluation of drug information for cardiology patients.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, D; Roberts, D E; Newcombe, R G; Fox, K A

    1991-01-01

    1. Cardiologists and pharmacists at the University Hospital of Wales collaborated to write 20 individual leaflets incorporating guidelines for a range of drugs used in the treatment of cardiology patients. The Plain English Campaign advised on the intelligibility and presentation of the information. 2. One hundred and twenty-five patients from the Regional Cardiology Unit, University Hospital of Wales were randomly allocated to receive usual verbal counselling about their drug treatment with or without an individualised drug information wallet. Two weeks after discharge from hospital patients completed a postal questionnaire to determine their satisfaction with the information about their drug treatment and their understanding of it. Forty-nine questionnaires were returned from the leaflet group and 52 from the control group. 3. The provision of written guidelines resulted in significant improvements in patients' satisfaction with their drug treatment (chi 2 = 33.3, P less than 0.001) and their understanding of it (P less than 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). Overall, patients who received leaflets were more likely to be aware of the potential side effects of their drugs but less likely to be apprehensive about them. Succinct guidelines concerning drug therapy can be assimilated by cardiology patients and provide them with a permanent record for future reference. PMID:1888619

  17. [Drug package inserts and the adequacy of patient's drug information].

    PubMed

    da Silva, T; Dal-Pizzol, F; Bello, C M; Mengue, S S; Schenkel, E P

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the adequacy of the content and format of the patient information section in package inserts of commonly prescribed drugs at the internal medicine service of a school hospital. Forty eight package inserts were collected from six pharmacies of the city of Porto Alegre in June 1998. The presence of mandatory notification and other information required by Brazilian laws that regulate inserts content was examined. No one package inserts contained all the notification required by law. Warnings about medication storage and expiration date were the most frequently information found in package inserts analyzed. Important information for the drug user was not presented in package inserts analyzed, limiting the purpose of inserts as an instrument for patient education.

  18. Interdisciplinary Research and Information Overload.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Discusses information overload and examines several ways in which actual and potential overload affects research choices for the solo researcher in interdisciplinary areas. Topics include information overload and teamwork; entry barriers to certain specialties, including necessary background knowledge; and information utilization and knowledge…

  19. Interdisciplinary Research and Information Overload.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Discusses information overload and examines several ways in which actual and potential overload affects research choices for the solo researcher in interdisciplinary areas. Topics include information overload and teamwork; entry barriers to certain specialties, including necessary background knowledge; and information utilization and knowledge…

  20. [Scientific drug safety information for patients' consent].

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Nishimura, Tamiko

    2011-01-01

    One of the important roles of pharmacists is to continue their contributions to new drug discovery and development. However, it seems to be very difficult to obtain patient satisfaction with new drugs. Because new medicines have both benefit and risk, there should be many systems to maximize the safety and efficacy of the drugs. In clinical trials, the rights, safety and welfare of human subjects under the investigator's care must be protected. Good Clinical Practice is a harmonized ICH-guideline, and the safety information of an investigational product is explained to patients who voluntarily enter the clinical trials. Since safety information about investigational products is still limited, subjects are informed about the results of animal experiments and those of finished clinical trials. The sponsor of clinical trials should be responsible for the on-going safety evaluation of the investigational products. When additional safety information is collected in the clinical trials, the written informed consent form should be appropriately revised. During the review process, quality, safety and efficacy of new drugs are evaluated and judged based on the scientific risk-benefit balance. The safety information collected in clinical trials is reflected in the decision-making process written in the review reports. All-case investigation should be also performed until data from a certain number of patients has been accumulated in order to collect early safety and efficacy data. Important messages written in review reports for drug safety and patient consent are explained. Risk communication will improve the application of patients' consent for new drugs.

  1. Research Needs in Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Debora; Fouchereaux, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Identifies areas of research needs in information science that were compiled from a review of the "Annual Review of Information Science and Technology." Areas highlighted include automated systems, including criteria, standards, evaluation, and legal issues; economics; indexing; information retrieval; and information seeking, including…

  2. Drug information resources at community pharmacies in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wazaify, Mayyada; Maani, Mais; Ball, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the drug information resources available in community pharmacies in Amman, Jordan. A total of 156 private community (retail) pharmacies in different parts of Amman, the capital of Jordan, were recruited by personal contact. Pharmacists at the sample pharmacies completed a self-administered questionnaire that consisted of two sections. The first section elicited the drug information resources available in their pharmacies. The second section presented five mock medicines information scenarios and asked respondents to identify the most suitable information resource to be used from a given list. Answers then were coded and entered into SPSS for Windows for statistical analysis. All pharmacies had at least one reference book, but most were outdated. The Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS) was the most commonly found (n = 101; 64.7%), and 40.4% (n = 63) had internet access. Only 19.2% (n = 30) of the respondents reported getting medicines information directly from pharmaceutical companies, usually through pharmaceutical representatives. Most pharmacists could identify appropriate information resources for drug dosing and side effects but did not fare well for medicine identification, drug interactions and primary research evidence. The quality of drug information resources in private community pharmacies in Amman is far from optimal. This will affect the quality of information provided to patients and prescribers and have an adverse effect on the role that pharmacists can play in the health system in Jordan.

  3. DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs.

    PubMed

    Knox, Craig; Law, Vivian; Jewison, Timothy; Liu, Philip; Ly, Son; Frolkis, Alex; Pon, Allison; Banco, Kelly; Mak, Christine; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Eisner, Roman; Guo, An Chi; Wishart, David S

    2011-01-01

    DrugBank (http://www.drugbank.ca) is a richly annotated database of drug and drug target information. It contains extensive data on the nomenclature, ontology, chemistry, structure, function, action, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and pharmaceutical properties of both small molecule and large molecule (biotech) drugs. It also contains comprehensive information on the target diseases, proteins, genes and organisms on which these drugs act. First released in 2006, DrugBank has become widely used by pharmacists, medicinal chemists, pharmaceutical researchers, clinicians, educators and the general public. Since its last update in 2008, DrugBank has been greatly expanded through the addition of new drugs, new targets and the inclusion of more than 40 new data fields per drug entry (a 40% increase in data 'depth'). These data field additions include illustrated drug-action pathways, drug transporter data, drug metabolite data, pharmacogenomic data, adverse drug response data, ADMET data, pharmacokinetic data, computed property data and chemical classification data. DrugBank 3.0 also offers expanded database links, improved search tools for drug-drug and food-drug interaction, new resources for querying and viewing drug pathways and hundreds of new drug entries with detailed patent, pricing and manufacturer data. These additions have been complemented by enhancements to the quality and quantity of existing data, particularly with regard to drug target, drug description and drug action data. DrugBank 3.0 represents the result of 2 years of manual annotation work aimed at making the database much more useful for a wide range of 'omics' (i.e. pharmacogenomic, pharmacoproteomic, pharmacometabolomic and even pharmacoeconomic) applications.

  4. Research on probabilistic information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, W.

    1973-01-01

    The work accomplished on probabilistic information processing (PIP) is reported. The research proposals and decision analysis are discussed along with the results of research on MSC setting, multiattribute utilities, and Bayesian research. Abstracts of reports concerning the PIP research are included.

  5. Information Processing Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    extracting phonetic features in a feature-based recognition system. [Thorpe 84] Thorpe, CE Fido: Vision and Navigation for a Robot Rover. PhD thesis...work blends into the User Interface Research discussed in Chapter 7. See section 7.5 for a discussion of the voice message system. Acoustic / Phonetic ...defined vocabulary that contains many fine phonetic distinctions, as in the set B, D, E, P, T, G, V, Z, C [Waibel 81]. We decided to build an expert

  6. Informed consent in medical research.

    PubMed

    Evans, John Grimley; Beck, Peter

    2002-01-01

    That people should only be enrolled in medical research if they have given free and informed consent is now an unquestioned principle of research ethics. It is however a recent innovation. Prior to the prominence given to consent to participation in research in the condemnation of German doctors arraigned at Nuremberg in 1945, informed consent had appeared in American litigation, but only as an issue in clinical malpractice suits. Informed consent as an ethical requirement in medical research had arisen in some earlier European contexts. Despite the Nuremberg judgement, informed consent by participants in research was not widely recognised as ethically mandatory until the early 1970s. This delay seems to have been due in part to scepticism about the practicability of truly informed consent, but medical paternalism and the circumstances surrounding military research during the Cold War period may have contributed.

  7. Clinical research before informed consent.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G

    2014-06-01

    Clinical research with patient-subjects was routinely conducted without informed consent for research participation prior to 1966. The aim of this article is to illuminate the moral climate of clinical research at this time, with particular attention to placebo-controlled trials in which patient-subjects often were not informed that they were participating in research or that they might receive a placebo intervention rather than standard medical treatment or an experimental treatment for their condition. An especially valuable window into the thinking of clinical investigators about their relationship with patient-subjects in the era before informed consent is afforded by reflection on two articles published by psychiatric researchers in 1966 and 1967, at the point of transition between clinical research conducted under the guise of medical care and clinical research based on consent following an invitation to participate and disclosure of material information about the study. Historical inquiry relating to the practice of clinical research without informed consent helps to put into perspective the moral progress associated with soliciting consent following disclosure of pertinent information; it also helps to shed light on an important issue in contemporary research ethics: the conditions under which it is ethical to conduct clinical research without informed consent.

  8. Facilitating applied information technology research.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John P

    2005-01-01

    Most healthcare organizations need to develop an understanding of the role, maturity, and utility of new information technologies. Performing this research can present a series of challenges. For example, IT staff may not know how to obtain resources; the research may show promising results but fail to be implemented; and organizations may not develop a thoughtful portfolio of research projects. To minimize these problems, applied information technology research must be managed. This paper describes the information technology research process at Partners HealthCare. The research process is a management process designed to identify important research topics, solicit IT staff proposals to investigate topics, prioritize and fund research projects, and communicate and disseminate research results. Sample research topics include the role of RFID, the impact of Internet-based e-visits, and approaches for integrating speech and direct input for clinical information systems. The paper describes the goals and activities of the research process and the role of the research council. The research proposal review process is discussed, and an inventory of approved research projects is reviewed. The paper discusses several challenges involved in creating and managing the research process.

  9. Drug information sources for practicing nurses.

    PubMed

    Karb, V B

    1989-08-01

    Many printed resources about drugs are available to practicing nurses. In the near future, information will probably by readily accessible via computers. In the interim, it is necessary to rely on other printed materials. As with all purchases, nurses should choose wisely among possible references, and select those meeting the specific needs of the practice setting, as well as complementing the nurses' existing knowledge.

  10. 21 CFR 20.117 - New drug information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New drug information. 20.117 Section 20.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.117 New drug information. (a) The following...

  11. 21 CFR 20.117 - New drug information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false New drug information. 20.117 Section 20.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.117 New drug information. (a) The...

  12. 21 CFR 20.117 - New drug information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New drug information. 20.117 Section 20.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.117 New drug information. (a) The...

  13. DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for ‘Omics’ research on drugs

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Craig; Law, Vivian; Jewison, Timothy; Liu, Philip; Ly, Son; Frolkis, Alex; Pon, Allison; Banco, Kelly; Mak, Christine; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Eisner, Roman; Guo, An Chi; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    DrugBank (http://www.drugbank.ca) is a richly annotated database of drug and drug target information. It contains extensive data on the nomenclature, ontology, chemistry, structure, function, action, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and pharmaceutical properties of both small molecule and large molecule (biotech) drugs. It also contains comprehensive information on the target diseases, proteins, genes and organisms on which these drugs act. First released in 2006, DrugBank has become widely used by pharmacists, medicinal chemists, pharmaceutical researchers, clinicians, educators and the general public. Since its last update in 2008, DrugBank has been greatly expanded through the addition of new drugs, new targets and the inclusion of more than 40 new data fields per drug entry (a 40% increase in data ‘depth’). These data field additions include illustrated drug-action pathways, drug transporter data, drug metabolite data, pharmacogenomic data, adverse drug response data, ADMET data, pharmacokinetic data, computed property data and chemical classification data. DrugBank 3.0 also offers expanded database links, improved search tools for drug–drug and food–drug interaction, new resources for querying and viewing drug pathways and hundreds of new drug entries with detailed patent, pricing and manufacturer data. These additions have been complemented by enhancements to the quality and quantity of existing data, particularly with regard to drug target, drug description and drug action data. DrugBank 3.0 represents the result of 2 years of manual annotation work aimed at making the database much more useful for a wide range of ‘omics’ (i.e. pharmacogenomic, pharmacoproteomic, pharmacometabolomic and even pharmacoeconomic) applications. PMID:21059682

  14. Informed consent in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Pick, Andrew; Berry, Shelley; Gilbert, Kayleigh; McCaul, James

    Since increasing numbers of patients are asked to take part in clinical trials, nurses need to be aware of the principles of valid, informed consent. This article explores consent, which aims to protect the rights, safety and wellbeing of patients. In particular, the history of consent in research and the elements involved in obtaining informed consent from potential participants in research studies are discussed.

  15. Research review for information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of RICIS research in information management is to apply currently available technology to existing problems in information management. Research projects include the following: the Space Business Research Center (SBRC), the Management Information and Decision Support Environment (MIDSE), and the investigation of visual interface technology. Several additional projects issued reports. New projects include the following: (1) the AdaNET project to develop a technology transfer network for software engineering and the Ada programming language; and (2) work on designing a communication system for the Space Station Project Office at JSC. The central aim of all projects is to use information technology to help people work more productively.

  16. Research review for information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of RICIS research in information management is to apply currently available technology to existing problems in information management. Research projects include the following: the Space Business Research Center (SBRC), the Management Information and Decision Support Environment (MIDSE), and the investigation of visual interface technology. Several additional projects issued reports. New projects include the following: (1) the AdaNET project to develop a technology transfer network for software engineering and the Ada programming language; and (2) work on designing a communication system for the Space Station Project Office at JSC. The central aim of all projects is to use information technology to help people work more productively.

  17. Exploiting large-scale drug-protein interaction information for computational drug repurposing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increased investment in pharmaceutical research and development, fewer and fewer new drugs are entering the marketplace. This has prompted studies in repurposing existing drugs for use against diseases with unmet medical needs. A popular approach is to develop a classification model based on drugs with and without a desired therapeutic effect. For this approach to be statistically sound, it requires a large number of drugs in both classes. However, given few or no approved drugs for the diseases of highest medical urgency and interest, different strategies need to be investigated. Results We developed a computational method termed “drug-protein interaction-based repurposing” (DPIR) that is potentially applicable to diseases with very few approved drugs. The method, based on genome-wide drug-protein interaction information and Bayesian statistics, first identifies drug-protein interactions associated with a desired therapeutic effect. Then, it uses key drug-protein interactions to score other drugs for their potential to have the same therapeutic effect. Conclusions Detailed cross-validation studies using United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for hypertension, human immunodeficiency virus, and malaria indicated that DPIR provides robust predictions. It achieves high levels of enrichment of drugs approved for a disease even with models developed based on a single drug known to treat the disease. Analysis of our model predictions also indicated that the method is potentially useful for understanding molecular mechanisms of drug action and for identifying protein targets that may potentiate the desired therapeutic effects of other drugs (combination therapies). PMID:24950817

  18. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia medication monographs.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Timothy; Jackson, William; Berger, Victoria; Candelario, Danielle

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the accuracy and completeness of drug information on Wikipedia and Micromedex compared with U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved U.S. product inserts. The top 10 brand and top 10 generic medications from the 2012 Institute for Health Informatics' list of top 200 drugs were selected for evaluation. Wikipedia medication information was evaluated and compared with Micromedex in 7 sections of drug information; the U.S. product inserts were used as the standard comparator. Wikipedia demonstrated significantly lower completeness and accuracy scores compared with Micromedex (mean composite scores 18.55 vs. 38.4, respectively; P <0.01). No difference was found between the mean composite scores for brand versus generic drugs in either reference (17.8 vs. 19.3, respectively [P = 0.62], for Wikipedia; 39.2 vs. 37.6, [P = 0.06] for Micromedex). Limitations to these results include the speed with which information is edited on Wikipedia, that there was no evaluation of off-label information, and the limited number of drugs that were evaluated. Wikipedia lacks the accuracy and completeness of standard clinical references and should not be a routine part of clinical decision making. More research should be conducted to evaluate the rationale for health care providers' use of Wikipedia. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 78 FR 13072 - Seventh Annual Drug Information Association/Food and Drug Administration Statistics Forum-2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Seventh Annual Drug Information Association/Food and Drug... Drug Information Association (DIA), is announcing a public conference entitled ``Seventh Annual DIA/FDA... INFORMATION CONTACT: Constance Burnett, Drug Information Association, 800 Enterprise Rd., Horsham, PA 19044, 1...

  20. 21 CFR 207.30 - Updating drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Updating drug listing information. 207.30 Section 207.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION...

  1. 21 CFR 207.30 - Updating drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Updating drug listing information. 207.30 Section 207.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  2. 21 CFR 207.30 - Updating drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Updating drug listing information. 207.30 Section 207.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  3. 21 CFR 207.30 - Updating drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Updating drug listing information. 207.30 Section 207.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  4. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  5. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  6. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  7. Multidimensional text classification for drug information.

    PubMed

    Lertnattee, Verayuth; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    2004-09-01

    This paper proposes a multidimensional model for classifying drug information text documents. The concept of multidimensional category model is introduced for representing classes. In contrast with traditional flat and hierarchical category models, the multidimensional category model classifies each document using multiple predefined sets of categories, where each set corresponds to a dimension. Since a multidimensional model can be converted to flat and hierarchical models, three classification approaches are possible, i.e., classifying directly based on the multidimensional model and classifying with the equivalent flat or hierarchical models. The efficiency of these three approaches is investigated using drug information collection with two different dimensions: 1) drug topics and 2) primary therapeutic classes. In the experiments, k-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes, and two centroid-based methods are selected as classifiers. The comparisons among three approaches of classification are done using two-way analysis of variance, followed by the Scheffé's test for post hoc comparison. The experimental results show that multidimensional-based classification performs better than the others, especially in the presence of a relatively small training set. As one application, a category-based search engine using the multidimensional category concept was developed to help users retrieve drug information.

  8. Toward a comprehensive drug ontology: extraction of drug-indication relations from diverse information sources.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Mark E

    2017-01-10

    Drug ontologies could help pharmaceutical researchers overcome information overload and speed the pace of drug discovery, thus benefiting the industry and patients alike. Drug-disease relations, specifically drug-indication relations, are a prime candidate for representation in ontologies. There is a wealth of available drug-indication information, but structuring and integrating it is challenging. We created a drug-indication database (DID) of data from 12 openly available, commercially available, and proprietary information sources, integrated by terminological normalization to UMLS and other authorities. Across sources, there are 29,964 unique raw drug/chemical names, 10,938 unique raw indication "target" terms, and 192,008 unique raw drug-indication pairs. Drug/chemical name normalization to CAS numbers or UMLS concepts reduced the unique name count to 91 or 85% of the raw count, respectively, 84% if combined. Indication "target" normalization to UMLS "phenotypic-type" concepts reduced the unique term count to 57% of the raw count. The 12 sources of raw data varied widely in coverage (numbers of unique drug/chemical and indication concepts and relations) generally consistent with the idiosyncrasies of each source, but had strikingly little overlap, suggesting that we successfully achieved source/raw data diversity. The DID is a database of structured drug-indication relations intended to facilitate building practical, comprehensive, integrated drug ontologies. The DID itself is not an ontology, but could be converted to one more easily than the contributing raw data. Our methodology could be adapted to the creation of other structured drug-disease databases such as for contraindications, precautions, warnings, and side effects.

  9. 21 CFR 20.117 - New drug information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New drug information. 20.117 Section 20.117 Food... INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.117 New drug information. (a) The following... Information Public Room: (1) A numerical listing of all new drug applications and abbreviated new...

  10. Drug Abuse among Minority Youth: Advances in Research and Methodology. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 130.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rosa, Mario R., Ed.; Adrados, Juan-Luis Recio, Ed.

    The lack of information on the extent and nature of drug use and abuse among minority youth has limited the development of culturally relevant and effective interventions for this group. These papers present research findings and information about research methodology directed at this target group. Papers include: (1) "Integrating Mainstream…

  11. Focus on: information technology. Online drug information for dermatology patients.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Information about medications appropriate for dermatologists and patients with skin diseases is readily available on the Internet. Authoritative educational material is supplied by academic dermatologic associations and institutions and distributed by independent websites, large health portals, and search directories. Although it is easy to find excellent dermatological drug information, the World Wide Web is dynamic and unmoderated, and patients can be misled or exploited by inaccurate or fraudulent websites. Health on the Net and other organizations have developed ethical principles to aid consumers and evaluate the quality of health-related information.

  12. Do drug advertisements provide therapeutic information?

    PubMed

    Stimson, G V

    1977-03-01

    In this study of advertisements appearing in medical periodicals and by direct mail advertising to general practitioners, Dr. Stimson, a sociologist, concludes that from what is intended to provide therapeutic information hardly any therapeutic information is provided. He reminds the reader of the safeguards which surround all drug advertising by law and by the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry but these safeguards do not appear to control real or potential sins of omission. Frequently in these advertisements the literature relating to the drug is quoted but Dr. Stimson found that it was difficult to trace all the papers quoted in different types of medical library. (Some references quoted were to unpublished papers but surely the blame should be shared in this situation?) Dr. Stimson also gives a vivid and fascinating glimpse of what he calls the 'images and stereotypes' of the patients who, it is claimed, would benefit from the drug being advertised. Certainly most general practitioners must be aware that when they prescribe that image is displaced by an individual but the portrait gallery is indeed depressing. However, to balance these advertisements drug companies issue data sheets which must be more informative than advertisements and conform to regulations in their format. Unfortunately data sheets are only issued every 15 months whereas the 'average general practitioner is potentially exposed to 1,300 advertisements every month'. In other words, the data sheet and not the advertisement should be the guideline but it arrives too infrequently to offset the lack of therapeutic information contained in advertisements.

  13. Do drug advertisements provide therapeutic information?

    PubMed Central

    Stimson, G V

    1977-01-01

    In this study of advertisements appearing in medical periodicals and by direct mail advertising to general practitioners, Dr. Stimson, a sociologist, concludes that from what is intended to provide therapeutic information hardly any therapeutic information is provided. He reminds the reader of the safeguards which surround all drug advertising by law and by the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry but these safeguards do not appear to control real or potential sins of omission. Frequently in these advertisements the literature relating to the drug is quoted but Dr. Stimson found that it was difficult to trace all the papers quoted in different types of medical library. (Some references quoted were to unpublished papers but surely the blame should be shared in this situation?) Dr. Stimson also gives a vivid and fascinating glimpse of what he calls the 'images and stereotypes' of the patients who, it is claimed, would benefit from the drug being advertised. Certainly most general practitioners must be aware that when they prescribe that image is displaced by an individual but the portrait gallery is indeed depressing. However, to balance these advertisements drug companies issue data sheets which must be more informative than advertisements and conform to regulations in their format. Unfortunately data sheets are only issued every 15 months whereas the 'average general practitioner is potentially exposed to 1,300 advertisements every month'. In other words, the data sheet and not the advertisement should be the guideline but it arrives too infrequently to offset the lack of therapeutic information contained in advertisements. PMID:870694

  14. Molecular Recognition in Drug Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Philip M.

    1983-01-01

    One application of modeling is studying the ways in which molecules fit together to form chemical compounds. Describes the forces acting between molecules and how three-dimensional graphical modeling is employed in developing rational principles for drug design. (JN)

  15. 21 CFR 20.117 - New drug information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New drug information. 20.117 Section 20.117 Food... INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.117 New drug information. (a) The following computer printouts are available for public inspection in the Food and Drug Administration's Freedom of...

  16. [Current situation and development trend of Chinese medicine information research].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Cui, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Literature resource service was the main service that Chinese medicine (CM) information offered. But in recent years users have started to request the health information knowledge service. The CM information researches and application service mainly included: (1) the need of strength studies on theory, application of technology, information retrieval, and information standard development; (2) Information studies need to support clinical decision making, new drug research; (3) Quick response based on the network monitoring and support to emergency countermeasures. CM information researches have the following treads: (1) developing the theory system structure of CM information; (2) studying the methodology system of CM information; (3) knowledge discovery and knowledge innovation.

  17. Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M; Thompson, H S

    1997-12-01

    Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength

  18. Scope, completeness, and accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Dzenowagis, Joan H

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of Web 2.0 technologies, user-edited online resources such as Wikipedia are increasingly tapped for information. However, there is little research on the quality of health information found in Wikipedia. To compare the scope, completeness, and accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia with that of a free, online, traditionally edited database (Medscape Drug Reference [MDR]). Wikipedia and MDR were assessed on 8 categories of drug information. Questions were constructed and answers were verified with authoritative resources. Wikipedia and MDR were evaluated according to scope (breadth of coverage) and completeness. Accuracy was tracked by factual errors and errors of omission. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the components. Fisher's exact test was used to compare scope and paired Student's t-test was used to compare current results in Wikipedia with entries 90 days prior to the current access. Wikipedia was able to answer significantly fewer drug information questions (40.0%) compared with MDR (82.5%; p < 0.001). Wikipedia performed poorly regarding information on dosing, with a score of 0% versus the MDR score of 90.0%. Answers found in Wikipedia were 76.0% complete, while MDR provided answers that were 95.5% complete; overall, Wikipedia answers were less complete than those in Medscape (p < 0.001). No factual errors were found in Wikipedia, whereas 4 answers in Medscape conflicted with the answer key; errors of omission were higher in Wikipedia (n = 48) than in MDR (n = 14). There was a marked improvement in Wikipedia over time, as current entries were superior to those 90 days prior (p = 0.024). Wikipedia has a more narrow scope, is less complete, and has more errors of omission than the comparator database. Wikipedia may be a useful point of engagement for consumers, but is not authoritative and should only be a supplemental source of drug information.

  19. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration...

  20. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration...

  1. International Drug Use; Research Issues 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of resources contains 95 summaries of research conducted on drug use in countries other than the United States, and is designed to be an introductory set of readings which provide a basic familiarity with drug use patterns in foreign countries. The first section contains 23 studies on the United Kingdom while the second section…

  2. International Drug Use; Research Issues 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of resources contains 95 summaries of research conducted on drug use in countries other than the United States, and is designed to be an introductory set of readings which provide a basic familiarity with drug use patterns in foreign countries. The first section contains 23 studies on the United Kingdom while the second section…

  3. Mindsets, informed consent, and research.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    Study after study shows that subjects regularly overestimate the likelihood of gaining therapeutic benefit from a clinical trial. But more study is needed on why that mistake is common, and what it says about informed consent. Subjects may think about research differently at different phases in their participation.

  4. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs will be essential tools at all stages of malaria elimination along the path towards eradication, including the early control or “attack” phase to drive down transmission and the later stages of maintaining interruption of transmission, preventing reintroduction of malaria, and eliminating the last residual foci of infection. Drugs will continue to be used to treat acute malaria illness and prevent complications in vulnerable groups, but better drugs are needed for elimination-specific indications such as mass treatment, curing asymptomatic infections, curing relapsing liver stages, and preventing transmission. The ideal malaria eradication drug is a coformulated drug combination suitable for mass administration that can be administered in a single encounter at infrequent intervals and that results in radical cure of all life cycle stages of all five malaria species infecting humans. Short of this optimal goal, highly desirable drugs might have limitations such as targeting only one or two parasite species, the priorities being Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The malaria research agenda for eradication should include research aimed at developing such drugs and research to develop situation-specific strategies for using both current and future drugs to interrupt malaria transmission. PMID:21311580

  5. An Educational Design To Teach Drug Information Across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gora-Harper, Mary Lea; Brandt, Barbara F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes design and implementation of a model for teaching drug information across the pharmacy curriculum. Program components include teaching/reinforcing drug information knowledge and skills; outlining practice-based outcomes for drug information; and impressing on students that such skills are routinely needed in pharmacy practice. Early…

  6. An Educational Design To Teach Drug Information Across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gora-Harper, Mary Lea; Brandt, Barbara F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes design and implementation of a model for teaching drug information across the pharmacy curriculum. Program components include teaching/reinforcing drug information knowledge and skills; outlining practice-based outcomes for drug information; and impressing on students that such skills are routinely needed in pharmacy practice. Early…

  7. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. 21 CFR 201.129 - Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs; exemption for radioactive drugs for research use. A radioactive drug intended for administration to human research subjects during the course of a research project intended to obtain basic research... research use. 201.129 Section 201.129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  10. Resource Book for Drug Abuse Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The bulk of this book is divided into 3 major sections: (1) teaching about drugs; (2) facts about drugs; and (3) supplementary reports which deal with legal aspects, prevention, drug use-student value correlations, motivation, etc. The section concerned with teaching about drugs provides concrete suggestions for elementary and secondary educators,…

  11. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility. 960.205 Section 960.205 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... Admission § 960.205 Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility. (a)...

  12. Challenges in psychopharmacology: a drug information centre perspective.

    PubMed

    Schjøtt, J

    2016-02-01

    Questions about psychotropic drugs are frequently submitted to drug information centres (DICs). Twenty years' experience from Norwegian DICs was used to identify particular challenges in responding to those questions. Questions about psychopharmacological therapy are usually patient-related and are often difficult to answer. Frequent questions about psychotropic drugs come from experienced senior physicians in disciplines like psychiatry, geriatrics, general practice and neurology. The physicians often ask about specific drug use in pregnancy or breastfeeding, drug combinations and interactions, drug switching and formulations, and drug-withdrawal reactions. There is a lack of relevant information in drug monographs and guidelines to inform answers to the questions posed for the care of individual patients. There is a clear need for these topics to be highlighted in the pre- and postgraduate teaching of physicians. The issues highlighted are likely to be of international relevance based on our experience of the use of international sources of drug information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  14. HIV Drug-Resistant Patient Information Management, Analysis, and Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The science of information systems, management, and interpretation plays an important part in the continuity of care of patients. This is becoming more evident in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. The high replication rates, selective pressure, and initial infection by resistant strains of HIV infer that drug resistance will inevitably become an important health care concern. This paper describes proposed research with the aim of developing a physician-administered, artificial intelligence-based decision support system tool to facilitate the management of patients on antiretroviral therapy. Methods This tool will consist of (1) an artificial intelligence computer program that will determine HIV drug resistance information from genomic analysis; (2) a machine-learning algorithm that can predict future CD4 count information given a genomic sequence; and (3) the integration of these tools into an electronic medical record for storage and management. Conclusion The aim of the project is to create an electronic tool that assists clinicians in managing and interpreting patient information in order to determine the optimal therapy for drug-resistant HIV patients. PMID:23611761

  15. Research Results and Information Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Research Results Monsoon behavior balanced by glaciers Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin Significant Progress in Water Photochemistry Research Structural signature in amorphous alloy formation and plastic deformation The neural basis of Drosophila larval light/darkness preference Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity Determination of electron pairing symmetry of iron-based superconductor FeSe Long-Range Topological Order in Metallic Glass Information Update List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and CNRS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and ESRC in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RSE in 2011 Funding of Major Program Projects in 2010 Funding of Key Program Projects in 2010

  16. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco,…

  17. Guidelines for research on drugged driving

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. Michael; Verstraete, Alain G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mørland, Jørg

    2009-01-01

    Aim A major problem in assessing the true public health impact of drug-use on driving and overall traffic safety is that the variables being measured across studies vary significantly. In studies reported in a growing global literature, basic parameters assessed, analytical techniques and drugs tested are simply not comparable due to lack of standardization in the field. These shortcomings severely limit the value of this research to add knowledge to the field. A set of standards to harmonize research findings is sorely needed. This project was initiated by several international organizations to develop guidelines for research on drugged driving. Methods A September 2006 meeting of international experts discussed the harmonization of protocols for future research on drugged driving. The principal objective of the meeting was to develop a consensus report setting guidelines, standards, core data variables and other controls that would form the basis for future international research. A modified Delphi method was utilized to develop draft guidelines. Subsequently, these draft guidelines were posted on the internet for global review, and comments received were integrated into the final document. Results The Guidelines Document is divided into three major sections, each focusing upon different aspects of drugged driving research (e.g. roadside surveys, prevalence studies, hospital studies, fatality and crash investigations, etc.) within the critical issue areas of ‘behavior’, ‘epidemiology’ and ‘toxicology’. The behavioral section contains 32 specific recommendations; (2) epidemiology 40 recommendations; and (3) toxicology 64 recommendations. Conclusions It is anticipated that these guidelines will improve significantly the overall quality of drugged driving research and facilitate future cross-study comparisons nationally and globally. PMID:18855814

  18. Retrieving Online Information on Drugs: An Analysis of Four Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavengood, Kathryn A.

    This study examines the indexing of drugs in the literature and compares actual drug indexing to stated indexing policies in selected databases. The goal is to aid health science information specialists, end-users, and/or non-subject experts to improve recall and comprehensiveness when searching for drug information by identifying the most useful…

  19. Retrieving Online Information on Drugs: An Analysis of Four Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavengood, Kathryn A.

    This study examines the indexing of drugs in the literature and compares actual drug indexing to stated indexing policies in selected databases. The goal is to aid health science information specialists, end-users, and/or non-subject experts to improve recall and comprehensiveness when searching for drug information by identifying the most useful…

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  1. Drug-target interaction prediction from PSSM based evolutionary information.

    PubMed

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Khakabimamaghani, Sahand; Kavousi, Kaveh; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The labor-intensive and expensive experimental process of drug-target interaction prediction has motivated many researchers to focus on in silico prediction, which leads to the helpful information in supporting the experimental interaction data. Therefore, they have proposed several computational approaches for discovering new drug-target interactions. Several learning-based methods have been increasingly developed which can be categorized into two main groups: similarity-based and feature-based. In this paper, we firstly use the bi-gram features extracted from the Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) of proteins in predicting drug-target interactions. Our results demonstrate the high-confidence prediction ability of the Bigram-PSSM model in terms of several performance indicators specifically for enzymes and ion channels. Moreover, we investigate the impact of negative selection strategy on the performance of the prediction, which is not widely taken into account in the other relevant studies. This is important, as the number of non-interacting drug-target pairs are usually extremely large in comparison with the number of interacting ones in existing drug-target interaction data. An interesting observation is that different levels of performance reduction have been attained for four datasets when we change the sampling method from the random sampling to the balanced sampling.

  2. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 12, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on methadone. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  3. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 15, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on mescaline. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  4. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 14, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on phencyclidine (PCP). Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject…

  5. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 16, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on psilocybin. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  6. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 16, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on psilocybin. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  7. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 18, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on methaqualone. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is…

  8. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 11, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on cocaine. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of authorities in the field. Significant research on the subject is presented…

  9. Open source drug discovery--a new paradigm of collaborative research in tuberculosis drug development.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anshu; Scaria, Vinod; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Chandra, Nagasuma; Banerjee, Sulagna; Raghunandanan, Muthukurussi V; Pandey, Vikas; Taneja, Bhupesh; Yadav, Jyoti; Dash, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Jaijit; Misra, Amit; Kumar, Anil; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Thomas, Zakir; Brahmachari, Samir K

    2011-09-01

    It is being realized that the traditional closed-door and market driven approaches for drug discovery may not be the best suited model for the diseases of the developing world such as tuberculosis and malaria, because most patients suffering from these diseases have poor paying capacity. To ensure that new drugs are created for patients suffering from these diseases, it is necessary to formulate an alternate paradigm of drug discovery process. The current model constrained by limitations for collaboration and for sharing of resources with confidentiality hampers the opportunities for bringing expertise from diverse fields. These limitations hinder the possibilities of lowering the cost of drug discovery. The Open Source Drug Discovery project initiated by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India has adopted an open source model to power wide participation across geographical borders. Open Source Drug Discovery emphasizes integrative science through collaboration, open-sharing, taking up multi-faceted approaches and accruing benefits from advances on different fronts of new drug discovery. Because the open source model is based on community participation, it has the potential to self-sustain continuous development by generating a storehouse of alternatives towards continued pursuit for new drug discovery. Since the inventions are community generated, the new chemical entities developed by Open Source Drug Discovery will be taken up for clinical trial in a non-exclusive manner by participation of multiple companies with majority funding from Open Source Drug Discovery. This will ensure availability of drugs through a lower cost community driven drug discovery process for diseases afflicting people with poor paying capacity. Hopefully what LINUX the World Wide Web have done for the information technology, Open Source Drug Discovery will do for drug discovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 20664 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. SUMMARY:...

  11. Drugs and Minorities. Research Issues 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains summaries of the latest research focusing on the issue of the extent of drug use and abuse among racial and ethnic minorities and the factors influencing it. Taken into consideration are age and sex differences among users, narcotics addiction, socioeconomic influences, cultural factors, racial factors, demographic factors,…

  12. Factors influencing consumer use of written drug information.

    PubMed

    Koo, Michelle M; Krass, Ines; Aslani, Parisa

    2003-02-01

    To provide an overview of the use and impact of written drug information (WDI) on consumers, and to review the literature on the factors influencing the use of WDI by consumers. Relevant articles published in English since the late 1970s were identified based on searches of on-line databases, texts, and cited references in published articles. Articles reporting findings on the origin, use, and impact of WDI were included. Due to limited literature, articles reporting findings on factors influencing the use of written drug as well as disease information were included. Due to the lack of design consistency between studies and the comparatively small volume of work, subjective assessment rather than a criteria-based objective review was deemed more appropriate. To date, research on WDI has focused on its use and impact. WDI has the potential to increase patients' knowledge, compliance, and satisfaction. However, there is also the potential for anxiety or premature cessation of therapy due to fear of possible adverse effects. Multiple factors may potentially influence the use of WDI by consumers including those associated with the written information document (readability, presentation), the patient (health literacy, role of caregiver, demographic factors, health locus of control, coping style, health belief model), and the environment (timing of provision, experience). WDI has the potential to impact consumers positively and negatively. Although not widely investigated, a number of factors can potentially influence the use of WDI by consumers. The findings of this review can form the basis for much needed further research.

  13. Illicit drugs and the media: models of media effects for use in drug policy research.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kari; Hughes, Caitlin E; Spicer, Bridget; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Dillon, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Illicit drugs are never far from the media gaze and although identified almost a decade ago as 'a new battleground' for the alcohol and other drug (AOD) field there has been limited research examining the role of the news media and its effects on audiences and policy. This paper draws together media theories from communication literature to examine media functions. We illustrate how each function is relevant for media and drugs research by drawing upon the existing literature examining Australian media coverage during the late 1990s of escalating heroin-related problems and proposed solutions. Media can influence audiences in four key ways: by setting the agenda and defining public interest; framing issues through selection and salience; indirectly shaping individual and community attitudes towards risk; and feeding into political debate and decision making. Each has relevance for the AOD field. For example, media coverage of the escalating heroin-related problems in Australia played a strong role in generating interest in heroin overdoses, framing public discourse in terms of a health and/or criminal issue and affecting political decisions. Implications AND CONCLUSION: Media coverage in relation to illicit drugs can have multifarious effects. Incorporating media communication theories into future research and actions is critical to facilitate understanding of the short- and long-term impacts of media coverage on illicit drugs and the avenues by which the AOD field can mitigate or inform future media debates on illicit drugs. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Collaboration for rare disease drug discovery research

    PubMed Central

    Litterman, Nadia K.; Rhee, Michele; Swinney, David C.; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Rare disease research has reached a tipping point, with the confluence of scientific and technologic developments that if appropriately harnessed, could lead to key breakthroughs and treatments for this set of devastating disorders. Industry-wide trends have revealed that the traditional drug discovery research and development (R&D) model is no longer viable, and drug companies are evolving their approach. Rather than only pursue blockbuster therapeutics for heterogeneous, common diseases, drug companies have increasingly begun to shift their focus to rare diseases. In academia, advances in genetics analyses and disease mechanisms have allowed scientific understanding to mature, but the lack of funding and translational capability severely limits the rare disease research that leads to clinical trials. Simultaneously, there is a movement towards increased research collaboration, more data sharing, and heightened engagement and active involvement by patients, advocates, and foundations. The growth in networks and social networking tools presents an opportunity to help reach other patients but also find researchers and build collaborations. The growth of collaborative software that can enable researchers to share their data could also enable rare disease patients and foundations to manage their portfolio of funded projects for developing new therapeutics and suggest drug repurposing opportunities. Still there are many thousands of diseases without treatments and with only fragmented research efforts. We will describe some recent progress in several rare diseases used as examples and propose how collaborations could be facilitated. We propose that the development of a center of excellence that integrates and shares informatics resources for rare diseases sponsored by all of the stakeholders would help foster these initiatives. PMID:25685324

  15. Collaboration for rare disease drug discovery research.

    PubMed

    Litterman, Nadia K; Rhee, Michele; Swinney, David C; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Rare disease research has reached a tipping point, with the confluence of scientific and technologic developments that if appropriately harnessed, could lead to key breakthroughs and treatments for this set of devastating disorders. Industry-wide trends have revealed that the traditional drug discovery research and development (R&D) model is no longer viable, and drug companies are evolving their approach. Rather than only pursue blockbuster therapeutics for heterogeneous, common diseases, drug companies have increasingly begun to shift their focus to rare diseases. In academia, advances in genetics analyses and disease mechanisms have allowed scientific understanding to mature, but the lack of funding and translational capability severely limits the rare disease research that leads to clinical trials. Simultaneously, there is a movement towards increased research collaboration, more data sharing, and heightened engagement and active involvement by patients, advocates, and foundations. The growth in networks and social networking tools presents an opportunity to help reach other patients but also find researchers and build collaborations. The growth of collaborative software that can enable researchers to share their data could also enable rare disease patients and foundations to manage their portfolio of funded projects for developing new therapeutics and suggest drug repurposing opportunities. Still there are many thousands of diseases without treatments and with only fragmented research efforts. We will describe some recent progress in several rare diseases used as examples and propose how collaborations could be facilitated. We propose that the development of a center of excellence that integrates and shares informatics resources for rare diseases sponsored by all of the stakeholders would help foster these initiatives.

  16. United States National Library of Medicine Drug Information Portal

    PubMed Central

    Hochstein, Colette; Goshorn, Jeanne; Chang, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The Drug Information Portal is a free Web resource from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) that provides a user-friendly gateway to current information for more than 15,000 drugs. The site guides users to related resources of NLM, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other government agencies. Current drug-related information regarding consumer health, clinical trials, AIDS, MeSH pharmacological actions, MEDLINE/PubMed biomedical literature, and physical properties and structure is easily retrieved by searching on a drug name. A varied selection of focused topics in medicine and drugs is also available from displayed subject headings. This column provides background information about the Drug Information Portal, as well as search basics. PMID:19384716

  17. Ethical issues in funding orphan drug research and development.

    PubMed

    Gericke, C A; Riesberg, A; Busse, R

    2005-03-01

    This essay outlines the moral dilemma of funding orphan drug research and development. To date, ethical aspects of priority setting for research funding have not been an issue of discussion in the bioethics debate. Conflicting moral obligations of beneficence and distributive justice appear to demand very different levels of funding for orphan drug research. The two types of orphan disease, rare diseases and tropical diseases, however, present very different ethical challenges to questions about allocation of research funds. The dilemma is analysed considering utilitarian and rights based theories of justice and moral obligations of non-abandonment and a professional obligation to advance medical science. The limitations of standard economic evaluation tools and other priority setting tools used to inform health policy decision makers on research funding decisions are outlined.

  18. The regional drug information service: a factor in health care?

    PubMed Central

    Leach, F N

    1978-01-01

    Most regional health authorities throughout the United Kingdom have established drug information units to provide health service staff with a wide range of information about drugs and drug use. The units, which are staffed by drug information pharmacists, provide their service mainly by answering inquiries, although some disseminate information more positively through lectures and bulletins. An analysis of inquiries received by regional information units during 1976 showed that most were submitted by hospital doctors or pharmacists; comparatively few were received from general practitioners. Topics of inquiry included adverse effects of drugs, source of supply and identification, current treatment, dosage, route, precautions, and pharmaceutical problems such as stability or formulation of drug preparations. A more detailed analysis of the inquiries received by the North-western Regional Drug Information Service at Manchester over three years showed that the number of inquiries gradually increased and that more were received from general practitioners after a programme of lectures had been introduced to tell them about the service. The North-western service also received more requests from hospital pharmacists than other units, though many originated from clinicians. The regional drug information units consulted widely with clinical and other specialists in answering questions, but about a quarter of all inquiries were pharmaceutical, relating to stability and incompatibility. A multidisciplinary approach therefore seems necessary to provide a comprehensive and advisory drug information service. PMID:630339

  19. The regional drug information service: a factor in health care?

    PubMed

    Leach, F N

    1978-03-25

    Most regional health authorities throughout the United Kingdom have established drug information units to provide health service staff with a wide range of information about drugs and drug use. The units, which are staffed by drug information pharmacists, provide their service mainly by answering inquiries, although some disseminate information more positively through lectures and bulletins.An analysis of inquiries received by regional information units during 1976 showed that most were submitted by hospital doctors or pharmacists; comparatively few were received from general practitioners. Topics of inquiry included adverse effects of drugs, source of supply and identification, current treatment, dosage, route, precautions, and pharmaceutical problems such as stability or formulation of drug preparations. A more detailed analysis of the inquiries received by the North-western Regional Drug Information Service at Manchester over three years showed that the number of inquiries gradually increased and that more were received from general practitioners after a programme of lectures had been introduced to tell them about the service. The North-western service also received more requests from hospital pharmacists than other units, though many originated from clinicians.The regional drug information units consulted widely with clinical and other specialists in answering questions, but about a quarter of all inquiries were pharmaceutical, relating to stability and incompatibility. A multidisciplinary approach therefore seems necessary to provide a comprehensive and advisory drug information service.

  20. [Activity of NTDs Drug-discovery Research Consortium].

    PubMed

    Namatame, Ichiji

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are an extremely important issue facing global health care. To improve "access to health" where people are unable to access adequate medical care due to poverty and weak healthcare systems, we have established two consortiums: the NTD drug discovery research consortium, and the pediatric praziquantel consortium. The NTD drug discovery research consortium, which involves six institutions from industry, government, and academia, as well as an international non-profit organization, is committed to developing anti-protozoan active compounds for three NTDs (Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African sleeping sickness). Each participating institute will contribute their efforts to accomplish the following: selection of drug targets based on information technology, and drug discovery by three different approaches (in silico drug discovery, "fragment evolution" which is a unique drug designing method of Astellas Pharma, and phenotypic screening with Astellas' compound library). The consortium has established a brand new database (Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Database; iNTRODB), and has selected target proteins for the in silico and fragment evolution drug discovery approaches. Thus far, we have identified a number of promising compounds that inhibit the target protein, and we are currently trying to improve the anti-protozoan activity of these compounds. The pediatric praziquantel consortium was founded in July 2012 to develop and register a new praziquantel pediatric formulation for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Astellas Pharma has been a core member in this consortium since its establishment, and has provided expertise and technology in the area of pediatric formulation development and clinical development.

  1. Using visual analytics for presenting comparative information on new drugs.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Berthelot, Hélène; Favre, Madeleine; Ugon, Adrien; Duclos, Catherine; Venot, Alain

    2017-07-01

    When a new drug is marketed, physicians must decide whether they will consider it for their future practice. However, information about new drugs can be biased or hard to find. In this work, our objective was to study whether visual analytics could be used for comparing drug properties such as contraindications and adverse effects, and whether this visual comparison can help physicians to forge their own well-founded opinions about a new drug. First, an ontology for comparative drug information was designed, based on the expectations expressed during focus groups comprised of physicians. Second, a prototype of a visual drug comparator website was developed. It implements several visualization methods: rainbow boxes (a new technique for overlapping set visualization), dynamic tables, bar charts and icons. Third, the website was evaluated by 22 GPs for four new drugs. We recorded the general satisfaction, the physician's decision whether to consider the new drug for future prescription, both before and after consulting the website, and their arguments to justify their choice. The prototype website permits the visual comparison of up to 10 drugs, including efficacy, contraindications, interactions, adverse effects, prices, dosage regimens,…All physicians found that the website allowed them to forge a well-founded opinion on the four new drugs. The physicians changed their decision about using a new drug in their future practice in 29 cases (out of 88) after consulting the website. Visual analytics is a promising approach for presenting drug information and for comparing drugs. The visual comparison of drug properties allows physicians to forge their opinions on drugs. Since drug properties are available in reference texts, reviewed by public health agencies, it could contribute to the independent of drug information. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Research Notes and Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, III, Dean S.

    1994-12-01

    The RNS (Research Notes System) is a set of programs and databases designed to aid the research worker in gathering, maintaining, and using notes taken from the literature. The sources for the notes can be books, journal articles, reports, private conversations, conference papers, audiovisuals, etc. The system ties the databases together in a relational structure, thus eliminating data redundancy while providing full access to all the information. The programs provide the means for access and data entry in a way that reduces the key-entry burden for the user. Each note has several data fields. Included are the text of the note, the subject classification (for retrieval), and the reference identification data. These data are divided into four databases: Document data - title, author, publisher, etc., fields to identify the article within the document; Note data - text and page of the note; Sublect data - subject categories to ensure uniform spelling for searches. Additionally, there are subsidiary files used by the system, including database index and temporary work files. The system provides multiple access routes to the notes, both structurally (access method) and topically (through cross-indexing). Output may be directed to a printer or saved as a file for input to word processing software.

  3. Information on Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate ... virus infection. To search the complete list of stem cell research projects funded by NIH please go to NIH ...

  4. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) to addressing drug shortages. This public... address drug shortage issues. Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on September 26, 2011,...

  5. Sources of Drug and Alcohol Information Among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of data collected from 555 junior and senior high school students in rural Ohio suggested that the media and teachers provided subjects with the most information about drugs and alcohol, while few subjects cited siblings or alcohol or drug agency personnel as providing information. (CB)

  6. Assessment of Pharmacists Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Herbal Drug Information Services

    PubMed Central

    Atavwoda, Abere Tavs; Gabriel, Aina Ayodele

    2012-01-01

    Rational: Research suggests that increased consumption of herbal drugs is raising important public health concerns such as safety issues that may involve adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of Pharmacists in herbal drug information dissemination. Method: We investigated the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding herbal drug information and regulatory laws among Pharmacists living in the six (6) States that constitute the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. A total of 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to Pharmacists aged 21 years and above. Findings: About half of the respondents (48.72 %) were Hospital based Pharmacists. Knowledge of herbal drugs was 46.33 % while 64 .0 % showed positive attitude towards its use. Most of the information on herbal drugs were sourced from the internet (23.08 %) while 53.48 % were aware of the laws and regulations controlling herbal drugs in Nigeria. 88.64 % were in favour of the establishment of a National Herbal Drug Research and Development Agency and 55.68 % strongly agreeing to the setting up of a Herbal Drug Information Centre. Conclusion: The availability of herbal drug information services will not only enhance the performance of the Pharmacists, but will also add value to the life of the patients. PMID:24826042

  7. Drug Information Education in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Troutman, William G.; Seo, Teresa; Peak, Amy; Rosenberg, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To characterize pharmacy program standards and trends in drug information education. Methods A questionnaire containing 34 questions addressing general demographic characteristics, organization, and content of drug information education was distributed to 86 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States using a Web-based survey system. Results Sixty colleges responded (73% response rate). All colleges offered a campus-based 6-year first-professional degree PharmD program. Didactic drug information was a required course in over 70% of these schools. Only 51 of the 60 colleges offered an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in drug information, and 62% of these did so only on an elective basis. Conclusion Although almost all of the PharmD programs in the US include a required course in drug information, the majority do not have a required APPE in this important area. PMID:17136172

  8. Drug Information Services Today: Current Role and Future Perspectives in Rational Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    Amundstuen Reppe, Linda; Spigset, Olav; Schjøtt, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Polypharmacy and complex drug treatment regimens are becoming increasingly common, which may lead to adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, medication nonadherence, and increasing costs and thus challenge the rational use of drugs. At the same time, the accessibility of drug information increases, and health care professionals may have limited opportunities and capabilities to search and critically evaluate drug information. Clinicians have reported difficulties in searching the best evidence and translating study findings into clinically meaningful information applicable to specific patients. Consequently, it remains a challenge to ensure the rational use of drugs in the years to come. Drug information centers (DICs) have been established to promote the rational use of drugs. One of the most important tasks of DICs is the question and answer services for health care professionals posing drug-related questions. DICs staffed by pharmacists and clinical pharmacologists hold expertise in searching for drug information and critical evaluation of the literature. The uniqueness in this service lies not only in the identification and interpretation of the scientific literature but also in the adaptation of the findings into specific clinical situations and the discussion of possible solutions with the enquirer. Thus, DICs could provide valuable decision support to the clinic. Taking into account the increasing number of possible drug-related questions that will arise today and in the future, the DICs will remain highly relevant in the years to come. However, the DICs must follow the developments in health information technology to disseminate relevant, unbiased drug information to old and new users of the service. Moreover, the DICs are important tools to counterbalance the drug information published by the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Evaluation of popular drug information resources on clinically useful and actionable pharmacogenomic information*†

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jennifer S.; Pham, Duyen-Anh; Dang, Maithao T.; Lu, Yiting; VanOsdol, Sheri

    2016-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a person's response to drugs. This descriptive study assessed whether popular drug information resources provide clinically useful pharmacogenomic (PGx) information. Methods Four resources (package inserts, Lexicomp, Micromedex 2.0, and Epocrates) were evaluated for information about twenty-seven drugs. Results There was wide variability of PGx information. Whereas Lexicomp included relevant PGx biomarker information for all 27 drugs, Epocrates did in less than 50% of the drugs. None of the resources had monographs that fully incorporated Clinical Pharmacogenomics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) recommendations in more than 30% of the drugs. Conclusion Lexicomp appears to be most useful PGx drug information resource, but none of the resources are sufficient. PMID:26807054

  10. The history of the Drug Utilization Research Group in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ulf

    2006-02-01

    Following the recommendations from a World Health Organization (WHO)/Euro symposium Consumption of drugs in 1969, a common classification system for drugs was developed, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC), and a technical unit of comparison, the Defined Daily Dose (DDD), as a comparative unit of drug use. This was found to be robust across therapeutic classifications, dosing forms and diverse populations. To maintain and develop the ATC/DDD system a WHO-Collaborating Centre was established in Oslo. As this was found to be of global interest the centre now reports to the WHO headquarters in Geneva. An informal WHO Drug Utilization Research Group (WHO-DURG), later the EuroDURG, has by now met 28 times in Europe. Since 1994 in Stockholm all these meetings have been with ISPE (International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology) when meeting in Europe. The main focus was initially to improve drug utilization through cross-national drug utilization studies based on the ATC/DDD methodology as they revealed large differences between and within countries that could not easily be explained by morbidity differences alone. These observed differences have led to the expansion of the area to include social, economic and qualitative methods with a more generalized public health focus. One of the most recent contributions was the development of drug use quality indicators.

  11. Information Phage Therapy Research Should Report.

    PubMed

    Abedon, Stephen T

    2017-04-30

    Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses which infect bacteria. A large subset of phages infect bactericidally and, consequently, for nearly one hundred years have been employed as antibacterial agents both within and outside of medicine. Clinically these applications are described as phage or bacteriophage therapy. Alternatively, and especially in the treatment of environments, this practice instead may be described as a phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria. Though the history of phage therapy has involved substantial clinical experimentation, current standards along with drug regulations have placed a premium on preclinical approaches, i.e., animal experiments. As such, it is important for preclinical experiments not only to be held to high standards but also to be reported in a manner which improves translation to clinical utility. Here I address this latter issue, that of optimization of reporting of preclinical as well as clinical experiments. I do this by providing a list of pertinent information and data which, in my opinion, phage therapy experiments ought to present in publications, along with tips for best practices. The goal is to improve the ability of readers to gain relevant information from reports on phage therapy research, to allow other researchers greater potential to repeat or extend findings, to ease transitions from preclinical to clinical development, and otherwise simply to improve phage therapy experiments. Targeted are not just authors but also reviewers, other critical readers, writers of commentaries, and, perhaps, formulators of guidelines or policy. Though emphasizing therapy, many points are applicable to phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria more generally.

  12. Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, Including LSD, PCP, Ketamine, Dextromethorphan. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Research is developing a clearer picture of the dangers of mind-altering drugs. The goal of this report is to present the latest information to providers to help them strengthen their prevention and treatment efforts. A description is presented of dissociative drugs, and consideration is given as to why people take hallucinogens. The physical…

  13. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse treatment... household member. (2) Drug abuse treatment facility. An entity: (i) That holds itself out as providing, and... consent forms signed by such household member that: (i) Requests any drug abuse treatment facility to...

  14. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse treatment... household member. (2) Drug abuse treatment facility. An entity: (i) That holds itself out as providing, and... consent forms signed by such household member that: (i) Requests any drug abuse treatment facility to...

  15. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse treatment... household member. (2) Drug abuse treatment facility. An entity: (i) That holds itself out as providing, and... consent forms signed by such household member that: (i) Requests any drug abuse treatment facility...

  16. 24 CFR 960.205 - Drug use by applicants: Obtaining information from drug treatment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... This section addresses a PHA's authority to request and obtain information from drug abuse treatment... household member. (2) Drug abuse treatment facility. An entity: (i) That holds itself out as providing, and... consent forms signed by such household member that: (i) Requests any drug abuse treatment facility...

  17. Improving postapproval drug safety surveillance: getting better information sooner.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Sean; Strom, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are an important public health concern, accounting for 5% of all hospital admissions and two-thirds of all complications occurring shortly after hospital discharge. There are often long delays between when a drug is approved and when serious ADEs are identified. Recent and ongoing advances in drug safety surveillance include the establishment of government-sponsored networks of population databases, the use of data mining approaches, and the formal integration of diverse sources of drug safety information. These advances promise to reduce delays in identifying drug-related risks and in providing reassurance about the absence of such risks.

  18. Student Affairs Researcher: Information Broker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Thomas D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the skills and research tools necessary for the student affairs researcher to become an agent for organizational learning within the student affairs division and the institution. Draws upon Peter Senge's theory of "The Learning Organization" and discusses the resulting implications for student affairs researchers. (GCP)

  19. Mouse model phenotypes provide information about human drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Hiebert, Tanya; Hardy, Nigel W.; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Dumontier, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Methods for computational drug target identification use information from diverse information sources to predict or prioritize drug targets for known drugs. One set of resources that has been relatively neglected for drug repurposing is animal model phenotype. Results: We investigate the use of mouse model phenotypes for drug target identification. To achieve this goal, we first integrate mouse model phenotypes and drug effects, and then systematically compare the phenotypic similarity between mouse models and drug effect profiles. We find a high similarity between phenotypes resulting from loss-of-function mutations and drug effects resulting from the inhibition of a protein through a drug action, and demonstrate how this approach can be used to suggest candidate drug targets. Availability and implementation: Analysis code and supplementary data files are available on the project Web site at https://drugeffects.googlecode.com. Contact: leechuck@leechuck.de or roh25@aber.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24158600

  20. Drugs and Driving Research in Medicinal Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G

    2017-04-01

    Medicinal drugs that cause drowsiness and inattentiveness may impair driving. The FDA recently emphasized that standardized procedures for measuring drug effects on driving are needed as part of drug registration. Here, I provide an overview of a standardized on-the-road driving test that offers maximal drug sensitivity and uses a real-life outcome measure of driver impairment that is strongly associated with crash risk.

  1. An ethical exploration of barriers to research on controlled drugs

    PubMed Central

    ANDREAE, Michael H; RHODES, Evelyn; BOURGOISE, Tylor; CARTER, George; WHITE, Robert S.; INDYK, Debbie; SACKS, Henry; RHODES, Rosamond

    2016-01-01

    We examine the ethical, social and regulatory barriers that may hamper research on therapeutic potential of certain controversial controlled substances like marijuana, heroin or ketamine. Hazards for individuals and society, and their potential adverse effects on communities may be good reasons for limiting access and justify careful monitoring of certain substances. Overly strict regulations, fear of legal consequences, stigma associated with abuse and populations using illicit drugs, and lack of funding may hinder research on their considerable therapeutic potential. We review the surprisingly sparse literature and address the particular ethical concerns of undue inducement, informed consent, risk to participants, researchers and institutions, justice and liberty germane to the research with illicit and addictive substances. We debate the disparate research stakeholder perspectives and why they are likely to be infected with bias. We propose an empirical research agenda to provide a more evidentiary basis for ethical reasoning. PMID:26982922

  2. The Ontario Drug Policy Research Network: bridging the gap between Research and Drug Policy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sobia; Moore, Julia E; Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Tran, Judy; McAuley, Glenn; Juurlink, David N; Paterson, Michael; Laupacis, Andreas; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2014-09-01

    Policymakers have cited several barriers to using evidence in policy decisions, including lack of research relevance and timeliness. In recent years, several reports have focused on the successes and challenges of researcher-policymaker collaborations, a form of policy engagement intended to help overcome barriers to the use of research evidence in policymaking. Although these reports often demonstrate an increase in research relevance, rarely do they provide concrete methods of enhancing research timeliness, which is surprising given policymakers' expressed need to receive "rapid-response" research. Additionally, the impact of researcher-policymaker collaborations is not well-discussed. In this paper, we aim to describe the collaboration between the Ontario Drug Policy Research Network (ODPRN) and its policymaker partner, the Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP), with a particular focus on the ODPRN's research methodology and unique rapid-response approach for policy engagement. This approach is illustrated through a specific case example regarding drug funding policies for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Moreover, we discuss the impact of the ODPRN's research on pharmaceutical policy and lessons learned throughout the ODPRN and OPDP's five-year partnership. The described experiences will be valuable to those seeking to enhance evidence uptake in policymaking for immediate policy needs.

  3. Where to find information about drugs

    PubMed Central

    Day, Richard O; Snowden, Leone

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Good medicines information is critical to medical practice. Choose high-quality, pre-appraised sources first and make sure they are current. Select the information that is most relevant to the needs of your particular patient. Take the time to become familiar with the features of the resources you use. Australian Medicines Handbook, Therapeutic Guidelines, Australian Prescriber and NPS MedicineWise cover most routine clinical practice needs. PMID:27346917

  4. RFDT: A Rotation Forest-based Predictor for Predicting Drug-Target Interactions using Drug Structure and Protein Sequence Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Yan, Xin; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-14

    Identification of interaction between drugs and target proteins plays an important role in discovering new drug candidates. However, through the experimental method to identify the drug-target interactions remain to be extremely time-consuming, expensive and challenging even nowadays. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new computational methods to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTI). In this article, a novel computational model is developed for predicting potential drug-target interactions under the theory that each drug-target interaction pair can be represented by the structural properties from drugs and evolutionary information derived from proteins. Specifically, the protein sequences are encoded as Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) descriptor which contains information of biological evolutionary and the drug molecules are encoded as fingerprint feature vector which represents the existence of certain functional groups or fragments. Four benchmark datasets involving enzymes, ion channels, GPCRs and nuclear receptors, are independently used for establishing predictive models with Rotation Forest (RF) model. The proposed method achieved the prediction accuracy of 91.3%, 89.1%, 84.1% and 71.1% for four datasets respectively. In order to make our method more persuasive, we compared our classifier with the state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. We also compared the proposed method with other excellent methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in the prediction of DTI, and can provide assistance for new drug research and development.

  5. Medical resident choices of electronic drug information resources.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gregory J; Patel, Priti; Mason, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    To determine medical residents' day-to-day use of drug information resources since their choices of these resources, when faced with common questions, are unknown. An online survey including simulated drug information questions was administered to 146 medical residents in the Department of General Internal Medicine during July 2012. Residents were given a wide range of choices in drug information resources to answer these questions and were instructed to select what they would choose in actual practice. A score was assigned to each resource corresponding to a "best," "intermediate," or "not good" choice. Seventy-three respondents completed the survey and results were analyzed for statistical significance. Fifty-seven percent of respondents reported receiving no formal training regarding drug information. Statistical analyses revealed there were no significant differences in performance based on postgraduate year (P = .43) or extent of prior training (P = .45). Individual question responses revealed a generally infrequent selection of "best" choices. Less than 10% of the respondents chose the "best" answer for drug information questions related to drug interactions, herbal supplements, adverse events, and medication identification. Further training in drug information resource selection is warranted in the medical residency program to increase the frequency of use of higher quality resources. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... Read More "Drug Induced Hearing Loss" Articles Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing / What Is Ototoxicity? Spring 2016 ...

  7. 76 FR 60505 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is opening a comment period for...

  8. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  9. Changing effects of direct-to-consumer broadcast drug advertising information sources on prescription drug requests.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annisa Lai

    2009-06-01

    This study tracks the changes of the effects of 4 information sources for direct-to-consumer drug advertising on patients' requests for prescription drugs from physicians since the inception of the "Guidance for Industry about Consumer-directed Broadcast Advertisements." The Guidance advises pharmaceuticals to use four information sources for consumers to seek further information to supplement broadcast drug advertisements: small-print information, the Internet, a toll-free number, and health-care providers (nurses, doctors, and pharmacists). Logistic models were created by using survey data collected by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and 2002. Results show that throughout the years, health-care providers remain the most used and strongest means associated with patients' direct requests for nonspecific and specific prescription drugs from doctors. The small-print information source gains power and changes from an indirect means associated with patients' discussing drugs with health-care providers to a direct means associated with patients' asking about nonspecific and specific drugs from their doctors. The Internet is not directly related to drug requests, but the effect of its association with patients seeking information from health-care providers grew 11-fold over the course of the study. The toll-free number lost its power altogether for both direct request for a prescription drug and further discussion with health-care providers. Patient demographics will be considered for specific policy implications.

  10. Consumers' preferences for the communication of risk information in drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joel J

    2007-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify consumers' preferences regarding the form, content, and placement of drug side-effect information in direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. Specific questions explored preferences for the presence or absence of numeric information, the use of placebo and discontinuation groups as a context for understanding drug risk, the sequence in which side effects are presented, and the placement of side-effect statements on DTC Web sites. Consumers prefer detailed, readily accessible risk information--preferences that are a major departure from current advertiser practices and from what current and proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations require.

  11. Effect of drug information request templates on pharmacy student compliance with the modified systematic approach to answering drug information questions.

    PubMed

    Lavsa, Stacey M; Corman, Shelby L; Verrico, Margaret M; Pummer, Tara L

    2009-11-01

    The modified systematic approach to answering drug information questions is a technique used in drug information practice and in teaching pharmacy students to effectively provide drug information. Drug information request templates were developed to prompt students and other trainees to ask appropriate background questions and perform an effective search. An evaluation was conducted to determine whether use of drug information templates by fourth-year pharmacy students during their drug information experiential rotation improved compliance with the modified systematic approach. Fifty documented drug information requests, including 25 prior to template implementation (August 2005-August 2006) and 25 after template implementation (August 2007-August 2008), were randomly selected for evaluation. Each question was evaluated for completeness of background information obtained, categorization and identification of the ultimate question, completeness of references searched, and formulation of a concise response and an evidence-based recommendation. Background information was complete in 16% of pre-template questions and 92% of post-template questions (p < 0.001). Eighty-four percent of pre-template questions and 96% of post-template questions were appropriately categorized (p = 0.349). The requestor's ultimate question was clearly identified in 68% of pretemplate questions and 92% of post-template questions (p = 0.074). All necessary references were searched in 36% of pre-template questions and 88% of post-template questions (p < 0.001). A concise response was documented in 80% of pretemplate questions and 92% of post-template questions (p = 0.417). In questions determined to require a specific recommendation among the pre-template (n = 20) and post-template groups (n = 14), a clear and evidence-based recommendation was described in 40% (p = 0.038) and 79% (p = 0.038), respectively. Use of drug information request templates improves students' compliance with the modified

  12. Using personal digital assistants to access drug information.

    PubMed

    McCreadie, Scott R; Stevenson, James G; Sweet, Burgunda V; Kramer, Mike

    2002-07-15

    The use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) to access drug information in a health system is described. Given the widespread use of PDAs at an 872-bed university health system, an opportunity existed to provide current drug information to physicians via these devices. As part of the health system's intranet, extensive online content had been made available through a browser; extension to PDAs was a natural next step. There were two primary requirements: the ability to synchronize information with the database server when a PDA was used and the development of content and applications by using existing staff. Mobile enterprise software was chosen that supports multiple PDA platforms, is easy to use, and does not require programming skills. The software works through customized "channels," or collections of information from a content provider. The customized channel service works over the Internet. Two channels of content were created, an ambulatory care channel and an inpatient care channel. The ambulatory care channel contains a list of preferred ambulatory care agents, poison control information, the locations of outpatient pharmacies, drug information, and safety tips for prescribing. The inpatient channel contains the inpatient formulary, current news and events, information on currrent drug shortages and recalls, pharmacy contact information, and medication safety tips. When a user synchronizes his or her PDA, the software contacts the department's intranet servers and processes the request. The data are compressed and downloaded to the user's PDA. A university health system successfully used PDAs to access drug and other information.

  13. Information Needs and Information-Gathering Behavior of Research Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siess, Judith A.

    Research into both the information needs of engineers engaged in research and development, and the means chosen by engineers to fulfill their information needs are summarized in this condensation of a Master's thesis. Parallel questionnaires were administered in 1981 to 78 engineers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering…

  14. [Importance of drug interactions with smoking in modern drug research].

    PubMed

    Laki, Szilvia; Kalapos-Kovács, Bernadett; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Drug interaction is a process during which a drug's fate in the body or its pharmacological properties are altered by an influencing factor. The extent of the drug interaction's effect can vary. The interaction could result from the modulation by another drug, food, alcohol, caffeine, narcotics, a drug influencing absorption or smoking. Moreover, transporter interactions with smoking could also have a major impact on many drug's efficacy. Clinically relevant drug interactions with smoking were classified in terms of their effect: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and transporter interactions. Policyclic aromatic carbohydrates, found in cigarette smoke, have enzyme inducing properties. The interaction affects mainly the hepatic isoenzyme CYP1A2. Interactions caused by smoking have an effect on all drugs being substrates of and therefore metabolised by CYP1A2. Pharmacokinetic alteration can also occur during the absorption, distribution and elimination process. The pharmacodynamic interactions are mainly caused by the effects of nicotine, a cigarette smoke component. Through interactions, smoking could also modify the activity of transporter proteins, altering this way the ADME properties of many drugs. Since smoking is one of the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation, identifying drug interactions with smoking is the physician's and pharmacist's major responsibility and task. Moreover, it is necessary to identify the patient's smoking habits during a medical treatment. This review aims to investigate the main types of drug interactions (PK/PD), identify factors influencing the activity of CYP enzymes and transporters, and also summarize the mechanisms of the most important drug interactions with smoking and their clinically relevant consequences (Table II-VI.). Drugs, with effects somehow altered by smoking-interactions, have been studied.

  15. Information needs and the role of text mining in drug development.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Phoebe M; Hayes, William S

    2008-01-01

    Drug development generates information needs from groups throughout a company. Knowing where to look for high-quality information is essential for minimizing costs and remaining competitive. Using 1131 research requests that came to our library between 2001 and 2007, we show that drugs, diseases, and genes/proteins are the most frequently searched subjects, and journal articles, patents, and competitive intelligence literature are the most frequently consulted textual resources.

  16. Information for Graduate Research Fellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This booklet, intended for recipients of National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Fellowships, provides specific information in 14 sections covering: (1) the awarding agency and conditions; (2) communication with NSF; (3) the coordinating official at the college or university; (4) procedure for changing address or name; (5) the fellowship period…

  17. SRS Research Information System Thesaurus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Claire K., Ed.

    For information storage and retrieval, a thesaurus is used during indexing and searching processes to translate from natural language into a more restricted retrieval system language. The purpose of this thesaurus is to control the language used to index and retrieve documents of interest to Social and Rehabilitation Service (SRS) and the…

  18. A Collaborative Assessment Among 11 Pharmaceutical Companies of Misinformation in Commonly Used Online Drug Information Compendia

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Amarita S.; Babalola, Olakiitan; Henney, Zachary; Miller, Michele; Nelson, Tanya; Oza, Meerat; Patel, Chandni; Randhawa, Anupma S.; Riley, Joyce; Snyder, Scott; So, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Online drug information compendia (ODIC) are valuable tools that health care professionals (HCPs) and consumers use to educate themselves on pharmaceutical products. Research suggests that these resources, although informative and easily accessible, may contain misinformation, posing risk for product misuse and patient harm. Objective: Evaluate drug summaries within ODIC for accuracy and completeness and identify product-specific misinformation. Methods: Between August 2014 and January 2015, medical information (MI) specialists from 11 pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies systematically evaluated 270 drug summaries within 5 commonly used ODIC for misinformation. Using a standardized approach, errors were identified; classified as inaccurate, incomplete, or omitted; and categorized per sections of the Full Prescribing Information (FPI). On review of each drug summary, content-correction requests were proposed and supported by the respective product’s FPI. Results: Across the 270 drug summaries reviewed within the 5 compendia, the median of the total number of errors identified was 782, with the greatest number of errors occurring in the categories of Dosage and Administration, Patient Education, and Warnings and Precautions. The majority of errors were classified as incomplete, followed by inaccurate and omitted. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates that ODIC may contain misinformation. HCPs and consumers should be aware of the potential for misinformation and consider more than 1 drug information resource, including the FPI and Medication Guide as well as pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies’ MI departments, to obtain unbiased, accurate, and complete product-specific drug information to help support the safe and effective use of prescription drug products. PMID:26917822

  19. A Collaborative Assessment Among 11 Pharmaceutical Companies of Misinformation in Commonly Used Online Drug Information Compendia.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Amarita S; Babalola, Olakiitan; Henney, Zachary; Miller, Michele; Nelson, Tanya; Oza, Meerat; Patel, Chandni; Randhawa, Anupma S; Riley, Joyce; Snyder, Scott; So, Sherri

    2016-05-01

    Online drug information compendia (ODIC) are valuable tools that health care professionals (HCPs) and consumers use to educate themselves on pharmaceutical products. Research suggests that these resources, although informative and easily accessible, may contain misinformation, posing risk for product misuse and patient harm. Evaluate drug summaries within ODIC for accuracy and completeness and identify product-specific misinformation. Between August 2014 and January 2015, medical information (MI) specialists from 11 pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies systematically evaluated 270 drug summaries within 5 commonly used ODIC for misinformation. Using a standardized approach, errors were identified; classified as inaccurate, incomplete, or omitted; and categorized per sections of the Full Prescribing Information (FPI). On review of each drug summary, content-correction requests were proposed and supported by the respective product's FPI. Across the 270 drug summaries reviewed within the 5 compendia, the median of the total number of errors identified was 782, with the greatest number of errors occurring in the categories of Dosage and Administration, Patient Education, and Warnings and Precautions. The majority of errors were classified as incomplete, followed by inaccurate and omitted. This analysis demonstrates that ODIC may contain misinformation. HCPs and consumers should be aware of the potential for misinformation and consider more than 1 drug information resource, including the FPI and Medication Guide as well as pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies' MI departments, to obtain unbiased, accurate, and complete product-specific drug information to help support the safe and effective use of prescription drug products. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Drug target prioritization by perturbed gene expression and network information

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Zerrin; Baldow, Christoph; Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drugs bind to their target proteins, which interact with downstream effectors and ultimately perturb the transcriptome of a cancer cell. These perturbations reveal information about their source, i.e., drugs’ targets. Here, we investigate whether these perturbations and protein interaction networks can uncover drug targets and key pathways. We performed the first systematic analysis of over 500 drugs from the Connectivity Map. First, we show that the gene expression of drug targets is usually not significantly affected by the drug perturbation. Hence, expression changes after drug treatment on their own are not sufficient to identify drug targets. However, ranking of candidate drug targets by network topological measures prioritizes the targets. We introduce a novel measure, local radiality, which combines perturbed genes and functional interaction network information. The new measure outperforms other methods in target prioritization and proposes cancer-specific pathways from drugs to affected genes for the first time. Local radiality identifies more diverse targets with fewer neighbors and possibly less side effects. PMID:26615774

  1. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  2. Information Services for Social Indicators Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Nancy; Parke, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Gives examples of the resources available for social indicators research and describes the activities of the Center for Coordination of Research on Social Indicators in meeting the information needs in this field. (JG)

  3. Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Dose Adjustment Recommendations: Agreement Among Four Drug Information Sources.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Millena Drumond; Soares, Danielly Botelho; Botoni, Fernando Antonio; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras

    2015-09-09

    : Hospitalized patients require the use of a variety of drugs, many of which individually or in combination have the potential to cause kidney damage. The use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is often unavoidable, and the need for dose adjustment should be evaluated. This study is aimed at assessing concordance in information on drug-induced nephrotoxicity and dose adjustment recommendations by comparing four drug information sources (DRUGDEX(®), UpToDate(®), Medscape(®) and the Brazilian Therapeutic Formulary) using the formulary of a Brazilian public hospital. A total of 218 drugs were investigated. The global Fleiss' kappa coefficient was 0.265 for nephrotoxicity (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.211-0.319) and 0.346 for recommendations (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.292-0.401), indicating fair concordance among the sources. Anti-infectives and anti-hypertensives were the main drugs cited as nephrotoxic by the different sources. There were no clear definitions for qualitative data or quantitative values for dose adjustments among the four information sources. There was no advice for dosing for a large number of the drugs in the international databases. The National Therapeutic Formulary offered imprecise dose adjustment recommendations for many nephrotoxic drugs. Discrepancies among information sources may have a clinical impact on patient care and contribute to drug-related morbidity and mortality.

  4. Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Dose Adjustment Recommendations: Agreement Among Four Drug Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Millena Drumond; Soares, Danielly Botelho; Botoni, Fernando Antonio; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras

    2015-01-01

    Hospitalized patients require the use of a variety of drugs, many of which individually or in combination have the potential to cause kidney damage. The use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is often unavoidable, and the need for dose adjustment should be evaluated. This study is aimed at assessing concordance in information on drug-induced nephrotoxicity and dose adjustment recommendations by comparing four drug information sources (DRUGDEX®, UpToDate®, Medscape® and the Brazilian Therapeutic Formulary) using the formulary of a Brazilian public hospital. A total of 218 drugs were investigated. The global Fleiss’ kappa coefficient was 0.265 for nephrotoxicity (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.211–0.319) and 0.346 for recommendations (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.292–0.401), indicating fair concordance among the sources. Anti-infectives and anti-hypertensives were the main drugs cited as nephrotoxic by the different sources. There were no clear definitions for qualitative data or quantitative values for dose adjustments among the four information sources. There was no advice for dosing for a large number of the drugs in the international databases. The National Therapeutic Formulary offered imprecise dose adjustment recommendations for many nephrotoxic drugs. Discrepancies among information sources may have a clinical impact on patient care and contribute to drug-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:26371029

  5. Ocean energy researchers information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on ocean energy systems. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  6. Optimizing information on drug exposure by collection of package code information in questionnaire surveys.

    PubMed

    Quinzler, R; Schmitt, S P W; Szecsenyi, J; Haefeli, W E

    2007-09-01

    The thorough analysis of special drug characteristics requires information on the specific brand of a drug. This information is often not sought in pharmacoepidemiologic surveys although in many countries packages are labelled with an unequivocal code (in Germany called Pharmazentralnummer (PZN)). We aimed to assess the benefit and quality of PZN information collected in self-completed questionnaires. We performed a survey in 905 ambulatory patients who were asked to list brand name, strength, and the PZN of all drugs they were taking. The medication list was completed by 97.5% (n = 882) of the responding patients (mean age 67.3 years). Altogether 5543 drugs (100%) were mentioned in the questionnaires and for 4230 (76.3%) the exact drug package could be allocated on the basis of the PZN. When PZN was considered in addition to the drug name the quality of drug coding was significantly improved (p < 0.001) with regard to the allocation of drug package (74% versus 2%), brand (90% versus 70%), and strength (96% versus 86%). The time needed for drug coding was three times shorter. The high response rate and high fraction of correct PZN indicate that the collection of package code information is a valuable method to achieve more accurate drug data in questionnaire surveys and to facilitate the drug coding procedure. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Drugs in the Workplace: Research and Evaluation Data. Volume II. Research Monograph 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gust, Steven W., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph presents 14 articles on the topics of the nature and extent of drug use by the workforce; drug use and job performance indicators; and drug free workplace program research. These articles are included: (1) Research on Drugs and the Workplace: Introduction and Summary (Steven Gust, Dennis Crouch, J. Michael Walsh); (2) Drug Use…

  8. Drug information systems: evolution of benefits with system maturity.

    PubMed

    Leung, Valerie; Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Benefits from information and communication technology tend to grow over time as system use matures. This study examines pharmacists' experiences with provincial drug information systems (DIS) across Canada. At the time of survey, two provinces had more mature DIS (more than five years) and three provinces had less mature DIS (five years or less).

  9. Assessment and use of drug information references in Utah pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Krystal L; Macdonald, Elyse A; Trovato, Anthony; Tak, Casey R

    2017-01-01

    To determine which drug references Utah pharmacists use most frequently. To determine which types of drug information questions are most commonly asked, and whether Utah pharmacists have access to adequate references to respond to these questions. A 19-question survey was created using Qualtrics, LLC (Provo, Utah) software. An electronic survey link was sent to 1,431 pharmacists with a valid e-mail address listed in the Department of Professional Licensing database. Questions focused on available references in the participant's pharmacy, how current the references are, and the participant's use of the references. Surveys were analyzed for participants practicing in either community or hospital pharmacies in the state of Utah. A total of 147 responses were included in the analysis. Approximately 44% of respondents practiced in the community, and 56% practiced in a hospital setting. The most commonly used references by Utah pharmacists are Micromedex, Lexicomp, UpToDate, Clinical Pharmacology, and Drug Facts & Comparisons. Pharmacists in the community frequently receive questions related to adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and over-the-counter medications. Pharmacists in the hospital frequently receive questions relating to dosage and administration, drug interactions, and adverse drug reactions. About 89% of community pharmacists and 96% of hospital pharmacists feel available references are adequate to answer the questions they receive. Utah pharmacists generally use large reference suites to answer drug information questions. The majority of pharmacists consider the references available to them to be adequate to answer the questions they receive.

  10. Science and scepticism: Drug information, young men and counterpublic health.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Adrian; Fraser, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    It is perhaps no surprise that young people can be sceptical of the drug-related information they receive in school-based health education, health promotion and the media. Significant societal anxiety surrounds young people's drug consumption, so it is tempting to approach this scepticism as a problem to be solved. In this article, we look closely at a group of young Australian men (n = 25), all of whom hold deeply sceptical views about the drug information they received in schools, social marketing campaigns and public speech generally. We do not approach their scepticism as a problem to be solved in itself, however. Instead, we analyse its origins and how it relates to the way knowledge is constructed in drug education, health promotion and media accounts of drug use. To conceptualise this scepticism, we draw on Irwin and Michael's analysis of the changing relationship between science and society, Warner's theorisation of publics and counterpublics, and Race's related notion of 'counterpublic health'. The article organises the data into three key themes: scepticism about the accuracy of the claims made about drug risks and dangers, scepticism about representations of drug users, and scepticism about the motivations behind the health messages and drug policy in general. We then draw these different aspects of scepticism together to argue that the young men can be seen to constitute a health 'counterpublic', and we consider the implications of this approach, arguing for what has been described as a more diplomatic engagement between science and publics.

  11. Research in the field of drug therapy safety management

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Horst; Aly, Amin-Farid

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, the Coordination Group for the implementation and continuation of the agenda for improving medication safety in Germany published a memorandum on the development of research in the field of drug therapy safety management (Memorandum on Drug Therapy Safety Management Research). The memorandum highlights the need for research into this field for the German health care system. It describes current research objectives, thematic priorities and the characteristics of the methodology of drug therapy safety management research. After presenting the current state of research into drug therapy safety management, suggestions are made regarding further necessary activities. PMID:24007447

  12. Minimising Risks in Research-Informed Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresty, Karen; Heffernan, Troy; Pan, Wei; Edwards-Jones, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Reported benefits of research-informed teaching include enhanced student engagement and graduates that are better prepared for employment in an uncertain world. However, there are a number of academic risks that can have both positive and negative impacts on staff and students when implementing research-informed teaching. Mitigating such risks…

  13. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  14. Drug testing in Europe: monitoring results of the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; Nagy, Constanze; Bücheli, Alexander; Martins, Daniel; Ugarte, Miren; Beduwe, Cécile; Ventura Vilamala, Mireia

    2017-02-01

    Drug testing is a harm reduction strategy that has been adopted by certain countries in Europe. Drug users are able to hand in their drugs voluntarily for chemical analysis of composition and dose. Drug users will be alerted about dangerous test results by the drug testing systems directly and through warning campaigns. An international collaborative effort was launched to combine data of drug testing systems, called the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project. Drug testing systems of Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, and the Netherlands participated in this project. This study presents results of some of the main illicit drugs encountered: cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine and also comments on new psychoactive substances (NPS) detected between 2008 and 2013. A total of 45 859 different drug samples were analyzed by TEDI. The drug markets of the distinct European areas showed similarities, but also some interesting differences. For instance, purity of cocaine and amphetamine powders was generally low in Austria, whilst high in Spain and the Netherlands. And the market for ecstasy showed a contrast: whereas in the Netherlands and Switzerland there was predominantly a market for ecstasy tablets, in Portugal and Spain MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) crystals were much more prevalent. Also, some NPS appearing in ecstasy seemed more specific for one country than another. In general, prevalence of NPS clearly increased between 2008 and 2013. Drug testing can be used to generate a global picture of drug markets and provides information about the pharmacological contents of drugs for the population at risk. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis Research, CSUSB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    confidential  information and then shared with USMA  and CSUSB.                  Appendix 3  Integrated Information  Technology  Policy Analysis Research, CSUSB  22...E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 12-10-2010 Annual / Final July 1, 2009 – June 30, 2010 Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis...Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis Research 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407 U.S. Army Research Laboratory Attn: Mr

  16. Informed consent: an international researchers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Roberto; Borasky, David; Rice, Robert; Carayon, Florence; Wong, Emelita

    2007-01-01

    We reported 164 researchers' recommendations for information that should be included in the informed consent process. These recommendations were obtained during training workshops conducted in Africa, Europe, and the United States. The 8 elements of informed consent of the US Code of Federal Regulations were used to identify 95 items of information ("points"), most related to benefits and research description. Limited consensus was found among the 3 workshops: of the 95 points, only 27 (28%) were identified as useful by all groups. These points serve as a springboard for identifying information applicable in different geographic areas and indicate the need for involving a variety of individuals and stakeholders, with different research and cultural perspectives, in the development of informed consent, particularly for research undertaken in international settings.

  17. Constituting Information Technology Research: The Experience of IT Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Binh; Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The collective consciousness of effective groups of researchers is characterized by shared understandings of their research object or territory. In this study, we adopted a phenomenographic approach to investigate information technology (IT) research, and its objects and territories, as they are constituted in the experience of IT researchers.…

  18. Stimulation programs for pediatric drug research – do children really benefit?

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Isabelle; Sukhai, Rám N.; Klein, Richard H.; Holl, Robert A.; Wit, Jan M.; Cohen, Adam F.

    2007-01-01

    Most drugs that are currently prescribed in pediatrics have not been tested in children. Pediatric drug studies are stimulated in the USA by the pediatric exclusivity provision under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) that grants patent extensions when pediatric labeling is provided. We investigated the effectiveness of these programs in stimulating drug research in children, thereby increasing the evidence for safe and effective drug use in the pediatric population. All drugs granted pediatric exclusivity under the FDAMA were analyzed by studying the relevant summaries of medical and clinical pharmacology reviews of the pediatric studies or, if these were unavailable, the labeling information as provided by the manufacturer. A systematic search of the literature was performed to identify drug utilization patterns in children. From July 1998 to August 2006, 135 drug entities were granted pediatric exclusivity. Most frequent drug groups were anti-depressants and mood stabilizers, ACE inhibitors, lipid-lowering preparations, HIV antivirals, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic drugs. The distribution of the different drugs closely matched the distribution of these drugs over the adult market, and not the drug utilization by children. Many drug studies in children have been performed since the introduction of the FDAMA. However, children infrequently use the drugs granted pediatric exclusivity. The priorities for pediatric drug research should be set by the need of the patients, not by market considerations. PMID:17225950

  19. NSF Support for Information Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Charles N.

    1986-01-01

    Major research opportunities and needs are expected by the National Science Foundation in six areas of information science: models of adaptive information processing, learning, searching, and recognition; knowledge resource systems, particularly intelligent systems; user-system interaction; augmentation of human information processing tasks;…

  20. The Research Uses of Visual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jussim, Estelle

    1977-01-01

    Visual information is not yet in common usage among librarians. It is hoped that the term will be adopted by the information profession at large as new areas of research develop which depend largely on nonverbal documents. A decision must be made as to which forms of visual information will be needed for--scholarly and scientific use. (Author/AP)

  1. Information Technology and the Human Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klee, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews how information technology supports the Human Research Facility (HRF) and specifically the uses that contractor has for the information. There is information about the contractor, the HRF, some of the experiments that were performed using the HRF on board the Shuttle, overviews of the data architecture, and software both commercial and specially developed software for the specific experiments.

  2. Applied Information Systems Research Program Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredekamp, Joe

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Applied Information Systems Research Program Workshop are presented. Topics covered include: the Earth Observing System Data and Information System; the planetary data system; Astrophysics Data System project review; OAET Computer Science and Data Systems Programs; the Center of Excellence in Space Data and Information Sciences; and CASIS background.

  3. The Research Uses of Visual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jussim, Estelle

    1977-01-01

    Visual information is not yet in common usage among librarians. It is hoped that the term will be adopted by the information profession at large as new areas of research develop which depend largely on nonverbal documents. A decision must be made as to which forms of visual information will be needed for--scholarly and scientific use. (Author/AP)

  4. Forestry Researchers as Information Users in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedigba, Yakub A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of survey studying information gathering habits of forestry research scientists in Nigeria indicate that: most consult two or more information sources; organizational libraries and literature are major sources of scientific information; and accessibility, convenience, reliability, ease of use, and language are key factors in choosing…

  5. [Advance in researches of drugs derived from marine bacteria].

    PubMed

    Lin, Bai-Xue; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2005-08-01

    Marine bacteria are capable of producing a lot of unique bioactive substances, and therefore provide a luxuriant resource for screening new drugs. Bioactive substances derived from marine bacteria have bright prospect in marine drugs development and research.

  6. A perspective on the prediction of drug pharmacokinetics and disposition in drug research and development.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Feng, Bo; Goosen, Theunis C; Lai, Yurong; Steyn, Stefanus J; Varma, Manthena V; Obach, R Scott

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of human pharmacokinetics of new drugs, as well as other disposition attributes, has become a routine practice in drug research and development. Prior to the 1990s, drug disposition science was used in a mostly descriptive manner in the drug development phase. With the advent of in vitro methods and availability of human-derived reagents for in vitro studies, drug-disposition scientists became engaged in the compound design phase of drug discovery to optimize and predict human disposition properties prior to nomination of candidate compounds into the drug development phase. This has reaped benefits in that the attrition rate of new drug candidates in drug development for reasons of unacceptable pharmacokinetics has greatly decreased. Attributes that are predicted include clearance, volume of distribution, half-life, absorption, and drug-drug interactions. In this article, we offer our experience-based perspectives on the tools and methods of predicting human drug disposition using in vitro and animal data.

  7. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  8. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  9. Data-intensive drug development in the information age: applications of Systems Biology/Pharmacology/Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kiyosawa, Naoki; Manabe, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies continuously face challenges to deliver new drugs with true medical value. R&D productivity of drug development projects depends on 1) the value of the drug concept and 2) data and in-depth knowledge that are used rationally to evaluate the drug concept's validity. A model-based data-intensive drug development approach is a key competitive factor used by innovative pharmaceutical companies to reduce information bias and rationally demonstrate the value of drug concepts. Owing to the accumulation of publicly available biomedical information, our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases has developed considerably; it is the basis for identifying the right drug target and creating a drug concept with true medical value. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of disease animal models can also be improved; it can thus support rational extrapolation of animal experiment results to clinical settings. The Systems Biology approach, which leverages publicly available transcriptome data, is useful for these purposes. Furthermore, applying Systems Pharmacology enables dynamic simulation of drug responses, from which key research questions to be addressed in the subsequent studies can be adequately informed. Application of Systems Biology/Pharmacology to toxicology research, namely Systems Toxicology, should considerably improve the predictability of drug-induced toxicities in clinical situations that are difficult to predict from conventional preclinical toxicology studies. Systems Biology/Pharmacology/Toxicology models can be continuously improved using iterative learn-confirm processes throughout preclinical and clinical drug discovery and development processes. Successful implementation of data-intensive drug development approaches requires cultivation of an adequate R&D culture to appreciate this approach.

  10. Using geographic information systems in injury research.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    To provide an overview of geographic information systems (GIS) and to discuss current and future applications in injury and trauma research. Literature review and discourse of GIS technology related to injury and trauma research. A search of scientific literature databases, text books, and online resources was undertaken to describe the current and prospective uses of GIS in injury and trauma research. Geographic information systems are computerized mapping systems that link information from different data sets spatially. The advantage of GIS is the capability to graphically display different attributes of an area in a way that is easily interpretable. Geographic information systems have been used to study injury rates, describe populations at risk for injury, examine access to trauma care, and develop and assess injury prevention programs. Geographic information systems are tools for injury researchers to analyze injury rates and risks and to describe their results with colorful maps and graphics that allow the public to see how injuries affect their communities.

  11. Combining imaging with microbiopsy enables a more comprehensive approach for topical drug research (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prow, Tarl W.

    2017-02-01

    Topical drug delivery is a challenging research field, but quantifying topical drug delivery also has significant challenges, especially in the clinical studies. Both cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical endpoints largely drive research in this area. Conventional drug delivery approaches primarily rely on testing trans dermal drug kinetics using excised skin in Franz cells. Thus is a largely unmet need for non- and minimally invasive approaches to evaluate topical drug delivery and efficacy in excised and volunteer skin. We are meeting this need through the development of non-invasive imaging based approaches such as fluorescent dermoscopy, fluorescence scanning and confocal microscopy followed by image analysis. Minimally invasive microbiopsies are being used to extract drug concentrations from tiny pieces of skin without the need for local anaesthetics and without scars. This combined strategy enables us to collect drug disposition information in addition to skin morphology and molecular characterisation which provides a more dynamic and comprehensive way to examine drug deliver, effects of enhancement technologies and efficacy.

  12. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Boulos, Maged N K; Dzenowagis, Joan H

    2008-11-06

    Web 2.0 technologies, where users participate in content production, are increasingly used as informational and educational resources. Wikipedia is frequently cited by students in the healthcare professions. This study compared the accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia to Medscape Drug Reference, a traditionally-edited resource. Wikipedia answered fewer questions [40.0% vs. 82.5%] (p<0.001) and was less complete (p=0.00076) than Medscape. No gross errors were found in Wikipedia and its content has improved over time.

  13. Short Communication: Drug Information Unit as an Effective Tool for Promoting Rational Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Singh, Harmanjit; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rapid developments in medical and biological sciences have led to emergence of huge information on drugs and various diseases. But accessing this vast information has limits and rational selection of drugs and utilization of drugs have become more complex. Information regarding the various aspects of drugs may be conveyed by drug information units which run only in specified tertiary care institutional units, to the physicians who treat the patients in the hospital and to the general practitioners outside, in emergencies and in normal situations. Methods: The queries of clients were obtained by means of phone calls from 9.00 a.m to 5. 00 pm, during 1 month’s stay in a DIU. A resident of Clinical Pharmacology collected necessary data on therapeutic problems of patients (age and sex of the patient, other drugs which were taken, present diseases, whether department was in PGIMER, the place etc.). After solving the problems by using electronic databases or hardcopy sources like established facts in standard text book of medicine , pharmacology or in standard articles and with a final approval from the senior clinical pharmacologist, resident delivered the information to the clients as early as possible, without any delay (by phone). Results and Conclusion: From the results, it was found that around 59% of the phone calls were regarding drug interactions and adverse reactions, 11% were regarding efficacy and that 30% were regarding the preferred routes and dosing. We concluded that the information that most of the healthcare professionals aimed to get, were the various drug interactions which had taken place during their therapeutic interventions. PMID:24179960

  14. Short communication: drug information unit as an effective tool for promoting rational drug use.

    PubMed

    Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Singh, Harmanjit

    2013-09-01

    The rapid developments in medical and biological sciences have led to emergence of huge information on drugs and various diseases. But accessing this vast information has limits and rational selection of drugs and utilization of drugs have become more complex. Information regarding the various aspects of drugs may be conveyed by drug information units which run only in specified tertiary care institutional units, to the physicians who treat the patients in the hospital and to the general practitioners outside, in emergencies and in normal situations. The queries of clients were obtained by means of phone calls from 9.00 a.m to 5. 00 pm, during 1 month's stay in a DIU. A resident of Clinical Pharmacology collected necessary data on therapeutic problems of patients (age and sex of the patient, other drugs which were taken, present diseases, whether department was in PGIMER, the place etc.). After solving the problems by using electronic databases or hardcopy sources like established facts in standard text book of medicine , pharmacology or in standard articles and with a final approval from the senior clinical pharmacologist, resident delivered the information to the clients as early as possible, without any delay (by phone). From the results, it was found that around 59% of the phone calls were regarding drug interactions and adverse reactions, 11% were regarding efficacy and that 30% were regarding the preferred routes and dosing. We concluded that the information that most of the healthcare professionals aimed to get, were the various drug interactions which had taken place during their therapeutic interventions.

  15. Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons. Treatment Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Advanced Studies, Washington, DC.

    This report, based on a 1979 national survey of drug abuse treatment programs in the prisons of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, presents data on 160 operational programs. Descriptive information on the identification of drug-dependent inmates and the provision of drug abuse treatment by state adult correctional institutions is…

  16. Drugs and Sex. The Nonmedical Use of Drugs and Sexual Behavior. National Institute on Drugs Research Issues 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report represents the second in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews some of the major research findings which explore the relationship between nonmedical drug use and sexual behavior. The research is summarized and…

  17. China's landscape in oncology drug research: perspectives from research collaboration networks.

    PubMed

    You, Han; Ni, Jingyun; Barber, Michael; Scherngell, Thomas; Hu, Yuanjia

    2015-04-01

    Better understanding of China's landscape in oncology drug research is of great significance for discovering anti-cancer drugs in future. This article differs from previous studies by focusing on Chinese oncology drug research communities in co-publication networks at the institutional level. Moreover, this research aims to explore structures and behaviors of relevant research units by thematic community analysis and to address policy recommendations. This research used social network analysis to define an institutions network and to identify a community network which is characterized by thematic content. A total of 675 sample articles from 2008 through 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database of Web of Science, and top institutions and institutional pairs are highlighted for further discussion. Meanwhile, this study revealed that institutions based in the Chinese mainland are located in a relatively central position, Taiwan's institutions are closely assembled on the side, and Hong Kong's units located in the middle of the Chinese mainland's and Taiwan's. Spatial division and institutional hierarchy are still critical barriers to research collaboration in the field of anti-cancer drugs in China. In addition, the communities focusing on hot research areas show the higher nodal degree, whereas communities giving more attention to rare research subjects are relatively marginalized to the periphery of network. This paper offers policy recommendations to accelerate cross-regional cooperation, such as through developing information technology and increasing investment. The brokers should focus more on outreach to other institutions. Finally, participation in topics of common interest is conducive to improved efficiency in research and development (R&D) resource allocation.

  18. China’s landscape in oncology drug research: perspectives from research collaboration networks

    PubMed Central

    You, Han; Ni, Jingyun; Barber, Michael; Scherngell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Better understanding of China’s landscape in oncology drug research is of great significance for discovering anti-cancer drugs in future. This article differs from previous studies by focusing on Chinese oncology drug research communities in co-publication networks at the institutional level. Moreover, this research aims to explore structures and behaviors of relevant research units by thematic community analysis and to address policy recommendations. Methods This research used social network analysis to define an institutions network and to identify a community network which is characterized by thematic content. Results A total of 675 sample articles from 2008 through 2012 were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database of Web of Science, and top institutions and institutional pairs are highlighted for further discussion. Meanwhile, this study revealed that institutions based in the Chinese mainland are located in a relatively central position, Taiwan’s institutions are closely assembled on the side, and Hong Kong’s units located in the middle of the Chinese mainland’s and Taiwan’s. Spatial division and institutional hierarchy are still critical barriers to research collaboration in the field of anti-cancer drugs in China. In addition, the communities focusing on hot research areas show the higher nodal degree, whereas communities giving more attention to rare research subjects are relatively marginalized to the periphery of network. Conclusions This paper offers policy recommendations to accelerate cross-regional cooperation, such as through developing information technology and increasing investment. The brokers should focus more on outreach to other institutions. Finally, participation in topics of common interest is conducive to improved efficiency in research and development (R&D) resource allocation. PMID:25937775

  19. Neonatal Safety Information Reported to the FDA During Drug Development Studies

    PubMed Central

    Avant, Debbie; Baer, Gerri; Moore, Jason; Zheng, Panli; Sorbello, Alfred; Ariagno, Ron; Yao, Lynne; Burckart, Gilbert J.; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Background Relatively few neonatal drug development studies have been conducted, but an increase is expected with the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). Understanding the safety of drugs studied in neonates is complicated by the unique nature of the population and the level of illness. The objective of this study was to examine neonatal safety data submitted to the FDA in studies pursuant to the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) and the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) between 1998 and 2015. Methods FDA databases were searched for BPCA and/or PREA studies that enrolled neonates. Studies that enrolled a minimum of 3 neonates were analyzed for the presence and content of neonatal safety data. Results The analysis identified 40 drugs that were studied in 3 or more neonates. Of the 40 drugs, 36 drugs received a pediatric labeling change as a result of studies between 1998 and 2015, that included information from studies including neonates. Fourteen drugs were approved for use in neonates. Clinical trials for 20 of the drugs reported serious adverse events (SAEs) in neonates. The SAEs primarily involved cardiovascular events such as bradycardia and/or hypotension or laboratory abnormalities such as anemia, neutropenia, and electrolyte disturbances. Deaths were reported during studies of 9 drugs. Conclusions Our analysis revealed that SAEs were reported in studies involving 20 of the 40 drugs evaluated in neonates, with deaths identified in 9 of those studies. Patients enrolled in studies were often critically ill, which complicated determination of whether an adverse event was drug-related. We conclude that the traditional means for collecting safety information in drug development trials needs to be adjusted for neonates and will require the collaboration of regulators, industry, and the clinical and research communities to establish appropriate definitions and reporting strategies for the neonatal

  20. Research and Information Collection Partnership Meeting Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Advisory Committee recommended formation of a Research and Information Collection Partnership (RICP). The responsibilities of the RICP are found in Section 4.0 of the TCRDSAC Agreement in Principle.

  1. Default Drug Doses in Anesthesia Information Management Systems.

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Luis I; Smaka, Todd J; Mahla, Michael; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-07-01

    In the United States, anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are well established, especially within academic practices. Many hospitals are replacing their stand-alone AIMS during migration to an enterprise-wide electronic health record. This presents an opportunity to review choices made during the original implementation, based on actual usage. One area amenable to this informatics approach is the configuration in the AIMS of quick buttons for typical drug doses. The use of such short cuts, as opposed to manual typing of doses, simplifies and may improve the accuracy of drug documentation within the AIMS. We analyzed administration data from 3 different institutions, 2 of which had empirically configured default doses, and one in which defaults had not been set up. Our first hypothesis was that most (ie, >50%) of drugs would need at least one change to the existing defaults. Our second hypothesis was that for most (>50%) drugs, the 4 most common doses at the site lacking defaults would be included among the most common doses at the 2 sites with defaults. If true, this would suggest that having default doses did not affect the typical administration behavior of providers. The frequency distribution of doses for all drugs was determined, and the 4 most common doses representing at least 5% of total administrations for each drug were identified. The appropriateness of the current defaults was determined by the number of changes (0-4) required to match actual usage at the 2 hospitals with defaults. At the institution without defaults, the most frequent doses for the 20 most commonly administered drugs were compared with the default doses at the other institutions. At the 2 institutions with defaults, 84.7% and 77.5% of drugs required at least 1 change in the default drug doses (P < 10 for both compared with 50%), confirming our first hypothesis. At the institution lacking the default drug doses, 100% of the 20 most commonly administered doses (representing

  2. Medicare prescription drug coverage: Consumer information and preferences

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Joachim; Balza, Rowilma; Caro, Frank; Heiss, Florian; Jun, Byung-hill; Matzkin, Rosa; McFadden, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We investigate prescription drug use, and information and enrollment intentions for the new Medicare Part D drug insurance program, using a sample of Medicare-eligible subjects surveyed before open enrollment began for this program. We find that, despite the complexity of competing plans offered by private insurers under Part D, a majority of the Medicare population had information on this program and a substantial majority planned to enroll. We find that virtually all elderly, even those with no current prescription drug use, can expect to benefit from enrollment in a Part D Standard plan at the low premiums available in the current market. However, there is a significant risk that many eligible seniors, particularly low-income elderly with poor health or cognitive impairment, will make poor enrollment and plan choices. PMID:16682629

  3. Bayesian Models Leveraging Bioactivity and Cytotoxicity Information for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean; Reynolds, Robert C.; Kim, Hiyun; Koo, Mi-Sun; Ekonomidis, Marilyn; Talaue, Meliza; Paget, Steve D.; Woolhiser, Lisa K.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Bunin, Barry A.; Connell, Nancy; Freundlich, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Identification of unique leads represents a significant challenge in drug discovery. This hurdle is magnified in neglected diseases such as tuberculosis. We have leveraged public high-throughput screening (HTS) data, to experimentally validate virtual screening approach employing Bayesian models built with bioactivity information (single-event model) as well as bioactivity and cytotoxicity information (dual-event model). We virtually screen a commercial library and experimentally confirm actives with hit rates exceeding typical HTS results by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The first dual-event Bayesian model identified compounds with antitubercular whole-cell activity and low mammalian cell cytotoxicity from a published set of antimalarials. The most potent hit exhibits the in vitro activity and in vitro/in vivo safety profile of a drug lead. These Bayesian models offer significant economies in time and cost to drug discovery. PMID:23521795

  4. Twin and Triplet Drugs in Opioid Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hideaki

    Twin and triplet drugs are defined as compounds that contain respectively two and three pharmacophore components exerting pharmacological effects in a molecule. The twin drug bearing the same pharmacophores is a "symmetrical twin drug", whereas that possessing different pharmacophores is a "nonsymmetrical twin drug." In general, the symmetrical twin drug is expected to produce more potent and/or selective pharmacological effects, whereas the nonsymmetrical twin drug is anticipated to show both pharmacological activities stemming from the individual pharmacophores (dual action). On the other hand, nonsymmetrical triplet drugs, which have two of the same pharmacophores and one different moiety, are expected to elicit both increased pharmacological action and dual action. The two identical portions could bind the same receptor sites simultaneously while the third portion could bind a different receptor site or enzyme. This review will mainly focus on the twin and triplet drugs with an evaluation of their in vivo pharmacological effects, and will also include a description of their pharmacology and synthesis.

  5. Assessment and use of drug information references in Utah pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine which drug references Utah pharmacists use most frequently. To determine which types of drug information questions are most commonly asked, and whether Utah pharmacists have access to adequate references to respond to these questions. Methods: A 19-question survey was created using Qualtrics, LLC (Provo, Utah) software. An electronic survey link was sent to 1,431 pharmacists with a valid e-mail address listed in the Department of Professional Licensing database. Questions focused on available references in the participant’s pharmacy, how current the references are, and the participant’s use of the references. Surveys were analyzed for participants practicing in either community or hospital pharmacies in the state of Utah. Results: A total of 147 responses were included in the analysis. Approximately 44% of respondents practiced in the community, and 56% practiced in a hospital setting. The most commonly used references by Utah pharmacists are Micromedex, Lexicomp, UpToDate, Clinical Pharmacology, and Drug Facts & Comparisons. Pharmacists in the community frequently receive questions related to adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and over-the-counter medications. Pharmacists in the hospital frequently receive questions relating to dosage and administration, drug interactions, and adverse drug reactions. About 89% of community pharmacists and 96% of hospital pharmacists feel available references are adequate to answer the questions they receive. Conclusions: Utah pharmacists generally use large reference suites to answer drug information questions. The majority of pharmacists consider the references available to them to be adequate to answer the questions they receive. PMID:28503217

  6. Teacher Activity Package; Drug Information. Grades 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Educational Service Agency 8, Appleton, WI.

    This drug information package contains factual materials for the teacher to use with primary and intermediate students. But the total program emphasizes using the factual materials in conjunction with having students learn more about themselves, their values, and how to make decisions. The activities are geared toward several essential areas of…

  7. Automatic Indexing of Drug Information. Project MEDICO Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artandi, Susan

    The broad objective of this investigation was to explore the potential and applicability of automatic methods for the indexing of drug-related information appearing in English natural language text and to find out what can be learned about automatic indexing in general from the experience. More specific objectives were the development,…

  8. Information Searching Behaviour of Young Slovenian Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilar, Polona; Zumer, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an empirical study of information behaviour of young Slovenian researchers. Design/methodology/approach: Built on some well-known models of scholarly information behaviour the study complements a previously conducted study of the same population, which focused on the aspects of user…

  9. Research in Library Reference/Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo

    1983-01-01

    This review of library reference service research, which focuses on the provision of information in response to questions, covers measurement of reference service, evaluation using unobtrusive techniques, online search services, information needs and uses, the process of asking and answering questions, and artificial intelligence. Eighty-four…

  10. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information... Operators to Report Contractor Management Information System (MIS) Data; and New Method for Operators to... ``user name'' and ``password'' for the Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS)...

  11. Knowledge and Policy: Research--Information--Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Keiner, Edwin; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Ozga, Jenny; Yates, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    At the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland, the EERJ Roundtable focused upon the relationships between information, research and intervention. These relationships could be understood as a circular flow of decontextualising and recontextualising terms, concepts or "knowledge" according to the respective…

  12. Knowledge and Policy: Research--Information--Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Keiner, Edwin; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Ozga, Jenny; Yates, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    At the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland, the EERJ Roundtable focused upon the relationships between information, research and intervention. These relationships could be understood as a circular flow of decontextualising and recontextualising terms, concepts or "knowledge" according to the respective…

  13. Access to Research Information Using Integrated Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Susan M.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the schedules, preferences, and varied information needs of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine (Texas), a system of computer and telecommunications technologies was developed to facilitate research and project planning. The system integrates cellular phones, voice mail, facsimile publishing, distributed document delivery, and…

  14. Teaching Information Literacy through "Un-Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosier, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Students who write essays on research topics in which no outside sources are cited and where accuracy is treated as negotiable should generally not expect to receive good grades, especially in an information literacy course. However, asking students to do just this was the first step in the "un-research project," a twist on the familiar…

  15. Clinical decision support tools: analysis of online drug information databases

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Kevin A; Marsh, Wallace A; Polen, Hyla H; Seamon, Matthew J; Ortiz, Blanca I

    2007-01-01

    Background Online drug information databases are used to assist in enhancing clinical decision support. However, the choice of which online database to consult, purchase or subscribe to is likely made based on subjective elements such as history of use, familiarity, or availability during professional training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical decision support tools for drug information by systematically comparing the most commonly used online drug information databases. Methods Five commercially available and two freely available online drug information databases were evaluated according to scope (presence or absence of answer), completeness (the comprehensiveness of the answers), and ease of use. Additionally, a composite score integrating all three criteria was utilized. Fifteen weighted categories comprised of 158 questions were used to conduct the analysis. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to summarize the evaluation components and make comparisons between databases. Scheffe's multiple comparison procedure was used to determine statistically different scope and completeness scores. The composite score was subjected to sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the choice of percentages for scope and completeness. Results The rankings for the databases from highest to lowest, based on composite scores were Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Lexi-Comp Online, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Epocrates Online Premium, RxList.com, and Epocrates Online Free. Differences in scope produced three statistical groupings with Group 1 (best) performers being: Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Lexi-Comp Online, Group 2: Epocrates Premium and RxList.com and Group 3: Epocrates Free (p < 0.05). Completeness scores were similarly stratified. Collapsing the databases into two groups by access (subscription or free), showed the subscription databases performed better than the free databases in the measured criteria (p < 0

  16. Clinical decision support tools: analysis of online drug information databases.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Marsh, Wallace A; Polen, Hyla H; Seamon, Matthew J; Ortiz, Blanca I

    2007-03-08

    Online drug information databases are used to assist in enhancing clinical decision support. However, the choice of which online database to consult, purchase or subscribe to is likely made based on subjective elements such as history of use, familiarity, or availability during professional training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical decision support tools for drug information by systematically comparing the most commonly used online drug information databases. Five commercially available and two freely available online drug information databases were evaluated according to scope (presence or absence of answer), completeness (the comprehensiveness of the answers), and ease of use. Additionally, a composite score integrating all three criteria was utilized. Fifteen weighted categories comprised of 158 questions were used to conduct the analysis. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to summarize the evaluation components and make comparisons between databases. Scheffe's multiple comparison procedure was used to determine statistically different scope and completeness scores. The composite score was subjected to sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the choice of percentages for scope and completeness. The rankings for the databases from highest to lowest, based on composite scores were Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Lexi-Comp Online, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Epocrates Online Premium, RxList.com, and Epocrates Online Free. Differences in scope produced three statistical groupings with Group 1 (best) performers being: Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Lexi-Comp Online, Group 2: Epocrates Premium and RxList.com and Group 3: Epocrates Free (p < 0.05). Completeness scores were similarly stratified. Collapsing the databases into two groups by access (subscription or free), showed the subscription databases performed better than the free databases in the measured criteria (p < 0.001). Online drug

  17. The Drug Facts Box: Improving the communication of prescription drug information.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven

    2013-08-20

    Communication about prescription drugs ought to be a paragon of public science communication. Unfortunately, it is not. Consumers see $4 billion of direct-to-consumer advertising annually, which typically fails to present data about how well drugs work. The professional label--the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mechanism to get physicians information needed for appropriate prescribing--may also fail to present benefit data. FDA labeling guidance, in fact, suggests that industry omit benefit data for new drugs in an existing class and for drugs approved on the basis of unfamiliar outcomes (such as depression rating scales). The medical literature is also problematic: there is selective reporting of favorable trials, favorable outcomes within trials, and "spinning" unfavorable results to maximize benefit and minimize harm. In contrast, publicly available FDA reviews always include the phase 3 trial data on benefit and harm, which are the basis of drug approval. However, these reviews are practically inaccessible: lengthy, poorly organized, and weakly summarized. To improve accessibility, we developed the Drug Facts Box: a one-page summary of benefit and harm data for each indication of a drug. A series of studies--including national randomized trials--demonstrates that most consumers understand the Drug Facts Box and that it improves decision-making. Despite calls from their own Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Congress (in the Affordable Care Act) to consider implementing boxes, the FDA announced it needs at least 3-5 y more to make a decision. Given its potential public health impact, physicians and the public should not have to wait that long for better drug information.

  18. 75 FR 12756 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prescription Drug Advertisements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS..., contained in FDA's regulations on prescription drug advertisements. DATES: Submit written or electronic... of information technology. Prescription Drug Advertisements--21 CFR 202.1 (OMB Control Number 0910...

  19. 75 FR 47604 - Guidance for Industry on Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly 2003D-0571) Guidance for Industry on Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  20. 76 FR 50736 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Extra Label Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Extra Label Drug Use in Animals AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an opportunity for...

  1. 78 FR 35277 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Orphan Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Orphan Drugs; Common European Medicines Agency/Food and Drug Administration Application Form for Orphan Medicinal Product Designation (Form FDA 3671) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...

  2. 76 FR 3910 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Orphan Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Orphan Drugs; Common European Medicines Agency/Food and Drug Administration Application Form for Orphan Medicinal Product Designation (Form FDA 3671) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...

  3. Drug Abuse Prevention: A Guide to Speakers. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series 19, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This directory is intended as a resource for persons requiring knowledge about speaker's bureaus concerned with drug abuse prevention throughout the country. Information is derived from the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information National Inventory of Drug Abuse Programs, part of a comprehensive computerized information-retrieval system…

  4. Strategic approach to information security and assurance in health research.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Shunichi; Igarashi, Manabu; Sawa, Hirofumi; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2005-09-01

    Information security and assurance are an increasingly critical issue in health research. Whether health research be in genetics, new drugs, disease outbreaks, biochemistry, or effects of radiation, it deals with information that is highly sensitive and which could be targeted by rogue individuals or groups, corporations, national intelligence agencies, or terrorists, looking for financial, social, or political gains. The advents of the Internet and advances in recent information technologies have also dramatically increased opportunities for attackers to exploit sensitive and valuable information.Government agencies have deployed legislative measures to protect the privacy of health information and developed information security guidelines for epidemiological studies. However, risks are grossly underestimated and little effort has been made to strategically and comprehensively protect health research information by institutions, governments and international communities.There is a need to enforce a set of proactive measures to protect health research information locally and globally. Such measures should be deployed at all levels but will be successful only if research communities collaborate actively, governments enforce appropriate legislative measures at national level, and the international community develops quality standards, concluding treaties if necessary, at the global level.Proactive measures for the best information security and assurance would be achieved through rigorous management process with a cycle of "plan, do, check, and act". Each health research entity, such as hospitals, universities, institutions, or laboratories, should implement this cycle and establish an authoritative security and assurance organization, program and plan coordinated by a designatedChief Security Officer who will ensure implementation of the above process, putting appropriate security controls in place, with key focus areas such aspolicies and best practices, enforcement

  5. [The need for information in biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Kumate, J

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need of every researcher to be informed on advances in his field. It reviews the means available for keeping abreast of developments in a specific area of scientific inquiry. In the author's view, articles in reference journals on a specific specialty are the best source of information. However, the interval between the writing and publication of a scientific paper is sometimes long, which poses a considerable impediment to the use of the traditional media as a means of keeping up. He also examines the limitations of information in biomedical research and reviews the characteristics of this research in Latin America. Finally, he makes a number of recommendations for improving scientific communications and making the most of the services of national and international information dissemination systems.

  6. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. Monitoring the European drug situation: the ongoing challenge for the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paul; Mounteney, Jane; Lopez, Dominique; Zobel, Frank; Götz, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the designated hub for drug-related information in the European Union. The organization's role is to provide the European Union (EU) and its Member States with a factual overview of European drug problems and a common information framework to support the drugs debate. In order to achieve its mission, the EMCDDA coordinates and relies on a network of 30 national monitoring centres, the Reitox National Focal Points. The Centre publishes on a wide range of drug-related topics, across epidemiology, interventions, laws and policies. Every November, the EMCDDA publishes its Annual Report, providing a yearly update on the European drug situation, translated into 23 EU languages. In line with its founding regulation, the EMCDDA has a role acting as an interface between the worlds of science and policy. While not a research centre in the formal sense, the results the Centre generates serve as catalysts for new research questions and help to identify priorities. Current challenges facing the agency include continuing to increase scientific standards while maintaining a strong institutional role, as well as supporting European efforts to identify, share and codify best practice in the drugs field. © 2011 EMCDDA.

  7. Development of a drug and alcohol information survey.

    PubMed

    Gough, H G

    1985-04-01

    Psychological measurement in regard to using drugs, alcohol, or other substances should attend to personological, attitudinal, and informational factors. Standardized tests are available for assessing personological and attitudinal variables, but not for knowledge. To develop a test of information, 45 multiple-choice items were correlated with total and part scores in samples of 132 men and 71 women; 35 items with significant (p less than .05) coefficients and other desirable properties were retained for a Drug and Alcohol Information Survey (DAIS). For 33 male and 36 female college students participating in an intensive psychological assessment program, scores on the DAIS were positively associated with (1) ratings of modernity, sensation seeking, originality, and nonorderliness; (2) personality scales for status propensity, sociability, social presence, and rebelliousness; and (3) a nonverbal test of field-independent cognitive ability. High scorers on the DAIS also reported more frequent use of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco than did students with low scores.

  8. Drug Information to Patient Care Areas via Television: Preliminary Evaluation of Two Years' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Sandra J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The research project described was undertaken to study the impact of the use of a closed circuit television system to deliver information about drugs, chemicals, and poisons from a central resource location to health professionals in patient care areas. Evaluation techniques included questionnaires, interviews with users, and extramural…

  9. Drug Information to Patient Care Areas via Television: Preliminary Evaluation of Two Years' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Sandra J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The research project described was undertaken to study the impact of the use of a closed circuit television system to deliver information about drugs, chemicals, and poisons from a central resource location to health professionals in patient care areas. Evaluation techniques included questionnaires, interviews with users, and extramural…

  10. Drug Abuse Research Instrument Inventory. Fourth Edition and Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, Ernest W., Jr.

    The Drug-Abuse Research Instrument Inventory is a listing of instruments used in drug-abuse research which have been added to the Inventory essentially by searching all the relevant literature of the past ten years, and through spontaneous submissions from the field. The Inventory also includes references, descriptions, etc. Most instruments…

  11. [Recent progress in nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum for drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Jiang, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In the process of modern drug research, the new methods and technologies which can detect drug molecules' chemical composition, structure and interaction with biomolecules are always the key scientific problems people care about. Spectra (including IR, UV and NMR) are the most common analytical methods, of which NMR can obtain detailed parameter about the nucleus of organic molecules through researching the laws of nuclear transition in the impact of surrounding chemical environment. The parameter contains rich information about the chemical composition, structure and interaction with other molecules of organic molecules. In many complex environments, such as liquid, solid or gas state, even biological in situ environment, NMR can provide molecules' chemical composition, atomic-resolution three-dimensional structure, information of interaction with each other and dynamic process, especially the information about drug interacting with biomacromolecules. In recent years, the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum in drug research and development are more and more widespread. This paper reviewed its recent progress in structure and dynamic of targeted biological macromolecules, drug design and screening and drug metabolism in drug research and development. In the first part, we gave a brief introduction of nuclear magnetic resonance technology and its applications in drug research. In the second part, we explained the basic principles briefly and summarized progress in methods and techniques for drug research. In the third part, we discussed applications of nuclear magnetic resonance ir structure and dynamic of targeted biological macromolecules, drug design and screening and drug metabolism in detail. The conclusions were stated in the last part.

  12. Survey: Attitudes of Military Pharmacists Toward Drug Information Center Support.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Pharmacopeia . The usefulness of these texts carnot be overlooked, but it is impossible for these sources to keep up with new drugs admitted to the...8217 ., . .. -/ - 71 a breakdown of the use of a drug information center by the three service groups. The data indicates that the Air Force and Navy pharmacists...CL.A"S 0 ICATION Of T൘PG Ic i ABSTRACT A study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire tO determine the attitudes of military pharmacists toward

  13. Evaluation of health information systems research in information systems research: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Haried, Peter; Claybaugh, Craig; Dai, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Given the importance of the health-care industry and the promise of health information systems, researchers are encouraged to build on the shoulders of giants as the saying goes. The health information systems field has a unique opportunity to learn from and extend the work that has already been done by the highly correlated information systems field. As a result, this research article presents a past, present and future meta-analysis of health information systems research in information systems journals over the 2000-2015 time period. Our analysis reviewed 126 articles on a variety of topics related to health information systems research published in the "Senior Scholars" list of the top eight ranked information systems academic journals. Across the selected information systems academic journals, our findings compare research methodologies applied, health information systems topic areas investigated and research trends. Interesting results emerge in the range and evolution of health information systems research and opportunities for health information systems researchers and practitioners to consider moving forward.

  14. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Victoria; Gomez, Carolina; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC) and the drug information services (DIS). Objective To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened. PMID:25246999

  15. The Impact of Information on Doctors' Attitudes Toward Generic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Tsaprantzi, Aggeliki V; Kostagiolas, Petros; Platis, Charalampos; Aggelidis, Vassilios P; Niakas, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the impact of information on doctors' attitudes and perceptions toward generics. A cross-sectional survey based on a specially designed 21-item questionnaire was conducted. The survey involved doctors of different specialties working in a public hospital in Greece. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics, reliability and validity tests, as well as structural equation modeling to evaluate the causal model. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. A total of 134 questionnaires out of 162 were received, providing a response rate of 82.71%. A number of significant associations were found between information and perceptions about generic medicines with demographic characteristics. It seems that the provision of quality information on generic drugs influences doctors' attitudes and prescription practices toward generic drugs. This is not a static process but a rather dynamic issue involving information provision policies for strengthening the proper doctors' attitudes toward generic drugs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Recent trends in geographic information system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent contributions to the body of published research on Geographic Information Systems (GISs). Increased usages of GISs have placed a new demand upon the academic and research community and despite some lack of formalized definitions, categorizations, terminologies, and standard data structures, the community has risen to the challenge. Examinations of published GIS research, in particular on GIS data structures, reveal a healthy, active research community which is using a truly interdisciplinary approach. Future work will undoubtably lead to a clearer understanding of the problems of handling spatial data, while producing a new generation of highly sophisticated GISs.

  17. Model-Informed Drug Development for Malaria Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kayla Ann; Wesche, David; McCarthy, James; Möhrle, Jörg J; Tarning, Joel; Phillips, Luann; Kern, Steven; Grasela, Thaddeus

    2017-10-06

    Malaria is a critical public health problem resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Owing to the development of resistance toward current therapies, novel approaches to accelerate the development efforts of new malaria therapeutics are urgently needed. There have been significant advancements in the development of in vitro and in vivo experiments that generate data used to inform decisions about the potential merit of new compounds. A comprehensive disease-drug model capable of integrating discrete data from different preclinical and clinical components would be a valuable tool across all stages of drug development. This could have an enormous impact on the otherwise slow and resource-intensive process of traditional clinical drug development. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 58 is January 6, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  18. Drugs and Death. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report is the sixth in a series of reports designed to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews some of the major research studies which explore the nonmedical use of drugs as it relates to all modes of death. Included are studies describing…

  19. Is there a future for computational chemistry in drug research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, Gerald M.

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in computational chemistry methods have had a growing impact on drug research. But will incremental improvements be sufficient to ensure this continues? Almost all existing efforts to discover new drugs depend on the classic one target, one drug paradigm, although the situation is changing slowly. A new paradigm that focuses on a more systems biology approach and takes account of the reality that most drugs exhibit some level of polypharmacology is beginning to emerge. This will bring about dramatic changes that can significantly influence the role that computational methods play in future drug research. But these changes require that current methods be augmented with those from bioinformatics and engineering if the field is to have a significant impact on future drug research.

  20. Information needs for making clinical recommendations about potential drug-drug interactions: a synthesis of literature review and interviews.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Katrina M; Nelson, Scott D; Hines, Lisa; Empey, Philip; Boyce, Richard D; Hochheiser, Harry

    2017-02-22

    Drug information compendia and drug-drug interaction information databases are critical resources for clinicians and pharmacists working to avoid adverse events due to exposure to potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs). Our goal is to develop information models, annotated data, and search tools that will facilitate the interpretation of PDDI information. To better understand the information needs and work practices of specialists who search and synthesize PDDI evidence for drug information resources, we conducted an inquiry that combined a thematic analysis of published literature with unstructured interviews. Starting from an initial set of relevant articles, we developed search terms and conducted a literature search. Two reviewers conducted a thematic analysis of included articles. Unstructured interviews with drug information experts were conducted and similarly coded. Information needs, work processes, and indicators of potential strengths and weaknesses of information systems were identified. Review of 92 papers and 10 interviews identified 56 categories of information needs related to the interpretation of PDDI information including drug and interaction information; study design; evidence including clinical details, quality and content of reports, and consequences; and potential recommendations. We also identified strengths/weaknesses of PDDI information systems. We identified the kinds of information that might be most effective for summarizing PDDIs. The drug information experts we interviewed had differing goals, suggesting a need for detailed information models and flexible presentations. Several information needs not discussed in previous work were identified, including temporal overlaps in drug administration, biological plausibility of interactions, and assessment of the quality and content of reports. Richly structured depictions of PDDI information may help drug information experts more effectively interpret data and develop recommendations

  1. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  2. Setting priorities for a research agenda to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Velayutham, B.; Nair, D.; Ramalingam, S.; Perez-Velez, C. M.; Becerra, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: Numerous knowledge gaps hamper the prevention and treatment of childhood drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Identifying research priorities is vital to inform and develop strategies to address this neglected problem. Objective: To systematically identify and rank research priorities in childhood drug-resistant TB. Design: Adapting the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology, we compiled 53 research questions in four research areas, then classified the questions into three research types. We invited experts in childhood drug-resistant TB to score these questions through an online survey. Results: A total of 81 respondents participated in the survey. The top-ranked research question was to identify the best combination of existing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis. Highly ranked treatment-related questions centred on the reasons for and interventions to improve treatment outcomes, adverse effects of drugs and optimal treatment duration. The prevalence of drug-resistant TB was the highest-ranked question in the epidemiology area. The development type questions that ranked highest focused on interventions for optimal diagnosis, treatment and modalities for treatment delivery. Conclusion: This is the first effort to identify and rank research priorities for childhood drug-resistant TB. The result is a resource to guide research to improve prevention and treatment of drug-resistant TB in children. PMID:26767175

  3. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  4. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  5. Toward a complete dataset of drug-drug interaction information from publicly available sources.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Serkan; Horn, John; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Zhu, Qian; Stan, Johann; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Vilar, Santiago; Brochhausen, Mathias; Samwald, Matthias; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Dumontier, Michel; Boyce, Richard D

    2015-06-01

    Although potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) are a significant source of preventable drug-related harm, there is currently no single complete source of PDDI information. In the current study, all publically available sources of PDDI information that could be identified using a comprehensive and broad search were combined into a single dataset. The combined dataset merged fourteen different sources including 5 clinically-oriented information sources, 4 Natural Language Processing (NLP) Corpora, and 5 Bioinformatics/Pharmacovigilance information sources. As a comprehensive PDDI source, the merged dataset might benefit the pharmacovigilance text mining community by making it possible to compare the representativeness of NLP corpora for PDDI text extraction tasks, and specifying elements that can be useful for future PDDI extraction purposes. An analysis of the overlap between and across the data sources showed that there was little overlap. Even comprehensive PDDI lists such as DrugBank, KEGG, and the NDF-RT had less than 50% overlap with each other. Moreover, all of the comprehensive lists had incomplete coverage of two data sources that focus on PDDIs of interest in most clinical settings. Based on this information, we think that systems that provide access to the comprehensive lists, such as APIs into RxNorm, should be careful to inform users that the lists may be incomplete with respect to PDDIs that drug experts suggest clinicians be aware of. In spite of the low degree of overlap, several dozen cases were identified where PDDI information provided in drug product labeling might be augmented by the merged dataset. Moreover, the combined dataset was also shown to improve the performance of an existing PDDI NLP pipeline and a recently published PDDI pharmacovigilance protocol. Future work will focus on improvement of the methods for mapping between PDDI information sources, identifying methods to improve the use of the merged dataset in PDDI NLP algorithms

  6. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    PubMed

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  7. 21 CFR 200.5 - Mailing of important information about drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... advertising or labeling, the statement: IMPORTANT CORRECTION OF DRUG INFORMATION The statement shall be in... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mailing of important information about drugs. 200.5 Section 200.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. 21 CFR 200.5 - Mailing of important information about drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... advertising or labeling, the statement: IMPORTANT CORRECTION OF DRUG INFORMATION The statement shall be in... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mailing of important information about drugs. 200.5 Section 200.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. 21 CFR 200.5 - Mailing of important information about drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... advertising or labeling, the statement: IMPORTANT CORRECTION OF DRUG INFORMATION The statement shall be in... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mailing of important information about drugs. 200.5 Section 200.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  10. 21 CFR 20.30 - Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff. 20.30 Section 20.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... this part is: Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35), Food and Drug Administration, Room 12A-16, 5600...

  11. Advances in drug metabolism and pharmacogenetics research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Peter I; Somogyi, Andrew A; Miners, John O

    2017-02-01

    Metabolism facilitates the elimination, detoxification and excretion in urine or bile (as biotransformation products) of a myriad of structurally diverse drugs and other chemicals. The metabolism of drugs, non-drug xenobiotics and many endogenous compounds is catalyzed by families of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). These include the hemoprotein-containing cytochromes P450, which function predominantly as monooxygenases, and conjugation enzymes that transfer a sugar, sulfate, acetate or glutathione moiety to substrates containing a suitable acceptor functional group. Drug and chemical metabolism, especially the enzymes that catalyse these reactions, has been the research focus of several groups in Australia for over four decades. In this review, we highlight the role of recent and current drug metabolism research in Australia, including elucidation of the structure and function of enzymes from the various DME families, factors that modulate enzyme activity in humans (e.g. drug-drug interactions, gene expression and genetic polymorphism) and the application of in vitro approaches for the prediction of drug metabolism parameters in humans, along with the broader pharmacological/clinical pharmacological and toxicological significance of drug metabolism and DMEs and their relevance to drug discovery and development, and to clinical practice.

  12. Informed consent comprehension in African research settings.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph U; McGrath, Nuala; Larson, Heidi J; Bojang, Kalifa; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, EthxWeb and Bioethics Literature Database (BELIT). We also examined African Index Medicus and Google Scholar for relevant publications on informed consent comprehension in clinical studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria; meta-analysis was possible in 21 studies. We further conducted a direct comparison of participants' comprehension on domains of informed consent in all eligible studies. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent varies considerably from country to country and depends on the nature and complexity of the study. Meta-analysis showed that 47% of a total of 1633 participants across four studies demonstrated comprehension about randomisation (95% CI 13.9-80.9%). Similarly, 48% of 3946 participants in six studies had understanding about placebo (95% CI 19.0-77.5%), while only 30% of 753 participants in five studies understood the concept of therapeutic misconception (95% CI 4.6-66.7%). Measurement tools for informed consent comprehension were developed with little or no validation. Assessment of comprehension was carried out at variable times after disclosure of study information. No uniform definition of informed consent comprehension exists to form the basis for development of an appropriate tool to measure comprehension in African participants. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent is poor among study participants across Africa. There is a vital need to develop a uniform definition for

  13. Assessment of drug-induced increases in blood pressure during drug development: report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Sager, Philip; Heilbraun, Jeffrey; Turner, J Rick; Gintant, Gary; Geiger, Mary J; Kowey, Peter R; Mansoor, George A; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Michelson, Eric L; Stockbridge, Norman; Weber, Michael A; White, William B

    2013-04-01

    This White Paper, prepared by members of the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, discusses several important issues regarding the evaluation of blood pressure (BP) responses to drugs being developed for indications not of a direct cardiovascular (CV) nature. A wide range of drugs are associated with off-target BP increases, and both scientific attention and regulatory attention to this topic are increasing. The article provides a detailed summary of scientific discussions at a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium-sponsored Think Tank held on July 18, 2012, with the intention of moving toward consensus on how to most informatively collect and analyze BP data throughout clinical drug development to prospectively identify unacceptable CV risk and evaluate the benefit-risk relationship. The overall focus in on non-CV drugs, although many of the points also pertain to CV drugs. Brief consideration of how clinical assessment can be informed by nonclinical investigation is also outlined. These discussions present current thinking and suggestions for furthering our knowledge and understanding of off-target drug-induced BP increases and do not represent regulatory guidance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High-throughput electronic biology: mining information for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Loging, William; Harland, Lee; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2007-03-01

    The vast range of in silico resources that are available in life sciences research hold much promise towards aiding the drug discovery process. To fully realize this opportunity, computational scientists must consider the practical issues of data integration and identify how best to apply these resources scientifically. In this article we describe in silico approaches that are driven towards the identification of testable laboratory hypotheses; we also address common challenges in the field. We focus on flexible, high-throughput techniques, which may be initiated independently of 'wet-lab' experimentation, and which may be applied to multiple disease areas. The utility of these approaches in drug discovery highlights the contribution that in silico techniques can make and emphasizes the need for collaboration between the areas of disease research and computational science.

  15. SET: Research Information for Teachers, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington.

    This packet of research information for educators consists of 13 reports including the following: (1) "What Secondary School for My Child?" describes the problems Australian parents face in selecting either a government or a non-government secondary school; (2) "Who Gets to Teach?" examines factors in the selection and training…

  16. Research Methodology & Information Systems. Chapter 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on research methodology and information systems. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Parental Agreement on Ratings of Child Behavior: Measures of Agreement and Related Factors" (Carol T. Nixon, William E. MacLean); (2) "CAFAS…

  17. The Health Information Literacy Research Project*

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz-Rossi, Sabrina; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This research studied hospital administrators' and hospital-based health care providers' (collectively, the target group) perceived value of consumer health information resources and of librarians' roles in promoting health information literacy in their institutions. Methods: A web-based needs survey was developed and administered to hospital administrators and health care providers. Multiple health information literacy curricula were developed. One was pilot-tested by nine hospital libraries in the United States and Canada. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the curriculum and its impact on the target group. Results: A majority of survey respondents believed that providing consumer health information resources was critically important to fulfilling their institutions' missions and that their hospitals could improve health information literacy by increasing awareness of its impact on patient care and by training staff to become more knowledgeable about health literacy barriers. The study showed that a librarian-taught health information literacy curriculum did raise awareness about the issue among the target group and increased both the use of National Library of Medicine consumer health resources and referrals to librarians for health information literacy support. Conclusions: It is hoped that many hospital administrators and health care providers will take the health information literacy curricula and recognize that librarians can educate about the topic and that providers will use related consumer health services and resources. PMID:19851494

  18. The health information literacy research project.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Jean P; Kurtz-Rossi, Sabrina; Funk, Carla J

    2009-10-01

    This research studied hospital administrators' and hospital-based health care providers' (collectively, the target group) perceived value of consumer health information resources and of librarians' roles in promoting health information literacy in their institutions. A web-based needs survey was developed and administered to hospital administrators and health care providers. Multiple health information literacy curricula were developed. One was pilot-tested by nine hospital libraries in the United States and Canada. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the curriculum and its impact on the target group. A majority of survey respondents believed that providing consumer health information resources was critically important to fulfilling their institutions' missions and that their hospitals could improve health information literacy by increasing awareness of its impact on patient care and by training staff to become more knowledgeable about health literacy barriers. The study showed that a librarian-taught health information literacy curriculum did raise awareness about the issue among the target group and increased both the use of National Library of Medicine consumer health resources and referrals to librarians for health information literacy support. It is hoped that many hospital administrators and health care providers will take the health information literacy curricula and recognize that librarians can educate about the topic and that providers will use related consumer health services and resources.

  19. Current Research into Chemical and Textual Information Retrieval at the Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael F.; Willett, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Discusses research into chemical information and document retrieval systems at the University of Sheffield. Highlights include the use of cluster analysis methods for document retrieval and drug design, representation and searching of files of generic chemical structures, and the application of parallel computer hardware to information retrieval.…

  20. [Research on intelligent controlled drug delivery with polymer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhibin; Tang, Changwei; Chen, Huiqing; Shan, Lianhai; Wan, Changxiu

    2006-02-01

    The intelligent controlled drug delivery systems are a series of the preparations including microcapsules or nanocapsules composed of intelligent polymers and medication. The properties of preparations can change with the external stimuli such as pH value, temperature, chemical substance, light, electricity and magnetism. According to this properties, the drug delivery can be intelligently controlled. This paper has reviewed research on syntheses and applications of intelligent controlled drug delivery systems with polymers.

  1. Drug use during pregnancy and breast-feeding. A classification system for drug information.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F; Flodh, H; Lundborg, P; Prame, B; Sannerstedt, R

    1984-01-01

    Since 1978 the Swedish catalogue of registered pharmaceutical specialties (FASS) has carried a special section entitled "Pregnancy and breast-feeding" in each product presentation, intended to form an aid for the prescription of drugs to women during childbearing and lactation. After a brief review of transplacental transport and milk secretion, reproduction-toxicology studies in animals, and methods for clinical evaluation of drugs for use during pregnancy, the classification system is presented. On the basis of available data with regard to effects on early and late stages of pregnancy and labour, all the pharmaceutical specialties concerned are assigned to one of the following pregnancy categories: A, B 1, B 2, B 3, C or D. The letters refer to information based on findings in man, and the figures to information based on animal data. For drugs in categories B 3, C or D any harmful effects observed or likely to occur in man or animals are to be specified. The pregnancy categories are defined as follows: Category A. Drugs which may be assumed to have been used by a large number of pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, without any form of definite disturbance in the reproductive process having been noted so far, e.g. an increased incidence of malformations or other direct or indirect harmful effects on the fetus. Category B. Drugs which may be assumed to have been used by only a limited number of pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, without any form of definite disturbance in the reproduction process having been noted so far, e.g. an increased incidence of malformations or other direct or indirect harmful effects on the fetus. Category C. Drugs which by their pharmacological effects have caused, or must be suspected of causing disturbances in the reproduction process that may involve risk to the fetus without being directly teratogenic. Category D. Drugs which have caused an increased incidence of fetal malformations or other permanent damage in

  2. The archiving of meteor research information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nechitailenko, V. A.

    1987-01-01

    The results obtained over the past years under GLOBMET are not reviewed but some of the problems the solution of which will guide further development of meteor investigation and international cooperation in this field for the near term are discussed. The main attention is paid to problems which the meteor community itself can solve, or at least expedite. Most of them are more or less connected with the problem of information archiving. Information archiving deals with methods and techniques of solving two closely connected groups of problems. The first is the analysis of data and information as an integral part of meteor research and deals with the solution of certain methodological problems. The second deals with gathering data and information for the designing of models of the atmosphere and/or meteor complex and its utilization. These problem solutions are discussed.

  3. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  4. Exploration of Heterogeneity in Distributed Research Network Drug Safety Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard A.; Zeng, Peng; Ryan, Patrick; Gao, Juan; Sonawane, Kalyani; Teeter, Benjamin; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed data networks representing large diverse populations are an expanding focus of drug safety research. However, interpreting results is difficult when treatment effect estimates vary across datasets (i.e., heterogeneity). In a previous study, risk estimates were generated for selected drugs and potential adverse outcomes. Analyses were…

  5. Exploration of Heterogeneity in Distributed Research Network Drug Safety Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard A.; Zeng, Peng; Ryan, Patrick; Gao, Juan; Sonawane, Kalyani; Teeter, Benjamin; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed data networks representing large diverse populations are an expanding focus of drug safety research. However, interpreting results is difficult when treatment effect estimates vary across datasets (i.e., heterogeneity). In a previous study, risk estimates were generated for selected drugs and potential adverse outcomes. Analyses were…

  6. Drugs and the Elderly Adult. Research Issues 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glantz, Meyer D., Ed.; And Others

    This book, on the nature and problems of inappropriate drug use by older adults, provides researchers and health practitioners with an up-to-date survey and overview of the literature on drug use, misuse, and abuse among the elderly. The volume provides abstracts of 100 selected scientific articles on the major topic areas in the field. The…

  7. Families and Drugs: A Life-Span Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    The study of human development and behavior from a life-span perspective is an area of growing interest, and the family is a natural laboratory for this study. Research in the area of drug abuse demonstrates that drug use is not limited to any one population segment or age group, but is pervasive across population subgroups. More and more evidence…

  8. Update Information on Drug Metabolism Systems—2009, Part II

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, S.; Guengerich, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is an update of the data on the effects of diseases and environmental factors on the expression and/or activity of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporters. The data are presented in tabular form (Tables 1 and 2) and are a continuation of previously published summaries on the effects of drugs and other chemicals on CYP enzymes. The collected information presented here is as stated by the cited author(s), and in cases when several references are cited the latest published information is included. Inconsistent results and conclusions obtained by different authors are highlighted, followed by discussion of the major findings. The searchable database is available as an Excel file, for information about file availability contact the corresponding author. PMID:20302566

  9. Research on polarization imaging information parsing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongwu; Zhou, Pucheng; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-11-01

    Polarization information parsing plays an important role in polarization imaging detection. This paper focus on the polarization information parsing method: Firstly, the general process of polarization information parsing is given, mainly including polarization image preprocessing, multiple polarization parameters calculation, polarization image fusion and polarization image tracking, etc.; And then the research achievements of the polarization information parsing method are presented, in terms of polarization image preprocessing, the polarization image registration method based on the maximum mutual information is designed. The experiment shows that this method can improve the precision of registration and be satisfied the need of polarization information parsing; In terms of multiple polarization parameters calculation, based on the omnidirectional polarization inversion model is built, a variety of polarization parameter images are obtained and the precision of inversion is to be improve obviously; In terms of polarization image fusion , using fuzzy integral and sparse representation, the multiple polarization parameters adaptive optimal fusion method is given, and the targets detection in complex scene is completed by using the clustering image segmentation algorithm based on fractal characters; In polarization image tracking, the average displacement polarization image characteristics of auxiliary particle filtering fusion tracking algorithm is put forward to achieve the smooth tracking of moving targets. Finally, the polarization information parsing method is applied to the polarization imaging detection of typical targets such as the camouflage target, the fog and latent fingerprints.

  10. [Schizophrenia and informed consent to research].

    PubMed

    Fovet, T; Amad, A; Thomas, P; Jardri, R

    2015-10-01

    Informed consent to research remains a complex issue, while sometimes staying difficult to obtain, even in the general population. This problem may be maximized with patients suffering from schizophrenia. This paper summarizes available data in the literature about informed consent for research involving patients suffering from schizophrenia. Medline and Google Scholar searches were conducted using the following MESH terms: schizophrenia, informed consent and research. Studies using dedicated standardized scales (e.g. MacCAT-CR) revealed a decrease in the capacity to consent of patients with schizophrenia when compared with healthy individuals. Keeping in mind that schizophrenia is an heterogeneous disorder, patients with the lowest insight as well as those with the most severe cognitive symptoms appeared more impaired in their capacity to consent. Such a poor capacity to understand and consent to trials was shown linked with alterations in decision-making. For these specific patients, interventions may be set up to increase their capacity to consent. Various strategies were proposed: enhanced consent forms, extended discussion, test/feedback method or multimedia interventions. Among them, interventions relying on communication and the growing field of information technologies (e.g. web-based tools) seem promising. Finally, associations grouping families and patients (like the French Association UNAFAM) may facilitate the involvement of patients in research programs with safer conditions. Patients suffering from schizophrenia appear able to consent to research programs when suitable interventions are proposed. Further studies are now needed to optimize and individualize such interventions. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A visit to India: drug prices, research, & global access.

    PubMed

    Scondras, D

    1999-01-22

    Drugs manufactured in India are 1,000 to 4,000 percent cheaper than the same product in U.S. pharmacies. Because of the possible effect on profits, drug companies are working hard to stop India and other nations that make inexpensive copies of lifesaving medicines. Most drugs are inexpensive to manufacture, but U.S. drug companies charge what the market will bear as they strive to recover research and development costs and make a profit for shareholders. It is suggested that the public good would be better served if government took a more active role in fighting HIV.

  12. 65 FR 10599 - Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-02-28

    ... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1240 Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information... Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... comments regarding proposed amendments to the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information...

  13. Drugs as research tools in psychology: experiments with drugs in personality research.

    PubMed

    Eysenck, H J

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that psychotropic drugs act to shift a person's behaviour on the three major dimensions of personality in one direction or another, in predictable ways, and that it is possible to create a taxonomy of psychotropic drugs according to these effects. The history of this concept is traced and many examples given to illustrate how drug action and personality theory interact, and how this interaction can be used to gain greater insight into both personality and drug action.

  14. A Guide for the Management of Speical Education Programs. 4.0 Drug Information for Educators, Parents, and Students. Newday Operations Guide for Drug Dependent Minor Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Presented is the fourth component of a special day class program for drug dependent minors, Drug Information for Educators, Parents, and Students. The first section, intended for educators, includes a drug abuse chart, information on the drug subculture, information on patterns of drug abuse and misconceptions about drugs, and suggested activities…

  15. Drug Themes in Science Fiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Robert

    This booklet is part of a series most of which focus on empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches in the area of drug usage. In this volume, the author has compiled a group of English-language short stories and novels which deal with the use of mind-altering drugs, all written since 1900 and falling within the literary category…

  16. Drugs and Addict Lifestyles. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report is the seventh in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews the research undertaken to describe the lifestyle histories of heroin users. These research findings are formulated and detailed to provide the reader with…

  17. Drug research shows easier dosing, new combinations are making gains.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    Drug research results presented at the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections show that triple combination therapies using zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) are standard-of-care options. Hydroxyurea, a new drug that appears to intensify the effects of protease inhibitors, shows great promise. Data from studies comparing AZT and d4T were presented; AZT and d4T are comparatively effective as part of double- and triple-combination regimens. Study results of twice-daily dosing regimens of indinavir and nelfinavir look promising. Researchers continue working toward creating simpler, more easily tolerated drug regimens, and are experimenting with new combinations and different dosages.

  18. Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methologies for World Language Teachers. Research in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, David, Ed.; Petron, Mary, Ed.; Luke, Christopher, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methodologies for World Language Educators" is an edited volume that focuses on innovative, nontraditional methods of teaching and learning world languages. Using teacher-research projects, each author in the volume guides readers through their own personal…

  19. Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methologies for World Language Teachers. Research in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, David, Ed.; Petron, Mary, Ed.; Luke, Christopher, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Informing Practice--Practice Informing Research: Innovative Teaching Methodologies for World Language Educators" is an edited volume that focuses on innovative, nontraditional methods of teaching and learning world languages. Using teacher-research projects, each author in the volume guides readers through their own personal…

  20. Mesoporous Silica Molecular Sieve based Nanocarriers: Transpiring Drug Dissolution Research.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Satyanarayan; Pathak, Kamla

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of oral bioavailability through enhancement of dissolution for poorly soluble drugs has been a very promising approach. Recently, mesoporous silica based molecular sieves have demonstrated excellent properties to enhance the dissolution velocity of poorly water-soluble drugs. Current research in this area is focused on investigating the factors influencing the drug release from these carriers, the kinetics of drug release and manufacturing approaches to scale-up production for commercial manufacture. This comprehensive review provides an overview of different methods adopted for synthesis of mesoporous materials, influence of processing factors on properties of these materials and drug loading methods. The drug release kinetics from mesoporous silica systems, the manufacturability and stability of these formulations are reviewed. Finally, the safety and biocompatibility issues related to these silica based materials are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Applied Information Systems Research Program Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The first Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP) Workshop provided the impetus for several groups involved in information systems to review current activities. The objectives of the workshop included: (1) to provide an open forum for interaction and discussion of information systems; (2) to promote understanding by initiating a dialogue with the intended benefactors of the program, the scientific user community, and discuss options for improving their support; (3) create an advocacy in having science users and investigators of the program meet together and establish the basis for direction and growth; and (4) support the future of the program by building collaborations and interaction to encourage an investigator working group approach for conducting the program.

  2. Mining chemical structural information from the drug literature.

    PubMed

    Banville, Debra L

    2006-01-01

    It is easier to find too many documents on a life science topic than to find the right information inside these documents. With the application of text data mining to biological documents, it is no surprise that researchers are starting to look at applications that mine out chemical information. The mining of chemical entities--names and structures--brings with it some unique challenges, which commercial and academic efforts are beginning to address. Ultimately, life science text data mining applications need to focus on the marriage of biological and chemical information.

  3. Problems of information support in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamaev, V. G.; Gorshkov, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the creation of the open access Akustika portal (AKDATA.RU) designed to provide Russian-language easy-to-read and search information on acoustics and related topics. The absence of a Russian-language publication in foreign databases means that it is effectively lost for much of the scientific community. The portal has three interrelated sections: the Akustika information search system (ISS) (Acoustics), full-text archive of the Akusticheskii Zhurnal (Acoustic Journal), and 'Signal'naya informatsiya' ('Signaling information') on acoustics. The paper presents a description of the Akustika ISS, including its structure, content, interface, and information search capabilities for basic and applied research in diverse areas of science, engineering, biology, medicine, etc. The intended users of the portal are physicists, engineers, and engineering technologists interested in expanding their research activities and seeking to increase their knowledge base. Those studying current trends in the Russian-language contribution to international science may also find the portal useful.

  4. A Workshop Series Using Peer-grading to Build Drug Information, Writing, Critical-thinking, and Constructive Feedback Skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To utilize a skills-based workshop series to develop pharmacy students’ drug information, writing, critical-thinking, and evaluation skills during the final didactic year of training. Design. A workshop series was implemented to focus on written (researched) responses to drug information questions. These workshops used blinded peer-grading to facilitate timely feedback and strengthen assessment skills. Each workshop was aligned to the didactic coursework content to complement and extend learning, while bridging and advancing research, writing, and critical thinking skills. Assessment. Attainment of knowledge and skills was assessed by rubric-facilitated peer grades, faculty member grading, peer critique, and faculty member-guided discussion of drug information responses. Annual instructor and course evaluations consistently revealed favorable student feedback regarding workshop value. Conclusion. A drug information workshop series using peer-grading as the primary assessment tool was successfully implemented and was well received by pharmacy students. PMID:25657378

  5. A workshop series using peer-grading to build drug information, writing, critical-thinking, and constructive feedback skills.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lindsay E

    2014-12-15

    To utilize a skills-based workshop series to develop pharmacy students' drug information, writing, critical-thinking, and evaluation skills during the final didactic year of training. A workshop series was implemented to focus on written (researched) responses to drug information questions. These workshops used blinded peer-grading to facilitate timely feedback and strengthen assessment skills. Each workshop was aligned to the didactic coursework content to complement and extend learning, while bridging and advancing research, writing, and critical thinking skills. Attainment of knowledge and skills was assessed by rubric-facilitated peer grades, faculty member grading, peer critique, and faculty member-guided discussion of drug information responses. Annual instructor and course evaluations consistently revealed favorable student feedback regarding workshop value. A drug information workshop series using peer-grading as the primary assessment tool was successfully implemented and was well received by pharmacy students.

  6. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  11. Brain Research Focuses on New Assays, Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Those attending the CIC/ACS (Chemical Institute of Canada /American Chemical Society) joint conference at Montreal heard about recent advances in brain chemistry research, the use of compartmental models for predicting pollution, the presence of carcinogens (N-Nitrosamines) in sidestream tobacco smoke, and the synthesis of sex attractants using…

  12. Brain Research Focuses on New Assays, Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Those attending the CIC/ACS (Chemical Institute of Canada /American Chemical Society) joint conference at Montreal heard about recent advances in brain chemistry research, the use of compartmental models for predicting pollution, the presence of carcinogens (N-Nitrosamines) in sidestream tobacco smoke, and the synthesis of sex attractants using…

  13. Public information about clinical trials and research.

    PubMed

    Plétan, Yannick; Zannad, Faïez; Jaillon, Patrice

    2003-01-01

    Be it to restore the confused image of clinical research in relation to the lay public, or to develop new ways of accruing healthy volunteers or patients for clinical trials, there is a need to draft some guidance on how best to provide information on research. Although the French legal and regulatory armamentarium in this area is essentially liberal, there is currently little-justified reluctance among study sponsors to advertise publicly. A group of academic and pharmaceutical industry researchers, assembled for a workshop, together with regulators, journalists, representatives from ethics committees, social security, patient and health consumer groups and other French institutional bodies, has suggested the following series of recommendations: there is no need for additional legal or regulatory constraints; sponsors should be aware of and make use of direct public information on trials; a 'good practice charter' on public communication about clinical trials should be developed; all professionals should be involved in this communication platform; communication in the patient's immediate vicinity should be preferred (primary-care physician, local press); clinical databases and websites accessible to professionals, but also to patients and non-professionals, should be developed; genuine instruction on clinical trials for physicians and health professionals unfamiliar with such trials should be developed and disseminated; media groups should receive at least some training in the fundamentals of clinical research.

  14. Informed consent to HIV cure research.

    PubMed

    Bromwich, Danielle; Millum, Joseph R

    2017-02-01

    Trials with highly unfavourable risk-benefit ratios for participants, like HIV cure trials, raise questions about the quality of the consent of research participants. Why, it may be asked, would a person with HIV who is doing well on antiretroviral therapy be willing to jeopardise his health by enrolling in such a trial? We distinguish three concerns: first, how information is communicated to potential participants; second, participants' motivations for enrolling in potentially high risk research with no prospect of direct benefit; and third, participants' understanding of the details of the trials in which they enrol. We argue that the communication concern is relevant to the validity of informed consent and the quality of decision making, that the motivation concern does not identify a genuine problem with either the validity of consent or the quality of decision making and that the understanding concern may not be relevant to the validity of consent but is relevant to the quality of decision making. In doing so, we derive guidance points for researchers recruiting and enrolling participants into their HIV cure trials, as well as the research ethics committees reviewing proposed studies.

  15. 76 FR 58020 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act IV Information Technology Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act IV Information Technology Plan AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of an updated information technology (IT) plan entitled...

  16. Therapeutic consultation: a necessary adjunct to independent drug information.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, C; Arnau, J M; Vidal, X; Laporte, J R

    1993-01-01

    1. A therapeutic consultation service was implemented in 1984 to complement other methods of information and education on drug therapy for prescribers. 2. Up to 1991, 1,620 enquiries were received, 65% from our hospital and an increasing proportion from primary care (10%), other hospitals (6%), family planning centres (4%), and other sources (14%). 3. More than two-thirds (67%) were consultative enquiries, as opposed to demands for factual information, which needed knowledge of medical aspects of the case and clinical expertise. 4. 85% of enquiries were answered with a written report including relevant references and as conclusive as possible recommendations. 5. More discussion of therapeutic consultation is needed, and aspects for discussion are suggested. PMID:8448067

  17. The current development of CNS drug research.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Gregers; Rujescu, Dan

    2013-08-01

    In the past few years, several high profiled pharmaceutical companies have decided to shut down major research activities within the central nervous system (CNS) area. For example, in December 2011 Novartis announced that the company is closing its neuroscience facility in Basel, Switzerland, where Novartis is headquartered (Abbott, 2011). It follows similar moves by GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, both based in the UK, which in 2010 announced the closure of major parts of their neuroscience research divisions globally (Jack, Financial Times, 4 February 2010). Also companies primarily based in the USA, Pfizer and Merck, as well as the French company Sanofi, have pulled back on research into brain disorders. This development is still proceeding, as e.g. AstraZeneca closed their CNS/pain centres (Fiercebiotech, press release, 2 February 2012). Several of the companies have launched smaller new initiatives based on studies of genetics and biomarkers, but as mental disorders such as unipolar depression impose the largest disease burden worldwide, e.g. 6.2% disability-adjusted life year of total (WHO, 2008), and current treatments do not work particularly well for many patients, this has obviously raised a number of concerns related to how the future developments should be carried out, and whether the genetic approach may be sufficient. In June 2012, the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (http://www.cinp.org) hosted an international workshop in order to discuss and consider the consequences and implications of the withdrawal of these research activities. This paper presents the problem background together with a summary of the viewpoints of the invited speakers and recommendations for future intervention.

  18. Evaluation of Drug Abuse Treatment Effectiveness: Summary of the DARP Followup Research. Treatment Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Sells, S. B.

    The Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP) was initiated in 1969 as a federally supported client reporting system for community-based drug abuse treatment programs. Posttreatment follow-up interviews were conducted with over 4,000 persons from 34 treatment agencies to describe major findings from the drug abuse treatment research of the DARP relating…

  19. Motivations of children and their parents to participate in drug research: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Krista; Zwaan, C Michel; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Information on motivations for research participation, may enable professionals to better tailor the process of recruitment and informed consent to the perspective of parents and children. Therefore, this systematic review assesses motivating and discouraging factors for children and their parents to decide to participate in clinical drug research. Studies were identified from searches in 6 databases. Two independent reviewers screened and selected relevant articles. Results were aggregated and presented by use of qualitative metasummary. 38 studies fulfilled the selection criteria and were of sufficient quality for inclusion in the qualitative metasummary. Most mentioned motivating factors for parents were: health benefit for child, altruism, trust in research, and relation to researcher. Most mentioned motivating factors for children were: personal health benefit, altruism and increasing comfort. Fear of risks, distrust in research, logistical aspects and disruption of daily life were mentioned most by parents as discouraging factors. Burden and disruption of daily life, feeling like a "guinea pig" and fear of risks were most mentioned as discouraging factors by children. Paying attention to these motivating and discouraging factors of children and their parents during the recruitment and informed consent process in drug research increases the moral and instrumental value of informed consent. • This systematic review pools the existing empirical literature on motivations of minors and their parents to consent or dissent to participation in clinical drug research. • The most mentioned motivating and discouraging factors for children and their parents to consent to participation in clinical drug research are identified aggregated and presented by use of qualitative metasummary. What is new: • This information can be used to adapt the research protocol, recruitment, and informed consent/assent process to the needs of children and their parents.

  20. The use of neuroproteomics in drug abuse research

    PubMed Central

    Lull, Melinda E.; Freeman, Willard M.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    The number of discovery proteomic studies of drug abuse has begun to increase in recent years, facilitated by the adoption of new techniques such as 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ. For these new tools to provide the greatest insight into the neurobiology of addiction, however, it is important that the addiction field has a clear understanding of the strengths, limitations, and drug abuse-specific research factors of neuroproteomic studies. This review outlines approaches for improving animal models, protein sample quality and stability, proteome fractionation, data analysis, and data sharing to maximize the insights gained from neuroproteomic studies of drug abuse. For both the behavioral researcher interested in what proteomic study results mean, and for biochemists joining the drug abuse research field, a careful consideration of these factors is needed. Similar to genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic methods, appropriate use of new proteomic technologies offers the potential to provide a novel and global view of the neurobiological changes underlying drug addiction. Proteomic tools may be an enabling technology to identify key proteins involved in drug abuse behaviors, with the ultimate goal of understanding the etiology of drug abuse and identifying targets for the development of therapeutic agents. PMID:19926406

  1. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  2. How do researchers categorize drugs, and how do drug users categorize them?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers drug classifications and terms widely used in US survey research, and compares these to classifications and terms used by drug users. We begin with a critical review of drug classification systems, including those oriented to public policy and health services as well as survey research. We then consider the results of a pile sort exercise we conducted with 76 respondents within a mixed method study of Southeast Asian American adolescent and young adult drug users in urban Northern California, USA. We included the pile sort to clarify how respondents handled specific terms which we understood to be related to Ecstasy and methamphetamines. Results of the pile sort were analyzed using graphic layout algorithms as well as content analysis of pile labels. Similar to the national surveys, our respondents consistently differentiated Ecstasy terms from methamphetamine terms. We found high agreement between some specific local terms (thizz, crystal) and popular drug terms, while other terms thought to be mainstream (crank, speed) were reported as unknown by many respondents. In labeling piles, respondents created taxonomies based on consumption method (in particular, pill) as well as the social contexts of use. We conclude by proposing that divergences between drug terms utilized in survey research and those used by drug users may reflect two opposing tendencies: the tendency of survey researchers to utilize standardized language that constructs persons and experiences as relatively homogeneous, varying only within measurable degrees, and the tendency of drug users to utilize specialized language (argot) that reflects their understandings of their experiences as hybrid and diverse. The findings problematize the validity of drug terms and categories used in survey research. PMID:24431475

  3. Linked open drug data for pharmaceutical research and development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an abundance of information about drugs available on the Web. Data sources range from medicinal chemistry results, over the impact of drugs on gene expression, to the outcomes of drugs in clinical trials. These data are typically not connected together, which reduces the ease with which insights can be gained. Linking Open Drug Data (LODD) is a task force within the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLS IG). LODD has surveyed publicly available data about drugs, created Linked Data representations of the data sets, and identified interesting scientific and business questions that can be answered once the data sets are connected. The task force provides recommendations for the best practices of exposing data in a Linked Data representation. In this paper, we present past and ongoing work of LODD and discuss the growing importance of Linked Data as a foundation for pharmaceutical R&D data sharing. PMID:21575203

  4. What information for the patient? Large scale pilot study on experimental package inserts giving information on prescribed and over the counter drugs.

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the acceptability and the degree of understandability of two drug information leaflets on three over the counter and two prescribed drugs. DESIGN--Prospective observational study. SETTING--Random sample of municipal pharmacies throughout Italy. SUBJECTS--A total of 6992 clients of the pharmacies who requested the study drugs over a period of four months. INTERVENTION--Exposure of patients to two information leaflets, one approved by the Ministry of Health, and the other an experimental sheet prepared by the research working group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The degree of acceptability of the information was assessed by using a pretested questionnaire. Comments concerning information needs were also encouraged and collected. RESULTS--6992 Clients responded to the questionnaire. Non-metropolitan (urban and rural) areas had the highest rate of participation. The participants strongly preferred the experimental leaflets to the approved leaflets, both with respect to accessibility of the contents (overall preference 78.1% v 17.8%) and ease of understanding the contraindications of drug use (90.2% v 73.7%). Basic attitudes related to the use of written information were similar among clients of different age groups, educational levels (though emerging people with primary school or lower educational levels showed slightly lesser understanding), and geographic areas. Up to 50% of those who took over the counter drugs indicated a disposition to change their drug seeking behaviour on the basis of the information in the experimental leaflet. The comments provided a useful complementary set of data on the information needs expressed by participants. CONCLUSIONS--The results of this pilot study indicate that patients will enter active programmes to investigate the provision of problem oriented drug information. Their information needs seem to concern both prescribed and over the counter drugs. More extensive and systematic work is required to develop an

  5. Overcoming Obstacles to Drug Abuse Research with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    Although there has been a significant amount of research on the families of drug abusers, this field has encountered a number of obstacles to its continued growth. Some of these problems include an emphasis of research on opiate use, methodological hindrances, and lack of a constituency. A review of two concurrent national processes, the White…

  6. The Pharmacogenetics Research Network: From SNP Discovery to Clinical Drug Response

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, KM; Brett, CM; Altman, RB; Benowitz, NL; Dolan, ME; Flockhart, DA; Johnson, JA; Hayes, DF; Klein, T; Krauss, RM; Kroetz, DL; McLeod, HL; Nguyen, AT; Ratain, MJ; Relling, MV; Reus, V; Roden, DM; Schaefer, CA; Shuldiner, AR; Skaar, T; Tantisira, K; Tyndale, RF; Wang, L; Weinshilboum, RM; Weiss, ST; Zineh, I

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Pharmacogenetics Research Network (PGRN) is a collaborative group of investigators with a wide range of research interests, but all attempting to correlate drug response with genetic variation. Several research groups concentrate on drugs used to treat specific medical disorders (asthma, depression, cardiovascular disease, addiction of nicotine, and cancer), whereas others are focused on specific groups of proteins that interact with drugs (membrane transporters and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes). The diverse scientific information is stored and annotated in a publicly accessible knowledge base, the Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge base (PharmGKB). This report highlights selected achievements and scientific approaches as well as hypotheses about future directions of each of the groups within the PGRN. Seven major topics are included: informatics (PharmGKB), cardiovascular, pulmonary, addiction, cancer, transport, and metabolism. PMID:17339863

  7. Determination of drug information needs of health care professionals in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Fischer, Krista; Irs, Alar

    2006-01-01

    To determine the current sources and perceived needs of drug information among Estonian physicians and pharmacists. METHODS. A survey was conducted among 2000 health care professionals subscribing to a drug information bulletin. The questionnaire addressed the most important areas of drug information for the respondent, the areas of drug information most difficult to access, the main sources of drug information currently used, the quality of information received from the representatives of drug manufacturers, and the need for an independent drug information center (DIC). A total of 457 (23%) questionnaires were returned. Of all the respondents, 82% were physicians and 18%--pharmacists. More than half of respondents (59%) had over 20 years, 30% had 10-20, and 11% up to 10 years of professional experience. The most important areas of information identified by the respondents were pharmacological action, indications, dosing, and contraindications. The same were considered to be the most difficult areas to find data about. The main sources of drug information were datasheet compendium Pharmaca Estica, specialty handbooks, medical journals, and drug manufacturers' representatives. Manufacturers' representatives provided mainly data about pharmacological action, indications, and dosing (respectively, 66, 64, and 58% of respondents always got this information). Most respondents (89%) considered the information from the manufacturers sufficient; 88% of respondents still considered a drug information center necessary. The most important areas of drug information (pharmacological action, indications, dosing, and contraindications), the areas difficult to access (medical questions of use in the elderly, drug interactions, use during pregnancy and lactation), the main sources of drug information (Pharmaca Estica, specialty handbooks, medical journals, etc.) and the most favored ways of getting information from the drug information center (by phone, by e-mail) were determined

  8. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries.

  9. Educational Programs Offered by Colleges of Pharmacy and Drug Information Centers within the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Harold L.; Rosenberg, Jack M.

    1984-01-01

    Surveys mailed to institutions known to be active in disseminating drug information as well as colleges of pharmacy indicated that many of today's pharmacy students may not be receiving sufficient drug information training to respond to the drug information needs of other health professionals and the public. (Author/MLW)

  10. Applications for Food and Drug Administration approval to market a new drug; postmarketing reports; reporting information about authorized generic drugs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-07-28

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to require that the holder of a new drug application (NDA) submit certain information regarding authorized generic drugs in an annual report. We are taking this action as part of our implementation of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA). FDAAA requires that FDA publish a list of all authorized generic drugs included in an annual report since 1999, and that the agency update the list quarterly.

  11. Parent Drug Education: A Participatory Action Research Study into Effective Communication about Drugs between Parents and Unrelated Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Parent drug education is considered a key aspect of drug prevention. Effective communication acts as protective factor for drug misuse in young people. This study is a Participatory Action Research study of "Drugsbridge", a drug education programme that has an emphasis on facilitating intergenerational communication about drugs between parents and…

  12. Parent Drug Education: A Participatory Action Research Study into Effective Communication about Drugs between Parents and Unrelated Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Parent drug education is considered a key aspect of drug prevention. Effective communication acts as protective factor for drug misuse in young people. This study is a Participatory Action Research study of "Drugsbridge", a drug education programme that has an emphasis on facilitating intergenerational communication about drugs between parents and…

  13. [Progress of researches on drug-loaded nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Sheng, Yan; Shan, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2008-02-01

    The progress of researches on drug-loaded nanoparticles was summarized in this review. The major emphasis was laid on the selection of wall polymers, technology of preparation, surface modification, investigation of release in vitro and biocompatibility evaluation. Additionally, we envisioned a perspective regarding the development in this field. With the development of synthesis of biodegradable polymer, with the appearance of novel equipment, and with the deep-going studies on modification of nanoparticles surface method, on fabrication of nanoparticles art as well as on evaluation of drug release and reaction between drug and organ, further researches in this field will open up the way to applications of drug-loaded nanoparticles in larger field.

  14. Testing wastewater to detect illicit drugs: state of the art, potential and research needs.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Sara; Thomas, Kevin V; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Vandam, Liesbeth; Griffiths, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Illicit drug use is a global phenomenon involving millions of individuals, which results in serious health and social costs. The chemical analysis of urban wastewater for the excretion products of illicit drugs is a potent approach for monitoring patterns and trends of illicit drug use in a community. The first international and multidisciplinary conference on this topic was recently organized to present the epidemiological knowledge of patterns in drug use and the information obtained from wastewater analysis. This paper gives an overview of the main issues that emerged during the conference, focusing on the identified research gaps and requirements and on the future challenges and opportunities from bringing together wastewater analysis and drug epidemiology. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) uses an established multi-indicator system to monitor illicit drug use and to identify the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The methodological challenges of monitoring a hidden and stigmatized behavior like drug use include the limitations of self-report data and reporting delays. An increasing evidence base suggests that wastewater analysis can address some of these problems. Specifically this technique can: monitor temporal and spatial trends in drug use at different scales, provide updated estimates of drug use, and identify changing habits and the use of new substances. A best practice protocol developed by a Europe-wide network of experts is available to produce homogeneous and comparable data at different sites. The systematic evaluation of uncertainties related to wastewater analysis has highlighted which areas require careful control and those that need further investigation to generally improve the approach. Wastewater analysis has considerable potential to complement existing approaches for monitoring drug use due to its ability to produce objective, real-time estimates of drug use and to give timely information of any

  15. Academic Information Security Researchers: Hackers or Specialists?

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, Mehdi; Lagzian, Mohammad; Borchardt, Glenn

    2017-04-10

    In this opinion piece, we present a synopsis of our findings from the last 2 years concerning cyber-attacks on web-based academia. We also present some of problems that we have faced and try to resolve any misunderstandings about our work. We are academic information security specialists, not hackers. Finally, we present a brief overview of our methods for detecting cyber fraud in an attempt to present general guidelines for researchers who would like to continue our work. We believe that our work is necessary for protecting the integrity of scholarly publishing against emerging cybercrime.

  16. Prediction of drug-target interaction by label propagation with mutual interaction information derived from heterogeneous network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Zhang, Song-Yao

    2016-02-01

    The identification of potential drug-target interaction pairs is very important, which is useful not only for providing greater understanding of protein function, but also for enhancing drug research, especially for drug function repositioning. Recently, numerous machine learning-based algorithms (e.g. kernel-based, matrix factorization-based and network-based inference methods) have been developed for predicting drug-target interactions. All these methods implicitly utilize the assumption that similar drugs tend to target similar proteins and yield better results for predicting interactions between drugs and target proteins. To further improve the accuracy of prediction, a new method of network-based label propagation with mutual interaction information derived from heterogeneous networks, namely LPMIHN, is proposed to infer the potential drug-target interactions. LPMIHN separately performs label propagation on drug and target similarity networks, but the initial label information of the target (or drug) network comes from the drug (or target) label network and the known drug-target interaction bipartite network. The independent label propagation on each similarity network explores the cluster structure in its network, and the label information from the other network is used to capture mutual interactions (bicluster structures) between the nodes in each pair of the similarity networks. As compared to other recent state-of-the-art methods on the four popular benchmark datasets of binary drug-target interactions and two quantitative kinase bioactivity datasets, LPMIHN achieves the best results in terms of AUC and AUPR. In addition, many of the promising drug-target pairs predicted from LPMIHN are also confirmed on the latest publicly available drug-target databases such as ChEMBL, KEGG, SuperTarget and Drugbank. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our LPMIHN method, indicating that LPMIHN has a great potential for predicting drug-target interactions.

  17. [Post-authorization research, registries, and drug development].

    PubMed

    Patarnello, Francesca; Recchia, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade regulators, payers and health care providers tried to react to three major problems in drug development and drug use in clinical practice: the pharmaceutical R&D productivity crisis, the immaturity of benefit-risk profile for several newly approved drugs and the overall impact on economic sustainability of reimbursing new high cost drugs in their systems. The potentiality of create a continuum between the evidence requirements relevant for registration, for reimbursement and for post authorization research is clear. All different parties involved, like regulators, HTA agencies, scientific communities and manufacturers, are working to improve the knowledge profile of new drugs in order to anticipate the patient access to innovation, limiting or preventing the clinical and economical risks deriving from an incomplete safety and effectiveness profile. The Italian example of "New Drugs AIFA Registries", with or without the application of risk sharing schemes (cost sharing, pay for performance, etc.), introduced a new process and increased the sensitivity on this topic. However this might probably represents only a partial answer to the problem of how to set up the governance of coverage with evidence, drug utilization monitoring, comparative effectiveness research, outcome research programs and may be how to link them to access, pricing and reimbursement. The step change in post authorization research could be to "integrate" different sources and stakeholders in a wider and continuous approach, in a well designed and inclusive "second generation" HTA approach, where all resources (competencies, data, funding) will concur to increase the evidence profile and reduce the risks, and where any "evidence generation approach" is really compliant with the standard and rules of best research practices.

  18. Drug treatment as HIV prevention: a research update.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David S; Woody, George E; O'Brien, Charles P

    2010-12-01

    Drug use continues to be a major factor fueling the global epidemic of HIV infection. This article reviews the current literature on the ability of drug treatment programs to reduce HIV transmission among injection and noninjection drug users. Most data come from research on the treatment of opiate dependence and provide strong evidence on the effectiveness of medication-assisted treatment for reducing the frequency of drug use, risk behaviors, and HIV infections. This has been a consistent finding since the epidemic began among diverse populations and cultural settings. Use of medications other than methadone (such as buprenorphine/naloxone and naltrexone) has increased in recent years with promising data on their effectiveness as HIV prevention and as new treatment options for communities heavily affected by opiate use and HIV infection. However, few treatment interventions for stimulant abuse and dependence have shown efficacy in reducing HIV risk. The cumulative literature provides strong support of drug treatment programs for improving access and adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Drug users in substance abuse treatment are significantly more likely to achieve sustained viral suppression, making viral transmission less likely. Although there are challenges to implementing drug treatment programs for maximum impact, the scientific literature leaves no doubt about the effectiveness of drug treatment as an HIV prevention strategy.

  19. Discordance between availability of pharmacogenetics studies and pharmacogenetics-based prescribing information for the top 200 drugs.

    PubMed

    Zineh, Issam; Pebanco, Glenn D; Aquilante, Christina L; Gerhard, Tobias; Beitelshees, Amber L; Beasley, Bach Nhi; Hartzema, Abraham G

    2006-04-01

    Despite growing numbers of pharmacogenetics studies, little pharmacogenetics-based prescribing information is available to practitioners. It is possible that the lack of prescribing data for commonly used drugs is due to a paucity of evidence-based pharmacogenetics literature for these agents. To investigate the relationship between pharmacogenetics prescribing data in drug package inserts (PIs) and pharmacogenetics research literature for agents represented in the top 200 prescribed drugs for 2003. A PubMed search (to August 7, 2004) was performed to identify pharmacogenetics studies relevant to the top 200 drugs. These data were compared with PIs for drugs in the top 200 list that contained pharmacogenetics prescribing information. Pharmacogenetics data in the literature were available for 71.3% of the top 200 drugs. The gene involved coded for a drug-metabolizing enzyme in 34.5% of the literature sampled. The remaining 65.5% of the pharmacogenetics studies contained information largely related to genetic variability in target proteins and drug transporters. Three drugs with PIs containing pharmacogenetics prescribing information deemed to be useful to guide therapy were in the top 200 list (celecoxib, fluoxetine, pantoprazole). There was no consensus on the strength of association between genetic variability and drug response for these agents. The lack of specific pharmacogenetics-based prescribing information in PIs for commonly used drugs does not seem to be related to a paucity of pharmacogenetics data in the research literature. Rather, other factors including, but not limited to, the uncertain clinical relevance of genetic associations may make practical prescribing recommendations difficult.

  20. [Drug information management through the intranet of a hospital center].

    PubMed

    Juárez Giménez, J C; Mendarte Barrenechea, L; Gil Luján, G; Sala Piñol, F; Lalueza Broto, P; Girona Brumós, L; Monterde Junyent, J

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used for the implementation and validation of a network resource incorporated to the intranet of the Hospital, in order to retain and disseminate information from the Drug Information Center (DIC) of a pharmacy service in a hospital center. A working group designed the structure, contents, memory needs, priority of access for users and a quality assessment questionnaire. The resource developed by the working group had a capacity of 70 Gb and its structure was based on HTML documents, including files with different format and 12 theme areas. Two levels of priority of access were established depending on the user and two persons were in charge of the resource. The questionnaire was delivered after three months of use. Sixty nine per cent of the users regarded the resource as very useful and 31%, as useful. The final structure, according to the results of the survey, had 11 theme areas. The use of the hospital Intranet in order to include and organize DIC information can be very simple and economic. Furthermore, the involvement of all the users in its design and structure can facilitate the practical use of this tool and improve its quality.

  1. canSAR: an updated cancer research and drug discovery knowledgebase.

    PubMed

    Tym, Joseph E; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Coker, Elizabeth A; Razaz, Parisa; Schierz, Amanda C; Antolin, Albert A; Al-Lazikani, Bissan

    2016-01-04

    canSAR (http://cansar.icr.ac.uk) is a publicly available, multidisciplinary, cancer-focused knowledgebase developed to support cancer translational research and drug discovery. canSAR integrates genomic, protein, pharmacological, drug and chemical data with structural biology, protein networks and druggability data. canSAR is widely used to rapidly access information and help interpret experimental data in a translational and drug discovery context. Here we describe major enhancements to canSAR including new data, improved search and browsing capabilities, new disease and cancer cell line summaries and new and enhanced batch analysis tools.

  2. Alcohol and Other Drug Use: The Connection to Youth Suicide. Abstracts of Selected Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Kathy; Turner, Amy

    This publication provides the reader with an overview of the research done on the connection between the use of alcohol and other drugs and the ideation and/or completion of suicide among adolescents. It also provides information and resources on how to develop a youth suicide prevention program. The introduction gives a brief overview of the…

  3. Formal and informal organizational activities of people who inject drugs in New York City: Description and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Sandoval, Milagros; Jones, Yolanda; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about group memberships of people who inject drugs. Methods We interviewed 300 injectors about formal and informal group participation and risk behaviors. Results Many took part in groups related to problems and resources associated with injecting drugs, religion, sports or gender. Harm reduction group and support group participation was associated with less risk behavior; sports groups participation with more risk behavior. Discussion Group involvement by people who inject drugs may be important to their lives and/or affect prevention or infectious disease transmission. More research is needed about determinants and consequences of their and other drug users’ group memberships. PMID:25774744

  4. A knowledge-based information system for monitoring drug levels.

    PubMed

    Wiener, F; Groth, T; Mortimer, O; Hallquist, I; Rane, A

    1989-06-01

    The expert system shell SMR has been enhanced to include information system routines for designing data screens and providing facilities for data entry, storage, retrieval, queries and descriptive statistics. The data for inference making is abstracted from the data base record and inserted into a data array to which the knowledge base is applied to derive the appropriate advice and comments. The enhanced system has been used to develop an intelligent information system for monitoring serum drug levels which includes evaluation of temporal changes and production of specialized printed reports. The module for digoxin has been fully developed and validated. To demonstrate the extension to other drugs a module for phenytoin was constructed with only a rudimentary knowledge base. Data from the request forms together with the S-digoxin results are entered into the data base by the department secretary. The day's results are then reviewed by the clinical pharmacologist. For each case, previous results may be displayed and are taken into account by the system in the decision process. The knowledge base is applied to the data to formulate an evaluative comment on the report returned to the requestor. The report includes a semi-graphic presentation of the current and previous results and either the system's interpretation or one entered by the pharmacologist if he does not agree with it. The pharmacologist's comment is also recorded in the data base for future retrieval, analysis and possible updating of the knowledge base. The system is now undergoing testing and evaluation under routine operations in the clinical pharmacology service. It is a prototype for other applications in both laboratory and clinical medicine currently under development at Uppsala University Hospital. This system may thus provide a vehicle for a more intensive penetration of knowledge-based systems in practical medical applications.

  5. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  6. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  7. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  8. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  9. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to §...

  10. Hepatitis C Virus Experimental Model Systems and Antiviral drug Research*

    PubMed Central

    Uprichard, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 130 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) making it a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Because the currently available therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin is only effective in a subset of patients, the development of new HCV antivirals is a healthcare imperative. This review discusses the experimental models available for HCV antiviral drug research, recent advances in HCV antiviral drug development, as well as active research being pursued to facilitate development of new HCV-specific therapeutics. PMID:20960298

  11. Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research.

  12. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2017-09-20

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  13. Human Disease Insight: An integrated knowledge-based platform for disease-gene-drug information.

    PubMed

    Tasleem, Munazzah; Ishrat, Romana; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the Human Disease Insight (HDI) database is not limited to researchers or physicians as it also provides basic information to non-professionals and creates disease awareness, thereby reducing the chances of patient suffering due to ignorance. HDI is a knowledge-based resource providing information on human diseases to both scientists and the general public. Here, our mission is to provide a comprehensive human disease database containing most of the available useful information, with extensive cross-referencing. HDI is a knowledge management system that acts as a central hub to access information about human diseases and associated drugs and genes. In addition, HDI contains well-classified bioinformatics tools with helpful descriptions. These integrated bioinformatics tools enable researchers to annotate disease-specific genes and perform protein analysis, search for biomarkers and identify potential vaccine candidates. Eventually, these tools will facilitate the analysis of disease-associated data. The HDI provides two types of search capabilities and includes provisions for downloading, uploading and searching disease/gene/drug-related information. The logistical design of the HDI allows for regular updating. The database is designed to work best with Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome and is freely accessible at http://humandiseaseinsight.com.

  14. The Use of Economic Evidence to Inform Drug Pricing Decisions in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Eman A

    2016-01-01

    Drug pricing is an example of a priority setting in a developing country with official requirements for the use of cost-effectiveness (CE) evidence. To describe the role of economic evidence in drug pricing decisions in Jordan. A prospective review of all applications submitted between November 2013 and May 2015 to the Jordan Food and Drug Association's drug pricing committee was carried out. All applications that involved requests for CE evidence were reviewed. Details on the type of study, the extent, and whether the evidence submitted was part of the formal deliberations were extracted and summarized. The committee reviewed a total of 1608 drug pricing applications over the period of the study. CE evidence was requested in only 11 applications. The submitted evidence was of limited use to the committee due to concerns about quality, relevance of studies, and lack of pharmacoeconomic expertise. There were also no clear rules describing how CE would inform pricing decisions. Limited local data and health economic experience were the main barriers to the use of economic evidence in drug pricing decisions in Jordan. In addition, there are no official rules describing the elements and process by which the CE evidence would inform drug pricing decisions. This study summarized accumulated observations for the current use of economic evaluations and evidence-based decision making in Jordan. Recommendations have been proposed to applicants and key decision makers to enhance the role of economic evidence in influencing health policies and evidence-based decision making across priority settings. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parkinson's Disease Research Web - Information for Patients and Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Page Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research NINDS Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Strategic Plans NINDS ... Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia ...

  16. Future technology insight: mass spectrometry imaging as a tool in drug research and development

    PubMed Central

    Cobice, D F; Goodwin, R J A; Andren, P E; Nilsson, A; Mackay, C L; Andrew, R

    2015-01-01

    In pharmaceutical research, understanding the biodistribution, accumulation and metabolism of drugs in tissue plays a key role during drug discovery and development. In particular, information regarding pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and transport properties of compounds in tissues is crucial during early screening. Historically, the abundance and distribution of drugs have been assessed by well-established techniques such as quantitative whole-body autoradiography (WBA) or tissue homogenization with LC/MS analysis. However, WBA does not distinguish active drug from its metabolites and LC/MS, while highly sensitive, does not report spatial distribution. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can discriminate drug and its metabolites and endogenous compounds, while simultaneously reporting their distribution. MSI data are influencing drug development and currently used in investigational studies in areas such as compound toxicity. In in vivo studies MSI results may soon be used to support new drug regulatory applications, although clinical trial MSI data will take longer to be validated for incorporation into submissions. We review the current and future applications of MSI, focussing on applications for drug discovery and development, with examples to highlight the impact of this promising technique in early drug screening. Recent sample preparation and analysis methods that enable effective MSI, including quantitative analysis of drugs from tissue sections will be summarized and key aspects of methodological protocols to increase the effectiveness of MSI analysis for previously undetectable targets addressed. These examples highlight how MSI has become a powerful tool in drug research and development and offers great potential in streamlining the drug discovery process. PMID:25766375

  17. Current situation of drug information in the kindergarten and nursery teacher: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tayama, Yoshitaka; Miyake, Katsushi; Kanazawa, Eri; Kaneko, Tetuo; Sugihara, Kazumi; Toyomi, Atsushi; Morita, Shushi; Kobayashi, Masao; Ohta, Shigeru

    2009-05-01

    Because children cannot be expected to take medications correctly by themselves, parents are responsible for administering drugs based on the information provided by pharmacists. It has been reported that 90% of children aged 3-5 years in Japan attend kindergarten or nursery school, where teachers are responsible for the administration of some drugs to children. This study evaluated the types of information that teachers receive from parents. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on drug information imparted to 144 teachers working in kindergarten or nursery schools in Hiroshima and Kure. The teachers reported that drug information from parents mainly comprised dosage and usage. However, little information was provided concerning the drug name, adverse drug reactions, and interaction with food items. To administer drugs to children safely, kindergarten and nursery teachers considered the information regarding adverse drug reactions (111/123 teachers), interaction with foods (106/123 teachers), and effective means of administering drugs (117/123 teachers) as important. The pharmacists' prescription notes have information on dosage, usage, drug name, adverse drug reactions, and interaction with food items. However, the teachers receive drug information from parents in the order of oral communication, a written note, and via the pharmacists' prescription note. Seventy-two percent of teachers (89/123 teachers) insisted on needing the pharmacists' prescription note. These results suggest that teachers are uncomfortable administering medications to children primarily due to inadequate information. Pharmacists should instruct parents to provide teachers with prescription notes to prevent grave medication errors.

  18. [Drug information in recent 5 volumes of the Year Book of Dentistry].

    PubMed

    Sakata, K; Chiba, T; Noda, S

    1990-12-01

    The Year Book of Dentistry appears annually, providing a review of dental articles. We surveyed the abstracts of the recent 5 volumes of the Year Book of Dentistry, from 1985 to 1989. Two hundred and eighty articles were abstracted in each volume, divided into about 13 categories. The proportion of abstracts concerned with drugs and drug therapies (here termed drug information) was almost 20% in all volumes. Most of the drug information appeared under the heading "Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology" (63%). The original articles for the abstracts were from many journals, but 70% of the drug information articles were from JADA, Oral Surgery, and 10 other journals. The classification of the drugs in the drug information were: drugs for dental treatment, antibacterials, antiinflammatories, hemostatics, anesthetics, and others. Oral manifestations of systemic diseases or side effects of drugs used for these diseases were also abstracted. There were numerous articles of systemic diseases, due to dental treatments, including infective, hematologic diseases.

  19. Opening Pandora's pillbox: using modern information tools to improve drug safety.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Scott

    2005-01-01

    How the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) responds to criticism of its drug safety process will determine whether drug safety actually improves. Propping up the Office of Drug Safety with more bureaucratic prominence or adding new requirements to the preapproval process will add to the cost of drug development and not make drugs safer. New information tools can dramatically improve postmarketing surveillance and collection of data on safety. This information could then be used to reach more definitive regulatory conclusions sooner. New incentives will be needed to entice payers and product developers to work on building a broader, more robust system for collecting data on drug safety.

  20. Recent researches in triazole compounds as medicinal drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C-H; Wang, Y

    2012-01-01

    Triazole compounds containing three nitrogen atoms in the five-membered aromatic azole ring are readily able to bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological system via diverse non-covalent interactions, and thus display versatile biological activities. The related researches in triazole-based derivatives as medicinal drugs have been an extremely active topic, and numerous excellent achievements have been acquired. Noticeably, a large number of triazole compounds as clinical drugs or candidates have been frequently employed for the treatment of various types of diseases, which have shown their large development value and wide potential as medicinal agents. This work systematically reviewed the recent researches and developments of the whole range of triazole compounds as medicinal drugs, including antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial, antitubercular, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anticonvulsant, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anti-obesitic, antihistaminic, anti-neuropathic, antihypertensive as well as other biological activities. The perspectives of the foreseeable future in the research and development of triazole-based compounds as medicinal drugs are also presented. It is hoped that this review will serve as a stimulant for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic triazole medicinal drugs.

  1. A Drug Information Center Module to Train Pharmacy Students in Evidence-based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pereira de Lima David, Juceni; Noblat, Lúcia de Araujo Costa Beisl

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To use a drug information center training module to teach evidence-based medicine to pharmacy students and to assess their satisfaction with the experience. Design. During the 5-week module, students were taught how to develop information search strategies and to conduct critical analysis of scientific papers. The instructors developed activities based on past requests received by the university’s Drug Information Center. The complexity of the assignments increased throughout the module. Assessment. One hundred twenty-one students were trained between August 2009 and July 2010. Sixty-seven (55.4%) completed a voluntary assessment form at the completion of the 5-week module. Students’ feedback was positive, with 11 students suggesting that the module be integrated into the undergraduate curriculum. The most frequently (52.2%) mentioned area of dissatisfaction was with the performance of computers in the computer laboratory. Conclusions. The drug information center training module was an effective tool for teaching evidence-based medicine to pharmacy students. Additional research is needed to determine whether graduates are able to apply the knowledge and skills learned in the module to the pharmacy practice setting. PMID:23716748

  2. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry information...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... Operating Committee § 1260.169 Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information. The... approval any plans and projects for promotion, research, consumer information and industry information...

  4. Supporting Information Governance through Records and Information Management. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczmarek, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The expanding scope of IT initiatives in higher education institutions now goes well beyond basic desktop and enterprise applications. IT is often asked to focus on efforts to establish good information-governance practices. The many aspects of information governance are often found in a records and information management (RIM) program, but not…

  5. Supporting Information Governance through Records and Information Management. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczmarek, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The expanding scope of IT initiatives in higher education institutions now goes well beyond basic desktop and enterprise applications. IT is often asked to focus on efforts to establish good information-governance practices. The many aspects of information governance are often found in a records and information management (RIM) program, but not…

  6. 77 FR 14401 - Draft Guidance on Drug Safety Information-FDA's Communication to the Public; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance on Drug Safety Information--FDA's Communication to the Public; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance...

  7. 78 FR 11654 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Providing Information About...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Pediatric Uses of Medical Devices Under Section 515A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' FDA is... information required under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). This draft guidance is not...

  8. 76 FR 37814 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; New Animal Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Collection; Comment Request; New Animal Drugs for Investigational Uses AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the reporting and recordkeeping requirements for ``New Animal Drugs for... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. New Animal Drugs for Investigational Uses--21 CFR...

  9. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 25, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), commonly called Mellow Drug of America. Background information is provided through a summary of its history, legal status, and the opinions of…

  10. 77 FR 74827 - Working Group on Access to Information on Prescription Drug Container Labels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... a stakeholder working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug... working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug container labels... to develop best practices for pharmacies on providing independent access to prescription drug...

  11. 21 CFR 20.110 - Data and information about Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration employees. 20.110 Section 20.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.110 Data and information about Food and Drug Administration employees. (a) The name, title, grade, position...

  12. 21 CFR 20.110 - Data and information about Food and Drug Administration employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration employees. 20.110 Section 20.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.110 Data and information about Food and Drug Administration employees. (a) The name, title, grade, position...

  13. Hierarchical Decimal Classification of Information Related to Cancer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    The classification may be used (1) to identify cancer research efforts supported by NCI in selected areas of research (at any general or specific level desired), (2) to store information related to cancer research and retrieve this information on request, and (3) to match interests of cancer research scientists against information in published…

  14. Hierarchical Decimal Classification of Information Related to Cancer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    The classification may be used (1) to identify cancer research efforts supported by NCI in selected areas of research (at any general or specific level desired), (2) to store information related to cancer research and retrieve this information on request, and (3) to match interests of cancer research scientists against information in published…

  15. Communicating during a pandemic: information the public wants about the disease and new vaccines and drugs.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Natalie; Holmes, Bev

    2011-07-01

    To prepare for pandemics, countries are creating pandemic preparedness plans. These plans frequently include crisis communication strategies that recommend conducting pre-crisis audience research to increase the effectiveness and relevance of communication with the public. To begin understanding the communication needs of the public and health care workers, 11 focus groups were conducted in Vancouver, Canada, in 2006 and 2007 to identify what information people want to receive and how they want to receive it. In the event of a pandemic, participants want to know their risk of infection and how sick they could become if infected. To make decisions about using vaccines and drugs, they want information that enables them to assess the risks of using the products. The public prefers to receive this information from family doctors, the Internet, and schools. Health care workers prefer to receive information in e-mails and in-services.

  16. Disease Information in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Print Ads.

    PubMed

    Aikin, Kathryn J; Sullivan, Helen W; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements sometimes include information about the disease condition in addition to information about the advertised product. Although the intent of such information is to educate about the disease condition, in some cases consumers may mistakenly assume that the drug will address all of the potential consequences of the condition mentioned in the ad. We investigated the effects of adding disease information to DTC prescription drug print ads on consumer product perceptions and understanding. Participants (4,064 adults) viewed 1 of 15 DTC print ads for fictitious prescription drugs indicated to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia, or lymphoma that varied in disease information presence, type, and format. Participants answered questions that assessed risk and benefit memory, perception, and behavioral intention. Results indicate that exposure to disease information as part of DTC prescription drug ads can promote the impression that the drug addresses consequences of the condition that are not part of the drug's indication.

  17. Board on Research Data and Information

    SciTech Connect

    Sztein, A. Ester; Boright, John

    2015-08-14

    The Board on Research Data and Information (BRDI) has planned and undertaken numerous activities regarding data citation, attribution, management, policy, publishing, centers, access, curation, sharing, and infrastructure; and international collaboration and cooperation. Some of these activities resulted in National Research Council reports (For Attribution: Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards (2012), The Case for International Scientific Data Sharing: A Focus on Developing Countries (2012), and The Future of Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Open Networked Environments (2012); and a peer-reviewed paper (Out of Cite, Out of Mind: The Current State of Practice, Policy, and Technology for the Citation of Data, 2013). BRDI held symposia, workshops and sessions in the U.S. and abroad on diverse topics such as global scientific data infrastructures, discovery of data online, privacy in a big data world, and data citation principles, among other timely data-related subjects. In addition, BRDI effects the representation of the United States before the International Council for Science’s International Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA).

  18. A Research-Inspired Laboratory Sequence Investigating Acquired Drug Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth Vogel; Fortune, Jennifer A.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a six-session laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to standard biochemical techniques in the context of investigating a high impact research topic, acquired resistance to the cancer drug Gleevec. Students express a Gleevec-resistant mutant of the Abelson tyrosine kinase domain, the active domain of an oncogenic…

  19. Can open-source R&D reinvigorate drug research?

    PubMed

    Munos, Bernard

    2006-09-01

    The low number of novel therapeutics approved by the US FDA in recent years continues to cause great concern about productivity and declining innovation. Can open-source drug research and development, using principles pioneered by the highly successful open-source software movement, help revive the industry?

  20. Hallucinogenic Drug Research: Impact on Science and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, Edmund L., Ed.

    This book, authored by experienced researchers in the hallucinogenic drug field, is intended to fill the gap created by most previously published work, which tends to be either highly technical or emotional and partisan. The authors range from ardent proponents to skeptics, but they share a commitment to scientific evidence and the clear…

  1. A Research-Inspired Laboratory Sequence Investigating Acquired Drug Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth Vogel; Fortune, Jennifer A.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a six-session laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to standard biochemical techniques in the context of investigating a high impact research topic, acquired resistance to the cancer drug Gleevec. Students express a Gleevec-resistant mutant of the Abelson tyrosine kinase domain, the active domain of an oncogenic…

  2. Hallucinogenic Drug Research: Impact on Science and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, Edmund L., Ed.

    This book, authored by experienced researchers in the hallucinogenic drug field, is intended to fill the gap created by most previously published work, which tends to be either highly technical or emotional and partisan. The authors range from ardent proponents to skeptics, but they share a commitment to scientific evidence and the clear…

  3. Theories on Drug Abuse: Selected Contemporary Perspectives. Research Monograph 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents various theoretical orientations and perspectives of the drug abuse research field, derived from the social and biomedical sciences. The first section contains a separate theoretical overview for each of the 43 theories or perspectives. The second section contains five chapters which correspond to the five components of a drug…

  4. NeuroAIDS, drug abuse, and inflammation: building collaborative research activities.

    PubMed

    Berman, Joan W; Carson, Monica J; Chang, Linda; Cox, Brian M; Fox, Howard S; Gonzalez, R Gilberto; Hanson, Glen R; Hauser, Kurt F; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Major, Eugene O; Maragos, William F; Masliah, Eliezer; McArthur, Justin C; Miller, Diane B; Nath, Avindra; O'Callaghan, James P; Persidsky, Yuri; Power, Christopher; Rogers, Thomas J; Royal, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Neurological complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are a public health problem despite the availability of active antiretroviral therapies. The neuropathogenesis of HIV infection revolves around a complex cascade of events that include viral infection and glial immune activation, monocyte-macrophage brain infiltration, and secretion of a host of viral and cellular inflammatory and neurotoxic molecules. Although there is evidence that HIV-infected drug abusers experience more severe neurological disease, the biological basis for this finding is unknown. A scientific workshop organized by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) was held on March 23-24, 2006 to address this question. The goal of the meeting was to bring together basic science and clinical researchers who are experts in NeuroAIDS, glial immunity, drugs of abuse, and/or pharmacology in order to find new approaches to understanding interactions between drug abuse and neuroAIDS. The format of the meeting was designed to stimulate open discussion and forge new multidisciplinary research collaborations. This report includes transcripts of active discussions and short presentations from invited participants. The presentations were separated into sections that included: Glial Biology, Inflammation, and HIV; Pharmacology, Neurotoxicology, and Neuroprotection; NeuroAIDS and Virology; and Virus-Drug and Immune-Drug Interactions. Research priorities were identified. Additional information about this meeting is available through links from the NIDA AIDS Research Program website ( http://www.nida.nih.gov/about/organization/arp/arp-websites.htm ).

  5. Effect of drug reminder packaging on medication adherence: a systematic review revealing research gaps.

    PubMed

    Boeni, Fabienne; Spinatsch, Esther; Suter, Katja; Hersberger, Kurt E; Arnet, Isabelle

    2014-03-24

    This was a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Evidence mapping was used to reveal the effect of drug reminder packaging on medication adherence, to identify research gaps and to make suggestions for future research. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched with an end date of September 2013 using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term 'medication adherence' and 20 different search terms for 'drug reminder packaging', limited to the English and German languages. Additional references were identified through cross-referencing. All prospective controlled trials with an intervention using drug reminder packaging for patients taking at least one medication without the assistance of a health-care professional were included in the evidence mapping of the effect of drug reminder packaging on adherence and outcomes according to the Economic, Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes (ECHO) model. A total of 30 studies met the inclusion criteria: 10 randomized controlled trials, 19 controlled clinical trials and 1 cohort study. Drug reminder packaging had a significant effect on at least one adherence parameter in 17 studies (57%). The methodological quality was strong in five studies. Two studies provided complete information. Clear research gaps emerged. Overall, the studies showed a positive effect of drug reminder packaging on adherence and clinical outcomes. However, poor reporting and important gaps like missing humanistic and economic outcomes and neglected safety issues limit the drawing of firm conclusions. Suggestions are made for future research.

  6. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Juan M.; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Ryan, Patrick B.; Shah, Nigam H.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies. PMID:27193236

  7. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research.

    PubMed

    Banda, Juan M; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Ryan, Patrick B; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-05-10

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies.

  8. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Iglesia, D.; Cachau, R. E.; García-Remesal, M.; Maojo, V.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts.

  9. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, D; Cachau, R E; García-Remesal, M; Maojo, V

    2013-11-27

    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts.

  10. Nanoinformatics knowledge infrastructures: bringing efficient information management to nanomedical research

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, D; Cachau, R E; García-Remesal, M; Maojo, V

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology represents an area of particular promise and significant opportunity across multiple scientific disciplines. Ongoing nanotechnology research ranges from the characterization of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to the analysis and processing of experimental data seeking correlations between nanoparticles and their functionalities and side effects. Due to their special properties, nanoparticles are suitable for cellular-level diagnostics and therapy, offering numerous applications in medicine, e.g. development of biomedical devices, tissue repair, drug delivery systems and biosensors. In nanomedicine, recent studies are producing large amounts of structural and property data, highlighting the role for computational approaches in information management. While in vitro and in vivo assays are expensive, the cost of computing is falling. Furthermore, improvements in the accuracy of computational methods (e.g. data mining, knowledge discovery, modeling and simulation) have enabled effective tools to automate the extraction, management and storage of these vast data volumes. Since this information is widely distributed, one major issue is how to locate and access data where it resides (which also poses data-sharing limitations). The novel discipline of nanoinformatics addresses the information challenges related to nanotechnology research. In this paper, we summarize the needs and challenges in the field and present an overview of extant initiatives and efforts. PMID:24932210

  11. Infrastructure to Support Hydrologic Research: Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.; Duffy, C j

    2001-12-01

    Hydrologic Sciences are inherently interdisciplinary. Consequently, a myriad state variables are of interest to hydrologists. Hydrologic processes transcend many spatial and temporal scales, and their measurements reflect a variety of scales of support. The global water cycle is continuously modified by human activity through changes in land use, alteration of rivers, irrigation and groundwater pumping and through a modification of atmospheric composition. Since water is a solvent and a medium of transport, the water cycle fundamentally influences other material and energy cycles. This metaphor extends to the function that a hydrologic research information system needs to provide, to facilitate discovery in earth systems science, and to improve our capability to manage resources and hazards in a sustainable manner. At present, we have a variety of sources that provide data useful for hydrologic analyses, that range from massive remote sensed data sets, to sparsely sampled historical and paleo data. Consequently, the first objective of the Hydrologic Information Systems (HIS) group is to design a data services system that makes these data accessible in a uniform and useful way for specific, prioritized research goals. The design will include protocols for archiving and disseminating data from the Long Term Hydrologic Observatories (LTHOs), and comprehensive modeling experiments. Hydrology has a rich tradition of mathematical and statistical modeling of processes. However, given limited data and access to it, and a narrow focus that has not exploited connections to climatic and ecologic processes (among others), there have been only a few forays into diagnostic analyses of hydrologic fields, to identify and evaluate spatial and process teleconnections and an appropriate reduced space for modeling and understanding systems. The HIS initiative consequently proposes an investment in research and the provision of toolboxes to facilitate such analyses using the data

  12. Collaboration between a drug information center and an academic detailing program.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Christopher S; Robert, Sophie; Ball, Sarah

    2014-01-15

    The collaboration between a drug information center (DIC) and an academic detailing program is described. An agreement was reached between the South Carolina Offering Prescribing Excellence (SCORxE) academic detailing program and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Drug Information Center (DIC) to provide responses to drug information (DI) questions pharmacists received on academic detailing visits. Questions received were analyzed to determine the impact that the collaboration had on MUSC DIC requests. From May 2009 to October 2012, the MUSC DIC answered 2727 DI questions, 62 (2.3%) of which were generated by SCORxE. Compared with DIC questions received from other sources, academic detailing questions were more likely to be therapeutic consultations, reference searches, or dosage queries and less likely to be about formulation or drug interactions. When comparing the deadline for the 62 academic detailing requests with the deadline for all other requests, the academic detailing requests allowed for a longer median time to deadline per request (21.2 days versus 27.1 hours). The majority of SCORxE questions (68%) were completed by students or residents. Benefits of the collaboration for the DIC included advanced educational opportunities for learners, increased dissemination of provided information, external funding, and scholarship opportunities. SCORxE has benefited from increased access to information and efficiency. Collaboration between an academic detailing program and an academic medical center DIC has proven beneficial for both parties. Questions have been communicated by a simple and effective process and have required more research than queries received from other sources.

  13. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  14. The reinstatement model of drug relapse: recent neurobiological findings, emerging research topics, and translational research

    PubMed Central

    Bossert, Jennifer M.; Marchant, Nathan J.; Calu, Donna J.; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale Results from many clinical studies suggest that drug relapse and craving are often provoked by acute exposure to the self-administered drug or related drugs, drug-associated cues or contexts, or certain stressors. During the last two decades, this clinical scenario has been studied in laboratory animals by using the reinstatement model. In this model, reinstatement of drug seeking by drug priming, drug cues or contexts, or certain stressors is assessed following drug self-administration training and subsequent extinction of the drug-reinforced responding. Objective In this review, we first summarize recent (2009-present) neurobiological findings from studies using the reinstatement model. We then discuss emerging research topics, including the impact of interfering with putative reconsolidation processes on cue- and context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, and similarities and differences in mechanisms of reinstatement across drug classes. We conclude by discussing results from recent human studies that were inspired by results from rat studies using the reinstatement model. Conclusions Main conclusions from the studies reviewed highlight: (1) the ventral subiculum and lateral hypothalamus as emerging brain areas important for reinstatement of drug seeking, (2) the existence of differences in brain mechanisms controlling reinstatement of drug seeking across drug classes, (3) the utility of the reinstatement model for assessing the effect of reconsolidation-related manipulations on cue-induced drug seeking, and (4) the encouraging pharmacological concordance between results from rat studies using the reinstatement model and human laboratory studies on cue- and stress-induced drug craving. PMID:23685858

  15. Rethinking Informed Consent in Research on Heroin-Assisted Treatment.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Susanne; Broers, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Can heroin addicts give consent to research on trials in which heroin is prescribed to them? Analyses of addicts and informed consent have been objects of debate in several articles. Informed consent requires the agent not only to be competent but also to give consent voluntarily. This has been questioned because of alleged features of heroin addiction. Until recently the discussion has focused on heroin addicts' desires for heroin, whether these are irresistible and thus pose a problem for giving consent. Still, in light of empirical evidence, there seems to be a consensus more or less that the problem is not whether the addicts can resist their desire for heroin. A recent article concentrates specifically on heroin addicts' false assumptions of options and voluntariness. We argue that the prevailing framing of the options in this discussion in terms of heroin and access to it is problematic. The way in which the options are typically laid out suggests an assumption that participation in the research is allegedly based on the addicts' views on using the drug. We argue that this way of presenting the options is, first, a mismatch to the studies carried out and, second, symptomatic of potential misconceptions about heroin addiction and addicts. Furthermore, we also suggest that the account of voluntariness needs to be realistic in order for subjects to be able to give consent voluntarily in actual situations, and for medical research to carry out studies on improving outcomes in addiction treatment in an ethical way.

  16. [Development of Internet-based system to collect and provide drug information for patients/consumers].

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Fuki; Hori, Satoko; Satoh, Hiroki; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2013-01-01

    For drug fostering and evolution, it is important to collect information directly from patients on the efficacy and safety of drugs as well as patient needs. At present, however, information gathered by healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical companies, or governments is not sufficient. There is concern that patients may fail to recognize the importance of providing information voluntarily. The present study was conducted to provide drug information to patients/consumers, to enlighten them on the importance of providing drug information by themselves, and to develop an Internet website, called "Minkusu," for collecting drug information from patients. This website is based on a registration system (free of charge). It is designed to provide information on proper drug use, and to collect opinions about drugs. As of May 31, 2012, a total of 1149 people had been registered. The male/female ratio of registered members was approximately 1:1, and patients/consumers accounted for 23%. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, several patient/consumer members appreciated the usefulness of the information service, and they took an opportunity to know of the concepts of drug development and evolution (Ikuyaku, in Japanese) through the information services provided by this site. In conclusion, the developed information system would contribute to the proper use of drugs by patients/consumers and to the promotion of drug development and evolution.

  17. Using social indicators to inform community drug and alcohol prevention policy.

    PubMed

    Gorman, D M; Labouvie, E W

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the federal government has begun to require state agencies to allocate drug prevention resources according to the needs of local communities. The methods by which this is to be accomplished have not been described, and most published social indicator studies in the field of drug abuse research have used county-level data which are too insensitive to local needs to be of use in resource allocation decisions. The present study describes a needs assessment in drug abuse prevention in the state of New Jersey using municipal-level social indicator data. In addition, it examines the extent to which the resource allocation of one state prevention agency can be predicted by the municipal-level social indicators. Thirty-six social indicators pertaining to 508 municipalities were used in the study, and data were analyzed using principal component analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. Five factors were extracted from the principal component analysis, two of which clearly describe "high risk" municipalities and one of which clearly describes "low risk" municipalities. The regression analysis showed that these factors explained very little of the variance in the state agency's drug prevention spending. The study shows that social indicators can be used to distinguish between different levels of need for drug prevention services at a municipal level, and that these data can be used to inform decisions concerning resource allocation.

  18. 75 FR 49946 - National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension With Change... Response System. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC... Intelligence Center, Fifth Floor, 319 Washington Street, Johnstown, PA 15901. Written comments and...

  19. Adverse drug reactions reported to the drug and poison information center of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Saheb Sharif-Askari, Fatemeh; Saheb Sharif-Askari, Narjes; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2017-01-01

    Burden of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in home-environment and domestic settings, is unknown. To discuss the epidemiology of reported ADRs to 13-Aban drug and poison information center (DPIC) and to discuss the burden of hospitalization caused by these ADRs from commonly implicated therapeutic groups. A retrospective analysis of the yellow card schemes of suspected ADRs reported to the 13-Aban DPIC was conducted from 21 March 2013 to 21 November 2016 inclusive. Characteristics of the ADRs, such as the sex and age of the patient, the therapeutic group involved, and the medical outcome of the exposure, were examined. ADR Hospitalization (ADRH) index was calculated for each drug group by dividing the number of ADR-related hospitalizations with total number of reported ADR cases (n = 748), and then multiplying by 100. ADRs were reported for 748 patients representing 5 cases per 1000 enquiries to the 13-Aban DPIC over almost 4-years of the study period. Public were responsible for reporting every 4 out of 5 ADR cases (n = 651, 87%) and the remaining 1 out of 5 ADR cases was reported by the health care professionals (n = 97, 13%). Most of the ADRs had a medical outcome documented as having a minor effect or were minimally bothersome to the patients (n = 509, 68%), and less than 4.9% (n = 37) were documented as having a major effect or were life-threatening. Overall, 7.4% (n = 55) of ADRs were resulted in hospitalization. Antibacterials for systemic use represented the therapeutic group with the highest hospitalization index (1.7%). The study concluded that ADRs to antibiotics are common and some of them resulted in hospitalization.

  20. Prescription drug abuse information in D.A.R.E.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa C; Cline, Rebecca J Welch; Weiler, Robert M; Broadway, S Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized within 14 categories. A two-dimensional coding system for context identified Use versus Abuse and Explicit versus Implicit references to prescription drugs. Results indicated that content and objectives found in D.A.R.E. represent a very narrow breadth of prescription drug topics. Moreover, all prescription-drug related content and objectives were presented in an Abuse-Implicit context. Although some educational material in D.A.R.E. modules potentially is related to prescription drugs, none of the content or objectives explicitly identify drugs discussed as prescription drugs. If elementary and middle schools rely on D.A.R.E. modules to teach students about drug abuse, students are likely to be underinformed about prescription drug risks.

  1. Drugs and Personality: Personality Correlates and Predictors of Non-Opiate Drug Use. Research Issues 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of abstracts from current research and theoretical studies explores various aspects of the relationship between non-opiate drug use and personality. The literature covers a period from 1968 through 1975 and focuses on tests that were conducted on adolescents and college students from the United States, Canada and Sydney, Australia.…

  2. Drugs and Personality: Personality Correlates and Predictors of Non-Opiate Drug Use. Research Issues 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of abstracts from current research and theoretical studies explores various aspects of the relationship between non-opiate drug use and personality. The literature covers a period from 1968 through 1975 and focuses on tests that were conducted on adolescents and college students from the United States, Canada and Sydney, Australia.…

  3. Randomized trial of risk information formats in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Aikin, Kathryn J; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Swasy, John L; Sullivan, Helen W

    2011-01-01

    Federal regulations specify that print advertisements for prescription drugs and biological products must provide a true statement of information "in brief summary" about each advertised product's "side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness." Some of the current approaches to fulfilling the brief summary requirement, although adequate from a regulatory perspective, result in ads that may be difficult to read and understand when used in consumer-directed promotion. . To explore ways in which the brief summary might be improved. . The authors conducted an experimental study that examined 300 consumers' (mall visitors ever told that they were overweight) understanding of and preference for 4 different brief summary formats: traditional (a plain-language version of the risk sections from professional labeling), question and answer (Q&A; with headings framed in the form of questions), highlights (a summary section from revised professional labeling), and prescription drug facts box (similar to the current over-the-counter drug facts label). . The format had several effects. For instance, participants who viewed the drug facts format were better able to recall risks (P < .01) and reported greater confidence to perform the tasks (P < .01) than those who saw the traditional format. Differences in preference were noted; for example, the drug facts format was ranked highest, followed by the Q&A format, the traditional format, and finally the highlights format, P < 0.001. . Taken together, these data suggest that the traditional method of conveying information in the brief summary is neither the most comprehensible nor the most preferred by consumers. These data provide policy makers and researchers with important information regarding the role of format in consumers' understanding of the brief summary.

  4. Informational and symbolic content of over-the-counter drug advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Tsao, J C

    1997-01-01

    The informational and symbolic content of 150 over-the-counter drug commercials on television are empirically analyzed in this study. Results on the informational content suggest that over-the-counter drug ads tend to focus on the concern of what the drug will do for the consumer, rather than on the reasons why the drug should be ingested. Accordingly, advertising strategy is centered on consumer awareness of the product as the primary goal. Educational commitment, however, did not seem to be blended into the promotional efforts for over-the-counter drugs. Findings on the symbolic content of over-the-counter drug ads reveal that drug images have been distorted. Performance of most drugs has been portrayed to be simple resolutions to relieve the symptom. Moreover, a casual attitude toward drug usage is encouraged in the commercials, while time lapse of drug effects is overlooked.

  5. Researching the spiritual dimensions of alcohol and other drug problems.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R

    1998-07-01

    Although religions have been far from silent on the use of psychoactive drugs, and spirituality has long been emphasized as an important factor in recovery from addiction, surprisingly little research has explored the relationships between these two phenomena. Current findings indicate that spiritual/religious involvement may be an important protective factor against alcohol/drug abuse. Individuals currently suffering from these problems are found to have a low level of religious involvement, and spiritual (re)engagement appears to be correlated with recovery. Reasons are explored for the lack of studies testing spiritual hypotheses, and promising avenues for future research are discussed. Comprehensive addictions research should include not only biomedical, psychological and socio-cultural factors but spiritual aspects of the individual as well.

  6. Perceptions of risk in research participation among underserved minority drug users.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Jacquelyn; Ratliff, Eric A; McCurdy, Sheryl; Timpson, Sandra; Williams, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Research with underserved minority drug users is essential to quality health care and prevention. Understanding how participants perceive risk in research is necessary to inform research regulators so that research protections are neither lax, exposing participants to harm, nor overly stringent, thereby denying access to beneficial research. Data from 37 semistructured interviews of underserved, African-American crack cocaine users, collected from February to May 2006 in a large, urban setting, were analyzed using content analysis. In three hypothetical studies, participants recognized risks as relative and articulated and evaluated specific risks. Research regulators may enhance the accuracy of risk assessment in research by incorporating the views of participants. Study implications and limitations are noted. Future research on risk perception in research participation is suggested.

  7. Illicit drug use research in Latin America: epidemiology service use, and HIV.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Magaña, Cristina G; Vega, William A; Alejo-Garcia, Christina; Quintanar, Tania Real; Vazquez, Lucía; Ballesteros, Patricia D; Ibarra, Juan; Rosales, Heidi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the research status of illicit drug use and its data sources in Latin America, with particular attention to the research that has been produced in the past 15 years in epidemiology of illicit drug use services utilization, and relationship between HIV and drug use. This article complements the series of articles that are published in this same volume which examine drug abuse research (epidemiology, prevention, and treatment) and HIV prevention in Latinos residing in the United States. This review resulted from extensive international and national searches using the following databases: Current Contents Connect, Social and Behavioral Sciences; EBSCO; EMBASE(R) Psychiatry; Evidence Based Medicine (through OVID); Medline, Neurosciences, PsychINFO, Pubmed, BIREME/PAHO/WHO--Virtual Health Library, and SciELO. Papers selected for further review included those published in Spanish, English, and Portuguese in peer-reviewed journals. From the evidence reviewed, it was found that the published research literature is heavily concentrated on descriptive epidemiologic surveys, providing primarily prevalence rates and general information on associated factors. Evidence on patterns of service delivery and HIV prevention and treatment is limited. The cumulative scope of this research clearly indicates variability in quantity and quality of research across Latin American nations and the need for greater uniformity in data collection elements, methodologies, and the creation of international collaborative research networks.

  8. 76 FR 44593 - Identifying the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Science and Research Needs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Science and Research Needs; Availability of a Draft Report; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... announcing the availability of a draft report entitled ``Identifying CDER's Science and Research Needs... efforts. Through external communication of the science and research needs outlined in the report,...

  9. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. The Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research: social science alcohol and drug research in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads U; Elmeland, Karen; Frank, Vibeke A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the social science alcohol and drug research undertaken by the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research (CRF) and at the same time offer an insight into the development in Danish alcohol and drug research throughout the past 15-20 years. A review of articles, books and reports published by researcher from CRF from the mid-1990s until today and an analysis of the policy-making in the Danish substance use and misuse area. CRF is a result of the discussions surrounding social, health and allocation policy questions since the mid-1980s. Among other things, these discussions led to the formal establishment of the Centre in 1991 under the Aarhus University, the Faculty of Social Science. Since 2001 the Centre has received a permanent basic allocation, which has made it possible to appoint tenured senior researchers; to work under a more long-term research strategy; to function as a milieu for educating PhD students; and to diversify from commissioned research tasks to initiating projects involving more fundamental research. Research at the Centre is today pivoted around four core areas: consumption, policy, prevention and treatment. The emergence, continuation, financing and character of the research taking place at CRF can be linked closely to the specific Danish drug and alcohol discourse and to the division of the responsibility for alcohol and drug research into separate Ministries. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Evaluation of personal digital assistant drug information databases for the managed care pharmacist.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Colleen M; Kostka-Rokosz, Maria D; McCloskey, William W

    2003-01-01

    Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are becoming a necessity for practicing pharmacists. They offer a time-saving and convenient way to obtain current drug information. Several software companies now offer general drug information databases for use on hand held computers. PDAs priced less than 200 US dollars often have limited memory capacity; therefore, the user must choose from a growing list of general drug information database options in order to maximize utility without exceeding memory capacity. This paper reviews the attributes of available general drug information software databases for the PDA. It provides information on the content, advantages, limitations, pricing, memory requirements, and accessibility of drug information software databases. Ten drug information databases were subjectively analyzed and evaluated based on information from the product.s Web site, vendor Web sites, and from our experience. Some of these databases have attractive auxiliary features such as kinetics calculators, disease references, drug-drug and drug-herb interaction tools, and clinical guidelines, which may make them more useful to the PDA user. Not all drug information databases are equal with regard to content, author credentials, frequency of updates, and memory requirements. The user must therefore evaluate databases for completeness, currency, and cost effectiveness before purchase. In addition, consideration should be given to the ease of use and flexibility of individual programs.

  11. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion... Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), as authorized under the Commodity Promotion,...

  12. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to... address provided above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Veronica Douglass, Marketing Specialist, Research...

  13. The Medication Information Line for the Elderly. A consumer/health care professional-oriented drug information service.

    PubMed

    Grymonpré, R E; Steele, J W; Schultz, B R

    1987-05-01

    The experiences of a drug information telephone service aimed at older adults, their care providers, and health care professionals are presented. The Medication Information Line for the Elderly received 1,561 telephone calls over the 12 months since its opening. The majority of callers (73%) were female and 723 (46%) of the 1,561 calls came from people in the 65 to 79 age group. Nearly one-third of all enquiries were about suspected drug-related adverse drug reactions. The drugs most commonly causing concern (as classified by the American Hospital Formulary Service) were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cardiac drugs, and benzodiazepines; a list comparable to the most frequently prescribed drugs in older adults. The pharmacist was able to respond to 853 (27%) of the 3,172 enquiries without reference material. The most frequently used sources of information were the USP Drug information, Volumes I & II, and the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. Follow-up calls on certain consumer enquiries indicated that 89% of the recommendations were adhered to, suggesting a beneficial influence of this type of drug information service on medication use.

  14. [Research on tumor information grid framework].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Qin, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Tan, Jianghao; Cao, Haitao; Chen, Youping; Zhang, Ke; Ding, Yuqing

    2013-10-01

    In order to realize tumor disease information sharing and unified management, we utilized grid technology to make the data and software resources which distributed in various medical institutions for effective integration so that we could make the heterogeneous resources consistent and interoperable in both semantics and syntax aspects. This article describes the tumor grid framework, the type of the service being packaged in Web Service Description Language (WSDL) and extensible markup language schemas definition (XSD), the client use the serialized document to operate the distributed resources. The service objects could be built by Unified Modeling Language (UML) as middle ware to create application programming interface. All of the grid resources are registered in the index and released in the form of Web Services based on Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF). Using the system we can build a multi-center, large sample and networking tumor disease resource sharing framework to improve the level of development in medical scientific research institutions and the patient's quality of life.

  15. Information-seeking behavior and use of information resources by clinical research coordinators

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Charles B.; Tannery, Nancy H.; Epstein, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The study sought to understand the literature searching experiences and skills of clinical research coordinators at a large academic medical center. Setting/Participants/Resources: The Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, conducted a survey of clinical research coordinators at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center to solicit their perceived use and knowledge of the library's electronic resources. Brief Description: The University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a “high volume IRB” that monitors human subject research at both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. More than 3,500 human research studies and clinical trials are active at any given time. Many studies entail more than minimal risk to human subjects, with the majority evaluating or including a drug or medical device. Clinical research coordinators are involved in most of these studies or trials. Their roles and responsibilities focus on managing many aspects of the study or clinical trial. As a first step in understanding the literature searching experiences and skills of these research coordinators, baseline data were gathered from this group in November 2004. Results/Outcome: The data from this survey indicate that clinical research coordinators are a population who would benefit from training by academic medical center librarians in how to use electronic library resources and services. Evaluation Method: A Web-based survey solicited participants' information (gender, education, job title) and role in the IRB process (job responsibilities, number studies they manage). The majority of the survey questions focused on the use of specific electronic library resources, the type of information wanted, and the types of problems encountered. PMID:16404469

  16. Medicated Hypertensive Patients' Views and Experience of Information and Communication Concerning Antihypertensive Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisper, Lotta; Isacson, Dag; Sjoden, Per-Olow; Bingefors, Kerstin

    1997-01-01

    Hypertensive patients (N=21) were interviewed regarding their views and experience of information and communication with respect to antihypertensive medicines. Patients' attitudes toward hypertension and antihypertensive drugs, communication with pharmacist and physician, perceptions of drug information, and the information environment are…

  17. Cyclodepsipeptides from Marine Sponges: Natural Agents for Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Andavan, Gowri Shankar Bagavananthem; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    A number of natural products from marine sponges, such as cyclodepsipeptides, have been identified. The structural characteristics of this family of cyclic peptides include various unusual amino acid residues and unique N-terminal polyketide-derived moieties. Papuamides are representatives of a class of marine sponge derived cyclic depsipeptides, including callipeltin A, celebesides A and B, homophymine A, mirabamides, microspinosamide, neamphamide A and theopapuamides. They are thought to have cytoprotective activity against HIV-1 in vitro by inhibiting viral entry. Jasplakinolide, a representative member of marine sponge-derived cyclodepsipeptides that include arenastatin A, geodiamolides, homophymines, spongidepsin and theopapuamides, is a potent inducer of actin polymerization in vitro. Although actin dynamics is essential for tumor metasasis, no actin targeting drugs have been used in clinical trials due to their severe cytotoxicity. Nonetheless, the actin cytoskeleton remains a potential target for anti-cancer drug development. These features imply the use of cyclodepsipeptides as molecular models in drug research. PMID:20411126

  18. [Alternatives to the drug research and development model].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Germán

    2015-03-01

    One-third of the global population lacks access to medications; the situation is worse in poor countries, where up to 50% of the population lacks access. The failure of current incentive systems based in intellectual property to offer the necessary pharmaceutical products, especially in the global south, is a call to action. Problems related to drug access cannot be solved solely through improvements or modifications in the existing incentive models. The intellectual property system model does not offer sufficient innovation for developing countries; new mechanisms that effectively promote innovation and drug access simultaneously are needed. A binding international agreement on research and development, negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization, could provide an adequate framework for guaranteeing priority-setting, coordination, and sustainable financing of drugs at reasonable prices for developing countries.

  19. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information, and...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and Assessments § 1220.230 Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information, and...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and Assessments § 1220.230 Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry...

  1. Research Opportunities in Information Science and Technology: Cognitive Aspects of Information Science, Information Technology, and Economics of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation. Washington, DC. Div. of Information Science and Technology.

    This volume contains the reports of three working groups which were convened separately over a 3-year period at the request of the Advisory Committee for the Division of Information Science and Technology of the National Science Foundation to obtain the opinion of experts concerning research opportunities and trends in information science and…

  2. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order). The program will be implemented under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (1996 Act). Under the...

  3. 21 CFR 601.50 - Confidentiality of data and information in an investigational new drug notice for a biological...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in an investigational new drug notice for a biological product. 601.50 Section 601.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Information § 601.50 Confidentiality of data and information in an investigational new drug notice for...

  4. The Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties as a Drug Information Resource for Treatment of Acute Drug Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Parker, William A.

    1979-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent to which family physicians consult the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (CPS) as an information resource for acute drug ingestions and to evaluate the scope and consistency of the informational content contained in the CPS Product monographs. Ninety percent of family physicians were found to consult the CPS as their first resource in a suspected acute drug ingestion. Although the CPS is a useful reference because of its universal distribution and annual updating, standardization of informational content and consistency between product monographs are necessary. Presently, major inconsistencies exist and some information is outdated.

  5. Action Research: Informing Professional Practice within Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Gregory S. C.; Lavery, Shane D.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper explores the experiences of three teacher-researchers, "Simone", "Damian" and "Michael", who undertook an action research project in their respective schools as part of their postgraduate studies. The paper initially outlines the construct of action research in the light of its applicability to…

  6. Action Research: Informing Professional Practice within Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Gregory S. C.; Lavery, Shane D.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper explores the experiences of three teacher-researchers, "Simone", "Damian" and "Michael", who undertook an action research project in their respective schools as part of their postgraduate studies. The paper initially outlines the construct of action research in the light of its applicability to…

  7. Information Literacy and Research Skills Program at USC Sumter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jane; Schultz, Pat; Pender, Constance; Chapman, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This session will demonstrate how USC Sumter's Anderson Library recently developed information literacy and research skills program uses information technology available through the library introduce students, faculty and patrons to the methods and ethics of information research, with an emphasis on analyzing and defining information needs and…

  8. Beyond post-marketing research and MedWatch: Long-term studies of drug risks.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2007-10-01

    Critics of the drug safety system have discussed many different potential reforms, ranging from mandatory registration of clinical trials to increasing the power of regulatory agencies, but few have discussed one of the most important ways of enhancing safety: increasing the number of long-term studies of medications. Long-term studies of the risks and benefits of drugs can provide useful information for regulators, healthcare professionals, and patients. Government funding agencies should lead the effort to conduct long-term studies of drugs, but private companies should also be required to lend financial support. Because cost-effectiveness is likely to be an important consideration in conducting this research, funding agencies should focus, at first, on drugs that are used to treat common, chronic conditions.

  9. Beyond post-marketing research and MedWatch: Long-term studies of drug risks

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B

    2007-01-01

    Critics of the drug safety system have discussed many different potential reforms, ranging from mandatory registration of clinical trials to increasing the power of regulatory agencies, but few have discussed one of the most important ways of enhancing safety: increasing the number of long-term studies of medications. Long-term studies of the risks and benefits of drugs can provide useful information for regulators, healthcare professionals, and patients. Government funding agencies should lead the effort to conduct long-term studies of drugs, but private companies should also be required to lend financial support. Because cost-effectiveness is likely to be an important consideration in conducting this research, funding agencies should focus, at first, on drugs that are used to treat common, chronic conditions. PMID:19727333

  10. Information and uncertainty in remote perception research.

    PubMed

    Dunne, B J; Jahn, R G

    2007-01-01

    This article has four purposes: 1) to present for the first time in archival form all results of some 25 years of remote perception research at this laboratory; 2) to describe all of the analytical scoring methods developed over the course of this program to quantify the amount of anomalous information acquired in the experiments; 3) to display a remarkable anti-correlation between the objective specificity of those methods and the anomalous yield of the experiments; and 4) to discuss the phenomenological and pragmatic implications of this complementarity. The formal database comprises 653 experimental trials performed over several phases of investigation. The scoring methods involve various arrays of descriptor queries that can be addressed to both the physical targets and the percipients' description thereof, the responses to which provide the basis for numerical evaluation and statistical assessment of the degree of anomalous information acquired. Twenty-four such recipes have been employed, with queries posed in binary, ternary, quaternary, and ten-level distributive formats. Thus treated, the database yields a composite z-score against chance of 5.418 (p = 3 x 10(-8), one-tailed). Numerous subsidiary analyses agree that these overall results are not significantly affected by any of the secondary protocol parameters tested, or by variations in descriptor effectiveness, possible participant response biases, target distance from the percipient, or time interval between perception effort and agent target visitation. However, over the course of the program there has been a striking diminution of the anomalous yield that appears to be associated with the participants' growing attention to, and dependence upon, the progressively more detailed descriptor formats and with the corresponding reduction in the content of the accompanying free-response transcripts. The possibility that increased emphasis on objective quantification of the phenomenon somehow may have

  11. Do research payments precipitate drug use or coerce participation?

    PubMed

    Festinger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B; Croft, Jason R; Dugosh, Karen L; Mastro, Nicole K; Lee, Patricia A; Dematteo, David S; Patapis, Nicholas S

    2005-06-01

    Providing high-magnitude cash incentives to substance abuse clients to participate in research is frequently viewed as unethical based on the concerns that this might precipitate new drug use or be perceived as coercive. We randomly assigned consenting drug abuse outpatients to receive payments of 10 US dollars, 40 US dollars, or 70 US dollars in either cash or gift certificate for attending a 6-month research follow-up assessment. At the 6-month follow-up, participants received their randomly determined incentive and were then scheduled for a second follow-up appointment 3 days later to detect new instances of drug use. Findings indicated that neither the magnitude nor mode of the incentives had a significant effect on rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. Consistent with the contingency management literature, higher payments and cash payments were associated with increased follow-up rates. Finally, the results suggest that higher magnitude payments may be more cost-effective by reducing the need for more intensive follow-up efforts.

  12. Use of comparative effectiveness research in drug coverage and pricing decisions: a six-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Corinna

    2010-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has assumed an increasing role in drug coverage and, in some cases, pricing decisions in Europe, as decision-makers seek to obtain better value for money. This issue brief comparatively examines the use of CER across six countries--Denmark, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. With CER gaining traction in the United States, these international experiences offer insights and potential lessons. Investing in CER can help address the current gap in publicly available, credible, up-to-date, and scientifically based comparative information on the effectiveness of drugs and other health interventions. This information can be used to base coverage and pricing decisions on evidence of value, thereby facilitating access to and public and private investment in the most beneficial new drugs and technologies. In turn, use of CER creates incentives for more efficient, high-quality health care and encourages development of innovative products that offer measurable value to patients.

  13. 38 CFR 1.483 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.483 Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring...

  14. 38 CFR 1.483 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.483 Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring...

  15. Information Systems Developments to Detect and Analyze Chemotherapy-associated Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Mark G.; Livshits, Alice; Carozzoni, Carol; McMenamin, Erin; Gibson, Gene; Loren, Alison W.; Hennessy, Sean

    2002-01-01

    A difficult balance exists in the use of cancer chemotherapy in which the cytotoxic medicine must act on the cancer without causing neutropenic fever, a condition that is caused by over-suppression of the immune system. An improved understanding of dosing strategies as well as the use of medications to support the immune system has helped to reduce the likelihood of an admission for neutropenic fever following cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, as with any drug therapy, chemotherapy administration that is temporally associated with an unexpected hospitalization for neutropenia is an adverse drug event (ADE). Analogous to other informatics research to monitor and address the occurrence of ADEs, this work develops and validates the information systems infrastructure necessary to detect the occurrence of and analyze the factors contributing to chemotherapy associated ADEs.

  16. How Research in Behavioral Pharmacology Informs Behavioral Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its…

  17. How Research in Behavioral Pharmacology Informs Behavioral Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its…

  18. Translational Research in Central Nervous System Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hurko, Orest; Ryan, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Of all the therapeutic areas, diseases of the CNS provide the biggest challenges to translational research in this era of increased productivity and novel targets. Risk reduction by translational research incorporates the “learn” phase of the “learn and confirm” paradigm proposed over a decade ago. Like traditional drug discovery in vitro and in laboratory animals, it precedes the traditional phase 1–3 studies of drug development. The focus is on ameliorating the current failure rate in phase 2 and the delays resulting from suboptimal choices in four key areas: initial test subjects, dosing, sensitive and early detection of therapeutic effect, and recognition of differences between animal models and human disease. Implementation of new technologies is the key to success in this emerging endeavor. PMID:16489374

  19. Innovative Information Technology for Space Weather Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Qu, M.; Shih, F.; Denker, C.; Gerbessiotis, A.; Lofdahl, M.; Rees, D.; Keller, C.

    2004-05-01

    Solar activity is closely related to the near earth environment -- summarized descriptively as space weather. Changes in space weather have adverse effect on many aspects of life and systems on earth and in space. Real-time, high-quality data and data processing would be a key element to forecast space weather promptly and accurately. Recently, we obtained a funding from US National Science Foundation to apply innovative information technology for space weather prediction. (1) We use the technologies of image processing and pattern recognition, such as image morphology segmentation, Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and neural networks to detect and characterize three important solar activities in real-time: filament eruptions, flares, and emerging flux regions (EFRs). Combining the real time detection with the recent statistical study on the relationship among filament eruptions, flares, EFRs, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and geomagnetic storms, we are establishing real time report of solar events and automatic forecasting of earth directed CMEs and subsequent geomagnetic storms. (2) We combine state-of-art parallel computing techniques with phase diverse speckle imaging techniques, to yield near real-time diffraction limited images with a cadence of approximately 10 sec. We utilize the multiplicity of parallel paradigms to optimize the calculation of phase diverse speckle imaging to improve calculation speed. With such data, we can monitor flare producing active regions continuously and carry out targeted studies of the evolution and flows in flare producing active regions. (3) We are developing Web based software tools to post our processed data, events and forecasting in real time, and to be integrated with current solar activity and space weather prediction Web pages at BBSO. This will also be a part of Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) being developed by the solar physics community. This research is supported by NSF ITR program.

  20. Drugs and Pregnancy: The Effects of Nonmedical Use of Drugs on Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Neonates. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse presents this report as the fifth in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the the issues of drug use and abuse. Included in this volume are summaries of the major research findings concerning the effects of nonmedical drug use on pregnancy.…

  1. Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Hernon, Peter, Ed.

    The 28 essays in this collection provide an overview of research in library/information science (LIS), present a practical context of such research, and consider related issues and concerns. The essays are: (1) "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS" (Peter Hernon); (2) "Guides to Conducting Research in Library and Information Science" (Ronald R.…

  2. Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Hernon, Peter, Ed.

    The 28 essays in this collection provide an overview of research in library/information science (LIS), present a practical context of such research, and consider related issues and concerns. The essays are: (1) "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS" (Peter Hernon); (2) "Guides to Conducting Research in Library and Information Science" (Ronald R.…

  3. Information Literacy Research: Dimensions of the Emerging Collective Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the information literacy research territory represented by the emerging collective consciousness of its researchers. Proposes five dimensions of the collective consciousness and uses them to: reveal the character of the information literacy research territory which is in early stages of construction; show how different research approaches…

  4. Formal and informal organizational activities of people who inject drugs in New York City: description and correlates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Pouget, Enrique R; Sandoval, Milagros; Jones, Yolanda; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about group memberships of people who inject drugs (PWID). Three hundred PWID were interviewed about formal and informal group participation and risk behaviors. Many took part in groups related to problems and resources associated with injecting drugs, religion, sports or gender. Harm reduction group and support group participation was associated with less risk behavior; sports groups participation with more risk behavior. Group involvement by PWID may be important to their lives and/or affect prevention or infectious disease transmission. More research is needed about determinants and consequences of their and other drug users' group memberships.

  5. A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

  6. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    PubMed

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience.

  7. Data Mining Research for Information Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-29

    Public Release 13.  SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14.  ABSTRACT Machine-learning and Ontology Assisted Assessment of Research Trends (MOAART) advances machine...learning by developing and testing an ontology -based inferencing engine to filter, sort and rank abstracts in specific research areas. The MOAART reports...emerging global research trends in a given research area and defines a relevant ontology to current concepts of interest to the Asian Office of

  8. Perceptions of Financial Payment for Research Participation among African-American Drug Users in HIV Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Sheryl; Ratliff, Eric A.; Timpson, Sandra; Williams, Mark L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Financial compensation for participating in research is controversial, especially when participants are recruited from economically disadvantaged and/or marginalized populations such as drug users. Little is known about these participants’ own views regarding payment for research participation. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to elicit underserved minority drug users’ views about monetary payments for participating in research. DESIGN Semi-structured in-depth interview study of motivations for and perceptions of participation in research was used. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-seven adult, economically disadvantaged African-American crack cocaine smokers were the participants of the study. APPROACH Participants were recruited from among those taking part in three HIV prevention studies. Interviews were conducted at one of 2 research field offices located in underserved minority neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Interviews lasting 30–45 min were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for categories and themes using both conventional and directed qualitative content analysis. This report addresses themes under the broad category of financial motivations for participating in research. RESULTS Participants viewed monetary payment for research as essential to attract participation and desirable to provide optional income. Payment for research participation was perceived as one potential income source among others. Participants considered self-determination a prerogative for themselves and others. They rejected the notion of payment for participation as encouraging drug use or as inducing risk taking. CONCLUSIONS Research regulators should consider participants’ views of their desires and capacity for autonomous decisions about financial compensation for research rather than assume participants’ diminished capacity due to poverty and/or drug use. Payment for research participation appears to be part of the “informal economy” that has been

  9. Doctoral Students' Experience of Information Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian; Pham, Binh

    2009-01-01

    As part of their journey of learning to research, doctoral candidates need to become members of their research community. In part, this involves coming to be aware of their field in ways that are shared amongst longer-term members of the research community. One aspect of candidates' experience we need to understand, therefore, involves how they…

  10. Placement and Format of Risk Information on Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Websites.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Helen W; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Rupert, Douglas J; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Aikin, Kathryn J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether the location and format of risk information on branded prescription drug websites influence consumers' knowledge and perceptions of the drug's risks. Participants (Internet panelists with high cholesterol [n = 2,609] or seasonal allergies [n = 2,637]) were randomly assigned to view a website promoting a fictitious prescription drug for their condition. The website presented risk information at the bottom of the homepage, or at the bottom of the homepage with a signal above indicating that the risk information was located below, or on a linked secondary page. We also varied the format of risk information (paragraph, checklist, bulleted list, highlighted box). Participants then answered questions on risk recall and perceptions. Participants recalled fewer drug risks when the risks were placed on a secondary page. The signal had little effect, and risk information format did not affect outcomes. The location of risk information on prescription drug websites can affect consumer knowledge of drug risks; however, signals and special formatting may not be necessary for websites to adequately inform consumers about drug risks. We recommend that prescription drug websites maintain risk information on their homepages to achieve "fair balance" as required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  11. Research for new drugs for elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuesel, Annette C

    2016-12-01

    Onchocerciasis is a parasitic, vector borne disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. More than 99% of the population at risk of infection live in Africa. Onchocerciasis control was initiated in West Africa in 1974 with vector control, later complemented by ivermectin mass drug administration and in the other African endemic countries in 1995 with annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI.) This has significantly reduced infection prevalence. Together with proof-of-concept for onchocerciasis elimination with annual CDTI from foci in Senegal and Mali, this has resulted in targeting onchocerciasis elimination in selected African countries by 2020 and in 80% of African countries by 2025. The challenges for meeting these targets include the number of endemic countries where conflict has delayed or interrupted control programmes, cross-border foci, potential emergence of parasite strains with low susceptibility to ivermectin and co-endemicity of loiasis, another parasitic vector borne disease, which slows down or prohibits CDTI implementation. Some of these challenges could be addressed with new drugs or drug combinations with a higher effect on Onchocerca volvulus than ivermectin. This paper reviews the path from discovery of new compounds to their qualification for large scale use and the support regulatory authorities provide for development of drugs for neglected tropical diseases. The status of research for new drugs or treatment regimens for onchocerciasis along the path to regulatory approval and qualification for large scale use is reviewed. This research includes new regimens and combinations of ivermectin and albendazole, antibiotics targeting the O. volvulus endosymbiont Wolbachia, flubendazole, moxidectin and emodepside and discovery of new compounds.

  12. Self-directed work teams: application to a drug information center.

    PubMed

    Stachnik, J M; Nunn-Thompson, C L; Simon, P A; Seeger, J D; Markind, J E; Ross, J R; Clark, T

    1997-03-01

    To describe the transition of a drug information center from a traditionally managed center to a self-directed work team responsible for service, education, research, and drug use policy development. To adapt to economic, educational, and technologic changes, traditional management structures in healthcare organizations are being reassessed. In some instances, a team approach (using self-directed work teams [SDWTs]) is being implemented. SDWTs have the potential to provide a number of benefits to an organization, including reduced costs and greater employee motivation. The University of Illinois at Chicago Drug Information Center had functioned under a traditional management structure. For economic and professional reasons, the management structure of the center was changed to an SDWT, prompting a reevaluation of the mission and activities of the center. Although still in transition, the center's change to a team structure has proven to be positive. The nature of the SDWT requires greater involvement by team members in all aspects of the center's operation, adding to the experience of team members. The team structure also allows for greater freedom to pursue projects of personal interest to individual team members. A number of issues still need to be resolved, such as performance-based compensation and peer- and self-evaluations. SDWTs can provide many benefits. The successful implementation of an SDWT, however, has a number of requirements, the most important of which are a commitment from management and effective communication among team members and with management.

  13. Drug Use Forecasting. 1993 Annual Report on Juvenile Arrestees/Detainees: Drugs and Crime in American Cities. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This report offers data on juvenile drug use and crime so as to increase understanding of the dimensions of drug use among youthful offenders. The report includes information from collaborative efforts at both the Federal and the local levels. Data on male juvenile arrestees and detainees were collected in 12 Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) sites…

  14. [Quality research on Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil].

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Jin, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Jing-Jing; Jia, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yan; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2010-06-01

    To study internal quality of 14 batches Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil, and to provide informations for quality specification in Chinese Pharmacopeia of 2010 edition. 14 batches Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil were investigated impurity, moisture content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, extractum and assaying to analyze and evaluate their quality condition. It is suggested that, in Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil, the moisture content should not pass 8.0%, total ash should not pass 8.0%, acid-insoluble ash should not pass 2.0%, extractum content should not lower than 12.0%, total flavonoids content should not lower than 5.0%, icariin content should not lower than 0.6%, and Baohuoside I content should not lower than 0.1%. Quality evaluation system of Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil has been constructed initially, it will offer scientific basis for instituting quality specification in Chinese Pharmacopeia of 2010 edition.

  15. Informational and Symbolic Content of Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, James C.

    1997-01-01

    Empirically analyzed the informational and symbolic content of 150 over-the-counter drug commercials on television. Results suggest that these ads tend to focus on what the drug will do for the consumer, rather than on the reasons why the drug should be ingested. Educational commitment seemed absent in promotional efforts. (RJM)

  16. 76 FR 34086 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information Regarding Specific Issues Related to the Use of the Oral Fluid Specimen for Drug Testing AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services... Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (oral fluid specimen). DATES: Comment...

  17. 75 FR 52765 - Development and Distribution of Patient Medication Information for Prescription Drugs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... the current system, patients may receive several different types of information, developed by... products is an important component of medical product safety. Currently, patients receive multiple types of... and comprehension. The types of written prescription drug information include: Consumer Medication...

  18. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Echol E; Beatty, Tia Maria

    1998-07-01

    The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the second quarter of 1998 (April 1 - June 30.) These tasks have been granted a continuation until the end of August 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final draft technical reports will be the next submission. During this period, work was completed on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data has been evaluated and representative graphs are presented. The plot of Cumulative Injected Volume vs. Cumulative Week Time show the ability to consistently inject through the two center PVDs at a rate of approximately ten (10) gallons per hour. This injection rate was achieved under a static head that varied from five (5) feet to three (3) feet. The plot of Extracted Flow Rate vs. Cumulative Week Time compares the extraction rate with and without the injection of water. The injection operation was continuous for eight hour periods while the extraction operation was executed over a pulsing schedule. Extraction rates as high as forty-five (45) gallons per hour were achieved in conjunction with injection (a 350% increase over no injection.) The retrieved TCE in the liquid phase varied to a considerable degree depending on the pulsing scheme, indicating a significant amount of stripping (volatilization) took place during the extraction process. A field experiment was conducted to confirm this. A liquid sample was obtained using the same vacuum system used in the pad operation and a second liquid sample was taken by a bailer. Analyzation of TCE concentration showed 99.5% volatilization when the vacuum system was used for extraction. This was also confirmed by data from the air monitoring program which indicated that 92%-99% of the retrieved TCE was being

  19. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carry out the purposes of the act, a quantitative listing of all ingredients. (3) For a particular drug... Product Listing). (c) It is requested but not required that a quantitative listing of the active...

  20. Information sought, information shared: exploring performance and image enhancing drug user-facilitated harm reduction information in online forums.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Boden; Dunn, Matthew; McKay, Fiona H; Piatkowski, Timothy

    2017-07-21

    There is good evidence to suggest that performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) use is increasing in Australia and that there is an increase in those using PIEDs who have never used another illicit substance. Peers have always been an important source of information in this group, though the rise of the Internet, and the increased use of Internet forums amongst substance consumers to share harm reduction information, means that PIED users may have access to a large array of views and opinions. The aim of this study was to explore the type of information that PIED users seek and share on these forums. An online search was conducted to identify online forums that discussed PIED use. Three discussion forums were included in this study: aussiegymjunkies.com, bodybuildingforums.com.au, and brotherhoodofpain.com. The primary source of data for this study was the 'threads' from the online forums. Threads were thematically analysed for overall content, leading to the identification of themes. One hundred thirty-four threads and 1716 individual posts from 450 unique avatars were included in this analysis. Two themes were identified: (1) personal experiences and advice and (2) referral to services and referral to the scientific literature. Internet forums are an accessible way for members of the PIED community to seek and share information to reduce the harms associated with PIED use. Forum members show concern for both their own and others' use and, where they lack information, will recommend seeking information from medical professionals. Anecdotal evidence is given high credence though the findings from the scientific literature are used to support opinions. The engagement of health professionals within forums could prove a useful strategy for engaging with this population to provide harm reduction interventions, particularly as forum members are clearly seeking further reliable information, and peers may act as a conduit between users and the health and medical

  1. Presence and Accuracy of Drug Dosage Recommendations for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Tertiary Drug Information References

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Sean K; Slavik, Richard S; Lam, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clinicians commonly rely on tertiary drug information references to guide drug dosages for patients who are receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). It is unknown whether the dosage recommendations in these frequently used references reflect the most current evidence. Objective: To determine the presence and accuracy of drug dosage recommendations for patients undergoing CRRT in 4 drug information references. Methods: Medications commonly prescribed during CRRT were identified from an institutional medication inventory database, and evidence-based dosage recommendations for this setting were developed from the primary and secondary literature. The American Hospital Formulary System—Drug Information (AHFS–DI), Micromedex 2.0 (specifically the DRUGDEX and Martindale databases), and the 5th edition of Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure (DPRF5) were assessed for the presence of drug dosage recommendations in the CRRT setting. The dosage recommendations in these tertiary references were compared with the recommendations derived from the primary and secondary literature to determine concordance. Results: Evidence-based drug dosage recommendations were developed for 33 medications administered in patients undergoing CRRT. The AHFS–DI provided no dosage recommendations specific to CRRT, whereas the DPRF5 provided recommendations for 27 (82%) of the medications and the Micromedex 2.0 application for 20 (61%) (13 [39%] in the DRUGDEX database and 16 [48%] in the Martindale database, with 9 medications covered by both). The dosage recommendations were in concordance with evidence-based recommendations for 12 (92%) of the 13 medications in the DRUGDEX database, 26 (96%) of the 27 in the DPRF5, and all 16 (100%) of those in the Martindale database. Conclusions: One prominent tertiary drug information resource provided no drug dosage recommendations for patients undergoing CRRT. However, 2 of the databases in an Internet-based medical information

  2. Drug Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    studies have found that chronic exposure to marijuana destroys brain cells and causes other pathological changes in the brain area believed to be...crumbles them into tobacco or marijuana cigarettes. When cocaine is snorted, the brain receives the drug in gradual amounts over a period of minutes...When smoked, the drug is absorbed rapidly by the lungs and transmitted to the brain in less than 10 seconds. Smoking causes the effects of cocaine to

  3. Positron Emission Tomography Application to Drug Development and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, Piero A.

    The research for the identification and development of new drugs represents a very complex process implying long times and massive investments. This process was not able to parallel the rate of discoveries made in the field of genomic and molecular biology and a gap created between demand of new drugs and the ability of pharmaceutical companies to select good candidates. Positron Emission Tomography, among the different Molecular Imaging modalities, could represent a new tool for the early assessment and screening of new drug candidates and, due to its physical performances and the characteristics of positron-labeled tracers, gain the role of "Biomarker" accepted by the Companies and the Regulatory Bodies of Drug Agencies. To fulfil this task PET has to exploit all of its special features such as data absolute quantification and modelling, high spatial resolution and dynamic imaging. Relevant efforts need to be directed to the careful design and validation of experimental protocols with the main goal of achieving consistency in multi- centric trials.

  4. What Is Effective Research Leadership? a Research-Informed Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon findings from a UK-based and -funded study of academic leadership provided by (full) professors, this article focuses on research leadership as perceived by those on the receiving end of it. Research leadership is defined as the influence of one or more people on the research-related behaviour, attitudes or intellectual capacity of…

  5. Commercial Perspectives on Information Assurance Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    Security management. • Identification and authentication technology, including smart cards and biometrics. • Firewall and guard security...Technology Consortium, The Smart Card Industry Association, and The Open Group, where the sharing of research risks, funding, and resultant IA...Engineering Research Smart Cards — System Assurance Networking — Standards Applications — — Secure Operating Systems — — Applied Cryptography

  6. Toward Teacher Education Research That Informs Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeter, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which researchers are currently engaged in a shared research program that offers systematic evidence of the classroom impact of organized venues (preservice as well as inservice) for teacher professional learning. The article stems from concern about policies rooted in suspicion that teacher education is…

  7. The Needs and Resources of Drug Information at Community Pharmacies in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birarra, Mequanent Kassa

    2017-01-01

    Background Community pharmacists are in a key position to provide information on drugs and thus promote the rational use of drugs. Objectives The present study was designed to determine the needs and resources of drug information in community pharmacies. Methods A prospective institution based cross-sectional study was carried out and data were collected on 48 community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, using interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Results Almost all pharmacists (N = 47, 97.9%) often receive drug related queries and these were mainly from consumers (N = 41, 85.4%). While most questions relate to drug price (N = 29, 60.4%) and dosage (N = 21, 43.8%), the information resources mainly referred to were drug package inserts and national standard treatment guidelines. However, limited availability of information resources as well as limited ability to retrieve relevant information influenced the practice of pharmacists. Female pharmacists claimed better use of different information resources than males (P < 0.05). Conclusions Community pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, are often accessed for drug related information. But there are limitations in using up to date and most reliable resources. Therefore, intervention aimed at improving pharmacists' access to and evaluation of drug information is urgently needed. PMID:28951876

  8. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 26, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on narcotic antagonists, particularly nalorphine, naloxone, cyclazocine, levallorphan, and pentazocine. Background information is provided through a summary of their history, legal status,…

  9. Illicit drug knowledge and information-seeking behaviours among elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Johanna O; Dunn, Matthew; Swift, Wendy; Burns, Lucinda

    2011-07-01

    Many sporting organisations in Australia conduct drug information seminars for their athletes; however, it is uncertain whether these programs provide athletes with pertinent drug information in formats that are conducive to information retention. The aims of the current study were to investigate self-reported confidence in knowledge of illicit drugs and information seeking behaviours among elite athletes. Data were collected from two sources: (1) quantitative surveys with elite Australian athletes; and (2) qualitative interviews with key experts who come into contact with elite athletes. Athletes were confident in their knowledge of the effects of illicit drugs such as cannabis and meth/amphetamine, but less confident in their knowledge of the effects of illicit drugs such as GHB and ketamine. A substantial proportion felt that athletes in their sport would benefit from more information concerning illicit drugs. Both athletes and key expert believed that information on illicit drugs should be delivered to athletes in a specific and relevant manner. There may be stigma attached to information seeking within a sports club or organisation. Accordingly, improving the accessibility to creditable information via the Internet may prove to be an effective means by which to educate athletes on the effects of illicit drugs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series, Series 26, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    Concerned with clarifying some of the more complex issues in drug abuse, the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information has prepared this special report on narcotic antagonists, particularly nalorphine, naloxone, cyclazocine, levallorphan, and pentazocine. Background information is provided through a summary of their history, legal status,…

  11. Exploring health information technology education: an analysis of the research.

    PubMed

    Virgona, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the Health Information Technology Education published research. The purpose of this study was to examine selected literature using variables such as journal frequency, keyword analysis, universities associated with the research and geographic diversity. The analysis presented in this paper has identified intellectually significant studies that have contributed to the development and accumulation of intellectual wealth of Health Information Technology. The keyword analysis suggests that Health Information Technology research has evolved from establishing concepts and domains of health information systems, technology and management to contemporary issues such as education, outsourcing, web services and security. The research findings have implications for educators, researchers, journal.

  12. Supervisory Presentation for Research, Information, Integration and Testing (SPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-29

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0049 SUPERVISORY PRESENTATION FOR RESEARCH, INFORMATION, INTEGRATION AND TESTING (SPRINT) Thomas Hughes Clayton...17 March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Supervisory Presentation for Research, Information, Integration and Testing (SPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the ability of a single operator to simultaneously control multiple platforms, increased connectivity to net -centric information sources, and the

  13. Clinical drug research in chronic central neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Foley, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Several compounds developed the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease have been clinically unsuccessful. Suggested reasons for these failures have included heterogeneous symptom expression, inappropriate assessment of effects, safety and tolerability hurdles, short duration of disease-modifying trials, recruiting pressure on study centers, administrative and bureaucratic overload, and pooling results from trial centers in different health care systems with differing quality and therapeutic concepts. The solution to these problems will include reducing the costs of drug development, with a concomitant reduction of approval hurdles. Trial designs are influenced by ethics committees, health care officials, political administrations, and research scientists. None have direct contact with the treated patients. Approval of novel therapeutic agents lies in the remit of health care officials, whereby price plays a more dominant role than therapeutic efficacy. Patients and prescribing physicians, however, are better placed to act as arbiters of the efficacy, risks, and overall value of a new drug in practice.

  14. Electrochemistry-mass spectrometry in drug metabolism and protein research.

    PubMed

    Permentier, Hjalmar P; Bruins, Andries P; Bischoff, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The combination of electrochemistry coupled on-line to mass spectrometry (EC-MS) forms a powerful analytical technique with unique applications in the fields of drug metabolism and proteomics. In this review the latest developments are surveyed from both instrumental and application perspectives. The limitations and solutions for coupling an electrochemical system to a mass spectrometer are discussed. The electrochemical mimicking of drug metabolism, specifically by Cytochrome P450, is high-lighted as an application with high biomedical relevance. The EC-MS analysis of proteins also has promising new applications for both proteomics research and biomarker discovery. EC-MS has furthermore advantages for improved analyte detection with mass spectrometry, both for small molecules and large biomolecules. Finally, potential future directions of development of the technique are briefly discussed.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: neurophysiology, information processing, arousal and drug development.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Donald L; Hermens, Daniel F

    2006-11-01

    In this review, we draw on literature from both animal and human neurophysiological studies to consider the neurochemical mechanisms underlying attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychophysiological and neuropsychological research is used to propose possible etiological endophenotypes of ADHD. These are conceptualized as patients with distinct cortical-arousal, information-processing or maturational abnormalities, or a combination thereof, and how the endophenotypes can be used to help drug development and optimize treatment and management. To illustrate, the paper focuses on neuro- and psychophysiological evidence that suggests cholinergic mechanisms may underlie specific information-processing abnormalities that occur in ADHD. The clinical implications for a cholinergic hypothesis of ADHD are considered, along with its possible implications for treatment and pharmacological development.

  16. 76 FR 69094 - Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and... establishes an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for fresh cut Christmas trees. The Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) is authorized under the...

  17. Informed Consent in Research on Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret; Pettitt, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The practice of securing informed consent from research participants has a relatively low profile in second language (L2) acquisition research, despite its prominence in the biomedical and social sciences. This review article analyses the role that informed consent now typically plays in L2 research; discusses an example of an L2 study where…

  18. Meta-Synthesis of Research on Information Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Meta-synthesis methods may help to make more sense of information behaviour research evidence. Aims and objectives: The objectives are to: 1) identify and examine the theoretical research strategies commonly used in information behaviour research; 2) discuss meta-synthesis methods that might be appropriate to the type of research…

  19. A Framework to Support Research on Informal Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan; delMas, Robert; Reading, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Informal inferential reasoning is a relatively recent concept in the research literature. Several research studies have defined this type of cognitive process in slightly different ways. In this paper, a working definition of informal inferential reasoning based on an analysis of the key aspects of statistical inference, and on research from…

  20. A Framework to Support Research on Informal Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan; delMas, Robert; Reading, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Informal inferential reasoning is a relatively recent concept in the research literature. Several research studies have defined this type of cognitive process in slightly different ways. In this paper, a working definition of informal inferential reasoning based on an analysis of the key aspects of statistical inference, and on research from…

  1. [The Theriaque database and information on side effects of drugs].

    PubMed

    Amiel, M L; Husson, M C

    1994-01-01

    The new module of Theriaque data base deals with side effects of drugs. It is composed of 3,300 monographs. One or more nature of side effect appears on each monograph, to correspond to a defined entity; organ or apparatus, syndrome or special type of pharmacological effect. Side effects are attached to either a whole pharmacological or chemical class, either one or several drugs. Side effects of drugs are described at usual dose, or/and in case of overdose. Data are collected from specialized books and publications. Some difficulties were encountered with this work, particularly side effects frequency. Side effects module content is validated with experts in pharmacology or clinicians, their opinion being a determining factor in case of any doubt, especially on causality assessment or frequency.

  2. Stem cell research: the role of information seeking and scanning.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Sara; Van den Bulck, Jan; Lemal, Marijke; Beullens, Kathleen

    2016-12-01

    The mass media have held an ongoing debate about stem cell research. However, few studies have investigated how individuals obtain information on stem cell research and whether this affects their knowledge and perspectives on stem cell research. This study aims to investigate whether (i) cancer-diagnosed and non-diagnosed individuals differ in terms of their acquisition of stem cell research information, (ii) whether this information acquisition is associated with stem cell research knowledge and perspectives and (iii) whether having had a cancer diagnosis moderates these associations. A standardised, cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of 621 cancer-diagnosed and 1387 non-diagnosed individuals in Flanders (Belgium). The results indicate that stem cell research information acquisition explains a significant part of the variance of stem cell research knowledge (8.9%) and of the societal benefits of stem cell research (6.7%) and of embryonic stem cell research evaluation (3.9%) and morality (2%). These associations did not differ between cancer-diagnosed and non-diagnosed individuals but cancer-diagnosed individuals did seek more stem cell research information. Acquiring stem cell research information, both intentionally and unintentionally, is positively related to stem cell research knowledge and perspectives. Future research should further identify ways to promote health information acquisition behaviour because it is associated with better knowledge and more positive opinion formation. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  3. Information literacy: perceptions of Brazilian HIV/AIDS researchers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; França, Ivan; Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Bastos, Francisco I; Ueno, Helene Mariko; Barros, Cláudia Renata; Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2014-03-01

    Information literacy has evolved with changes in lifelong learning. Can Brazilian health researchers search for and use updated scientific information? To describe researchers' information literacy based on their perceptions of their abilities to search for and use scientific information and on their interactions with libraries. Semi-structured interviews and focus group conducted with six Brazilian HIV/AIDS researchers. Analyses comprised the assessment of researchers as disseminators, their interactions with librarians, their use of information and communication technology and language. Interviewees believed they were partially qualified to use databases. They used words and phrases that indicated their knowledge of technology and terminology. They acted as disseminators for students during information searches. Researchers' abilities to interact with librarians are key skills, especially in a renewed context where libraries have, to a large extent, changed from physical spaces to digital environments. Great amounts of information have been made available, and researchers' participation in courses does not automatically translate into adequate information literacy. Librarians must help research groups, and as such, librarians' information literacy-related responsibilities in Brazil should be redefined and expanded. Students must develop the ability to learn quickly, and librarians should help them in their efforts. Librarians and researchers can act as gatekeepers for research groups and as information coaches to improve others' search abilities. © 2013 Health Libraries Group of CILIP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Product information for generic drugs: old, unloved and sometimes unsafe.

    PubMed

    Doogue, M P; Thynne, T R J

    2013-12-01

    Product information is often at odds with current evidence and guidelines and inconsistent between products and within classes. There is no single 'owner' responsible for up-to-date medicines product information. Outdated product information increases the risk of inappropriate prescribing. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Meeting Consumers' Information Needs: Putting Research to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steketee, Drew

    The Consumer Information Center is a federal program which encourages federal agencies to develop and release consumer information to the public. It also promotes consumer awareness and access to information through the "Consumer Information Catalog" and a mail order distribution operation. Through research, the Center can learn the…

  6. How research in behavioral pharmacology informs behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Branch, Marc N

    2006-05-01

    Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its conceptualizations and theory. In this article, I outline three general strategies in behavioral pharmacology research that have been employed to increase understanding of behavioral processes. Examples are provided of the general characteristics of the strategies and of implications of previous research for behavior theory. Behavior analysis will advance as its theories are challenged.

  7. Development of a Standardized Rating Tool for Drug Alerts to Reduce Information Overload.

    PubMed

    Pfistermeister, Barbara; Sedlmayr, Brita; Patapovas, Andrius; Suttner, Gerald; Tektas, Ozan; Tarkhov, Aleksey; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fromm, Martin F; Bürkle, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Maas, Renke

    2016-12-07

    A well-known problem in current clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is the high number of alerts, which are often medically incorrect or irrelevant. This may lead to the so-called alert fatigue, an overriding of alerts, including those that are clinically relevant, and underuse of CDSS in general. The aim of our study was to develop and to apply a standardized tool that allows its users to evaluate the quality of system-generated drug alerts. The users' ratings can subsequently be used to derive recommendations for developing a filter function to reduce irrelevant alerts. We developed a rating tool for drug alerts and performed a web-based evaluation study that also included a user review of alerts. In this study the following categories were evaluated: "data linked correctly", "medically correct", "action required", "medication change", "critical alert", "information gained" and "show again". For this purpose, 20 anonymized clinical cases were randomly selected and displayed in our customized CDSS research prototype, which used the summary of product characteristics (SPC) for alert generation. All the alerts that were provided were evaluated by 13 physicians. The users' ratings were used to derive a filtering algorithm to reduce overalerting. In total, our CDSS research prototype generated 399 alerts. In 98 % of all alerts, medication data were rated as linked correctly to drug information; in 93 %, the alerts were assessed as "medically correct"; 19.5 % of all alerts were rated as "show again". The interrater-agreement was, on average, 68.4 %. After the application of our filtering algorithm, the rate of alerts that should be shown again decreased to 14.8 %. The new standardized rating tool supports a standardized feedback of user-perceived clinical relevance of CDSS alerts. Overall, the results indicated that physicians may consider the majority of alerts formally correct but clinically irrelevant and override them. Filtering may help to reduce

  8. Research Investigation of Information Access Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrichs, John H.; Sharkey, Thomas W.; Lim, Jeen-Su

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the satisfaction of library users at Wayne State University who utilize alternative information access methods. The LibQUAL+[TM] desired and perceived that satisfaction ratings are used to determine the user's "superiority gap." By focusing limited library resources to address "superiority gap" issues identified by each…

  9. Research Investigation of Information Access Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrichs, John H.; Sharkey, Thomas W.; Lim, Jeen-Su

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the satisfaction of library users at Wayne State University who utilize alternative information access methods. The LibQUAL+[TM] desired and perceived that satisfaction ratings are used to determine the user's "superiority gap." By focusing limited library resources to address "superiority gap" issues identified by each…

  10. Development of proteasome inhibitors as research tools and cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The proteasome is the primary site for protein degradation in mammalian cells, and proteasome inhibitors have been invaluable tools in clarifying its cellular functions. The anticancer agent bortezomib inhibits the major peptidase sites in the proteasome’s 20S core particle. It is a “blockbuster drug” that has led to dramatic improvements in the treatment of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. The development of proteasome inhibitors illustrates the unpredictability, frustrations, and potential rewards of drug development but also emphasizes the dependence of medical advances on basic biological research. PMID:23148232

  11. Sex Stereotyping in Drug Advertisements: Evaluation of the Informal Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Mary L.; And Others

    A study to determine sex stereotyping in drug advertisements in five professional journals is reported. The first four studies examined advertisements from general medical journals; the fifth study obtained its data from a psychiatric journal. The journals are "Medical Economics,""American Family Physician,""Modern Medicine,""Journal of the…

  12. Pharmacogenetics: Using Genetic Information to Guide Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, KU-LANG; WEITZEL, KRISTIN; SCHMIDT, SIEGFRIED

    2016-01-01

    Clinical pharmacogenetics, the use of genetic data to guide drug therapy decisions, is beginning to be used for medications commonly prescribed by family physicians. However, clinicians are largely unfamiliar with principles supporting clinical use of this type of data. For example, genetic variability in the cytochrome P450 2D6 drug metabolizing enzyme can alter the clinical effects of some opioid analgesics (e.g., codeine, tramadol), whereas variability in the CYP2C19 enzyme affects the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel. If testing is performed, patients who are ultrarapid or poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 should avoid codeine use (and possibly tramadol, hydrocodone, and oxycodone) because of the potential for increased toxicity or lack of effectiveness. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes who are known to be poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 should consider alternate antiplatelet therapy (e.g., ticagrelor, prasugrel). Some guidelines are available that address appropriate drug therapy changes, and others are in development. Additionally, a number of clinical resources are emerging to support family physicians in the use of pharmacogenetics. When used appropriately, pharmacogenetic testing can be a practical tool to optimize drug therapy and avoid medication adverse effects. PMID:26447442

  13. [Drug effects informational services: databases for patenting and marketing].

    PubMed

    Shkarenkova, L S; Orlovskaya, T T; Ovchinnikovaq, T V

    1997-01-01

    The review is concerned with databases (DB) for patent and commercial aspects of new drugs marketing. The DB characteristics are given and the search peculiarities in every DB and its possible access are discussed. BD accessible through the STN International are presented.

  14. Sex Stereotyping in Drug Advertisements: Evaluation of the Informal Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Mary L.; And Others

    A study to determine sex stereotyping in drug advertisements in five professional journals is reported. The first four studies examined advertisements from general medical journals; the fifth study obtained its data from a psychiatric journal. The journals are "Medical Economics,""American Family Physician,""Modern Medicine,""Journal of the…

  15. Effect of drug reminder packaging on medication adherence: a systematic review revealing research gaps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This was a systematic review of the literature in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Evidence mapping was used to reveal the effect of drug reminder packaging on medication adherence, to identify research gaps and to make suggestions for future research. Methods PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched with an end date of September 2013 using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term ‘medication adherence’ and 20 different search terms for ‘drug reminder packaging’, limited to the English and German languages. Additional references were identified through cross-referencing. All prospective controlled trials with an intervention using drug reminder packaging for patients taking at least one medication without the assistance of a health-care professional were included in the evidence mapping of the effect of drug reminder packaging on adherence and outcomes according to the Economic, Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes (ECHO) model. Results A total of 30 studies met the inclusion criteria: 10 randomized controlled trials, 19 controlled clinical trials and 1 cohort study. Drug reminder packaging had a significant effect on at least one adherence parameter in 17 studies (57%). The methodological quality was strong in five studies. Two studies provided complete information. Clear research gaps emerged. Conclusions Overall, the studies showed a positive effect of drug reminder packaging on adherence and clinical outcomes. However, poor reporting and important gaps like missing humanistic and economic outcomes and neglected safety issues limit the drawing of firm conclusions. Suggestions are made for future research. PMID:24661495

  16. OPERATIONS RESEARCH IN THE DESIGN OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design of management information systems is concerned with the identification and detailed specification of the information and data processing... information systems in which mathematical models are employed as the basis for analysis and systems design. Operations research provides a natural...of advanced data processing techniques in management information systems today, the close coordination of operations research and data systems activities has become a practical necessity for the modern business firm.

  17. Putting knowledge into practice: Does information on adverse drug interactions influence people's dosing behaviour?

    PubMed

    Dohle, Simone; Dawson, Ian G J

    2017-05-01

    Adverse drug events relating to drug-drug interactions are a common cause of patient harm. Central to avoiding this harm is the patients' understanding that certain drug combinations present a synergistic risk. Two studies tested whether providing individuals with information about a drug combination that presents a synergistic (cf. additive) risk would elicit higher perceived risk and, therefore, would result in greater precaution in terms of dosing behaviour. Both studies employed an experimental design. Participants were presented with a scenario describing how two symptoms of an infection could each be treated by a different drug. In Experiment 1, information about the effects of combining the two drugs was varied: (1) no information, (2) combination elicits an additive risk, or (3) combination elicits a synergistic risk. In Experiment 2, the size of the risk (small or large) and the participant's role (patient or doctor) was also varied. In both experiments, perceived risk and negative affect increased in response to information about the increased probability of side effects from the drug-drug interaction. Despite these increases, participants did not adjust their drug dosing behaviour in either experiment: Dosing was similar when these interactions were large or small, or when they were due to synergistic or additive effects. People may struggle to transfer their knowledge of drug-drug interaction risks into decision-making behaviours. Care should be taken not to assume that holding accurate risk perceptions of a drug's side effect will result in decisions that help avoid adverse drug events. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Adverse effects of drug-drug interactions are a cause of hospital admissions and increase morbidity and mortality. Patients' understanding that certain drug combinations present a synergistic risk is crucial to avoid harm. It is not clear whether synergistic drug interactions increase risk perception and

  18. Unofficial policy: access to housing, housing information and social services among homeless drug users in Hartford, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Convey, Mark; Hilario, Helena; Corbett, A Michelle; Weeks, Margaret

    2007-03-07

    Much research has shown that the homeless have higher rates of substance abuse problems than housed populations and that substance abuse increases individuals' vulnerability to homelessness. However, the effects of housing policies on drug users' access to housing have been understudied to date. This paper will look at the "unofficial" housing policies that affect drug users' access to housing. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 65 active users of heroin and cocaine at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Participants were purposively sampled to reflect a variety of housing statuses including homeless on the streets, in shelters, "doubled-up" with family or friends, or permanently housed in subsidized, unsubsidized or supportive housing. Key informant interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with 15 housing caseworkers. Data were analyzed to explore the processes by which drug users receive information about different housing subsidies and welfare benefits, and their experiences in applying for these. A number of unofficial policy mechanisms limit drug users' access to housing, information and services, including limited outreach to non-shelter using homeless regarding housing programs, service provider priorities, and service provider discretion in processing applications and providing services. Unofficial policy, i.e. the mechanisms used by caseworkers to ration scarce housing resources, is as important as official housing policies in limiting drug users' access to housing. Drug users' descriptions of their experiences working with caseworkers to obtain permanent, affordable housing, provide insights as to how access to supportive and subsidized housing can be improved for this population.

  19. An exploratory research on the role of family in youth's drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Masood, Sobia; Us Sahar, Najam

    2014-01-01

    Most of the researches in Pakistan are concerned with the aetiological factors of drug addiction among the youth. However, few studies seek to explore the social aspects of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the role of family, the influence of parental involvement, and communication styles in youth's drug addiction in a qualitative manner. Twenty drug addicts (age range 18-28 years) were taken as a sample from drug rehabilitation centres in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. A structured interview guide was administered comprising questions related to the individual's habits, relationship with family and friends, and modes of communication within the family. Case profiles of the participants were also taken. The rehabilitation centres offered family therapy and the researcher, as a non-participant, observed these sessions as part of the analysis. The demographic information revealed that majority of the participants were poly-substance abusers (80%) and the significant reasons for starting drugs were the company of peers and curiosity. The thematic analysis revealed parental involvement and emotional expressiveness as two major components in family communication. It was found that parents were concerned about their children, but were not assertive in the implementation of family rules. It was also found that the major life decisions of the participants were taken by their parents, which is a characteristic of collectivist Pakistani society.

  20. Evaluation of nursing-specific drug information PDA databases used as clinical decision support tools.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Clauson, Kevin A; Thomson, Wendy; Zapantis, Antonia; Lou, Jennie Q

    2009-10-01

    Nursing is arguably the most organizationally diverse healthcare profession. Educational backgrounds may vary, even among similarly credentialed nurses. Drug information databases used as clinical decision support tools can improve access to pharmacologic information at point-of-care when housed on personal digital assistants. They may also help address the disparity in drug information and pharmacology education between nurses. To evaluate nursing-specific drug information database content on personal digital assistants (PDAs). Seven nursing-specific PDA databases were evaluated for scope (absence or presence of an answer) and completeness (three-point scale) via the use of 80 general category and 80 subspecialty drug information questions. Erroneous information was also tracked. Individual scope and completeness scores were delineated by rank order and chi square was performed to determine differences in scope and completeness scores between the databases. Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses (DDGN) and Nursing Lexi-Drugs (NLD) tied for the highest scores for scope, including each answering 72.5% of the 160 evaluation questions. No significant differences existed between their scores and those earned by Nursing2008 Drug Handbook (p<0.05). The highest scores for completeness were earned by NLD with 58.1% and DDGN at 57.1%. Saunders Nursing Drug Handbook was the only database that showed a significantly lower score in completeness as compared to the other six databases (p<0.05). A 4.2% overall error rate was found among database answers. Significant differences were found among the performances in the databases evaluated in this study for their ability to answer commonly encountered drug information issues in nursing practice. All databases contained some erroneous information and even the top performers failed to provide answers to more than one-fourth of the questions posed. The availability of accurate and timely drug information at point-of-care can play a vital role