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Sample records for drug screening assay

  1. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  2. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  3. 3D inverted colloidal crystals in realistic cell migration assays for drug screening applications.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joakim; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Kuo, Cheng-Hwa R; Guck, Jochen; Sivaniah, Easan

    2011-12-01

    Screening drugs for their specific impact on cell mechanics, in addition to targeting adhesion and proteolysis, will be important for successfully moderating migration in infiltrative disorders including cancer metastasis. We present 3D inverted colloidal crystals made of hydrogel as a realistic cell migration assay, where the geometry and stiffness can be set independently to mimic the tissue requirements in question. We show the utility of this 3D assay for drug screening purposes, specifically in contrast to conventional 2D migration studies, by surveying the effects of commonly used cytoskeletal toxins that impact cell mechanics. This assay allows studying large cell numbers for good statistics but at single-cell resolution.

  4. Radioligand binding assays in the drug discovery process: potential pitfalls of high throughput screenings.

    PubMed

    Noël, F; Mendonça-Silva, D L; Quintas, L E

    2001-02-01

    Radioligand binding assays evaluating directly the ability of a drug to interact with a defined molecular target is part of the drug discovery process. The need for a high throughput rate in screening drugs is actually leading to simplified experimental schemes that increase the probability of false negative results. Special concern involves voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery where a great care is required in designing assays because of frequent multiplicity of (interacting) binding sites. To clearly illustrate this situation, three different assays used in the academic drug discovery program of the authors were selected because they are rich of intrinsic artifacts: (I) (20 mmol/l caffeine almost duplicated [3H]ryanodine binding (89% higher than control) to rat heart microsomes at 0.3 mumol/l free calcium but did not exert any effect when using a high (107 mumol/l) free calcium, as mostly used in ryanodine binding assays; (II) An agonist for the ionotropic glutamate receptor of the kainate type can distinctly affect [3H]kainate binding to chicken cerebellum membranes depending on its concentration: unlabelled kainic acid per se either stimulated about 30% (at 50-100 nmol/l), had no effect (at 200 nmol/l) or even progressively decreased (at 0.3-2 mumol/l) the binding of 5 nmol/l [3H]kainate, emphasizing the risk of using a single concentration for screening a drug; (III) in a classical [3H]flunitrazepam binding assay, the stimulatory effect of a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonist was only observed when using extensively washed rat brain synaptosomes (10 mumol/l GABA increased flunitrazepam binding by 90%). On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of a GABA antagonist was only observed when using crude synaptosomes (10 mumol/l bicuculine reduced [3H]flunitrazepam binding by 40%). It can be concluded that carefully designed radioligand assays which can be performed in an academic laboratory are appropriate for screening a small number of drugs, especially if

  5. Assay development and high throughput antiviral drug screening against Bluetongue virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianjun; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Hobrath, Judith V.; White, Lucile E.

    2009-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is one of the most important diseases of domestic livestock. There are no antivirals available against BTV disease. In this paper, we present the development, optimization and validation of an in vitro cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using the luminescent-based CellTiter-Glo reagent to identify novel antivirals against BTV. Conditions of the cytopathic effect (CPE)-based assay were optimized at cell density of 5 000 cells/well in medium containing 1% FBS and a multiplicity of infection at 0.01 in 384-well plate, with Z'-values ≥ 0.70, Coefficient of Variations ≥ 5.68 and signal-to-background ratio ≥ 7.10. This assay was further validated using a 9 532 compound library. The fully validated assay was then used to screen the 194 950 compound collection, which identified 693 compounds with > 30% CPE inhibition. The ten-concentration dose response assay identified 185 structures with IC50 ≤ 100 μM, out of which 42 compounds were grouped into six analog series corresponding to six scaffolds enriched within the active set compared to their distribution in the library. The CPE-based assay development demonstrated its robustness and reliability, and its application in the HTS campaign will make significant contribution to the antiviral drug discovery against BTV disease. PMID:19559054

  6. Optimization of the Caco-2 permeability assay to screen drug compounds for intestinal absorption and efflux.

    PubMed

    Press, Barry

    2011-01-01

    In vitro permeability assays are a valuable tool for scientists during lead compound optimization. As a majority of discovery projects are focused on the development of orally bioavailable drugs, correlation of in vitro permeability data to in vivo absorption results is critical for understanding the structural-physicochemical relationship (SPR) of drugs exhibiting low levels of absorption. For more than a decade, the Caco-2 screening assay has remained a popular, in vitro system to test compounds for both intestinal permeability and efflux liability. Despite advances in artificial membrane technology and in silico modeling systems, drug compounds still benefit from testing in cell-based epithelial monolayer assays for lead optimization. This chapter provides technical information for performing and optimizing the Caco-2 assay. In addition, techniques are discussed for dealing with some of the most pressing issues surrounding in vitro permeability assays (i.e., low aqueous solubility of test compounds and low postassay recovery). Insights are offered to help researchers avoid common pitfalls in the interpretation of in vitro permeability data, which can often lead to the perception of misleading results for correlation to in vivo data.

  7. Fluorescence polarization assays in high-throughput screening and drug discovery: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Matthew D.; Yasgar, Adam; Peryea, Tyler; Braisted, John C.; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Coussens, Nathan P.

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of fluorescence polarization (FP) and fluorescence anisotropy (FA) to molecular weight changes has enabled the interrogation of diverse biological mechanisms, ranging from molecular interactions to enzymatic activity. Assays based on FP/FA technology have been widely utilized in high-throughput screening (HTS) and drug discovery due to the homogenous format, robust performance and relative insensitivity to some types of interferences, such as inner filter effects. Advancements in assay design, fluorescent probes, and technology have enabled the application of FP assays to increasingly complex biological processes. Herein we discuss different types of FP/FA assays developed for HTS, with examples to emphasize the diversity of applicable targets. Furthermore, trends in target and fluorophore selection, as well as assay type and format, are examined using annotated HTS assays within the PubChem database. Finally, practical considerations for the successful development and implementation of FP/FA assays for HTS are provided based on experience at our center and examples from the literature, including strategies for flagging interference compounds among a list of hits.

  8. Cell-Based Assay Design for High-Content Screening of Drug Candidates.

    PubMed

    Nierode, Gregory; Kwon, Paul S; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kwon, Seok-Joon

    2016-02-01

    To reduce attrition in drug development, it is crucial to consider the development and implementation of translational phenotypic assays as well as decipher diverse molecular mechanisms of action for new molecular entities. High-throughput fluorescence and confocal microscopes with advanced analysis software have simplified the simultaneous identification and quantification of various cellular processes through what is now referred to as highcontent screening (HCS). HCS permits automated identification of modifiers of accessible and biologically relevant targets and can thus be used to detect gene interactions or identify toxic pathways of drug candidates to improve drug discovery and development processes. In this review, we summarize several HCS-compatible, biochemical, and molecular biology-driven assays, including immunohistochemistry, RNAi, reporter gene assay, CRISPR-Cas9 system, and protein-protein interactions to assess a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, morphological changes, protein expression, localization, post-translational modifications, and protein-protein interactions. These cell-based assay methods can be applied to not only 2D cell culture but also 3D cell culture systems in a high-throughput manner.

  9. Microfluidic-based G-quadruplex ligand displacement assay for alkaloid anticancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haihui; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Huiyan; Sun, Yue; Wu, Qiwang; Shen, Hong; Liu, Yingchun

    2017-02-05

    Some natural heterocyclic alkaloids containing planar group show potential to complex with specific promoter region of protooncogene for stabilizing the G-quadruplex (G4) structure which nowadays promises to be a target in anticancer drug design. However, in view of the polymorphic characteristics and structural complexity of heterocyclic alkaloids, it is desirable to develop high-throughput and low-consumption approach for anticancer drug screening. In this paper, an intensive study on alkaloid ligand/G4 DNA interaction has been conducted, demonstrating that the end-stacking interaction is the favorable binding mode between the oncogene-related Pu22 G4 DNA and the heterocyclic alkaloid ligand. Based on structural feasibility and energy minimization, a ligand displacement assay for screening alkaloid ligand in stabilizing the oncogene target G4 has been developed, which also helps to facilitate the assessment of drug specificity. Coupled with microfluidic-based DNAzyme-catalytic chemiluminescence detection, the approach showed the advantages of high sensitivity, high throughput with low sample and reagent consumptions.

  10. Cheburator software for automatically calculating drug inhibitory concentrations from in vitro screening assays.

    PubMed

    Nevozhay, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    In the process of new cancer drug development, as the first step of their assessment, their activities are usually studied in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines. The results of these in vitro drug screening assays are commonly expressed as inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50): the concentration of the tested agent that inhibits the proliferation of the cancer cell population to 50% of the theoretically possible effect (absolute IC50) or maximum effect practically achieved by the drug (relative IC50). The currently available software for calculating IC50 values requires manual data entry, is time consuming, and is prone to calculation errors. Thus, we have developed open source, free, easy-to-use software for performing standardized data evaluations and automatically calculating the IC50. This software eliminates the laborious and error-prone manual entry of data, substantially reduces the amount of time spent for data analysis. It has been extensively used in our department as the main tool for in vitro data processing during the past several years and can be useful for other research groups working in the area of anticancer drug discovery, either alone or combined with other software packages. The current version of our program, Cheburator, together with sample data, source code, and documentation, is freely available at the following URL: http://www.cheburator.nevozhay.com (it is free for academic use, but a license is required for commercial use).

  11. Development and Validation of a Luminescence-based, Medium-Throughput Assay for Drug Screening in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, Cristiana; Guidi, Alessandra; Gennari, Nadia; Altamura, Sergio; Bresciani, Alberto; Ruberti, Giovina

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis, one of the world’s greatest neglected tropical diseases, is responsible for over 280,000 human deaths per annum. Praziquantel, developed in the 1970s, has high efficacy, excellent tolerability, few and transient side effects, simple administration procedures and competitive cost and it is currently the only recommended drug for treatment of human schistosomiasis. The use of a single drug to treat a population of over 200 million infected people appears particularly alarming when considering the threat of drug resistance. Quantitative, objective and validated methods for the screening of compound collections are needed for the discovery of novel anti-schistosomal drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings The present work describes the development and validation of a luminescence-based, medium-throughput assay for the detection of schistosomula viability through quantitation of ATP, a good indicator of metabolically active cells in culture. This validated method is demonstrated to be fast, highly reliable, sensitive and automation-friendly. The optimized assay was used for the screening of a small compound library on S. mansoni schistosomula, showing that the proposed method is suitable for a medium-throughput semi-automated screening. Interestingly, the pilot screening identified hits previously reported to have some anti-parasitic activity, further supporting the validity of this assay for anthelminthic drug discovery. Conclusions The developed and validated schistosomula viability luminescence-based assay was shown to be successful and suitable for the identification of novel compounds potentially exploitable in future schistosomiasis therapies. PMID:25635836

  12. Model for high-throughput screening of multitarget drugs in chemical neurosciences: synthesis, assay, and theoretic study of rasagiline carbamates.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Nerea; Caamaño, Olga; Romero-Duran, Francisco J; Luan, Feng; D S Cordeiro, M Natália; Yañez, Matilde; González-Díaz, Humberto; García-Mera, Xerardo

    2013-10-16

    The disappointing results obtained in recent clinical trials renew the interest in experimental/computational techniques for the discovery of neuroprotective drugs. In this context, multitarget or multiplexing QSAR models (mt-QSAR/mx-QSAR) may help to predict neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs in multiple assays, on drug targets, and in model organisms. In this work, we study a data set downloaded from CHEMBL; each data point (>8000) contains the values of one out of 37 possible measures of activity, 493 assays, 169 molecular or cellular targets, and 11 different organisms (including human) for a given compound. In this work, we introduce the first mx-QSAR model for neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs based on the MARCH-INSIDE (MI) method. First, we used MI to calculate the stochastic spectral moments (structural descriptors) of all compounds. Next, we found a model that classified correctly 2955 out of 3548 total cases in the training and validation series with Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity values>80%. The model also showed excellent results in Computational-Chemistry simulations of High-Throughput Screening (CCHTS) experiments, with accuracy=90.6% for 4671 positive cases. Next, we reported the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of new rasagiline derivatives. We carried out three different experimental tests: assay (1) in the absence of neurotoxic agents, assay (2) in the presence of glutamate, and assay (3) in the presence of H2O2. Compounds 11 with 27.4%, 8 with 11.6%, and 9 with 15.4% showed the highest neuroprotective effects in assays (1), (2), and (3), respectively. After that, we used the mx-QSAR model to carry out a CCHTS of the new compounds in >400 unique pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally. Consequently, this model may become a promising auxiliary tool for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Model for High-Throughput Screening of Multitarget Drugs in Chemical Neurosciences: Synthesis, Assay, and Theoretic Study of Rasagiline Carbamates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results obtained in recent clinical trials renew the interest in experimental/computational techniques for the discovery of neuroprotective drugs. In this context, multitarget or multiplexing QSAR models (mt-QSAR/mx-QSAR) may help to predict neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs in multiple assays, on drug targets, and in model organisms. In this work, we study a data set downloaded from CHEMBL; each data point (>8000) contains the values of one out of 37 possible measures of activity, 493 assays, 169 molecular or cellular targets, and 11 different organisms (including human) for a given compound. In this work, we introduce the first mx-QSAR model for neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs based on the MARCH-INSIDE (MI) method. First, we used MI to calculate the stochastic spectral moments (structural descriptors) of all compounds. Next, we found a model that classified correctly 2955 out of 3548 total cases in the training and validation series with Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity values > 80%. The model also showed excellent results in Computational-Chemistry simulations of High-Throughput Screening (CCHTS) experiments, with accuracy = 90.6% for 4671 positive cases. Next, we reported the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of new rasagiline derivatives. We carried out three different experimental tests: assay (1) in the absence of neurotoxic agents, assay (2) in the presence of glutamate, and assay (3) in the presence of H2O2. Compounds 11 with 27.4%, 8 with 11.6%, and 9 with 15.4% showed the highest neuroprotective effects in assays (1), (2), and (3), respectively. After that, we used the mx-QSAR model to carry out a CCHTS of the new compounds in >400 unique pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally. Consequently, this model may become a promising auxiliary tool for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23855599

  14. A High Throughput, 384-Well, Semi-Automated, Hepatocyte Intrinsic Clearance Assay for Screening New Molecular Entities in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Heinle, Lance; Peterkin, Vincent; de Morais, Sonia M; Jenkins, Gary J; Badagnani, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput, semi-automated clearance screening assay in hepatocytes was developed allowing a scientist to generate data for 96 compounds in one week. The 384-well format assay utilizes a Thermo Multidrop Combi and an optimized LC-MS/MS method. The previously reported LCMS/ MS method reduced the analytical run time by 3-fold, down to 1.2 min injection-to-injection. The Multidrop was able to deliver hepatocytes to 384-well plates with minimal viability loss. Comparison of results from the new 384-well and historical 24-well assays yielded a correlation of 0.95. In addition, results obtained for 25 marketed drugs with various metabolism pathways had a correlation of 0.75 when compared with literature values. Precision was maintained in the new format as 8 compounds tested in ≥39 independent experiments had coefficients of variation ≤21%. The ability to predict in vivo clearances using the new stability assay format was also investigated using 22 marketed drugs and 26 AbbVie compounds. Correction of intrinsic clearance values with binding to hepatocytes (in vitro data) and plasma (in vivo data) resulted in a higher in vitro to in vivo correlation when comparing 22 marketed compounds in human (0.80 vs 0.35) and 26 AbbVie Discovery compounds in rat (0.56 vs 0.17), demonstrating the importance of correcting for binding in clearance studies. This newly developed high throughput, semi-automated clearance assay allows for rapid screening of Discovery compounds to enable Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) analysis based on high quality hepatocyte stability data in sufficient quantity and quality to drive the next round of compound synthesis.

  15. A Novel High Throughput Assay for Anthelmintic Drug Screening and Resistance Diagnosis by Real-Time Monitoring of Parasite Motility

    PubMed Central

    Smout, Michael J.; Kotze, Andrew C.; McCarthy, James S.; Loukas, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence) that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and –resistant isolates of H. contortus. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing. PMID:21103363

  16. A Systematic Comparison Identifies an ATP-Based Viability Assay as Most Suitable Read-Out for Drug Screening in Glioma Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, A.; Kloezeman, J. J.; Balvers, R. K.; van der Kaaij, M.; Dirven, C. M. F.; Leenstra, S.; Lamfers, M. L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Serum-free culture methods for patient-derived primary glioma cultures, selecting for glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), are becoming the gold standard in neurooncology research. These GSCs can be implemented in drug screens to detect patient-specific responses, potentially bridging the translational gap to personalized medicine. Since numerous compounds are available, a rapid and reliable readout for drug efficacies is required. This can be done using approaches that measure viability, confluency, cytotoxicity, or apoptosis. To determine which assay is best suitable for drug screening, 10 different assays were systematically tested on established glioma cell lines and validated on a panel of GSCs. General applicability was assessed using distinct treatment modalities, being temozolomide, radiation, rapamycin, and the oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD. The apoptosis and cytotoxicity assays did not unequivocally detect responses and were excluded from further testing. The NADH- and ATP-based viability assays revealed comparable readout for all treatments; however, the latter had smaller standard deviations and direct readout. Importantly, drugs that interfere with cell metabolism require alternative techniques such as confluency monitoring to accurately measure treatment effects. Taken together, our data suggest that the combination of ATP luminescence assays with confluency monitoring provides the most specific and reproducible readout for drug screening on primary GSCs. PMID:27274737

  17. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  18. Selection of drugs to test the specificity of the Tg.AC assay by screening for induction of the gadd153 promoter in vitro.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Karol L; Sistare, Frank D

    2003-08-01

    Short-term assays for carcinogenicity testing of chemicals that use transgenic mice designed to have altered expression of genes mechanistically relevant to carcinogenesis are attractive alternatives to two-year dosing studies in rodents. The models that have been the received the greatest level of performance evaluation include p53(+/-), rasH2, Xpa/p53(+/-), and Tg.AC mice. For use of these models in a regulatory setting to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals, it is important to establish an assurance of assay specificity and positive predictivity based on studies using drugs with a wide spectrum of pharmacologic activity. For this purpose, 99 noncarcinogenic drugs were prioritized based on their activity in an in vitro induction assay correlative with a positive response in the Tg.AC assay (induction of the gadd153 promoter in HepG2 cells). Activities in two assays less predictive of Tg.AC activity (induction of c-fos and zeta-globin gene promoters) were also measured. Nine percent of the screened drugs induced the gadd153 promoter by at least fourfold. Several criteria were used to select candidates for subsequent in vivo testing in the Tg.AC assay: (1) sufficient drug solubility in appropriate skin paint vehicles to elicit systemic toxicity, (2) the level of induction of the gadd153 promoter by the drug, (3) the in vitro potency of the drug, and (4) the cost of the drug required for a 6-month study. Based on these criteria, amiloride, dipyridamole, and pyrimethamine were selected from 99 rodent noncarcinogens in a drug database for testing the specificity of the Tg.AC assay.

  19. A testing strategy to predict risk for drug-induced liver injury in humans using high-content screen assays and the 'rule-of-two' model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjun; Tung, Chun-Wei; Shi, Qiang; Guo, Lei; Shi, Leming; Fang, Hong; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2014-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of drug failures in both the preclinical and clinical phase. Consequently, improving prediction of DILI at an early stage of drug discovery will reduce the potential failures in the subsequent drug development program. In this regard, high-content screening (HCS) assays are considered as a promising strategy for the study of DILI; however, the predictive performance of HCS assays is frequently insufficient. In the present study, a new testing strategy was developed to improve DILI prediction by employing in vitro assays that was combined with the RO2 model (i.e., 'rule-of-two' defined by daily dose ≥100 mg/day & logP ≥3). The RO2 model was derived from the observation that high daily doses and lipophilicity of an oral medication were associated with significant DILI risk in humans. In the developed testing strategy, the RO2 model was used for the rational selection of candidates for HCS assays, and only the negatives predicted by the RO2 model were further investigated by HCS. Subsequently, the effects of drug treatment on cell loss, nuclear size, DNA damage/fragmentation, apoptosis, lysosomal mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, and steatosis were studied in cultures of primary rat hepatocytes. Using a set of 70 drugs with clear evidence of clinically relevant DILI, the testing strategy improved the accuracies by 10 % and reduced the number of drugs requiring experimental assessment by approximately 20 %, as compared to the HCS assay alone. Moreover, the testing strategy was further validated by including published data (Cosgrove et al. in Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 237:317-330, 2009) on drug-cytokine-induced hepatotoxicity, which improved the accuracies by 7 %. Taken collectively, the proposed testing strategy can significantly improve the prediction of in vitro assays for detecting DILI liability in an early drug discovery phase.

  20. High-performance mass spectrometry as a drug discovery tool: a high-throughput screening assay to identify RNA-binding ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A.; Drader, Jared J.; Griffey, Richard H.; Hofstadler, Steven A.

    2001-04-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is increasingly being used as a drug discovery tool. We describe the development of a parallel high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy to identify small molecules that bind RNA targets using FTMS as an alternative to classical high-throughput biological screening methods for combinatorial libraries. The Multitarget Affinity/Specificity Screening (MASS) assay takes advantage of the "intrinsic mass" label of each compound and target RNA by employing high resolution, high precision mass measurements. The ability to analyze complex mixtures allows large compound libraries to be screened in the presence of multiple RNA targets simultaneously. The identity of the small molecule(s) which bind, the RNA target to which it binds, the compound-specific binding affinity and the location of the binding site on the RNA can be determined in one set of rapid experiments. The MASS technology detects complexes with dissociation constants of < 5 mM, with high sensitivity.

  1. A High-Throughput Fluorescence-Based Assay System for Appetite-Regulating Gene and Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers. PMID:23300705

  2. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

  3. Cross-reactivity of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay in drugs-of-abuse screening: influence of dose and metabolites of opioids

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jon Andsnes; Schjøtt, Jan; Fossan, Kjell O; Riedel, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) for buprenorphine is applied for both urine drugs-of-abuse screening and compliance monitoring. Sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff of this assay have differed between studies. This may indicate that cross-reactivity has to be taken into account during assay evaluation. We therefore investigated the performance of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay for use in our patient population and explored the impact of cross-reactivity on assay accuracy. Methods The CEDIA buprenorphine assay and high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry were employed to analyze drugs-of-abuse in urine samples from a healthy drug-naïve male volunteer after intake of two tablets of a prescription drug containing 400 mg paracetamol +30 mg codeine phosphate, and in urine samples (n=2,272) from drug-addicted patients. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to express the diagnostic accuracy of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay. Results CEDIA buprenorphine was positive in one urine sample from the drug-naïve person after intake of the prescription drug. Twenty-five (1.1%) of the patient urine samples were positive for buprenorphine by CEDIA, but negative by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Codeine, morphine, and their respective metabolites were prevalent in samples that were false positive for buprenorphine. The specificity of the CEDIA buprenorphine assay increased to 99.7% when the cutoff was increased from 5 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. Conclusion Intake of a therapeutic dose of codeine can yield a false-positive CEDIA buprenorphine result. Additive effects from metabolites of codeine contribute to cross-reactivity in concentrations much lower than listed in the manufacturer’s cross-reactivity guide. Raising the cutoff from 5 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL increased the diagnostic accuracy. Clinicians should be informed about the risk of false-positive results with the CEDIA

  4. An aptamer-based bio-barcode assay with isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification for cytochrome-c detection and anti-cancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jacky F C; Lau, P M; Ho, H P; Kong, S K

    2013-10-15

    Based on a recently reported ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed an aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) alternative to detect a cell death marker cytochrome-c (Cyto-c) and its subsequent application to screen anti-cancer drugs. Aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library by virtue of its high binding affinity and specificity to its target based on its unique 3D structure from the nucleotide sequence after folding. In the BBC assay, an antigen (Ag) in analytes is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Abs). Gold nanoparticles (NPs) with another recognition Ab against the same target and hundreds of identical DNA molecules of known sequence are subsequently added to allow the formation of sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab1]-Ag-[Ab2-NP-DNA]). After isolating the sandwiches by a magnetic field, the DNAs hybridized to their complementary DNAs covalently bound on the NPs are released from the sandwiches after heating. Acting as an Ag identification tag, these bio-barcode DNAs with known DNA sequence are then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detected by fluorescence. In our ABC assay, we employed a Cyto-c-specific aptamer to substitute both the recognition Ab and barcode DNAs on the NPs in the BBC assay; and a novel isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification for the time-consuming PCR. The detection limit of our ABC assay for the Cyto-c was found to be 10 ng/mL and this new assay can be completed within 3h. Several potential anti-cancer drugs have been tested in vitro for their efficacy to kill liver cancer with or without multi-drug resistance.

  5. Identification of several high-risk HPV inhibitors and drug targets with a novel high-throughput screening assay

    PubMed Central

    Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Männik, Andres; Mumm, Karl; Tämm, Kaido; Tamm, Tarmo; Ustav, Mart

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are oncogenic viruses that cause numerous different cancers as well as benign lesions in the epithelia. To date, there is no effective cure for an ongoing HPV infection. Here, we describe the generation process of a platform for the development of anti-HPV drugs. This system consists of engineered full-length HPV genomes that express reporter genes for evaluation of the viral copy number in all three HPV replication stages. We demonstrate the usefulness of this system by conducting high-throughput screens to identify novel high-risk HPV-specific inhibitors. At least five of the inhibitors block the function of Tdp1 and PARP1, which have been identified as essential cellular proteins for HPV replication and promising candidates for the development of antivirals against HPV and possibly against HPV-related cancers. PMID:28182794

  6. Developing a microbiological growth inhibition screening assay for the detection of 27 veterinary drugs from 13 different classes in animal feedingstuffs.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten; Pellet, Terence; Boscher, Aurore; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    Many regulations prohibit using veterinary drugs in feedingstuffs to protect consumers and animals alike. Within this investigation we developed a simple, cost-efficient primary screening method for detecting antibiotics and coccidiostats in animal feeds. Thirty-two veterinary drugs were originally considered. Following matrix-free testing to optimise detection, an assay based on matrix extraction with methanol/acetonitrile/phosphate buffer followed by inoculation and diffusion in agar plates was developed. Final validation was performed with 14 representative drugs (one per drug class) and four bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC11303 and ATCC27166, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538P, Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341) in bovine, lamb and swine fodder, measuring growth inhibition zones. Of the original drugs tested, 27 remained detectable in feed matrices at or below 20 mg kg(-1). Of the 14 validated representatives, two had estimated minimum detectable concentrations of 10-11 mg kg(-1), others of 5 mg kg(-1) or lower, an earlier minimum European Union inclusion rate for many veterinary drugs. No significant matrix effect on inhibition zones was detected. Per cent wrong negative deviations ranged from 0% (nine of 14 compounds) to 20-27% (two of 14), while inter-day precision based on inhibition zones had relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 6-109% (mean of 40%). When setting a 1 mm inhibition zone, the maximum observed for negative controls, as a cut-off level, no false-positives were found. While not all targeted antibiotics were detectable in complex matrices, the majority of veterinary drugs were detected with reasonable sensitivity, indicating that this method could be suitable for screening feedingstuffs prior to further confirmatory investigation of positive findings such as by LC-MS/MS.

  7. Precision and comparability of Abuscreen OnLine assays for drugs of abuse screening in urine on Hitachi 917 with other immunochemical tests and with GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, M; Haenseler, E; Hoke, C; Nichols, J; Raab, D; Domke, I

    2000-01-01

    Abuscreen OnLine assays for drugs of abuse screening in urine have recently been developed for use on Hitachi 917 analyzers (Roche Diagnostics GmbH). The assays are based on the kinetic interaction of microparticles as measured by changes in light transmission. Drug in a sample inhibits the formation of particle aggregates and diminishes absorbance change increases. It was the goal of this study to evaluate precision and comparability of the new asssys with CEDIA drugs of abuse tests on Hitachi 917 in different laboratories (three European and three US). The assays were calibrated in the nonlinear mode with four to six standards (semiquantitative application). Initial within-run (21 replicates, four labs) and between-day (10 days, two labs) imprecision studies using Abuscreen OnLine tests and commercial negative (0.5 x cut-off) and positive (1.5 x cut-off) controls revealed the following median CVs [withinrun neg./pos. control/between-day neg./pos. control]: amphetamines 1.9/1.3/3.4/2.4, barbiturates 3.0/1.6/3.9/3.1, benzodiazepines 4.7/1.5/6.3/3.0, cocaine metabolite 1.8/0.9/2.4/1.7, methadone 5.4/1.6/5.5/2.2, opiates 5.5/2.8/5.3/2.7, THC 8.9/4.8/21.8/12.1. CVs < 10% were obtained for the THC test using controls with concentrations closer to the cut-off. An identical set of 170 GC/MS analyzed urine samples was distributed to the six laboratories and measured with Abuscreen OnLine tests on Hitachi 917. The median values for each individual sample were calculated and compared with the results obtained on individual Hitachi 917 analyzers by Passing-Bablok regression analysis. A good agreement between the laboratories was found with less than +/- 11% slope deviation and intercepts below 7% of the cut-off except for benzodiazepines (one slope 17%, one slope--26%) and THC (one slope 34%, one slope--18%). The comparability with CEDIA tests was analyzed by concordance plots using randomized routine samples in three laboratories. The following results were obtained in one

  8. Pharmacological profile of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) splice variant translation using a novel drug screening assay: a "quantitative code".

    PubMed

    Vaghi, Valentina; Polacchini, Alessio; Baj, Gabriele; Pinheiro, Vera L M; Vicario, Annalisa; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2014-10-03

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neuronal development and plasticity. BDNF is a major pharmaceutical target in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological modulation of this neurotrophin is challenging because BDNF is generated by multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts with different 5'- and 3'UTRs. Each BDNF mRNA variant is transcribed independently, but translation regulation is unknown. To evaluate the translatability of BDNF transcripts, we developed an in vitro luciferase assay in human neuroblastoma cells. In unstimulated cells, each BDNF 5'- and 3'UTR determined a different basal translation level of the luciferase reporter gene. However, constructs with either a 5'UTR or a 3'UTR alone showed poor translation modulation by BDNF, KCl, dihydroxyphenylglycine, AMPA, NMDA, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or serotonin. Constructs consisting of the luciferase reporter gene flanked by the 5'UTR of one of the most abundant BDNF transcripts in the brain (exons 1, 2c, 4, and 6) and the long 3'UTR responded selectively to stimulation with the different receptor agonists, and only transcripts 2c and 6 were increased by the antidepressants desipramine and mirtazapine. We propose that BDNF mRNA variants represent "a quantitative code" for regulated expression of the protein. Thus, to discriminate the efficacy of drugs in stimulating BDNF synthesis, it is appropriate to use variant-specific in vitro screening tests.

  9. Statistical considerations for calculation of immunogenicity screening assay cut points.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, David; Berger, Marion

    2011-10-28

    Most therapeutic proteins induce an unwanted immune response. Antibodies elicited by these therapeutic proteins may significantly alter drug safety and efficacy, highlighting the need for the strategic assessment of immunogenicity at various stages of clinical development. Immunogenicity testing is generally conducted by a multi-tiered approach whereby patient samples are initially screened for the presence of anti-drug antibodies in a screening assay. The screening assay cut point is statistically determined by evaluation of drug-naïve samples and is typically chosen to correspond to a false positive rate of 5%. While various statistical approaches for determination of this screening cut point have been commonly adopted and described in the immunogenicity literature, the performance of these approaches has not been fully evaluated. This paper reviews various statistical approaches for cut point calculation, evaluates the impact of sampling design and variability on the performance of each statistical approach, and highlights the difference between an 'average' or 'confidence-level' cut point in order to develop more specific recommendations regarding the statistical calculation of immunogenicity screening cut points.

  10. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  11. Biochanin A reduces drug-induced p75NTR expression and enhances cell survival: a new in vitro assay for screening inhibitors of p75NTR expression.

    PubMed

    El Touny, Lara H; Henderson, Fraser; Djakiew, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) or peripheral neuropathy, increased levels of the p75(NTR) death receptor initiate the signal transduction cascade leading to cell death. Investigations of compounds that may ameliorate neuronal cell death have largely used rodent models, which are time consuming, expensive, and cumbersome to perform. Previous studies had demonstrated that steroids, particularly dexamethasone and its analog methylprednisolone sodium succinate, exhibit limited neuroprotective effects against neuronal injury. Significantly, many naturally occurring nonsteroidal plant compounds exhibit structural overlap with steroids. In this report, we present an in vitro cellular screen model to practically examine the efficacy of various phytoestrogens in modulating the ibuprofen-induced expression of p75(NTR) and reduced cell survival of CCFSTTG1 and U87MG cells in a rescue (postinjury) or prevention (preinjury) regimen. We show that the phytoestrogen, biochanin A, and, to a lesser extent, genistein are more effective than dexamethasone at reducing p75(NTR) expression and improving the viability of U87MG and CCFSTTG1 before and after p75(NTR) induction. Furthermore, these studies implicate biochanin A's inactivation of p38-MAPK as a possible contributor to reducing p75(NTR) with associated increased cell survival. This new in vitro assay facilitates a more time-efficient screening of compounds to suppress p75(NTR) expression and increase neuronal cell viability prior to their evaluation in animal models of neurological diseases.

  12. Design and Implementation of High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    PubMed

    Powell, David J; Hertzberg, Robert P; Macarrόn, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    HTS remains at the core of the drug discovery process, and so it is critical to design and implement HTS assays in a comprehensive fashion involving scientists from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and informatics. This requires careful consideration of many options and variables, starting with the choice of screening strategy and ending with the discovery of lead compounds. At every step in this process, there are decisions to be made that can greatly impact the outcome of the HTS effort, to the point of making it a success or a failure. Although specific guidelines should be established to ensure that the screening assay reaches an acceptable level of quality, many choices require pragmatism and the ability to compromise opposing forces.

  13. A phenotypic compound screening assay for lysosomal storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Liu, Ke; Swaroop, Manju; Sun, Wei; Dehdashti, Seameen J; McKew, John C; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The lysosome is a vital cellular organelle that primarily functions as a recycling center for breaking down unwanted macromolecules through a series of hydrolases. Functional deficiencies in lysosomal proteins due to genetic mutations have been found in more than 50 lysosomal storage diseases that exhibit characteristic lipid/macromolecule accumulation and enlarged lysosomes. Recently, the lysosome has emerged as a new therapeutic target for drug development for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases. However, a suitable assay for compound screening against the diseased lysosomes is currently unavailable. We have developed a Lysotracker staining assay that measures the enlarged lysosomes in patient-derived cells using both fluorescence intensity readout and fluorescence microscopic measurement. This phenotypic assay has been tested in patient cells obtained from several lysosomal storage diseases and validated using a known compound, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, in primary fibroblast cells derived from Niemann Pick C disease patients. The results demonstrate that the Lysotracker assay can be used in compound screening for the identification of lead compounds that are capable of reducing enlarged lysosomes for drug development.

  14. Cell migration and invasion assays as tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Hulkower, Keren I; Herber, Renee L

    2011-03-11

    Cell migration and invasion are processes that offer rich targets for intervention in key physiologic and pathologic phenomena such as wound healing and cancer metastasis. With the advent of high-throughput and high content imaging systems, there has been a movement towards the use of physiologically relevant cell-based assays earlier in the testing paradigm. This allows more effective identification of lead compounds and recognition of undesirable effects sooner in the drug discovery screening process. This article will review the effective use of several principle formats for studying cell motility: scratch assays, transmembrane assays, microfluidic devices and cell exclusion zone assays.

  15. Transporter assays and assay ontologies: useful tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Chichester, Christine; Zander Balderud, Linda; Engkvist, Ola; Gaulton, Anna; Overington, John P

    2014-06-01

    Transport proteins represent an eminent class of drug targets and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) associated genes. There exists a large number of distinct activity assays for transport proteins, depending on not only the measurement needed (e.g. transport activity, strength of ligand–protein interaction), but also due to heterogeneous assay setups used by different research groups. Efforts to systematically organize this (divergent) bioassay data have large potential impact in Public-Private partnership and conventional commercial drug discovery. In this short review, we highlight some of the frequently used high-throughput assays for transport proteins, and we discuss emerging assay ontologies and their application to this field. Focusing on human P-glycoprotein (Multidrug resistance protein 1; gene name: ABCB1, MDR1), we exemplify how annotation of bioassay data per target class could improve and add to existing ontologies, and we propose to include an additional layer of metadata supporting data fusion across different bioassays.

  16. Automated cell-based assay for screening of aquaporin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mola, Maria Grazia; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Svelto, Maria; Spray, David C; Frigeri, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Aquaporins form water channels that play major roles in a variety of physiological processes so that altered expression or function may underlie pathological conditions. In order to identify compounds that modulate aquaporin function, we have implemented a functional assay based on rapid measurement of osmotically induced cell volume changes to screen several libraries of diverse drugs. The time course of fluorescence changes in calcein-loaded cells was analyzed during an osmotic challenge using a 96-multiwell fluorescence plate reader. This system was validated using astrocyte primary cultures and fibroblasts that strongly express endogenous AQP4 and AQP1 proteins, respectively, as well as AQP4-transfected cells. We screened 3575 compounds, including 418 FDA-approved and commercially available drugs, for their effect on AQP-mediated water transport. Primary screening yielded 10 compounds that affected water transport activity in both astrocytes and AQP4-transfected cells and 42 compounds that altered cell volume regulation in astrocytes. Selected drugs were then analyzed on AQP1-expressing erythrocytes and AQP4-expressing membrane vesicles by stopped-flow light scattering. Four molecules of the National Cancer Institute's chemical library (NSC164914, NSC670229, NSC168597, NSC301460) were identified that differentially affected both AQP4 and AQP1 mediated water transport, with EC50 values between 20 and 50 microM. This fluorescence microplate reader-based assay may, thus, provide a platform for high-throughput screening which, when coupled to a secondary evaluation to confirm target specificity, should allow discovery of AQP-specific compounds for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of water balance disorders.

  17. Automated Cell-Based Assay for Screening of Aquaporin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Maria Grazia; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Svelto, Maria; Spray, David C.; Frigeri, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Aquaporins form water channels that play major roles in a variety of physiological processes so that altered expression or function may underlie pathological conditions. In order to identify compounds that modulate aquaporin function, we have implemented a functional assay based on rapid measurement of osmotically induced cell volume changes to screen several libraries of diverse drugs. The time course of fluorescence changes in calcein-loaded cells was analyzed during an osmotic challenge using a 96-multiwell fluorescence plate reader. This system was validated using astrocyte primary cultures and fibroblasts that strongly express endogenous AQP4 and AQP1 proteins, respectively, as well as AQP4-transfected cells. We screened 3575 compounds, including 418 FDA-approved and commercially available drugs, for their effect on AQP-mediated water transport. Primary screening yielded 10 compounds that affected water transport activity in both astrocytes and AQP4-transfected cells and 42 compounds that altered cell volume regulation in astrocytes. Selected drugs were then analyzed on AQP1-expressing erythrocytes and AQP4-expressing membrane vesicles by stopped-flow light scattering. Four molecules of the National Cancer Institute's chemical library (NSC164914, NSC670229, NSC168597, NSC301460) were identified that differentially affected both AQP4 and AQP1 mediated water transport, with EC50 values between 20 and 50 μM. This fluorescence microplate reader-based assay may, thus, provide a platform for high-throughput screening which, when coupled to a secondary evaluation to confirm target specificity, should allow discovery of AQP-specific compounds for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of water balance disorders. PMID:19705854

  18. Sensitive radioenzymatic assay for catechol drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Durrett, L.R.; Ziegler, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    This assay measures picogram quantities of catechol drugs and endogenous catecholamines in body tissues and fluids. The catechols are converted to their 3H-O-methyl metabolites during incubation with 3H-S-adenosylmethionine then separated by solvent extraction and thin-layer chromatography. Most drugs containing the catechol structure can be radiolabeled and separated from norepinephrine and epinephrine by this technique to provide simultaneous measurement of endogenous and exogenously administered catechols. The disposition of isoproterenol in tissues and fluids of man and experimental animals is measured to illustrate the utility of this assay. The reactivity of several commonly administered catechol drugs with COMT is described and the possible implications discussed.

  19. Emerging Technologies and Generic Assays for the Detection of Anti-Drug Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Michael A; Purushothama, Shobha; Elango, Chinnasamy; Lu, Yanmei

    2016-01-01

    Anti-drug antibodies induced by biologic therapeutics often impact drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics response, clinical efficacy, and patient safety. It is critical to assess the immunogenicity risk of potential biotherapeutics in producing neutralizing and nonneutralizing anti-drug antibodies, especially in clinical phases of drug development. Different assay methodologies have been used to detect all anti-drug antibodies, including ELISA, radioimmunoassay, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemiluminescence-based technologies. The most commonly used method is a bridging assay, performed in an ELISA or on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. In this report, we aim to review the emerging new assay technologies that can complement or address challenges associated with the bridging assay format in screening and confirmation of ADAs. We also summarize generic anti-drug antibody assays that do not require drug-specific reagents for nonclinical studies. These generic assays significantly reduce assay development efforts and, therefore, shorten the assay readiness timeline.

  20. Emerging Technologies and Generic Assays for the Detection of Anti-Drug Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Elango, Chinnasamy

    2016-01-01

    Anti-drug antibodies induced by biologic therapeutics often impact drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics response, clinical efficacy, and patient safety. It is critical to assess the immunogenicity risk of potential biotherapeutics in producing neutralizing and nonneutralizing anti-drug antibodies, especially in clinical phases of drug development. Different assay methodologies have been used to detect all anti-drug antibodies, including ELISA, radioimmunoassay, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemiluminescence-based technologies. The most commonly used method is a bridging assay, performed in an ELISA or on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. In this report, we aim to review the emerging new assay technologies that can complement or address challenges associated with the bridging assay format in screening and confirmation of ADAs. We also summarize generic anti-drug antibody assays that do not require drug-specific reagents for nonclinical studies. These generic assays significantly reduce assay development efforts and, therefore, shorten the assay readiness timeline. PMID:27556048

  1. Receptor-based screening assays for the detection of antibiotics residues - A review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Saeed; Ning, Jianan; Cheng, Guyue; Ahmad, Ijaz; Li, Jun; Mingyue, Liu; Qu, Wei; Iqbal, Mujahid; Shabbir, M A B; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-05-01

    Consumer and regulatory agencies have a high concern to antibiotic residues in food producing animals, so appropriate screening assays of fast, sensitive, low cost, and easy sample preparation for the identification of these residues are essential for the food-safety insurance. Great efforts in the development of a high-throughput antibiotic screening assay have been made in recent years. Concerning the screening of antibiotic residue, this review elaborate an overview on the availability, advancement and applicability of antibiotic receptor based screening assays for the safety assessment of antibiotics usage (i.e. radio receptor assay, enzyme labeling assays, colloidal gold receptor assay, enzyme colorimetry assay and biosensor assay). This manuscript also tries to shed a light on the selection, preparation and future perspective of receptor protein for antibiotic residue detection. These assays have been introduced for the screening of numerous food samples. Receptor based screening technology for antibiotic detection has high accuracy. It has been concluded that at the same time, it can detect a class of drugs for certain receptor, and realize the multi-residue detection. These assays offer fast, easy and precise detection of antibiotics.

  2. Miniaturized INtrinsic DISsolution Screening (MINDISS) assay for preformulation.

    PubMed

    Alsenz, Jochem; Haenel, Elisabeth; Anedda, Aline; Du Castel, Pauline; Cirelli, Giorgio

    2016-05-25

    This study describes a novel Miniaturized INtrinsic DISsolution Screening (MINDISS) assay for measuring disk intrinsic dissolution rates (DIDR). In MINDISS, compacted mini disks of drugs (2-5mg/disk) are prepared in custom made holders with a surface area of 3mm(2). Disks are immersed, pellet side down, into 0.35ml of appropriate dissolution media per well in 96-well microtiter plates, media are stirred and disk-holders are transferred to new wells after defined periods of time. After filtration, drug concentration in dissolution media is quantified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) and solid state property of the disk is characterized by Raman spectroscopy. MINDISS was identified as an easy-to-use tool for rapid, parallel determination of DIDR of compounds that requires only small amounts of compound and of dissolution medium. Results obtained with marketed drugs in MINDISS correlate well with large scale DIDR methods and indicate that MINDISS can be used for (1) rank-ordering of compounds by intrinsic dissolution in late phase discovery and early development, (2) comparison of polymorphic forms and salts, (3) screening and selection of appropriate dissolution media, and (4) characterization of the intestinal release behavior of compounds along the gastro intestinal tract by changing biorelevant media during experiments.

  3. The Resazurin Reduction Assay Can Distinguish Cytotoxic from Cytostatic Compounds in Spheroid Screening Assays.

    PubMed

    Walzl, Angelika; Unger, Christine; Kramer, Nina; Unterleuthner, Daniela; Scherzer, Martin; Hengstschläger, Markus; Schwanzer-Pfeiffer, Dagmar; Dolznig, Helmut

    2014-08-01

    Spheroid-based cellular screening approaches represent a highly physiologic experimental setup to identify novel anticancer drugs and an innovative preclinical model to reduce the high failure rate of anticancer compounds in clinical trials. The resazurin reduction (RR) assay, known as the alamarBlue or CellTiter-Blue assay, is frequently used to determine cell viability/proliferation capacity in eukaryotic cells. Whether this assay is applicable to assess viability in multicellular spheroids has not been evaluated. We analyzed the RR assay to measure cytotoxic and/or cytostatic responses in tumor cell spheroids compared with conventional 2D cultures. We found that tight cell-cell interactions in compact spheroids hamper resazurin uptake and its subsequent reduction to resorufin, leading to lowered reduction activity in relation to the actual cellular health/cell number. Treatment with staurosporine disrupted close cell-cell contacts, which increased resazurin reduction compared with untreated controls. Loss of tight junctions by trypsinization or addition of EGTA or EDTA restored high resazurin reduction rates in untreated spheroids. In conclusion, the RR assay is unsuited to quantitatively measure cellular health/cell number in compact spheroids. However, it can be used to distinguish between cytotoxic versus cytostatic compounds in spheroids. Restoration of the correlation of cell viability/number to resazurin reduction capacity can be achieved by disruption of tight junctions.

  4. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    PubMed

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  5. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  6. Microfluidic assay without blocking for rapid HIV screening and confirmation.

    PubMed

    Song, Lusheng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Liying; Liu, Yong; Hao, Yanlin; Shao, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2012-08-01

    The essential step for HIV spreading limitation is the screening tests. However, there are multiple disadvantages in current screening assays which need further confirmation test. Herein we developed a rapid HIV assay combining screening and confirmation test by using the microfluidic network assay. Meanwhile, the assay is accelerated by bypassing the step of blocking. We call this method as microfluidic assay without blocking (MAWB). Both the limit of detection and reagent incubation time of MAWB are determined by screening of one model protein pair: ovalbumin and its antibody. The assay time is accelerated about 25% while the limit of detection (LOD) is well kept. Formatting the method in for both HIV screening (testing 8 HIV-related samples) and confirmation (assaying 6 kinds of HIV antibodies of each sample) within 30 min was successful. Fast HIV screening and confirmation of 20 plasma samples were also demonstrated by this method. MAWB improved the assay speed while keeping the LOD of conventional ELISA. Meanwhile, both the accuracy and throughput of MAWB were well improved, which made it an excellent candidate for a quick HIV test for both screening and confirmation. Methods like this one will find wide applications in clinical diagnosis and biochemical analysis based on the interactions between pairs of molecules.

  7. Drug cytotoxicity assay for African trypanosomes and Leishmania species.

    PubMed

    Bodley, A L; McGarry, M W; Shapiro, T A

    1995-10-01

    The trypanosomes and Leishmania species are parasitic protozoa that afflict millions of people throughout the world. If not treated, African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are fatal. The available drugs are severely limited by toxicity, marginal efficacy, the requirement for parenteral administration, and spreading drug resistance. In this study, a spectrophotometric assay was developed and validated for measuring the cytotoxicity of test compounds against axenically cultured bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei (African trypanosomes) and promastigotes of Leishmania donovani. Enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, monitored by a microtiter plate reader, is a reliable surrogate for parasite cell counts. The assay is simple, inexpensive, and highly reproducible. The coefficient of variation for EC50 values is < 10% for determinations obtained over several months. This method permits the rapid screening of candidates for much-needed new drugs against these parasites.

  8. Drug screening using model systems: some basics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An increasing number of laboratories that focus on model systems are considering drug screening. Executing a drug screen is complicated enough. But the path for moving initial hits towards the clinic requires a different knowledge base and even a different mindset. In this Editorial I discuss the importance of doing some homework before you start screening. 'Lead hits', 'patentable chemical space' and 'druggability' are all concepts worth exploring when deciding which screening path to take. I discuss some of the lessons I learned that may be useful as you navigate the screening matrix. PMID:27821602

  9. The use of cold plasma technology to reduce carryover in screening assays.

    PubMed

    Akhlaq, Mohammed; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Sattikar, Afrah; Kent, Toby C

    2013-08-01

    The accurate transfer of biological reagents represents a fundamental step in the drug screening process, and the elimination of carryover is critical for the generation of accurate measurements of biological activity. The introduction of automated liquid robotics into screening laboratories has transformed the drug screening process, enabling accurate and reproducible transfer of liquids to become a high-throughput activity, but has also introduced a new challenge for drug discoverers: to establish screening workflows that limit analyte carryover for the generation of high-quality screening data. The widespread use of pipetting tips on automated liquid handlers often necessitates the use of optimized wash protocols for removing contaminants and frequently requires the use and disposal of large quantities of organic solvents. Furthermore, many chemical and biological reagents are recalcitrant to removal from pipetting tips by treatment with organic solvents. The use of cold atmospheric plasma technology provides an alternative approach for removal of contaminants and offers many advantages over traditional decontamination protocols commonly used during biological screening. This report describes the evaluation of a cold plasma tip-cleaning system for reducing carryover in a range of biological screening assays requiring the transfer of low molecular weight compound, nucleic acid, and bacterial liquid transfers. The validation of this technology for biological screening assays is presented, and the impact of this technology for screening workflows is discussed.

  10. Adapting Cell-Based Assays to the High Throughput Screening Platform: Problems Encountered and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Clinton B; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E Lucile

    2008-06-01

    In recent years, cell-based phenotypic assays have emerged as an effective and robust addition to the array of assay technologies available for drug discovery in the high throughput screening arena. Previously, biochemical target-based assays have been the technology of choice. With the emergence of stem cells as a basis for a new screening technology, it is important to keep in mind the lessons that have been learned from the adaptation of existing stable cell lines onto the high throughput screening drug discovery platform, with special consideration being given to assay miniaturization, liquid handling complications and instrument-introduced artifacts. We present an overview of the problems encountered with the implementation of multiple cell-based assays at the High Throughput Screening Center at Southern Research Institute as well as empirically defined effective solutions to these problems. These include examples of artifacts induced by temperature differences throughout the screening campaign, cell plating conditions including the effect of room temperature incubation on assay consistency, DMSO carry-over, and incubator induced artifacts.

  11. Automated Triplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT Assay Systems for Blood Screening in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This review is confined to triplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays to be used on fully automated platform. Around the world, these assays are being used at various transfusion medicine centres or blood banks to screen blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV. These assay systems can screen up to 1000 blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV simultaneously in a day. This area has been dominated by mainly two manufacturers: M/s Gen-Probe-Novartis and M/s Roche Molecular Systems. The triplex NAT assay systems of both manufacturers are licensed by United States Food and Drug Administration. There is not much awareness about the technology and procedures used in these assays. The main objective of this review is to create awareness about the technology and procedure of these assays. PMID:27042485

  12. Gluten screening of several dietary supplements by immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Wagner, Adriana; Cîrstea, Elena; Sima, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal disorder of public health concern caused by gluten ingestion in sensitive individuals. Gluten is a protein found not only in gluten-containing food but also as normal component of drugs and dietary supplements. Detection of gluten in dietary supplements is a very important task required for establishing their gluten status, which is highly important for the safety of products consumed by CD and gluten-sensitive patients. In this paper, we investigated the presence of gluten in twenty one common dietary supplements from the national market using the immunochromatographic assay. This visual assay proved to be an efficient rapid tool for gluten screening as an alternative to the ELISA techniques. The results have shown the presence of gluten in 23.8% of the investigated samples (vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, probiotics supplements, lactoferrin, propolis supplements). The results provide information which may contribute to the completion of the existing lists of gluten-free pharmaceuticals. It is known that for CD patients obtaining accurate information about the gluten content of a particular item is a difficult and time-consuming process.

  13. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-03-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium (/sup 47/Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO/sub 3/. In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the /sup 47/Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison.

  14. Fluorescent and Lanthanide Labeling for Ligand Screens, Assays, and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Josan, Jatinder S.; De Silva, Channa R.; Yoo, Byunghee; Lynch, Ronald M.; Pagel, Mark D.; Vagner, Josef; Hruby, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorescent (or luminescent) and metal contrast agents in high-throughput screens, in vitro assays, and molecular imaging procedures has rapidly expanded in recent years. Here we describe the development and utility of high-affinity ligands for cancer theranostics and other in vitro screening studies. In this context, we also illustrate the syntheses and use of heteromultivalent ligands as targeted imaging agents. PMID:21318902

  15. Microfluidic cell culture systems with integrated sensors for drug screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Samantha; Yu, Linfen; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2012-03-01

    Cell-based testing is a key step in drug screening for cancer treatments. A microfluidic platform can permit more precise control of the cell culture microenvironment, such as gradients in soluble factors. These small-scale devices also permit tracking of low cell numbers. As a new screening paradigm, a microscale system for integrated cell culture and drug screening promises to provide a simple, scalable tool to apply standardized protocols used in cellular response assays. With the ability to dynamically control the microenvironment, we can create temporally varying drug profiles to mimic physiologically measured profiles. In addition, low levels of oxygen in cancerous tumors have been linked with drug resistance and decreased likelihood of successful treatment and patient survival. Our work also integrates a thin-film oxygen sensor with a microfluidic oxygen gradient generator which will in future allow us to create spatial oxygen gradients and study effects of hypoxia on cell response to drug treatment. In future, this technology promises to improve cell-based validation in the drug discovery process, decreasing the cost and increasing the speed in screening large numbers of compounds.

  16. High throughput screening for drug discovery of autophagy modulators.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chih-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2012-11-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionally conserved process in cells for cleaning abnormal proteins and organelles in a lysosome dependent manner. Growing studies have shown that defects or induced autophagy contributes to many diseases including aging, neurodegeneration, pathogen infection, and cancer. However, the precise involvement of autophagy in health and disease remains controversial because the theories are built on limited assays and chemical modulators, indicating that the role of autophagy in diseases may require further verification. Many food and drug administration (FDA) approved drugs modulate autophagy signaling, suggesting that modulation of autophagy with pharmacological agonists or antagonists provides a potential therapy for autophagy-related diseases. This suggestion raises an attractive issue on drug discovery for exploring chemical modulators of autophagy. High throughput screening (HTS) is becoming a powerful tool for drug discovery that may accelerate screening specific autophagy modulators to clarify the role of autophagy in diseases. Herein, this review lays out current autophagy assays to specifically measure autophagy components such as LC3 (mammalian homologue of yeast Atg8) and Atg4. These assays are feasible or successful for HTS with certain chemical libraries, which might be informative for this intensively growing field as research tools and hopefully developing new drugs for autophagy-related diseases.

  17. Sulfonylureas and Glinides as New PPARγ Agonists:. Virtual Screening and Biological Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarsi, Marco; Podvinec, Michael; Roth, Adrian; Hug, Hubert; Kersten, Sander; Albrecht, Hugo; Schwede, Torsten; Meyer, Urs A.; Rücker, Christoph

    2007-12-01

    This work combines the predictive power of computational drug discovery with experimental validation by means of biological assays. In this way, a new mode of action for type 2 diabetes drugs has been unvealed. Most drugs currently employed in the treatment of type 2 diabetes either target the sulfonylurea receptor stimulating insulin release (sulfonylureas, glinides), or target PPARγ improving insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones). Our work shows that sulfonylureas and glinides bind to PPARγ and exhibit PPARγ agonistic activity. This result was predicted in silico by virtual screening and confirmed in vitro by three biological assays. This dual mode of action of sulfonylureas and glinides may open new perspectives for the molecular pharmacology of antidiabetic drugs, since it provides evidence that drugs can be designed which target both the sulfonylurea receptor and PPARγ. Targeting both receptors could in principle allow to increase pancreatic insulin secretion, as well as to improve insulin resistance.

  18. Screen anticancer drug in vitro using resonance light scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanguang; Liu, Guoliang; Chen, Meizhen; Xu, Benjie; Peng, Yurui; Chen, Maohuai; Wu, Mingyao

    2009-02-15

    An in vitro screening model using resonance light scattering (RLS) technique with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent as the reactive probe to target cancer cell was firstly developed. In this model, MTT was reduced by viable cancer cells to produce a purple formazan. Cell viability was proportional to the number of formazan induced strong light scattering signal. The inhibition rate of anticancer drug was found to vary inversely with the H(22)-MTT system RLS intensity. So it was intuitive to see the sequence of the tumor suppressive activity of six anticancer drugs without data processing by RLS/MTT screening spectra. Compared with the traditional MTT method, this method has high sensitivity, low detection limit and quite intuitive screening results which were identical to those obtained from the MTT colorimetric assay.

  19. Lactate as a Novel Quantitative Measure of Viability in Schistosoma mansoni Drug Sensitivity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie; Zöphel, Dorina; Subbaraman, Harini; Unger, Clemens; Held, Jana; Engleitner, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-organism compound sensitivity assays are a valuable strategy in infectious diseases to identify active molecules. In schistosomiasis drug discovery, larval-stage Schistosoma allows the use of a certain degree of automation in the screening of compounds. Unfortunately, the throughput is limited, as drug activity is determined by manual assessment of Schistosoma viability by microscopy. To develop a simple and quantifiable surrogate marker for viability, we targeted glucose metabolism, which is central to Schistosoma survival. Lactate is the end product of glycolysis in human Schistosoma stages and can be detected in the supernatant. We assessed lactate as a surrogate marker for viability in Schistosoma drug screening assays. We thoroughly investigated parameters of lactate measurement and performed drug sensitivity assays by applying schistosomula and adult worms to establish a proof of concept. Lactate levels clearly reflected the viability of schistosomula and correlated with schistosomulum numbers. Compounds with reported potencies were tested, and activities were determined by lactate assay and by microscopy. We conclude that lactate is a sensitive and simple surrogate marker to be measured to determine Schistosoma viability in compound screening assays. Low numbers of schistosomula and the commercial availability of lactate assay reagents make the assay particularly attractive to throughput approaches. Furthermore, standardization of procedures and quantitative evaluation of compound activities facilitate interassay comparisons of potencies and, thus, concerted drug discovery approaches. PMID:25487803

  20. Urine drug screening: a valuable office procedure.

    PubMed

    Standridge, John B; Adams, Stephen M; Zotos, Alexander P

    2010-03-01

    Urine drug screening can enhance workplace safety, monitor medication compliance, and detect drug abuse. Ordering and interpreting these tests requires an understanding of testing modalities, detection times for specific drugs, and common explanations for false-positive and false-negative results. Employment screening, federal regulations, unusual patient behavior, and risk patterns may prompt urine drug screening. Compliance testing may be necessary for patients taking controlled substances. Standard immunoassay testing is fast, inexpensive, and the preferred initial test for urine drug screening. This method reliably detects morphine, codeine, and heroin; however, it often does not detect other opioids such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, and tramadol. Unexpected positive test results should be confirmed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography. A positive test result reflects use of the drug within the previous one to three days, although marijuana can be detected in the system for a longer period of time. Careful attention to urine collection methods can identify some attempts by patients to produce false-negative test results.

  1. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays.

    PubMed

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne; Linde, Viggo; Pedersen, Hans-Christian; Krog-Jensen, Christian; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Pagliaro, Len

    2005-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs will continue to be valuable discovery tools, the most exciting developments in the field involve cell-based assays for GPCR function. Some cell-based discovery strategies, such as the use of beta-arrestin as a surrogate marker for GPCR function, have already been reduced to practice, and have been used as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide the capability to probe GPCR function at the cellular level with better resolution than has previously been possible, and offer practical strategies for more definitive selectivity evaluation and counter-screening in the early stages of drug discovery. The potential of cell-based translocation assays for GPCR discovery is described, and proof-of-concept data from a pilot screen with a CXCR4 assay are presented. This chemokine receptor is a highly relevant drug target which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease and also has been shown to be a co-receptor for entry of HIV into cells as well as to play a role in metastasis of certain cancer cells.

  2. Early discovery drug screening using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marshall M

    2002-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric methods useful for early discovery drug screening are reviewed. All methods described involve studies of non-covalent complexes between biopolymer receptors and small molecule ligands formed in the condensed phase. The complexes can be sprayed intact directly into the gas phase by ESI-MS using gentle experimental conditions. Gas phase screening applications are illustrated for drug ligand candidates non-covalently interacting with peptides, proteins, RNA, and DNA. In the condensed phase, the complexes can be also isolated, denatured and analyzed by ESI-MS to identify the small molecule ligands. Condensed phase drug screening examples are illustrated for the ESI-MS ancillary techniques of affinity chromatography, ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and capillary electrophoretic methods. Solid phase drug screening using MALDI-MS is illustrated for small molecule ligands bound to MALDI affinity probe tips and to beads. Since ESI and MALDI principally produce molecular ions, high throughput screening is achieved by analyzing mass indexed mixtures.

  3. The virtual heart as a platform for screening drug cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongfeng; Bai, Xiangyun; Luo, Cunjin; Wang, Kuanquan

    2015-01-01

    To predict the safety of a drug at an early stage in its development is a major challenge as there is a lack of in vitro heart models that correlate data from preclinical toxicity screening assays with clinical results. A biophysically detailed computer model of the heart, the virtual heart, provides a powerful tool for simulating drug–ion channel interactions and cardiac functions during normal and disease conditions and, therefore, provides a powerful platform for drug cardiotoxicity screening. In this article, we first review recent progress in the development of theory on drug–ion channel interactions and mathematical modelling. Then we propose a family of biomarkers that can quantitatively characterize the actions of a drug on the electrical activity of the heart at multi‐physical scales including cellular and tissue levels. We also conducted some simulations to demonstrate the application of the virtual heart to assess the pro‐arrhythmic effects of cisapride and amiodarone. Using the model we investigated the mechanisms responsible for the differences between the two drugs on pro‐arrhythmogenesis, even though both prolong the QT interval of ECGs. Several challenges for further development of a virtual heart as a platform for screening drug cardiotoxicity are discussed. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Chinese Innovation in Cardiovascular Drug Discovery. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-23 PMID:25363597

  4. Development and Validation of a Novel Leishmania donovani Screening Cascade for High-Throughput Screening Using a Novel Axenic Assay with High Predictivity of Leishmanicidal Intracellular Activity.

    PubMed

    Nühs, Andrea; De Rycker, Manu; Manthri, Sujatha; Comer, Eamon; Scherer, Christina A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Gray, David W

    2015-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease of the developing world with a limited arsenal of drugs available for treatment. The existing drugs have significant deficiencies so there is an urgent need for new and improved drugs. In the human host, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites which poses particular challenges in terms of drug discovery. To achieve sufficient throughput and robustness, free-living parasites are often used in primary screening assays as a surrogate for the more complex intracellular assays. We and others have found that such axenic assays have a high false positive rate relative to the intracellular assays, and that this limits their usefulness as a primary platform for screening of large compound collections. While many different reasons could lie behind the poor translation from axenic parasite to intracellular parasite, we show here that a key factor is the identification of growth slowing and cytostatic compounds by axenic assays in addition to the more desirable cytocidal compounds. We present a screening cascade based on a novel cytocidal-only axenic amastigote assay, developed by increasing starting density of cells and lowering the limit of detection, and show that it has a much improved translation to the intracellular assay. We propose that this assay is an improved primary platform in a new Leishmania screening cascade designed for the screening of large compound collections. This cascade was employed to screen a diversity-oriented-synthesis library, and yielded two novel antileishmanial chemotypes. The approach we have taken may have broad relevance to anti-infective and anti-parasitic drug discovery.

  5. Development and Validation of a Novel Leishmania donovani Screening Cascade for High-Throughput Screening Using a Novel Axenic Assay with High Predictivity of Leishmanicidal Intracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nühs, Andrea; De Rycker, Manu; Manthri, Sujatha; Comer, Eamon; Scherer, Christina A.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Gray, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease of the developing world with a limited arsenal of drugs available for treatment. The existing drugs have significant deficiencies so there is an urgent need for new and improved drugs. In the human host, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites which poses particular challenges in terms of drug discovery. To achieve sufficient throughput and robustness, free-living parasites are often used in primary screening assays as a surrogate for the more complex intracellular assays. We and others have found that such axenic assays have a high false positive rate relative to the intracellular assays, and that this limits their usefulness as a primary platform for screening of large compound collections. While many different reasons could lie behind the poor translation from axenic parasite to intracellular parasite, we show here that a key factor is the identification of growth slowing and cytostatic compounds by axenic assays in addition to the more desirable cytocidal compounds. We present a screening cascade based on a novel cytocidal-only axenic amastigote assay, developed by increasing starting density of cells and lowering the limit of detection, and show that it has a much improved translation to the intracellular assay. We propose that this assay is an improved primary platform in a new Leishmania screening cascade designed for the screening of large compound collections. This cascade was employed to screen a diversity-oriented-synthesis library, and yielded two novel antileishmanial chemotypes. The approach we have taken may have broad relevance to anti-infective and anti-parasitic drug discovery. PMID:26407168

  6. Synthetic Tumor Networks for Screening Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Shen, Ming-Che; Nichols, Joseph B.; Garson, Charles J.; Mills, Ivy R.; Matar, Majed M.; Fewell, Jason G.; Pant, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Tumor drug delivery is a complex phenomenon affected by several elements in addition to drug or delivery vehicle’s physico-chemical properties. A key factor is tumor microvasculature with complex effects including convective transport, high interstitial pressure and enhanced vascular permeability due to the presence of “leaky vessels”. Current in vitro models of the tumor microenvironment for evaluating drug delivery are oversimplified and, as a result, show poor correlation with in vivo performance. In this study, we report on the development of a novel microfluidic platform that models the tumor microenvironment more accurately, with physiologically and morphologically realistic microvasculature including endothelial cell lined leaky capillary vessels along with 3D solid tumors. Endothelial cells and 3D spheroids of cervical tumor cells were co-cultured in the networks. Drug vehicle screening was demonstrated using GFP gene delivery by different formulations of nanopolymers. The synthetic tumor network was successful in predicting in vivo delivery efficiencies of the drug vehicles. The developed assay will have critical applications both in basic research, where it can be used to develop next generation delivery vehicles, and in drug discovery where it can be used to study drug transport and delivery efficacy in realistic tumor microenvironment, thereby enabling drug compound and/or delivery vehicle screening. PMID:25599856

  7. High-throughput screening to estimate single or multiple enzymes involved in drug metabolism: microtitre plate assay using a combination of recombinant CYP2D6 and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Suzuki, A; Kohno, Y

    2003-08-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to estimate readily involvement of single or multiple enzymes in the metabolism of a drug through inhibitory assessment. Inhibitory effects of various compounds on CYP2D6 activity assayed by formation of fluorescent metabolite from 3-[2-(N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-ammonium)ethyl]-7-methoxy-4-methyl-coumarin (AMMC) were assessed using microtitre plate (MTP) assays with a combination of recombinant CYP2D6 and human liver microsomes (HLM). 2. Among various compounds studied, antipsychotic drugs extensively inhibited recombinant CYP2D6 activity and the IC50 values were generally lower than those of antidepressants and antiarrhythmic drugs. 3. After pre-incubation, the IC50 values of mianserin, chlorpromadine, risperidone, thioridazine, alprenolol, propafenone and dextromethorphan increased but the values of timolol, S-metoprolol and propranolol substantially decreased compared with those in case of co-incubation. 4. The IC50 values of typical substrates of CYP2D6 (bufuralol and dextromethorphan at lower substrate concentration) in inhibition studies using HLM, were similar to those in the case of recombinant CYP2D6, but the values of the compounds that are metabolized by multiple CYP forms (perphenazine and chlorpromazine) in HLM were much larger. 5. If the ratio (HLM/rCYP ratio) of IC50 values between HLM and recombinant CYP2D6 exceeds approximately 2, it suggests that other CYP forms in addition to CYP2D6 might be involved in the metabolism of the test compounds. From the advantage such as speed, high throughput and ease of the technique, the MTP assay using a combination of the recombinant CYP2D6 and HLM is useful to estimate the involvement of single or multiple enzymes in the metabolism of drugs at the stage of drug discovery.

  8. Adopting a practical statistical approach for evaluating assay agreement in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongyu; Whitty, Adrian; Papadatos, James; Newman, Miki; Donnelly, Jason; Bowes, Scott; Josiah, Serene

    2005-08-01

    The authors assess the equivalence of 2 assays and put forward a general approach for assay agreement analysis that can be applied during drug discovery. Data sets generated by different assays are routinely compared to each other during the process of drug discovery. For a given target, the assays used for high-throughput screening and structure-activity relationship studies will most likely differ in their assay reagents, assay conditions, and/or detection technology, which makes the interpretation of data between assays difficult, particularly as most assays are used to measure quantitative changes in compound potency against the target. To better quantify the relationship of data sets from different assays for the same target, the authors evaluated the agreement between results generated by 2 different assays that measure the activity of compounds against the same protein, ALK5. The authors show that the agreement between data sets can be quantified using correlation and Bland-Altman plots, and the precision of the assays can be used to define the expectations of agreement between 2 assays. They propose a scheme for addressing issues of assay data equivalence, which can be applied to address questions of how data sets compare during the lead identification and lead optimization processes in which assays are frequently added and changed.

  9. Label-free cytotoxicity screening assay by digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Jonas; Shaffer, Etienne; Mena, Julien; Breton, Billy; Parent, Jérôme; Rappaz, Benjamin; Chambon, Marc; Emery, Yves; Magistretti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre; Turcatti, Gerardo

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a label-free technology based on digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with applicability for screening by imaging, and we demonstrate its capability for cytotoxicity assessment using mammalian living cells. For this first high content screening compatible application, we automatized a digital holographic microscope for image acquisition of cells using commercially available 96-well plates. Data generated through both label-free DHM imaging and fluorescence-based methods were in good agreement for cell viability identification and a Z'-factor close to 0.9 was determined, validating the robustness of DHM assay for phenotypic screening. Further, an excellent correlation was obtained between experimental cytotoxicity dose-response curves and known IC50 values for different toxic compounds. For comparable results, DHM has the major advantages of being label free and close to an order of magnitude faster than automated standard fluorescence microscopy.

  10. Label-Free Cytotoxicity Screening Assay by Digital Holographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Jonas; Shaffer, Etienne; Mena, Julien; Breton, Billy; Parent, Jérôme; Rappaz, Benjamin; Chambon, Marc; Emery, Yves; Magistretti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We introduce a label-free technology based on digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with applicability for screening by imaging, and we demonstrate its capability for cytotoxicity assessment using mammalian living cells. For this first high content screening compatible application, we automatized a digital holographic microscope for image acquisition of cells using commercially available 96-well plates. Data generated through both label-free DHM imaging and fluorescence-based methods were in good agreement for cell viability identification and a Z′-factor close to 0.9 was determined, validating the robustness of DHM assay for phenotypic screening. Further, an excellent correlation was obtained between experimental cytotoxicity dose–response curves and known IC50 values for different toxic compounds. For comparable results, DHM has the major advantages of being label free and close to an order of magnitude faster than automated standard fluorescence microscopy. PMID:23062077

  11. pHluorin-based in vivo assay for hydrolase screening.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Sascha; Enzelberger, Markus; Trauthwein, Harald; Schmid, Rolf D; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2005-05-01

    pHluorin, a pH-sensitive mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP), acts as a sensor for intracellular pH shifts, triggered by hydrolytic enzymes. This principle was used to develop a pHluorin-based in vivo assay for hydrolase screening. The presented assay was evaluated for Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells, producing heterologous pHluorin and an esterase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus which is considered as a model hydrolase. Subsequently, the utility of this detection system was also demonstrated with recombinantly expressed hydantoinase and amidase in E. coli. This in vivo assay also shows capability for readout with flow cytometric devices. Population shifts of pHluorin-expressing E. coli cells were easily recognized due to pH changes caused by substrate hydrolysis.

  12. Design considerations for high-throughput screening and in vitro diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Whitten, David G

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews the several different factors that must be considered during the development of assays for high throughput screening (HTS) or in vitro diagnostic (IVD) applications. The reader is introduced to the terminology used in assay development as well as the statistical approaches for evaluating the data. The review is intended to serve as a tutorial to biotechnology, pharmaceutical and clinical professionals, the academic researcher, as well as a guide for established investigators of HTS and IVD. This review is not a comprehensive treatise in its scope or content, but is meant to introduce the reader to key concepts of assay development. Elementary mathematical and statistical tools for designing robust assays and data management are described. While certain design concepts overlap HTS and IVDs, others are more pertinent to one or the other topic. An overview of the regulatory requirements for IVDs is included in the context of the United States Food and Drug Administration. Quality concepts and high content screening are also briefly described. The review does not focus upon any particular assay technology nor does it provide detailed laboratory procedures on specific assays. The references cited are not exhaustive, but meant to steer the reader toward a general status report of the various technologies discussed. The information presented in this review is not intended to replace the judgment of the experienced laboratory scientist. However, this review should assist the scientific professional in executing well designed assays and being aware of design considerations.

  13. Biomimetic three-dimensional tissue models for advanced high-throughput drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Smith, Alec S.T.; Lone, Saifullah; Kwon, Sunghoon; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Most current drug screening assays used to identify new drug candidates are 2D cell-based systems, even though such in vitro assays do not adequately recreate the in vivo complexity of 3D tissues. Inadequate representation of the human tissue environment during a preclinical test can result in inaccurate predictions of compound effects on overall tissue functionality. Screening for compound efficacy by focusing on a single pathway or protein target, coupled with difficulties in maintaining long-term 2D monolayers, can serve to exacerbate these issues when utilizing such simplistic model systems for physiological drug screening applications. Numerous studies have shown that cell responses to drugs in 3D culture are improved from those in 2D, with respect to modeling in vivo tissue functionality, which highlights the advantages of using 3D-based models for preclinical drug screens. In this review, we discuss the development of microengineered 3D tissue models which accurately mimic the physiological properties of native tissue samples, and highlight the advantages of using such 3D micro-tissue models over conventional cell-based assays for future drug screening applications. We also discuss biomimetic 3D environments, based-on engineered tissues as potential preclinical models for the development of more predictive drug screening assays for specific disease models. PMID:25385716

  14. Biomimetic 3D Tissue Models for Advanced High-Throughput Drug Screening.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Smith, Alec S T; Lone, Saifullah; Kwon, Sunghoon; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Most current drug screening assays used to identify new drug candidates are 2D cell-based systems, even though such in vitro assays do not adequately re-create the in vivo complexity of 3D tissues. Inadequate representation of the human tissue environment during a preclinical test can result in inaccurate predictions of compound effects on overall tissue functionality. Screening for compound efficacy by focusing on a single pathway or protein target, coupled with difficulties in maintaining long-term 2D monolayers, can serve to exacerbate these issues when using such simplistic model systems for physiological drug screening applications. Numerous studies have shown that cell responses to drugs in 3D culture are improved from those in 2D, with respect to modeling in vivo tissue functionality, which highlights the advantages of using 3D-based models for preclinical drug screens. In this review, we discuss the development of microengineered 3D tissue models that accurately mimic the physiological properties of native tissue samples and highlight the advantages of using such 3D microtissue models over conventional cell-based assays for future drug screening applications. We also discuss biomimetic 3D environments, based on engineered tissues as potential preclinical models for the development of more predictive drug screening assays for specific disease models.

  15. Screening assay for inhibitors of a recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Agustín; Kovacec, Verónica; Levín, Gustavo; Moglioni, Albertina; Miranda, María Victoria; García, Ernesto; Bonofiglio, Laura; Mollerach, Marta

    2017-12-01

    The UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase of Streptococcus pneumoniae (GalUSpn) is absolutely required for the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide, the sine qua non virulence factor of pneumococcus. Since the eukaryotic enzymes are completely unrelated to their prokaryotic counterparts, we propose that the GalU enzyme is a critical target to fight the pneumococcal disease. A recombinant GalUSpn was overexpressed and purified. An enzymatic assay that is rapid, sensitive and easy to perform was developed. This assay was appropriate for screening chemical libraries for searching GalU inhibitors. This work represents a fundamental step in the exploration of novel antipneumococcal drugs.

  16. Computational Drug Target Screening through Protein Interaction Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Santiago; Quezada, Elías; Uriarte, Eugenio; Costanzi, Stefano; Borges, Fernanda; Viña, Dolores; Hripcsak, George

    2016-01-01

    The development of computational methods to discover novel drug-target interactions on a large scale is of great interest. We propose a new method for virtual screening based on protein interaction profile similarity to discover new targets for molecules, including existing drugs. We calculated Target Interaction Profile Fingerprints (TIPFs) based on ChEMBL database to evaluate drug similarity and generated new putative compound-target candidates from the non-intersecting targets in each pair of compounds. A set of drugs was further studied in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme through molecular docking and experimental assays. The drug ethoxzolamide and the natural compound piperlongumine, present in Piper longum L, showed hMAO-B activity with IC50 values of 25 and 65 μM respectively. Five candidates, including lapatinib, SB-202190, RO-316233, GW786460X and indirubin-3′-monoxime were tested against human COX-1. Compounds SB-202190 and RO-316233 showed a IC50 in hCOX-1 of 24 and 25 μM respectively (similar range as potent inhibitors such as diclofenac and indomethacin in the same experimental conditions). Lapatinib and indirubin-3′-monoxime showed moderate hCOX-1 activity (19.5% and 28% of enzyme inhibition at 25 μM respectively). Our modeling constitutes a multi-target predictor for large scale virtual screening with potential in lead discovery, repositioning and drug safety. PMID:27845365

  17. An evaluation of protein assays for quantitative determination of drugs.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katherine M; Arthur, Sarah J; Burrell, Gillian; Kelly, Fionnuala; Phillips, Darren W; Marshall, Thomas

    2003-07-31

    We have evaluated the response of six protein assays [the biuret, Lowry, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), Pyrogallol Red-Molybdate (PRM), and benzethonium chloride (BEC)] to 21 pharmaceutical drugs. The drugs evaluated were analgesics (acetaminophen, aspirin, codeine, methadone, morphine and pethidine), antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, penicillin G and vancomycin), antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, prochlorperazine, promazine and thioridazine) and water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, niacinamide, pantothenic acid and pyridoxine). The biuret, Lowry and BCA assays responded strongly to most of the drugs tested. The PRM assay gave a sensitive response to the aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and neomycin) and the antipsychotic drugs. In contrast, the CBB assay showed little response to the aminoglycosides and gave a relatively poor response with the antipsychotics. The BEC assay did not respond significantly to the drugs tested. The response of the protein assays to the drugs was further evaluated by investigating the linearity of the response and the combined response of drug plus protein. The results are discussed with reference to drug interference in protein assays and the development of new methods for the quantification of drugs in protein-free solution.

  18. Bioluminescent, Nonlytic, Real-Time Cell Viability Assay and Use in Inhibitor Screening.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Sarah J; Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    Real-time continuous monitoring of cellular processes offers distinct advantages over traditional endpoint assays. A comprehensive representation of the changes occurring in live cells over the entire length of an experiment provides information about the biological status of the cell and informs decisions about the timing of treatments or the use of other functional endpoint assays. We describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. This time-dependent measurement allowed us to monitor cell health for 72 h from the same test samples, distinguish differential cell growth, and investigate drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements also allowed us to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15 min of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects. We screened an oncology compound library (Z' = 0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points (1.6% of the library showed activity within 3 h, whereas 35.4% showed a response by 47 h). The assay compared well with orthogonal endpoint cell viability assays and additionally provided data at multiple time points and the opportunity to multiplex assays on the same cells. To test the advantage of time-dependent measurements to direct optimal timing of downstream applications, we used the real-time cell viability assay to determine the ideal time to measure caspase activity by monitoring the onset of cell death and multiplexing a luminescent caspase activation assay on the same test samples.

  19. Bioluminescent, Nonlytic, Real-Time Cell Viability Assay and Use in Inhibitor Screening

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenhui; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J.; Gautam, Prson; Wennerberg, Krister; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Real-time continuous monitoring of cellular processes offers distinct advantages over traditional endpoint assays. A comprehensive representation of the changes occurring in live cells over the entire length of an experiment provides information about the biological status of the cell and informs decisions about the timing of treatments or the use of other functional endpoint assays. We describe a homogeneous, nonlytic, bioluminescent assay that measures cell viability in real time. This time-dependent measurement allowed us to monitor cell health for 72 h from the same test samples, distinguish differential cell growth, and investigate drug mechanism of action by analyzing time- and dose-dependent drug effects. The real-time measurements also allowed us to detect cell death immediately (>75% signal decrease within 15 min of digitonin addition), analyze drug potency versus efficacy, and identify cytostatic versus toxic drug effects. We screened an oncology compound library (Z′ = 0.7) and identified compounds with varying activity at different time points (1.6% of the library showed activity within 3 h, whereas 35.4% showed a response by 47 h). The assay compared well with orthogonal endpoint cell viability assays and additionally provided data at multiple time points and the opportunity to multiplex assays on the same cells. To test the advantage of time-dependent measurements to direct optimal timing of downstream applications, we used the real-time cell viability assay to determine the ideal time to measure caspase activity by monitoring the onset of cell death and multiplexing a luminescent caspase activation assay on the same test samples. PMID:26383544

  20. Arbitrarily Accessible 3D Microfluidic Device for Combinatorial High-Throughput Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuofa; Li, Weizhi; Choi, Gihoon; Yang, Xiaonan; Miao, Jun; Cui, Liwang; Guan, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics-based drug-screening systems have enabled efficient and high-throughput drug screening, but their routine uses in ordinary labs are limited due to the complexity involved in device fabrication and system setup. In this work, we report an easy-to-use and low-cost arbitrarily accessible 3D microfluidic device that can be easily adopted by various labs to perform combinatorial assays for high-throughput drug screening. The device is capable of precisely performing automatic and simultaneous reagent loading and aliquoting tasks and performing multistep assays with arbitrary sequences. The device is not intended to compete with other microfluidic technologies regarding ultra-low reaction volume. Instead, its freedom from tubing or pumping systems and easy operation makes it an ideal platform for routine high-throughput drug screening outside traditional microfluidic labs. The functionality and quantitative reliability of the 3D microfluidic device were demonstrated with a histone acetyltransferase-based drug-screening assay using the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum GCN5 enzyme, benchmarked with a traditional microtiter plate-based method. This arbitrarily accessible, multistep capable, low-cost, and easy-to-use device can be widely adopted in various combinatorial assays beyond high-throughput drug screening. PMID:27690055

  1. CFU-GM assay for evaluation of drug myelotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Pessina, Augusto; Bonomi, Arianna

    2007-11-01

    To study hematotoxicity of compounds on the myeloid cell compartment, the authors describe a standard procedure developed as a workable good laboratory practices-compliant protocol to determine the in vitro myelotoxic effect of drugs and chemicals. Specific protocols are presented to prepare human and murine myeloid progenitors (CFU-GM) for testing in a validated CFU-GM assay. Details are given for performing a screening test when toxicity data are not available and for passing on to an accurate inhibitory concentration-determination phase. To quantify the potential hematotoxicity of xenobiotics from their direct adverse effects on CFU-GM, the unit describes how to manage the results by means of an algorithm able to predict the acute xenobiotic exposure levels that cause maximum tolerated decreases (MTD) in absolute neutrophil count (ANC). A protocol describes a miniaturized application of the procedure in 96-well plates for high-throughput screening of compounds or for testing compounds that are available in very small quantities.

  2. Determination of designer drug cross-reactivity on five commercial immunoassay screening kits.

    PubMed

    Regester, Laura E; Chmiel, Jeffrey D; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Levine, Barry; Bosy, Thomas Z

    2015-03-01

    The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories. Cross-reactivity of compounds with immunoassay kits can either aid or complicate the detection of a variety of drug and drug metabolites. For instance, emerging designer drugs that share structural similarities to amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP) have the potential to cross-react with assays designed to detect these compounds. This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of five commercially available immunoassay reagent kits for 94 designer drugs on a Roche/Hitachi Modular P automated screening instrument. The compounds used in this study are grouped by structural class as follows: 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines, 2C (2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines), β-keto amphetamines, substituted amphetamines, piperazines, α-pyrrolidinopropiophenones, tryptamines and PCP analogs. A drug concentration of 100 µg/mL was used to determine cross-reactivity for each assay and resulted in the following positive rates: Microgenics DRI(®) Ecstasy enzyme assay (19%), Microgenics DRI(®) Phencyclidine enzyme assay (20%), Lin-Zhi Methamphetamine enzyme immunoassay (39%), Siemens/Syva(®) EMIT(®)II Plus Amphetamines assay (43%) and CEDIA(®) DAU Amphetamine/Ecstasy assay (57%). Of the 94 designer drugs tested, 14% produced a negative response for all five kits. No designer drug used in this study generated a positive result for all five immunoassay kits.

  3. Automated microfluidic screening assay platform based on DropLab.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Bin; Sun, Meng; Gu, Shu-Qing; Zhu, Ying; Fang, Qun

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes DropLab, an automated microfluidic platform for programming droplet-based reactions and screening in the nanoliter range. DropLab can meter liquids with picoliter-scale precision, mix multiple components sequentially to assemble composite droplets, and perform screening reactions and assays in linear or two-dimensional droplet array with extremely low sample and reagent consumptions. A novel droplet generation approach based on the droplet assembling strategy was developed to produce multicomponent droplets in the nanoliter to picoliter range with high controllability on the size and composition of each droplet. The DropLab system was built using a short capillary with a tapered tip, a syringe pump with picoliter precision, and an automated liquid presenting system. The tapered capillary was used for precise liquid metering and mixing, droplet assembling, and droplet array storage. Two different liquid presenting systems were developed based on the slotted-vial array design and multiwell plate design to automatically present various samples, reagents, and oil to the capillary. Using the tapered-tip capillary and the picoliter-scale precision syringe pump, the minimum unit of the droplet volume in the present system reached ~20 pL. Without the need of complex microchannel networks, various droplets with different size (20 pL-25 nL), composition, and sequence were automatically assembled, aiming to multiple screening targets by simply adjusting the types, volumes, and mixing ratios of aspirated liquids on demand. The utility of DropLab was demonstrated in enzyme inhibition assays, protein crystallization screening, and identification of trace reducible carbohydrates.

  4. Comparison of rapid screening assays using organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, S.A.; Robideau, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    In a continuation of a study presented last year using metals, the sensitivity of short term toxicity tests is examined using common organic chemicals. In toxicity testing, the focus has shifted from the traditional long-term studies utilizing the mortality of complex, multicellular eukaryotic organisms as the endpoint towards short-term studies in which transformation of biochemical pathways are monitored. The relative sensitivity of aquatic screening techniques are compared to the standardized 48-hr Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, 96-hr fathead minnow and 96-hr algal acute assays. The short-term test procedures investigated are: dehydrogenase enzyme activity assays utilizing triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin as the calorimetric indicators; TOXI-Chromotest, inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase; reduction in bioluminescence output utilizing the Microtox{reg_sign} test; nitrification inhibition assays with a commercial preparation of nitrifying bacteria (Nitroseed{trademark}) and municipal activated sludge; respiration inhibition assays with a commercial preparation of heterotrophic bacteria (Polytox{reg_sign}) and activated sludge; inhibition of root growth in terrestrial plants; and galactosidase inhibition through the use of a fluorometrically tagged substrate with the Daphnia magna IQ{trademark} test. Toxicity values generated by this laboratory on commonly used organic chemicals are compared.

  5. A High-throughput Screening Assay for Determining Cellular Levels of Total Tau Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashti, Seameen J.; Zheng, Wei; Gever, Joel R.; Wilhelm, Robert; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Sittampalam, Gurusingham; McKew, John C.; Austin, Christopher P.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau has been implicated in the pathology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In the past decade, the hyperphosphorylated and aggregated states of tau protein have been important targets in the drug discovery field for the potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Although several compounds have been reported to reduce the hyperphosphorylated state of tau or impact the stabilization of tau, their therapeutic activities are still to be validated. Recently, reduction of total cellular tau protein has emerged as an alternate intervention point for drug development and a potential treatment of tauopathies. We have developed and optimized a homogenous assay, using the AlphaLISA and HTRF assay technologies, for the quantification of total cellular tau protein levels in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. The signal-to-basal ratios were 375 and 5.3, and the Z’ factors were 0.67 and 0.60 for the AlphaLISA and HTRF tau assays, respectively. The clear advantages of this homogeneous tau assay over conventional total tau assays, such as ELISA and Western blot, are the elimination of plate wash steps and miniaturization of the assay into 1536-well plate format for the ultra–high-throughput screening of large compound libraries. PMID:23905996

  6. High Content Screening as High Quality Assay for Biological Evaluation of Photosensitizers In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Gisela M. F.; Paszko, Edyta; Davies, Anthony M.; Senge, Mathias O.

    2013-01-01

    A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT) compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA) technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4). The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT). The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells). A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS) and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR) study for photosensitizer libraries. PMID:23923014

  7. The beautiful cell: high-content screening in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Bickle, Marc

    2010-09-01

    The term "high-content screening" has become synonymous with imaging screens using automated microscopes and automated image analysis. The term was coined a little over 10 years ago. Since then the technology has evolved considerably and has established itself firmly in the drug discovery and development industry. Both the instruments and the software controlling the instruments and analyzing the data have come to maturity, so the full benefits of high-content screening can now be realized. Those benefits are the capability of carrying out phenotypic multiparametric cellular assays in an unbiased, fully automated, and quantitative fashion. Automated microscopes and automated image analysis are being applied at all stages of the drug discovery and development pipeline. All major pharmaceutical companies have adopted the technology and it is in the process of being embraced broadly by the academic community. This review aims at describing the current capabilities and limits of the technology as well as highlighting necessary developments that are required to exploit fully the potential of high-content screening and analysis.

  8. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  9. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-22

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  10. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients. PMID:27653274

  11. Immunoassay screening of diphenhydramine (Benadryl®) in urine and blood using a newly developed assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Warren C; Castro, Catherine; Catbagan, Philip; Moore, Christine; Wang, Guohong

    2012-03-01

    Diphenhydramine (DPH) is a common over the counter antihistamine that produces drowsiness and has the potential to cause driving under the influence of drugs-related accidents. To date there are no commercially available immunoassay screening kits for its detection in biological fluids such as urine and/or blood. We describe a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screen and report on its utility in the analysis of authentic specimens taken from volunteers. The assay is specific for detection of DPH and does not detect closely related antihistamines like brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, and doxylamine. There is a varying amount of cross-reactivity seen with certain tricyclic compounds, due to similarities in side chain structure with DPH. Intra- and interday precision of the assay were determined to be less than 10%. The assay is highly sensitive and has a working range from 1 to 500 ng/mL for urine and 1 to 250 ng/mL for blood. The assay was further validated with authentic urine and blood specimens obtained from volunteers and coroner's laboratories.

  12. Exploring Drug Dosing Regimens In Vitro Using Real-Time 3D Spheroid Tumor Growth Assays.

    PubMed

    Lal-Nag, Madhu; McGee, Lauren; Titus, Steven A; Brimacombe, Kyle; Michael, Sam; Sittampalam, Gurusingham; Ferrer, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional monolayer cell proliferation assays for cancer drug discovery have made the implementation of large-scale screens feasible but only seem to reflect a simplified view that oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes are the genetic drivers of cancer cell proliferation. However, there is now increased evidence that the cellular and physiological context in which these oncogenic events occur play a key role in how they drive tumor growth in vivo and, therefore, in how tumors respond to drug treatments. In vitro 3D spheroid tumor models are being developed to better mimic the physiology of tumors in vivo, in an attempt to improve the predictability and efficiency of drug discovery for the treatment of cancer. Here we describe the establishment of a real-time 3D spheroid growth, 384-well screening assay. The cells used in this study constitutively expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP), which enabled the real-time monitoring of spheroid formation and the effect of chemotherapeutic agents on spheroid size at different time points of sphere growth and drug treatment. This real-time 3D spheroid assay platform represents a first step toward the replication in vitro of drug dosing regimens being investigated in vivo. We hope that further development of this assay platform will allow the investigation of drug dosing regimens, efficacy, and resistance before preclinical and clinical studies.

  13. Phenotypic screens as a renewed approach for drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Thorne, Natasha; McKew, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The significant reduction in the number of newly approved drugs in past decade has been partially attributed to failures in discovery and validation of new targets. Evaluation of recently approved new drugs has revealed that the number of approved drugs discovered through phenotypic screens, an original drug screening paradigm, has exceeded those discovered through the molecular target-based approach. Phenotypic screening is thus gaining new momentum in drug discovery with the hope that this approach may revitalize drug discovery and improve the success rate of drug approval through the discovery of viable lead compounds and identification of novel drug targets. PMID:23850704

  14. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays: An Unexpected Challenge for the Choice of an Assay in Primary Cervical Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41% tested positive on all four. Agreement was lower in women aged ≥30 years (30%, vs. 49% at <30 years), in primary screening samples (29%, vs. 38% in follow-up samples), and in women with concurrent normal cytology (22%, vs. 68% with abnormal cytology). Among primary screening samples from women aged 30–65 years (n = 2,881), 23% tested positive on at least one assay, and 42 to 58% of these showed positive agreement on any compared pair of the assays. While 4% of primary screening samples showed abnormal cytology, 6 to 10% were discordant on any pair of assays. A literature review corroborated our findings of considerable disagreement between human papillomavirus assays. This suggested that the extent of disagreement in primary screening is neither population- nor storage media-specific, leaving assay design differences as the most probable cause. The substantially different selection of women testing positive on the various human papillomavirus assays represents an unexpected challenge for the choice of an assay in primary cervical screening, and for follow up of in particular HPV positive/cytology normal women. PMID:24466262

  15. An RNA Hybridization Assay for Screening Influenza A Virus Polymerase Inhibitors Using the Entire Ribonucleoprotein Complex.

    PubMed

    Roch, Franz-Ferdinand; Hinterkörner, Georg; Menke, John; Tang, Guo-Qing; Cusack, Stephen; Butzendobler, Barbara; Buschmann, Helmut; Datta, Kausiki; Wolkerstorfer, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Novel antiviral drugs, which are less prone to resistance development, are desirable alternatives to the currently approved drugs for the treatment of potentially serious influenza virus infections. The viral polymerase is highly conserved and serves as an attractive target for antiviral drugs since potent inhibitors would directly stop viral replication at an early stage. Recent structural studies on the functional domains of the heterotrimeric influenza polymerase, which comprises subunits PA, PB1, and PB2, opened the way to a structure-based approach for optimizing inhibitors of viral replication. These strategies, however, are limited by the use of isolated protein fragments instead of employing the entire ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP), which represents the functional form of the influenza polymerase in infected cells. In this study, we have established a screening assay for efficient and reliable analysis of potential influenza polymerase inhibitors of various molecular targets such as monoselective polymerase inhibitors targeting the endonuclease site, the cap-binding domain, and the polymerase active site, respectively. By utilizing whole viral RNPs and a radioactivity-free endpoint detection with the capability for efficient compound screening while offering high-content information on potential inhibitors to drive medicinal chemistry program in a reliable manner, this biochemical assay provides significant advantages over the currently available conventional assays. We propose that this assay can eventually be adapted for coinstantaneous analysis and subsequent optimization of two or more different chemical scaffold classes targeting multiple active sites within the polymerase complex, thus enabling the evaluation of drug combinations and characterization of molecules with dual functionality.

  16. Potential impact of drug effects, availability, pharmacokinetics, and screening on estimates of drugs implicated in cases of assault.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lawrence P

    2011-09-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a serious and troubling crime. It is important to know if and how different drugs might be used to facilitate assault in order to deter such crime. There are a number of ways in which drugs that are used for DFSA might not be detected by routine screens. The purpose of this analysis was to draw reasonable inferences regarding drugs with a high likelihood of being used for DFSA and not being detected by routine screens. National data from poison control centres, hospital emergency rooms, and law enforcement seizures were used to evaluate the relative magnitude of problems and illicit availability associated with different classes of drugs. General drug classes were examined to include additional drugs that might be used for DFSA on the basis of their amnesic effects, widespread availability, and pharmacokinetics (i.e. short half-life). The benzodiazepine-site ligands zolpidem and eszopiclone, 'club drugs' GHB and ketamine, muscle relaxants such as carisoprodol, and antihistamines such as diphenhydramine were identified as drugs that might be used for DFSA and remain undetected by routine screens. Future studies that are designed to examine the role of these drugs in DFSA cases could provide better estimates of their use for DFSA. A better understanding of what is being missed in DFSA cases might help prioritize the development of new assays, provide rationale for the availability of particular assays for routine testing, and inform practitioners and the general public of the potential DFSA risks of certain drugs.

  17. Multielectrode Array (MEA) Assay for Profiling Electrophysiological Drug Effects in Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Clements, Mike

    2016-05-04

    More relevant and reliable preclinical cardiotoxicity tests are required to improve drug safety and reduce the cost of drug development. Human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hSC-CMs) provide a potential model for the development of superior assays for preclinical drug safety screening. One such hSC-CM assay that has shown significant potential for enabling more predictive drug cardiac risk assessment is the MEA assay. The Multi-electrode Array (MEA) assay is an electrophysiology-based technique that uses microelectrodes embedded in the culture surface of each well to measure fluctuations in extracellular field potential (FP) generated from spontaneously beating hSC-CMs. Perturbations to the recorded FP waveform can be used as an unbiased method of predicting the identity of ion channel(s) impacted on drug exposure. Here, a higher throughput MEA assay using hSC-CMs in 48-well MEA plates is described for profiling compound-induced effects on cardiomyocyte electrophysiology. Techniques for preparing hSC-CM monolayers in MEA plates and methods to contextualize MEA assay experimental results are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Robotic Mammosphere Assay for High-Throughput Screening in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, P A; Akrap, N; Söderberg, E M V; Harrison, H; Thomson, G J; Landberg, G

    2017-02-01

    In order to identify novel treatment principles specifically affecting cancer stem cells in triple-negative breast cancer, we have developed a high-throughput screening method based on the mammosphere and anoikis resistance assays allowing us to screen compounds using a functional readout. The assay was validated against manual protocols and through the use of positive controls, such as the response to hypoxia and treatment with the known cancer stem cell-targeting compound salinomycin. Manual and robotic procedures were compared and produced similar results in cell handling, cell cultures, and counting techniques, with no statistically significant difference produced from either method. The variance between samples processed manually versus robotically was no greater than 0.012, while Levene's test of significance was 0.2, indicating no significant difference between mammosphere data produced manually or robotically. Through the screening of 989 FDA-approved drugs and a follow-up screen assessing the antineoplastic subgroup, we have identified three therapeutic compounds with the ability to modulate the breast cancer stem cell fraction in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighting their potential usage as stem cell-specific adjuvant treatments.

  19. Nanosensors for next generation drug screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannam, Sridhar K.; Downton, Matthew T.; Gunn, Natalie; Kim, Sung Cheol; Rogers, Priscilla R.; Schieber, Christine; Baldauf, Julia S.; Wagner, John M.; Scott, Daniel; Bathgate, Ross; Skafidas, Stan; Harrer, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    One promising path for future drug screening technologies is to examine the binding of ligands to target proteins at the single molecule level by passing them through nanometer sized pores and measuring the change in pore current during translocation. With the aim of evaluating such technologies we perform virtual experiments on the translocation of proteins through silicon nitride nanopores. These simulations consist of large scale, fully atomistic models of the translocation process that involve steering a test protein through the nanopore on a timescale of tens of nanoseconds. We make a comparison between theoretically expected and simulated values of the current drop that is seen when the protein occupies the pore. Details of the stability of the protein and the preservation of its function as measured by its secondary and tertiary structure will be presented to validate both the simulation results and the fundamental design of the proposed device. Finally, the results will be placed in the context of experimental work that combines nanofabrication and microuidics to create a high throughput, low cost, drug screening device.

  20. Precision multidimensional assay for high-throughput microRNA drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Haefliger, Benjamin; Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Benenson, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Development of drug discovery assays that combine high content with throughput is challenging. Information-processing gene networks can address this challenge by integrating multiple potential targets of drug candidates' activities into a small number of informative readouts, reporting simultaneously on specific and non-specific effects. Here we show a family of networks implementing this concept in a cell-based drug discovery assay for miRNA drug targets. The networks comprise multiple modules reporting on specific effects towards an intended miRNA target, together with non-specific effects on gene expression, off-target miRNAs and RNA interference pathway. We validate the assays using known perturbations of on- and off-target miRNAs, and evaluate an ∼700 compound library in an automated screen with a follow-up on specific and non-specific hits. We further customize and validate assays for additional drug targets and non-specific inputs. Our study offers a novel framework for precision drug discovery assays applicable to diverse target families. PMID:26880188

  1. A rapid survival assay to measure drug-induced cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects.

    PubMed

    Valiathan, Chandni; McFaline, Jose L; Samson, Leona D

    2012-01-02

    We describe a rapid method to accurately measure the cytotoxicity of mammalian cells upon exposure to various drugs. Using this assay, we obtain survival data in a fraction of the time required to perform the traditional clonogenic survival assay, considered the gold standard. The dynamic range of the assay allows sensitivity measurements on a multi-log scale allowing better resolution of comparative sensitivities. Moreover, the results obtained contain additional information on cell cycle effects of the drug treatment. Cell survival is obtained from a quantitative comparison of proliferation between drug-treated and untreated cells. During the assay, cells are treated with a drug and, following a recovery period, allowed to proliferate in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Cells that synthesize DNA in the presence of BrdU exhibit quenched Hoechst fluorescence, easily detected by flow cytometry; quenching is used to determine relative proliferation in treated vs. untreated cells. Finally, this assay can be used in high-throughput format to simultaneously screen multiple cell lines and drugs for accurate measurements of cell survival and cell cycle effects after drug treatment.

  2. A phenotypic screening assay for modulators of huntingtin-induced transcriptional dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Lazzeroni, Giulia; Benicchi, Tiziana; Heitz, Freddy; Magnoni, Letizia; Diamanti, Daniela; Rossini, Lara; Massai, Luisa; Federico, Cesare; Fecke, Wolfgang; Caricasole, Andrea; La Rosa, Salvatore; Porcari, Valentina

    2013-10-01

    Huntington's Disease is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of CAG repeats encoding polyglutamine in the first exon of the huntingtin gene. N-terminal fragments containing polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences aggregate and can bind to cellular proteins, resulting in several pathophysiological consequences for affected neurons such as changes in gene transcription. One transcriptional pathway that has been implicated in HD pathogenesis is the CREB binding protein (CBP)/cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) pathway. We developed a phenotypic assay to screen for compounds that can reverse the transcriptional dysregulation of the pathway caused by induced mutated huntingtin protein (µHtt). 293/T-REx cells were stably co-transfected with an inducible full-length mutated huntingtin gene containing 138 glutamine repeats and with a reporter gene under control of the cAMP responsive element (CRE). One clone, which showed reversible inhibition of µHtt-induced reporter activity upon treatment with the neuroprotective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, was used for the development of a high-throughput phenotypic assay suitable for a primary screening campaign, which was performed on a library of 24,000 compounds. Several hit compounds were identified and validated further in a cell viability adenosine triphosphate assay. The assay has the potential for finding new drug candidates for the treatment of HD.

  3. [Simultaneous screening method for Bordetella species by conventional PCR assay].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yumi; Saito, Etsuko; Enomoto, Miki; Tsuji, Hidetaka; Chikahira, Masatsugu; Yoshida, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    A simultaneous screening method using conventional PCR was developed for the detection and discrimination of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella holmesii. A formulated multiprex method employing 4 kinds of paired primers on amplification of 4 corresponding different insertion sequences (IS481, IS1001, IS1002 and hIS1001) enabled rapid screening and identification. The detection limits of each DNA extracted from 3 kinds of Bordetella species were 5fg/microL for each. Obscure existences of B. pertussis and B. holmesii at low levels were confirmed with the LAMP method. This multiplex assay was applied to the clinical specimens obtained from patients with pertussis-like symptoms at sentinel clinics under the epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases of Hyogo prefecture in FY2012. Among 42 nasopharyngeal swabs, B. pertussis was detected from 12 samples including 8 samples collected at outbreak in nursery school. The use of this method for the surveillance of infectious agents enabled us to search for 3 kinds of Bordetella species at once with low costs.

  4. Determination of estrogenic activity by LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase).

    PubMed

    Schultis, T; Metzger, J W

    2004-12-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity and the speed of the yeast estrogen screen (YES)-assay, which has been established in many laboratories for the determination of estrogenic activity of compounds and environmental samples, the LYES-assay, a modified version of the YES-assay including a digestion step with the enzyme lyticase, was developed. With the LYES-assay the estrogenic activities of natural (17beta-estradiol E2 and estrone), synthetic (17alpha-ethinylestradiol EE2) and pharmaceutical estrogens (diethylstilbestrol DES) as well as xenoestrogens (4-nonylphenol NP and five parabens) were determined and compared with the results obtained by other in vitro-assays namely the conventional YES-assay, the E-Screen-assay (MCF-7 breast tumor cell proliferation) and a receptor binding-assay (RB) with human estrogen receptors hER-alpha and hER-beta. In the case of E2 the LYES-assay had a significantly lower limit of quantification (LOQ) than the conventional YES-assay and even two orders of magnitude lower than the RB-assay. Compared to the E-Screen-assay the LOQ of the LYES-assay was almost one order of magnitude higher. The time required to perform the LYES-assay was as little as seven hours compared to three to five days for the conventional YES-assay. Thus, the LYES-assay is a very good alternative to existing estrogenic in vitro-assays, since it has a good sensitivity, is cheap and much faster than the other assays.

  5. Validation of a Preclinical Drug Screening Platform for Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Johnson, Kristina; Billingsley, Peggy; Huff, Jennifer; Handy, Laura J; Khaleel, Rizvana; Lu, Zhenmei; Mau, Matthew J; Pruess, Timothy H; Rueda, Carlos; Saunders, Gerald; Underwood, Tristan K; Vanegas, Fabiola; Smith, Misty D; West, Peter J; Wilcox, Karen S

    2017-03-16

    The successful identification of promising investigational therapies for the treatment of epilepsy can be credited to the use of numerous animal models of seizure and epilepsy for over 80 years. In this time, the maximal electroshock test in mice and rats, the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol test in mice and rats, and more recently the 6 Hz assay in mice, have been utilized as primary models of electrically or chemically-evoked seizures in neurologically intact rodents. In addition, rodent kindling models, in which chronic network hyperexcitability has developed, have been used to identify new agents. It is clear that this traditional screening approach has greatly expanded the number of marketed drugs available to manage the symptomatic seizures associated with epilepsy. In spite of the numerous antiseizure drugs (ASDs) on the market today, the fact remains that nearly 30% of patients are resistant to these currently available medications. To address this unmet medical need, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) revised its approach to the early evaluation of investigational agents for the treatment of epilepsy in 2015 to include a focus on preclinical approaches to model pharmacoresistant seizures. This present report highlights the in vivo and in vitro findings associated with the initial pharmacological validation of this testing approach using a number of mechanistically diverse, commercially available antiseizure drugs, as well as several probe compounds that are of potential mechanistic interest to the clinical management of epilepsy.

  6. High throughput screening for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Rodríguez, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of new therapeutic options against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, stands as a fundamental need. Currently, there are only two drugs available to treat this neglected disease, which represents a major public health problem in Latin America. Both available therapies, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant toxic side effects and their efficacy against the life-threatening symptomatic chronic stage of the disease is variable. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, improved anti-T. cruzi drugs. With the objective to reliably accelerate the drug discovery process against Chagas disease, several advances have been made in the last few years. Availability of engineered reporter gene expressing parasites triggered the development of phenotypic in vitro assays suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) as well as the establishment of new in vivo protocols that allow faster experimental outcomes. Recently, automated high content microscopy approaches have also been used to identify new parasitic inhibitors. These in vitro and in vivo early drug discovery approaches, which hopefully will contribute to bring better anti-T. cruzi drug entities in the near future, are reviewed here.

  7. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.J.; Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N.; Bridgland-Taylor, M.; Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P.

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility.

  8. Tango assay for ligand-induced GPCR-β-arrestin2 interaction: Application in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shalini; Sona, Chandan; Kumar, Ajeet; Yadav, Prem N

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are widely known to modulate almost all physiological functions and have been demonstrated over the time as therapeutic targets for wide gamut of diseases. The design and implementation of high-throughput GPCR-based assays that permit the efficient screening of large compound libraries to discover novel drug candidates are essential for a successful drug discovery endeavor. Usually, GPCR-based functional assays depend primarily on the measurement of G protein-mediated second messenger generation. However, with advent of advanced molecular biology tools and increased understanding of GPCR signal transduction, many G protein-independent pathways such as β-arrestin translocation are being utilized to detect the activity of GPCRs. These assays provide additional information on functional selectivity (also known as biased agonism) of compounds that could be harnessed to develop pathway-selective drug candidates to reduce the adverse effects associated with given GPCR target. In this chapter, we describe the basic principle, detailed methodologies and assay setup, result analysis and data interpretations of the β-arrestin2 Tango assay, and its comparison with cell-based G protein-dependent GPCR assays, which could be employed in a simple academic setup to facilitate GPCR-based drug discovery.

  9. High throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hong; Holmén, Anders G

    2009-03-01

    Current advances of new technologies with robotic automated assays combined with highly selective and sensitive LC-MS enable high-speed screening of lead series libraries in many in vitro assays. In this review, we summarize state of the art high throughput assays for screening of key physicochemical properties such as solubility, lipophilicity, pKa, drug-plasma protein binding and brain tissue binding as well as in vitro ADME profiling. We discuss two primary approaches for high throughput screening of solubility, i.e. an automated 96-well plate assay integrated with LC-MS and a rapid multi-wavelength UV plate reader. We address the advantages of newly developed miniaturized techniques for high throughput pKa screening by capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) with automated data analysis flow. Several new lipophilicity approaches other than octanol-water partitioning are critically reviewed, including rapid liquid chromatographic retention based approach, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) partitioning and liposome, and potential microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for accurate screening of LogP. We highlight the sample pooling (namely cassette dosing, all-in-one, cocktail) as an efficient approach for high throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling with emphasis on the benefit of on-line quality control. This cassette dosing approach has been widely adapted in drug discovery for rapid screening of in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters with significantly increased capacity and dramatically reduced animal usage.

  10. Testing Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy in a Zebrafish High-Throughput Translational Medicine Screen

    PubMed Central

    Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J.; Wiweger, Malgorzata I.; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H.; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

  11. Adapting High-Throughput Screening Methods and Assays for Biocontainment Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Tigabu, Bersabeh; White, E. Lucile; Bostwick, Robert; Tower, Nichole; Bukreyev, Alexander; Rockx, Barry; LeDuc, James W.; Noah, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High-throughput screening (HTS) has been integrated into the drug discovery process, and multiple assay formats have been widely used in many different disease areas but with limited focus on infectious agents. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of HTS campaigns using infectious wild-type pathogens rather than surrogates or biochemical pathogen-derived targets. Concurrently, enhanced emerging pathogen surveillance and increased human mobility have resulted in an increase in the emergence and dissemination of infectious human pathogens with serious public health, economic, and social implications at global levels. Adapting the HTS drug discovery process to biocontainment laboratories to develop new drugs for these previously uncharacterized and highly pathogenic agents is now feasible, but HTS at higher biosafety levels (BSL) presents a number of unique challenges. HTS has been conducted with multiple bacterial and viral pathogens at both BSL-2 and BSL-3, and pilot screens have recently been extended to BSL-4 environments for both Nipah and Ebola viruses. These recent successful efforts demonstrate that HTS can be safely conducted at the highest levels of biological containment. This review outlines the specific issues that must be considered in the execution of an HTS drug discovery program for high-containment pathogens. We present an overview of the requirements for HTS in high-level biocontainment laboratories. PMID:25710545

  12. Adapting high-throughput screening methods and assays for biocontainment laboratories.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Tigabu, Bersabeh; White, E Lucile; Bostwick, Robert; Tower, Nichole; Bukreyev, Alexander; Rockx, Barry; LeDuc, James W; Noah, James W

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has been integrated into the drug discovery process, and multiple assay formats have been widely used in many different disease areas but with limited focus on infectious agents. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of HTS campaigns using infectious wild-type pathogens rather than surrogates or biochemical pathogen-derived targets. Concurrently, enhanced emerging pathogen surveillance and increased human mobility have resulted in an increase in the emergence and dissemination of infectious human pathogens with serious public health, economic, and social implications at global levels. Adapting the HTS drug discovery process to biocontainment laboratories to develop new drugs for these previously uncharacterized and highly pathogenic agents is now feasible, but HTS at higher biosafety levels (BSL) presents a number of unique challenges. HTS has been conducted with multiple bacterial and viral pathogens at both BSL-2 and BSL-3, and pilot screens have recently been extended to BSL-4 environments for both Nipah and Ebola viruses. These recent successful efforts demonstrate that HTS can be safely conducted at the highest levels of biological containment. This review outlines the specific issues that must be considered in the execution of an HTS drug discovery program for high-containment pathogens. We present an overview of the requirements for HTS in high-level biocontainment laboratories.

  13. Improving drug discovery with high-content phenotypic screens by systematic selection of reporter cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Liu, Shanshan; Coster, Adam D.; Posner, Bruce A.; Altschuler, Steven J.; Wu, Lani F.

    2015-01-01

    High-content, image-based screens enable the identification of compounds that induce cellular responses similar to those of known drugs but through different chemical structures or targets. A central challenge in designing phenotypic screens is choosing suitable imaging biomarkers. Here we present a method for systematically identifying optimal reporter cell lines for annotating compound libraries (ORACLs), whose phenotypic profiles most accurately classify a training set of known drugs. We generate a library of fluorescently tagged reporter cell lines, and let analytical criteria determine which among them—the ORACL—best classifies compounds into multiple, diverse drug classes. We demonstrate that an ORACL can functionally annotate large compound libraries across diverse drug classes in a single-pass screen and confirm high prediction accuracy via orthogonal, secondary validation assays. Our approach will increase the efficiency, scale and accuracy of phenotypic screens by maximizing their discriminatory power. PMID:26655497

  14. Convenient cell fusion assay for rapid screening for HIV entry inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shibo; Radigan, Lin; Zhang, Li

    2000-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV)-induced cell fusion is a critical pathway of HIV spread from infected cells to uninfected cells. A rapid and simple assay was established to measure HIV-induce cell fusion. This study is particularly useful to rapid screen for HIV inhibitors that block HIV cell-to-cell transmission. Present study demonstrated that coculture of HIV-infected cells with uninfected cells at 37 degree(s)C for 2 hours resulted in the highest cell fusion rate. Using this cell fusion assay, we have identified several potent HIV inhibitors targeted to the HIV gp41 core. These antiviral agents can be potentially developed as antiviral drugs for chemotherapy and prophylaxis of HIV infection and AIDS.

  15. "Dilute-and-inject" multi-target screening assay for highly polar doping agents using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    In the field of LC-MS, reversed phase liquid chromatography is the predominant method of choice for the separation of prohibited substances from various classes in sports drug testing. However, highly polar and charged compounds still represent a challenging task in liquid chromatography due to their difficult chromatographic behavior using reversed phase materials. A very promising approach for the separation of hydrophilic compounds is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Despite its great potential and versatile advantages for the separation of highly polar compounds, HILIC is up to now not very common in doping analysis, although most manufacturers offer a variety of HILIC columns in their portfolio. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on HILIC high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for various polar stimulants, stimulant sulfo-conjugates, glycerol, AICAR, ethyl glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, and myo-inositol trispyrophosphate after direct injection of diluted urine specimens. The usage of an effective online sample cleanup and a zwitterionic HILIC analytical column in combination with a new generation Hybrid Quadrupol-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer enabled the detection of highly polar analytes without any time-consuming hydrolysis or further purification steps, far below the required detection limits. The methodology was fully validated for qualitative and quantitative (AICAR, glycerol) purposes considering the parameters specificity; robustness (rRT < 2.0%); linearity (R > 0.99); intra- and inter-day precision at low, medium, and high concentration levels (CV < 20%); limit of detection (stimulants and stimulant sulfo-conjugates < 10 ng/mL; norfenefrine; octopamine < 30 ng/mL; AICAR < 10 ng/mL; glycerol 100 μg/mL; ETG < 100 ng/mL); accuracy (AICAR 103.8-105.5%, glycerol 85.1-98.3% at three concentration levels) and ion suppression/enhancement effects.

  16. Multidimensional GPCR profiling and screening using impedance-based label-free and real-time assay.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ning; Nguyen, Khanh; Irelan, Jeffery; Abassi, Yama A

    2015-01-01

    GPCRs constitute one of the most sought-after targets in drug discovery because they are associated with conditions ranging from cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, cancer, and diseases of the nervous system. Moreover, they are one of the most amenable targets for drug discovery because they can be modulated by small molecules, peptides, proteins, and antibodies. Therefore it may not come as a surprise that close to 40 % of the drugs that are currently on the market are targeting GPCRs. It has become evident that GPCR signaling is highly complex and may involve multiple or a subset of pathways depending on the interaction of a GPCR with an agonist or antagonist. It is imperative that any functional screening for GPCR activity integrates this complexity. In this assay protocol, we describe how the xCELLigence RTCA HT impedance-based platform which can be used for functional cell-based GPCR assays can be utilized for GPCR screening.

  17. Hierarchical virtual screening approaches in small molecule drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening has played a significant role in the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of therapeutic targets in last two decades. Various ligand and structure-based virtual screening approaches are employed to identify small molecule ligands for proteins of interest. These approaches are often combined in either hierarchical or parallel manner to take advantage of the strength and avoid the limitations associated with individual methods. Hierarchical combination of ligand and structure-based virtual screening approaches has received noteworthy success in numerous drug discovery campaigns. In hierarchical virtual screening, several filters using ligand and structure-based approaches are sequentially applied to reduce a large screening library to a number small enough for experimental testing. In this review, we focus on different hierarchical virtual screening strategies and their application in the discovery of small molecule modulators of important drug targets. Several virtual screening studies are discussed to demonstrate the successful application of hierarchical virtual screening in small molecule drug discovery.

  18. Screening for inhibitors of low-affinity epigenetic peptide-protein interactions: an AlphaScreen-based assay for antagonists of methyl-lysine binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Tim J; Herold, J Martin; Senisterra, Guillermo A; Vedadi, Masoud; Kireev, Dmitri B; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Frye, Stephen V; Janzen, William P

    2010-01-01

    The histone code comprises many posttranslational modifications that occur mainly in histone tail peptides. The identity and location of these marks are read by a variety of histone-binding proteins that are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and development and are increasingly being implicated in numerous disease states. The authors describe the development of the first high-throughput screening assay for the discovery of inhibitors of methyl-lysine binding proteins that will be used to initiate a full-scale discovery effort for this broad target class. They focus on the development of an AlphaScreen-based assay for malignant brain tumor (MBT) domain-containing proteins, which bind to the lower methylation states of lysine residues present in histone tail peptides. This assay takes advantage of the avidity of the AlphaScreen beads to clear the hurdle to assay development presented by the low micromolar binding constants of the histone binding proteins for their cognate peptides. The assay is applicable to other families of methyl-lysine binding proteins, and it has the potential to be used in screening efforts toward the discovery of novel small molecules with utility as research tools for cellular reprogramming and ultimately drug discovery.

  19. A rapid transglutaminase assay for high-throughput screening applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Hui

    2006-10-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) are widely distributed enzymes that catalyze posttranslational modification of proteins by Ca(2+)-dependent cross-linking reactions. The family members of TGs participate in many significant processes of biological functions such as tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and certain pathologies. A novel technique for TG activity assay was developed in this study. It was based on the rapid capturing, fluorescence quenching, and fast separation of the unreacted fluorescent molecules from the macromolecular product with magnetic dextran-coated charcoal. As few as 3 ng of guinea pig liver transglutaminase (gpTG) could be detected by the method; activities of 96 TG samples could be measured within an hour. The K(m) of gpTG determined by this method for monodansylcadaverine (dansyl-CAD) and N, N-dimethylcasein was 14 and 5 muM, respectively. A typical competitive inhibition pattern of cystamine on dansyl-CAD for gpTG activity was also demonstrated. The application of this technique is not limited to the use of dansyl-CAD as the fluorescent substrate of TG; other small fluor-labeled TG substrates may substitute dansyl-CAD. Finally, this method is rapid, highly sensitive, and inexpensive. It is suitable not only for high-throughput screening of enzymes or enzyme inhibitors but also for enzyme kinetic analysis.

  20. Leukocyte esterase-nitrite and bioluminescence assays as urine screens.

    PubMed Central

    Males, B M; Bartholomew, W R; Amsterdam, D

    1985-01-01

    The 1-min leukocyte esterase (LE)-nitrite test (Chemstrip 9; Biodynamics, Division of Boehringer Mannheim Biochemicals, Indianapolis, Ind.) and a bioluminescence assay (Monolight centrifugation method; Analytical Luminescence Laboratory, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) were tested for their efficacy as urine screens among 453 patients at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Both methods had the capacity to exclude significant bacteriuria (greater than or equal to 10(5) CFU/ml) when compared with the results of conventional culture methods, with predictive values of 99 and 93%, respectively, for a negative test. Bioluminescence was the more accurate nonculture method used. Sensitivity and specificity values were 97 and 71%, respectively, for bioluminescence, 82 and 60%, respectively, for LE with nitrite, and 72 and 64%, respectively, for LE without nitrite. At reduced levels of bacteriuria less than 10(5) CFU/ml), the sensitivities of LE-nitrite and bioluminescence were decreased but comparable. The addition of protein and blood test results in the Chemstrip 9, along with LE-nitrite as bacteriuria indicators, were unsatisfactory because of the large numbers of false-positive results attributed to protein and blood determinations. LE activity as detected by the LE test was a poor predictor of significant bacteriuria in both male and female patients. The sensitivity (71%) and specificity (57%) of the LE test in male patients were significantly lower than those previously reported and varied with the patient population studied. PMID:3935662

  1. Signify ER Drug Screen Test evaluation: comparison to Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus tricyclic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jane Ellen; Bogema, Stuart; Fu, Paul; Furmaga, Wieslaw; Wu, Alan H B; Zic, Vlasta; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine

    2003-02-01

    Signify ER Drug Screen Test (Signify ER) and Triage Drug of Abuse Panel plus TCA (Triage DOA Panel) rapid drug screening devices were compared at four laboratories. Both assay systems are point of care immunoassays, measuring phencyclidine, barbiturates, amphetamine, cocaine metabolite, methamphetamine, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, marijuana metabolite, and benzodiazepines in human urine. The performance of these two assay systems, including a cutoff verification and cross-reactivity using spiked urine specimens and accuracy using clinical urine samples, was investigated. The cutoff verification study showed that the Signify ER had 95.4% precision for all drugs tested at concentrations of 50%, 75%, 125%, 150%, and 200% of cutoffs compared to 90% precision obtained with Triage DOA Panel. Accuracy studies testing 53 negative urine samples demonstrated that both Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have 100% specificity. Testing of 693 positive urine samples demonstrated that Signify ER and Triage DOA Panel have sensitivities of 99.8% and 99.3%, respectively, with an accuracy of 99.9% and 99.6%. A total of 527 compounds were tested for the cross-reactivity study. Eighty-seven structurally related drugs and metabolites were found to cross-react with at least one of the nine tests of the Signify ER. Four hundred forty structurally unrelated compounds that can be found in human urine were shown not to cross-react with the Signify ER. In terms of operating characteristics, the Signify ER device is simpler since only a single pipetting step is required, and reaction completed within 8 min.

  2. Urine Drug Screening of Adolescents on Request of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest

    1994-01-01

    Of 100 adolescents screened for drug use, 43% tested positive for drugs of abuse. Twenty-five percent of these adolescents entered treatment, with 8% requiring medical detoxification or inpatient treatment. Urine screening, when done for clinical rather than punitive purposes, appeared to facilitate entry into treatment. (RJM)

  3. Development and Optimization of a Novel 384-Well Anti-Malarial Imaging Assay Validated for High-Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing occurrence of drug resistance in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, there is a great need for new and novel anti-malarial drugs. We have developed a 384-well, high-throughput imaging assay for the detection of new anti-malarial compounds, which was initially validated by screening a marine natural product library, and subsequently used to screen more than 3 million data points from a variety of compound sources. Founded on another fluorescence-based P. falciparum growth inhibition assay, the DNA-intercalating dye 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, was used to monitor changes in parasite number. Fluorescent images were acquired on the PerkinElmer Opera High Throughput confocal imaging system and analyzed with a spot detection algorithm using the Acapella data processing software. Further optimization of this assay sought to increase throughput, assay stability, and compatibility with our high-throughput screening equipment platforms. The assay typically yielded Z'-factor values of 0.5–0.6, with signal-to-noise ratios of 12. PMID:22232455

  4. Paired image- and FACS-based toxicity assays for high content screening of spheroid-type tumor cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Trumpi, Kari; Egan, David A; Vellinga, Thomas T; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Kranenburg, Onno

    2015-01-01

    Novel spheroid-type tumor cell cultures directly isolated from patients' tumors preserve tumor characteristics better than traditionally grown cell lines. However, such cultures are not generally used for high-throughput toxicity drug screens. In addition, the assays that are commonly used to assess drug-induced toxicity in such screens usually measure a proxy for cell viability such as mitochondrial activity or ATP-content per culture well, rather than actual cell death. This generates considerable assay-dependent differences in the measured toxicity values. To address this problem we developed a robust method that documents drug-induced toxicity on a per-cell, rather than on a per-well basis. The method involves automated drug dispensing followed by paired image- and FACS-based analysis of cell death and cell cycle changes. We show that the two methods generate toxicity data in 96-well format which are highly concordant. By contrast, the concordance of these methods with frequently used well-based assays was generally poor. The reported method can be implemented on standard automated microscopes and provides a low-cost approach for accurate and reproducible high-throughput toxicity screens in spheroid type cell cultures. Furthermore, the high versatility of both the imaging and FACS platforms allows straightforward adaptation of the high-throughput experimental setup to include fluorescence-based measurement of additional cell biological parameters.

  5. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

  6. Development of a High-Throughput Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of the Lipid Kinase PIP5K1C.

    PubMed

    Wright, Brittany D; Simpson, Catherine; Stashko, Michael; Kireev, Dmitri; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Zylka, Mark J; Janzen, William P

    2015-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5Ks) regulate a variety of cellular processes, including signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), endocytosis, exocytosis, and cell migration. These lipid kinases synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Because small-molecule inhibitors of these lipid kinases did not exist, molecular and genetic approaches were predominantly used to study PIP5K1 regulation of these cellular processes. Moreover, standard radioisotope-based lipid kinase assays cannot be easily adapted for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a novel, high-throughput, microfluidic mobility shift assay to identify inhibitors of PIP5K1C. This assay uses fluorescently labeled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate as the substrate and recombinant human PIP5K1C. Our assay exhibited high reproducibility, had a calculated adenosine triphosphate Michaelis constant (Km) of 15 µM, performed with z' values >0.7, and was used to screen a kinase-focused library of ~4700 compounds. From this screen, we identified several potent inhibitors of PIP5K1C, including UNC3230, a compound that we recently found can reduce nociceptive sensitization in animal models of chronic pain. This novel assay will allow continued drug discovery efforts for PIP5K1C and can be adapted easily to screen additional lipid kinases.

  7. Development of a high-throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of the lipid kinase PIP5K1C

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brittany D.; Simpson, Catherine; Stashko, Michael; Kireev, Dmitri; Hull-Ryde, Emily A.; Zylka, Mark J.; Janzen, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5Ks) regulate a variety of cellular processes including signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), endocytosis, exocytosis, and cell migration. These lipid kinases synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Since small molecule inhibitors of these lipid kinases did not exist, molecular and genetic approaches were predominantly used to study PIP5K1 regulation of these cellular processes. Moreover, standard radioisotope-based lipid kinase assays cannot be easily adapted for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a novel high-throughput microfluidic mobility shift assay to identify inhibitors of PIP5K1C. This assay utilizes fluorescently labeled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate as the substrate and recombinant human PIP5K1C. Our assay exhibited high reproducibility, had a calculated ATP Km of 15 µM, performed with z’ values >0.7, and was used to screen a kinase-focused library of ~4,700 compounds. From this screen, we identified several potent inhibitors of PIP5K1C, including UNC3230, a compound that we recently found can reduce nociceptive sensitization in animal models of chronic pain. This novel assay will allow continued drug discovery efforts for PIP5K1C and can be easily adapted to screen additional lipid kinases. PMID:25534829

  8. BioAssay Ontology (BAO): a semantic description of bioassays and high-throughput screening results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the main strategies to identify novel entry points for the development of small molecule chemical probes and drugs and is now commonly accessible to public sector research. Large amounts of data generated in HTS campaigns are submitted to public repositories such as PubChem, which is growing at an exponential rate. The diversity and quantity of available HTS assays and screening results pose enormous challenges to organizing, standardizing, integrating, and analyzing the datasets and thus to maximize the scientific and ultimately the public health impact of the huge investments made to implement public sector HTS capabilities. Novel approaches to organize, standardize and access HTS data are required to address these challenges. Results We developed the first ontology to describe HTS experiments and screening results using expressive description logic. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO) serves as a foundation for the standardization of HTS assays and data and as a semantic knowledge model. In this paper we show important examples of formalizing HTS domain knowledge and we point out the advantages of this approach. The ontology is available online at the NCBO bioportal http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/44531. Conclusions After a large manual curation effort, we loaded BAO-mapped data triples into a RDF database store and used a reasoner in several case studies to demonstrate the benefits of formalized domain knowledge representation in BAO. The examples illustrate semantic querying capabilities where BAO enables the retrieval of inferred search results that are relevant to a given query, but are not explicitly defined. BAO thus opens new functionality for annotating, querying, and analyzing HTS datasets and the potential for discovering new knowledge by means of inference. PMID:21702939

  9. An LC-MS assay for the screening of cardiovascular medications in human samples

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Eduardo; Hachey, Brian; McNaughton, Candace; Nian, Hui; Yu, Chang; Straka, Britt; Brown, Nancy J.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular drugs are the most commonly prescribed medications. Some prior assays successfully detect cardiovascular drugs among multiple classes using a single sample. Here, we develop an assay to detect a broad range of cardiovascular drug classes to include commonly used cardiovascular drugs and evaluate the assay’s analytical and statistical properties in a clinical setting. We describe a protocol for drug detection that encompasses 34 commonly prescribed cardiovascular drugs or drug metabolites with a single LC-MS/MS method using 100µl of serum or plasma. Drug classes monitored by this assay include: anticoagulants, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, statins, and vasodilators, as well as digoxin, fenofibrate, and niacin. Analytical accuracy and precision for each drug was evaluated by repeating the assay on spiked samples at low, medium, and high concentrations. In 294 clinical samples obtained from hospitalized patients for whom medication administration was recorded, we evaluated the assay’s statistical sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. For the 34 drugs or drug metabolites, the assay was statistically sensitive (>0.90) for all drugs except captopril (0.25), isosorbide (0.81), and niacin (0.89). The assay was statistically specific for all drugs, with a minimum specificity of 0.94 (aspirin). To our knowledge, this method is the first method of simultaneous analysis of 34 cardiovascular drugs or drug metabolites from nine drug classes evaluated using clinical samples from hospitalized patients. PMID:24013190

  10. Miniaturization of ultra-high-throughput screening assays into 1536-well format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, James R.; McCoy, Paul M.; Walker, Tiffany; Dunn, David A.

    2002-06-01

    Assay miniaturization and the implementation of high-density 1536 micro-well screening increases the speed and efficiency of screening and lead discovery. To serve this need, a platform of miniaturizable assay technologies has been assembled for specific biological targets. This platform will enable initiation and completion of uHTS screens in a straightforward and expeditious manner. For kinases, we have examined assays using several technologies including DELFIA, HTR-FRET, FP, EFC, and FMAT. This presentation compares these technologies for the measurement of typical tyrosine kinase activity in 1536-well format. Quality parameters such as assay reproducibility, signal: background ratio, Z factor, and assay sensitivity were calculated and compared. Additionally, the relative merits of each of these technologies were assessed in terms of assay miniaturization, ease of development, ultimate screening capability, efficiency, and cost.

  11. A Different Approach to Validating Screening Assays for Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: There continues to be many efforts around the world to develop assays that are shorter than the traditional embryofetal developmental toxicity assay, or use fewer or no mammals, or use less compound, or have all three attributes. Each assay developer needs to test th...

  12. Screening Anti-Cancer Drugs against Tubulin using Catch-and-Release Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Darestani, Reza; Winter, Philip; Kitova, Elena N.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Klassen, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Tubulin, which is the building block of microtubules, plays an important role in cell division. This critical role makes tubulin an attractive target for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs to treat cancer. Currently, there is no general binding assay for tubulin-drug interactions. The present work describes the application of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay to investigate the binding of colchicinoid drugs to αβ-tubulin dimers extracted from porcine brain. Proof-of-concept experiments using positive (ligands with known affinities) and negative (non-binders) controls were performed to establish the reliability of the assay. The assay was then used to screen a library of seven colchicinoid analogues to test their binding to tubulin and to rank their affinities.

  13. Differentiation of drug and non-drug Cannabis using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay.

    PubMed

    Rotherham, D; Harbison, S A

    2011-04-15

    Cannabis sativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have the potential to assay Cannabis material unsuitable for analysis using conventional means including seeds, pollen and severely degraded material. The purpose of this research was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for the differentiation of "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis plants. An assay was developed based on four polymorphisms within a 399 bp fragment of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, utilising the snapshot multiplex kit. This SNP assay was tested on 94 Cannabis plants, which included 10 blind samples, and was able to differentiate between "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis in all cases, while also differentiating between Cannabis and other species. Non-drug plants were found to be homozygous at the four sites assayed while drug Cannabis plants were either homozygous or heterozygous.

  14. A novel assay for screening inhibitors targeting HIV-1 integrase dimerization based on Ni-NTA magnetic agarose beads

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dawei; He, Hongqiu; Liu, Mengmeng; Meng, Zhixia; Guo, Shunxing

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase (IN), which mediates integration of viral cDNA into the cellular chromosome, is a validated antiviral drug target. Three IN inhibitors, raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir, have been clinically approved since 2008. However, drug resistance have emerged in infected patients receiving treatment using these drugs which share the same mechanism of action and have a low genetic barrier for resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop drugs with novel mechanism. IN requires a precise and dynamic equilibrium between several oligomeric species for its activities. The modulation of the process which is termed as IN oligomerization, presents an interesting allosteric target for drug development. In this research, we developed a magnetic beads based approach to assay the IN dimerization. Then, using the assay we screened a library of 1000 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for IN dimerization inhibitors and identified dexlansoprazole as a potential IN dimerization inhibitor. In conclusion, the assay presented here has been proven to be sensitive and specific for the detection of IN dimerization as well as for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting IN dimerization. Moreover, a FDA-approved proton-pump inhibitors, dexlansoprazole, was identified as a potential inhibitor for IN dimerization. PMID:27137477

  15. ToxCast Workflow: High-throughput screening assay data processing, analysis and management (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA’s ToxCast program is generating data in high-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays for thousands of environmental chemicals, for use in developing predictive toxicity models. Currently the ToxCast screening program includes over 1800 unique c...

  16. DNA-linked Inhibitor Antibody Assay (DIANA) for sensitive and selective enzyme detection and inhibitor screening

    PubMed Central

    Navrátil, Václav; Schimer, Jiří; Tykvart, Jan; Knedlík, Tomáš; Vik, Viktor; Majer, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan; Šácha, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Human diseases are often diagnosed by determining levels of relevant enzymes and treated by enzyme inhibitors. We describe an assay suitable for both ultrasensitive enzyme quantification and quantitative inhibitor screening with unpurified enzymes. In the DNA-linked Inhibitor ANtibody Assay (DIANA), the target enzyme is captured by an immobilized antibody, probed with a small-molecule inhibitor attached to a reporter DNA and detected by quantitative PCR. We validate the approach using the putative cancer markers prostate-specific membrane antigen and carbonic anhydrase IX. We show that DIANA has a linear range of up to six logs and it selectively detects zeptomoles of targets in complex biological samples. DIANA's wide dynamic range permits determination of target enzyme inhibition constants using a single inhibitor concentration. DIANA also enables quantitative screening of small-molecule enzyme inhibitors using microliters of human blood serum containing picograms of target enzyme. DIANA's performance characteristics make it a superior tool for disease detection and drug discovery. PMID:27679479

  17. Open innovation for phenotypic drug discovery: The PD2 assay panel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan A; Chu, Shaoyou; Willard, Francis S; Cox, Karen L; Sells Galvin, Rachelle J; Peery, Robert B; Oliver, Sarah E; Oler, Jennifer; Meredith, Tamika D; Heidler, Steven A; Gough, Wendy H; Husain, Saba; Palkowitz, Alan D; Moxham, Christopher M

    2011-07-01

    Phenotypic lead generation strategies seek to identify compounds that modulate complex, physiologically relevant systems, an approach that is complementary to traditional, target-directed strategies. Unlike gene-specific assays, phenotypic assays interrogate multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways in a target "agnostic" fashion, which may reveal novel functions for well-studied proteins and discover new pathways of therapeutic value. Significantly, existing compound libraries may not have sufficient chemical diversity to fully leverage a phenotypic strategy. To address this issue, Eli Lilly and Company launched the Phenotypic Drug Discovery Initiative (PD(2)), a model of open innovation whereby external research groups can submit compounds for testing in a panel of Lilly phenotypic assays. This communication describes the statistical validation, operations, and initial screening results from the first PD(2) assay panel. Analysis of PD(2) submissions indicates that chemical diversity from open source collaborations complements internal sources. Screening results for the first 4691 compounds submitted to PD(2) have confirmed hit rates from 1.6% to 10%, with the majority of active compounds exhibiting acceptable potency and selectivity. Phenotypic lead generation strategies, in conjunction with novel chemical diversity obtained via open-source initiatives such as PD(2), may provide a means to identify compounds that modulate biology by novel mechanisms and expand the innovation potential of drug discovery.

  18. An Image-Based High-Content Screening Assay for Compounds Targeting Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gyongseon; Lee, Changbok; Moon, Hong Kee; Chatelain, Eric; Genovesio, Auguste; Cechetto, Jonathan; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease threatening 350 million people from endemic regions. The available drugs for treatment are inadequate, with limitations such as serious side effects, parasite resistance or high cost. Driven by this need for new drugs, we developed a high-content, high-throughput image-based screening assay targeting the intracellular amastigote stage of different species of Leishmania in infected human macrophages. The in vitro infection protocol was adapted to a 384-well-plate format, enabling acquisition of a large amount of readouts by automated confocal microscopy. The reading method was based on DNA staining and required the development of a customized algorithm to analyze the images, which enabled the use of non-modified parasites. The automated analysis generated parameters used to quantify compound activity, including infection ratio as well as the number of intracellular amastigote parasites and yielded cytotoxicity information based on the number of host cells. Comparison of this assay with one that used the promastigote form to screen 26,500 compounds showed that 50% of the hits selected against the intracellular amastigote were not selected in the promastigote screening. These data corroborate the idea that the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite is the most appropriate to be used in primary screening assay for Leishmania. PMID:22720099

  19. USER S GUIDE FOR THE RANDOM DRUG SCREENING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    McNeany, Karen I

    2013-12-01

    The Random Drug Screening System (RDSS) is a desktop computing application designed to assign nongameable drug testing dates to each member in a population of employees, within a specific time line. The program includes reporting capabilities, test form generation, unique test ID number assignment, and the ability to flag high-risk employees for a higher frequency of drug testing than the general population.

  20. Integrating virtual screening and combinatorial chemistry for accelerated drug discovery.

    PubMed

    López-Vallejo, Fabian; Caulfield, Thomas; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Giulianotti, Marc A; Nefzi, Adel; Houghten, Richard A; Medina-Franco, Jose L

    2011-07-01

    Virtual screening is increasingly being used in drug discovery programs with a growing number of successful applications. Experimental methodologies developed to speed up the drug discovery processes include high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry. The complementarities between computational and experimental screenings have been recognized and reviewed in the literature. Computational methods have also been used in the combinatorial chemistry field, in particular in library design. However, the integration of computational and combinatorial chemistry screenings has been attempted only recently. Combinatorial libraries (experimental or virtual) represent a notable source of chemically related compounds. Advances in combinatorial chemistry and deconvolution strategies, have enabled the rapid exploration of novel and dense regions in the chemical space. The present review is focused on the integration of virtual and experimental screening of combinatorial libraries. Applications of virtual screening to discover novel anticancer agents and our ongoing efforts towards the integration of virtual screening and combinatorial chemistry are also discussed.

  1. Assay of anticancer drugs in tissue culture: cell cultures of biopsies from human astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D; Freshney, R I; Darling, J L; Thomas, D G; Celik, F

    1983-02-01

    A method has been developed for measuring the drug sensitivity of human gliomas in short-term culture, using scintillation counting or autofluorography. Cell cultures prepared from malignant astrocytomas were treated with anticancer drugs whilst in exponential growth in microtitration plates. After drug treatment and a recovery period, residual viability was measured by [3H] leucine incorporation followed by scintillation counting or by [35S] methionine incorporation and autofluorography in situ. In 5 glioma cell lines tested against 6 drugs, the microtitration method correlated well with monolayer cloning. Although replicate samples of the same tumour showed little variation in chemosensitivity, there was marked variation between the chemosensitivities of cultures derived from the tumours of different patients. However, as variability between replicates was apparent during drug exposure or shortly after, it is important to allow the assay to run as long as possible after drug removal. It is hoped that this assay may provide the basis of a method for the prediction of in vivo chemosensitivity or the screening of potential chemotherapeutic drugs.

  2. Assay of anticancer drugs in tissue culture: cell cultures of biopsies from human astrocytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D.; Freshney, R. I.; Darling, J. L.; Thomas, D. G.; Celik, F.

    1983-01-01

    A method has been developed for measuring the drug sensitivity of human gliomas in short-term culture, using scintillation counting or autofluorography. Cell cultures prepared from malignant astrocytomas were treated with anticancer drugs whilst in exponential growth in microtitration plates. After drug treatment and a recovery period, residual viability was measured by [3H] leucine incorporation followed by scintillation counting or by [35S] methionine incorporation and autofluorography in situ. In 5 glioma cell lines tested against 6 drugs, the microtitration method correlated well with monolayer cloning. Although replicate samples of the same tumour showed little variation in chemosensitivity, there was marked variation between the chemosensitivities of cultures derived from the tumours of different patients. However, as variability between replicates was apparent during drug exposure or shortly after, it is important to allow the assay to run as long as possible after drug removal. It is hoped that this assay may provide the basis of a method for the prediction of in vivo chemosensitivity or the screening of potential chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:6297528

  3. Screening strategies to identify new chemical diversity for drug development to treat kinetoplastid infections.

    PubMed

    Don, Rob; Ioset, Jean-Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) has defined and implemented an early discovery strategy over the last few years, in fitting with its virtual R&D business model. This strategy relies on a medium- to high-throughput phenotypic assay platform to expedite the screening of compound libraries accessed through its collaborations with partners from the pharmaceutical industry. We review the pragmatic approaches used to select compound libraries for screening against kinetoplastids, taking into account screening capacity. The advantages, limitations and current achievements in identifying new quality series for further development into preclinical candidates are critically discussed, together with attractive new approaches currently under investigation.

  4. Development of phenotypic screening assays for γ-globin induction using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Xie, Wensheng; Gore, Elizabeth R; Montoute, Monica N; Bee, Weilin Tiger; Zappacosta, Francesca; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Zining; Kallal, Lorena; Ames, Robert S; Pope, Andrew J; Benowitz, Andrew; Erickson-Miller, Connie L

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder of the β-globin gene. SCA results in chronic ischemia with pain and tissue injury. The extent of SCA symptoms can be ameliorated by treatment with drugs, which result in increasing the levels of γ-globin in patient red blood cells. Hydroxyurea (HU) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for SCA, but it has dose-limiting toxicity, and patients exhibit highly variable treatment responses. To identify compounds that may lead to the development of better and safer medicines, we have established a method using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) to screen for compounds that induce γ-globin production. First, human marrow CD34(+) cells were cultured and expanded for 7 days and characterized for the expression of erythroid differentiation markers (CD71, CD36, and CD235a). Second, fresh or cryopreserved EPCs were treated with compounds for 3 days in 384-well plates followed by γ-globin quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was validated using HU and decitabine. From the 7408 compounds screened, we identified at least one new compound with confirmed γ-globin-inducing activity. Hits are undergoing analysis in secondary assays. In this article, we describe the method of generating fit-for-purpose EPCs; the development, optimization, and validation of the ELISA and secondary assays for γ-globin detection; and screening results.

  5. Screening system for drug-induced arrhythmogenic risk combining a patch clamp and heart simulator

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Jun-ichi; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Kurokawa, Junko; Washio, Takumi; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Sawada, Kohei; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    To save time and cost for drug discovery, a paradigm shift in cardiotoxicity testing is required. We introduce a novel screening system for drug-induced arrhythmogenic risk that combines in vitro pharmacological assays and a multiscale heart simulator. For 12 drugs reported to have varying cardiotoxicity risks, dose-inhibition curves were determined for six ion channels using automated patch clamp systems. By manipulating the channel models implemented in a heart simulator consisting of more than 20 million myocyte models, we simulated a standard electrocardiogram (ECG) under various doses of drugs. When the drug concentrations were increased from therapeutic levels, each drug induced a concentration-dependent characteristic type of ventricular arrhythmia, whereas no arrhythmias were observed at any dose with drugs known to be safe. We have shown that our system combining in vitro and in silico technologies can predict drug-induced arrhythmogenic risk reliably and efficiently. PMID:26601174

  6. A Quantitative Toxicogenomics Assay for High-throughput and Mechanistic Genotoxicity Assessment and Screening of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiaqi; Gou, Na; Rahman, Sheikh Mokhles; Gao, Ce; He, Miao; Gu, April Z

    2016-03-15

    The ecological and health concern of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity potentially associated with an overwhelmingly large and ever-increasing number of chemicals demands for cost-effective and feasible method for genotoxicity screening and risk assessment. This study proposed a genotoxicity assay using GFP-tagged yeast reporter strains, covering 38 selected protein biomarkers indicative of all the seven known DNA damage repair pathways. The assay was applied to assess four model genotoxic chemicals, eight environmental pollutants and four negative controls across six concentrations. Quantitative molecular genotoxicity end points were derived based on dose response modeling of a newly developed integrated molecular effect quantifier, Protein Effect Level Index (PELI). The molecular genotoxicity end points were consistent with multiple conventional in vitro genotoxicity assays, as well as with in vivo carcinogenicity assay results. Further more, the proposed genotoxicity end point PELI values quantitatively correlated with both comet assay in human cell and carcinogenicity potency assay in mice, providing promising evidence for linking the molecular disturbance measurements to adverse outcomes at a biological relevant level. In addition, the high-resolution DNA damaging repair pathway alternated protein expression profiles allowed for chemical clustering and classification. This toxicogenomics-based assay presents a promising alternative for fast, efficient and mechanistic genotoxicity screening and assessment of drugs, foods, and environmental contaminants.

  7. Functional screening with a live cell imaging-based random cell migration assay.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Wies; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E; Zovko, Sandra; de Bont, Hans; van de Water, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration, essential in cancer progression, is a complex process comprising a number of spatiotemporally regulated and well-coordinated mechanisms. In order to study (random) cell migration in the context of responses to various external cues (such as growth factors) or intrinsic cell signaling, a number of different tools and approaches have been developed. In order to unravel the key pathways and players involved in the regulation of (cancer) cell migration, a systematical mapping of the players/pathways is required. For this purpose, we developed a cell migration assay based on automatic high-throughput microscopy screen. This approach allows for screening of hundreds of genes, e.g., those encoding various kinases and phosphatases but can also be used for screening of drugs libraries. Moreover, we have developed an automatic analysis pipeline comprising of (a) automatic data acquisition (movie) and (b) automatic analysis of the acquired movies of the migrating cells. Here, we describe various facets of this approach. Since cell migration is essential in progression of cancer metastasis, we describe two examples of experiments performed on highly motile (metastatic) cancer cells.

  8. Plasma drug activity assay for treatment optimization in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Heysell, Scott K; Mtabho, Charles; Mpagama, Stellah; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Pholwat, Suporn; Ndusilo, Norah; Gratz, Jean; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Kibiki, Gibson S; Houpt, Eric R

    2011-12-01

    Low antituberculosis (TB) drug levels are common, but their clinical significance remains unclear, and methods of measurement are resource intensive. Subjects initiating treatment for sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from Kibong'oto National TB Hospital, Tanzania, and levels of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide were measured at the time of typical peak plasma concentration (C(2 h)). To evaluate the significance of the effect of observed drug levels on Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, a plasma TB drug activity (TDA) assay was developed using the Bactec MGIT system. Time to detection of plasma-cocultured M. tuberculosis versus time to detection of control growth was defined as a TDA ratio. TDA assays were later performed using the subject's own M. tuberculosis isolate and C(2 h) plasma from the Tanzanian cohort and compared to drug levels and clinical outcomes. Sixteen subjects with a mean age of 37.8 years ± 10.7 were enrolled. Fourteen (88%) had C(2 h) rifampin levels and 11 (69%) had isoniazid levels below 90% of the lower limit of the expected range. Plasma spiked with various concentrations of antituberculosis medications found TDA assay results to be unaffected by ethambutol or pyrazinamide. Yet with a range of isoniazid and rifampin concentrations, TDA exhibited a statistically significant correlation with drug level and drug MIC, and a TDA of ~1.0 indicated the presence of multidrug-resistant TB. In Tanzania, low (≤ 2.0) TDA was significantly associated with both lower isoniazid and rifampin C(2 h) levels, and very low (≤ 1.5) TDA corresponded to a trend toward lack of cure. Study of TDA compared to additional clinical outcomes and as a therapeutic management tool is warranted.

  9. Aqueous biphasic cancer cell migration assay enables robust, high-throughput screening of anti-cancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Lemmo, Stephanie; Nasrollahi, Samila; Tavana, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    Migration of tumor cells is a fundamental event implicated in metastatic progression of cancer. Therapeutic compounds with the ability to inhibit the motility of cancer cells are critical for preventing cancer metastasis. Achieving this goal requires new technologies that enable high-throughput drug screening against migration of cancer cells and expedite drug discovery. We report an easy-to-implement, robotically operated, cell migration microtechnology with the capability of simultaneous screening of multiple compounds. The technology utilizes a fully biocompatible polymeric aqueous two-phase system to pattern a monolayer of cells containing a cell-excluded gap that serves as the migration niche. We adapted this technology to a standard 96-well plate format and parametrically optimized it to generate highly consistent migration niches. The analysis of migration is done automatically using computerized schemes. We use statistical metrics and show the robustness of this assay for drug screening and its sensitivity to identify effects of different drug compounds on migration of cancer cells. This technology can be employed in core centers, research laboratories, and pharmaceutical industries to evaluate the efficacy of compounds against migration of various types of metastatic cancer cells prior to expensive animal tests and thus, streamline anti-migratory drug screening.

  10. A Cell-based PDE4 Assay in 1536-well Plate format for High Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Titus, Steven A.; Li, Xiao; Southall, Noel; Lu, Jianming; Inglese, James; Brasch, Michael; Austin, Christopher P.; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are intracellular enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotides, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), to their corresponding 5'-nucleotide monophosphates. These enzymes play an important role in controlling cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and thus regulate a variety of cellular signaling events. PDEs are emerging as drug targets for several diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, ADHD, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Though biochemical assays with purified recombinant PDE enzymes and cAMP or cGMP substrate are commonly used for compound screening, cell-based assays would provide a better assessment of compound activity in a more physiological context. Here we report the development and validation of a new cell-based PDE4 assay using a constitutively active GPCR as a driving force for cAMP production and a cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) cation channel as a biosensor in 1536-well plates. PMID:18591513

  11. Dynamic optical tweezers based assay for monitoring early drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuquan; Min, Changjun; Zhu, Siwei; Feng, Jie; Yuan, X.-C.

    2013-06-01

    In this letter, a dynamic optical tweezers based assay is proposed and investigated for monitoring early drug resistance with Pemetrexed-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The validity and stability of the method are verified experimentally in terms of the physical parameters of the optical tweezers system. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is more convenient and faster than traditional techniques when the capability of detecting small variations of the response of cells to a drug is maintained.

  12. Development, validation and quantitative assessment of an enzymatic assay suitable for small molecule screening and profiling: A case-study.

    PubMed

    Sancenon, Vicente; Goh, Wei Hau; Sundaram, Aishwarya; Er, Kai Shih; Johal, Nidhi; Mukhina, Svetlana; Carr, Grant; Dhakshinamoorthy, Saravanakumar

    2015-06-01

    The successful discovery and subsequent development of small molecule inhibitors of drug targets relies on the establishment of robust, cost-effective, quantitative, and physiologically relevant in vitro assays that can support prolonged screening and optimization campaigns. The current study illustrates the process of developing and validating an enzymatic assay for the discovery of small molecule inhibitors using alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestine as model target. The assay development workflow includes an initial phase of optimization of assay materials, reagents, and conditions, continues with a process of miniaturization and automation, and concludes with validation by quantitative measurement of assay performance and signal variability. The assay is further evaluated for dose-response and mechanism-of-action studies required to support structure-activity-relationship studies. Emphasis is placed on the most critical aspects of assay optimization and other relevant considerations, including the technology, assay materials, buffer constituents, reaction conditions, liquid handling equipment, analytical instrumentation, and quantitative assessments. Examples of bottlenecks encountered during assay development and strategies to address them are provided.

  13. Establishment of a cell model for screening antibody drugs against rheumatoid arthritis with ADCC and CDC.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Hu, Rui; Tu, Song; Cheng, Wen-Jun; Zheng, Qiong; Wang, Jun-Wen; Kan, Wu-Sheng; Ren, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    TNFα played a dominant role in the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinical trials proved the efficacies of anti-TNFα agents for curing RA. However, most researchers were concentrating on their abilities of neutralizing TNFα, the potencies of different anti-TNFα agents varied a lot due to the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). For better understanding and differentiating the potentiality of various candidate anti-TNF reagents at the stage of new drug research and development, present study established a cell model expressing the transmembrane TNFα for usage in in vitro ADCC or CDC assay, meanwhile, the assay protocol described here could provide guidelines for screening macromolecular antibody drugs. A stable cell subline bearing transmembrane TNFα was first established by conventional transfection method, the expression of transmembrane TNFα was approved by flow cytometer, and the performance of the stable subline in ADCC and CDC assay was evaluated, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector cells, and Adalimumab as the anti-TNFα reagent. The stable cell subline demonstrated high level of surface expression of transmembrane TNFα, and Adalimumab exerted both ADCC and CDC effects on this cell model. In conclusion, the stable cell line we established in present research could be used in ADCC or CDC assay for screening antibody drugs, which would provide in-depth understanding of the potencies of candidate antibody drugs in addition to the traditional TNFα neutralizing assay.

  14. Establishment of a cell model for screening antibody drugs against rheumatoid arthritis with ADCC and CDC

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li; Hu, Rui; Tu, Song; Cheng, Wen-Jun; Zheng, Qiong; Wang, Jun-Wen; Kan, Wu-Sheng; Ren, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    TNFα played a dominant role in the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinical trials proved the efficacies of anti-TNFα agents for curing RA. However, most researchers were concentrating on their abilities of neutralizing TNFα, the potencies of different anti-TNFα agents varied a lot due to the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). For better understanding and differentiating the potentiality of various candidate anti-TNF reagents at the stage of new drug research and development, present study established a cell model expressing the transmembrane TNFα for usage in in vitro ADCC or CDC assay, meanwhile, the assay protocol described here could provide guidelines for screening macromolecular antibody drugs. A stable cell subline bearing transmembrane TNFα was first established by conventional transfection method, the expression of transmembrane TNFα was approved by flow cytometer, and the performance of the stable subline in ADCC and CDC assay was evaluated, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector cells, and Adalimumab as the anti-TNFα reagent. The stable cell subline demonstrated high level of surface expression of transmembrane TNFα, and Adalimumab exerted both ADCC and CDC effects on this cell model. In conclusion, the stable cell line we established in present research could be used in ADCC or CDC assay for screening antibody drugs, which would provide in-depth understanding of the potencies of candidate antibody drugs in addition to the traditional TNFα neutralizing assay. PMID:26884918

  15. Bioluminescent bacteria assay of veterinary drugs in excreta of food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Bolelli, L; Bobrovová, Z; Ferri, E; Fini, F; Menotta, S; Scandurra, S; Fedrizzi, G; Girotti, S

    2006-09-11

    The residues of pharmacological treatments on food-producing animals, present in the manure dispersed on agricultural land, can impact environmental and human health through toxic, genotoxic, and drug-resistance development effects. Biotoxicity assays can easily reveal the presence of noxious substances and those based on bioluminescent bacteria (BLB) are particularly simple and rapid. A BLB assay was developed as microplate format by using various strains of Vibrio sp. and was employed to evaluate their response to pure antibiotic solutions and to residues extracted from excreta of antibiotic treated pigs and turkeys. The residues were quantified by HPLC analysis. The BLB assay can be proposed as an easy-to-perform screening tool to assess the presence of residues due to undeclared current, or recently ended, pharmacological treatments, as well as to evaluate their permanence in manure.

  16. High-throughput screening of FDA-approved drugs using oxygen biosensor plates reveals secondary mitofunctional effects

    PubMed Central

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Tomilov, Alexey; Komachi, Kelly; Iwahashi, Christine; Datta, Sandipan; Hughes, Owen; Hagerman, Paul; Cortopassi, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Repurposing of FDA-approved drugs with effects on mitochondrial function might shorten the critical path to mitochondrial disease drug development. We improved a biosensor-based assay of mitochondrial O2 consumption, and identified mitofunctional defects in cell models of LHON and FXTAS. Using this platform, we screened a 1600-compound library of clinically used drugs. The assay identified drugs known to affect mitochondrial function, such as metformin and decoquinate. We also identified several drugs not previously known to affect mitochondrial respiration including acarbose, metaraminol, gallamine triethiodide, and acamprosate. These previously unknown ‘mitoactives’ represent novel links to targets for mitochondrial regulation and potentially therapy, for mitochondrial disease. PMID:25034306

  17. A real-time screening assay for GIRK1/4 channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth B

    2010-12-01

    The cardiac acetylcholine-activated K(+) channel (I(K,Ach)) represents a novel target for drug therapy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). This channel is a member of the G-protein-coupled inward rectifier K(+) (GIRK) channel superfamily and is composed of the GIRK1/4 (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) subunits. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based screening assay for identifying new blockers of the GIRK1/4 channel. The mouse atrial HL-1 cell line, expressing the GIRK1/4 channel, was plated in 96-well plate format, loaded with the fluorescent membrane potential-sensitive dye bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC(4)(3)) and measured using a fluorescent imaging plate reader (FLIPR). Application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol to the cells caused a rapid, time-dependent decrease in the fluorescent signal, indicative of K(+) efflux through the GIRK1/4 channel (carbachol vs. control solution, Z' factor = 0.5-0.6). The GIRK1/4 channel fluorescent signal was blocked by BaCl(2) and enhanced by increasing the driving force for K(+) across the cell membrane. To test the utility of the assay for screening GIRK1/4 channel blockers, cells were treated with a small compound library of Na(+) and K(+) channel modulators. Analogues of amiloride and propafenone were identified as channel blockers at concentrations less than 1 µM. Thus, the GIRK1/4 channel assay may be used in the development of new and selective agents for treating AF.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  20. One-step seeding of neural stem cells with vitronectin-supplemented medium for high throughput screening assays

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Sheng; Li, Rong; Long, Yan; Titus, Steve; Zhao, Jinghua; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Human neuronal cells differentiated from induced pluripotent cells have emerged as a new model system for the study of disease pathophysiology and evaluation of drug efficacy. Differentiated neuronal cells are more similar in genetics and biological content to the human brain cells than other animal disease models. However, culture of neuronal cells in assay plates requires a labor-intensive procedure of plate pre-coating, hampering its applications in high throughput screening (HTS). We developed a simplified method with one-step seeding of neural stem cells in assay plates by supplementing the medium with a recombinant human vitronectin (VTN), thus avoiding plate pre-coating. Robust results were obtained from cell viability, calcium response, and neurite outgrowth assays using this new method. Our data demonstrate that this approach greatly simplifies high throughput assays using neuronal cells differentiated from human stem cells for translational research. PMID:27647668

  1. [Rapid pharmacokinetics screening of drug candidates in vitro and in vivo].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-na; Zhu, Xiao-xia; Meng, Zhi-yun; Liu, Jiang-lin; Cao, Ying-lin; Dou, Gui-fang

    2009-11-01

    The paper is to report the pharmacokinetic character of a series of chemical compounds in vitro and in vivo. Metabolism stability of a series of chemical compounds was screened by using rat liver microsomes. The samples of different chemical compounds were combined and then simultaneously detected by LC-MS/MS. Compounds y13, y12 and y11 were screened out by microstability assay in vitro. The pharmacokinetics of compounds y11, y12 and y13 was evaluated by using SD rat. The plasma samples were pooled at the same time. The plasma concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic character of two compounds y13, y11 was good by screening in vivo, so they were developed for further research. High-throughput screening of drug candidates in vitro and in vivo was effective, to provide information for the chemical structure information and lower the drug development risk.

  2. Microfluidic cell chips for high-throughput drug screening.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chun-Wei; Ahmed, Ah Rezwanuddin; Dereli-Korkut, Zeynep; Wang, Sihong

    2016-05-01

    The current state of screening methods for drug discovery is still riddled with several inefficiencies. Although some widely used high-throughput screening platforms may enhance the drug screening process, their cost and oversimplification of cell-drug interactions pose a translational difficulty. Microfluidic cell-chips resolve many issues found in conventional HTS technology, providing benefits such as reduced sample quantity and integration of 3D cell culture physically more representative of the physiological/pathological microenvironment. In this review, we introduce the advantages of microfluidic devices in drug screening, and outline the critical factors which influence device design, highlighting recent innovations and advances in the field including a summary of commercialization efforts on microfluidic cell chips. Future perspectives of microfluidic cell devices are also provided based on considerations of present technological limitations and translational barriers.

  3. High-throughput screening in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic support of drug discovery.

    PubMed

    White, R E

    2000-01-01

    The application of rapid methods currently used for screening discovery drug candidates for metabolism and pharmacokinetic characteristics is discussed. General considerations are given for screening in this context, including the criteria for good screens, the use of counterscreens, the proper sequencing of screens, ambiguity in the interpretation of results, strategies for false positives and negatives, and the special difficulties encountered in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic screening. Detailed descriptions of the present status of screening are provided for absorption potential, blood-brain barrier penetration, inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450, pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, and computer modeling. Although none of the systems currently employed for drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic screening can be considered truly high-throughput, several of them are rapid enough to be a practical part of the screening paradigm for modern, fast-moving discovery programs.

  4. A high-throughput screening assay for assessing the viability of Cryptococcus neoformans under nutrient starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Seameen J; Abbott, Jennifer; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; McKew, John C; Williamson, Peter R; Zheng, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans causes an estimated 600,000 AIDS-related deaths annually that occur primarily in resource-limited countries. Fluconazole and amphotericin B are currently available for the treatment of cryptococcal-related infections. However, fluconazole has limited clinical efficacy and amphotericin B requires intravenous infusion and is associated with high renal toxicity. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a new orally administrable anti-cryptococcal drug. We have developed a high-throughput screening assay for the measurement of C. neoformans viability in 1,536-well plate format. The signal-to-basal ratio of the ATP content assay was 21.9 fold with a coefficient of variation and Z' factor of 7.1% and 0.76, respectively. A pilot screen of 1,280 known compounds against the wild-type C. neoformans (strain H99) led to the identification of four active compounds including niclosamide, malonoben, 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, and 5-[(4-ethylphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone. These compounds were further tested against nine clinical isolates of C. neoformans, and their fungicidal activities were confirmed. The results demonstrate that this miniaturized C. neoformans assay is advantageous for the high-throughput screening of large compound collections to identify lead compounds for new anti-cryptococcal drug development.

  5. [In vitro screening of psychoactive drugs].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kanako; Ogata, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the designation of illegal drugs (psychoactive drugs) by prefectural regulations, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government conducts surveys on the risk of drugs, reports the results to the governor through the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Advisory Committee on Illegal Drugs, an affiliated organization, and provides the central government with information. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health conducts identification of the constituents of drugs and biological effect tests to help the committee analyze and assess information on the risks of drugs. Narcotics and stimulants increase the concentrations of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, i.e., neurotransmitters, in the presynaptic clefts, exerting an excitatory effect. In the postsynaptic region, these neurotransmitters are considered to directly combine with the receptors and activate guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, causing activation. We have developed nine types (categorized into three groups) of simple, high-throughput measurement systems and examined their measurement methods. The systems are designed to assess the following properties of drugs: effects of: 1) inhibiting reuptake; 2) stimulating the release of neurotransmitters in the presynaptic region; and 3) activating G proteins in the postsynaptic region. The systems provide useful information in that they allow searches for the effects of a variety of psychoactive substances that are expected to become widespread, e.g., designer drugs, hallucinogenic plants and synthetic cannabinoids; they also allow you to conduct a test using micrograms of a drug, facilitating testing even when it is not available in a large quantity.

  6. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section 862.3645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section 862.3645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.3645 Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (a) Identification....

  8. A Replicative In Vitro Assay for Drug Discovery against Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Tegazzini, Diana; Díaz, Rosario; Aguilar, Fernando; Peña, Imanol; Presa, Jesús L.; Yardley, Vanessa; Martin, Julio J.; Coteron, Jose M.; Croft, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, a disease potentially fatal if not treated. Current available treatments have major limitations, and new and safer drugs are urgently needed. In recent years, advances in high-throughput screening technologies have enabled the screening of millions of compounds to identify new antileishmanial agents. However, most of the compounds identified in vitro did not translate their activities when tested in in vivo models, highlighting the need to develop more predictive in vitro assays. In the present work, we describe the development of a robust replicative, high-content, in vitro intracellular L. donovani assay. Horse serum was included in the assay media to replace standard fetal bovine serum, to completely eliminate the extracellular parasites derived from the infection process. A novel phenotypic in vitro infection model has been developed, complemented with the identification of the proliferation of intracellular amastigotes measured by EdU incorporation. In vitro and in vivo results for miltefosine, amphotericin B, and the selected compound 1 have been included to validate the assay. PMID:27021313

  9. Performance of the flow cytometric E-screen assay in screening estrogenicity of pure compounds and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Vanparys, Caroline; Depiereux, Sophie; Nadzialek, Stéphanie; Robbens, Johan; Blust, Ronny; Kestemont, Patrick; De Coen, Wim

    2010-09-15

    In vitro estrogenicity screens are believed to provide a first prioritization step in hazard characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. When applied to complex environmental matrices or mixture samples, they have been indicated valuable in estimating the overall estrogen-mimicking load. In this study, the performance of an adapted format of the classical E-screen or MCF-7 cell proliferation assay was profoundly evaluated to rank pure compounds as well as influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) according to estrogenic activity. In this adapted format, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis was used to allow evaluation of the MCF-7 cell proliferative effects after only 24 h of exposure. With an average EC(50) value of 2 pM and CV of 22%, this assay appears as a sensitive and reproducible system for evaluation of estrogenic activity. Moreover, estrogenic responses of 17 pure compounds corresponded well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with other in vitro and in vivo estrogenicity screens, such as the classical E-screen (R(2)=0.98), the estrogen receptor (ER) binding (R(2)=0.84) and the ER transcription activation assay (R(2)=0.87). To evaluate the applicability of this assay for complex samples, influents and effluents of 10 STPs covering different treatment processes, were compared and ranked according to estrogenic removal efficiencies. Activated sludge treatment with phosphorus and nitrogen removal appeared most effective in eliminating estrogenic activity, followed by activated sludge, lagoon and filter bed. This is well in agreement with previous findings based on chemical analysis or biological activity screens. Moreover, ER blocking experiments indicated that cell proliferative responses were mainly ER mediated, illustrating that the complexity of the end point, cell proliferation, compared to other ER screens, does not hamper the interpretation of the results. Therefore, this study, among other E-screen studies, supports the use of

  10. Microengineering Methods for Cell Based Microarrays and High-Throughput Drug Screening Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time-consuming and often face ethical concerns due to extensive use of animals. To improve cost-effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems have facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell based drug-screening models, which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell based drug screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds a great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility. PMID:21725152

  11. Routine meconium screening versus drug screening per physician order: detecting the true incidence of drug-exposed infants.

    PubMed

    Zenewicz, D; Kuhn, P J

    1998-01-01

    National statistics indicate that 11% of newborns are exposed to drugs of abuse in utero (Chasnoff, Burns, Schnoll, & Burns, 1985). From July through November of 1993, 0.2% (1/583) of infants in our hospital screened positive for exposure to drugs of abuse in utero, by blood and urine screens collected per physician's order. During the same 4 months in 1995, 0.2% (1/574) screened positive. In contrast, from July through November 1994, all newborns born at our institution were screened for in utero drug exposure using meconium samples; approximately 4.5% (22/493) were positive. Meconium screening of all infants, not just those per physician order, produced a dramatic increase in positive drug results. Of great concern in this study was that only two of the 22 mothers identified as having drug-screen positive babies during the 1994 meconium screening agreed to use rehabilitative services. This highlights the necessity of intervention through early educational programs stressing prevention.

  12. Intercalibration exercise using a stickleback endocrine disrupter screening assay.

    PubMed

    Allen, Yvonne T; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Pottinger, Tom G; Jolly, Cecile; Matthiessen, Peter; Mayer, Ian; Smith, Andy; Scott, Alexander P; Eccles, Paul; Sanders, Matthew B; Pulman, Kim G T; Feist, Stephen

    2008-02-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently validating a short-term fish screening protocol for endocrine disrupters (estrogens, androgens, and their antagonists and aromatase inhibitors), using three core species: fathead minnow, Japanese medaka, and zebrafish. The main endpoints proposed for the first phase of validation of the screen are vitellogenin (VTG) concentration, gross morphology (secondary sexual characteristics and gonado-somatic index), and gonadal histopathology. A similar protocol is concurrently being developed in the United Kingdom using the three-spined stickleback, with identical endpoints to those for the core species and, in addition, a unique androgen-specific endpoint in the form of spiggin (glue protein) induction. To assess the suitability of this species for inclusion in the OECD protocol alongside the core species, an intercalibration was conducted using 17beta-estradiol (a natural estrogen) and trenbolone (a synthetic androgen), thus mimicking a previous intercalibration with the core species. All three participating laboratories detected statistically significant increases in VTG in males after 14 d exposure to nominal concentrations of 100 ng/L 17beta-estradiol and statistically significant increases in spiggin in females after 14 d exposure to nominal concentrations of 5,000 ng/L trenbolone. The stickleback screen is reliable, possessing both relevant and reproducible endpoints for the detection of potent estrogens and androgens. Further work is underway to assess the relevance and suitability of the screen for weakly acting estrogens, anti-androgens, and aromatase inhibitors.

  13. A cell-free enzymatic activity assay for the evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance to protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Satoko; Masaoka, Takashi; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Morishita, Ryo; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Tatsumi, Masashi; Endo, Yaeta; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sugiura, Wataru; Ryo, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high frequency of genomic mutations, human retroviruses often develop resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The emergence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a significant obstacle to the effective long-term treatment of HIV infection. The development of a rapid and versatile drug-susceptibility assay would enable acquisition of phenotypic information and facilitate determination of the appropriate choice of antiretroviral agents. In this study, we developed a novel in vitro method, termed the Cell-free drug susceptibility assay (CFDSA), for monitoring phenotypic information regarding the drug resistance of HIV-1 protease (PR). The CFDSA utilizes a wheat germ cell-free protein production system to synthesize enzymatically active HIV-1 PRs directly from PCR products amplified from HIV-1 molecular clones or clinical isolates in a rapid one-step procedure. Enzymatic activity of PRs can be readily measured by AlphaScreen (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay Screen) in the presence or absence of clinically used protease inhibitors (PIs). CFDSA measurement of drug resistance was based on the fold resistance to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of various PIs. The CFDSA could serve as a non-infectious, rapid, accessible, and reliable alternative to infectious cell-based phenotypic assays for evaluation of PI-resistant HIV-1. PMID:26583013

  14. High-throughput screening normalized to biological response: application to antiviral drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhara A; Patel, Anand C; Nolan, William C; Huang, Guangming; Romero, Arthur G; Charlton, Nichole; Agapov, Eugene; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The process of conducting cell-based phenotypic screens can result in data sets from small libraries or portions of large libraries, making accurate hit picking from multiple data sets important for efficient drug discovery. Here, we describe a screen design and data analysis approach that allow for normalization not only between quadrants and plates but also between screens or batches in a robust, quantitative fashion, enabling hit selection from multiple data sets. We independently screened the MicroSource Spectrum and NCI Diversity Set II libraries using a cell-based phenotypic high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that uses an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)-driven luciferase-reporter assay to identify interferon (IFN) signal enhancers. Inclusion of a per-plate, per-quadrant IFN dose-response standard curve enabled conversion of ISRE activity to effective IFN concentrations. We identified 45 hits based on a combined z score ≥2.5 from the two libraries, and 25 of 35 available hits were validated in a compound concentration-response assay when tested using fresh compound. The results provide a basis for further analysis of chemical structure in relation to biological function. Together, the results establish an HTS method that can be extended to screening for any class of compounds that influence a quantifiable biological response for which a standard is available.

  15. Multiple birth concordance of street drug assays of meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D; Moore, C; Leikin, J B; Kechavarz, L

    1995-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of maternal drug usage in a mid-size midwestern city (population 250,000), we analyzed 1,175 consecutive meconium samples from the neonatal intensive care unit from March 1991 through December 1993. We focused on meconium assays from multiple births as a quality control method. Meconium specimens were analyzed using fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA-Abbott Diagnostics) with confirmation done by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Cutoff concentrations of 5 ng/g were utilized for all analytes. A total of 151 samples (12.9%) tested positive. Cocaine-exposed neonates had the highest positive rate (63 or 5.4%), followed by marijuana (52 cases or 4.4%), cocaethylene (12 cases or 1%), and amphetamine (1 case or 0.1%). Nine patients (0.8%) had multiple drugs present. There were a total of 23 sets of multiple births (21 twins, 2 triplets); 20 sets of multiple births (42 patients) had concordance with all births testing negative. Three sets of twins had concordance in testing positive, with 1 twin testing positive for cocaine while the other twin tested positive for cocaine and marijuana. No absolute discordance of twins assays were noted. The rate of maternal drug use through measurement of meconium is about 12.95% in this mid-sized midwestern city. Twin studies provide an excellent method for verifying fetal drug exposure. The use of sets of multiple births provides a unique internal quality control mechanism in determining fetal drug exposure.

  16. Label-free imaging and temporal signature in phenotypic cellular assays: a new approach to high-content screening.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julio

    2010-09-01

    Some drug targets are not amenable to screening because of the lack of a practical or validated biological assay. Likewise, some screening assays may not be predictive of compound activity in a more disease-relevant scenario, or assay development may demand excessive allocation of resources (i.e., time, money or personnel) with limited knowledge of the actual tractability of the target. Label-free methodologies, implemented in microtiter plate format, may help address these issues and complement, simplify, or facilitate assays. Label-free biosensors, based on grating resonance or electrical impedance, are versatile platforms for detecting phenotypic changes in both engineered and native cells. Their non-invasive nature allows for the kinetic monitoring of multiple real-time cellular responses to external stimuli, as well as for the use of successive pharmacological challenges. The temporal signature recorded for a particular stimulus is characteristic of the cell type and the signaling pathway activated upon binding of a ligand to its receptor. Cellular label-free technology is an important technical advance in the study of functional pharmacological selectivity. Described in this overview are some of the hurdles encountered in modern drug discovery and the ways in which label-free technologies can be used to overcome these obstacles.

  17. COMPARISON OF AN IN VIVO FISH VTG ASSAY WITH YES AND E-SCREEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares the efficacy of two in vitro, estrogen-sensitive bioassays to rank the "relative estrogenicity" of five natural, pharmaceutical and xenoestrogens with a newly developed in vivo bioassay. The E-SCREEN (MCF-7 tumor cells) and YES (Yeast Estrogen Screen) assays w...

  18. Microfluidics-assisted in vitro drug screening and carrier production

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Jonathan H.; Lee, Woohyuk; Pun, Suzie H.; Kim, Jungkyu; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic platforms provide several unique advantages for drug development. In the production of drug carriers, physical properties such as size and shape, and chemical properties such as drug composition and pharmacokinetic parameters, can be modified simply and effectively by tuning the flow rate and geometries. Large numbers of carriers can then be fabricated with minimal effort and with little to no batch-to-batch variation. Additionally, cell or tissue culture models in microfluidic systems can be used as in vitro drug screening tools. Compared to in vivo animal models, microfluidic drug screening platforms allow for high-throughput and reproducible screening at a significantly lower cost, and when combined with current advances in tissue engineering, are also capable of mimicking native tissues. In this review, various microfluidic platforms for drug and gene carrier fabrication are reviewed to provide guidelines for designing appropriate carriers. In vitro microfluidic drug screening platforms designed for high-throughput analysis and replication of in vivo conditions are also reviewed to highlight future directions for drug research and development. PMID:23856409

  19. Applications of chemogenomic library screening in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lyn H; Bunnage, Mark E

    2017-01-20

    The allure of phenotypic screening, combined with the industry preference for target-based approaches, has prompted the development of innovative chemical biology technologies that facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets for accelerated drug discovery. A chemogenomic library is a collection of selective small-molecule pharmacological agents, and a hit from such a set in a phenotypic screen suggests that the annotated target or targets of that pharmacological agent may be involved in perturbing the observable phenotype. In this Review, we describe opportunities for chemogenomic screening to considerably expedite the conversion of phenotypic screening projects into target-based drug discovery approaches. Other applications are explored, including drug repositioning, predictive toxicology and the discovery of novel pharmacological modalities.

  20. Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTPS) assays to detect inhibitors of thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, are not currently available. Herein we describe the development of a HTPS TPO inhibition assay. Rat thyroid microsomes and a fluores...

  1. Rapid Identification of Antifungal Compounds against Exserohilum rostratum Using High Throughput Drug Repurposing Screens

    PubMed Central

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Fothergill, Annette; Southall, Noel; Shinn, Paul; McKew, John C.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Zheng, Wei; Williamson, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent large outbreak of fungal infections by Exserohilum rostratum from contaminated compounding solutions has highlighted the need to rapidly screen available pharmaceuticals that could be useful in therapy. The present study utilized two newly-developed high throughput assays to screen approved drugs and pharmaceutically active compounds for identification of potential antifungal agents. Several known drugs were found that have potent effects against E. rostratum including the triazole antifungal posaconazole. Posaconazole is likely to be effective against infections involving septic joints and may provide an alternative for refractory central nervous system infections. The anti-E. rostratum activities of several other drugs including bithionol (an anti-parasitic drug), tacrolimus (an immunosuppressive agent) and floxuridine (an antimetabolite) were also identified from the drug repurposing screens. In addition, activities of other potential antifungal agents against E. rostratum were excluded, which may avoid unnecessary therapeutic trials and reveals the limited therapeutic alternatives for this outbreak. In summary, this study has demonstrated that drug repurposing screens can be quickly conducted within a useful time-frame. This would allow clinical implementation of identified alternative therapeutics and should be considered as part of the initial public health response to new outbreaks or rapidly-emerging microbial pathogens. PMID:23990907

  2. Development of Chemical Compound Libraries for In Silico Drug Screening.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Lintuluoto, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Chemical compound libraries are the basic database for virtual (in silico) drug screening, and the number of entries has reached 20 million. Many drug-like compound libraries for virtual drug screening have been developed and released. In this review, the process of constructing a database for virtual screening is reviewed, and several popular databases are introduced. Several kinds of focused libraries have been developed. The author has developed databases for metalloproteases, and the details of the libraries are described. The library for metalloproteases was developed by improving the generation of the dominant-ion forms. For instance, the SH group is treated as S- in this library while all SH groups are protonated in the conventional libraries. In addition, metal complexes were examined as new candidates of drug-like compounds. Finally, a method for generating chemical space is introduced, and the diversity of compound libraries is discussed.

  3. Sandwich ELISA Microarrays: Generating Reliable and Reproducible Assays for High-Throughput Screens

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2009-05-11

    The sandwich ELISA microarray is a powerful screening tool in biomarker discovery and validation due to its ability to simultaneously probe for multiple proteins in a miniaturized assay. The technical challenges of generating and processing the arrays are numerous. However, careful attention to possible pitfalls in the development of your antibody microarray assay can overcome these challenges. In this chapter, we describe in detail the steps that are involved in generating a reliable and reproducible sandwich ELISA microarray assay.

  4. Evaporative edge lithography of a liposomal drug microarray for cell migration assays.

    PubMed

    Vafai, Nicholas; Lowry, Troy W; Wilson, Korey A; Davidson, Michael W; Lenhert, Steven

    2015-07-01

    Lipid multilayer microarrays are a promising approach to miniaturize laboratory procedures by taking advantage of the microscopic compartmentalization capabilities of lipids. Here, we demonstrate a new method to pattern lipid multilayers on surfaces based on solvent evaporation along the edge where a stencil contacts a surface called evaporative edge lithography (EEL). As an example of an application of this process, we use EEL to make microarrays suitable for a cell-based migration assay. Currently existing cell migration assays require a separate compartment for each drug which is dissolved at a single concentration in solution. An advantage of the lipid multilayer microarray assay is that multiple compounds can be tested on the same surface. We demonstrate this by testing the effect of two different lipophilic drugs, Taxol and Brefeldin A, on collective cell migration into an unpopulated area. This particular assay should be scalable to test of 2000 different lipophilic compounds or dosages on a standard microtiter plate area, or if adapted for individual cell migration, it would allow for high-throughput screening of more than 50,000 compounds per plate.

  5. A Colloidal Stability Assay Suitable for High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Carla; Ali, M Monsur; Yang, Songtao; Dong, Xiaofei; Pelton, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    A library of 32 polystyrene copolymer latexes, with diameters ranging between 53 and 387 nm, was used to develop and demonstrate a high-throughput assay using a 96-well microplate platform to measure critical coagulation concentrations, a measure of colloidal stability. The most robust assay involved an automated centrifugation-decantation step to remove latex aggregates before absorbance measurements, eliminating aggregate interference with optical measurements made through the base of the multiwell plates. For smaller nanoparticles (diameter <150 nm), the centrifugation-decantation step was not required as the interference was less than with larger particles. Parallel measurements with a ChemiDoc MP plate scanner gave indications of aggregation; however, the results were less sensitive than the absorbance measurements.

  6. Luciferase-Based, High-Throughput Assay for Screening and Profiling Transmission-Blocking Compounds against Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lucantoni, Leonardo; Fidock, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of new antimalarial drugs able to target both the asexual and gametocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum is critical to the success of the malaria eradication campaign. We have developed and validated a robust, rapid, and cost-effective high-throughput reporter gene assay to identify compounds active against late-stage (stage IV and V) gametocytes. The assay, which is suitable for testing compound activity at incubation times up to 72 h, demonstrates excellent quality and reproducibility, with average Z′ values of 0.85 ± 0.01. We used the assay to screen more than 10,000 compounds from three chemically diverse libraries. The screening outcomes highlighted the opportunity to use collections of compounds with known activity against the asexual stages of the parasites as a starting point for gametocytocidal activity detection in order to maximize the chances of identifying gametocytocidal compounds. This assay extends the capabilities of our previously reported luciferase assay, which tested compounds against early-stage gametocytes, and opens possibilities to profile the activities of gametocytocidal compounds over the entire course of gametocytogenesis. PMID:26787698

  7. Development of a Novel Phosphorylated AMPK Protection Assay for High-Throughput Screening Using TR-FRET Assay.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yuan; Li, Jia; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao

    2015-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a conserved heterotrimeric kinase, serves as an energy sensor maintaining energy balance at both cellular and whole-body levels and plays multiple beneficial roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which makes AMPK an attractive target for diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To date, establishment of the physiologically relevant biochemical assay for AMPK has not been reported. Here we developed a phosphorylated AMPK protection assay based on a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay, using the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) to dephosphorylate AMPK. The partially dephosphorylated AMPK by PP2A had lower activity than phosphorylated AMPK. This specific TR-FRET assay for AMPK was optimized in the 384-well format and produced similar EC(50) values for AMPK activators AMP and A769662 and a similar IC(50) value for AMPK inhibitor compound C, as previously reported. Under the optimized conditions, the assay Z' factor calculated over 160 data points has an optimal value greater than 0.5, which is suitable for high-throughput screening. In conclusion, this phosphorylated AMPK protection assay we developed is very robust, sensitive, and simple to perform and may be useful as a high-throughput assay for identifying AMPK activators with the ability of preventing activated AMPK against dephosphorylation by phosphatase in the physiological conditions.

  8. The Development of Screening Methods to Identify Drugs to Limit ER Stress Using Wild-type and Mutant Serotonin Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Katarao, Kazusa; Murakawa, Seiya; Asano, Masaya; Usuki, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Sakai, Norio

    2016-01-01

    The function of the serotonin transporter (SERT) is regulated by its membrane trafficking. Previously, we showed that the C-terminus-deleted mutant of SERT (SERTΔCT) exhibited an aberrant membrane trafficking and subsequent retention at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition, we found that proteasome inhibitor-induced ER stress resulted in the impairment of SERT membrane trafficking and retention of SERT at the ER, an impairment very similar to that of SERTΔCT. Based on the result that the chemical chaperone 4-phnylbutulic acid (4-PBA), which relieves ER stress, accelerated the membrane trafficking and upregulated SERT activity, we hypothesized that drugs that facilitate the membrane trafficking of SERT would have potential therapeutic effects on an ER stress-related disease. In this study, we aimed to develop simple screening methods for such drugs using SERT. We first validated the serotonin uptake assay using fluorescent substrates. This simple and reliable assay method was useful for screening for drugs that affected the wild-type SERT but not SERTΔCT. In addition, we verified an assay focusing on the formation of SERTΔCT aggregates. The drugs 4-PBA and SKF-10047 facilitated the trafficking of SERT to the membrane and reduced SERTΔCT aggregates, indicating that the drugs with such characters could be potential candidates for ER stress relief. For both assays, we clarified the usefulness of a high-content screening microscope. These results could pave the way for high-throughput screening for such drugs. PMID:28127108

  9. Label-free, turn-on fluorescent sensor for trypsin activity assay and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lufeng; Qin, Haiyan; Cui, Wanwan; Zhou, Yang; Du, Jianxiu

    2016-12-01

    The development of new detection methods for proteases activity assay is important in clinical diagnostics and drug development. In this work, a simple, label-free, and turn-on fluorescent sensor was fabricated for trypsin, a protease produced in the pancreas. Cytochrome c, a natural substance of trypsin, could be selectively cleaved by trypsin into heme-peptide fragment. The produced heme-peptide fragment exhibited an intensive catalytic role on the H2O2-mediated the oxidation of thiamine to form strong fluorescent thiochrome. The fluorescence intensity was closely dependent on the amount of trypsin presented. The procedure allowed the measurement of trypsin over the range of 0.5-20.0μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.125μg/mL. The sensor showed better precision with a relative standard deviation of 1.6% for the measurement of 1.0μg/mL trypsin solution (n=11). This sensing system was applied to screen the inhibitor of trypsin, the IC50 values were calculated to be 12.71ng/mL for the trypsin inhibitor from soybean and 2.0μg/mL for benzamidine hydrochloride, respectively, demonstrating its potential application in drug development and related diseases treatment.

  10. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Hidenori; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Miyata, Ryo; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro

    2009-02-20

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  11. Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Paul, Katie B; Hedge, Joan M; Rotroff, Daniel M; Hornung, Michael W; Crofton, Kevin M; Simmons, Steven O

    2014-03-17

    High-throughput screening (HTPS) assays to detect inhibitors of thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, are not currently available. Herein, we describe the development of a HTPS TPO inhibition assay. Rat thyroid microsomes and a fluorescent peroxidase substrate, Amplex UltraRed (AUR), were employed in an end-point assay for comparison to the existing kinetic guaiacol (GUA) oxidation assay. Following optimization of assay metrics, including Z', dynamic range, and activity, using methimazole (MMI), the assay was tested with a 21-chemical training set. The potency of MMI-induced TPO inhibition was greater with AUR compared to GUA. The dynamic range and Z' score with MMI were as follows: 127-fold and 0.62 for the GUA assay, 18-fold and 0.86 for the 96-well AUR assay, and 11.5-fold and 0.93 for the 384-well AUR assay. The 384-well AUR assay drastically reduced animal use, requiring one-tenth of the rat thyroid microsomal protein needed for the GUA 96-well format assay. Fourteen chemicals inhibited TPO, with a relative potency ranking of MMI > ethylene thiourea > 6-propylthiouracil > 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-benzophenone > 2-mercaptobenzothiazole > 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole > genistein > 4-propoxyphenol > sulfamethazine > daidzein > 4-nonylphenol > triclosan > iopanoic acid > resorcinol. These data demonstrate the capacity of this assay to detect diverse TPO inhibitors. Seven chemicals acted as negatives: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, dibutylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, diethylphthalate, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-methanol, methyl 2-methyl-benzoate, and sodium perchlorate. This assay could be used to screen large numbers of chemicals as an integral component of a tiered TH-disruptor screening approach.

  12. Plaque inhibition assay for drug susceptibility testing of influenza viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, F G; Cote, K M; Douglas, R G

    1980-01-01

    The relative antiviral activities of four drugs against contemporary strains of influenza A and B viruses were determined in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers with a plaque inhibition assay. This assay proved to be a reliable, rapid method of determining 50% inhibitory concentrations that correlated well with clinically achievable drug levels and the results of clinical trials. Contemporary strains of influenza A viruses (subtypes H1N1, H3N2, HSW1N1) required amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride 50% inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 microgram/ml, whereas 50% inhibitory concentrations ranged from approximately 50 to 100 micrograms/ml against influenza B viruses. Ribavirin was approximately 10-fold less active than amantadine hydrochloride against influenza A viruses, and the ribavirin 50% inhibitory concentrations against both influenza A and B viruses ranged from 2.6 to 6.8 micrograms/ml. Inosiplex had no antiviral activity in this test system. PMID:7396473

  13. EFFICIENT DRUG SCREENING AND GENE CORRECTION FOR TREATING LIVER DISEASE USING PATIENT-SPECIFIC STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su Mi; Kim, Yonghak; Shim, Joong Sup; Park, Joon Tae; Wang, Rui-Hong; Leach, Steven D; Liu, Jun O.; Deng, Chu-Xia; Ye, Zhaohui; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a potential source for developing novel drugand cell- therapies. Although increasing numbers of disease-specific iPSCs have been generated, there has been limited progress in iPSC-based drug screening/discovery for liver diseases, and the low gene targeting efficiency in human iPSCs warrants further improvement. Using iPSC lines from patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, for which there is currently no drug- or gene- therapy available, we established a platform to discover new drug candidates and to correct disease-causing mutation with a high efficiency. A high-throughput format screening assay based on our hepatic differentiation protocol was implemented to facilitate automated quantification of cellular AAT accumulation using a 96-well immunofluorescence reader. To expedite the eventual application of lead compounds to patients, we conducted drug screening utilizing our established library of clinical compounds, the Johns Hopkins Drug Library, with extensive safety profiles. Through a blind large-scale drug screening, five clinical drugs were identified to reduce AAT accumulation in diverse patient iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells. In addition, using the recently developed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology, we achieved high gene targeting efficiency in AAT-deficiency patient iPSCs with 25–33% of the clones demonstrating simultaneous targeting at both diseased alleles. The hepatocyte-like cells derived from the gene-corrected iPSCs were functional without the mutant AAT accumulation. This highly efficient and cost-effective targeting technology will broadly benefit both basic and translational applications. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the feasibility of effective large-scale drug screening using an iPSC-based disease model and highly robust gene targeting in human iPSCs; both of which are critical for translating the iPSC technology into

  14. [In vivo screening of illegal drug].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Akio; Satoh, Kanako; Fuwa, Tatsu; Tanaka, Toyohito; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Yano, Norio; Ando, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Ken-ichi; Miyazawa, Maki; Kojima, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The neuro-behavioral observation scorebook that improved the previous observation methods of Irwin was followed, the test material was administered to 5 mice per each group, and the mean value of the obtained score was determined. The behavior of a normal animal was assumed to be point 0, animals showing suppressive behavior were scored in the minus region, and animals that showed excitement behavior were scored in the plus region. Each score was divided into three stages, according to the level of strength of the biological effect. The score of each observation item was totaled, and the level of the strength of the biological effect in the item was judged according to its mean value. These test methods of neuro-behavioral observations we proposed were able to detect the biological effects of a drug simply and promptly, and contributed sufficient data to support an administrative measure aimed at anticipating and improving the prevention of health damage in humans by non-regulated drugs from a scientific perspective. Recently, we developed a method of serial measurement of the quantity of monoamine in the mouse central nervous system by microdialysis, and performed it. The Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health conducted a study of the biological effect of non-regulated drugs. A characteristic here is what they examined about drug-dependency other than observing the behavior of the animal.

  15. Exposure-based validation list for developmental toxicity screening assays.

    PubMed

    Daston, George P; Beyer, Bruce K; Carney, Edward W; Chapin, Robert E; Friedman, Jan M; Piersma, Aldert H; Rogers, John M; Scialli, Anthony R

    2014-12-01

    Validation of alternative assays requires comparison of the responses to toxicants in the alternative assay with in vivo responses. Chemicals have been classified as "positive" or "negative" in vivo, despite the fact that developmental toxicity is conditional on magnitude of exposure. We developed a list of positive and negative developmental exposures, with exposure defined by toxicokinetic data, specifically maternal plasma Cmax . We selected a series of 20 chemicals that caused developmental toxicity and for which there were appropriate toxicokinetic data. Where possible, we used the same chemical for both positive and negative exposures, the positive being the Cmax at a dose level that produced significant teratogenicity or embryolethality, the negative being the Cmax at a dose level not causing developmental toxicity. It was not possible to find toxicokinetic data at the no-effect level for all positive compounds, and the negative exposure list contains Cmax values for some compounds that do not have developmental toxicity up to the highest dose level tested. This exposure-based reference list represents a fundamentally different approach to the evaluation of alternative tests and is proposed as a step toward application of alternative tests in quantitative risk assessment.

  16. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples.

    PubMed

    Simon, Stéphanie; Worbs, Sylvia; Avondet, Marc-André; Tracz, Dobryan M; Dano, Julie; Schmidt, Lisa; Volland, Hervé; Dorner, Brigitte G; Corbett, Cindi R

    2015-11-26

    Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT) was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories' capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120). Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests). Using these immunological methods "dangerous" samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin.

  17. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 μg /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  18. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  1. Microscale screening of antibody libraries as maytansinoid antibody-drug conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Catcott, Kalli C.; McShea, Molly A.; Bialucha, Carl Uli; Miller, Kathy L.; Hicks, Stuart W.; Saxena, Parmita; Gesner, Thomas G.; Woldegiorgis, Mikias; Lewis, Megan E.; Bai, Chen; Fleming, Michael S.; Ettenberg, Seth A.; Erickson, Hans K.; Yoder, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are of great interest as targeted cancer therapeutics. Preparation of ADCs for early stage screening is constrained by purification and biochemical analysis techniques that necessitate burdensome quantities of antibody. Here we describe a method, developed for the maytansinoid class of ADCs, enabling parallel conjugation of antibodies in 96-well format. The method utilizes ∼100 µg of antibody per well and requires <5 µg of ADC for characterization. We demonstrate the capabilities of this system using model antibodies. We also provide multiple examples applying this method to early-stage screening of maytansinoid ADCs. The method can greatly increase the throughput with which candidate ADCs can be screened in cell-based assays, and may be more generally applicable to high-throughput preparation and screening of different types of protein conjugates. PMID:26752675

  2. Simplified assays of lipolysis enzymes for drug discovery and specificity assessment of known inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Jose; Lamontagne, Julien; Erb, Heidi; Gezzar, Sari; Zhao, Shangang; Joly, Erik; Truong, Vouy Linh; Skorey, Kathryn; Crane, Sheldon; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are used as cellular building blocks and condensed energy stores and also act as signaling molecules. The glycerolipid/ fatty acid cycle, encompassing lipolysis and lipogenesis, generates many lipid signals. Reliable procedures are not available for measuring activities of several lipolytic enzymes for the purposes of drug screening, and this resulted in questionable selectivity of various known lipase inhibitors. We now describe simple assays for lipolytic enzymes, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), sn-1-diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), monoacylglycerol lipase, α/β-hydrolase domain 6, and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) using recombinant human and mouse enzymes either in cell extracts or using purified enzymes. We observed that many of the reported inhibitors lack specificity. Thus, Cay10499 (HSL inhibitor) and RHC20867 (DAGL inhibitor) also inhibit other lipases. Marked differences in the inhibitor sensitivities of human ATGL and HSL compared with the corresponding mouse enzymes was noticed. Thus, ATGListatin inhibited mouse ATGL but not human ATGL, and the HSL inhibitors WWL11 and Compound 13f were effective against mouse enzyme but much less potent against human enzyme. Many of these lipase inhibitors also inhibited human CES1. Results describe reliable assays for measuring lipase activities that are amenable for drug screening and also caution about the specificity of the many earlier described lipase inhibitors.

  3. Differential nuclear staining assay for high-throughput screening to identify cytotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lema, Carolina; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Aguilera, Renato J

    As large quantities of novel synthetic molecules continue to be generated there is a challenge to identify therapeutic agents with cytotoxic activity. Here we introduce a Differential Nuclear Staining (DNS) assay adapted to live-cell imaging for high throughput screening (HTS) that utilizes two fluorescent DNA intercalators, Hoechst 33342 and Propidium iodide (PI). Since Hoechst can readily cross cell membranes to stain DNA of living and dead cells, it was used to label the total number of cells. In contrast, PI only enters cells with compromised plasma membranes, thus selectively labeling dead cells. The DNS assay was successfully validated by utilizing well known cytotoxic agents with fast or slow cytotoxic activities. The assay was found to be suitable for HTS with Z' factors ranging from 0.86 to 0.60 for 96 and 384-well formats, respectively. Furthermore, besides plate-to-plate reproducibility, assay quality performance was evaluated by determining ratios of signal-to-noise and signal-to-background, as well as coefficient of variation, which resulted in adequate values and validated the assay for HTS initiatives. As proof of concept, eighty structurally diverse compounds from a small molecule library were screened in a 96-well plate format using the DNS assay. Using this DNS assay, six hits with cytotoxic properties were identified and all of them were also successfully identified by using the commercially available MTS assay (CellTiter 96® Cell Proliferation Assay). In addition, the DNS and a flow cytometry assay were used to validate the activity of the cytotoxic compounds. The DNS assay was also used to generate dose-response curves and to obtain CC50 values. The results indicate that the DNS assay is reliable and robust and suitable for primary and secondary screens of compounds with potential cytotoxic activity.

  4. An Escherichia coli Expression Assay and Screen for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Variants with Decreased Susceptibility to Indinavir

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Laurence; Yang, Shiow-Shong; Rossi, Rick; Zepp, Charlie; Heefner, Donald

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a recombinant Escherichia coli screening system for the rapid detection and identification of amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease associated with decreased susceptibility to the protease inhibitor indinavir (MK-639; Merck & Co.). The assay depends upon the correct processing of a segment of the HIV-1 HXB2 gag-pol polyprotein followed by detection of HIV reverse transcriptase activity by a highly sensitive, colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highly sensitive system detects the contributions of single substitutions such as I84V, L90M, and L63P. The combination of single substitutions further decreases the sensitivity to indinavir. We constructed a library of HIV protease variant genes containing dispersed mutations and, using the E. coli recombinant system, screened for mutants with decreased indinavir sensitivity. The discovered HIV protease variants contain amino acid substitutions commonly associated with indinavir resistance in clinical isolates, including the substitutions L90M, L63P, I64V, V82A, L24I, and I54T. One substitution, W6R, is also frequently found by the screen and has not been reported elsewhere. Of a total of 12,000 isolates that were screened, 12 protease variants with decreased sensitivity to indinavir were found. The L63P substitution, which is also associated with indinavir resistance, increases the stability of the isolated protease relative to that of the native HXB2 protease. The rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this screen also make it useful for screening for novel inhibitors. We have found the approach described here to be useful for the detection of amino acid substitutions in HIV protease that have been associated with drug resistance as well as for the screening of novel compounds for inhibitory activity. PMID:9835523

  5. Evaluation of an automated connective tissue disease screening assay in Korean patients with systemic rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seri; Yang, Heeyoung; Hwang, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of the automated connective tissues disease screening assay, CTD screen, in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. A total of 1093 serum samples were assayed using CTD screen and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) methods. Among them, 162 were diagnosed with systemic rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCT). The remaining 931 with non-systemic rheumatic disease were assigned to the control group. The median ratios of CTD screen tests were significantly higher in the systemic rheumatic disease group than in the control group. The positive likelihood ratios of the CTD screen were higher than those of IIF in patients with total rheumatic diseases (4.1 vs. 1.6), including SLE (24.3 vs. 10.7). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs) of the CTD screen for discriminating total rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, and MCT from controls were 0.68, 0.56, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. The ROC-AUCs of the combinations with IIF were significantly higher in patients with total rheumatic diseases (0.72) and MCT (0.85) than in those of the CTD screen alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that both the CTD screen and IIF were independent variables for predicting systemic rheumatic disease. CTD screen alone and in combination with IIF were a valuable diagnostic tool for predicting systemic rheumatic diseases, particularly for SLE. PMID:28273146

  6. Evaluation of an automated connective tissue disease screening assay in Korean patients with systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seri; Yang, Heeyoung; Hwang, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of the automated connective tissues disease screening assay, CTD screen, in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. A total of 1093 serum samples were assayed using CTD screen and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) methods. Among them, 162 were diagnosed with systemic rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCT). The remaining 931 with non-systemic rheumatic disease were assigned to the control group. The median ratios of CTD screen tests were significantly higher in the systemic rheumatic disease group than in the control group. The positive likelihood ratios of the CTD screen were higher than those of IIF in patients with total rheumatic diseases (4.1 vs. 1.6), including SLE (24.3 vs. 10.7). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs) of the CTD screen for discriminating total rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, and MCT from controls were 0.68, 0.56, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. The ROC-AUCs of the combinations with IIF were significantly higher in patients with total rheumatic diseases (0.72) and MCT (0.85) than in those of the CTD screen alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that both the CTD screen and IIF were independent variables for predicting systemic rheumatic disease. CTD screen alone and in combination with IIF were a valuable diagnostic tool for predicting systemic rheumatic diseases, particularly for SLE.

  7. Multiple animal studies for medical chemical defense program in soldier/patient decontamination and drug development on task 88-36: Development of in vitro screening assays for candidate pretreatment and treatment compounds. Final report, 1 July 1988-1 July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, R.; Dill, G.; Hobson, D.; Blank, J.

    1990-03-01

    A task was instituted at the Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) to develop in vitro assays to screen pretreatment and treatment compounds for their ability to protect or reverse the toxic effects of organophosphates and vesicants. Four vesicant assays and three nerve agent assays were developed. Two of the vesicant assays were for cell viability of keratinocyte, one in the presence of distilled mustard and one lewisite. One assay determines the effect of vesicants on keratinocyte reproduction and the other the effect of distilled mustard on cellular coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide content. The organophosphate assays measure the effects on acetylcholinesterase of selected compounds measured by ability to reactivate, effect on aging rate, and directly. In vitro screen; HD; L; Cellular NAD+ cellular viability; GA; GD; VX; Acetylcholinesterase inhibition; Reactivators; RA 5; Aging rate; Keratinocytes; Treatment and pretreatments; Assaying; Tabun (GA); Sarin (GB); Soman (GD); Organoarsenic; Organophosphates; Chemical Surety Material (CSM); Blisters; Toxicity; Toxic agents; Nerve agents; Chemical warfare agents; G Agents; V Agents; Vesicants; Mustard agents.

  8. Microfluidics: Emerging prospects for anti-cancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2010-11-10

    Cancer constitutes a heterogenic cellular system with a high level of spatio-temporal complexity. Recent discoveries by systems biologists have provided emerging evidence that cellular responses to anti-cancer modalities are stochastic in nature. To uncover the intricacies of cell-to-cell variability and its relevance to cancer therapy, new analytical screening technologies are needed. The last decade has brought forth spectacular innovations in the field of cytometry and single cell cytomics, opening new avenues for systems oncology and high-throughput real-time drug screening routines. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. The vast miniaturization of LOC systems and multiplexing enables innovative strategies to reduce drug screening expenditures while increasing throughput and content of information from a given sample. Small cell numbers and operational reagent volumes are sufficient for microfluidic analyzers and, as such, they enable next generation high-throughput and high-content screening of anti-cancer drugs on patient-derived specimens. Herein we highlight the selected advancements in this emerging field of bioengineering, and provide a snapshot of developments with relevance to anti-cancer drug screening routines.

  9. Microfluidics: Emerging prospects for anti-cancer drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Cancer constitutes a heterogenic cellular system with a high level of spatio-temporal complexity. Recent discoveries by systems biologists have provided emerging evidence that cellular responses to anti-cancer modalities are stochastic in nature. To uncover the intricacies of cell-to-cell variability and its relevance to cancer therapy, new analytical screening technologies are needed. The last decade has brought forth spectacular innovations in the field of cytometry and single cell cytomics, opening new avenues for systems oncology and high-throughput real-time drug screening routines. The up-and-coming microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technology and micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) are arguably the most promising platforms to address the inherent complexity of cellular systems with massive experimental parallelization and 4D analysis on a single cell level. The vast miniaturization of LOC systems and multiplexing enables innovative strategies to reduce drug screening expenditures while increasing throughput and content of information from a given sample. Small cell numbers and operational reagent volumes are sufficient for microfluidic analyzers and, as such, they enable next generation high-throughput and high-content screening of anti-cancer drugs on patient-derived specimens. Herein we highlight the selected advancements in this emerging field of bioengineering, and provide a snapshot of developments with relevance to anti-cancer drug screening routines. PMID:21603306

  10. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based endothelial cell apoptosis assay and its application for screening vascular disrupting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Fu, Afu; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An endothelial cell apoptosis assay using FRET-based biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue during apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was developed into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This assay was applied to screen vascular disrupting agents. -- Abstract: In this study, we developed a high-throughput endothelial cell apoptosis assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor. After exposure to apoptotic inducer UV-irradiation or anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, the fluorescence of the cells changed from green to blue. We developed this method into a high-throughput assay in 96-well plates by measuring the emission ratio of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to monitor the activation of a key protease, caspase-3, during apoptosis. The Z Prime factor for this assay was above 0.5 which indicates that this assay is suitable for a high-throughput analysis. Finally, we applied this functional high-throughput assay for screening vascular disrupting agents (VDA) which could induce endothelial cell apoptosis from our in-house compounds library and dioscin was identified as a hit. As this assay allows real time and sensitive detection of cell apoptosis, it will be a useful tool for monitoring endothelial cell apoptosis in living cell situation and for identifying new VDA candidates via a high-throughput screening.

  11. Identification of Rift Valley Fever Virus Nucleocapsid Protein-RNA Binding Inhibitors Using a High-Throughput Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Mary; Lanchy, Jean-Marc; Lodmell, J. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging infectious pathogen that causes severe disease in humans and livestock and has the potential for global spread. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment for RVFV infection and there is no licensed vaccine. Inhibition of RNA binding to the essential viral nucleocapsid (N) protein represents a potential anti-viral therapeutic strategy because all of the functions performed by N during infection involve RNA binding. To target this interaction, we developed a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput drug screening assay and tested 26,424 chemical compounds for their ability to disrupt an N-RNA complex. From libraries of FDA approved drugs, drug-like molecules and natural products extracts we identified several lead compounds that are promising candidates for medicinal chemistry. PMID:22644268

  12. Development of a one-pot assay for screening and identification of Mur pathway inhibitors in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Eniyan, Kandasamy; Kumar, Anuradha; Rayasam, Geetha Vani; Perdih, Andrej; Bajpai, Urmi

    2016-01-01

    The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) consists of peptidoglycan, arabinogalactan and mycolic acids. The cytoplasmic steps in the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway, catalyzed by the Mur (A-F) enzymes, involve the synthesis of UDP-n-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide, a key precursor molecule required for the formation of the peptidoglycan monomeric building blocks. Mur enzymes are indispensable for cell integrity and their lack of counterparts in eukaryotes suggests them to be promising Mtb drug targets. However, the caveat is that most of the current assays utilize a single Mur enzyme, thereby identifying inhibitors against only one of the enzymes. Here, we report development of a one-pot assay that reconstructs the entire Mtb Mur pathway in vitro and has the advantage of eliminating the requirement for nucleotide intermediates in the pathway as substrates. The MurA-MurF enzymes were purified and a one-pot assay was developed through optimization of successive coupled enzyme assays using UDP-n-acetylglucosamine as the initial sugar substrate. The assay is biochemically characterized and optimized for high-throughput screening of molecules that could disrupt multiple targets within the pathway. Furthermore, we have validated the assay by performing it to identify D-Cycloserine and furan-based benzene-derived compounds with known Mur ligase inhibition as inhibitors of Mtb MurE and MurF. PMID:27734910

  13. Development of a Screening Assay for Microbial Community Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracle, A. L.; Tilton, F.; Bonheyo, G. T.; McDermott, J.

    2010-12-01

    Remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes has been challenging in the aspects of site characterization, design for treatability, and monitoring of treatment efficacy, to name a few. Characterization of physical and geochemical properties can be achieved through advances in sensor technologies, modeling, and well placement. However, the biotic composition within the subsurface is also an important component that adds an additional biochemical contribution that is not currently being assessed. Changes in the environment have impacts to the composition of microbial communities at this solid/fluid phase interface. The introduction of a remediative treatment may provide an abundant food source for microorganisms in the subsurface and alter the community dynamics. Such changes to the microbial community composition may have dramatic effects on bulk community biochemistry, which in turn may affect the quality of the remediative treatment in terms of effectiveness and transport through alteration of the environment. A screening array is being developed based on DNA sequence information from indigenous microorganisms within target sediments to be used to assess microbial community changes throughout remediative treatments and through time. Integration of physical, chemical, and biotic community information will be assessed to determine efficacy of treatment before, during, and after treatment to assess success of treatment, and measure any post-treatment changes.

  14. GMO detection in food and feed through screening by visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    Isothermal DNA/RNA amplification techniques are the primary methodology for developing on-spot rapid nucleic acid amplification assays, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been developed and applied in the detection of foodborne pathogens, plant/animal viruses, and genetically modified (GM) food/feed contents. In this study, one set of LAMP assays targeting on eight frequently used universal elements, marker genes, and exogenous target genes, such as CaMV35S promoter, FMV35S promoter, NOS, bar, cry1Ac, CP4 epsps, pat, and NptII, were developed for visual screening of GM contents in plant-derived food samples with high efficiency and accuracy. For these eight LAMP assays, their specificity was evaluated by testing commercial GM plant events and their limits of detection were also determined, which are 10 haploid genome equivalents (HGE) for FMV35S promoter, cry1Ac, and pat assays, as well as five HGE for CaMV35S promoter, bar, NOS terminator, CP4 epsps, and NptII assays. The screening applicability of these LAMP assays was further validated successfully using practical canola, soybean, and maize samples. The results suggested that the established visual LAMP assays are applicable and cost-effective for GM screening in plant-derived food samples.

  15. Primary cells and stem cells in drug discovery: emerging tools for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Eglen, Richard; Reisine, Terry

    2011-04-01

    Many drug discovery screening programs employ immortalized cells, recombinantly engineered to express a defined molecular target. Several technologies are now emerging that render it feasible to employ more physiologically, and clinically relevant, cell phenotypes. Consequently, numerous approaches use primary cells, which retain many functions seen in vivo, as well as endogenously expressing the target of interest. Furthermore, stem cells, of either embryonic or adult origin, as well as those derived from differentiated cells, are now finding a place in drug discovery. Collectively, these cells are expanding the utility of authentic human cells, either as screening tools or as therapeutics, as well as providing cells derived directly from patients. Nonetheless, the growing use of phenotypically relevant cells (including primary cells or stem cells) is not without technical difficulties, particularly when their envisioned use lies in high-throughput screening (HTS) protocols. In particular, the limited availability of homogeneous primary or stem cell populations for HTS mandates that novel technologies be developed to accelerate their adoption. These technologies include detection of responses with very few cells as well as protocols to generate cell lines in abundant, homogeneous populations. In parallel, the growing use of changes in cell phenotype as the assay readout is driving greater use of high-throughput imaging techniques in screening. Taken together, the greater availability of novel primary and stem cell phenotypes as well as new detection technologies is heralding a new era of cellular screening. This convergence offers unique opportunities to identify drug candidates for disorders at which few therapeutics are presently available.

  16. A novel high-throughput screening assay for HCN channel blocker using membrane potential-sensitive dye and FLIPR.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, Dmitry V; Shan, Qin J; Lee, Yan T; Soloveva, Veronica; Nawoschik, Stanley P; Kaftan, Edward J; Dunlop, John; Mayer, Scott C; Bowlby, Mark R

    2009-10-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cation nonselective (HCN) channels represent an interesting group of targets for drug development. In this study, the authors report the development of a novel membrane potential-sensitive dye (MPSD) assay for HCN channel modulators that has been miniaturized into 384-well fluorescent imaging plate reader (FLIPR) high-throughput screening (HTS) format. When optimized (by cell plating density, plate type, cell recovery from cryopreservation), the well-to-well signal variability was low, with a Z' = 0.73 and coefficient of variation = 6.4%, whereas the MPSD fluorescence signal amplitude was -23,700 +/- 1500 FLIPR(3) relative fluorescence units (a linear relationship was found between HCN1 MPSD fluorescence signal and the cell plating density) and was completely blocked by 30 microM ZD7288. The assay tolerated up to 1% DMSO, inclusion of which did not significantly change the signal kinetics or amplitude. A single-concentration screening of an ion channel-focused library composed of 4855 compounds resulted in 89 HCN1 blocker hits, 51 of which were subsequently analyzed with an 8-point concentration-response analysis on the IonWorks HT electrophysiology platform. The correlation between MPSD and the electrophysiology assay was moderate, as shown by the linear regression analysis (r(2) = 0.56) between the respective IC(50)s obtained using these 2 assays. The reported HTS-compatible HCN channel blocker assay can serve as a tool in drug discovery in the pursuit of HCN channel isoform-selective small molecules that could be used in the development of clinically relevant compounds.

  17. Cell-based assays in GPCR drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Siehler, Sandra

    2008-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit extracellular signals into the intracellular space, and play key roles in the physiological regulation of virtually every cell and tissue. Characteristic for the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors are their seven transmembrane-spanning alpha-helices, an extracellular N terminus and intracellular C-terminal tail. Besides transmission of extracellular signals, their activity is modulated by cellular signals in an auto- or transregulatory fashion. The molecular complexity of GPCRs and their regulated signaling networks triggered the interest in academic research groups to explore them further, and their drugability and role in pathophysiology triggers pharmaceutical research towards small molecular weight ligands and therapeutic antibodies. About 30% of marketed drugs target GPCRs, which underlines the importance of this target class. This review describes current and emerging cellular assays for the ligand discovery of GPCRs.

  18. mQC: A Heuristic Quality-Control Metric for High-Throughput Drug Combination Screening

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Wilson, Kelli; Goldlust, Ian; Mott, Bryan T.; Eastman, Richard; Davis, Mindy I.; Zhang, Xiaohu; McKnight, Crystal; Klumpp-Thomas, Carleen; Shinn, Paul; Simmons, John; Gormally, Mike; Michael, Sam; Thomas, Craig J.; Ferrer, Marc; Guha, Rajarshi

    2016-01-01

    Quality control (QC) metrics are critical in high throughput screening (HTS) platforms to ensure reliability and confidence in assay data and downstream analyses. Most reported HTS QC metrics are designed for plate level or single well level analysis. With the advent of high throughput combination screening there is a need for QC metrics that quantify the quality of combination response matrices. We introduce a predictive, interpretable, matrix-level QC metric, mQC, based on a mix of data-derived and heuristic features. mQC accurately reproduces the expert assessment of combination response quality and correctly identifies unreliable response matrices that can lead to erroneous or misleading characterization of synergy. When combined with the plate-level QC metric, Z’, mQC provides a more appropriate determination of the quality of a drug combination screen. Retrospective analysis on a number of completed combination screens further shows that mQC is able to identify problematic screens whereas plate-level QC was not able to. In conclusion, our data indicates that mQC is a reliable QC filter that can be used to identify problematic drug combinations matrices and prevent further analysis on erroneously active combinations as well as for troubleshooting failed screens. The R source code of mQC is available at http://matrix.ncats.nih.gov/mQC. PMID:27883049

  19. Single and Combination Drug Screening with Aqueous Biphasic Tumor Spheroids.

    PubMed

    Shahi Thakuri, Pradip; Tavana, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Spheroids of cancer cells represent a physiologic model of solid tumors for cancer drug screening. Despite this known benefit, difficulties with generating large quantities of uniformly sized spheroids in standard plates, individually addressing spheroids with drug compounds, and quantitatively analyzing responses of cancer cells have hindered the use of spheroids in high-throughput screening applications. Recently, we addressed this challenge by using an aqueous two-phase system technology to generate a spheroid within an aqueous drop immersed in a second, immiscible aqueous phase. Integrating this approach with robotics resulted in convenient formation, maintenance, and drug treatment of spheroids. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of high-throughput compound screening against colon cancer spheroids using 25 anticancer compounds. Using a strictly standardized mean difference and based on a preliminary testing with each compound, we select effective compounds for further dose-response testing. Finally, we use molecular inhibitors to target upregulated protein kinases and use them for drug combination studies against spheroids. We quantitatively analyze the combination treatment results using statistical metrics to identify synergy between pairs of inhibitors in compromising viability of colon cancer cells. This study demonstrates the utility of our spheroid culture technology for identification of effective drug compounds, dose-response analysis, and combination drug treatments.

  20. Which high-risk HPV assays fulfil criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed

    Arbyn, M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Berkhof, J; Cuschieri, K; Kocjan, B J; Poljak, M

    2015-09-01

    Several countries are in the process of switching to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Given the multitude of available tests, validated assays which assure high-quality screening need to be identified. A systematic review was conducted to answer the question which hrHPV tests fulfil the criteria defined by an international expert team in 2009, based on reproducibility and relative sensitivity and specificity compared to Hybrid Capture-2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay. These latter two hrHPV DNA assays were validated in large randomized trials and cohorts with a follow-up duration of 8 years or more. Eligible studies citing the 2009 guideline were retrieved from Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and from a meta-analysis assessing the relative accuracy of new hrHPV assays versus the standard comparator tests to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in primary screening. The cobas 4800 HPV test and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test were consistently validated in two and three studies, respectively, whereas the PapilloCheck HPV-screening test, BD Onclarity HPV assay and the HPV-Risk assay were validated each in one study. Other tests which partially fulfil the 2009 guidelines are the following: Cervista HPV HR Test, GP5+/6+ PCR-LMNX, an in-house E6/E7 RT quantitative PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight). The APTIMA HPV assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was also fully validated. However, the cross-sectional equivalency criteria of the 2009 guidelines were set up for HPV DNA assays. Demonstration of a low risk of CIN3+ after a negative APTIMA test over a longer period is awaited to inform us about its utility in cervical cancer screening at 5-year or longer intervals.

  1. Improved microbial screening assay for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry and eggs.

    PubMed

    Pikkemaat, M G; Mulder, P P J; Elferink, J W A; de Cocq, A; Nielen, M W F; van Egmond, H J

    2007-08-01

    An improved microbiological screening assay is reported for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry muscle and eggs. The method was validated using fortified tissue samples and is the first microbial assay to effectively detect enrofloxacin, difloxacin, danofloxacin, as well as flumequine and oxolinic acid, at or below their EU maximum residue limits (MRL). The accuracy of the assay was shown by analysing incurred tissue samples containing residue levels around the MRL. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification of the quinolone concentration in these samples showed that the test plate can be used semi-quantitatively, allowing the definition of an "action level" as an inhibition zone above which a sample can be considered "suspect". The presented assay is a useful improvement or addition to existing screening systems.

  2. A High-throughput Compatible Assay to Evaluate Drug Efficacy against Macrophage Passaged Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Kaitlyn; Smith, Samuel R; Hayley, Virginia; Kutsch, Olaf; Sun, Jim

    2017-03-24

    The early drug development process for anti-tuberculosis drugs is hindered by the inefficient translation of compounds with in vitro activity to effectiveness in the clinical setting. This is likely due to a lack of consideration for the physiologically relevant cellular penetration barriers that exist in the infected host. We recently established an alternative infection model that generates large macrophage aggregate structures containing densely packed M. tuberculosis (Mtb) at its core, which was suitable for drug susceptibility testing. This infection model is inexpensive, rapid, and most importantly BSL-2 compatible. Here, we describe the experimental procedures to generate Mtb/macrophage aggregate structures that would produce macrophage-passaged Mtb for drug susceptibility testing. In particular, we demonstrate how this infection system could be directly adapted to the 96-well plate format showing throughput capability for the screening of compound libraries against Mtb. Overall, this assay is a valuable addition to the currently available Mtb drug discovery toolbox due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, and scalability.

  3. A novel multiplex cell viability assay for high-throughput RNAi screening.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Daniel F; Erdmann, Gerrit; Zhang, Xian; Fritzsche, Anja; Demir, Kubilay; Jaedicke, Andreas; Muehlenberg, Katja; Wanker, Erich E; Boutros, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cell-based high-throughput RNAi screening has become a powerful research tool in addressing a variety of biological questions. In RNAi screening, one of the most commonly applied assay system is measuring the fitness of cells that is usually quantified using fluorescence, luminescence and absorption-based readouts. These methods, typically implemented and scaled to large-scale screening format, however often only yield limited information on the cell fitness phenotype due to evaluation of a single and indirect physiological indicator. To address this problem, we have established a cell fitness multiplexing assay which combines a biochemical approach and two fluorescence-based assaying methods. We applied this assay in a large-scale RNAi screening experiment with siRNA pools targeting the human kinome in different modified HEK293 cell lines. Subsequent analysis of ranked fitness phenotypes assessed by the different assaying methods revealed average phenotype intersections of 50.7±2.3%-58.7±14.4% when two indicators were combined and 40-48% when a third indicator was taken into account. From these observations we conclude that combination of multiple fitness measures may decrease false-positive rates and increases confidence for hit selection. Our robust experimental and analytical method improves the classical approach in terms of time, data comprehensiveness and cost.

  4. Deployable Pan-Flavivirus and Pan-alphavirus Assays for Screening Pools of Medically Relevant Arthropod

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-C-0046 “Deployable Pan-flavivirus and Pan- alphavirus Assays 5b. GRANT NUMBER for Screening Pools of...hybridization, detection and data analysis. We used our bioinformatic system called Genotyper to create an updated pan-flavivirus and pan- alphavirus ... alphaviruses , with near single copy detection in a single reaction/detection assay. The detection device itself is hand-held and requires only a USB

  5. Fluorescence anisotropy (polarization): from drug screening to precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hairong; Wu, Qian; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is one of the major established methods accepted by industry and regulatory agencies for understanding the mechanisms of drug action and selecting drug candidates utilizing a high-throughput format. Areas covered This review covers the basics of FA and complementary methods, such as fluorescence lifetime anisotropy and their roles in the drug discovery process. The authors highlight the factors affecting FA readouts, fluorophore selection, and instrumentation. Furthermore, the authors describe the recent development of a successful, commercially valuable FA assay for Long QT syndrome drug toxicity to illustrate the role that FA can play in the early stages of drug discovery. Expert opinion Despite the success in drug discovery, the FA-based technique experiences competitive pressure from other homogeneous assays. That being said, FA is an established yet rapidly developing technique, recognized by academic institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulatory agencies across the globe. The technical problems encountered in working with small molecules in homogeneous assays are largely solved, and new challenges come from more complex biological molecules and nanoparticles. With that, FA will remain one of the major work-horse techniques leading to precision (personalized) medicine. PMID:26289575

  6. Evaluation of the NexScreen and DrugCheck Waive RT urine drug detection cups.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ni; Nelson, Gordon J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2013-01-01

    Urine drug testing is an important tool that is commonly used to assess patient compliance with prescription regimens. Point-of-collection immunoassay devices allow for timely availability of laboratory test results to guide therapy during the same office visit. Two waived immunoassay-based urine drug screen cups were evaluated in this study. The NexScreen cup and the DrugCheck Waive RT cup claim to detect 10-12 drug classes of commonly used and/or abused drugs. This study included a sensitivity and precision challenge with 4-6 replicates at concentrations 0-150% of the manufacture's claimed cutoff, using drug-free urine spiked with purified reference standards. The stability of test results was evaluated by reading the results at intervals between five and 1,440 min. Specificity was evaluated by parallel comparison of pooled patients' specimens, representing 56 patients and 41 known drug compounds. When comparing results to validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results, false positives were observed in the NexScreen cups for benzodiazepine, methamphetamine, methadone, opiates and tricyclic antidepressant tests, but there were no false negatives. The DrugCheck Waive RT cups showed false negative results for barbiturates and opiates, but no false positives. Overall, the NexScreen cup demonstrated better sensitivity than claimed, whereas the sensitivity of the DrugCheck Waive RT cup did not meet claims.

  7. AroER tri-screen is a biologically relevant assay for endocrine disrupting chemicals modulating the activity of aromatase and/or the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiuan; Zhou, Dujin; Hsin, Li-Yu; Kanaya, Noriko; Wong, Cynthie; Yip, Richard; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Witt, Kristine; Teng, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the biosynthesis, metabolism, and functions of steroid hormones, including estrogens and androgens. Aromatase enzyme converts androgen to estrogen. Thus, EDCs against aromatase significantly impact estrogen- and/or androgen-dependent functions, including the development of breast cancer. The current study aimed to develop a biologically relevant cell-based high-throughput screening assay to identify EDCs that act as aromatase inhibitors (AIs), estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, and/or ER antagonists. The AroER tri-screen assay was developed by stable transfection of ER-positive, aromatase-expressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells with an estrogen responsive element (ERE) driven luciferase reporter plasmid. The AroER tri-screen can identify: estrogenic EDCs, which increase luciferase signal without 17β-estradiol (E2); anti-estrogenic EDCs, which inhibit the E2-induced luciferase signal; and AI-like EDCs, which suppress a testosterone-induced luciferase signal. The assay was first optimized in a 96-well plate format and then miniaturized into a 1536-well plate format. The AroER tri-screen was demonstrated to be suitable for high-throughput screening in the 1536-well plate format, with a 6.9-fold signal-to-background ratio, a 5.4% coefficient of variation, and a screening window coefficient (Z-factor) of 0.78. The assay suggested that bisphenol A (BPA) functions mainly as an ER agonist. Results from screening the 446 drugs in the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection revealed 106 compounds that modulated ER and/or aromatase activities. Among these, two AIs (bifonazole and oxiconazole) and one ER agonist (paroxetine) were confirmed through alternative aromatase and ER activity assays. These findings indicate that AroER tri-screen is a useful high-throughput screening system for identifying ER ligands and aromatase-inhibiting chemicals.

  8. A Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Zika Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Nicholas J; Campos, Rafael K; Powell, Steven T; Prasanth, K Reddisiva; Schott-Lerner, Geraldine; Soto-Acosta, Ruben; Galarza-Muñoz, Gaddiel; McGrath, Erica L; Urrabaz-Garza, Rheanna; Gao, Junling; Wu, Ping; Menon, Ramkumar; Saade, George; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Rossi, Shannan L; Vasilakis, Nikos; Routh, Andrew; Bradrick, Shelton S; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2016-08-10

    Currently there are no approved vaccines or specific therapies to prevent or treat Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. We interrogated a library of FDA-approved drugs for their ability to block infection of human HuH-7 cells by a newly isolated ZIKV strain (ZIKV MEX_I_7). More than 20 out of 774 tested compounds decreased ZIKV infection in our in vitro screening assay. Selected compounds were further validated for inhibition of ZIKV infection in human cervical, placental, and neural stem cell lines, as well as primary human amnion cells. Established anti-flaviviral drugs (e.g., bortezomib and mycophenolic acid) and others that had no previously known antiviral activity (e.g., daptomycin) were identified as inhibitors of ZIKV infection. Several drugs reduced ZIKV infection across multiple cell types. This study identifies drugs that could be tested in clinical studies of ZIKV infection and provides a resource of small molecules to study ZIKV pathogenesis.

  9. Acute water intoxication during military urine drug screening.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Molly A; Cotant, Casey L

    2011-04-01

    Random mandatory urine drug screening is a routine practice in the military. The pressure to produce a urine specimen creates a temptation to consume large volumes of water, putting those individuals at risk of acute water intoxication. This occurs when the amount of water consumed exceeds the kidney's ability to excrete it, resulting in hyponatremia owing to excess amount of water compared to serum solutes. The acute drop in serum osmolality leads to cerebral edema, causing headaches, confusion, seizures, and death. There has been increasing awareness of the danger of overhydration among performance athletes, but dangers in other groups can be underappreciated. We present the case of a 37-year-old male Air Force officer who developed acute water intoxication during urine drug screening. Our case demonstrates the need for a clear Air Force policy for mandatory drug testing to minimize the risk of developing this potentially fatal condition.

  10. Qualification of serological infectious disease assays for the screening of samples from deceased tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A

    2011-05-01

    Whilst some of the assays used for serological screening of post-mortem blood samples from deceased tissue donors in some countries have been specifically validated by the manufacturer for this purpose, a significant number of those currently in use globally have not. Although specificity has previously been considered a problem in the screening of such samples, we believe that ensuring sensitivity is more important. The aim of this study was to validate a broader range of assays for the screening of post-mortem blood samples from deceased tissue donors. Six microplate immunoassays currently in use within National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) for the screening of blood, tissue and stem cell donations were included. Representative samples from confirmed positive donors were titrated in screen negative post-mortem samples in parallel with normal pooled negative serum to determine if there was any inhibition with the post-mortem samples. There were no significant differences seen (P < 0.005) between the dilution curves obtained for the positive samples diluted in post-mortem samples and normal pooled sera. Although small numbers of samples were studied, it can be surmised that the post-mortem blood samples from deceased tissue donors, collected according to United Kingdom guidelines, are a suitable substrate for the assays evaluated. No diminution of reactivity was seen when dilution with sera from deceased donors was compared to dilution using pooled serum from live donors. In the absence of genuine low titre positive post-mortem samples, the use of samples spiked with various levels of target material provides a means of qualifying serological screening assays used by NHSBT for the screening of post-mortem blood samples from deceased tissue donors.

  11. siRNA Genome Screening Approaches to Therapeutic Drug Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Perwitasari, Olivia; Bakre, Abhijeet; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Bridging high-throughput screening (HTS) with RNA interference (RNAi) has allowed for rapid discovery of the molecular basis of many diseases, and identification of potential pathways for developing safe and effective treatments. These features have identified new host gene targets for existing drugs paving the pathway for therapeutic drug repositioning. Using RNAi to discover and help validate new drug targets has also provided a means to filter and prioritize promising therapeutics. This review summarizes these approaches across a spectrum of methods and targets in the host response to pathogens. Particular attention is given to the utility of drug repurposing utilizing the promiscuous nature of some drugs that affect multiple molecules or pathways, and how these biological pathways can be targeted to regulate disease outcome. PMID:24275945

  12. A rapid enzymatic assay for high-throughput screening of adenosine-producing strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Zu, Xin; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major local regulator of tissue function and industrially useful as precursor for the production of medicinal nucleoside substances. High-throughput screening of adenosine overproducers is important for industrial microorganism breeding. An enzymatic assay of adenosine was developed by combined adenosine deaminase (ADA) with indophenol method. The ADA catalyzes the cleavage of adenosine to inosine and NH3, the latter can be accurately determined by indophenol method. The assay system was optimized to deliver a good performance and could tolerate the addition of inorganic salts and many nutrition components to the assay mixtures. Adenosine could be accurately determined by this assay using 96-well microplates. Spike and recovery tests showed that this assay can accurately and reproducibly determine increases in adenosine in fermentation broth without any pretreatment to remove proteins and potentially interfering low-molecular-weight molecules. This assay was also applied to high-throughput screening for high adenosine-producing strains. The high selectivity and accuracy of the ADA assay provides rapid and high-throughput analysis of adenosine in large numbers of samples. PMID:25580842

  13. MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAMMALIAN SCREENING ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF POTENTIAL
    ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON MALES.
    Authors: L E Gray 1 , J Furr 1 , M G Price 2 , C J Wolf 3 and J S Ostby 1
    Institutions: 1. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NH...

  14. Development of Tyrosinase Promoter-Based Fluorescent Assay for Screening of Anti-melanogenic Agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, JaeHo; Lee, SeungJun; Lee, ByungMan; Roh, KyungBaeg; Park, DeokHoon; Jung, EunSun

    2015-01-01

    For screening of skin-whitening ingredients that modulate inhibition of melanogenesis, tyrosinase promoter-based assay using a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid culture technique is a beneficial tool to improve the accuracy of raw material screening in cosmetics through mimicking of the in vivo microenvironment. Although the advantages of high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely known, there has been little focus on specific cell-based promoter assays for HTS in identifying skin-whitening ingredients that inhibit accumulation of melanin. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a large-scale compatible assay through pTyr-EGFP, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based tyrosinase-specific promoter, to seek potential melanogenesis inhibitors for cosmetic use. Herein, a stably transfected human melanoma cell line expressing EGFP under the control of a 2.2-kb fragment derived from the tyrosinase gene was generated. Spontaneous induction of the tyrosinase promoter by 3D spheroid culture resulted in increased expression of EGFP, providing a significant correlation with the tyrosinase mRNA level, and subsequent inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Importantly, the pTyr-EGFP system provided successful tracking of the changes in the live image and real-time monitoring. Thus tyrosinase promoter-based fluorescent assay using a 3D spheroid culture can be useful as a screening system for exploring the efficiency of anti-melanogenesis ingredients.

  15. Quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by Taenia crassiceps.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Siddhartha; Madrid, Elise M; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the Taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. Currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of NCC are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. Discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against T. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays that allow high-throughput screening. Using an in vitro culture system with Taenia crassiceps metacestodes, we demonstrate that changes in secretion of parasite-associated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) can be used to detect and quantify anthelmintic effects of praziquantel (PZQ), a drug with activity against T. solium. We applied two enzyme release assays to screen for anti-T. crassiceps activity in nonconventional antiparasitic drugs and demonstrate that nitazoxanide and artesunate induced release of both AP and PGI in differing time- and dose-related patterns. Furthermore, imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor previously reported to have parasiticidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, also induced release of both AP and PGI in a dose-dependent manner, similar in pattern to that observed with the other anthelmintics. We also evaluated release of ATP into cyst supernatants as an indicator of drug effects but did not see any differences between treated and untreated cysts. These data provide the basis for rapid and quantitative screening assays for testing for anthelmintic activity in candidate anticestode agents.

  16. A Mycobacterium marinum zone of inhibition assay as a method for screening potential antimycobacterial compounds from marine extracts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Lucia P; Lien, Benjamin A; Brun, Olivier S; Schaak, Damen D; McDonough, Kathleen A; Chang, Leng Chee

    2007-06-01

    A novel screening method for antimycobacterial agents using Mycobacterium marinum was developed. M. marinum was selected as a model organism because it has a close phylogenetic relationship to M. tuberculosis, a relatively rapid doubling time, similar drug susceptibilities to M. tuberculosis, and less stringent safety requirements. More than 1000 crude marine and plant extracts were screened against M. marinum in a Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) assay, and twenty-one target extracts were identified. The crude organic extract of the marine sponge, Haliclona sp.10, was chosen for further investigation as it yielded a ZOI of 20 mm at a concentration of 80 microg/disk. Following bioassay-guided fractionation, (-)-papuamine was isolated, and yielded a 15 mm ZOI at a concentration of 25 microg/disk. In standard assays using M. marinum, (-)-papuamine exhibited both an MIC and an MBC95 of 6.25 microg/mL. This is the first report of antimycobacterial activity for (-)-papuamine. In addition, when (-)-papuamine and other natural product extracts were tested for activity against both M. marinum and M. tuberculosis, activity was comparable between the two species. These data indicate that (-)-papuamine is a promising lead for the development of new antimycobacterial agents and that M. marinum is a useful surrogate for the screening of antimycobacterial compounds.

  17. DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based colorimetric assay to assess helicase activity: a novel route to screen potential helicase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Jashmini; Mojumdar, Aditya; Parisse, Pietro; Onesti, Silvia; Casalis, Loredana

    2017-01-01

    Helicase are essential enzymes which are widespread in all life-forms. Due to their central role in nucleic acid metabolism, they are emerging as important targets for anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-cancer drugs. The development of easy, cheap, fast and robust biochemical assays to measure helicase activity, overcoming the limitations of the current methods, is a pre-requisite for the discovery of helicase inhibitors through high-throughput screenings. We have developed a method which exploits the optical properties of DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and meets the required criteria. The method was tested with the catalytic domain of the human RecQ4 helicase and compared with a conventional FRET-based assay. The AuNP-based assay produced similar results but is simpler, more robust and cheaper than FRET. Therefore, our nanotechnology-based platform shows the potential to provide a useful alternative to the existing conventional methods for following helicase activity and to screen small-molecule libraries as potential helicase inhibitors. PMID:28287182

  18. DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based colorimetric assay to assess helicase activity: a novel route to screen potential helicase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Jashmini; Mojumdar, Aditya; Parisse, Pietro; Onesti, Silvia; Casalis, Loredana

    2017-03-01

    Helicase are essential enzymes which are widespread in all life-forms. Due to their central role in nucleic acid metabolism, they are emerging as important targets for anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-cancer drugs. The development of easy, cheap, fast and robust biochemical assays to measure helicase activity, overcoming the limitations of the current methods, is a pre-requisite for the discovery of helicase inhibitors through high-throughput screenings. We have developed a method which exploits the optical properties of DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and meets the required criteria. The method was tested with the catalytic domain of the human RecQ4 helicase and compared with a conventional FRET-based assay. The AuNP-based assay produced similar results but is simpler, more robust and cheaper than FRET. Therefore, our nanotechnology-based platform shows the potential to provide a useful alternative to the existing conventional methods for following helicase activity and to screen small-molecule libraries as potential helicase inhibitors.

  19. Development of a cellular tau enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method for screening GSK-3β inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Goang-Won; Noh, Min-Young; Kang, Byung Yong; Ku, Il-Whea; Park, Jiseon; Hong, Yoon-Ho; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2011-10-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase also known as tau protein kinase I, has been implicated in the pathogenic conditions of Alzheimer's disease. Many investigators have focused on GSK-3 inhibitor as a therapeutic drug. In this study, we established a cell-based assay for the screening of novel GSK-3β inhibitors. For this purpose, four-repeat tau cDNAs were stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells (HEK293-Tau). The proliferation of HEK293-Tau cells was no different from that of HEK293 cells, as measured by the bromodeoxyuridine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BrdU ELISA). The concentration-dependent reduction of tau phosphorylation by GSK-3 inhibitors, LiCl, Chir98023, and SB415286, was examined by immunoblot analysis and Tau ELISA (in situ ELISA). Highly consistent data were obtained, suggesting that this novel ELISA method is highly reproducible. Using this ELISA strategy, we isolated a few candidate compounds, including compounds 114 and 149, from several hundreds of synthetic agents and demonstrated that such candidates protect nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells against amyloid-β-induced cell death. These data indicate that this Tau ELISA method in HEK293-Tau cells may be a suitable cell-based assay system to screen for GSK-3β inhibitors.

  20. Evaluation of Elecsys Syphilis Assay for Routine and Blood Screening and Detection of Early Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kremastinou, J.; Polymerou, V.; Lavranos, D.; Aranda Arrufat, A.; Harwood, J.; Martínez Lorenzo, M. J.; Ng, K. P.; Queiros, L.; Vereb, I.

    2016-01-01

    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum. The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient populations, at seven independent laboratories. The samples included routine diagnostic samples, blood donation samples, samples from patients with confirmed HIV infections, samples from living organ or bone marrow donors, and banked samples, including samples previously confirmed as syphilis positive. This study also investigated the seroconversion sensitivity of the assay. With a total of 1,965 syphilis-negative routine diagnostic samples and 5,792 syphilis-negative samples collected from blood donations, the Elecsys Syphilis assay had specificity values of 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. With 333 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 100% regardless of disease stage. The assay also showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with samples from 69 patients coinfected with HIV. The Elecsys Syphilis assay detected infection in the same bleed or earlier, compared with comparator assays, in a set of sequential samples from a patient with primary syphilis. In archived serial blood samples collected from 14 patients with direct diagnoses of primary syphilis, the Elecsys Syphilis assay detected T. pallidum antibodies for 3 patients for whom antibodies were not detected with the Architect Syphilis TP assay, indicating a trend for earlier detection of infection, which may have the potential to shorten the time between infection and reactive screening test results. PMID:27358468

  1. Drug discovery for human African trypanosomiasis: identification of novel scaffolds by the newly developed HTS SYBR Green assay for Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Faria, Joana; Moraes, Carolina B; Song, Rita; Pascoalino, Bruno S; Lee, Nakyung; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L; Cruz, Deu John M; Parkinson, Tanya; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector-transmitted tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. High-throughput screening (HTS) of small-molecule libraries in whole-cell assays is one of the most frequently used approaches in drug discovery for infectious diseases. To aid in drug discovery efforts for HAT, the SYBR Green assay was developed for T. brucei in a 384-well format. This semi-automated assay is cost- and time-effective, robust, and reproducible. The SYBR Green assay was compared to the resazurin assay by screening a library of 4000 putative kinase inhibitors, revealing a superior performance in terms of assay time, sensitivity, simplicity, and reproducibility, and resulting in a higher hit confirmation rate. Although the resazurin assay allows for comparatively improved detection of slow-killing compounds, it also has higher false-positive rates that are likely to arise from the assay experimental conditions. The compounds with the most potent antitrypanosomal activity were selected in both screens and grouped into 13 structural clusters, with 11 new scaffolds as antitrypanosomal agents. Several of the identified compounds had IC50 <1 µM coupled with high selectivity toward the parasite. The core structures of the scaffolds are shown, providing promising new starting points for drug discovery for HAT.

  2. A survey of yeast genomic assays for drug and target discovery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Ammar, Ron; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the development and application of chemical genomic assays using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has provided powerful methods to identify the mechanism of action of known drugs and novel small molecules in vivo. These assays identify drug target candidates, genes involved in buffering drug target pathways and also help to define the general cellular response to small molecules. In this review, we examine current yeast chemical genomic assays and summarize the potential applications of each approach. PMID:20546776

  3. Label-free high-throughput assays to screen and characterize novel lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vanderporten, Erica; Frick, Lauren; Turincio, Rebecca; Thana, Peter; Lamarr, William; Liu, Yichin

    2013-10-15

    Catalytic turnover of pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is critical in maintaining an intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) pool for continuous fueling of the glycolytic pathway. In this article, we describe two label-free high-throughput assays (a kinetic assay detecting the intrinsic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence and a mass spectrometric assay monitoring the conversion of pyruvate to lactate) that were designed to effectively identify LDH inhibitors, characterize their different mechanisms of action, and minimize potential false positives from a small molecule compound library screen. Using a fluorescence kinetic image-based reader capable of detecting NADH fluorescence in the ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) work flow, the enzyme activity was measured as the rate of NADH conversion to NAD⁺. Interference with NADH fluorescence by library compounds was readily identified during the primary screen. The mass spectrometric assay quantitated the lactate and pyruvate levels simultaneously. The multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometric method accurately detected each of the two small organic acid molecules in the reaction mixture. With robust Z' scores of more than 0.7, these two high-throughput assays for LDH are both label free and complementary to each other in the HTS workflow by monitoring the activities of the compounds on each half of the LDH redox reaction.

  4. TR-FRET-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of UBC13 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Madiraju, Charitha; Welsh, Kate; Cuddy, Michael P.; Godoi, Paulo; Pass, Ian; Ngo, Tram; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard A.; Diaz, Paul; Matsuzawa, Shu-Ichi; Reed, John C.

    2014-01-01

    UBC13 is a non-canonical Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme (E2) that has been implicated in a variety of cellular signaling processes due to its ability to catalyze formation of Lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains on various substrates. In particular, UBC13 is required for signaling by a variety of receptors important in immune regulation, making it a candidate target for inflammatory diseases. UBC13 is also critical for double-strand DNA repair, and thus a potential radiosensitizer and chemosensitizer target for oncology. We developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for UBC13 based on the method of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET). The TR-FRET assay combines fluorochrome (Fl)-conjugated ubiquitin (fluorescence acceptor) with terbium (Tb)-conjugated ubiquitin (fluorescence donor), such that the assembly of mixed chains of Fl- and Tb-ubiquitin creates a robust TR-FRET signal. We defined conditions for optimized performance of the TR-FRET assay in both 384 and 1536-well formats. Chemical library screens (total 456,865 compounds) were conducted in high-throughput mode using various compound collections, affording superb Z' scores (typically > 0.7) and thus validating the performance of the assays. Altogether, the HTS assays described here are suitable for large-scale, automated screening of chemical libraries in search of compounds with inhibitory activity against UBC13. PMID:22034497

  5. Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P.; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibáñez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A.; Djaballah, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution’s commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator’s research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia. PMID:24661215

  6. A cellular viability assay to monitor drug toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob; Bross, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A central part of the research in protein misfolding and its associated disorders is the development of treatment strategies based on ensuring cellular protein homeostasis. This often includes testing chemical substances or drugs for their ability to counteract protein misfolding processes and to promote correct folding. Such investigations also include assessment of how the tested chemical substances affect cellular viability, that is, their cytotoxic effect. Investigations of cytotoxicity often require testing several different concentrations and drug exposure times using cells in culture. It is therefore attractive to use a viability test that permits the analysis of many samples with little handling time. This protocol describes a simple and fast methodology to analyze viability of lymphoblastoid cells and to test putative cytotoxic effects associated with exposure to a chemical substance, here exemplified by celastrol. The natural substance celastrol has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine and has subsequently been shown to induce transcription of genes encoding molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins) that are involved in promoting folding of cellular proteins. The well-described colorimetric tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay, which monitors metabolic activity of cultured cells, was adapted to analyze the viability of cells exposed to celastrol. After having established a suitable cell seeding density, the dose-dependence and time-course of viability reduction of lymphoblastoid cells treated with celastrol were determined. It was found that 4- and 24-h exposure to 0.8 microM celastrol reduced the viability of lymphoblastoid cells, with the most severe effect observed at 24 h with MTT reductions approaching 30% of non-exposed cells. For a series of incubations for 24 h, it was found that concentrations as low as 0.2 microM were sufficient to affect the viability, and celastrol concentrations of 0.5 microM reduced the MTT reduction rate to

  7. Optimization of Fluorescence Assay of Cellular Manganese Status for High Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Aboud, Asad A.; Patel, Devin K.; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high throughput screening (HTS) technology permits identification of compounds that influence various cellular phenotypes. However, screening for small molecule chemical modifiers of neurotoxicants has been limited by the scalability of existing phenotyping assays. Furthermore, the adaptation of existing cellular assays to HTS format requires substantial modification of experimental parameters and analysis methodology to meet the necessary statistical requirements. Here we describe the successful optimization of the Cellular Fura-2 Manganese Extraction Assay (CFMEA) for HTS. By optimizing cellular density, manganese (Mn) exposure conditions, and extraction parameters, the sensitivity and dynamic range of the fura-2 Mn response was enhanced to permit detection of positive and negative modulators of cellular manganese status. Finally, we quantify and report strategies to control sources of intra-and inter-plate variability by batch level and plate-geometric level analysis. Our goal is to enable HTS with the CFMEA to identify novel modulators of Mn transport. PMID:23169769

  8. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10–20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease. To identify more effective drugs with activity against the round body form of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by exposure to amoxicillin (50 μg/ml) and then screened the Food and Drug Administration drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven individual drugs scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. In this amoxicillin-induced round body model, some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine also displayed enhanced activity which was similar to a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters not exposure to amoxicillin. Additional candidate drugs active against round bodies identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against amoxicillin-induced round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi

  9. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; De Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Fat, Elisa M Tjon Kon; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; Van Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; Van Dam, Govert J

    2014-12-01

    The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.

  10. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels

    PubMed Central

    CORSTJENS, PAUL L. A. M.; DE DOOD, CLAUDIA J.; KORNELIS, DIEUWKE; FAT, ELISA M. TJON KON; WILSON, R. ALAN; KARIUKI, THOMAS M.; NYAKUNDI, RUTH K.; LOVERDE, PHILIP T.; ABRAMS, WILLIAM R.; TANKE, HANS J.; VAN LIESHOUT, LISETTE; DEELDER, ANDRÉ M.; VAN DAM, GOVERT J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring. PMID:24932595

  11. Screening of new bioactive materials from microbial extracts of soil microorganism (I). Antimicrobial activity from 200 samples using microdilution assay.

    PubMed

    Jung, S O; Kim, J; Chang, I M; Ryu, J C

    1998-06-01

    The microdilution assay recommended by NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) is one of the standardized methods of antibiotic susceptibility test. This method has been widely used clinically to obtain MIC values of antibiotics on pathogenic microorganisms. It is more convenient, rapid and simple to test many samples than other test methods such as agar diffusion assay and broth macrodilution assay. The screening of antimicrobial agents from microbial extracts is too laborious in its process. Therefore, a number of screening methods having more simple procedure have been developed. In our laboratory, we applied microdilution assay for screening the antimicrobial agents. This assay showed dose-response results and was more sensitive than disc diffusion assay in our system. We tested 200 samples of microbial extracts originated from 100 microbial strains and selected several samples as potential candidates. In this report, we show that the microdilution assay is more convenient method in screening of antibiotic susceptibility than those previously reported.

  12. Versatility of homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays for biologics drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Rossant, Christine J; Matthews, Carl; Neal, Frances; Colley, Caroline; Gardener, Matthew J; Vaughan, Tristan

    2015-04-01

    Identification of potential lead antibodies in the drug discovery process requires the use of assays that not only measure binding of the antibody to the target molecule but assess a wide range of other characteristics. These include affinity ranking, measurement of their ability to inhibit relevant protein-protein interactions, assessment of their selectivity for the target protein, and determination of their species cross-reactivity profiles to support in vivo studies. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer is a technology that offers the flexibility for development of such assays, through the availability of donor and acceptor fluorophore-conjugated reagents for detection of multiple tags or fusion proteins. The time-resolved component of the technology reduces potential assay interference, allowing screening of a range of different crude sample types derived from the bacterial or mammalian cell expression systems often used for antibody discovery projects. Here we describe the successful application of this technology across multiple projects targeting soluble proteins and demonstrate how it has provided key information for the isolation of potential therapeutic antibodies with the desired activity profile.

  13. Miniaturisation and validation of a cell-based assay for screening of Ca2+ channel modulators.

    PubMed

    Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Pia

    2004-06-30

    Voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) play a significant role in the regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations in cardiovascular, neuronal and skeletal tissues. Therefore, physiologically relevant screening methods for calcium channel modulators are required. A 45Ca2+ uptake assay based on clonal rat pituitary cell line GH4C1, possessing L-type VOCCs, was miniaturised into a 96-well plate format. The assay was validated by known Ca2+ channel blockers, verapamil and nimodipine (IC50 values 3.4 and 0.007 microM, respectively) and by a set of natural compounds and their synthetic derivatives. The results were consistent with our previous data and demonstrated the reliability of the assay. The signal-to-background ratio was 3.9 +/- 0.4, signal-to-noise ratio 10.3 +/- 2.3, Z' factor 0.59 +/- 0.10, and day-to-day variability in positive control values 5%. Furthermore, experiments were also made on a Biomek FX workstation to evaluate the suitability of the assay for automation. With minor modifications the assay is applicable, e.g. for studying possible Ca2+ channel activators in detail. The established 96-well plate assay modification for screening of calcium channel modulators reduces considerably the time, labour and resources needed for cell culture and experiments, and has significant advantages in terms of automation suitability and overall cost-efficiency.

  14. A cell-based luciferase assay amenable to high-throughput screening of inhibitors of arenavirus budding.

    PubMed

    Capul, Althea A; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2008-12-05

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans for which there are no licensed vaccines, and current therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin (Rib) that is only partially effective and associated with significant side effects. In addition, compelling evidence indicates that the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Therefore, it is important to develop novel and effective anti-arenaviral drugs. The arenavirus Z protein is the driving force of arenavirus budding, and PPPY and PTAP late (L) domain motifs within Z are critical for Z-mediated budding, which involves the interaction of Z with a variety of host cellular factors. Compounds capable of inhibiting these virus-host cell interactions represent candidate anti-arenaviral drugs. The identification of these candidate compounds would be facilitated by the availability of a Z budding assay amenable to high-throughput screens (HTS). To this end, we have developed a novel assay that allows for rapid and quantitative assessment of Z-mediated budding. We provide evidence that this novel assay is amenable to HTS to identify small molecule inhibitors of Z-mediated budding, as well as to uncover cellular genes contributing to arenavirus budding.

  15. Facilitating drug discovery: an automated high-content inflammation assay in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Christine; Reischl, Markus; Shah, Asmi H; Mikut, Ralf; Liebel, Urban; Grabher, Clemens

    2012-07-16

    Zebrafish larvae are particularly amenable to whole animal small molecule screens due to their small size and relative ease of manipulation and observation, as well as the fact that compounds can simply be added to the bathing water and are readily absorbed when administered in a <1% DMSO solution. Due to the optical clarity of zebrafish larvae and the availability of transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins in leukocytes, zebrafish offer the unique advantage of monitoring an acute inflammatory response in vivo. Consequently, utilizing the zebrafish for high-content small molecule screens aiming at the identification of immune-modulatory compounds with high throughput has been proposed, suggesting inflammation induction scenarios e.g. localized nicks in fin tissue, laser damage directed to the yolk surface of embryos or tailfin amputation. The major drawback of these methods however was the requirement of manual larva manipulation to induce wounding, thus preventing high-throughput screening. Introduction of the chemically induced inflammation (ChIn) assay eliminated these obstacles. Since wounding is inflicted chemically the number of embryos that can be treated simultaneously is virtually unlimited. Temporary treatment of zebrafish larvae with copper sulfate selectively induces cell death in hair cells of the lateral line system and results in rapid granulocyte recruitment to injured neuromasts. The inflammatory response can be followed in real-time by using compound transgenic cldnB::GFP/lysC::DsRED2 zebrafish larvae that express a green fluorescent protein in neuromast cells, as well as a red fluorescent protein labeling granulocytes. In order to devise a screening strategy that would allow both high-content and high-throughput analyses we introduced robotic liquid handling and combined automated microscopy with a custom developed software script. This script enables automated quantification of the inflammatory response by scoring the percent area

  16. Screening bacterial metabolites for inhibitory effects against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis using a spectrophotometric assay.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sara C; Alford, Ross A; Garland, Stephen; Padilla, Gabriel; Thomas, Annette D

    2013-03-13

    Certain bacteria present on frog skin can prevent infection by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), conferring disease resistance. Previous studies have used agar-based in vitro challenge assays to screen bacteria for Bd-inhibitory activity and to identify candidates for bacterial supplementation trials. However, agar-based assays can be difficult to set up and to replicate reliably. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a semi-quantitative spectrophotometric challenge assay technique. Cell-free supernatants were prepared from filtered bacterial cultures and added to 96-well plates in replicated wells containing Bd zoospores suspended in tryptone-gelatin hydrolysate-lactose (TGhL) broth medium. Plates were then read daily on a spectrophotometer until positive controls reached maximum growth in order to determine growth curves for Bd. We tested the technique by screening skin bacteria from the Australian green-eyed tree frog Litoria serrata. Of bacteria tested, 31% showed some degree of Bd inhibition, while some may have promoted Bd growth, a previously unknown effect. Our cell-free supernatant challenge assay technique is an effective in vitro method for screening bacterial isolates for strong Bd-inhibitory activity. It contributes to the expanding field of bioaugmentation research, which could play a significant role in mitigating the effects of chytridiomycosis on amphibians around the world.

  17. Towards novel therapeutics for HIV through fragment-based screening and drug design.

    PubMed

    Tiefendbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C David

    2014-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery has been applied with varying levels of success to a number of proteins involved in the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) life cycle. Fragment-based approaches have led to the discovery of novel binding sites within protease, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and gp41. Novel compounds that bind to known pockets within CCR5 have also been identified via fragment screening, and a fragment-based approach to target the TAR-Tat interaction was explored. In the context of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), fragment-based approaches have yielded fragment hits with mid-μM activity in an in vitro activity assay, as well as fragment hits that are active against drug-resistant variants of RT. Fragment-based drug discovery is a powerful method to elucidate novel binding sites within proteins, and the method has had significant success in the context of HIV proteins.

  18. An in vitro larval migration assay for assessing anthelmintic activity of different drug classes against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianguo; Williams, Andrew R; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Thamsborg, Stig M; Cai, Jianping; Song, Shuaibao; Chen, Gang; Kang, Ming; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Liu, Qun; Han, Qian

    2017-03-18

    In vitro methods have been developed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in a range of nematode species. However, the life cycle of Ascaris suum renders the commonly used egg hatch assay and larval development assay unusable. In this study we developed a combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay to test the effect of benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidin/imidazothiazole anthelmintics against nine isolates of A. suum collected from locations in China and Denmark. Drugs tested were thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel. The percentages of larvae that migrated to the surface of each treated and control well were used to calculate the drug concentration which inhibits 50% of the larvae migration (EC50). The values of EC50 of thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel against A. suum isolates ranged 74-150, 4.9-13.9, 2.3-4.3, 358-1150 and 1100-4000nM, respectively. This combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay was a sensitive bioassay for anthelmintic activity and could serve as an in vitro method to detect for lowered drug efficacy against A. suum or possibly to screen for anthelmintic drug candidates.

  19. Identification of inhibitors of a bacterial sigma factor using a new high-throughput screening assay.

    PubMed

    El-Mowafi, S A; Sineva, E; Alumasa, J N; Nicoloff, H; Tomsho, J W; Ades, S E; Keiler, K C

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are formidable pathogens because their cell envelope presents an adaptable barrier to environmental and host-mediated challenges. The stress response pathway controlled by the alternative sigma factor σ(E) is critical for maintenance of the cell envelope. Because σ(E) is required for the virulence or viability of several Gram-negative pathogens, it might be a useful target for antibiotic development. To determine if small molecules can inhibit the σ(E) pathway, and to permit high-throughput screening for antibiotic lead compounds, a σ(E) activity assay that is compatible with high-throughput screening was developed and validated. The screen employs a biological assay with positive readout. An Escherichia coli strain was engineered to express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under negative regulation by the σ(E) pathway, such that inhibitors of the pathway increase the production of YFP. To validate the screen, the reporter strain was used to identify σ(E) pathway inhibitors from a library of cyclic peptides. Biochemical characterization of one of the inhibitory cyclic peptides showed that it binds σ(E), inhibits RNA polymerase holoenzyme formation, and inhibits σ(E)-dependent transcription in vitro. These results demonstrate that alternative sigma factors can be inhibited by small molecules and enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of the σ(E) pathway.

  20. Evaluation of the LIAISON ANA screen assay for antinuclear antibody testing in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghillani, P; Rouquette, A M; Desgruelles, C; Hauguel, N; Le Pendeven, C; Piette, J C; Musset, L

    2007-08-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are widely detected by immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells in patients with connective tissue diseases and other pathological conditions. We evaluated the first-automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of ANA (LIAISON ANA screen, DiaSorin). This study was carried out simultaneously in two laboratories by testing 327 patient samples with clinically defined connective diseases, 273 routine samples for ANA screening, and 300 blood donors. A total of 268 out of 337 IIF-positive sera were positive with LIAISON ANA screen (79.5% of agreement) and 240 out of 263 IIF-negative sera were negative with LIAISON ANA screen (91.2% of agreement). After resolution of discrepant results, the concordance reached, respectively, 94.9% and 98.8%. The specificity was 99.3% and the sensitivity was 94%. Unlike results obtained by other ANA screening assays, we observed acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Despite the presence of HEp-2 cell extract, we failed to detect some antibodies as antinucleolar, antinuclear envelope, and antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen. This automated assay allows quick process to results and exhibits satisfactory sensitivity for the detection of the main ANA specificities of connective tissue diseases.

  1. High efficacy vasopermeability drug candidates identified by screening in an ex ovo chorioallantoic membrane model

    PubMed Central

    Pink, Desmond; Luhrs, Keith A.; Zhou, Longen; Schulte, Wendy; Chase, Jennifer; Frosch, Christian; Haberl, Udo; Nguyen, Van; Roy, Aparna I.; Lewis, John D.; Zijlstra, Andries; Parseghian, Missag H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of rodent models to evaluate efficacy during testing is accompanied by significant economic and regulatory hurdles which compound the costs of screening for promising drug candidates. Vasopermeation Enhancement Agents (VEAs) are a new class of biologics that are designed to increase the uptake of cancer therapeutics at the tumor site by modifying vascular permeability in the tumor to increase the therapeutic index of co-administered drugs. To evaluate the efficacy of a panel of VEA clinical candidates, we compared the rodent Miles assay to an equivalent assay in the ex ovo chicken embryo model. Both model systems identified the same candidate (PVL 10) as the most active promoter of vasopermeation in non-tumor tissues. An ex ovo chicken embryo system was utilized to test each candidate VEA in two human tumor models at a range of concentrations. Vasopermeation activity due to VEA was dependent on tumor type, with HEp3 tumors displaying higher levels of vasopermeation than MDA-MB-435. One candidate (PVL 10) proved optimal for HEp3 tumors and another (PVL 2) for MDA-MB-435. The use of the ex ovo chicken embryo model provides a rapid and less costly alternative to the use of rodent models for preclinical screening of drug candidates. PMID:26510887

  2. Mass spectrometry in sports drug testing: Structure characterization and analytical assays.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Owing to the sensitive, selective, and unambiguous nature of mass spectrometric analyses, chromatographic techniques interfaced to various kinds of mass spectrometers have become the most frequently employed strategy in the fight against doping. To obtain utmost confidence in analytical assays, mass spectrometric characterization of target analytes and typical dissociation pathways have been utilized as basis for the development of reliable and robust screening as well as confirmation procedures. Methods for qualitative and/or quantitative determinations of prohibited low and high molecular weight drugs have been established in doping control laboratories preferably employing gas or liquid chromatography combined with electron, chemical, or atmospheric pressure ionization followed by analyses using quadrupole, ion trap, linear ion trap, or hyphenated techniques. The versatility of modern mass spectrometers enable specific as well as comprehensive measurements allowing sports drug testing laboratories to determine the misuse of therapeutics such as anabolic-androgenic steroids, stimulants, masking agents or so-called designer drugs in athletes' blood or urine specimens, and a selection of recent developments is summarized in this review.

  3. Hypothesis testing in high-throughput screening for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Prummer, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Following the success of small-molecule high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, other large-scale screening techniques are currently revolutionizing the biological sciences. Powerful new statistical tools have been developed to analyze the vast amounts of data in DNA chip studies, but have not yet found their way into compound screening. In HTS, characterization of single-point hit lists is often done only in retrospect after the results of confirmation experiments are available. However, for prioritization, for optimal use of resources, for quality control, and for comparison of screens it would be extremely valuable to predict the rates of false positives and false negatives directly from the primary screening results. Making full use of the available information about compounds and controls contained in HTS results and replicated pilot runs, the Z score and from it the p value can be estimated for each measurement. Based on this consideration, we have applied the concept of p-value distribution analysis (PVDA), which was originally developed for gene expression studies, to HTS data. PVDA allowed prediction of all relevant error rates as well as the rate of true inactives, and excellent agreement with confirmation experiments was found.

  4. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for Botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P.; Burnett, James C.; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D.; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons, and stem-cell derived neurons have been established. Stem cell-derived neurons are highly sensitive to BoNT intoxication and represent an ideal model to study the biological effects of BoNTs. Robust immunoassays are used to quantify BoNT activity and play a central role during inhibitor screening. In this review, we examine recent progress in physiologically relevant cell-based assays and high-throughput screening approaches for the identification of both direct and indirect BoNT inhibitors. PMID:24450833

  5. A New In Vivo Screening Paradigm to Accelerate Antimalarial Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Viera, Sara; Ibáñez, Javier; Mulet, Teresa; Magán-Marchal, Noemí; Garuti, Helen; Gómez, Vanessa; Cortés-Gil, Lorena; Martínez, Antonio; Ferrer, Santiago; Fraile, María Teresa; Calderón, Félix; Fernández, Esther; Shultz, Leonard D.; Leroy, Didier; Wilson, David M.; García-Bustos, José Francisco; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to available antimalarials requires the urgent development of new medicines. The recent disclosure of several thousand compounds active in vitro against the erythrocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum has been a major breakthrough, though converting these hits into new medicines challenges current strategies. A new in vivo screening concept was evaluated as a strategy to increase the speed and efficiency of drug discovery projects in malaria. The new in vivo screening concept was developed based on human disease parameters, i.e. parasitemia in the peripheral blood of patients on hospital admission and parasite reduction ratio (PRR), which were allometrically down-scaled into P. berghei-infected mice. Mice with an initial parasitemia (P0) of 1.5% were treated orally for two consecutive days and parasitemia measured 24 h after the second dose. The assay was optimized for detection of compounds able to stop parasite replication (PRR = 1) or induce parasite clearance (PRR >1) with statistical power >99% using only two mice per experimental group. In the P. berghei in vivo screening assay, the PRR of a set of eleven antimalarials with different mechanisms of action correlated with human-equivalent data. Subsequently, 590 compounds from the Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set with activity in vitro against P. falciparum were tested at 50 mg/kg (orally) in an assay format that allowed the evaluation of hundreds of compounds per month. The rate of compounds with detectable efficacy was 11.2% and about one third of active compounds showed in vivo efficacy comparable with the most potent antimalarials used clinically. High-throughput, high-content in vivo screening could rapidly select new compounds, dramatically speeding up the discovery of new antimalarial medicines. A global multilateral collaborative project aimed at screening the significant chemical diversity within the antimalarial in vitro hits described in the literature is a feasible task

  6. A novel high-throughput screening assay for discovery of molecules that increase cellular tetrahydrobiopterin.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Du, Yuhong; Chen, Wei; Fu, Haian; Harrison, David G

    2011-09-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) is an essential cofactor for the nitric oxide (NO) synthases and the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Insufficient BH(4) has been implicated in various cardiovascular and neurological disorders. GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo biosynthesis of BH(4). The authors have recently shown that the interaction of GTPCH-1 with GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) inhibits endothelial GTPCH-1 enzyme activity, BH(4) levels, and NO production. They propose that agents that disrupt the GTPCH-1/GFRP interaction can increase cellular GTPCH-1 activity, BH(4) levels, and NO production. They developed and optimized a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay to monitor the interaction of GTPCH-1 and GFRP. This assay is highly sensitive and stable and has a signal-to-background ratio (S/B) greater than 12 and a Z' factor greater than 0.8. This assay was used in an ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) format to screen the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds. Using independent protein-protein interaction and cellular activity assays, the authors identified compounds that disrupt GTPCH-1/GFRP binding and increase endothelial cell biopterin levels. Thus, this TR-FRET assay could be applied in future uHTS of additional libraries to search for molecules that increase GTPCH-1 activity and BH(4) levels.

  7. Virtual Screening of DrugBank Reveals Two Drugs as New BCRP Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Floriane; Cseke, Anna; Wlcek, Katrin; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2016-01-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ABC transporter playing a crucial role in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The early identification of substrates and inhibitors of this efflux transporter can help to prevent or foresee drug-drug interactions. In this work, we built a ligand-based in silico classification model to predict the inhibitory potential of drugs toward BCRP. The model was applied as a virtual screening technique to identify potential inhibitors among the small-molecules subset of DrugBank. Ten compounds were selected and tested for their capacity to inhibit mitoxantrone efflux in BCRP-expressing PLB985 cells. Results identified cisapride (IC50 = 0.4 µM) and roflumilast (IC50 = 0.9 µM) as two new BCRP inhibitors. The in silico strategy proved useful to prefilter potential drug-drug interaction perpetrators among a database of small molecules and can reduce the amount of compounds to test. PMID:27401583

  8. The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening Laboratory. Part II: enabling collaborative drug-discovery partnerships through cutting-edge screening technology.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Peter R; Roy, Anuradha; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2011-07-01

    The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening (KU HTS) core is a state-of-the-art drug-discovery facility with an entrepreneurial open-service policy, which provides centralized resources supporting public- and private-sector research initiatives. The KU HTS core was established in 2002 at the University of Kansas with support from an NIH grant and the state of Kansas. It collaborates with investigators from national and international academic, nonprofit and pharmaceutical organizations in executing HTS-ready assay development and screening of chemical libraries for target validation, probe selection, hit identification and lead optimization. This is part two of a contribution from the KU HTS laboratory.

  9. Novel screening techniques for ion channel targeting drugs

    PubMed Central

    Obergrussberger, Alison; Stölzle-Feix, Sonja; Becker, Nadine; Brüggemann, Andrea; Fertig, Niels; Möller, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flux of ions across the cell membrane. They are involved in nearly all physiological processes, and malfunction of ion channels has been linked to many diseases. Until recently, high-throughput screening of ion channels was limited to indirect, e.g. fluorescence-based, readout technologies. In the past years, direct label-free biophysical readout technologies by means of electrophysiology have been developed. Planar patch-clamp electrophysiology provides a direct functional label-free readout of ion channel function in medium to high throughput. Further electrophysiology features, including temperature control and higher-throughput instruments, are continually being developed. Electrophysiological screening in a 384-well format has recently become possible. Advances in chip and microfluidic design, as well as in cell preparation and handling, have allowed challenging cell types to be studied by automated patch clamp. Assays measuring action potentials in stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, relevant for cardiac safety screening, and neuronal cells, as well as a large number of different ion channels, including fast ligand-gated ion channels, have successfully been established by automated patch clamp. Impedance and multi-electrode array measurements are particularly suitable for studying cardiomyocytes and neuronal cells within their physiological network, and to address more complex physiological questions. This article discusses recent advances in electrophysiological technologies available for screening ion channel function and regulation. PMID:26556400

  10. A pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars based on fluorescence in situ hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Bou, Gerelchimeg; Sun, Mingju; Lv, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Juan; Li, Lu; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Zhong; He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    For efficient transgenic herd expansion, only the transgenic animals that possess the ability to transmit transgene into next generation are considered for breeding. However, for transgenic pig, practically lacking a pre-breeding screening program, time, labor and money is always wasted to maintain non-transgenic pigs, low or null transgenic transmission pigs and the related fruitless gestations. Developing a pre-breeding screening program would make the transgenic herd expansion more economical and efficient. In this technical report, we proposed a three-step pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars simply through combining the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with the common pre-breeding screening workflow. In the first step of screening, combined with general transgenic phenotype analysis, FISH is used to identify transgenic boars. In the second step of screening, combined with conventional semen test, FISH is used to detect transgenic sperm, thus to identify the individuals producing high quality semen and transgenic sperm. In the third step of screening, FISH is used to assess the in vitro fertilization embryos, thus finally to identify the individuals with the ability to produce transgenic embryos. By this three-step screening, the non-transgenic boars and boars with no ability to produce transgenic sperm or transgenic embryos would be eliminated; therefore only those boars could produce transgenic offspring are maintained and used for breeding and herd expansion. It is the first time a systematic pre-breeding screening program is proposed for transgenic pigs. This program might also be applied in other transgenic large animals, and provide an economical and efficient strategy for herd expansion.

  11. PCR assay for screening patients at risk for 22q11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, D A; Emanuel, B S; Mitchell, L E; Budarf, M L

    1997-01-01

    Deletions of 22q11.2 have been detected in the majority of patients with DiGeorge, velocardiofacial, and conotruncal anomaly face syndromes by either cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or Southern blot hybridization. However, these techniques may not be the most efficient or cost-effective means of screening large numbers of "at-risk" patients. Therefore, we developed a PCR assay to assess a patient's likelihood of having a 22q11.2 deletion based on homozygosity at consecutive markers in the DiGeorge chromosomal region. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR screening were evaluated in a cohort of cardiac patients. We conclude that a PCR-based assay is a reliable and efficient means of identifying which patients are at greatest risk for a 22q11.2 deletion and should have FISH studies to confirm their deletion status.

  12. A high-throughput screening assay to identify bacterial antagonists against Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-López, Alejandro Miguel; Cordero-Ramírez, Jesús Damián; Quiroz-Figueroa, Francisco Roberto; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    A high-throughput antagonistic assay was developed to screen for bacterial isolates capable of controlling the maize fungal phytopathogen Fusarium verticillioides. This assay combines a straightforward methodology, in which the fungus is challenged with bacterial isolates in liquid medium, with a novel approach that uses the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) coupled to a fluorophore (Alexa-Fluor® 488) under the commercial name of WGA, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate. The assay is performed in a 96-well plate format, which reduces the required laboratory space and streamlines quantitation and automation of the process, making it fast and accurate. The basis of our assay is that fungal biomass can be assessed by WGA, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate staining, which recognizes the chitin in the fungal cell wall and thus permits the identification of potential antagonistic bacteria that inhibit fungal growth. This principle was validated by chitin-competition binding assays against WGA, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate; confocal laser microscopy confirmed that the fluorescent WGA, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate binds to the chitin of the fungal cell wall. The majority of bacterial isolates did not bind to the WGA, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate. Furthermore, including washing steps significantly reduced any bacterial staining to background levels, even in the rare cases where bacterial isolates were capable of binding to WGA. Confirmatory conventional agar plate antagonistic assays were also conducted to validate our technique. We are now successfully employing this large-scale antagonistic assay as a pre-screening step for potential fungal antagonists in extensive bacteria collections (on the order of thousands of isolates).

  13. Miniature short hairpin RNA screens to characterize antiproliferative drugs.

    PubMed

    Kittanakom, Saranya; Arnoldo, Anthony; Brown, Kevin R; Wallace, Iain; Kunavisarut, Tada; Torti, Dax; Heisler, Lawrence E; Surendra, Anuradha; Moffat, Jason; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2013-08-07

    The application of new proteomics and genomics technologies support a view in which few drugs act solely by inhibiting a single cellular target. Indeed, drug activity is modulated by complex, often incompletely understood cellular mechanisms. Therefore, efforts to decipher mode of action through genetic perturbation such as RNAi typically yields "hits" that fall into several categories. Of particular interest to the present study, we aimed to characterize secondary activities of drugs on cells. Inhibiting a known target can result in clinically relevant synthetic phenotypes. In one scenario, drug perturbation could, for example, improperly activate a protein that normally inhibits a particular kinase. In other cases, additional, lower affinity targets can be inhibited as in the example of inhibition of c-Kit observed in Bcr-Abl-positive cells treated with Gleevec. Drug transport and metabolism also play an important role in the way any chemicals act within the cells. Finally, RNAi per se can also affect cell fitness by more general off-target effects, e.g., via the modulation of apoptosis or DNA damage repair. Regardless of the root cause of these unwanted effects, understanding the scope of a drug's activity and polypharmacology is essential for better understanding its mechanism(s) of action, and such information can guide development of improved therapies. We describe a rapid, cost-effective approach to characterize primary and secondary effects of small-molecules by using small-scale libraries of virally integrated short hairpin RNAs. We demonstrate this principle using a "minipool" composed of shRNAs that target the genes encoding the reported protein targets of approved drugs. Among the 28 known reported drug-target pairs, we successfully identify 40% of the targets described in the literature and uncover several unanticipated drug-target interactions based on drug-induced synthetic lethality. We provide a detailed protocol for performing such screens and for

  14. Biomimetic membrane platform containing hERG potassium channel and its application to drug screening.

    PubMed

    Arslan Yildiz, Ahu; Kang, CongBao; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin

    2013-04-07

    The hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) potassium channel has been extensively studied by both academia and industry because of its relation to inherited or drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS). Unpredicted hERG and drug interaction affecting channel activity is of main concern for drug discovery. Although there are several methods to test hERG and drug interaction, it is still necessary to develop some efficient and economic ways to probe hERG and drug interactions. To contribute this aim, we have developed a biomimetic lipid membrane platform into which the hERG channel can be folded. Expression and integration of the hERG channel was achieved using a cell-free (CF) expression system. The folding of hERG in the biomimetic membrane system was investigated using Surface Plasmon Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (SPFS) and Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance (iSPR). In addition, the hERG channel folded into our biomimetic membrane platform was used for probing the channel and drug interactions through fluorescence polarization (FP) assay. Our results suggest that the biomimetic system employed is capable of detecting the interaction between hERG and different channel blockers at varied concentrations. We believe that our current approach could be applied to other membrane proteins for drug screening or other protein-related interactions.

  15. Getting the whole picture: High content screening using three-dimensional cellular model systems and whole animal assays.

    PubMed

    Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Flotow, Horst

    2017-02-01

    Phenotypic or High Content Screening (HCS) is becoming more widely used for primary screening campaigns in drug discovery. Currently the vast majority of HCS campaigns are using cell lines grown in well-established monolayer cultures (2D tissue culture). There is widespread recognition that the more biologically relevant 3D tissue culture technologies such as spheroids and organoids and even whole animal assays will eventually be run as primary HCS. Upgrading the IT infrastructure to cope with the increase in data volumes requires investments in hardware (and software) and this will be manageable. However, the main bottleneck for the effective adoption and use of 3D tissue culture and whole animal assays in HCS is anticipated to be the development of software for the analysis of 3D images. In this review we summarize the current state of the available software and how they may be applied to analyzing 3D images obtained from a HCS campaign. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  16. Antiprotozoan lead discovery by aligning dry and wet screening: prediction, synthesis, and biological assay of novel quinoxalinones.

    PubMed

    Martins Alho, Miriam A; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Barigye, Stephen J; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; Machado Tugores, Yanetsy; Montero-Torres, Alina; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Nogal, Juan J; García-Sánchez, Rory N; Vega, María Celeste; Rolón, Miriam; Martínez-Fernández, Antonio R; Escario, José A; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo; Garcia-Domenech, Ramón; Rivera, Norma; Mondragón, Ricardo; Mondragón, Mónica; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Lopez-Arencibia, Atteneri; Martín-Navarro, Carmen; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, Maria Gabriela; Piñero, Jose; Tytgat, Jan; Chicharro, Roberto; Arán, Vicente J

    2014-03-01

    which the individual QSAR outputs are the inputs of the aforementioned fusion approach. Finally, the fusion model was used for the identification of a novel generation of lead-like antiprotozoan compounds by using ligand-based virtual screening of 'available' small molecules (with synthetic feasibility) in our 'in-house' library. A new molecular subsystem (quinoxalinones) was then theoretically selected as a promising lead series, and its derivatives subsequently synthesized, structurally characterized, and experimentally assayed by using in vitro screening that took into consideration a battery of five parasite-based assays. The chemicals 11(12) and 16 are the most active (hits) against apicomplexa (sporozoa) and mastigophora (flagellata) subphylum parasites, respectively. Both compounds depicted good activity in every protozoan in vitro panel and they did not show unspecific cytotoxicity on the host cells. The described technical framework seems to be a promising QSAR-classifier tool for the molecular discovery and development of novel classes of broad-antiprotozoan-spectrum drugs, which may meet the dual challenges posed by drug-resistant parasites and the rapid progression of protozoan illnesses.

  17. A screening pattern recognition method finds new and divergent targets for drugs and natural products.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lounkine, Eugen; Urban, Laszlo; Whitebread, Steven; Chen, Shanni; Hughes, Kevin; Guo, Hongqiu; Kutlina, Elena; Fekete, Alexander; Klumpp, Martin; Glick, Meir

    2014-07-18

    Computational target prediction methods using chemical descriptors have been applied exhaustively in drug discovery to elucidate the mechanisms-of-action (MOAs) of small molecules. To predict truly novel and unexpected small molecule-target interactions, compounds must be compared by means other than their chemical structure alone. Here we investigated predictions made by a method, HTS fingerprints (HTSFPs), that matches patterns of activities in experimental screens. Over 1,400 drugs and 1,300 natural products (NPs) were screened in more than 200 diverse assays, creating encodable activity patterns. The comparison of these activity patterns to an MOA-annotated reference panel led to the prediction of 5,281 and 2,798 previously unknown targets for the NP and drug sets, respectively. Intriguingly, there was limited overlap among the targets predicted; the drugs were more biased toward membrane receptors and the NPs toward soluble enzymes, consistent with the idea that they represent unexplored pharmacologies. Importantly, HTSFPs inferred targets that were beyond the prediction capabilities of standard chemical descriptors, especially for NPs but also for the more explored drug set. Of 65 drug-target predictions that we tested in vitro, 48 (73.8%) were confirmed with AC50 values ranging from 38 nM to 29 μM. Among these interactions was the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 by the HIV protease inhibitor Tipranavir. These newly discovered targets that are phylogenetically and phylochemically distant to the primary target provide an explanation for spontaneous bleeding events observed for patients treated with this drug, a physiological effect that was previously difficult to reconcile with the drug's known MOA.

  18. Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Pizon, Anthony F; Siam, Mohamed G; Giannoutsos, Spiros; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Background Laboratory tests for routine drug of abuse and toxicology (DOA/Tox) screening, often used in emergency medicine, generally utilize antibody-based tests (immunoassays) to detect classes of drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants, or individual drugs such as cocaine, methadone, and phencyclidine. A key factor in assay sensitivity and specificity is the drugs or drug metabolites that were used as antigenic targets to generate the assay antibodies. All DOA/Tox screening immunoassays can be limited by false positives caused by cross-reactivity from structurally related compounds. For immunoassays targeted at a particular class of drugs, there can also be false negatives if there is failure to detect some drugs or their metabolites within that class. Methods Molecular similarity analysis, a computational method commonly used in drug discovery, was used to calculate structural similarity of a wide range of clinically relevant compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target ('antigenic') molecules of DOA/Tox screening tests. These results were compared with cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for clinical testing. The causes for false positives for phencyclidine and tricyclic antidepressant screening immunoassays were investigated at the authors' medical center using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a confirmatory method. Results The results illustrate three major challenges for routine DOA/Tox screening immunoassays used in emergency medicine. First, for some classes of drugs, the structural diversity of common drugs within each class has been increasing, thereby making it difficult for a single assay to detect all compounds without compromising specificity. Second, for some screening assays, common 'out-of-class' drugs may be structurally similar to the target compound so that they

  19. Microplate alamar blue assay versus BACTEC 460 system for high-throughput screening of compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, L; Franzblau, S G

    1997-01-01

    In response to the need for rapid, inexpensive, high-throughput assays for antimycobacterial drug screening, a microplate-based assay which uses Alamar blue reagent for determination of growth was evaluated. MICs of 30 antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, and Mycobacterium avium were determined in the microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA) with both visual and fluorometric readings and compared to MICs determined in the BACTEC 460 system. For all three mycobacterial strains, there was < or = 1 dilution difference between MABA and BACTEC median MICs in four replicate experiments for 25 to 27 of the 30 antimicrobics. Significant differences between MABA and BACTEC MICs were observed with 0, 2, and 5 of 30 antimicrobial agents against H37Rv, H37Ra, and M. avium, respectively. Overall, MICs determined either visually or fluorometrically in MABA were highly correlated with those determined in the BACTEC 460 system, and visual MABA and fluorometric MABA MICs were highly correlated. MICs of rifampin, rifabutin, minocycline, and clarithromycin were consistently lower for H37Ra compared to H37Rv in all assays but were similar for most other drugs. M. tuberculosis H37Ra may be a suitable surrogate for the more virulent H37Rv strain in primary screening of compounds for antituberculosis activity. MABA is sensitive, rapid, inexpensive, and nonradiometric and offers the potential for screening, with or without analytical instrumentation, large numbers of antimicrobial compounds against slow-growing mycobacteria. PMID:9145860

  20. A Data Analysis Pipeline Accounting for Artifacts in Tox21 Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Sedykh, Alexander; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Tice, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    A main goal of the U.S. Tox21 program is to profile a 10K-compound library for activity against a panel of stress-related and nuclear receptor signaling pathway assays using a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) approach. However, assay artifacts, including nonreproducible signals and assay interference (e.g., autofluorescence), complicate compound activity interpretation. To address these issues, we have developed a data analysis pipeline that includes an updated signal noise-filtering/curation protocol and an assay interference flagging system. To better characterize various types of signals, we adopted a weighted version of the area under the curve (wAUC) to quantify the amount of activity across the tested concentration range in combination with the assay-dependent point-of-departure (POD) concentration. Based on the 32 Tox21 qHTS assays analyzed, we demonstrate that signal profiling using wAUC affords the best reproducibility (Pearson's r = 0.91) in comparison with the POD (0.82) only or the AC(50) (i.e., half-maximal activity concentration, 0.81). Among the activity artifacts characterized, cytotoxicity is the major confounding factor; on average, about 8% of Tox21 compounds are affected, whereas autofluorescence affects less than 0.5%. To facilitate data evaluation, we implemented two graphical user interface applications, allowing users to rapidly evaluate the in vitro activity of Tox21 compounds.

  1. Development of a high-throughput three-dimensional invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Nikki A; Li, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaojun; Sampson, Nicole S; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The lack of three-dimensional (3-D) high-throughput (HT) screening assays designed to identify anti-cancer invasion drugs is a major hurdle in reducing cancer-related mortality, with the key challenge being assay standardization. Presented is the development of a novel 3-D invasion assay with HT potential that involves surrounding cell-collagen spheres within collagen to create a 3-D environment through which cells can invade. Standardization was achieved by designing a tooled 96-well plate to create a precisely designated location for the cell-collagen spheres and by using dialdehyde dextran to inhibit collagen contraction, maintaining uniform size and shape. This permits automated readout for determination of the effect of inhibitory compounds on cancer cell invasion. Sensitivity was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish varying levels of invasiveness of cancer cell lines, and robustness was determined by calculating the Z-factor. A Z-factor of 0.65 was obtained by comparing the effects of DMSO and anti-β1-integrin antibody, an inhibitory reagent, on the invasion of Du145 cancer cells, suggesting this novel assay is suitable for large scale drug discovery. As proof of principle, the NCI Diversity Compound Library was screened against human invasive cancer cells. Nine compounds exhibiting high potency and low toxicity were identified, including DX-52-1, a compound previously reported to inhibit cell migration, a critical determinant of cancer invasion. The results indicate that this innovative HT platform is a simple, precise, and easy to replicate 3-D invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery.

  2. Development of a High-Throughput Three-Dimensional Invasion Assay for Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, Nikki A.; Li, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaojun; Sampson, Nicole S.; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The lack of three-dimensional (3-D) high-throughput (HT) screening assays designed to identify anti-cancer invasion drugs is a major hurdle in reducing cancer-related mortality, with the key challenge being assay standardization. Presented is the development of a novel 3-D invasion assay with HT potential that involves surrounding cell-collagen spheres within collagen to create a 3-D environment through which cells can invade. Standardization was achieved by designing a tooled 96-well plate to create a precisely designated location for the cell-collagen spheres and by using dialdehyde dextran to inhibit collagen contraction, maintaining uniform size and shape. This permits automated readout for determination of the effect of inhibitory compounds on cancer cell invasion. Sensitivity was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish varying levels of invasiveness of cancer cell lines, and robustness was determined by calculating the Z-factor. A Z-factor of 0.65 was obtained by comparing the effects of DMSO and anti-β1-integrin antibody, an inhibitory reagent, on the invasion of Du145 cancer cells, suggesting this novel assay is suitable for large scale drug discovery. As proof of principle, the NCI Diversity Compound Library was screened against human invasive cancer cells. Nine compounds exhibiting high potency and low toxicity were identified, including DX-52-1, a compound previously reported to inhibit cell migration, a critical determinant of cancer invasion. The results indicate that this innovative HT platform is a simple, precise, and easy to replicate 3-D invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:24349367

  3. Quantitative methylene blue decolourisation assays as rapid screening tools for assessing the efficiency of catalytic reactions.

    PubMed

    Kruid, Jan; Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the most efficient oxidation process to achieve maximum removal of a target pollutant compound forms the subject of much research. There exists a need to develop rapid screening tools to support research in this area. In this work we report on the development of a quantitative assay as a means for identifying catalysts capable of decolourising methylene blue through the generation of oxidising species from hydrogen peroxide. Here, a previously described methylene blue test strip method was repurposed as a quantitative, aqueous-based spectrophotometric assay. From amongst a selection of metal salts and metallophthalocyanine complexes, monitoring of the decolourisation of the cationic dye methylene blue (via Fenton-like and non-Fenton oxidation reactions) by the assay identified the following to be suitable oxidation catalysts: CuSO4 (a Fenton-like catalyst), iron(II)phthalocyanine (a non-Fenton oxidation catalyst), as well as manganese(II) phthalocyanine. The applicability of the method was examined for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), as measured by HPLC, during parallel oxidation experiments. The order of catalytic activity was identified as FePc > MnPc > CuSO4 for both BPA and MB. The quantitative MB decolourisation assay may offer a rapid method for screening a wide range of potential catalysts for oxidation processes.

  4. Development of a cell-based, high-throughput screening assay for ATM kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kexiao; Shelat, Anang A; Guy, R Kiplin; Kastan, Michael B

    2014-04-01

    The ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein kinase is a major regulator of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), DNA lesions that can be caused by ionizing irradiation (IR), oxidative damage, or exposure to certain chemical agents. In response to DSBs, the ATM kinase is activated and subsequently phosphorylates numerous downstream substrates, including p53, Chk2, BRCA1, and KAP1, which affect processes such as cell cycle progression and DNA repair. Numerous studies have demonstrated that loss of ATM function results in enhanced sensitivity to ionizing irradiation in clinically relevant dose ranges, suggesting that ATM kinase is an attractive therapeutic target for enhancing tumor cell kill with radiotherapy. Previously identified small-molecule ATM kinase inhibitors, such as CP466722 and Ku55933, were identified using in vitro kinase assays carried out with recombinant ATM kinase isolated from mammalian cells. Since it has not been feasible to express full-length recombinant ATM in bacterial or baculovirus systems, a robust in vitro screening tool has been lacking. We have developed a cell-based assay that is robust, straightforward, and sensitive. Using this high-throughput assay, we screened more than 7000 compounds and discovered additional small molecules that inhibit the ATM kinase and further validated these hits by secondary assays.

  5. Establishment of a Predictive In Vitro Assay for Assessment of the Hepatotoxic Potential of Oligonucleotide Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sewing, Sabine; Boess, Franziska; Moisan, Annie; Bertinetti-Lapatki, Cristina; Minz, Tanja; Hedtjaern, Maj; Tessier, Yann; Schuler, Franz; Singer, Thomas; Roth, Adrian B.

    2016-01-01

    Single stranded oligonucleotides (SSO) represent a novel therapeutic modality that opens new space to address previously undruggable targets. In spite of their proven efficacy, the development of promising SSO drug candidates has been limited by reported cases of SSO-associated hepatotoxicity. The mechanisms of SSO induced liver toxicity are poorly understood, and up to now no preclinical in vitro model has been established that allows prediction of the hepatotoxicity risk of a given SSO. Therefore, preclinical assessment of hepatic liability currently relies on rodent studies that require large cohorts of animals and lengthy protocols. Here, we describe the establishment and validation of an in vitro assay using primary hepatocytes that recapitulates the hepatotoxic profile of SSOs previously observed in rodents. In vitro cytotoxicity upon unassisted delivery was measured as an increase in extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and concomitant reduction in intracellular glutathione and ATP levels after 3 days of treatment. Furthermore, toxic, but not safe, SSOs led to an increase in miR-122 in cell culture supernatants after 2 days of exposure, revealing the potential use of miR122 as a selective translational biomarker for detection of SSO-induced hepatotoxicity. Overall, we have developed and validated for the first time a robust in vitro screening assay for SSO liver safety profiling which allows rapid prioritization of candidate molecules early on in development. PMID:27442522

  6. On the Design of Broad Based Screening Assays to Identify Potential Pharmacological Chaperones of Protein Misfolding Diseases†

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Zhang, Na; Gao, Phillip; Fisher, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Correcting aberrant folds that develop during protein folding disease states is now an active research endeavor that is attracting increasing attention from both academic and industrial circles. One particular approach focuses on developing or identifying small molecule correctors or pharmacological chaperones that specifically stabilize the native fold. Unfortunately, the limited screening platforms available to rapidly identify or validate potential drug candidates are usually inadequate or slow because the folding disease proteins in question are often transiently folded and/or aggregation-prone, complicating and/or interfering with the assay outcomes. In this review, we outline and discuss the numerous platform options currently being employed to identify small molecule therapeutics for folding diseases. Finally, we describe a new stability screening approach that is broad based and is easily applicable toward a very large number of both common and rare protein folding diseases. The label free screening method described herein couples the promiscuity of the GroEL binding to transient aggregation-prone hydrophobic folds with surface plasmon resonance enabling one to rapidly identify potential small molecule pharmacological chaperones. PMID:23339304

  7. A Microchip for High-throughput Axon Growth Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Sehoon; Koo, Chiwan; Han, Arum; Park, Jaewon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently known that not only the presence of inhibitory molecules associated with myelin but also the reduced growth capability of the axons limit mature central nervous system (CNS) axonal regeneration after injury. Conventional axon growth studies are typically conducted using multi-well cell culture plates that are very challenging to investigate localized effects of drugs and limited to low throughput. Unfortunately, there is currently no other in vitro tools that allow investigating localized axonal responses to biomolecules in high-throughput for screening potential drugs that might promote axonal growth. We have developed a compartmentalized neuron culture platform enabling localized biomolecular treatments in parallel to axons that are physically and fluidically isolated from their neuronal somata. The 24 axon compartments in the developed platform are designed to perform four sets of six different localized biomolecular treatments simultaneously on a single device. In addition, the novel microfluidic configuration allows culture medium of 24 axon compartments to be replenished altogether by a single aspiration process, making high-throughput drug screening a reality. PMID:27928514

  8. New high throughput screening method for drug release measurements.

    PubMed

    Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Delie, Florence; Domańska, Urszula; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Martel, Sophie

    2013-09-01

    In the field of drug delivery systems, microparticles made of polymeric matrix appear as an attractive approach. The in vitro release kinetic profile is crucial information when developing new particulate formulations. These data are essential for batch to batch comparison, quality control as well as for anticipation of in vivo behavior to select the best formulation to go further in preclinical investigations. The methods available present common drawbacks such as the time- and compound-consumption that does not fit with formulation screening requirements in early development stages. In this study, a new microscale high throughput screening (HTS) method has been developed to investigate drug release kinetic from piroxicam-loaded polylactic acid (PLA) and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles. The method is a sample- and separation-based method where separation is performed by filtration using 96-well micro filter plates. 96 experiments can therefore be performed on one plate in one time in a fully automated way and with a very low sample and particle consumption. The influence of different parameters controlling release profiles was also investigated using this technique. The HTS method gave the same release profile than the standard dialysis method. Shaking, particle concentration, and the nature of the release medium were found to be of influence. The HTS method appears as a reliable method to evaluate drug release from particles with smaller standard deviation and less consumption of material.

  9. Repositioning approved drugs for the treatment of problematic cancers using a screening approach.

    PubMed

    Varbanov, Hristo P; Kuttler, Fabien; Banfi, Damiano; Turcatti, Gerardo; Dyson, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Advances in treatment strategies together with an earlier diagnosis have considerably increased the average survival of cancer patients over the last four decades. Nevertheless, despite the growing number of new antineoplastic agents introduced each year, there is still no adequate therapy for problematic malignancies such as pancreatic, lung and stomach cancers. Consequently, it is important to ensure that existing drugs used to treat other types of cancers, and potentially other diseases, are not overlooked when searching for new chemotherapy regimens for these problematic cancer types. We describe a screening approach that identifies chemotherapeutics for the treatment of lung and pancreatic cancers, based on drugs already approved for other applications. Initially, the 1280 chemically and pharmacologically diverse compounds from the Prestwick Chemical Library® (PCL) were screened against A549 (lung cancer) and PANC-1 (pancreatic carcinoma) cells using the PrestoBlue fluorescent-based cell viability assay. More than 100 compounds from the PCL were identified as hits in one or both cell lines (80 of them, being drugs used to treat diseases other than cancer). Selected PCL hits were further evaluated in a dose-response manner. Promising candidates for repositioning emanating from this study include antiparasitics, cardiac glycosides, as well as the anticancer drugs vorinostat and topotecan.

  10. Repositioning approved drugs for the treatment of problematic cancers using a screening approach

    PubMed Central

    Kuttler, Fabien; Banfi, Damiano; Turcatti, Gerardo; Dyson, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in treatment strategies together with an earlier diagnosis have considerably increased the average survival of cancer patients over the last four decades. Nevertheless, despite the growing number of new antineoplastic agents introduced each year, there is still no adequate therapy for problematic malignancies such as pancreatic, lung and stomach cancers. Consequently, it is important to ensure that existing drugs used to treat other types of cancers, and potentially other diseases, are not overlooked when searching for new chemotherapy regimens for these problematic cancer types. We describe a screening approach that identifies chemotherapeutics for the treatment of lung and pancreatic cancers, based on drugs already approved for other applications. Initially, the 1280 chemically and pharmacologically diverse compounds from the Prestwick Chemical Library® (PCL) were screened against A549 (lung cancer) and PANC-1 (pancreatic carcinoma) cells using the PrestoBlue fluorescent-based cell viability assay. More than 100 compounds from the PCL were identified as hits in one or both cell lines (80 of them, being drugs used to treat diseases other than cancer). Selected PCL hits were further evaluated in a dose-response manner. Promising candidates for repositioning emanating from this study include antiparasitics, cardiac glycosides, as well as the anticancer drugs vorinostat and topotecan. PMID:28166232

  11. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  12. Magnetically optimized SERS assay for rapid detection of trace drug-related biomarkers in saliva and fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianxi; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Shuyue; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-06-15

    New developments in the fields of human healthcare and social security call for the exploration of an easy and on-field method to detect drug-related biomarkers. In this paper, Au nanoparticles dotted magnetic nanocomposites (AMN) modified with inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to quickly monitor trace drug-related biomarkers in saliva and to on-site screen a trace drug biomarker in fingerprints. Due to inducing with an external magnet, such substrate presented a huge SERS activity, which has met the sensitivity requirement for assay to detect the drug biomarkers in saliva from the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and also the limit of detection for drug biomarker in fingerprint reached 100 nM. In addition, this AMN-based SERS assay was successfully conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer, which could be used to on-site and accurately differentiate between the smokers and drug addicts in near future.

  13. Bringing the light to high throughput screening: use of optogenetic tools for the development of recombinant cellular assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Viviana; Di Silvio, Alberto; Rolland, Jean Francois; Mondini, Anna; Tremolada, Sara; Montag, Katharina; Scarabottolo, Lia; Redaelli, Loredana; Lohmer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The use of light-activated proteins represents a powerful tool to control biological processes with high spatial and temporal precision. These so called "optogenetic" technologies have been successfully validated in many recombinant systems, and have been widely applied to the study of cellular mechanisms in intact tissues or behaving animals; to do that, complex, high-intensity, often home-made instrumentations were developed to achieve the optimal power and precision of light stimulation. In our study we sought to determine if this optical modulation can be obtained also in a miniaturized format, such as a 384-well plate, using the instrumentations normally dedicated to fluorescence analysis in High Throughput Screening (HTS) activities, such as for example the FLIPR (Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader) instrument. We successfully generated optogenetic assays for the study of different ion channel targets: the CaV1.3 calcium channel was modulated by the light-activated Channelrhodopsin-2, the HCN2 cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel was modulated by the light activated bPAC adenylyl cyclase, and finally the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight was efficiently used to measure potassium, sodium or chloride channel activity. Our results showed that stable, robust and miniaturized cellular assays can be developed using different optogenetic tools, and efficiently modulated by the FLIPR instrument LEDs in a 384-well format. The spatial and temporal resolution delivered by this technology might enormously advantage the early stages of drug discovery, leading to the identification of more physiological and effective drug molecules.

  14. Assessment of the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network Standardized Procedure for In Vitro Malaria Drug Sensitivity Testing Using SYBR Green Assay for Field Samples with Various Initial Parasitemia Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cheruiyot, Agnes C.; Auschwitz, Jennifer M.; Lee, Patricia J.; Yeda, Redemptah A.; Okello, Charles O.; Leed, Susan E.; Talwar, Mayank; Murthy, Tushar; Gaona, Heather W.; Hickman, Mark R.; Akala, Hoseah M.; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The malaria SYBR green assay, which is used to profile in vitro drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum, is a reliable drug screening and surveillance tool. Malaria field surveillance efforts provide isolates with various low levels of parasitemia. To be advantageous, malaria drug sensitivity assays should perform reproducibly among various starting parasitemia levels rather than at one fixed initial value. We examined the SYBR green assay standardized procedure developed by the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) for its sensitivity and ability to accurately determine the drug concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50% (IC50) in samples with a range of initial parasitemia levels. The initial sensitivity determination of the WWARN procedure yielded a detection limit of 0.019% parasitemia. P. falciparum laboratory strains and field isolates with various levels of initial parasitemia were then subjected to a range of doses of common antimalarials. The IC50s were comparable for laboratory strains with between 0.0375% and 0.6% parasitemia and for field isolates with between 0.075% and 0.6% parasitemia for all drugs tested. Furthermore, assay quality (Z′) analysis indicated that the WWARN procedure displays high robustness, allowing for drug testing of malaria field samples within the derived range of initial parasitemia. The use of the WWARN procedure should allow for the inclusion of more malaria field samples in malaria drug sensitivity screens that would have otherwise been excluded due to low initial parasitemia levels. PMID:26856829

  15. Inhibitor screening and enzymatic activity determination for autophagy target Atg4B using a gel electrophoresis-based assay.

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, Matthias; Grootaert, Mandy O J; Gladysz, Rafaela; Adriaenssens, Yves; Roelandt, Ria; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Declercq, Wim; Augustyns, Koen; Martinet, Wim; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2016-11-10

    Atg4B is a cysteine hydrolase that plays a key role in autophagy. Although it has been proposed as an attractive drug target, inhibitor discovery has proven highly challenging. The absence of a standardized, easily implementable enzyme activity/inhibition assay for Atg4B most likely contributes to this situation. Therefore, three different assay types for Atg4B activity/inhibition quantification were first compared: (1) an approach using fluorogenic Atg4B-substrates, (2) an in-gel densitometric quantification assay and (3) a thermal shift protocol. The gel-based approach showed the most promising results and was validated for screening of potential Atg4B inhibitors. A set of 8 literature inhibitors was included. Remarkably, in our hands only 2 literature references were found to have measurable Atg4B affinity. Furthermore, a fragment library (n = 182) was tested for Atg4B inhibition. One library member showed inhibition at high micromolar concentration and was found fit for further, fragment-based inhibitor design.

  16. Assay Establishment and Validation of a High-Throughput Screening Platform for Three-Dimensional Patient-Derived Colon Cancer Organoid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Boehnke, Karsten; Iversen, Philip W.; Schumacher, Dirk; Lallena, María José; Haro, Rubén; Amat, Joaquín; Haybaeck, Johannes; Liebs, Sandra; Lange, Martin; Schäfer, Reinhold; Regenbrecht, Christian R. A.; Reinhard, Christoph; Velasco, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    The application of patient-derived three-dimensional culture systems as disease-specific drug sensitivity models has enormous potential to connect compound screening and clinical trials. However, the implementation of complex cell-based assay systems in drug discovery requires reliable and robust screening platforms. Here we describe the establishment of an automated platform in 384-well format for three-dimensional organoid cultures derived from colon cancer patients. Single cells were embedded in an extracellular matrix by an automated workflow and subsequently self-organized into organoid structures within 4 days of culture before being exposed to compound treatment. We performed validation of assay robustness and reproducibility via plate uniformity and replicate-experiment studies. After assay optimization, the patient-derived organoid platform passed all relevant validation criteria. In addition, we introduced a streamlined plate uniformity study to evaluate patient-derived colon cancer samples from different donors. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using patient-derived tumor samples for high-throughput assays and their integration as disease-specific models in drug discovery. PMID:27233291

  17. Assay Establishment and Validation of a High-Throughput Screening Platform for Three-Dimensional Patient-Derived Colon Cancer Organoid Cultures.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Karsten; Iversen, Philip W; Schumacher, Dirk; Lallena, María José; Haro, Rubén; Amat, Joaquín; Haybaeck, Johannes; Liebs, Sandra; Lange, Martin; Schäfer, Reinhold; Regenbrecht, Christian R A; Reinhard, Christoph; Velasco, Juan A

    2016-10-01

    The application of patient-derived three-dimensional culture systems as disease-specific drug sensitivity models has enormous potential to connect compound screening and clinical trials. However, the implementation of complex cell-based assay systems in drug discovery requires reliable and robust screening platforms. Here we describe the establishment of an automated platform in 384-well format for three-dimensional organoid cultures derived from colon cancer patients. Single cells were embedded in an extracellular matrix by an automated workflow and subsequently self-organized into organoid structures within 4 days of culture before being exposed to compound treatment. We performed validation of assay robustness and reproducibility via plate uniformity and replicate-experiment studies. After assay optimization, the patient-derived organoid platform passed all relevant validation criteria. In addition, we introduced a streamlined plate uniformity study to evaluate patient-derived colon cancer samples from different donors. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using patient-derived tumor samples for high-throughput assays and their integration as disease-specific models in drug discovery.

  18. Quantification of cell viability and rapid screening anti-cancer drug utilizing nanomechanical fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangquan; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiarong; Liang, Xin M; Gao, Dayong; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-03-15

    Cancer is a serious threat to human health. Although numerous anti-cancer drugs are available clinically, many have shown toxic side effects due to poor tumor-selectivity, and reduced effectiveness due to cancers rapid development of resistance to treatment. The development of new highly efficient and practical methods to quantify cell viability and its change under drug treatment is thus of significant importance in both understanding of anti-cancer mechanism and anti-cancer drug screening. Here, we present an approach of utilizing a nanomechanical fluctuation based highly sensitive microcantilever sensor, which is capable of characterizing the viability of cells and quantitatively screening (within tens of minutes) their responses to a drug with the obvious advantages of a rapid, label-free, quantitative, noninvasive, real-time and in-situ assay. The microcantilever sensor operated in fluctuation mode was used in evaluating the paclitaxel effectiveness on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This study demonstrated that the nanomechanical fluctuations of the microcantilever sensor are sensitive enough to detect the dynamic variation in cellular force which is provided by the cytoskeleton, using cell metabolism as its energy source, and the dynamic instability of microtubules plays an important role in the generation of the force. We propose that cell viability consists of two parts: biological viability and mechanical viability. Our experimental results suggest that paclitaxel has little effect on biological viability, but has a significant effect on mechanical viability. This new method provides a new concept and strategy for the evaluation of cell viability and the screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  19. Current HPLC Methods for Assay of Nano Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Tekkeli, Serife Evrim Kepekci; Kiziltas, Mustafa Volkan

    2016-12-22

    In nano drug formulations the mechanism of release is a critical process to recognize controlled and targeted drug delivery systems. In order to gain high bioavailability and specificity from the drug to reach its therapeutic goal, the active substance must be loaded into the nanoparticles efficiently. Therefore, the amount in biological fluids or tissues and the remaining amount in nano carriers are very important parameters to understand the potential of the nano drug delivery systems. For this aim, suitable and validated quantitation methods are required to determine released drug concentrations from nano pharmaceutical formulations. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is one of the most common techniques used for determination of released drug content out of nano drug formulations, in different physical conditions, over different periods of time. Since there are many types of HPLC methods depending on detector and column types, it is a challenge for the researchers to choose a suitable method that is simple, fast and validated HPLC techniques for their nano drug delivery systems. This review's goal is to compare HPLC methods that are currently used in different nano drug delivery systems in order to provide detailed and useful information for researchers.

  20. Estrogenic activity of constituents of underarm deodorants determined by E-Screen assay.

    PubMed

    Lange, Claudia; Kuch, Bertram; Metzger, Jörg W

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether different kinds of underarm deodorants commercially available in Germany might contain substances with estrogenic potential which after use enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. Twenty five deodorants produced by ten different manufacturers in the form of sprays, roll-ons and sticks were investigated using an in vitro-test system (E-Screen assay) for the determination of estrogenic activity based on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Seven out of ten spray deodorant samples showed a quantifiable estrogenic activity. In the case of the sticks and roll-ons it was only one out of six and one out of nine, respectively. The 17β-estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs) of the samples ranged from 0.1 ng g(-1) to 9 ng g(-1) deodorant. Spray deodorant samples showed the highest activities in the E-Screen assay compared to the stick and roll-on deodorants. In order to identify substances possibly contributing to the observed biological activity the samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained results of this non-target screening led to the selection of 62 single substances present in the deodorants which for their part were analyzed by E-Screen assay. Eight of these single substances, all of them fragrances, showed estrogenic effects with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) similar to parabens, a group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters commonly used as preservatives in personal care products, which are known to have a slight estrogenic effect. Thus, these fragrances are obviously responsible to a substantial degree for the observed estrogenic activity of the deodorants.

  1. Development of a differential scanning fluorimetry based high throughput screening assay for the discovery of affinity binders against an anthrax protein.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Fiona J; Greenwood, Gemma K; Birchall, Kristian; Chen, Beining

    2010-09-05

    The anthrax protein protective antigen (PA) is responsible for cell-surface recognition and aids the delivery of the toxic anthrax enzymes into host cells. By targeting PA and preventing it from binding to host cells, it is hoped that the delivery of toxins into the cell will be inhibited. The current assay reported for PA is a low throughput functional assay. Here, the high throughput screening method using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) was developed and optimized to screen a number of libraries from various sources including a selection of FDA-approved drugs as well as hits selected by a virtual screening campaign. DSF is a rapid technique that uses fluorescence to monitor the thermal unfolding of proteins using a standard QPCR instrument. A positive shift in the calculated melting temperature (Tm), of the protein in the presence of a compound, relative to the Tm of the unbound protein, indicates that stabilization of the protein by ligand binding may have occurred. Optimization of the melting assay showed SYPRO Orange to be an ideal dye as a marker and lead to the reduction of DMSO concentration to <1% (v/v) in the final assay. The final assay volume was minimized to 25 L with 5 g protein per well of 96-well plate. In addition, a buffer, salt and additive screen lead to the selection of 10 mM HEPES-NaOH pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl as the assay buffer. This method has been shown here to be useful as a primary method for the detection of small-molecule PA ligands, giving a hit rate of approximately 7%. These ligands can then be studied further using PA functional assays to confirm their biological activities before being selected as lead compounds for the treatment of anthrax.

  2. Tumorsphere as an effective in vitro platform for screening anti-cancer stem cell drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Che-Hsin; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Wang, Bing-Yen; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of cells within cancer tissues with tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis properties. CSCs also have been considered as the main cause of cancer recurrence. Targeting CSCs have been suggested as the key for successful treatment against cancer. Tumorsphere cultivation is based on culturing cancer cells onto ultralow attachment surface in serum-free media under the supplementation with growth factors such as epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Tumorsphere cultivation is widely used to analyze the self-renewal capability of CSCs and to enrich these cells from bulk cancer cells. This method also provides a reliable platform for screening potential anti-CSC agents. The in vitro anti-proliferation activity of potential agents selected from tumorsphere assay is more translatable into in vivo anti-tumorigenic activity compared with general monolayer culture. Tumorsphere assay can also measure the outcome of clinical trials for potential anti-cancer agents. In addition, tumorsphere assay may be a promising strategy in the innovation of future cancer therapeutica and may help in the screening of anti-cancer small-molecule chemicals. PMID:26527320

  3. Generic anti-drug antibody assay with drug tolerance in serum samples from mice exposed to human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Mackeben, Klaus; Vogel, Rudolf; Heinrich, Julia

    2012-11-15

    Knowledge of the anti-drug antibody (ADA) status is necessary in early research studies. Because specific assay materials are sparse and time is pressing, a generic assay format with drug tolerance for detection of ADAs in serum samples from mice exposed to immunoglobulin G (IgG) or antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) is highly desirable. This article describes a generic immune complex assay in the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format based on (i) transformation of free ADAs to immune complexes by preincubation with excess drug, (ii) the use of a murine anti-human Fab constant domain Fab as capture reagent, (iii) detection of the immune complexes by a peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-murine Fc antibody, and (iv) ADA-positive control conjugates consisting of human Fab and murine IgG. Results of the experiments suggest that the generic immune complex assay for mouse serum samples was at least equivalent to specific ADA immune assays and even superior regarding drug tolerance. The generic immune complex assay confers versatility as it detects ADAs in complex with full-length IgG as well as with Fabs independent of the target specificity in mouse serum samples. These features help to save the sparse amounts of specific antibodies available in early research and development and speed up drug candidate selection.

  4. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay.

    PubMed

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  5. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    SciTech Connect

    Taxvig, Camilla Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  6. Development of a facile method for high throughput screening with reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Goetz, A S; Andrews, J L; Littleton, T R; Ignar, D M

    2000-10-01

    This report describes a facile methodology for high throughput screening with stable mammalian cell reporter gene assays. We have adapted a 96-well adherent cell method to an assay in which cells propagated in suspension are dispensed into 96- or 384-well plates containing test compounds in 100% DMSO. The validation of a stable CHO cell line that expresses 6xCRE-luciferase for use as a reporter gene host cell line is described. The reporter gene, when expressed in this particular CHO cell line, appears to respond specifically to modulation of cAMP levels, thus the cell line is appropriate for screening and pharmacological analysis of Galpha(s)- and Galpha(i)-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors. The development of the new suspension cell assay in both 96- and 384-well formats was performed using a derivative of the CHO host reporter cell line that was stably transfected with human melanocortin-1 receptor. The response of this cell line to NDP-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and forskolin was nearly identical between the adherent and suspension methods. The new method offers improvements in cost, throughput, cell culture effort, compound stability, accuracy of compound delivery, and hands-on time. The 384-well assay can be performed at high capacity in any laboratory without the use of expensive automation systems such that a single person can screen 100 plates per day with 3.5-4 h hands-on time. Although the system has been validated using Galpha(s)-coupled receptor-mediated activation of a cAMP response element, the method can be applied to other types of targets and/or transcriptional response elements.

  7. A breakthrough novel method to resolve the drug and target interference problem in immunogenicity assays.

    PubMed

    Zoghbi, Jad; Xu, Yuanxin; Grabert, Ryan; Theobald, Valerie; Richards, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Biological matrix interference in detection and quantitation immunoassays remains a major challenge in the field of bioanalysis. For example, circulating drug may interfere with the detection of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) and drug target, or ADA may interfere with quantitation of drug levels in PK/TK analysis. Monoclonal antibody drug interference, especially for human IgG4 drugs, presents an additional challenge for ADA analysis due to its longer half-life and higher dose. Assay tolerance to such interference may depend on assay platform and reagents. Various approaches have been used to improve drug tolerance in ADA analysis but limited success was observed. We have developed a breakthrough novel method that uses Precipitation and Acid dissociation (PandA) to overcome drug interference in the ADA assay. The method principle is based on four components for detection of total ADA (free ADA and drug bound ADA) in the presence of drug in patient samples: (1) use excess drug to saturate free ADA to form drug bound ADA as drug:ADA complexes, (2) precipitate the complex using an agent such as PEG, (3) acid dissociate ADA from drug and immobilize (capture) free ADA (and free drug) under acidic conditions (without neutralization) onto a large capacity surface, and (4) detect free ADA (not the captured drug) using specific anti-human Ig detection reagent. In this manuscript, we are describing case studies for three humanized monoclonal antibodies (an IgG1 and two IgG4 drugs). The three drug specific PandA ADA assays resulted in complete recovery of ADA in samples containing drug levels in excess of those expected in patients, in contrast to the commonly used acid dissociation approach in ECL bridging assays. This breakthrough novel method shows significant improvement over the current approaches. In fact, the drug interference or under detecting of ADA in all three cases was eliminated. This assay principle could be used not only for ADA assays but also PK and biomarker

  8. Revisiting de novo drug design: receptor based pharmacophore screening.

    PubMed

    Amaravadhi, Harikishore; Baek, Kwanghee; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2014-01-01

    De novo drug design methods such as receptor or protein based pharmacophore modeling present a unique opportunity to generate novel ligands by employing the potential binding sites even when no explicit ligand information is known for a particular target. Recent developments in molecular modeling programs have enhanced the ability of early programs such as LUDI or Pocket that not only identify the key interactions or hot spots at the suspected binding site, but also and convert these hot spots into three-dimensional search queries and virtual screening of the property filtered synthetic libraries. Together with molecular docking studies and consensus scoring schemes they would enrich the lead identification processes. In this review, we discuss the ligand and receptor based de novo drug design approaches with selected examples.

  9. High-throughput Screening of Carbohydrate-degrading Enzymes Using Novel Insoluble Chromogenic Substrate Assay Kits

    PubMed Central

    Willats, William G. T.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates active enzymes (CAZymes) have multiple roles in vivo and are widely used for industrial processing in the biofuel, textile, detergent, paper and food industries. A deeper understanding of CAZymes is important from both fundamental biology and industrial standpoints. Vast numbers of CAZymes exist in nature (especially in microorganisms) and hundreds of thousands have been cataloged and described in the carbohydrate active enzyme database (CAZy). However, the rate of discovery of putative enzymes has outstripped our ability to biochemically characterize their activities. One reason for this is that advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with associated bioinformatics tools allow for rapid identification of candidate CAZymes, but technology for determining an enzyme's biochemical characteristics has advanced more slowly. To address this technology gap, a novel high-throughput assay kit based on insoluble chromogenic substrates is described here. Two distinct substrate types were produced: Chromogenic Polymer Hydrogel (CPH) substrates (made from purified polysaccharides and proteins) and Insoluble Chromogenic Biomass (ICB) substrates (made from complex biomass materials). Both CPH and ICB substrates are provided in a 96-well high-throughput assay system. The CPH substrates can be made in four different colors, enabling them to be mixed together and thus increasing assay throughput. The protocol describes a 96-well plate assay and illustrates how this assay can be used for screening the activities of enzymes, enzyme cocktails, and broths. PMID:27684747

  10. Cell-based potassium ion channel screening using the FluxOR assay.

    PubMed

    Beacham, Daniel W; Blackmer, Trillium; O' Grady, Michael; Hanson, George T

    2010-04-01

    FluxOR technology is a cell-based assay used for high-throughput screening measurements of potassium channel activity. Using thallium influx as a surrogate indicator of potassium ion channel activity, the FluxOR Potassium Ion Channel Assay is based on the activation of a novel fluorescent dye. This indicator reports channel activity with a large fluorogenic response and is proportional to the number of open potassium channels on the cell, making it extremely useful for studying K(+) channel targets. In contrast to BTC-AM ester, FluxOR dye is roughly 10-fold more thallium sensitive, requiring much lower thallium for a larger signal window. This also means that the assay is carried out in a physiological, normal-chloride saline. In this article, the authors describe how they used BacMam gene delivery to express Kv7.2 and 7.3 (KCNQ), Kir2.1, or Kv11.1 (hERG) potassium ion channels in U2-OS cells. Using these cells, they ran the FluxOR assay to identify and characterize channel-specific inhibitory compounds discovered within the library (Tocriscreen Mini 1200 and Sigma Sodium/Potassium Modulators Ligand set). The FluxOR assay was able to identify several known specific inhibitors of Kv7.2/7.3 or hERG, highlighting its potential to identify novel and more efficacious small-molecule modulators.

  11. Screening of Microbial Extracts for Anticancer Compounds Using Streptomyces Kinase Inhibitor Assay.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Prashant; Bhave, Sarita; Vartak, Ashwini; Kulkarni-Almeida, Asha; Mahajan, Girish; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic kinases are known to play an important role in signal transduction pathways by phosphorylating their respective substrates. Abnormal phosphorylations by these kinases have resulted in diseases. Hence inhibitors of kinases are of considerable pharmaceutical interest for a wide variety of disease targets, especially cancers. A number of reports have been published which indicate that eukaryotic-like kinases may complement two-component kinase systems in several bacteria. In Streptomyces sp. such kinases have been found to have a role in formation of aerial hyphae, spores, pigmentation & even in antibiotic production in some strains. Eukaryotic kinase inhibitors are seen to inhibit formation of aerial mycelia in Streptomyces without inhibiting vegetative mycelia. This property has been used to design an assay to screen for eukaryotic kinase inhibitors. The assay involves testing of compounds against Streptomyces 85E ATCC 55824 using agar well diffusion method. Inhibitors of kinases give rise to "bald" colonies where aerial mycelia and sporulation inhibition is seen. The assay has been standardized using known eukaryotic protein kinase inhibiting anticancer agents like AG-490, AG-1295, AG-1478, Flavopiridol and Imatinib as positive controls, at a concentration ranging from 10 μg/well to 100 μg/well. Anti-infective compounds which are not reported to inhibit eukaryotic protein kinases were used as negative controls. A number of microbial cultures have been screened for novel eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Further these microbial extracts were tested in various cancer cell lines like Panel, HCT116, Calul, ACHN and H460 at a concentration of 10 μg/mL/ well. The anticancer data was seen correlating well with the Streptomyces kinase assay thus validating the assay.

  12. Optical diagnostics of osteoblast cells and osteogenic drug screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolanti, Elayaraja; Veerla, Sarath C.; Khajuria, Deepak K.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2016-02-01

    Microfluidic device based diagnostics involving optical fibre path, in situ imaging and spectroscopy are gaining importance due to recent advances in diagnostics instrumentation and methods, besides other factors such as low amount of reagent required for analysis, short investigation times, and potential possibilities to replace animal model based study in near future. It is possible to grow and monitor tissues in vitro in microfluidic lab-on-chip. It may become a transformative way of studying how cells interact with drugs, pathogens and biomaterials in physiologically relevant microenvironments. To a large extent, progress in developing clinically viable solutions has been constrained because of (i) contradiction between in vitro and in vivo results and (ii) animal model based and clinical studies which is very expensive. Our study here aims to evaluate the usefulness of microfluidic device based 3D tissue growth and monitoring approach to better emulate physiologically and clinically relevant microenvironments in comparison to conventional in vitro 2D culture. Moreover, the microfluidic methodology permits precise high-throughput investigations through real-time imaging while using very small amounts of reagents and cells. In the present study, we report on the details of an osteoblast cell based 3D microfluidic platform which we employ for osteogenic drug screening. The drug formulation is functionalized with fluorescence and other biomarkers for imaging and spectroscopy, respectively. Optical fibre coupled paths are used to obtain insight regarding the role of stress/flow pressure fluctuation and nanoparticle-drug concentration on the osteoblast growth and osteogenic properties of bone.

  13. Auxotrophy-based High Throughput Screening assay for the identification of Bacillus subtilis stringent response inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Liis; Varik, Vallo; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Jimmy, Steffi; Lindberg, Stina; Tenson, Tanel; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2016-01-01

    The stringent response is a central adaptation mechanism that allows bacteria to adjust their growth and metabolism according to environmental conditions. The functionality of the stringent response is crucial for bacterial virulence, survival during host invasion as well as antibiotic resistance and tolerance. Therefore, specific inhibitors of the stringent response hold great promise as molecular tools for disarming and pacifying bacterial pathogens. By taking advantage of the valine amino acid auxotrophy of the Bacillus subtilis stringent response-deficient strain, we have set up a High Throughput Screening assay for the identification of stringent response inhibitors. By screening 17,500 compounds, we have identified a novel class of antibacterials based on the 4-(6-(phenoxy)alkyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole core. Detailed characterization of the hit compounds as well as two previously identified promising stringent response inhibitors – a ppGpp-mimic nucleotide Relacin and cationic peptide 1018 – showed that neither of the compounds is sufficiently specific, thus motivating future application of our screening assay to larger and more diverse molecular libraries. PMID:27775002

  14. In Vitro Reporter Assays for Screening of Chemicals That Disrupt Androgen Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Paul Khurana, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) modulate hormone signaling and cause developmental and reproductive anomalies. Today, there is a global concern regarding endocrine disruption effects, particularly those mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Androgen or male hormones are critical for the development and maintenance of male characteristics and numerous EDCs exist in the environment with the potential to disrupt androgen action. The threat is more during critical developmental windows when there is increased sensitivity to these compounds. Timely screening and detection of the EDCs is essential to minimize deleterious effects produced by these toxic chemicals. As a first line of screening, in vitro transcription assays are very useful due to their speed, convenience, and cost effectiveness. In this paper, recent in vitro reporter assays for detecting androgenic or antiandrogenic activity of EDCs have been reviewed. Two important cell systems used for this purpose, namely, the mammalian or yeast cell systems, have been discussed. Use of reporter genes such as bacterial luciferase (lux) and green fluorescent protein (gfp) has significantly improved speed and sensitivity of detection. Also, many of the current reporter assay systems can be used in a high throughput format allowing speedy evaluation of multiple potential EDCs at a lower price. PMID:25435875

  15. Research resource: modulators of glucocorticoid receptor activity identified by a new high-throughput screening assay.

    PubMed

    Blackford, John A; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Dougherty, Edward J; Pradhan, Madhumita; Shen, Min; Li, Zhuyin; Auld, Douglas S; Chow, Carson C; Austin, Christopher P; Simons, S Stoney

    2014-07-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids affect almost every type of tissue and thus are widely used to treat a variety of human pathological conditions. However, the severity of numerous side effects limits the frequency and duration of glucocorticoid treatments. Of the numerous approaches to control off-target responses to glucocorticoids, small molecules and pharmaceuticals offer several advantages. Here we describe a new, extended high-throughput screen in intact cells to identify small molecule modulators of dexamethasone-induced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) transcriptional activity. The novelty of this assay is that it monitors changes in both GR maximal activity (A(max)) and EC(50) (the position of the dexamethasone dose-response curve). Upon screening 1280 chemicals, 10 with the greatest changes in the absolute value of A(max) or EC(50) were selected for further examination. Qualitatively identical behaviors for 60% to 90% of the chemicals were observed in a completely different system, suggesting that other systems will be similarly affected by these chemicals. Additional analysis of the 10 chemicals in a recently described competition assay determined their kinetically defined mechanism and site of action. Some chemicals had similar mechanisms of action despite divergent effects on the level of the GR-induced product. These combined assays offer a straightforward method of identifying numerous new pharmaceuticals that can alter GR transactivation in ways that could be clinically useful.

  16. An Efficient and Economical Assay to Screen for Triclosan Binding to FabI.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Robel D; Kabre, Pauline; Tuntland, Micheal L; Fung, Leslie W-M

    2016-04-01

    Triclosan is an effective inhibitor for enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) in fatty acid biosynthesis. Triclosan-resistant mutants of ENR have emerged. Thus, it is important to detect these triclosan-resistant mutations in ENR. Generally, enzyme activity assays on the mutants are used to determine the effect of triclosan on ENR activity. Since the substrates are linked to acyl carrier protein (ACP), the assays are challenging due to the need to prepare the ACP and link it to the substrates. Non-ACP-linked (coenzyme A [CoA]-linked) substrates can be used in some ENR, but not in all. Consequently, screening for triclosan-resistant mutants is also challenging. We have developed a simple thermal shift assay, which does not use ACP-linked substrates, to determine the binding ability of triclosan to the ENR active site, and thus it can be used for screening for triclosan-resistant mutants. Staphylococcus aureus FabI enzyme and its mutants were used to demonstrate the binding ability of triclosan with NADP(+) to FabI. The direct correlation between the binding ability and enzyme activity was demonstrated with Francisella tularensis FabI. This method may also be applied to select effective triclosan analogues that inhibit ENR activity.

  17. Screening applications in drug discovery based on microfluidic technology

    PubMed Central

    Eribol, P.; Uguz, A. K.; Ulgen, K. O.

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics has been the focus of interest for the last two decades for all the advantages such as low chemical consumption, reduced analysis time, high throughput, better control of mass and heat transfer, downsizing a bench-top laboratory to a chip, i.e., lab-on-a-chip, and many others it has offered. Microfluidic technology quickly found applications in the pharmaceutical industry, which demands working with leading edge scientific and technological breakthroughs, as drug screening and commercialization are very long and expensive processes and require many tests due to unpredictable results. This review paper is on drug candidate screening methods with microfluidic technology and focuses specifically on fabrication techniques and materials for the microchip, types of flow such as continuous or discrete and their advantages, determination of kinetic parameters and their comparison with conventional systems, assessment of toxicities and cytotoxicities, concentration generations for high throughput, and the computational methods that were employed. An important conclusion of this review is that even though microfluidic technology has been in this field for around 20 years there is still room for research and development, as this cutting edge technology requires ingenuity to design and find solutions for each individual case. Recent extensions of these microsystems are microengineered organs-on-chips and organ arrays. PMID:26865904

  18. Screening applications in drug discovery based on microfluidic technology.

    PubMed

    Eribol, P; Uguz, A K; Ulgen, K O

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics has been the focus of interest for the last two decades for all the advantages such as low chemical consumption, reduced analysis time, high throughput, better control of mass and heat transfer, downsizing a bench-top laboratory to a chip, i.e., lab-on-a-chip, and many others it has offered. Microfluidic technology quickly found applications in the pharmaceutical industry, which demands working with leading edge scientific and technological breakthroughs, as drug screening and commercialization are very long and expensive processes and require many tests due to unpredictable results. This review paper is on drug candidate screening methods with microfluidic technology and focuses specifically on fabrication techniques and materials for the microchip, types of flow such as continuous or discrete and their advantages, determination of kinetic parameters and their comparison with conventional systems, assessment of toxicities and cytotoxicities, concentration generations for high throughput, and the computational methods that were employed. An important conclusion of this review is that even though microfluidic technology has been in this field for around 20 years there is still room for research and development, as this cutting edge technology requires ingenuity to design and find solutions for each individual case. Recent extensions of these microsystems are microengineered organs-on-chips and organ arrays.

  19. Assessment of the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network Standardized Procedure for In Vitro Malaria Drug Sensitivity Testing Using SYBR Green Assay for Field Samples with Various Initial Parasitemia Levels.

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, Agnes C; Auschwitz, Jennifer M; Lee, Patricia J; Yeda, Redemptah A; Okello, Charles O; Leed, Susan E; Talwar, Mayank; Murthy, Tushar; Gaona, Heather W; Hickman, Mark R; Akala, Hoseah M; Kamau, Edwin; Johnson, Jacob D

    2016-04-01

    The malaria SYBR green assay, which is used to profilein vitrodrug susceptibility ofPlasmodium falciparum, is a reliable drug screening and surveillance tool. Malaria field surveillance efforts provide isolates with various low levels of parasitemia. To be advantageous, malaria drug sensitivity assays should perform reproducibly among various starting parasitemia levels rather than at one fixed initial value. We examined the SYBR green assay standardized procedure developed by the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) for its sensitivity and ability to accurately determine the drug concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50% (IC50) in samples with a range of initial parasitemia levels. The initial sensitivity determination of the WWARN procedure yielded a detection limit of 0.019% parasitemia.P. falciparumlaboratory strains and field isolates with various levels of initial parasitemia were then subjected to a range of doses of common antimalarials. The IC50s were comparable for laboratory strains with between 0.0375% and 0.6% parasitemia and for field isolates with between 0.075% and 0.6% parasitemia for all drugs tested. Furthermore, assay quality (Z') analysis indicated that the WWARN procedure displays high robustness, allowing for drug testing of malaria field samples within the derived range of initial parasitemia. The use of the WWARN procedure should allow for the inclusion of more malaria field samples in malaria drug sensitivity screens that would have otherwise been excluded due to low initial parasitemia levels.

  20. A new homogeneous high-throughput screening assay for profiling compound activity on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel.

    PubMed

    Titus, Steven A; Beacham, Daniel; Shahane, Sampada A; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Hooten, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yong; Shou, Louie; Austin, Christopher P; Zheng, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Long QT syndrome, either inherited or acquired from drug treatments, can result in ventricular arrhythmia (torsade de pointes) and sudden death. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel inhibition by drugs is now recognized as a common reason for the acquired form of long QT syndrome. It has been reported that more than 100 known drugs inhibit the activity of the hERG channel. Since 1997, several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to the long QT syndrome caused by hERG inhibition. Food and Drug Administration regulations now require safety data on hERG channels for investigative new drug (IND) applications. The assessment of compound activity on the hERG channel has now become an important part of the safety evaluation in the process of drug discovery. During the past decade, several in vitro assay methods have been developed and significant resources have been used to characterize hERG channel activities. However, evaluation of compound activities on hERG have not been performed for large compound collections due to technical difficulty, lack of throughput, and/or lack of biological relevance to function. Here we report a modified form of the FluxOR thallium flux assay, capable of measuring hERG activity in a homogeneous 1536-well plate format. To validate the assay, we screened a 7-point dilution series of the LOPAC 1280 library collection and reported rank order potencies of ten common hERG inhibitors. A correlation was also observed for the hERG channel activities of 10 known hERG inhibitors determined in this thallium flux assay and in the patch clamp experiment. Our findings indicate that this thallium flux assay can be used as an alternative method to profile large-volume compound libraries for compound activity on the hERG channel.

  1. A Systematic Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Biological Threat Agents

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Peter B.; Chopra, Sidharth; Manger, Ian D.; Gilfillan, Lynne; Keepers, Tiffany R.; Shurtleff, Amy C.; Green, Carol E.; Iyer, Lalitha V.; Dilks, Holli Hutcheson; Davey, Robert A.; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L.; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G.; Warren, Travis K.; Wells, Jay B.; Moos, Walter H.; Burke, RaeLyn L.; Tanga, Mary J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapid development of effective medical countermeasures against potential biological threat agents is vital. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, as well as manufacturing and distribution networks. Therefore, approved drugs could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency. Methodology/Principal Findings A large systematic effort to determine whether existing drugs can be used against high containment bacterial and viral pathogens is described. We assembled and screened 1012 FDA-approved drugs for off-label broad-spectrum efficacy against Bacillus anthracis; Francisella tularensis; Coxiella burnetii; and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fever viruses using in vitro cell culture assays. We found a variety of hits against two or more of these biological threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary assays. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but we did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in vivo protecting mice against Bacillus anthracis challenge. While multiple virus-specific inhibitors were identified, the most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was chloroquine, which disrupted entry and replication of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebola virus challenge in vivo. Conclusions/Significance The feasibility of repurposing existing drugs to face novel threats is demonstrated and this represents the first effort to apply this approach to high containment bacteria and viruses. PMID:23577127

  2. Metabolomics Guides Rational Development of a Simplified Cell Culture Medium for Drug Screening against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Creek, Darren J.; Nijagal, Brunda; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Rojas, Federico; Matthews, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro culture methods underpin many experimental approaches to biology and drug discovery. The modification of established cell culture methods to make them more biologically relevant or to optimize growth is traditionally a laborious task. Emerging metabolomic technology enables the rapid evaluation of intra- and extracellular metabolites and can be applied to the rational development of cell culture media. In this study, untargeted semiquantitative and targeted quantitative metabolomic analyses of fresh and spent media revealed the major nutritional requirements for the growth of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei. The standard culture medium (HMI11) contained unnecessarily high concentrations of 32 nutrients that were subsequently removed to make the concentrations more closely resemble those normally found in blood. Our new medium, Creek's minimal medium (CMM), supports in vitro growth equivalent to that in HMI11 and causes no significant perturbation of metabolite levels for 94% of the detected metabolome (<3-fold change; α = 0.05). Importantly, improved sensitivity was observed for drug activity studies in whole-cell phenotypic screenings and in the metabolomic mode of action assays. Four-hundred-fold 50% inhibitory concentration decreases were observed for pentamidine and methotrexate, suggesting inhibition of activity by nutrients present in HMI11. CMM is suitable for routine cell culture and offers important advantages for metabolomic studies and drug activity screening. PMID:23571546

  3. Unique drug screening approach for prion diseases identifies tacrolimus and astemizole as antiprion agents

    PubMed Central

    Karapetyan, Yervand Eduard; Sferrazza, Gian Franco; Zhou, Minghai; Ottenberg, Gregory; Spicer, Timothy; Chase, Peter; Fallahi, Mohammad; Hodder, Peter; Weissmann, Charles; Lasmézas, Corinne Ida

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) are incurable and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Because prion protein (PrP) is necessary for prion replication but dispensable for the host, we developed the PrP–FRET-enabled high throughput assay (PrP–FEHTA) to screen for compounds that decrease PrP expression. We screened a collection of drugs approved for human use and identified astemizole and tacrolimus, which reduced cell-surface PrP and inhibited prion replication in neuroblastoma cells. Tacrolimus reduced total cellular PrP levels by a nontranscriptional mechanism. Astemizole stimulated autophagy, a hitherto unreported mode of action for this pharmacophore. Astemizole, but not tacrolimus, prolonged the survival time of prion-infected mice. Astemizole is used in humans to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis in a chronic setting. Given the absence of any treatment option for CJD patients and the favorable drug characteristics of astemizole, including its ability to cross the blood–brain barrier, it may be considered as therapy for CJD patients and for prophylactic use in familial prion diseases. Importantly, our results validate PrP-FEHTA as a method to identify antiprion compounds and, more generally, FEHTA as a unique drug discovery platform. PMID:23576755

  4. Comparison of three assays for genetic effects of antineoplastic drugs on cancer patients and their nurses

    SciTech Connect

    Krepinsky, A. ); Bryant, D.W.; Davison, L.; McCalla, D.R. ); Young, B. ); Heddle, J. ); Douglas, G. ); Michalko, K. )

    1990-01-01

    Three assays have been compared for their ability to detect genetic damage caused by antineoplastic drugs in cancer patients and possible damage in the nurses who administered these drugs. The assays were sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay on urine. Three comparisons were made: (1) patients before versus after treatment; (2) the administering nurses immediately after their work period versus after a few days off that followed (work and off-work); (3) the exposed nurses versus other nurses who did not administer antineoplastic drugs (controls). The SCE assay did not distinguish between the work and off-work samples in either the exposed or control nurses. Chromosomal aberration was the only assay which showed significant difference between the two samples of the exposed nurses and, consequently, between the exposed and control nurses. There is no evidence that the increase was connected to occupational exposure.

  5. FRET-based calcium imaging: a tool for high-throughput/content phenotypic drug screening in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Honarnejad, Kamran; Kirsch, Achim K; Daschner, Alexander; Szybinska, Aleksandra; Kuznicki, Jacek; Herms, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Perturbed intracellular store calcium homeostasis is suggested to play a major role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). A number of mechanisms have been suggested to underlie the impairment of endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis associated with familial AD-linked presenilin 1 mutations (FAD-PS1). Without aiming at specifically targeting any of those pathophysiological mechanisms in particular, we rather performed a high-throughput phenotypic screen to identify compounds that can reverse the exaggerated agonist-evoked endoplasmic reticulum calcium release phenotype in HEK293 cells expressing FAD-PS1. For that purpose, we developed a fully automated high-throughput calcium imaging assay using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based calcium indicator at single-cell resolution. This novel robust assay offers a number of advantages compared with the conventional calcium measurement screening technologies. The assay was employed in a large-scale screen with a library of diverse compounds comprising 20,000 low-molecular-weight molecules, which resulted in the identification of 52 primary hits and 4 lead structures. In a secondary assay, several hits were found to alter the amyloid β (Aβ) production. In view of the recent failure of AD drug candidates identified by target-based approaches, such a phenotypic drug discovery paradigm may present an attractive alternative for the identification of novel AD therapeutics.

  6. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  7. Vertebrate embryos as tools for anti-angiogenic drug screening and function.

    PubMed

    Beedie, Shaunna L; Diamond, Alexandra J; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Figg, William D; Vargesson, Neil

    2016-11-22

    The development of new angiogenic inhibitors highlights a need for robust screening assays that adequately capture the complexity of vessel formation, and allow for the quantitative evaluation of the teratogenicity of new anti-angiogenic agents. This review discusses the use of screening assays in vertebrate embryos, specifically focusing upon chicken and zebrafish embryos, for the detection of anti-angiogenic agents.

  8. A Cellular Screening Assay Using Analysis of Metal-Modified Fluorescence Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Nicholas I.; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Archibald, Stephen J.; Ng, Tony; Richards, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current methods for screening cell receptor internalization often require complex image analysis with limited sensitivity. Here we describe a novel bioassay based on detection of changes in global fluorescence lifetime above a gold substrate, with superresolution axial sensitivity and no need for image analysis. We show that the lifetime of enhanced green fluorescent protein expressed in a cellular membrane is greatly reduced in close proximity to the gold, resulting in a distance-dependent lifetime distribution throughout the cell. We demonstrate the application of this phenomenon in a screening assay by comparing the efficacies of two small molecule inhibitors interfering with the internalization process of a G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:20513420

  9. An AlphaScreen Assay for the Discovery of Synthetic Chemical Inhibitors of Glucagon Production.

    PubMed

    Evans, Matthew R; Wei, Shuguang; Posner, Bruce A; Unger, Roger H; Roth, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Glucose homeostasis is primarily controlled by two opposing hormones, insulin and glucagon, and diabetes results when insulin fails to inhibit glucagon action. Recent efforts to control glucagon in diabetes have focused on antagonizing the glucagon receptor, which is effective in lowering blood glucose levels but leads to hyperglucogonemia in rodents. An alternative strategy would be to control glucagon production with small molecules. In pursuit of this goal, we developed a homogeneous AlphaScreen assay for measuring glucagon in cell culture media and used this in a high-throughput screen to discover synthetic compounds that inhibited glucagon secretion from an alpha cell-like cell line. Some of these compounds inhibited transcription of the glucagon gene.

  10. A First Application of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening Cyclodiene Insecticides in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Mohrman, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate kit for screening of cyclodiene insecticides (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, and heptachlor) was evaluated for sensitivity, cross reactivity, and overall performance using groundwater samples from a contaminated site. Ground-water contaminants included several pesticide compounds and their manufacturing byproducts, as well as many other organic and inorganic compounds. Cross-reactivity studies were carried out for the cyclodiene compounds, and results were compared to those listed by the manufacturer. Data obtained were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ELISA kit to the cyclodiene compounds in ground water samples with a contaminated matrix. The method quantitation limit for the ELISA kit was 15 ??g/L (as chlordane). Of the 56 ground-water samples analyzed using the ELISA plate kits, more than 85% showed cyclodiene insecticide contamination. The ELISA kit showed excellent potential as a screening tool for sites with suspected groundwater contamination by insecticides.

  11. An AlphaScreen Assay for the Discovery of Synthetic Chemical Inhibitors of Glucagon Production

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew R.; Wei, Shuguang; Posner, Bruce A.; Unger, Roger H.; Roth, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is primarily controlled by two opposing hormones, insulin and glucagon, and diabetes results when insulin fails to inhibit glucagon action. Recent efforts to control glucagon in diabetes have focused on antagonizing the glucagon receptor, which is effective in lowering blood glucose levels but leads to hyperglucogonemia in rodents. An alternative strategy would be to control glucagon production with small molecules. In pursuit of this goal, we developed a homogeneous AlphaScreen assay for measuring glucagon in cell culture media and used this in a high-throughput screen to discover synthetic compounds that inhibited glucagon secretion from an alpha cell–like cell line. Some of these compounds inhibited transcription of the glucagon gene. PMID:26676097

  12. The WST survival assay: an easy and reliable method to screen radiation-sensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Guertler, A; Kraemer, A; Roessler, U; Hornhardt, S; Kulka, U; Moertl, S; Friedl, A A; Illig, T; Wichmann, E; Gomolka, M

    2011-02-01

    An easy, fast and reliable method was developed to screen hundreds of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines (lymphoblastoid cell lines, LCLs) for radiation sensitivity that were generated from lymphocytes isolated from young lung cancer patients. The WST-1 test explores the metabolic activity of the mitochondria as an indicator for the vital status of cells. Cell proliferation as well as indirect cell death can be quantified by this method on a large scale in microtiter plates. Cell survival was measured at 24- and 48-h post-irradiation with 10 Gy ((137)Cs source) by the WST-1 assay and Trypan blue staining. To set up the experimental screening conditions and to establish a positive and a negative control, an ATM-mutated cell line from a radiation-sensitive ATM patient and an ATM proficient cell line from a healthy brother were compared. An optimal differentiation between the two cell lines was demonstrated for 10 Gy and 24- and 48-h cell growth after irradiation. Upon screening 120 LCLs of young lung cancer patients under these conditions, 5 of them were found to be radiation sensitive to a high degree of statistical significance. The results have been confirmed by a second laboratory by means of Trypan blue testing. The WST-1 test represents an efficient and reliable method by means of screening for radiation-sensitive cell lines.

  13. Utilizing high throughput screening data for predictive toxicology models: protocols and application to MLSCN assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Rajarshi; Schürer, Stephan C.

    2008-06-01

    Computational toxicology is emerging as an encouraging alternative to experimental testing. The Molecular Libraries Screening Center Network (MLSCN) as part of the NIH Molecular Libraries Roadmap has recently started generating large and diverse screening datasets, which are publicly available in PubChem. In this report, we investigate various aspects of developing computational models to predict cell toxicity based on cell proliferation screening data generated in the MLSCN. By capturing feature-based information in those datasets, such predictive models would be useful in evaluating cell-based screening results in general (for example from reporter assays) and could be used as an aid to identify and eliminate potentially undesired compounds. Specifically we present the results of random forest ensemble models developed using different cell proliferation datasets and highlight protocols to take into account their extremely imbalanced nature. Depending on the nature of the datasets and the descriptors employed we were able to achieve percentage correct classification rates between 70% and 85% on the prediction set, though the accuracy rate dropped significantly when the models were applied to in vivo data. In this context we also compare the MLSCN cell proliferation results with animal acute toxicity data to investigate to what extent animal toxicity can be correlated and potentially predicted by proliferation results. Finally, we present a visualization technique that allows one to compare a new dataset to the training set of the models to decide whether the new dataset may be reliably predicted.

  14. Nonmevalonate terpene biosynthesis enzymes as antiinfective drug targets: substrate synthesis and high-throughput screening methods.

    PubMed

    Illarionova, Victoria; Kaiser, Johannes; Ostrozhenkova, Elena; Bacher, Adelbert; Fischer, Markus; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Rohdich, Felix

    2006-11-10

    The nonmevalonate isoprenoid pathway is an established target for antiinfective drug development. This paper describes high-throughput methods for the screening of 2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase (IspC protein), 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase (IspD protein), 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase (IspE protein), and 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (IspF protein) against large compound libraries. The assays use up to three auxiliary enzymes. They are all monitored photometrically at 340 nm and are robust as documented by Z-factors of >or=0.86. 13C NMR assays designed for hit verification via direct detection of the primary reaction product are also described. Enzyme-assisted methods for the preparation, on a multigram scale, of isoprenoid biosynthesis intermediates required as substrates for these assays are reported. Notably, these methods enable the introduction of single or multiple 13C labels as required for NMR-monitored assays. The preparation of 4-diphosphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate in multigram quantities is described for the first time.

  15. High-Throughput Screening for RecA Inhibitors Using a Transcreener Adenosine 5′-O-Diphosphate Assay

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Eliza J.R.; Janzen, William P.; Kireev, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The activities of the bacterial RecA protein are involved in the de novo development and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes, thus allowing bacteria to overcome the metabolic stress induced by antibacterial agents. RecA is ubiquitous and highly conserved among bacteria, but has only distant homologs in human cells. Together, this evidence points to RecA as a novel and attractive antibacterial drug target. All known RecA functions require the formation of a complex formed by multiple adenosine 5′-O-triphosphate (ATP)-bound RecA monomers on single-stranded DNA. In this complex, RecA hydrolyzes ATP. Although several methods for assessing RecA's ATPase activity have been reported, these assay conditions included relatively high concentrations of enzyme and ATP and thereby restricted the RecA conformational state. Herein, we describe the validation of commercial reagents (Transcreener® adenosine 5′-O-diphosphate [ADP]2 fluorescence polarization assay) for the high-throughput measurement of RecA's ATPase activity with lower concentrations of ATP and RecA. Under optimized conditions, ADP detection by the Transcreener reagent provided robust and reproducible activity data (Z′=0.92). Using the Transcreener assay, we screened 113,477 small molecules against purified RecA protein. In total, 177 small molecules were identified as confirmed hits, of which 79 were characterized by IC50 values ≤10 μM and 35 were active in bioassays with live bacteria. This set of compounds comprises previously unidentified scaffolds for RecA inhibition and represents tractable hit structures for efforts aimed at tuning RecA inhibitory activity in both biochemical and bacteriological assays. PMID:22192312

  16. High-throughput screening for RecA inhibitors using a transcreener adenosine 5'-O-diphosphate assay.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eliza J R; Janzen, William P; Kireev, Dmitri; Singleton, Scott F

    2012-06-01

    The activities of the bacterial RecA protein are involved in the de novo development and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes, thus allowing bacteria to overcome the metabolic stress induced by antibacterial agents. RecA is ubiquitous and highly conserved among bacteria, but has only distant homologs in human cells. Together, this evidence points to RecA as a novel and attractive antibacterial drug target. All known RecA functions require the formation of a complex formed by multiple adenosine 5'-O-triphosphate (ATP)-bound RecA monomers on single-stranded DNA. In this complex, RecA hydrolyzes ATP. Although several methods for assessing RecA's ATPase activity have been reported, these assay conditions included relatively high concentrations of enzyme and ATP and thereby restricted the RecA conformational state. Herein, we describe the validation of commercial reagents (Transcreener(®) adenosine 5'-O-diphosphate [ADP](2) fluorescence polarization assay) for the high-throughput measurement of RecA's ATPase activity with lower concentrations of ATP and RecA. Under optimized conditions, ADP detection by the Transcreener reagent provided robust and reproducible activity data (Z'=0.92). Using the Transcreener assay, we screened 113,477 small molecules against purified RecA protein. In total, 177 small molecules were identified as confirmed hits, of which 79 were characterized by IC(50) values ≤ 10 μM and 35 were active in bioassays with live bacteria. This set of compounds comprises previously unidentified scaffolds for RecA inhibition and represents tractable hit structures for efforts aimed at tuning RecA inhibitory activity in both biochemical and bacteriological assays.

  17. Mimicking the Acute Myeloid Leukemia Niche for Molecular Study and Drug Screening.

    PubMed

    Houshmand, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud; Atashi, Amir; Saglio, Giuseppe; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Nikougoftar Zarif, Mahin

    2017-02-01

    Bone marrow niche is a major contributing factor in leukemia development and drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Although mimicking leukemic bone marrow niche relies on two-dimensional (2D) culture conditions, it cannot recapitulate complex bone marrow structure that causes introduction of different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Simultaneously, microfluidic platform by perfusing medium culture mimic interstitial fluid flow, along with 3D scaffold would help for mimicking bone marrow microenvironment. In this study TF-1 cells were cocultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in 2D and 3D microfluidic devices. Phenotype maintenance during cell culture and proliferation rate was assayed and confirmed by cell cycle analysis. Morphology of cells in 2D and 3D culture conditions was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. After these experiments, drug screening was performed by applying azacitidine and cytarabine and cytotoxicity assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) were done to compare drug resistance in 2D and 3D culture conditions. Our result shows leukemic cells in 3D microfluidic device retaining their phenotype and proliferation rate was significantly higher in 3D culture condition in comparison to 2D culture condition (p < 0.05), which was confirmed by cell cycle analysis. Cytotoxicity assay also illustrated drug resistance in 3D culture condition and qRT-PCR demonstrated higher BCL2 expression in 3D microfluidic device in contrast to 2D microfluidic device (p < 0.05). On balance, mimicking bone marrow niche would help the target therapy and specify the role of niche in development of leukemia in AML patients.

  18. iPSC-based drug screening for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningzhe; Bailus, Barbara J; Ring, Karen L; Ellerby, Lisa M

    2016-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, caused by an expansion of the CAG repeat in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene. The disease generally manifests in middle age with both physical and mental symptoms. There are no effective treatments or cures and death usually occurs 10-20 years after initial symptoms. Since the original identification of the Huntington disease associated gene, in 1993, a variety of models have been created and used to advance our understanding of HD. The most recent advances have utilized stem cell models derived from HD-patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offering a variety of screening and model options that were not previously available. The discovery and advancement of technology to make human iPSCs has allowed for a more thorough characterization of human HD on a cellular and developmental level. The interaction between the genome editing and the stem cell fields promises to further expand the variety of HD cellular models available for researchers. In this review, we will discuss the history of Huntington's disease models, common screening assays, currently available models and future directions for modeling HD using iPSCs-derived from HD patients. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: PSC and the brain.

  19. Simple PCR Assays Improve the Sensitivity of HIV-1 Subtype B Drug Resistance Testing and Allow Linking of Resistance Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Jin-Fen; Wei, Xierong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Bennett, Diane; Brant, Ashley; Cong, Mian-er; Spira, Thomas; Shafer, Robert W.; Heneine, Walid

    2007-01-01

    Background The success of antiretroviral therapy is known to be compromised by drug-resistant HIV-1 at frequencies detectable by conventional bulk sequencing. Currently, there is a need to assess the clinical consequences of low-frequency drug resistant variants occurring below the detection limit of conventional genotyping. Sensitive detection of drug-resistant subpopulations, however, requires simple and practical methods for routine testing. Methodology We developed highly-sensitive and simple real-time PCR assays for nine key drug resistance mutations and show that these tests overcome substantial sequence heterogeneity in HIV-1 clinical specimens. We specifically used early wildtype virus samples from the pre-antiretroviral drug era to measure background reactivity and were able to define highly-specific screening cut-offs that are up to 67-fold more sensitive than conventional genotyping. We also demonstrate that sequencing the mutation-specific PCR products provided a direct and novel strategy to further detect and link associated resistance mutations, allowing easy identification of multi-drug-resistant variants. Resistance mutation associations revealed in mutation-specific amplicon sequences were verified by clonal sequencing. Significance Combined, sensitive real-time PCR testing and mutation-specific amplicon sequencing provides a powerful and simple approach that allows for improved detection and evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. PMID:17653265

  20. High throughput screening in duchenne muscular dystrophy: from drug discovery to functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Gintjee, Thomas J J; Magh, Alvin S H; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-11-14

    Centers for the screening of biologically active compounds and genomic libraries are becoming common in the academic setting and have enabled researchers devoted to developing strategies for the treatment of diseases or interested in studying a biological phenomenon to have unprecedented access to libraries that, until few years ago, were accessible only by pharmaceutical companies. As a result, new drugs and genetic targets have now been identified for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most prominent of the neuromuscular disorders affecting children. Although the work is still at an early stage, the results obtained to date are encouraging and demonstrate the importance that these centers may have in advancing therapeutic strategies for DMD as well as other diseases. This review will provide a summary of the status and progress made toward the development of a cure for this disorder and implementing high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies as the main source of discovery. As more academic institutions are gaining access to HTS as a valuable discovery tool, the identification of new biologically active molecules is likely to grow larger. In addition, the presence in the academic setting of experts in different aspects of the disease will offer the opportunity to develop novel assays capable of identifying new targets to be pursued as potential therapeutic options. These assays will represent an excellent source to be used by pharmaceutical companies for the screening of larger libraries providing the opportunity to establish strong collaborations between the private and academic sectors and maximizing the chances of bringing into the clinic new drugs for the treatment of DMD.

  1. High Throughput Screening in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: From Drug Discovery to Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Gintjee, Thomas J.J.; Magh, Alvin S.H.; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Centers for the screening of biologically active compounds and genomic libraries are becoming common in the academic setting and have enabled researchers devoted to developing strategies for the treatment of diseases or interested in studying a biological phenomenon to have unprecedented access to libraries that, until few years ago, were accessible only by pharmaceutical companies. As a result, new drugs and genetic targets have now been identified for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most prominent of the neuromuscular disorders affecting children. Although the work is still at an early stage, the results obtained to date are encouraging and demonstrate the importance that these centers may have in advancing therapeutic strategies for DMD as well as other diseases. This review will provide a summary of the status and progress made toward the development of a cure for this disorder and implementing high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies as the main source of discovery. As more academic institutions are gaining access to HTS as a valuable discovery tool, the identification of new biologically active molecules is likely to grow larger. In addition, the presence in the academic setting of experts in different aspects of the disease will offer the opportunity to develop novel assays capable of identifying new targets to be pursued as potential therapeutic options. These assays will represent an excellent source to be used by pharmaceutical companies for the screening of larger libraries providing the opportunity to establish strong collaborations between the private and academic sectors and maximizing the chances of bringing into the clinic new drugs for the treatment of DMD. PMID:25405319

  2. ARQiv-HTS, a versatile whole-organism screening platform enabling in vivo drug discovery at high-throughput rates.

    PubMed

    White, David T; Eroglu, Arife Unal; Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Liyun; Sengupta, Sumitra; Ding, Ding; Rajpurohit, Surendra K; Walker, Steven L; Ji, Hongkai; Qian, Jiang; Mumm, Jeff S

    2016-12-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model for whole-organism small-molecule screening. However, most zebrafish-based chemical screens have achieved only mid-throughput rates. Here we describe a versatile whole-organism drug discovery platform that can achieve true high-throughput screening (HTS) capacities. This system combines our automated reporter quantification in vivo (ARQiv) system with customized robotics, and is termed 'ARQiv-HTS'. We detail the process of establishing and implementing ARQiv-HTS: (i) assay design and optimization, (ii) calculation of sample size and hit criteria, (iii) large-scale egg production, (iv) automated compound titration, (v) dispensing of embryos into microtiter plates, and (vi) reporter quantification. We also outline what we see as best practice strategies for leveraging the power of ARQiv-HTS for zebrafish-based drug discovery, and address technical challenges of applying zebrafish to large-scale chemical screens. Finally, we provide a detailed protocol for a recently completed inaugural ARQiv-HTS effort, which involved the identification of compounds that elevate insulin reporter activity. Compounds that increased the number of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells represent potential new therapeutics for diabetic patients. For this effort, individual screening sessions took 1 week to conclude, and sessions were performed iteratively approximately every other day to increase throughput. At the conclusion of the screen, more than a half million drug-treated larvae had been evaluated. Beyond this initial example, however, the ARQiv-HTS platform is adaptable to almost any reporter-based assay designed to evaluate the effects of chemical compounds in living small-animal models. ARQiv-HTS thus enables large-scale whole-organism drug discovery for a variety of model species and from numerous disease-oriented perspectives.

  3. High-Throughput Screening Using a Whole-Cell Virus Replication Reporter Gene Assay to Identify Inhibitory Compounds against Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Koushikul; Baudin, Maria; Eriksson, Jonas; Öberg, Christopher; Habjan, Matthias; Weber, Friedemann; Överby, Anna K; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging virus that causes serious illness in humans and livestock. There are no approved vaccines or treatments for humans. The purpose of the study was to identify inhibitory compounds of RVFV infection without any preconceived idea of the mechanism of action. A whole-cell-based high-throughput drug screening assay was developed to screen 28,437 small chemical compounds targeting RVFV infection. To accomplish both speed and robustness, a replication-competent NSs-deleted RVFV expressing a fluorescent reporter gene was developed. Inhibition of fluorescence intensity was quantified by spectrophotometry and related to virus infection in human lung epithelial cells (A549). Cell toxicity was assessed by the Resazurin cell viability assay. After primary screening, 641 compounds were identified that inhibited RVFV infection by ≥80%, with ≥50% cell viability at 50 µM concentration. These compounds were subjected to a second screening regarding dose-response profiles, and 63 compounds with ≥60% inhibition of RVFV infection at 3.12 µM compound concentration and ≥50% cell viability at 25 µM were considered hits. Of these, six compounds with high inhibitory activity were identified. In conclusion, the high-throughput assay could efficiently and safely identify several promising compounds that inhibited RVFV infection.

  4. Virtual screen for repurposing approved and experimental drugs for candidate inhibitors of EBOLA virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Veljkovic, Veljko; Loiseau, Philippe M.; Figadere, Bruno; Glisic, Sanja; Veljkovic, Nevena; Perovic, Vladimir R.; Cavanaugh, David P.; Branch, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus epidemic has presented numerous challenges with respect to control and treatment because there are no approved drugs or vaccines for the Ebola virus disease (EVD). Herein is proposed simple theoretical criterion for fast virtual screening of molecular libraries for candidate inhibitors of Ebola virus infection. We performed a repurposing screen of 6438 drugs from DrugBank using this criterion and selected 267 approved and 382 experimental drugs as candidates for treatment of EVD including 15 anti-malarial drugs and 32 antibiotics. An open source Web server allowing screening of molecular libraries for candidate drugs for treatment of EVD was also established. PMID:25717373

  5. Evaluating the Impact of Uncertainties in Clearance and Exposure When Prioritizing Chemicals Screened in High-Throughput Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity-testing paradigm has evolved to include high-throughput (HT) methods for addressing the increasing need to screen hundreds to thousands of chemicals rapidly. Approaches that involve in vitro screening assays, in silico predictions of exposure concentrations, and phar...

  6. The Lumipulse G HBsAg-Quant assay for screening and quantification of the hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifeng; Song, Guangjun; Guan, Wenli; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wei, Lai

    2016-02-01

    Qualitative HBsAg assay is used to screen HBV infection for decades. The utility of quantitative assay is also rejuvenated recently. We aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of a novel ultra-sensitive and quantitative assay, the Lumipulse assay, with the Architect and Elecsys assays. As screening methods, specificity was compared using 2043 consecutive clinical routine samples. As quantitative assays, precision and accuracy were assessed. Sera from 112 treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients, four patients undergoing antiviral therapy and one patient with acute infection were tested to compare the correlations. Samples with concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs were also quantified. The Lumipulse assay precisely quantified ultra-low level of HBsAg (0.004 IU/mL). It identified additional 0.98% (20/2043) clinical samples with trance amount of HBsAg. Three assays displayed excellent linear correlations irrespective of genotypes and S-gene mutations (R(2)>0.95, P<0.0001), while minor quantitative biases existed. The Lumipulse assay did not yield higher HBsAg concentrations in samples with concomitant anti-HBs. Compared with other assays, the Lumipulse assay is sensitive and specific for detecting HBsAg. The interpretation of the extremely low-level results, however, is challenging. Quantitative HBsAg results by different assays are highly correlated, but they should be interpreted interchangeably only after conversion to eliminate the biases.

  7. Discovery of novel BRD4 inhibitors by high-throughput screening, crystallography, and cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongya; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Zhifeng; Xie, Yiqian; Jiang, Hao; Chen, Limin; Ding, Hong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Hualiang; Zheng, Mingyue; Luo, Cheng

    2017-03-09

    As an epigenetic reader, BRD4 regulates the transcription of important downstream genes that are essential for the survival of tumor cells. Small molecular inhibitors targeting the first bromodomain of BRD4 (BRD4-BD1) have showed promising potentials in the therapies of BRD4-related cancers. Through AlphaScreen-based high-throughput screening assay, a novel small molecular inhibitor was identified, and named DCBD-005, which inhibited the binding between BRD4-BD1 and acetylated lysines with an IC50 value of 0.81±0.03μM. The compound DCBD-005 effectively inhibited the viability, caused cell cycle arrest, and induced apoptosis in human leukemia MV4-11 cells. Moreover, the crystal structure of compound DCBD-005 with the BRD4-BD1 was determined at 1.72Å resolution, which revealed the binding mechanism of the leading compound, and also provided solid basis for further structure-based optimization. These results indicated that this novel BRD4-BD1 inhibitor DCBD-005 is promising to be developed into a drug candidate in the treatment of BRD4-related diseases.

  8. Drug search for leishmaniasis: a virtual screening approach by grid computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Rodrigo; Watowich, Stanley J.; Flórez, Andrés; Mesa, Carol V.; Robledo, Sara M.; Muskus, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The trypanosomatid protozoa Leishmania is endemic in 100 countries, with infections causing 2 million new cases of leishmaniasis annually. Disease symptoms can include severe skin and mucosal ulcers, fever, anemia, splenomegaly, and death. Unfortunately, therapeutics approved to treat leishmaniasis are associated with potentially severe side effects, including death. Furthermore, drug-resistant Leishmania parasites have developed in most endemic countries. To address an urgent need for new, safe and inexpensive anti-leishmanial drugs, we utilized the IBM World Community Grid to complete computer-based drug discovery screens (Drug Search for Leishmaniasis) using unique leishmanial proteins and a database of 600,000 drug-like small molecules. Protein structures from different Leishmania species were selected for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and a series of conformational "snapshots" were chosen from each MD trajectory to simulate the protein's flexibility. A Relaxed Complex Scheme methodology was used to screen 2000 MD conformations against the small molecule database, producing >1 billion protein-ligand structures. For each protein target, a binding spectrum was calculated to identify compounds predicted to bind with highest average affinity to all protein conformations. Significantly, four different Leishmania protein targets were predicted to strongly bind small molecules, with the strongest binding interactions predicted to occur for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (LmDHODH; PDB:3MJY). A number of predicted tight-binding LmDHODH inhibitors were tested in vitro and potent selective inhibitors of Leishmania panamensis were identified. These promising small molecules are suitable for further development using iterative structure-based optimization and in vitro/in vivo validation assays.

  9. A staged screening of registered drugs highlights remyelinating drug candidates for clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Eleuteri, C.; Olla, S.; Veroni, C.; Umeton, R.; Mechelli, R.; Romano, S.; Buscarinu, MC.; Ferrari, F.; Calò, G.; Ristori, G.; Salvetti, M.; Agresti, C.

    2017-01-01

    There is no treatment for the myelin loss in multiple sclerosis, ultimately resulting in the axonal degeneration that leads to the progressive phase of the disease. We established a multi-tiered platform for the sequential screening of drugs that could be repurposed as remyelinating agents. We screened a library of 2,000 compounds (mainly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved compounds and natural products) for cellular metabolic activity on mouse oligodendrocyte precursors (OPC), identifying 42 molecules with significant stimulating effects. We then characterized the effects of these compounds on OPC proliferation and differentiation in mouse glial cultures, and on myelination and remyelination in organotypic cultures. Three molecules, edaravone, 5-methyl-7-methoxyisoflavone and lovastatin, gave positive results in all screening tiers. We validated the results by retesting independent stocks of the compounds, analyzing their purity, and performing dose-response curves. To identify the chemical features that may be modified to enhance the compounds’ activity, we tested chemical analogs and identified, for edaravone, the functional groups that may be essential for its activity. Among the selected remyelinating candidates, edaravone appears to be of strong interest, also considering that this drug has been approved as a neuroprotective agent for acute ischemic stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan. PMID:28387380

  10. The mycolyltransferase 85A, a putative drug target of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: development of a novel assay and quantification of glycolipid-status of the mycobacterial cell wall.

    PubMed

    Elamin, Ayssar A; Stehr, Matthias; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir

    2009-12-01

    The enzymes of the antigen 85 complex (Ag85A, B, and C) possess mycolyltransferase activity and catalyze the synthesis of the most abundant glycolipid of the mycobacterial cell wall, the cord factor. The cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate, TDM) is essential for the integrity of the mycobacterial cell wall and pathogenesis of the bacillus. Thus, TDM biosynthesis is regarded as a potential drug target for control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is synthesized from two molecules of trehalose-6'-monomycolate (TMM) by antigen 85A. We report here a novel enzyme assay using the natural substrate TMM. The novel colorimetric assay is based on the quantification of glucose from the degradation of trehalose, which is the product from catalytic activity of antigen 85A. Using the new assay, K(m) and K(cat) were determined with values of 129.6+/-8.1 microM and 65.4+/-4.1 min(-1), respectively. This novel assay is also suitable for robust high-throughput screening (HTS) for compound library screening against mycolyltransferase (antigen 85A). The assay is significantly faster and more convenient to use than all assays currently in use. The assay has a very low coefficient of variance (0.04) in 96-well plates and shows a Z' factor of 0.67-0.73, indicating the robustness of the assay. In addition, this new assay is highly suitable for the quantification of total TMM of the mycobacterial cell envelope.

  11. A simple liposome assay for the screening of zinc ionophore activity of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Clergeaud, Gael; Dabbagh-Bazarbachi, Husam; Ortiz, Mayreli; Fernández-Larrea, Juan B; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2016-04-15

    An efficient liposomal system for screening the zinc ionophore activity of a selected library consisting of the most relevant dietary polyphenols is presented. The zinc ionophore activity was demonstrated by exploring the use of zinc-specific fluorophore FluoZin-3 loaded liposomes as simple membrane tools that mimic the cell membrane. The zinc ionophore activity was demonstrated as the capacity of polyphenols to transport zinc cations across the liposome membrane and increase the zinc-specific fluorescence of the encapsulated fluorophore FluoZin-3. In addition, the zinc chelation strength of the polyphenols was also tested in a competition assay based on the fluorescence quenching of zinc-dependent fluorescence emitted by zinc-FluoZin-3 complex. Finally, the correlation between the chelation capacity and ionophore activity is demonstrated, thus underlining the sequestering or ionophoric activity that the phenolic compounds can display, thus, providing better knowledge of the importance of the structural conformation versus their biological activity. Furthermore, the assays developed can be used as tools for rapid, high-throughput screening of families of polyphenols towards different biometals.

  12. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Tony J.; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose–response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds. PMID:26422066

  13. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening then indirect immunofluorescence confirmation of antinuclear antibodies: a statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Copple, Susan S; Sawitzke, Allen D; Wilson, Andrew M; Tebo, Anne E; Hill, Harry R

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze antinuclear antibody (ANA) screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) testing to confirm and characterize the pattern and titer of the antibody. We evaluated 4 ANA ELISAs and 1 HEp-2 IFA substrate in 224 clinically defined serum samples consisting of 30 from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases, 94 from rheumatoid arthritis cases, and 100 from healthy donors plus 495 serum samples submitted for routine ANA testing and 12 reference serum samples distributed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. IFA tests were read independently by 2 certified medical technologists. ELISA sensitivities ranged from 90% to 97% compared with 80% by IFA in the SLE serum samples. The ELISAs had specificities of 36% to 94%, whereas the IFA had 99% specificity. Overall, ELISAs for ANA assays demonstrated better sensitivity and good specificity, suggesting ELISA is a more cost-effective alternative to IFA testing for initial ANA screening. Samples positive by ANA ELISA should be tested on HEp-2 to determine the titer and pattern.

  14. Sensitive colorimetric assays for α-glucosidase activity and inhibitor screening based on unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Zhang, Jiangjiang; Wu, Heng; Koh, Kwangnak; Yin, Yongmei

    2015-05-22

    A colorimetric sensor has been developed in this work to sensitively detect α-glucosidase activity and screen α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) utilizing unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The sensing strategy is based on triple-catalytic reaction triggered by α-glucosidase. In the presence of α-glucosidase, aggregation of AuNPs is prohibited due to the oxidation of cysteine to cystine in the system. However, with addition of AGIs, cysteine induced aggregation of AuNPs occurs. Thus, a new method for α-glucosidase activity detection and AGIs screening is developed by measuring the UV-vis absorption or visually distinguishing. A well linear relation is presented in a range of 0.0025-0.05 U mL(-1). The detection limit is found to be 0.001 U mL(-1) for α-glucosidase assay, which is one order of magnitude lower than other reports. The IC50 values of four kinds of inhibitors observed with this method are in accordance with other reports. The using of unmodified AuNPs in this work avoids the complicated and time-consuming modification procedure. This simple and efficient colorimetric method can also be extended to other enzymes assays.

  15. An in vitro high-throughput assay for screening reproductive and toxic effects of anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Vicki; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Young, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    An in vitro assay was developed that simultaneously tested the effects of anticancer drug candidates on cytotoxicity, hormone synthesis, and gonadotrophin responsiveness using the choriocarcinoma JAr cell line. JAr culture conditions were optimized and then cells were exposed to a marine mollusc extract in the presence and absence of hCG. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of the optimized 1 H thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay were 11.3% and 10.9%, respectively. hCG (1,000 mIU/mL) increased progesterone (P4) synthesis after 24 H (P<0.05). The mollusc extract significantly decreased cell viability, with the IC50 affected by incubation time, but not hCG. P4 synthesis was inhibited at low concentrations of the anticancer extract, but stimulated at the highest concentration, and complex interactions of P4 were also found with hCG. In conclusion, the optimized assay is useful to characterize the effects of novel drugs on cytotoxicity, basal, and gonadotrophin-stimulated P4 synthesis in vitro, and can be used to inform subsequent in vivo studies.

  16. Screening for drugs in oral fluid: illicit drug use and drug driving in a sample of Queensland motorists.

    PubMed

    Davey, J; Leal, N; Freeman, J

    2007-05-01

    Police Services in a number of Australian states have indicated random roadside drug testing will be implemented to target drug driving. This paper outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the prevalence of drug driving in a sample of Queensland drivers. Oral fluid samples were collected from 781 drivers who volunteered to participate at Random Breath Testing (RBT) sites in a large Queensland regional area. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), amphetamine type substances, heroin and cocaine. Drivers also completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their drug-related driving behaviour. Samples that were drug-positive at initial screening were sent to a government laboratory for confirmation. Oral fluid samples from 27 participants (3.5%) were confirmed positive for at least one illicit substance. The most common drugs detected in oral fluid were cannabis (delta 9 THC) (n = 13) followed by amphetamine type substances (n = 11). A key finding was that cannabis was also confirmed as the most common self-reported drug combined with driving and that individuals who tested positive to any drug through oral fluid analysis were also more likely to report the highest frequency of drug driving. Furthermore, a comparison between drug vs drink driving detection rates for the study period revealed a higher detection rate for drug driving (3.5%) vs drink driving (0.8%). This research provides evidence that drug driving is relatively prevalent on Queensland Roads. The paper will further outline the study findings and present possible directions for future drug driving research.

  17. Optical oxygen sensing systems for drug discovery applications: Respirometric Screening Technology (RST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Hynes, James; Fernandes, Richard

    2005-11-01

    Quenched-fluorescence oxygen sensing allows non-chemical, reversible, real-time monitoring of molecular oxygen and rates of oxygen consumption in biological samples. Using this approach we have developed Respirometric Screening Technology (RST); a platform which facilitates the convenient analysis of cellular oxygen uptake. This in turn allows the investigation of compounds and processes which affect respiratory activity. The RST platform employs soluble phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probes, which may be assessed in standard microtitter plates on a fluorescence plate reader. New formats of RST assays and time-resolved fluorescence detection instrumentation developed by Luxcel provide improvements in assay sensitivity, miniaturization and overall performance. RST has a diverse range of applications in drug discovery area including high throughput analysis of mitochondrial function; studies of mechanisms of toxicity and apoptosis; cell and animal based screening of compound libraries and environmental samples; and, sterility testing. RST has been successfully validated with a range of practical targets and adopted by several leading pharmaceutical companies.

  18. Solution ELISA as a platform of choice for development of robust, drug tolerant immunogenicity assays in support of drug development.

    PubMed

    Mikulskis, Alvydas; Yeung, Dave; Subramanyam, Meena; Amaravadi, Lakshmi

    2011-02-28

    Humanized monoclonal antibody therapeutics are in many ways indistinguishable from the anti-therapeutic/anti-drug antibodies generated in humans. Therefore, immunogenicity assessments to such therapeutics pose unique challenges in clinical trials especially when significant drug interference is encountered. There are several technology platforms based on the bridging immunogenicity assay format, which have been successfully used for detection and quantification of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) in serum or plasma samples. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay formats are among the most popular technology platforms. Pretreatment of samples with acid can also be used to lower drug interference. While ECL technology platform offered many advantages over traditional solid-phase ELISA methods, reliance on a single (or limited) vendor source became a significant concern within the biopharmaceutical industry especially for immunogenicity assays that need to be implemented over a period of many years in support of a single drug development program. We describe herein a systematic evaluation of solid-phase ELISA, GYROS, AlphaLISA, ECL Immunoassay, and solution ELISA platforms for detection of anti-drug antibodies with the goal of selection and development of a robust technology platform that meets the desired performance characteristics for most immunogenicity assays and can be easily implemented in a typical immunoassay laboratory. As part of this effort the Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was utilized in optimization of sample acid treatment conditions in order to improve drug tolerance in the evaluated assay platforms. After the initial evaluation of various technology platforms, a solution ELISA format was chosen for further development to support clinical trials for a humanized therapeutic antibody. As part of the assay development, flexible use of digoxigenin and 6-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) aminohexanoic acid (DNP) for

  19. Quantitative digital image analysis of chromogenic assays for high throughput screening of alpha-amylase mutant libraries.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Manoharan; Priyadharshini, Ramachandran; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2009-08-01

    An image analysis-based method for high throughput screening of an alpha-amylase mutant library using chromogenic assays was developed. Assays were performed in microplates and high resolution images of the assay plates were read using the Virtual Microplate Reader (VMR) script to quantify the concentration of the chromogen. This method is fast and sensitive in quantifying 0.025-0.3 mg starch/ml as well as 0.05-0.75 mg glucose/ml. It was also an effective screening method for improved alpha-amylase activity with a coefficient of variance of 18%.

  20. The E-screen assay: a comparison of different MCF7 cell stocks.

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos, M; Olea, N; Brotons, J A; Olea-Serrano, M F; Ruiz de Almodovar, J M; Pedraza, V

    1995-01-01

    MCF7 human breast cancer cells have been studied extensively as a model for hormonal effects on breast cancer cell growth and specific protein synthesis. Because the proliferative effect of natural estrogen is considered the hallmark of estrogen action, it was proposed that this property be used to determine whether a substance is an estrogen. The E-screen assay, developed for this purpose, is based on the ability of MCF7 cells to proliferate in the presence of estrogens. The aim of our study was to characterize the response of four MCF7 cell stocks (BUS, ATCC, BB, and BB104) and determine which of them performed best in the E-screen test. The four stocks assayed were distinguishable by their biological behavior. In the absence of estrogen, MCF7 BUS cells stopped proliferating and accumulated in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle; estrogen receptors increased, progesterone receptors decreased, and small amounts of pS2 protein were secreted. Of all the MCF7 stocks tested, MCF7 BUS cells showed the highest proliferative response to estradiol-17 beta: cell yields increased up to sixfold over those of nontreated cells in a 144-hr period. The differences between estrogen-supplemented and nonsupplemented MCF7 BUS cells were due mostly to G0/G1 proliferative arrest mediated by charcoal dextran-stripped serum. MCF7 BUS cell stocks and others showing a similar proliferative pattern should be chosen for use in the E-screen test, or whenever a proliferative effect of estrogen is to be demonstrated. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 5. D PMID:7498097

  1. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. Results Here, we provide a cost effective method for the production of 96-well plate compatible zebrafish orientation tools using a desktop 3D printer. The printed tools enable the positioning and orientation of zebrafish embryos within cavities formed in agarose. Their applicability is demonstrated by acquiring lateral and dorsal views of zebrafish embryos arrayed within microtiter plates using an automated screening microscope. This enables the consistent visualization of morphological phenotypes and reporter gene expression patterns. Conclusions The designs are refined versions of previously demonstrated devices with added functionality and strongly reduced production costs. All corresponding 3D models are freely available and digital design can be easily shared electronically. In combination with the increasingly widespread usage of 3D printers, this provides access to the developed tools to a wide range of zebrafish users. Finally, the design files can serve as templates for other additive and subtractive fabrication methods. PMID:24886511

  2. Simultaneous detection of four nitrofuran metabolites in honey using a multiplexing biochip screening assay.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, John; Moloney, Mary; McConnell, Robert I; Benchikh, El O; Lowry, Philip; Furey, Ambrose; Danaher, Martin

    2011-06-15

    A chemiluminescence-based biochip array sensing technique has been developed and applied to the screening of honey samples for residues of banned nitrofuran antibiotics. Using a multiplex approach, metabolites of the four main nitrofuran antibiotics could be simultaneously detected. Individual antibodies specific towards the metabolites were spotted onto biochips. A competitive assay format, with chemiluminescent response, was employed. The method was validated in accordance with EU legislation (2002/657/EC, 2002), and assessed by comparison with UHPLC-MS/MS testing of 134 honey samples of worldwide origin. A similar extraction method, based on extraction of the analytes on Oasis™ SPE cartridges, followed by derivatisation with nitrobenzaldehyde and partition into ethyl acetate, was used for both screening and LC-MS/MS methods. The biochip array method was capable of detecting all four metabolites below the reference point for action of 1 μg kg(-1). The detection capability was below 0.5 μg kg(-1) for the metabolites AHD, AOZ and AMOZ; it was below 0.9 μg kg(-1) for SEM. IC(50) values ranged from 0.14 μg kg(-1) (AMOZ) to 2.19 μg kg(-1) (SEM). This biosensor method possesses the potential to be a fit-for-purpose screening technique in the arena of food safety technology.

  3. [Intratesticular subcapsular assay, a simple method for the preliminary screening of male contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z T; Lin, N; Qian, S Z

    1993-01-01

    The MB-50 protocol worked out for long by the World Health Organization has been widely employed for the screening of male contraceptives. With this method, 40-80 rats will be used for 1 sample and the course of study will be about 3 months. In view of the high expenses and long duration of time needed, it seems to be not suitable for a preliminary screening. We have exploited a much simpler method, the intratesticular subcapsular assay. The method is as follows: Puncture the scrotal skin and the tunica albuginea at the equatorial plane of the testis just opposite to the epididymis with an intradermal needle fixed at a tuberculin syringe. Then push on the needle for 3-4 mm along the equator parallel to the tunica albuginea. Inject 100 microliters of solution containing 0.1-5 mg of the sample to each testis. To the controls, only the vehicle is injected. One week later the same procedure is repeated and 2 more weeks later, the animals are sacrificed and the data are observed (see Table 1 and 2). In this paper, 7 samples screened with this method were compared with results of the MB-50 method, no positive sample was missed except one false positive sample. These results indicate the coincidence between these two methods.

  4. A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

    2013-10-01

    There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures.

  5. A real-time fluorescence polarization activity assay to screen for inhibitors of bacterial ribonuclease P

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Chen, Yu; Fierke, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endonuclease that catalyzes the 5′ end maturation of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Bacterial RNase P is an attractive potential antibacterial target because it is essential for cell survival and has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts. To accelerate both structure-function studies and discovery of inhibitors of RNase P, we developed the first real-time RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) with a 5′ end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNAAsp substrate. This FP/FA assay also detects binding of small molecules to pre-tRNA. Neomycin B and kanamycin B bind to pre-tRNAAsp with a Kd value that is comparable to their IC50 value for inhibition of RNase P, suggesting that binding of these antibiotics to the pre-tRNA substrate contributes to the inhibitory activity. This assay was optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify specific inhibitors of RNase P from a 2880 compound library. A natural product derivative, iriginol hexaacetate, was identified as a new inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis RNase P. The FP/FA methodology and inhibitors reported here will further our understanding of RNase P molecular recognition and facilitate discovery of antibacterial compounds that target RNase P. PMID:25249623

  6. Development of a scintillation proximity binding assay for high-throughput screening of hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase.

    PubMed

    Meleza, Cesar; Thomasson, Bobbie; Ramachandran, Chidambaram; O'Neill, Jason W; Michelsen, Klaus; Lo, Mei-Chu

    2016-10-15

    Prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 produced by hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase (H-PGDS) in mast cells and Th2 cells is proposed to be a mediator of allergic and inflammatory responses. Consequently, inhibitors of H-PGDS represent potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Due to the instability of the PGDS substrate PGH2, an in-vitro enzymatic assay is not feasible for large-scale screening of H-PGDS inhibitors. Herein, we report the development of a competition binding assay amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS) in a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) format. This assay was used to screen an in-house compound library of approximately 280,000 compounds for novel H-PGDS inhibitors. The hit rate of the H-PGDS primary screen was found to be 4%. This high hit rate suggests that the active site of H-PGDS can accommodate a large diversity of chemical scaffolds. For hit prioritization, these initial hits were rescreened at a lower concentration in SPA and tested in the LAD2 cell assay. 116 compounds were active in both assays with IC50s ranging from 6 to 807 nM in SPA and 82 nM to 10 μM in the LAD2 cell assay.

  7. Screening of molecular cell targets for carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines by using CALUX® reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Pablo; Behnisch, Peter A; Besselink, Harrie; Brouwer, Abraham A

    2016-12-10

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are compounds formed when meat or fish are cooked at high temperatures for a long time or over an open fire. To determine which pathways of toxicity are activated by HCAs, nine out of the ten HCAs known to be carcinogenic in rodents (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2)) were tested in the estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Nrf2, and p53 CALUX® reporter gene assays. Trp-P-1 was the only HCA that led to a positive response in the ERα, PPARγ2, and Nrf2 CALUX® assays. In the PAH CALUX® assay, Trp-P-2, MeAαC, and AαC induced luciferase activity to a greater extent than MeIQ and PhIP. In the p53 CALUX® assay without a coupled metabolic activation, only Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 enhanced luciferase expression; when a metabolic activation step was coupled to the p53 CALUX® assay, Trp-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQ, MeIQx, and PhIP induced a positive response. No HCA was positive in the AR and GR CALUX® assays. Taken together, the results obtained show that the battery of CALUX® assays performed in the present study can successfully be used to screen for molecular cell targets of carcinogenic compounds such as HCAs.

  8. Microfluidic co-culture system for cancer migratory analysis and anti-metastatic drugs screening

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Shengli; Du, Zhichang; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhengjie; Qian, Xiang; Zhang, Min; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tumour metastasis is an important reason for cancer death, and cancer cell migration is an important step in the process of tumour metastasis. Studying cancer cell migration is of great significance. Here, we present a novel microfluidic co-culture system and establish mild, moderate and severe cancer models by using HMEpiC and MDA-MB–231 cells to study cancer cell migration and anti-cancer drug screening. Using this device, we achieved high cell viability (over 90%) and a stable analysis of the migration ability of cancer cells. We observed that the density of the cancer cells determined the probability of the occurrence of metastatic cells and that the induction of normal cells affected the metastatic velocity of each cancer cell. We verified that the increase in the migration ability of MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured with HMEpiC cells was relative to the increased secretion of IL-6 and that this was verified by an IL-6 inhibitor assay. This co-culture also led to decreased CK-14 secretion and morphological changes in HMEpiC cells. Finally, significant inhibition of paclitaxel and tamoxifen on cancer migration was observed. Taken together, our microfluidic device could be a useful tool for the quantitation of the migratory capability and anti-metastatic drug screening. PMID:27762336

  9. A microfluidic platform for high-sensitivity, real-time drug screening on C. elegans and parasitic nematodes†

    PubMed Central

    Carr, John A.; Parashar, Archana; Gibson, Richard; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.; Pandey, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new microfluidic platform for screening drugs and their dose response on the locomotion behavior of free living nematodes and parasitic nematodes. The system offers a higher sensitivity drug screening chip which employs a combination of existing and newly developed methods. Real-time observation of the entire drug application process (i.e. the innate pre-exposure locomotion, the transient response during drug exposure and the time-resolved, post-exposure behavior) at a single worm resolution is made possible. The chip enables the monitoring of four nematode parameters (number of worms responsive, number of worms leaving the drug well, average worm velocity and time until unresponsiveness). Each parameter generates an inherently different dose response; allowing for a higher resolution when screening for resistance. We expect this worm chip could be used as a robust cross species, cross drug platform. Existing nematode motility and migration assays do not offer this level of sophistication. The device comprises two principal components: behavioral microchannels to study nematode motility and a drug well for administering the dose and observing drug effects as a function of exposure time. The drug screening experiment can be described by three main steps: (i) ‘pre-exposure study’ – worms are inserted into the behavioral channels and their locomotion is characterized, (ii) ‘dose exposure’ – worms are guided from the behavioral microchannels into the drug well and held for a predefined time, during which time their transient response to the dose is characterized and (iii) ‘post-exposure study’ – worms are guided back into the behavioral microchannels where their locomotion (i.e. their time-resolved response to the dose) is characterized and compared to pre-exposure motility. The direction of nematodes’ movement is reliably controlled by the application of an electric field within a defined range. Control experiments (e.g. in

  10. A Phenotypic High-Content Screening Assay to Identify Regulators of Membrane Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lorey K; Thomas, Daniel W; Simpson, Kaylene J; Humbert, Patrick O

    2016-10-01

    Correct subcellular localization of proteins is a requirement for appropriate function. This is especially true in epithelial cells, which rely on the precise localization of a diverse array of epithelial polarity and cellular adhesion proteins. Loss of cell polarity and adhesion is a hallmark of cancer, and mislocalization of core polarity proteins, such as Scribble, is observed in a range of human epithelial tumors and is prognostic of poor survival. Despite this, little is known about how Scribble membrane localization is regulated. Here, we describe the development and application of a phenotypic high-content screening assay that is designed to specifically quantify membrane levels of Scribble to identify regulators of its membrane localization. A screening platform that is capable of resolving individual cells and quantifying membrane protein localization in confluent epithelial monolayers was developed by using the cytoplasm-to-cell-membrane bioapplication integrated with the Cellomics ArrayScan high-content imaging platform. Application of this method to a boutique human epithelial polarity and signaling small interfering RNA (siRNA) library resulted in highly robust coefficient-of-variance and Z' factor values. As proof of concept, we present two candidate genes whose depletion specifically reduces Scribble protein levels at the membrane. Data mining revealed that these proteins interact with components of the Scribble polarity complex, providing support for the utility of the screening approach. This method is broadly applicable to genome-wide and large-scale compound screening of membrane-bound proteins, and when coupled with pathway analysis the dataset becomes even more valuable and can provide predictive mechanistic insight.

  11. A scintillation proximity assay amenable for screening and characterization of DNA gyrase B subunit inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gevi, Monica; Domenici, Enrico

    2002-01-01

    DNA gyrase is the target of coumarin and cyclothialidine antibacterials, which bind to the B subunit of the enzyme (GyrB). Currently available GyrB inhibitors have not been clinically successful, but their high in vitro potency against DNA gyrase has raised interest in the development of novel noncoumarin antibacterials acting at the same site. We report the development of a simple scintillation proximity assay (SPA) for the study of binding interactions between coumarin or noncoumarin antibacterials and GyrB, which prevents the needs of separation steps and can be run in microtiter plate formats. The assay is based on the detection of the binding of a radioligand, [3H]dihydronovobiocin, to a biotin-labeled 43-kDa fragment of GyrB (biotin-GyrB43), which is captured by streptavidin-coated SPA beads. The typical assay was conducted in 96-well microtiter plates, with final concentration of 10 nM for biotin-GyrB43, 20 nM for [3H]dihydronovobiocin, and 33 microg of SPA beads/well. From saturation experiments, an equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) for dihydronovobiocin of 8.10 nM was found. Displacement studies gave 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 42, 64, and 11 nM for novobiocin, dihydronovobiocin, and the cyclothialidine analogue GR122222X, respectively, consistent with previous findings. The assay was found to be robust to dimethyl sulfoxide up to 5% (v/v) and can be used for high-throughput screens of large chemical collections in the search of novel DNA gyrase inhibitors.

  12. Phenotypic Screening of Small-Molecule Inhibitors: Implications for Therapeutic Discovery and Drug Target Development in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Lemmon, Vance P; Bixby, John L

    2016-01-01

    The inability of central nervous system (CNS) neurons to regenerate damaged axons and dendrites following traumatic brain injury (TBI) creates a substantial obstacle for functional recovery. Apoptotic cell death, deposition of scar tissue, and growth-repressive molecules produced by glia further complicate the problem and make it challenging for re-growing axons to extend across injury sites. To date, there are no approved drugs for the treatment of TBI, accentuating the need for relevant leads. Cell-based and organotypic bioassays can better mimic outcomes within the native CNS microenvironment than target-based screening methods and thus should speed the discovery of therapeutic agents that induce axon or dendrite regeneration. Additionally, when used to screen focused chemical libraries such as small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors, these assays can help elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in neurite outgrowth and regeneration as well as identify novel drug targets. Here, we describe a phenotypic cellular (high content) screening assay that utilizes brain-derived primary neurons for screening small-molecule chemical libraries.

  13. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nitrate reductase assay.

    PubMed

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Birinci, Asuman; Ekinci, Bora; Durupinar, Belma

    2004-09-01

    The nitrate reductase assay (NRA) was evaluated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using 80 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and H37Rv as a control strain. All isolates were tested by the proportion method and the NRA for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (ETM). The proportion method was carried out according to NCCLS on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and the NRA on LJ medium containing 1000 microg/ml potassium nitrate (KNO(3)). After incubation for 7, 10, 14 and 21 days, Griess reagent was added to each LJ medium and nitrate reduction was determined by a colour change. Comparing the NRA with the proportion method, sensitivities were 100, 100, 82.1 and 92.2% for INH, RIF, STR and ETM, respectively. Specificities were 100, 100, 92.3 and 100% for INH, RIF, STR and ETM, respectively. The results of 2, 22 and 56 isolates were obtained after 7, 10 and 14 days, respectively. The proportion method result were read at 21-28 days. The NRA is rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform. Our results indicated that the NRA is suitable for the early determination of INH and RIF resistance in countries where sophisticated procedures are not always available.

  14. Systematic Evaluation of Different Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays for Cytomegalovirus Detection: Feasibility of Blood Donor Screening.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T; Knabbe, C; Dreier, J

    2015-10-01

    Acute primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, which commonly occur asymptomatically among blood donors, represent a significant risk for serious morbidity in immunocompromised patients (a major group of transfusion recipients). We implemented a routine CMV pool screening procedure for plasma for the identification of CMV DNA-positive donors, and we evaluated the sensitivities and performance of different CMV DNA amplification systems. Minipools (MPs) of samples from 18,405 individual donors (54,451 donations) were screened for CMV DNA using the RealStar CMV PCR assay (Altona Diagnostic Technologies), with a minimum detection limit of 11.14 IU/ml. DNA was extracted with a high-volume protocol (4.8 ml, Chemagic Viral 5K kit; PerkinElmer) for blood donor pool screening (MP-nucleic acid testing [NAT]) and with the Nuclisens easyMAG system (0.5 ml; bioMérieux) for individual donation (ID)-NAT. In total, six CMV DNA-positive donors (0.03%) were identified by routine CMV screening, with DNA concentrations ranging from 4.35 × 10(2) to 4.30 × 10(3) IU/ml. Five donors already showed seroconversion and detectable IgA, IgM, and/or IgG antibody titers (IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(-) or IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(+)), and one donor showed no CMV-specific antibodies. Comparison of three commercial assays, i.e., the RealStar CMV PCR kit, the Sentosa SA CMV quantitative PCR kit (Vela Diagnostics), and the CMV R-gene PCR kit (bioMérieux), for MP-NAT and ID-NAT showed comparably good analytical sensitivities, ranging from 10.23 to 11.14 IU/ml (MP-NAT) or from 37.66 to 57.94 IU/ml (ID-NAT). The clinical relevance of transfusion-associated CMV infections requires further investigation, and the evaluated methods present powerful basic tools providing sensitive possibilities for viral testing. The application of CMV MP-NAT facilitated the identification of one donor with a window-phase donation during acute primary CMV infection.

  15. High-Throughput Screening Using Mass Spectrometry within Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Rohman, Mattias; Wingfield, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect a biochemical analyte with a mass spectrometer (MS) it is necessary to ionize the analyte of interest. The analyte can be ionized by a number of different mechanisms, however, one common method is electrospray ionization (ESI). Droplets of analyte are sprayed through a highly charged field, the droplets pick up charge, and this is transferred to the analyte. High levels of salt in the assay buffer will potentially steal charge from the analyte and suppress the MS signal. In order to avoid this suppression of signal, salt is often removed from the sample prior to injection into the MS. Traditional ESI MS relies on liquid chromatography (LC) to remove the salt and reduce matrix effects, however, this is a lengthy process. Here we describe the use of RapidFire™ coupled to a triple-quadrupole MS for high-throughput screening. This system uses solid-phase extraction to de-salt samples prior to injection, reducing processing time such that a sample is injected into the MS ~every 10 s.

  16. High-throughput screening in niche-based assay identifies compounds to target preleukemic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerby, Bastien; Veiga, Diogo F.T.; Krosl, Jana; Nourreddine, Sami; Ouellette, Julianne; Haman, André; Lavoie, Geneviève; Fares, Iman; Tremblay, Mathieu; Litalien, Véronique; Ottoni, Elizabeth; Geoffrion, Dominique; Maddox, Paul S.; Chagraoui, Jalila; Hébert, Josée; Sauvageau, Guy; Kwok, Benjamin H.; Roux, Philippe P.

    2016-01-01

    Current chemotherapies for T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) efficiently reduce tumor mass. Nonetheless, disease relapse attributed to survival of preleukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) is associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we provide direct evidence that pre-LSCs are much less chemosensitive to existing chemotherapy drugs than leukemic blasts because of a distinctive lower proliferative state. Improving therapies for T-ALL requires the development of strategies to target pre-LSCs that are absolutely dependent on their microenvironment. Therefore, we designed a robust protocol for high-throughput screening of compounds that target primary pre-LSCs maintained in a niche-like environment, on stromal cells that were engineered for optimal NOTCH1 activation. The multiparametric readout takes into account the intrinsic complexity of primary cells in order to specifically monitor pre-LSCs, which were induced here by the SCL/TAL1 and LMO1 oncogenes. We screened a targeted library of compounds and determined that the estrogen derivative 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) disrupted both cell-autonomous and non–cell-autonomous pathways. Specifically, 2-ME2 abrogated pre-LSC viability and self-renewal activity in vivo by inhibiting translation of MYC, a downstream effector of NOTCH1, and preventing SCL/TAL1 activity. In contrast, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells remained functional. These results illustrate how recapitulating tissue-like properties of primary cells in high-throughput screening is a promising avenue for innovation in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27797342

  17. Drug activity screening based on microsomes-hydrogel system in predicting metabolism induced antitumor effect of oroxylin A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiying; Li, Jianfeng; Zheng, Yuanting; Zhou, Lu; Tong, Shanshan; Zhao, Bei; Cai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    A novel microsomes-hydrogel added cell culture system (MHCCS) was employed in the antitumor activity screening of natural compounds, aiming to achieve drug screening with better in vivo correlation, higher initiative to explore the potential active metabolites, and investigation of the antitumor mechanism from the perspective of metabolism. MTT assay and cell apoptosis detection showed that test drug oroxylin A (OA) had enhanced cytotoxicity and wogonin (W) with reduced cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell line upon MHCCS incubation. In vivo antitumor evaluations also demonstrated that OA induced higher tumor inhibition than W at the same dosage. To explore the reasons, nine major metabolites of OA were separated and collected through UPLC-Q-TOF and semi-preparative HPLC. Metabolites M318 exhibited higher cytotoxicity than OA and other metabolites by MTT assay. 1H NMR spectrums, HPLC and TOF MS/MS results revealed that OA was catalyzed into its active metabolite M318 via a ring-opening reaction. M318 induced significant cell apoptosis and S-phase arrest through affecting tumor survival related genes after mechanism study. In conclusion, our MHCCS could be a useful tool for drug activity screening from a perspective of metabolism. PMID:26905263

  18. Eco-genotoxicity of six anticancer drugs using comet assay in daphnids.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Isidori, Marina

    2015-04-09

    The eco-genotoxicity of six anti-neoplastic drugs, 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib, belonging to five classes of anatomical therapeutic classification (ATC), was studied applying the in vivo comet assay on cells from whole organisms of Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia. For the first time, this test was performed in C. dubia. In addition, to have a wider genotoxic/mutagenic profile of the anticancer drugs selected, SOS chromotest and Salmonella mutagenicity assay were performed. The comet results showed that all drugs induced DNA damage, in both Cladocerans, with environmental concern; indeed Doxorubicin induced DNA damage in the order of tens of ng L(-1) in both crustaceans, as well as 5-flurouracil in C. dubia and cisplatin in D. magna. In the SOS Chromotest all drugs, except imatinib, were able to activate the repair system in Escherichia coli PQ37 while in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, doxorubicin was the only drug able to cause direct and indirect frameshift and base-pair substitution mutations. Comet assay was the most sensitive tool of genotoxic exposure assessment, able to detect in vivo the adverse effects at concentration lower than those evaluated in vitro by bacterial assays.

  19. Screening for lysine-specific demethylase-1 inhibitors using a label-free high-throughput mass spectrometry assay.

    PubMed

    Plant, Matthew; Dineen, Tom; Cheng, Alan; Long, Alexander M; Chen, Hao; Morgenstern, Kurt A

    2011-12-15

    Posttranslational modifications on the N terminus of histone H3 act in a combinatorial fashion to control epigenetic responses to extracellular stimuli. Lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) represents an emerging epigenetic target class for the discovery of novel antitumor therapies. In this study, a high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS) assay was developed to measure LSD1-catalyzed demethylation of lysine-4 on several H3 substrates. The assay leverages RapidFire chromatography in line with a triple stage quadrupole detection method to measure multiple LSD1 substrate and product reactions from an assay well. This approach minimizes artifacts from fluorescence interference and eliminates the need for antibody specificity to methylated lysines. The assay was robust in a high-throughput screen of a focused library consisting of more than 56,000 unique chemical scaffolds with a median Z' of 0.76. Validated hits from the primary screen were followed up by successive rounds of virtual and HTMS screening to mine for related structures in a parent library consisting of millions of compounds. The screen resulted in the rapid discovery of multiple chemical classes amenable to medicinal chemistry optimization. This assay was further developed into a generic platform capable of rapidly screening epigenetic targets that use the N-terminal tail of histone H3 as a substrate.

  20. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    PubMed

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity.

  1. Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury (IDILI): Potential Mechanisms and Predictive Assays

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Alexander D.

    2017-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a significant source of drug recall and acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States. While current drug development processes emphasize general toxicity and drug metabolizing enzyme- (DME-) mediated toxicity, it has been challenging to develop comprehensive models for assessing complete idiosyncratic potential. In this review, we describe the enzymes and proteins that contain polymorphisms believed to contribute to IDILI, including ones that affect phase I and phase II metabolism, antioxidant enzymes, drug transporters, inflammation, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA). We then describe the various assays that have been developed to detect individual reactions focusing on each of the mechanisms described in the background. Finally, we examine current trends in developing comprehensive models for examining these mechanisms. There is an urgent need to develop a panel of multiparametric assays for diagnosing individual toxicity potential. PMID:28133614

  2. AlphaScreen HTS and live-cell bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays for identification of Tau-Fyn SH3 interaction inhibitors for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Cochran, J Nicholas; Diggs, Pauleatha V; Nebane, N Miranda; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E Lucile; Bostwick, Robert; Maddry, Joseph A; Suto, Mark J; Roberson, Erik D

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and with Americans' increasing longevity, it is becoming an epidemic. There are currently no effective treatments for this disorder. Abnormalities of Tau track more closely with cognitive decline than the most studied therapeutic target in AD, amyloid-β, but the optimal strategy for targeting Tau has not yet been identified. On the basis of considerable preclinical data from AD models, we hypothesize that interactions between Tau and the Src-family tyrosine kinase, Fyn, are pathogenic in AD. Genetically reducing either Tau or Fyn is protective in AD mouse models, and a dominant negative fragment of Tau that alters Fyn localization is also protective. Here, we describe a new AlphaScreen assay and a live-cell bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay using a novel BRET pair for quantifying the Tau-Fyn interaction. We used these assays to map the binding site on Tau for Fyn to the fifth and sixth PXXP motifs to show that AD-associated phosphorylation at microtubule affinity regulating kinase sites increases the affinity of the Tau-Fyn interaction and to identify Tau-Fyn interaction inhibitors by high-throughput screening. This screen has identified a variety of chemically tractable hits, suggesting that the Tau-Fyn interaction may represent a good drug target for AD.

  3. Systematic exploration of cancer-associated microRNA through functional screening assays.

    PubMed

    Izumiya, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Naoto; Okamoto, Koji; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2011-09-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA), non-coding RNA of approximately 22 nucleotides, post-transcriptionally represses expression of its target genes. miRNA regulates a variety of biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell death, development, stemness and genomic stability, not only in physiological conditions but also in various pathological conditions such as cancers. More than 1000 mature miRNA have been experimentally identified in humans and mice, yet the functions of a vast majority of miRNA remain to be elucidated. Identification of novel cancer-associated miRNA seems promising considering their possible application in the development of novel cancer therapies and biomarkers. Currently, there are two major approaches to identify miRNA that are associated with cancer: expression profiling study and functional screening assay. The former approach is widely used, and a large number of studies have shown aberrant miRNA expression profiles in cancer tissues compared with their non-cancer counterparts. Although aberrantly expressed miRNA are potentially good biomarkers, in most cases a majority of them do not play causal roles in cancers when functional assays are performed. In contrast, the latter approach allows screening of 'driver' miRNA with cancer-associated phenotypes, such as cell proliferation and cell invasion. Thus, this approach might be suitable in finding crucial targets of novel cancer therapy. The combination of both types of approaches will contribute to further elucidation of the cancer pathophysiology and to the development of a novel class of cancer therapies and biomarkers.

  4. A high throughput screening assay system for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of gsp.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Hu, Xin; Chen, Catherine Z; Mathews Griner, Lesley A; Zheng, Wei; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P; Marugan, Juan J; Southall, Noel; Neumann, Susanne; Northup, John K; Ferrer, Marc; Collins, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Mis-sense mutations in the α-subunit of the G-protein, Gsα, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gsα and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gsα protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant Gsα proteins (R201C and R201H). Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gsα protein expression that had relatively lower (WT) or higher (R201C and R201H) cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses.

  5. A High Throughput Screening Assay System for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of gsp

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Hu, Xin; Chen, Catherine Z.; Mathews Griner, Lesley A.; Zheng, Wei; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Marugan, Juan J.; Southall, Noel; Neumann, Susanne; Northup, John K.; Ferrer, Marc; Collins, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Mis-sense mutations in the α-subunit of the G-protein, Gsα, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gsα and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gsα protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant Gsα proteins (R201C and R201H). Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gsα protein expression that had relatively lower (WT) or higher (R201C and R201H) cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)–based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses. PMID:24667240

  6. Adaptation of high-throughput screening in drug discovery-toxicological screening tests.

    PubMed

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound's toxicity having only 1-3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study.

  7. Adaptation of High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery—Toxicological Screening Tests

    PubMed Central

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound’s toxicity having only 1–3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study. PMID:22312262

  8. Recommendations for the validation of flow cytometric testing during drug development: II assays.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Denise M; Xu, Yuanxin; Liang, Zhiyan; Reddy, Manjula P; Wu, Dianna Y; Litwin, Virginia

    2011-01-05

    Flow cytometry-based assays serve as valuable tools for various aspects of the drug development process ranging from target discovery and characterization to evaluation of responses in a clinical setting. The integrity of the samples and the appropriate selection and characterization of the reagents used in these assays are in themselves challenging. These concerns taken together with the flow-based technology makes the validation of flow cytometry assays a challenging effort. Therefore, apart from summarizing the role of flow cytometry technology in various stages of drug development, this manuscript focuses on recommendations for the validation of methods applying flow cytometry. Information is also provided on the relevant validation parameters for different types of flow cytometry assays to guide the users of this platform. Together, the recommendations and the information on regulatory guidelines provided in this manuscript represent the consensus of all the authors and can assist the flow cytometry user in implementing the appropriate method validation strategies.

  9. New soluble-formazan assay for HIV-1 cytopathic effects: application to high-flux screening of synthetic and natural products for AIDS-antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Weislow, O S; Kiser, R; Fine, D L; Bader, J; Shoemaker, R H; Boyd, M R

    1989-04-19

    We have developed an effective and optimally safe microculture method for rapid and convenient assay of the in vitro cytopathic effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) on human lymphoblastoid or other suitable host cells. The assay procedure is applicable to the evaluation of drug effects on in vitro infections induced directly in cultured host cells by cell-free HIV-1 or by coculture with H9 cells chronically infected with HIV-1. The assay uses a newly developed tetrazolium reagent that is metabolically reduced by viable cells to yield a soluble, colored formazan product measurable by conventional colorimetric techniques. This simple microassay minimizes the number of plate manipulations typically required with other assay methods and, coupled with computerized data collection and analysis, facilitates large-scale screening of agents for potential antiviral activity. To support and enhance the discovery of new anti-HIV-1 agents, the National Cancer Institute is offering investigators worldwide the opportunity to submit new candidate agents for anti-HIV-1 screening with this method.

  10. Identification of Potential Antituberculosis Drugs Through Docking and Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa

    2016-05-05

    Tuberculosis is the most prominent contagious disease and needs the new targets and drugs identification. Target identification and validation is a crucial step in drug discovery process. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, decaprenyl-phosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-oxidase is a potential target for antitubercular chemotherapy. It is encoded by genes dprE1 (Rv3790) and dprE2 (Rv3791). Three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction of selected target (461 amino acid residues) was intent by homology modeling using multitemplate approach based on crystal structure of 2EXR.pdb and 2Q4W.pdb with score = 48.9 bits and identities = 42/148 (29 %). A computed model was subjected to refinement based on consensus generated from two-dimensional structures and then evaluated using Structural Analysis and Verification Server to get reliable model. The final optimized model after analysis of Ramachandran plot revealed 86.5 % Core, 78.1 % Verify 3D score and 75.302 Errat values. Structure-based virtual screening against ZINC database was performed through molecular docking approach using Molegro Virtual Docker 4.2.0. The best 10 docked ligands were enumerated and validated based on their AutoDock Vina docking energy, scoring function and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties. The complex scoring function, docking energies and binding affinities revealed that these ligand molecules could be promising inhibitors against decaprenyl-phosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-oxidase. The present work also investigates the potential of computational molecular modeling.

  11. Correlation of the "EMIT" antiepileptic drug assay with a gas liquid chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Legaz, M; Raisys, V A

    1976-02-01

    Many methodologies have been developed for determining anticonvulsant drug levels in human serum. Unfortunately, most procedures are either time consuming or subject to a variety of interferring substances. The "Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique" (EMIT) system has been evaluated for its speed, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. When compared with a gas-liquid chromatographic procedure, the EMIT assay appeared to yield results which were statistically comparable for the drugs diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, and primidone. The EMIT assay also demonstrated no significant interference when challenged with extraordinarily high levels of potentially cross reacting drugs. Results obtained with the EMIT assay correlated well with GLC data and rank it as an attractive alternative to many of the existing procedures now being used.

  12. Silicon microphysiometer for high-throughput drug screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Katarina; Baert, Christiaan; Puers, Bob; Sansen, Willy; Simaels, Jeannine; Van Driessche, Veerle; Hermans, Lou; Mertens, Robert P.

    1999-06-01

    We report on a micromachined silicon chip that is capable of providing a high-throughput functional assay based on calorimetry. A prototype twin microcalorimeter based on the Seebeck effect has been fabricated by IC technology and micromachined postprocessing techniques. A biocompatible liquid rubber membrane supports two identical 0.5 X 2 cm2 measurement chambers, situated at the cold and hot junction of a 666-junction aluminum/p+-polysilicon thermopile. The chambers can house up to 106 eukaryotic cells cultured to confluence. The advantage of the device over microcalorimeters on the market, is the integration of the measurement channels on chip, rendering microvolume reaction vessels, ranging from 10 to 600 (mu) l, in the closest possible contact with the thermopile sensor (no springs are needed). Power and temperature sensitivity of the sensor are 23 V/W and 130 mV/K, respectively. The small thermal inertia of the microchannels results in the short response time of 70 s, when filled with 50 (mu) l of water. Biological experiments were done with cultured kidney cells of Xenopus laevis (A6). The thermal equilibration time of the device is 45 min. Stimulation of transport mechanisms by reducing bath osmolality by 50% increased metabolism by 20%. Our results show that it is feasible to apply this large-area, small- volume whole-cell biosensor for drug discovery, where the binding assays that are commonly used to provide high- throughput need to be complemented with a functional assay. Solutions are brought onto the sensor by a simple pipette, making the use of an industrial microtiterplate dispenser feasible on a nx96-array of the microcalorimeter biosensor. Such an array of biosensors has been designed based on a new set of requirements as set forth by people in the field as this project moved on. The results obtained from the prototype large-area sensor were used to obtain an accurate model of the calorimeter, checked for by the simulation software ANSYS. At

  13. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-gamma release assay for entry tuberculosis screening in prisons.

    PubMed

    Kowada, A

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in inmates and prison staff is higher than that in the general population. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) provide more accurate diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection with higher specificity than the tuberculin skin test (TST). To assess the cost effectiveness of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) compared to TST, TST followed by QFT and chest X-ray, we constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The main outcome measure of effectiveness was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness was compared. The QFT-alone strategy was the most cost-effective for entry TB screening in prisons in developed countries. Cost-effectiveness was not sensitive to the rates of BCG vaccination, LTBI, TB, HIV infection and multidrug-resistant TB. Entry TB screening using an IGRA in prisons should be considered on the basis of its cost-effectiveness by public health intervention.

  14. Novel screening assay for in vivo selection of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes promoting gastrointestinal colonisation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infections. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a key step in the development of infections; yet the specific factors important for K. pneumoniae to colonize and reside in the GI tract of the host are largely unknown. To identify K. pneumoniae genes promoting GI colonisation, a novel genomic-library-based approach was employed. Results Screening of a K. pneumoniae C3091 genomic library, expressed in E. coli strain EPI100, in a mouse model of GI colonisation led to the positive selection of five clones containing genes promoting persistent colonisation of the mouse GI tract. These included genes encoding the global response regulator ArcA; GalET of the galactose operon; and a cluster of two putative membrane-associated proteins of unknown function. Both ArcA and GalET are known to be involved in metabolic pathways in Klebsiella but may have additional biological actions beneficial to the pathogen. In support of this, GalET was found to confer decreased bile salt sensitivity to EPI100. Conclusions The present work establishes the use of genomic-library-based in vivo screening assays as a valuable tool for identification and characterization of virulence factors in K. pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens. PMID:22967317

  15. Electrochemical assay of α-glucosidase activity and the inhibitor screening in cell medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Ying; Wang, Xiaonan; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Genxi

    2015-12-15

    An electrochemical method is established in this work for the assay of α-glucosidase activity and the inhibitor screening through one-step displacement reaction, which can be directly used in cell medium. The displacement reaction can be achieved via strong binding of 4-aminophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (pAPG)/magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to pyrene boric acid (PBA) immobilized on the surface of graphite electrode (GE), compared to that of dopamine (DA)/sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Since α-glucosidase can specifically catalyze MNPs/pAPG into MNPs/pAP which has no binding capacity with PBA, the activity of both isolated and membrane bound enzyme can be well evaluated by using this proposed method. Meanwhile, signal amplification can be accomplished via the immobilization of DA at the outer layer of AgNPs, and the accuracy can be strengthened through magnetic separation. Moreover, this method can also be utilized for inhibitor screening not only in the medium containing the enzyme but also in cell medium. With good precision and accuracy, it may be extended to other proteases and their inhibitors as well.

  16. Chemical library screening using a SPR-based inhibition in solution assay: simulations and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Choulier, Laurence; Nominé, Yves; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Charbonnier, Sebastian; Didier, Bruno; Jung, Marie-Louise; Altschuh, Danièle

    2013-09-17

    We have developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition in solution assay (ISA) to search for inhibitors of the medium affinity (KD = 0.8 μM) interaction between an E6-derived peptide (E6peptide) immobilized on the sensor and a PDZ domain (MAGI-1 PDZ1) in the mobile phase. DZ domains are widespread protein-protein interaction modules that recognize the C-terminus of various partners. Simulations indicated that relatively low compound concentrations (10 μM) and limited peptide densities (Rmax < 200 resonance units) should allow the detection of inhibitors with a target affinity close to 100 μM, which was then demonstrated experimentally. ISA screening, carried out on the Prestwick Chemical Library® (1120 compounds), identified 36 compounds that inhibited the interaction by more than 5%. Concentration-dependent ISA, carried out on a subset of 19 potential inhibitors, indicated that 13 of these indeed affected the interaction between MAGI-1 PDZ1 and the E6peptide. No effect was observed for 84 compounds randomly chosen among noninhibitors. One of the four best inhibitors was a peptide binder, and three were PDZ binders with KD in the 10-50 μM range. We propose that a medium (μM) affinity between the target and surface-bound partner is optimal for SPR-based ISA screening.

  17. A review of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for high-throughput drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and publication standards.

    PubMed

    Mordwinkin, Nicholas M; Burridge, Paul W; Wu, Joseph C

    2013-02-01

    Drug attrition rates have increased in past years, resulting in growing costs for the pharmaceutical industry and consumers. The reasons for this include the lack of in vitro models that correlate with clinical results and poor preclinical toxicity screening assays. The in vitro production of human cardiac progenitor cells and cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells provides an amenable source of cells for applications in drug discovery, disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and cardiotoxicity screening. In addition, the ability to derive human-induced pluripotent stem cells from somatic tissues, combined with current high-throughput screening and pharmacogenomics, may help realize the use of these cells to fulfill the potential of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screening, as well as current hurdles that must be overcome for wider clinical applications of this promising approach.

  18. Cross-reactivity between Lyme and syphilis screening assays: Lyme disease does not cause false-positive syphilis screens.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, Glenn; LeBlanc, Jason; Heinstein, Charles; Roberts, Catherine; Lindsay, Robbin; Hatchette, Todd F

    2016-03-01

    Increased rates of Lyme disease and syphilis in the same geographic area prompted an assessment of screening test cross-reactivity. This study supports the previously described cross-reactivity of Lyme screening among syphilis-positive sera and reports evidence against the possibility of false-positive syphilis screening tests resulting from previous Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

  19. Antimycobacterial screening of traditional medicinal plants using the microplate resazurin assay.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan; Lee, Timothy D G; Moore, Jill; Manning, Tracy; Kunimoto, Dennis; LeBlanc, Darren; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

    2010-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains have rapidly become a global health concern. North American First Nations communities have used traditional medicines for generations to treat many pulmonary infections. In this study, we evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of 5 medicinal plants traditionally used as general therapeutics for pulmonary illnesses and specifically as treatments for tuberculosis. Aqueous extracts of Aralia nudicaulis, Symplocarpus foetidus, Heracleum maximum, Juniperus communis, and Acorus calamus were screened for antimycobacterial activity against Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Mycobacterium avium, and M. tuberculosis H37Ra using the colorimetric microplate resazurin assay. Extracts of Acorus calamus and H. maximum root demonstrated significant antimycobacterial activity comparable to that of the rifampin control (2 microg/mL). Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of these 2 extracts using the MTT assay also showed that the extracts were less toxic to 3 human cell lines than was the DMSO positive control. This study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of the roots of H. maximum and Acorus calamus possess strong in vitro antimycobacterial activity, validates traditional knowledge, and provides potential for the development of urgently needed novel antituberculous therapeutics.

  20. A high-throughput in vivo micronucleus assay for genome instability screening in mice

    PubMed Central

    Balmus, Gabriel; Karp, Natasha A; Ng, Bee Ling; Jackson, Stephen P; Adams, David J; McIntyre, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    We describe a sensitive, robust, high-throughput method for quantifying the formation of micronuclei, markers of genome instability, in mouse erythrocytes. Micronuclei are whole chromosomes or chromosome segments that have been separated from the nucleus. Other methods of detection rely on labour-intensive, microscopy-based techniques. Here, we describe a 2-d, 96-well plate-based flow cytometric method of micronucleus scoring that is simple enough for a research technician experienced in flow cytometry to perform. The assay detects low levels of genome instability that cannot be readily identified by classic phenotyping, using 25 μl of blood. By using this assay, we have screened >10,000 blood samples and discovered novel genes that contribute to vertebrate genome maintenance, as well as novel disease models and mechanisms of genome instability disorders. We discuss experimental design considerations, including statistical power calculation, we provide troubleshooting tips, and we discuss factors that contribute to a false-positive increase in the number of micronucleated red blood cells and to experimental variability. PMID:25551665

  1. Non-invasive screening of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in children using a dipstick immunocapture assay.

    PubMed

    Rodinová, M; Trefilová, E; Honzík, T; Tesařová, M; Zeman, J; Hansíková, H

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CIV) deficiency is among the most common childhood mitochondrial disorders. The diagnosis of this deficiency is complex, and muscle biopsy is used as the gold standard of diagnosis. Our aim was to minimize the patient burden and to test the use of a dipstick immunocapture assay (DIA) to determine the amount of CIV in non-invasively obtained buccal epithelial cells. Buccal smears were obtained from five children with Leigh syndrome including three children exhibiting a previously confirmed CIV deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts and two children who were clinical suspects for CIV deficiency; the smear samples were analysed using CI and CIV human protein quantity dipstick assay kits. Samples from five children of similar age and five adults were used as controls. Analysis of the controls demonstrated that only samples of buccal cells that were frozen for a maximum of 4 h after collection provide accurate results. All three patients with confirmed CIV deficiency due to mutations in the SURF1 gene exhibited significantly lower amounts of CIV than the similarly aged controls; significantly lower amounts were also observed in two new patients, for whom later molecular analysis also confirmed pathologic mutations in the SURF1 gene. We conclude that DIA is a simple, fast and sensitive method for the determination of CIV in buccal cells and is suitable for the screening of CIV deficiency in non-invasively obtained material from children who are suspected of having mitochondrial disease.

  2. GeneChip{sup {trademark}} screening assay for cystic fibrosis mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Cronn, M.T.; Miyada, C.G.; Fucini, R.V.

    1994-09-01

    GeneChip{sup {trademark}} assays are based on high density, carefully designed arrays of short oligonucleotide probes (13-16 bases) built directly on derivatized silica substrates. DNA target sequence analysis is achieved by hybridizing fluorescently labeled amplification products to these arrays. Fluorescent hybridization signals located within the probe array are translated into target sequence information using the known probe sequence at each array feature. The mutation screening assay for cystic fibrosis includes sets of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect numerous different mutations that have been described in 14 exons and one intron of the CFTR gene. Each mutation site is addressed by a sub-array of at least 40 probe sequences, half designed to detect the wild type gene sequence and half designed to detect the reported mutant sequence. Hybridization with homozygous mutant, homozygous wild type or heterozygous targets results in distinctive hybridization patterns within a sub-array, permitting specific discrimination of each mutation. The GeneChip probe arrays are very small (approximately 1 cm{sup 2}). There miniature size coupled with their high information content make GeneChip probe arrays a useful and practical means for providing CF mutation analysis in a clinical setting.

  3. Survey of estrogenic activity in fish feed by yeast estrogen-screen assay.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeru; Kobayashi, Makito; Moriwaki, Toshihisa; Kawai, Shin'ichiro; Watabe, Shugo

    2004-10-01

    Fishes have been used as laboratory animal for research of estrogenic endocrine disrupters by many researchers. However, much less attention was paid to the possibility that compounds with estrogenic activity are present in fish diets. In order to examine this possibility, we measured the estrogenic activity in commercial fish feed by in vitro yeast estrogen-screen (YES) assay based on the binding ability of tested compounds to estrogen receptors. Estrogenic activity was detected in all the commercial fish feed examined (0.2-6.2 ng estradiol equivalent/g fish feed), some phytoestrogens (genistein, formononetin, equol and coumestrol; relative activity to estradiol, 8.6 x 10(-6)-1.1 x 10(-4) by giving a value of 1.0 to estradiol) and some androgens (testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone; relative activity to estradiol, 3.0 x 10(-6)-1.2 x 10(-4)). Therefore, it is possible that these compounds could affect the results of in vivo estrogen assay, such as vitellogenin production in male fish, especially when fish are fed commercial feed.

  4. High-content fluorescent-based assay for screening activators of DNA damage checkpoint pathways.

    PubMed

    Bin Zhang; Xiubin Gu; Uppalapati, Uma; Ashwell, Mark A; Leggett, David S; Li, Chiang J

    2008-07-01

    Activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathways, including Chk2, serves as an anticancer barrier in precancerous lesions. In an effort to identify small-molecule activators of Chk2, the authors developed a quantitative cell-based assay using a high-content analysis (HCA) platform. Induction of phosphorylated Chk2 was evaluated using several different parameters, including fold induction, Kolmogorov-Smirnov score, and percentage of positively stained cells. These measurements were highly correlated and provided an accurate method for compound ranking/binning, structure-activity relationship studies, and lead identification. Screening for Chk2 activators was undertaken with a target-focused library and a diversified library from ArQule chemical space. Several compounds exhibited submicromolar EC( 50) values for phosphorylated Chk2 induction. These compounds were further analyzed for Chk2-dependent cytotoxicity, as assessed through a high-content cell death assay in combination with siRNA silencing of Chk2 expression. Several compounds were identified and showed specific inhibition or lethality in a target-dependent manner. Therefore, identification of DNA damage checkpoint pathway activators by HCA is an attractive approach for discovering the next generation of targeted cancer therapeutics.

  5. Animal models for screening anxiolytic-like drugs: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bourin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary biological psychiatry uses experimental animal models to increase our understanding of affective disorder pathogenesis. Modern anxiolytic drug discovery mainly targets specific pathways and molecular determinants within a single phenotypic domain. However, greater understanding of the mechanisms of action is possible through animal models. Primarily developed with rats, animal models in anxiety have been adapted with mixed success for mice, easy-to-use mammals with better genetic possibilities than rats. In this review, we focus on the three most common animal models of anxiety in mice used in the screening of anxiolytics. Both conditioned and unconditioned models are described, in order to represent all types of animal models of anxiety. Behavioral studies require careful attention to variable parameters linked to environment, handling, or paradigms; this is also discussed. Finally, we focus on the consequences of re-exposure to the apparatus. Test-retest procedures can provide new answers, but should be intensively studied in order to revalidate the entire paradigm as an animal model of anxiety. PMID:26487810

  6. Animal models for screening anxiolytic-like drugs: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary biological psychiatry uses experimental animal models to increase our understanding of affective disorder pathogenesis. Modern anxiolytic drug discovery mainly targets specific pathways and molecular determinants within a single phenotypic domain. However, greater understanding of the mechanisms of action is possible through animal models. Primarily developed with rats, animal models in anxiety have been adapted with mixed success for mice, easy-to-use mammals with better genetic possibilities than rats. In this review, we focus on the three most common animal models of anxiety in mice used in the screening of anxiolytics. Both conditioned and unconditioned models are described, in order to represent all types of animal models of anxiety. Behavioral studies require careful attention to variable parameters linked to environment, handling, or paradigms; this is also discussed. Finally, we focus on the consequences of re-exposure to the apparatus. Test-retest procedures can provide new answers, but should be intensively studied in order to revalidate the entire paradigm as an animal model of anxiety.

  7. Evaluation of Screening Assays for the Detection of Influenza A Virus Serum Antibodies in Swine.

    PubMed

    Goodell, C K; Prickett, J; Kittawornrat, A; Johnson, J; Zhang, J; Wang, C; Zimmerman, J J

    2016-02-01

    Increased surveillance of influenza A virus (IAV) infections in human and swine populations is mandated by public health and animal health concerns. Antibody assays have proven useful in previous surveillance programmes because antibodies provide a record of prior exposure and the technology is inexpensive. The objective of this research was to compare the performance of influenza serum antibody assays using samples collected from pigs (vaccinated or unvaccinated) inoculated with either A/Swine/OH/511445/2007 γ H1N1 virus or A/Swine/Illinois/02907/2009 Cluster IV H3N2 virus and followed for 42 days. Weekly serum samples were tested for anti-IAV antibodies using homologous and heterologous haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays, commercial swine influenza H1N1 and H3N2 indirect ELISAs, and a commercial influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-blocking ELISA. The homologous HIs showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity, but largely failed to detect infection with the heterologous virus. With diagnostic sensitivities of 1.4% and 4.9%, respectively, the H1N1 and H3N2 indirect ELISAs were ineffective at detecting IAV antibodies in swine infected with the contemporary influenza viruses used in the study. At a cut-off of S/N ≤ 0.60, the sensitivity and specificity of the NP-blocking ELISA were estimated at 95.5% and 99.6%, respectively. Statistically significant factors which affected S/N results include vaccination status, inoculum (virus subtype), day post-inoculation and the interactions between those factors (P < 0.0001). Serum antibodies against NP provide an ideal universal diagnostic screening target and could provide a cost-effective approach for the detection and surveillance of IAV infections in swine populations.

  8. Using pathway modules as targets for assay development in xenobiotic screening.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard S; Mortensen, Holly M; Shah, Imran; Knudsen, Thomas B; Elloumi, Fathi

    2012-02-01

    Toxicology and pharmaceutical research is increasingly making use of high throughout-screening (HTS) methods to assess the effects of chemicals on molecular pathways, cells and tissues. Whole-genome microarray analysis provides broad information on the response of biological systems to chemical exposure, but is not practical to use when thousands of chemicals need to be evaluated at multiple doses and time points, as well as across different tissues, species and life-stages. A useful alternative approach is to identify a focused set of genes that can give a coarse picture of systems-level responses and that can be scaled to the evaluation of thousands of chemicals and diverse biological contexts. We demonstrate a computational approach to select in vitro expression assay targets that are informative and broadly distributed in biological pathway space, using the concept of pathway modularity. Canonical pathways are decomposed into subnetworks (modules) of functionally-related genes based on rules such as co-regulated expression, protein-protein interactions, and coordinated physiological activity. Pathway modules are constructed using these rules but are then restricted by the bounds of canonical pathways. We demonstrate this approach using a subset of genes associated with tumor development and cancer progression. Target genes were identified for assay development, and then validated by using independent, published microarray data. The result is a targeted set of genes that are sensitive predictors of whether a chemical will perturb each pathway module. These selected genes could then form the basis for a battery to test for pathway-chemical interactions under many biological contexts using throughput expression-based assays.

  9. Screening of endocrine disrupting chemicals with MELN cells, an ER-transactivation assay combined with cytotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, P; Leppens, H; Vangenechten, C; Witters, H

    2007-10-01

    There is growing concern that some chemicals can cause endocrine disrupting effects to wild animals and humans. Therefore a rapid and reliable screening assay to assess the activity of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is required. These EDCs can act at multiple sites. Most studied mechanism is direct interaction with the hormone receptors, e.g. estrogen receptor. In this study the luciferase reporter gene assay using transgenic human MELN cells was used. Since cytotoxicity of the chemicals can decrease the luminescent signal in the transactivation assays, a cytotoxicity assay must be implemented. Mostly the neutral red (NR) assay is performed in parallel with the estrogenicity assay. To increase the reliability and cost-efficiency of the test, a method to measure estrogenicity and cytotoxicity in the same cell culture plate instead of in parallel plates was developed and evaluated. Therefore the NR-assay was compared with the CytoTox-ONE homogeneous membrane integrity assay. The latter measures LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) leakage based on a fluorometric method. For all compounds tested, the CytoTox-ONE test showed comparable curves and EC50-values to those obtained by the NR-assay. So the CytoTox-ONE kit, which seemed more sensitive than measurements of LDH-leakage based on a colorimetric method, is recommended to test cytotoxicity to MELN cells, with the advantage to use the same cells for ER-transactivation measurements. The chemicals tested in the optimised MELN assay showed estrogenic potencies comparable to those reported for several other transactivation assays.

  10. Development of a Plate-Based Screening Assay to Investigate the Substrate Specificity of the PRMT Family of Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hao C; Wang, Min; Salsburg, Andrew; Knuckley, Bryan

    2015-09-14

    There are nine protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs 1-9) expressed in humans that vary in both subcellular localization and substrate specificity. The variation in substrate specificity between isozymes leads to competing effects that result in either activation or repression of tumor suppressor genes. Current methods used to study substrate specificity for these enzymes utilize radioisotopic labeling of substrates, mass spectrometry analysis of complex samples, or coupled assays that monitor cofactor degradation. Herein, we report the development of a rapid, nonradioactive, and sensitive method for screening multiple peptides in parallel to gain insight into the substrate specificity of PRMT enzymes. Our assay provides a major advantage over other high-throughput screening assays (e.g., ELISA, AlphaScreen chemiluminescence) by eliminating the need for purification of individual peptides and provides a timesaving, cost-effective alternative to the traditional PRMT assays. A one-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide library was synthesized and subsequently screened against PRMT1 in a 96-well plate. This screen resulted in identification of a novel PRMT1 substrate with kinetic parameters similar to histone H4-21 (e.g., the best-known PRMT1 peptide substrate).

  11. Library screening by means of mass spectrometry (MS) binding assays-exemplarily demonstrated for a pseudostatic library addressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1).

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Miriam; Wanner, Klaus T

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the application of mass spectrometry (MS) binding assays as a tool for library screening is reported. For library generation, dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) was used. These libraries can be screened by means of MS binding assays when appropriate measures are taken to render the libraries pseudostatic. That way, the efficiency of MS binding assays to determine ligand binding in compound screening with the ease of library generation by DCC is combined. The feasibility of this approach is shown for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1) as a target, representing the most important subtype of the GABA transporters. For the screening, hydrazone libraries were employed that were generated in the presence of the target by reacting various sets of aldehydes with a hydrazine derivative that is delineated from piperidine-3-carboxylic acid (nipecotic acid), a common fragment of known GAT1 inhibitors. To ensure that the library generated is pseudostatic, a large excess of the nipecotic acid derivative is employed. As the library is generated in a buffer system suitable for binding and the target is already present, the mixtures can be directly analyzed by MS binding assays-the process of library generation and screening thus becoming simple to perform. The binding affinities of the hits identified by deconvolution were confirmed in conventional competitive MS binding assays performed with single compounds obtained by separate synthesis. In this way, two nipecotic acid derivatives exhibiting a biaryl moiety, 1-{2-[2'-(1,1'-biphenyl-2-ylmethylidene)hydrazine]ethyl}piperidine-3-carboxylic acid and 1-(2-{2'-[1-(2-thiophenylphenyl)methylidene]hydrazine}ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, were found to be potent GAT1 ligands exhibiting pK(i) values of 6.186 ± 0.028 and 6.229 ± 0.039, respectively. This method enables screening of libraries, whether generated by conventional chemistry or DCC, and is applicable to all kinds of targets including

  12. Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule screening can be used to identify active molecular targets for various diseases and toxicity at the cellular level with nanoscale resolution. In the innovation and screening of new drugs or bioactive molecules, the activeness, the efficacy of the compound, and safety in biological systems are the main concerns on which determination of drug candidates is based. Further, drug discovery and screening of compounds are often performed in cell-based test systems in order to reduce costs and save time. Moreover, this system can provide more relevant results in in vivo studies, as well as high-throughput drug screening for various diseases during the early stages of drug discovery. Recently, MEMS technologies and integration with image detection techniques have been employed successfully. These new technologies and their possible ongoing transformations are addressed. Select reports are outlined, and not all the work that has been performed in the field of drug screening and development is covered.

  13. Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule screening can be used to identify active molecular targets for various diseases and toxicity at the cellular level with nanoscale resolution. In the innovation and screening of new drugs or bioactive molecules, the activeness, the efficacy of the compound, and safety in biological systems are the main concerns on which determination of drug candidates is based. Further, drug discovery and screening of compounds are often performed in cell-based test systems in order to reduce costs and save time. Moreover, this system can provide more relevant results in in vivo studies, as well as high-throughput drug screening for various diseases during the early stages of drug discovery. Recently, MEMS technologies and integration with image detection techniques have been employed successfully. These new technologies and their possible ongoing transformations are addressed. Select reports are outlined, and not all the work that has been performed in the field of drug screening and development is covered. PMID:25525360

  14. Drosophila modifier screens to identify novel neuropsychiatric drugs including aminergic agents for the possible treatment of Parkinson’s disease and depression

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hakeem O.; Terrell, Ashley; Lam, Hoa A.; Djapri, Christine; Jang, Jennifer; Hadi, Richard; Roberts, Logan; Shahi, Varun; Chou, Man-Ting; Biedermann, Traci; Huang, Brian; Lawless, George M.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Krantz, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules that increase the presynaptic function of aminergic cells may provide neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease as well as treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Model genetic organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster may enhance the detection of new drugs via modifier or “enhancer/suppressor” screens, but this technique has not been applied to processes relevant to psychiatry. To identify new aminergic drugs in vivo, we used a mutation in the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT) as a sensitized genetic background, and performed a suppressor screen. We fed dVMAT mutant larvae ~1000 known drugs and quantitated rescue (suppression) of an amine-dependent locomotor deficit in the larva. To determine which drugs might specifically potentiate neurotransmitter release, we performed an additional secondary screen for drugs that require presynaptic amine storage to rescue larval locomotion. Using additional larval locomotion and adult fertility assays, we validated that at least one compound previously used clinically as an antineoplastic agent potentiates the presynaptic function of aminergic circuits. We suggest that structurally similar agents might be used to development treatments for Parkinson’s disease, depression and ADHD and that modifier screens in Drosophila provide a new strategy to screen for neuropsychiatric drugs. More generally, our findings demonstrate the power of physiologically based screens for identifying bioactive agents for select neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23229049

  15. Organ donor screening using parallel nucleic acid testing allows assessment of transmission risk and assay results in real time.

    PubMed

    Baleriola, C; Tu, E; Johal, H; Gillis, J; Ison, M G; Law, M; Coghlan, P; Rawlinson, W D

    2012-06-01

    Expansion of the donor pool may lead to utilization of donors with risk factors for viral infections. Donor laboratory screening relies on serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT). The increased sensitivity of NAT in low prevalence populations may result in false-positive results (FPR) and may cause unnecessary discard of organs.We developed a screening algorithm to deal, in real time, with potential FPR. Three NAT assays: COBAS AmpliScreen assay (CAS), AmpliPrep Total Nucleic Acid Isolation/CAS, and AmpliPrep/TaqMan assays, were validated and used in parallel for prospective screening of increased-risk donors (IRD), and the probability of FPR was calculated. The lower limit of detection of this algorithm was 9.79, 21.02, and 4.31 IU/mL for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus, respectively, with an average turn-around-time of 7.67 h from sample receipt to result reporting. The probability that a donor is potentially infectious with two NAT concordant results was >90%. NAT screening of 35 IRD within 18 months resulted in transplantation of 102 additional organs that without screening would either not be used or used with restrictions in Australia. Using a parallel testing algorithm, real-time confirmation of seropositive donors allows use of organs from IRD and safer expansion of the donor pool.

  16. Simultaneous screening and quantitation of 18 antihistamine drugs in blood by liquid chromatography ionspray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gergov, M; Robson, J N; Ojanperä, I; Heinonen, O P; Vuori, E

    2001-09-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is presented for the simultaneous screening and quantitation of 18 antihistamine drugs in blood samples. Sample pretreatment involved liquid-liquid extraction of the basic antihistamines followed by a second extraction of the acidic antihistamines. The recoveries were 43-113% for basic drugs and 23-66% for acidic drugs. The combined extracts were run by LC on C(18) reversed phase column using acetonitrile-ammonium acetate mobile phase at pH 3.2. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed with a triple stage quadrupole mass analyzer. Screening was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and any compounds tentatively identified as antihistamine drugs were then automatedly verified by their Product Ion Spectra in a subsequent MS/MS run. Quantitation was based on the MRM data from the screening step. In validation tests, the method showed good linearity at the relevant concentrations. The attained limits of quantitation varied between 0.0005 and 0.01mg/l in blood and were lower than the therapeutic concentrations (C(max)). The limits for identification by Product Ion Spectra were also lower than C(max), except for clemastine, which has exceptionally low concentrations in blood. The intra-assay relative standard deviations were better than 10% and the inaccuracy varied between 39% for levocabastine and 5% for cyclizine, the majority of the values being <20%.

  17. Screening and Characterization of Drugs That Protect Corneal Endothelial Cells Against Unfolded Protein Response and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Chul; Toyono, Tetsuya; Berlinicke, Cynthia A.; Zack, Donald J.; Jurkunas, Ula; Usui, Tomohiko; Jun, Albert S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To screen for and characterize compounds that protect corneal endothelial cells against unfolded protein response (UPR) and oxidative stress. Methods Bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs) were treated for 48 hours with 640 compounds from a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library and then challenged with thapsigargin or H2O2 to induce UPR or oxidative stress, respectively. Cell viability was measured using the CellTiter-Glo survival assay. Selected “hits” were subjected to further dose-response testing, and their ability to modulate expression of UPR and oxidative stress markers was assessed by RT-PCR, Western blot, and measurement of protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adducts in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (iHCECs). Results Forty-one drugs at 20 μM and 55 drugs at 100 μM increased survival of H2O2-challenged cells, and 8 drugs at 20 μM and 2 drugs at 100 μM increased survival of thapsigargin-challenged cells, compared with untreated control cells. Nicergoline, ergothioneine, nimesulide, oxotremorine, and mefenamic acid increased survival of both H2O2- and thapsigargin-challenged cells. Oxotremorine altered DNA damage inducible 3 (CHOP) gene expression, glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) protein expression, and protein carbonyl and 8-OHdG levels. Mefenamic acid altered GRP78 protein expression and protein carbonyl and 8-OHdG levels. Conclusions Oxotremorine and mefenamic acid are potential survival factors for corneal endothelial cells under UPR and oxidative stress. The described assay can be further expanded to screen additional drugs for potential therapeutic effect in corneal endothelial diseases such as Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. PMID:28159976

  18. Toward antituberculosis drugs: in silico screening of synthetic compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosisl,d-transpeptidase 2.

    PubMed

    Billones, Junie B; Carrillo, Maria Constancia O; Organo, Voltaire G; Macalino, Stephani Joy Y; Sy, Jamie Bernadette A; Emnacen, Inno A; Clavio, Nina Abigail B; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the main causative agent of tuberculosis, is the main reason why this disease continues to be a global public health threat. It is therefore imperative to find a novel antitubercular drug target that is unique to the structural machinery or is essential to the growth and survival of the bacterium. One such target is the enzyme l,d-transpeptidase 2, also known as LdtMt2, a protein primarily responsible for the catalysis of 3→3 cross-linkages that make up the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex of Mtb. In this study, structure-based pharmacophore screening, molecular docking, and in silico toxicity evaluations were employed in screening compounds from a database of synthetic compounds. Out of the 4.5 million database compounds, 18 structures were identified as high-scoring, high-binding hits with very satisfactory absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Two out of the 18 compounds were further subjected to in vitro bioactivity assays, with one exhibiting a good inhibitory activity against the Mtb H37Ra strain.

  19. Drugs of abuse screening in urine as part of a metabolite-based LC-MSn screening concept.

    PubMed

    Wissenbach, Dirk K; Meyer, Markus R; Remane, Daniela; Philipp, Anika A; Weber, Armin A; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-07-01

    Today, immunoassays and several chromatographic methods are in use for drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology and in doping control. For further proof of the authors' new metabolite-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) screening concept, the detectability of drugs of abuse and their metabolites using this screening approach was studied. As previously reported, the corresponding reference library was built up with MS(2) and MS(3) wideband spectra using a LXQ linear ion trap with electrospray ionization in the positive mode and full scan information-dependent acquisition. In addition to the parent drug spectra recorded in methanolic solution, metabolite spectra were identified after protein precipitation of urine from rats after administration of the corresponding drugs and added to the library. This consists now of data of over 900 parent compounds, including 87 drugs of abuse, and of over 2,300 metabolites and artifacts, among them 436 of drugs of abuse. Recovery, process efficiency, matrix effects, and limits of detection for selected drugs of abuse were determined using spiked human urine, and the resulting data have been acceptable. Using two automatic data evaluation tools (ToxID and SmileMS), the intake of 54 of the studied drugs of abuse could be confirmed in urine samples of drug users after protein precipitation and LC separation. The following drugs classes were covered: stimulants, designer drugs, hallucinogens, (synthetic) cannabinoids, opioids, and selected benzodiazepines. The presented LC-MS(n) method complements the well-established gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy procedure in the authors' laboratory.

  20. Reconfiguring the AR-TIF2 Protein-Protein Interaction HCS Assay in Prostate Cancer Cells and Characterizing the Hits from a LOPAC Screen.

    PubMed

    Fancher, Ashley T; Hua, Yun; Camarco, Daniel P; Close, David A; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Paul A

    2016-10-01

    The continued activation of androgen receptor (AR) transcription and elevated expression of AR and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (TIF2) coactivator observed in prostate cancer (CaP) recurrence and the development of castration-resistant CaP (CRPC) support a screening strategy for small-molecule inhibitors of AR-TIF2 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) to find new drug candidates. Small molecules can elicit tissue selective effects, because the cells of distinct tissues express different levels and cohorts of coregulatory proteins. We reconfigured the AR-TIF2 PPI biosensor (PPIB) assay in the PC-3 CaP cell line to determine whether AR modulators and hits from an AR-TIF2 PPIB screen conducted in U-2 OS cells would behave differently in the CaP cell background. Although we did not observe any significant differences in the compound responses between the assay performed in osteosarcoma and CaP cells, the U-2 OS AR-TIF2 PPIB assay would be more amenable to screening, because both the virus and cell culture demands are lower. We implemented a testing paradigm of counter-screens and secondary hit characterization assays that allowed us to identify and deprioritize hits that inhibited/disrupted AR-TIF2 PPIs and AR transcriptional activation (AR-TA) through antagonism of AR ligand binding or by non-specifically blocking nuclear receptor trafficking. Since AR-TIF2 PPI inhibitor/disruptor molecules act distally to AR ligand binding, they have the potential to modulate AR-TA in a cell-specific manner that is distinct from existing anti-androgen drugs, and to overcome the development of resistance to AR antagonism. We anticipate that the application of this testing paradigm to characterize the hits from an AR-TIF2 PPI high-content screening campaign will enable us to prioritize the AR-TIF2 PPI inhibitor/disruptor leads that have potential to be developed into novel therapeutics for CaP and CRPC.

  1. Key learnings from performance of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Coady, Katie K; O'Connor, John C; Nabb, Diane L; Markell, Lauren K; Snajdr, Suzanne; Sue Marty, M

    2014-02-01

    Tier 1 of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program comprises 11 studies: five in vitro assays, four in vivo mammalian assays, and two in vivo nonmammalian assays. The battery is designed to detect compounds with the potential to interact with the estrogen, androgen, or thyroid signaling pathways. This article examines the procedures, results, and data interpretation for the five Tier 1 in vitro assays: estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor binding assays, an ER transactivation assay, an aromatase assay, and a steroidogenesis assay. Data are presented from two laboratories that have evaluated approximately 11 compounds in the Tier 1 in vitro assays. Generally, the ER and androgen receptor binding assays and the aromatase assay showed good specificity and reproducibility. As described in the guideline for the ER transactivation assay, a result is considered positive when the test compound induces a reporter gene signal that reaches 10% of the response seen with 1 nM 17β-estradiol (positive control). In the experience of these laboratories, this cutoff criterion may result in false-positive responses. For the steroidogenesis assay, there is variability in the basal and stimulated production of testosterone and estradiol by the H295R cells. This variability in responsiveness, coupled with potential cell stress at high concentrations of test compound, may make it difficult to discern whether hormone alterations are specific steroidogenesis alterations (i.e., endocrine active). Lastly, both laboratories had difficulty meeting some recommended performance criteria for each Tier 1 in vitro assay. Data with only minor deviations were deemed valid.

  2. A new approach to drug discovery: high-throughput screening of microbial natural extracts against Aspergillus fumigatus using resazurin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Cândida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Cantizani, Juan; Moreno, Catalina; Tormo, José R; Mellado, Emilia; De Lucas, J Ramón; Asensio, Francisco; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca

    2012-04-01

    Natural products are an inexhaustible source for drug discovery. However, the validation and selection of primary screening assays are vital to guarantee a selection of extracts or molecules with relevant pharmacological action and worthy of following up. The assay must be rapid, simple, easy to implement, and produce quick results and preferably at a low cost. In this work, we developed and validated a colorimetric microtiter assay using the resazurin viability dye. The parameters of the resazurin method for high-throughput screening (HTS) using natural extracts against Aspergillus fumigatus were optimized and set up. The extracts plus RPMI-1640 modified medium containing the spores and 0.002% resazurin were added per well. The fluorescence was read after 24 to 30 h of incubation. The resazurin proved to be as suitable as Alamar Blue for determining the minimal inhibitory concentration of different antifungals against A. fumigatus and effective to analyze fungicidal and fungistatic compounds. An HTS of 12 000 microbial extracts was carried out against two A. fumigatus strains, and 2.7% of the extracts displayed antifungal activity. Our group has been the first to use this methodology for screening a collection of natural extracts to identify compounds with antifungal activity against the medically important human pathogen A. fumigatus.

  3. The Screening and Evaluation of Experimental Antiparasitic Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-04

    Chemotherapy of Drug-Sensitive African Trypanosomiasis 33 INTRODUCTION 33 METHODS 34 Animals Hosts 34 Inoculation of Parasites 34 Drug... Chemotherapy of Drug-Resistant African Trypanosomiasis 38 INTRODUCTION 38 METHODS 39 Aninals Hosts 39 Inoculation of Parasites 39 Drug Administration 39 Cross...malaria situation. Vector control problems have continuously failed leaving malaria to be controlled by chemotherapy . Attempts to control Plasmodium

  4. Identifying New Drug Targets for Potent Phospholipase D Inhibitors: Combining Sequence Alignment, Molecular Docking, and Enzyme Activity/Binding Assays.

    PubMed

    Djakpa, Helene; Kulkarni, Aditya; Barrows-Murphy, Scheneque; Miller, Greg; Zhou, Weihong; Cho, Hyejin; Török, Béla; Stieglitz, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    Phospholipase D enzymes cleave phospholipid substrates generating choline and phosphatidic acid. Phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus is a non-HKD (histidine, lysine, and aspartic acid) phospholipase D as the enzyme is more similar to members of the diverse family of metallo-phosphodiesterase/phosphatase enzymes than phospholipase D enzymes with active site HKD repeats. A highly efficient library of phospholipase D inhibitors based on 1,3-disubstituted-4-amino-pyrazolopyrimidine core structure was utilized to evaluate the inhibition of purified S. chromofuscus phospholipase D. The molecules exhibited inhibition of phospholipase D activity (IC50 ) in the nanomolar range with monomeric substrate diC4 PC and micromolar range with phospholipid micelles and vesicles. Binding studies with vesicle substrate and phospholipase D strongly indicate that these inhibitors directly block enzyme vesicle binding. Following these compelling results as a starting point, sequence searches and alignments with S. chromofuscus phospholipase D have identified potential new drug targets. Using AutoDock, inhibitors were docked into the enzymes selected from sequence searches and alignments (when 3D co-ordinates were available) and results analyzed to develop next-generation inhibitors for new targets. In vitro enzyme activity assays with several human phosphatases demonstrated that the predictive protocol was accurate. The strategy of combining sequence comparison, docking, and high-throughput screening assays has helped to identify new drug targets and provided some insight into how to make potential inhibitors more specific to desired targets.

  5. Nonradioactive rubidium ion efflux assay and its applications in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Terstappen, Georg C

    2004-10-01

    The recent sequencing of the human genome has created comprehensive information of all potential drug targets. Based on current estimations for the total number of genes, around 400 poreforming ion channel genes can be expected corresponding to about 1.3% of the human genome. Since many ion channels are involved in diseases and the currently marketed drugs act only on a small fraction of these pore-forming membrane proteins, there is a big opportunity for innovative ion channel drug discovery. In fact, recent advances in the development of functional ion channel assays are currently enabling a more systematic exploitation of this important target class. In particular, fluorescence-based methods, automated electrophysiology, and ion flux assays are most important in this regard. This article will briefly describe these methods focusing on the nonradioactive Rb(+) efflux assay that I developed in the early 1990s since it has found widespread application in drug discovery and development and greatly displaced (86)Rb(+) assays for the analysis of K(+) and nonselective cation channels in the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Network-based in silico drug efficacy screening

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Emre; Menche, Jörg; Vidal, Marc; Barábasi, Albert-László

    2016-01-01

    The increasing cost of drug development together with a significant drop in the number of new drug approvals raises the need for innovative approaches for target identification and efficacy prediction. Here, we take advantage of our increasing understanding of the network-based origins of diseases to introduce a drug-disease proximity measure that quantifies the interplay between drugs targets and diseases. By correcting for the known biases of the interactome, proximity helps us uncover the therapeutic effect of drugs, as well as to distinguish palliative from effective treatments. Our analysis of 238 drugs used in 78 diseases indicates that the therapeutic effect of drugs is localized in a small network neighborhood of the disease genes and highlights efficacy issues for drugs used in Parkinson and several inflammatory disorders. Finally, network-based proximity allows us to predict novel drug-disease associations that offer unprecedented opportunities for drug repurposing and the detection of adverse effects. PMID:26831545

  7. The Screening and Evaluation of Experimental Antiparasitic Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Chemotherapy of Drug-Sensitive African Trypanosomiasis 30 Introduction 30 Methods 31 Animals Hosts 31 Inoculation of Parasites 32 Drug Administration 32...06 D3 rug-resistant malaria, Chloroquine-resistant malaria, Calciu 06 03 Channel Blockers, Vitamin E, African trypanosomiasis , (OVER) 19. NEBSTRACT...Drug Activity 33 Results 33 Controls 33 Compounds Tested 34 Table XI Summary of Drug-Sensitive Trypanosoma rhodesiense Results 35 Chemotherapy of Drug

  8. Bioluminescent Assays for Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism: High-Throughput Screening for Changes in Extracellular and Intracellular Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Leippe, Donna; Sobol, Mary; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Cali, James J; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cell metabolism is a complex, dynamic network of regulated pathways. Interrogation of this network would benefit from rapid, sensitive techniques that are adaptable to high-throughput formats, facilitating novel compound screening. This requires assays that have minimal sample preparation and are adaptable to lower-volume 384-well formats and automation. Here we describe bioluminescent glucose, lactate, glutamine, and glutamate detection assays that are well suited for high-throughput analysis of two major metabolic pathways in cancer cells: glycolysis and glutaminolysis. The sensitivity (1-5 pmol/sample), broad linear range (0.1-100 µM), and wide dynamic range (>100-fold) are advantageous for measuring both extracellular and intracellular metabolites. Importantly, the assays incorporate rapid inactivation of endogenous enzymes, eliminating deproteinization steps required by other methods. Using ovarian cancer cell lines as a model system, the assays were used to monitor changes in glucose and glutamine consumption and lactate and glutamate secretion over time. Homogeneous formats of the lactate and glutamate assays were robust (Z' = 0.6-0.9) and could be multiplexed with a real-time viability assay to generate internally controlled data. Screening a small-compound library with these assays resulted in the identification of both inhibitors and activators of lactate and glutamate production.

  9. A Novel Locomotion-based Validation Assay for Candidate Drugs Using Drosophila DYT1 Disease Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    3) axon guidance pathway; and (4) other early-onset dystonia genes as candidates for modifiers. These RNAi screen will be very useful for...torsinA in mobility assay, test multiple RNAi lines targeted to the same gene if they are available. Examine the effectiveness of RNAi on target mRNA...by qRT-PCR. Results: Identification of genes and pathways that could modify Drosophila dtorsin mutant deficits by expressing RNAi in neurons

  10. Developing highER-throughput zebrafish screens for in-vivo CNS drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of brain disorders and the lack of their efficient treatments necessitate improved in-vivo pre-clinical models and tests. The zebrafish (Danio rerio), a vertebrate species with high genetic and physiological homology to humans, is an excellent organism for innovative central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery and small molecule screening. Here, we outline new strategies for developing higher-throughput zebrafish screens to test neuroactive drugs and predict their pharmacological mechanisms. With the growing application of automated 3D phenotyping, machine learning algorithms, movement pattern- and behavior recognition, and multi-animal video-tracking, zebrafish screens are expected to markedly improve CNS drug discovery.

  11. Application of a resazurin-based high-throughput screening assay for the identification and progression of new treatments for human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Tana; Mercer, Luke; Don, Robert; Jacobs, Robert; Nare, Bakela

    2012-12-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and the disease is fatal if untreated. There is an urgent need to develop new, safe and effective treatments for HAT because current drugs have extremely poor safety profiles and are difficult to administer. Here we report the development and application of a cell-based resazurin reduction assay for high throughput screening and identification of new inhibitors of T. b. brucei as starting points for the development of new treatments for human HAT. Active compounds identified in primary screening of ∼48,000 compounds representing ∼25 chemical classes were titrated to obtain IC50 values. Cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line was determined to provide indications of parasite versus host cell selectivity. Examples from hit series that showed selectivity and evidence of preliminary SAR were re-synthesized to confirm trypanocidal activity prior to initiating hit-to-lead expansion efforts. Additional assays such as serum shift, time to kill and reversibility of compound effect were developed and applied to provide further criteria for advancing compounds through the hit-to-lead phase of the project. From this initial effort, six distinct chemical series were selected and hit-to-lead chemistry was initiated to synthesize several key analogs for evaluation of trypanocidal activity in the resazurin-reduction assay for parasite viability. From the hit-to-lead efforts, a series was identified that demonstrated efficacy in a mouse model for T. b. brucei infection and was progressed into the lead optimization stage. In summary, the present study demonstrates the successful and effective use of resazurin-reduction based assays as tools for primary and secondary screening of a new compound series to identify leads for the treatment of HAT.

  12. A new HBsAg screening assay designed for sensitive detection of HBsAg subtypes and variants.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, M H; de Jong, J J; Haenen, W; Jacobs, T; Couwenberg, F; Ahlers-de Boer, G J C M; Hellings, J A

    2006-01-01

    The design of a new HBsAg screening assay, the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra is based on the use of monoclonal antibodies raised against native wild-type HBsAg and reactive with HBsAg in which the common 'a'-determinant is modified by site-directed mutagenesis of four of the cysteine moieties. The design was checked using the same cysteine variants and samples from patients known to be infected with HBsAg variants. The results found were compared with other state-of-the-art commercial screening assays. The design of the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra enabled detection of all variant HBsAg-positive samples in contrast to the other commercial assays. An additional 980 samples were tested to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra. Screening of presumed negative serum and plasma samples resulted in a specificity of 100%. This makes the Hepanostika HBsAg Ultra the first screening assay with a design able to detect HBsAg variants with high sensitivity and specificity.

  13. High-throughput micro-plate HCL-vanillin assay for screening tannin content in sorghum grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum contains tannin which is a phenolic compound that offers health promoting antioxidant capacity. The HCl-vanillin assay is a common and time consuming method for determining tannin content, but is not efficient for screening large sample sets as seen in association mapping panels or breeding ...

  14. Screening ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) in vitro assay with mouse embryonic stem cells was used to screen the ToxCast Phase I chemical library for effects on cellular differentiation and cell number. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ...

  15. Unique Nanoparticle Optical Properties Confound Fluorescent Based Assays Widely Employed in Their In Vitro Toxicity Screening and Ranking

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are novel materials having at least one dimension less than 100 nm and display unique physicochemical properties due to their nanoscale size. An emphasis has been placed on developing high throughput screening (HTS) assays to characterize and rank the toxiciti...

  16. Using adverse outcome pathway analysis to guide development of high-throughput screening assays for thyroid-disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Adverse Outcome Pathway Analysis to Guide Development of High-Throughput Screening Assays for Thyroid-Disruptors Katie B. Paul1,2, Joan M. Hedge2, Daniel M. Rotroff4, Kevin M. Crofton4, Michael W. Hornung3, Steven O. Simmons2 1Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Post...

  17. Large-Scale Phenotype-Based Antiepileptic Drug Screening in a Zebrafish Model of Dravet Syndrome1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Dinday, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in a voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN1A) result in Dravet Syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy. Zebrafish with a mutation in scn1Lab recapitulate salient phenotypes associated with DS, including seizures, early fatality, and resistance to antiepileptic drugs. To discover new drug candidates for the treatment of DS, we screened a chemical library of ∼1000 compounds and identified 4 compounds that rescued the behavioral seizure component, including 1 compound (dimethadione) that suppressed associated electrographic seizure activity. Fenfluramine, but not huperzine A, also showed antiepileptic activity in our zebrafish assays. The effectiveness of compounds that block neuronal calcium current (dimethadione) or enhance serotonin signaling (fenfluramine) in our zebrafish model suggests that these may be important therapeutic targets in patients with DS. Over 150 compounds resulting in fatality were also identified. We conclude that the combination of behavioral and electrophysiological assays provide a convenient, sensitive, and rapid basis for phenotype-based drug screening in zebrafish mimicking a genetic form of epilepsy. PMID:26465006

  18. Raman micro spectroscopy for in vitro drug screening: subcellular localisation and interactions of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Farhane, Z; Bonnier, F; Casey, A; Byrne, H J

    2015-06-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy, including Raman micro spectroscopy, has been widely used over the last few years to explore potential biomedical applications. Indeed, Raman micro spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a powerful non-invasive tool in cancer diagnosis and monitoring. In confocal microscopic mode, the technique is also a molecularly specific analytical tool with optical resolution which has potential applications in subcellular analysis of biochemical processes, and therefore as an in vitro screening tool of the efficacy and mode of action of, for example, chemotherapeutic agents. In order to demonstrate and explore the potential in this field, established, model chemotherapeutic agents can be valuable. In this study paper, Raman micro spectroscopy coupled with confocal microscopy were used for the localization and tracking of the commercially available drug, doxorubicin (DOX), in the intracellular environment of the lung cancer cell line, A549. Cytotoxicity assays were employed to establish clinically relevant drug doses for 24 h exposure, and Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy was conducted in parallel with Raman micro spectroscopy profiling to confirm the drug internalisation and localisation. Multivariate statistical analysis, consisting of PCA (principal components analysis) was used to highlight doxorubicin interaction with cancer cells and spectral variations due to its effects before and after DOX spectral features subtraction from nuclear and nucleolar spectra, were compared to non-exposed control spectra. Results show that Raman micro spectroscopy is not only able to detect doxorubicin inside cells and profile its specific subcellular localisation, but, it is also capable of elucidating the local biomolecular changes elicited by the drug, differentiating the responses in different sub cellular regions. Further analysis clearly demonstrates the early apoptotic effect in the nuclear regions and the initial responses of cells to this

  19. Toward Discovery of Novel Microtubule Targeting Agents: A SNAP-tag-Based High-Content Screening Assay for the Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics and Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Berges, Nina; Arens, Katharina; Kreusch, Verena; Fischer, Rainer; Di Fiore, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) are used for the treatment of cancer. Novel MTAs could provide additional and beneficial therapeutic options. To improve the sensitivity and throughput of standard immunofluorescence assays for the characterization of MTAs, we used SNAP-tag technology to produce recombinant tubulin monomers. To visualize microtubule filaments, A549 cells transfected with SNAP-tubulin were stained with a membrane-permeable, SNAP-reactive dye. The treatment of SNAP-tubulin cells with stabilizing MTAs such as paclitaxel resulted in the formation of coarsely structured microtubule filaments, whereas depolymerizing MTAs such as nocodazole resulted in diffuse staining patterns in which the tubulin filaments were no longer distinguishable. By combining these components with automated microscopy and image analysis algorithms, we established a robust high-content screening assay for MTAs with a Z' factor of 0.7. Proof of principle was achieved by testing a panel of 10 substances, allowing us to identify MTAs and to distinguish between stabilizing and destabilizing modes of action. By extending the treatment of the cells from 2 to 20 h, our assay also detected abnormalities in cell cycle progression and in the formation of microtubule spindles, providing additional readouts for the discovery of new MTAs and facilitating their early identification during drug-screening campaigns.

  20. Potencies of estrogenic compounds in in vitro screening assays and in life cycle tests with zebrafish in vivo.

    PubMed

    Segner, H; Navas, J M; Schäfers, C; Wenzel, A

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the estrogenic potency of environmental estrogens at two testing tiers: at the initial level of in vitro screening assays, and at the level of definitive fish reproduction tests in vivo. The in vitro tests included a recombinant yeast estrogen receptor (ER) assay, a competitive radioreceptor assay using the hepatic ER of carp (Cyprinus carpio), and assays on vitellogenin induction in cultured hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp. In vivo, full life cycle tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were performed, using fertilization success as estrogen-sensitive reproductive endpoint. The test compounds included the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) (only applied in the in vitro assays); the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2); and two xenoestrogens, 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and bisphenol A (BPA). Among the in vitro assays, differences were observed in the relative ranking of the test substances, and in the absolute sensitivity (EC50 values), although the interassay differences of EC50 values were within one order of magnitude. The in vivo activity of the test compounds was not accurately predicted by the in vitro assays, with respect to neither sensitivity nor ranking. The in vitro assays tended to overestimate the relative potency of the xenoestrogens; i.e. the ratio between the activity of the reference compound, EE2, and that of the test compound. The best prediction of the in vivo fish test results was obtained from the recombinant yeast assay.

  1. Generation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for drug toxicity screening.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Because drug-induced liver injury is one of the main reasons for drug development failures, it is important to perform drug toxicity screening in the early phase of pharmaceutical development. Currently, primary human hepatocytes are most widely used for the prediction of drug-induced liver injury. However, the sources of primary human hepatocytes are limited, making it difficult to supply the abundant quantities required for large-scale drug toxicity screening. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a novel unlimited, efficient, inexpensive, and predictive model which can be applied for large-scale drug toxicity screening. Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are able to replicate indefinitely and differentiate into most of the body's cell types, including hepatocytes. It is expected that hepatocyte-like cells generated from human ES/iPS cells (human ES/iPS-HLCs) will be a useful tool for drug toxicity screening. To apply human ES/iPS-HLCs to various applications including drug toxicity screening, homogenous and functional HLCs must be differentiated from human ES/iPS cells. In this review, we will introduce the current status of hepatocyte differentiation technology from human ES/iPS cells and a novel method to predict drug-induced liver injury using human ES/iPS-HLCs.

  2. Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 as an Assay System for Screening of Pharmacological Chaperones for Phenylketonuria Mutations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Min; Yang, Yun Gyeong; Kim, Hye-Lim; Park, Young Shik

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed an assay system for missense mutations in human phenylalanine hydroxylases (hPAHs). To demonstrate the reliability of the system, eight mutant proteins (F39L, K42I, L48S, I65T, R252Q, L255V, S349L, and R408W) were expressed in a mutant strain (pah(-)) of Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2 disrupted in the indigenous gene encoding PAH. The transformed pah- cells grown in FM minimal medium were measured for growth rate and PAH activity to reveal a positive correlation between them. The protein level of hPAH was also determined by western blotting to show the impact of each mutation on protein stability and catalytic activity. The result was highly compatible with the previous ones obtained from other expression systems, suggesting that Dictyostelium is a dependable alternative to other expression systems. Furthermore, we found that both the protein level and activity of S349L and R408W, which were impaired severely in protein stability, were rescued in HL5 nutrient medium. Although the responsible component(s) remains unidentified, this unexpected finding showed an important advantage of our expression system for studying unstable proteins. As an economic and stable cell-based expression system, our development will contribute to mass-screening of pharmacological chaperones for missense PAH mutations as well as to the in-depth characterization of individual mutations.

  3. Development a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening carotenoids in eggs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Liao, Feng; Pan, Yuanhu; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with broad-specificity against several carotenoid analogs with equal or similar efficacy was prepare