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Sample records for drug skill refusal

  1. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N

    2015-09-01

    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA.

  2. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N

    2015-09-01

    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA. PMID:25288586

  3. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  4. Physician switching after drug request refusal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Begley, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    Physician switching is a barometer of the quality of the relationship between a patient and a physician. Understanding the factors associated with physician switching in the context of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs has been largely unexamined. A total of 818 of 2,988 participants in a national telephone survey (27.4%) who had received DTCA reported asking their physician for a prescription drug, and 196 (24.0%) reported that their physician refused to prescribe the drug. Of those whose physicians refused, 13.9% (n = 27 of 194 with data) switched doctors. We found that individuals with regular medical-seeking behavior, full prescription drug coverage, with certain chronic conditions, and of African American origin were significantly more likely to switch physicians in this context.

  5. Factors related to drug treatment refusal in a forensic hospital.

    PubMed

    Rodenhauser, P; Schwenkner, C E; Khamis, H J

    1987-06-01

    Using the hospital records of 421 patients in a maximum-security forensic hospital, the authors explored the relationship between clinical factors and patients' receptiveness to or refusal of drug treatment. They found drug treatment refusal to be significantly related to a psychotic diagnosis in the absence of a personality disorder; in contrast, psychotic patients with personality disorders tended to be relatively compliant with drug treatment. Treatment refusers had significantly longer lengths of hospitalization that were not reduced by receipt of medication. Significant relationships were also found between treatment refusal and involuntary medication, use of restraints, and greater number of previous hospitalizations; between reasons for refusal and involuntary medication; and between history of substance abuse and previous incarceration.

  6. Drug treatment refusal and length of hospitalization of insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Williams, M H; Bloom, J D; Faulkner, L R; Rogers, J L; Godard, S L

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three insanity acquittees who had refused drug treatment were matched to a sample of nonrefusing hospitalized insanity acquittees in an attempt to measure the effect of treatment refusal on length of hospital stay. No measurable effects on the length of hospitalization were found. However, upon comparing the amount of time under court jurisdiction spent in the hospital and on conditional release in the community, it becomes evident that refusers spent significantly greater proportions of time hospitalized than the average hospitalized insanity acquittee, who had less hospitalization and spent more time on conditional release. These differences do not seem to be related to the issue of treatment refusal.

  7. Acquisition of smoking refusal skills in junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Katz, R C; Robisch, C M; Telch, M J

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a smoking prevention program on the acquisition of refusal skills among junior high school students. Two conditions were compared: one in which the subjects participated in a videotaped training program on resisting pressures to smoke, and the other an untreated control group. As predicted, the results showed significant improvement in the skill training group, while the untreated controls showed no change relative to their pretest performance. These findings suggest that smoking prevention programs which focus on resisting social pressures can enhance the young person's ability to say "no" to smoking. PMID:2728956

  8. Ways to Say No: Refusal Skill Strategies among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations among adolescents' generated verbal strategies (ie, Simple No, Declarative Statements, Excuse, Alternatives) and underlying nonverbal assertiveness in 2 refusal situations: smoking and shoplifting. Methods: Sixth-grade urban minority students (N = 454) participated in videotaped role-play assessments of peer…

  9. 49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... not deemed to have refused to test; (3) Fail to provide a urine specimen for any drug test required by... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug...

  10. Jones v. Gerhardstein: the involuntarily committed mental patient's right to refuse treatment with psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ledwith, D M J

    1990-01-01

    The question of whether an involuntary committed mental patient has a fundamental right to refuse treatment with psychotropic drugs continues to be a subject of much debate. Over the past twenty-five years, psychotropic drugs have become the most common form of treatment for the mentally ill. For many patients, these drugs provide substantial benefits; for others, however, they produce severe, sometimes debilitating, side effects. Because of the possibility of serious harm to the patient and because of the potential for abuse of drug treatment by psychiatric staffs, the mental health bar generally has argued for increased procedural protection for mental patients. In Jones v. Gerhardstein, the Wisconsin Supreme Court responded to these concerns by requiring that a judicial hearing be held on the issue of a patient's competency to refuse treatment before the attending physician may administer medication without the patient's consent. This Note discusses the controversy between the legal and medical communities over treatment refusal by mentally ill patients in light of the impact of the Jones decision on institutional practice and on refusing patients. The author argues that the strictly rights-based analysis used by the Jones court has done little to benefit involuntarily committed mental patients. The author suggests alternative ways of approaching treatment refusal that might be more responsive to the distinctive needs of the mentally ill.

  11. 49 CFR 40.191 - What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and... § 40.191 What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences? (a) As an employee... the refusal, check “Other” in Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF, and note the reason next to the “Other”...

  12. Administrative Destruction of Certain Drugs Refused Admission to the United States. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-09-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is implementing its authority to destroy a drug valued at $2,500 or less (or such higher amount as the Secretary of the Treasury may set by regulation) that has been refused admission into the United States under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), by issuing a rule that provides to the owner or consignee notice and an opportunity to appear and introduce testimony to the Agency prior to destruction. This regulation is authorized by amendments made to the FD&C Act by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). Implementation of this authority will allow FDA to better protect the public health by providing an administrative process for the destruction of certain refused drugs, thus increasing the integrity of the drug supply chain. PMID:26387150

  13. Effects of health facilitator performance and attendance at training sessions on the acquisition of tobacco refusal skills among multi-ethnic, high-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elder, J P; Woodruff, S I; Sallis, J F; de Moor, C; Edwards, C; Wildey, M B

    1994-06-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a psycho-social tobacco use prevention intervention with a refusal skills training component on the refusal skills of high-risk adolescents, and investigated skill acquisition as related to subject demographics, performance of health facilitators and attendance at skills training sessions. Tobacco refusal skills were assessed for a group (n = 389) of high-risk, seventh-grade students participating as intervention and control subjects in Project SHOUT, a large tobacco use prevention program in the San Diego area. In addition, subject demographics, ratings of health facilitator performance and information about subjects' attendance at skills training sessions were collected. Subjects' responses to audiotaped peer offers of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco were coded for content and quality. Greater tobacco refusal skills among intervention subjects was hypothesized. Further health facilitator performance, attendance at training sessions and subject demographics were thought to be related to skill acquisition. High-risk intervention subjects gave significantly higher quality tobacco-refusal responses than did controls, although the differences between means were small. Results suggested that Hispanic adolescents were particularly receptive to the refusal skills training. The association between health facilitator performance and skill acquisition varied by subject ethnicity, as did the relationship between attendance at training sessions and skill acquisition. PMID:10150446

  14. 77 FR 48159 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... draft guidance entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for 510(k)s.'' The purpose of this document is to... (510(k)) submission is administratively complete, which determines whether it should be accepted...

  15. Do pharmacists have a right to refuse to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs?

    PubMed

    Weinstein, B D

    1992-01-01

    Some pharmacists opposed to abortion on moral ground are concerned by having to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs like mifepristone (RU-486). The issue of the right of pharmacists to refuse to fill such prescriptions depends on the model of the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship. The libertarian model of pharmacy practice holds that physicians, pharmacists, and patients are bound only by the contract that they freely negotiate with one another, thus the pharmacist has no moral obligation to fill a prescription for mifepristone unless he or she has expressly contracted to do so. The American Pharmaceutical Association's 1981 Code of Ethics does not specify what a pharmacist ought to do in particular circumstances. The right to refuse is strongly supported by the principles of nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. These are principles of the libertarian model of the pharmacist-patient relationship but are also present in the guild or societal models stressing the duty to avoid harming others. Justification for pharmacists right of refusal appeals to their autonomy rights as members of the moral community rather than the profession of pharmacy. Since the professional right to autonomy is not absolute, moral consideration circumscribe it: it is difficult to argue that a pharmacist who believes that homosexuality is immoral has the right to refuse to fill a prescription for AZT. Even if a person who presents such a prescription is homosexual there is no causal relationship between filling a prescription for AZT and participating in a homosexual act. At the opposite end the libertarians reject the notion of even a basic right to health care. A woman in the above situation would not have a right to the abortifacient drug, so a pharmacist has no duty to dispense it. According to the technician model of professionalism, the pharmacist's personal values do not matter, so a pharmacist has a duty to provide the service. PMID:1434764

  16. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  17. Gender Differences in Drug Resistance Skills of Youth in Guanajuato, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Calderón-Tena, Carlos O.; Nuño-Gutiérrez, Bertha L.

    2011-01-01

    Research is limited or absent on Mexican adolescents’ exposure to substance offers, ways of dealing with these offers, and possible gender differences in responses to offers. Extending U.S.-based research, this study examines how youth living in the Mexican state of Guanajuato employ the four drug resistance strategies—refuse, explain, avoid, and leave—that are part of the Keepin’ It REAL evidence-based drug prevention intervention. The analysis uses cross-sectional survey data from 702 students enrolled in eight alternative secondary education sites in 2007. Participants reported the drug resistance behaviors they used to deal with offers of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Using multivariate regression, findings indicate most youth had developed repertoires of drug resistance strategies that involved multiple REAL strategies and some other strategy as well. For those receiving offers, the most common strategy was to refuse the offer with a simple ‘‘no.’’ However, males used all the strategies significantly more often than females for situations involving cigarettes and marijuana as well as when using refuse and non-REAL strategies for alcohol. Possible reasons for the gender difference in use of strategies are discussed. The findings can help inform effective prevention programs based on teaching culturally appropriate drug resistance and communication skills. PMID:21424398

  18. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.46 Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified...

  19. 78 FR 100 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... checklists for use by FDA review staff. In the Federal Register of August 13, 2012 (77 FR 48159), FDA...; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for 510(k)s.'' The purpose of this document is to explain the...

  20. “I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs”: Explanations for Refusal as a Drug Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    PubMed Central

    OKAMOTO, SCOTT K.; HELM, SUSANA; GIROUX, DANIELLE; KALIADES, ALEXIS

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of explanations for refusal as a drug resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai‘i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug resistance strategies in response to 15 hypothetical culturally specific drug-related problem scenarios developed from earlier research. The findings indicate that variations in the types of explanations used for refusal were based on the type of drug offerer in the associated scenario (i.e., peer/friend, cousin, or parent). Participants also described the rationales for the use of different explanations with different drug offerers. The findings suggest that culturally grounded drug prevention programs for Hawaiian youth should incorporate the use of specific types of explanations for refusal, depending on the youths’ relationship to the drug offerer. PMID:21625339

  1. The influence of the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among injection drug users: Balancing competing risks

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean L.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens through receptive syringe sharing (RSS) and receptive paraphernalia sharing (RPS). Research into the influence of the perceived risk of HIV infection on injection risk behavior has yielded mixed findings. One explanation may be that consequences other than HIV infection are considered when IDUs are faced with decisions about whether or not to share equipment. We investigated the perceived consequences of refusing to share injection equipment among 187 IDUs recruited from a large syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, assessed their influence on RSS and RPS, and evaluated gender differences. Two sub-scales of perceived consequences were identified: structural/external consequences and social/internal consequences. In multiple linear regression, the perceived social/internal consequences of refusing to share were associated with both RSS and RPS, after controlling for other psychosocial constructs and demographic variables. Few statistically significant gender differences emerged. Assessing the consequences of refusing to share injection equipment may help explain persistent injection risk behavior, and may provide promising targets for comprehensive intervention efforts designed to address both individual and structural risk factors. PMID:21498004

  2. 21 CFR 316.25 - Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following reasons apply: (1) The drug is not intended for a rare disease or condition because: (i) There is insufficient evidence to support the estimate that the drug is intended for treatment of a disease or condition... expecting the drug to be effective in the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of that disease or...

  3. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains the same inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same concentration as the listed drug, and, if it differs from the listed drug in a preservative, buffer, or... preservatives, buffers, substances to adjust tonicity, or thickening agents, in the same concentration as...

  4. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains the same inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same concentration as the listed drug, and, if it differs from the listed drug in a preservative, buffer, or... preservatives, buffers, substances to adjust tonicity, or thickening agents, in the same concentration as...

  5. Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

  6. EXPANDING URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN YOUTHS’ REPERTOIRE OF DRUG RESISTANCE SKILLS: PILOT RESULTS FROM A CULTURALLY ADAPTED PREVENTION PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Dustman, Patricia A.; Brown, Eddie F.; Martinez, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the drug resistance strategies used by urban American Indian (UAI) middle school students during a pilot test of a substance use prevention curriculum designed specifically for UAI youth, Living in 2 Worlds (L2W). L2W teaches four drug resistance strategies (refuse, explain, avoid, leave [R-E-A-L]) in culturally appropriate ways. Data come from 57 UAI students (53% female; mean age = 12.5 years) who participated in L2W during an academic enrichment class for Native youth at two Phoenix schools. Students completed a pre-test questionnaire before the L2W lessons and a post-test 7 months later. Questions assessed the use of R-E-A-L and alternative strategies commonly reported by UAI youth (change the subject, use humor). Tests of mean differences from pre-test to post-test showed significant increases in use of refuse, R-E-A-L repertoire. Use of more passive strategies (avoid, use humor) did not change significantly, except for change the subject, which increased. Changes in the use of strategies did not differ significantly by gender, age, school grades, parental education, or length of urban residence. The L2W curriculum appears effective in teaching culturally relevant communication strategies that expand UAI youths’ repertoire of drug resistance skills. PMID:23529769

  7. 78 FR 60292 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Application Submissions-Refuse-to-Receive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug... to assist applicants preparing to submit to FDA abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) and related... ANDAs and PASs to ANDAs for which the applicant is seeking approval of a new strength of the...

  8. Can effective teaching and learning strategies help student nurses to retain drug calculation skills?

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2008-10-01

    Student nurses need to develop and retain drug calculation skills in order accurately to calculate drug dosages in clinical practice. If student nurses are to qualify and be fit to practise accurate drug calculation skills, then educational strategies need to not only show that the skills of student nurses have improved but that these skills have been retained over a period of time. A quasi-experimental approach was used to test the effectiveness of a range of strategies in improving retention of drug calculation skills. The results from an IV additive drug calculation test were used to compare the drug calculation skills of student nurses between two groups of students who had received different approaches to teaching drug calculation skills. The sample group received specific teaching and learning strategies in relation to drug calculation skills and the second group received only lectures on drug calculation skills. All test results for students were anonymous. The results from the test for both groups were statistically analysed using the Mann Whitney test to ascertain whether the range of strategies improved the results for the IV additive test. The results were further analysed and compared to ascertain the types and numbers of errors made in each of the sample groups. The results showed that there is a highly significant difference between the two samples using a two-tailed test (U=39.5, p<0.001). The strategies implemented therefore did make a difference to the retention of drug calculation skills in the students in the intervention group. Further research is required into the retention of drug calculation skills by students and nurses, but there does appears to be evidence to suggest that sound teaching and learning strategies do result in better retention of drug calculation skills.

  9. Refuse-derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, H. H.

    1980-09-01

    The rationale for energy recovery from municipal refuse is discussed, and planning for future installations for this purpose is cited. The composition and energy content of bulk waste, shredded refuse, and pelletized material are compared. Potential problems encountered with refuse combustion in the areas of slagging, corrosion, and stack emissions are outlined.

  10. Refuse-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, H.H.

    1980-10-01

    The rationale for energy recovery from municipal refuse is discussed, and planning for future installations for this purpose is cited. The composition and energy content of bulk waste, shredded refuse, and pelletized material are compared. Potential problems encountered with refuse combustion in the areas of slagging, corrosion, and stack emissions are outlined.

  11. Expanding Urban American Indian Youths' Repertoire of Drug Resistance Skills: Pilot Results from a Culturally Adapted Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Dustman, Patricia A.; Brown, Eddie F.; Martinez, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the drug resistance strategies used by urban American Indian (UAI) middle school students during a pilot test of a substance use prevention curriculum designed specifically for UAI youth, "Living in 2 Worlds" (L2W). L2W teaches four drug resistance strategies (refuse, explain, avoid, leave [R-E-A-L]) in culturally…

  12. Student nurses need more than maths to improve their drug calculating skills.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2007-05-01

    Nurses need to be able to calculate accurate drug calculations in order to safely administer drugs to their patients (NMC, 2002). Studies have shown however that nurses do not always have the necessary skills to calculate accurate drug dosages and are potentially administering incorrect dosages of drugs to their patients (Hutton, M. 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application. Nursing Standard 13(11), 35-38; Kapborg, I. 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, Student Nurses and Physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4), 389-395; O'Shea, E. 1999. Factors contributing to medication errors: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 8, 496-504; Wilson, A. 2003. Nurses maths: researching a practical approach. Nursing Standard 17(47), 33-36). The literature indicates that in order to improve drug calculations strategies need to focus on both the mathematical skills and conceptual skills of student nurses so they can interpret clinical data into drug calculations to be solved. A study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of implementing several strategies which focussed on developing the mathematical and conceptual skills of student nurses to improve their drug calculation skills. The study found that implementing a range of strategies which addressed these two developmental areas significantly improved the drug calculation skills of nurses. The study also indicates that a range of strategies has the potential ensuring that the skills taught are retained by the student nurses. Although the strategies significantly improved the drug calculation skills of student nurses, the fact that only 2 students were able to achieve 100% in their drug calculation test indicates a need for further research into this area.

  13. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Communication Skills--English IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Four integrated learning activities for communication skills/ English IV and healthful living are presented. Communication skills/literature goals include experiencing young adult literature, using effective techniques…

  14. School Refusal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lingenfelter, Nannette; Hartung, Sheila

    2015-09-01

    School refusal behaviors go beyond a child's dislike or disinterest in school. This article investigates the underlying anxiety, depression, and social phobias that often accompany these behaviors and the importance of early recognition and treatment. Successful treatment and resolution of school refusal behaviors need to be a multidisciplinary approach. Teachers, administrators, guidance counselors, school nurses, and parents need to be involved in the diagnostic, treatment, and readmission processes. School nurses are in a unique position to be able to help identify and provide support for students exhibiting school refusal behaviors. PMID:25816422

  15. Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs: A Self-Management Skills Program for Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Peter Hughes

    The Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs Program (ROAD) was developed to teach newly abstinent chemical misusing clients how to remain alcohol and drug free. It provides its participants with a repertoire of knowledge, skills and behaviors that they can use in dealing with the most common problems caused by discontinuing chemical use and which can be…

  16. Refuse recycling and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sanitary landfill of domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes is the predominant method of waste disposal in the United Kingdom. Although there was various waste disposal processes at various stages of design and test, landfill and incineration are still the only reliable methods of waste processing. Methods of recovery and use of refuse are examined in this book together with various separation processes, waste derived fuels, refuse composting, and glass and metal recovery. (Refs. 39).

  17. 21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal to approve an application. 314.125 Section 314.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on...

  18. 21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve an application. 314.125 Section 314.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on...

  19. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  20. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  1. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  2. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  3. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  4. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  5. Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

    This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

  6. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. 515.21 Section 515.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  11. Mathematical calculation skills required for drug administration in undergraduate nursing students to ensure patient safety: A descriptive study: Drug calculation skills in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Galaverna, Lucia; Aleo, Giuseppe; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Rosa, Francesca; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    In the literature we found many studies that confirmed our concerns about nursing students' poor maths skills that directly impact on their ability to correctly calculate drug dosages with very serious consequences for patient safety. The aim of our study was to explore where students had most difficulty and identify appropriate educational interventions to bridge their mathematical knowledge gaps. This was a quali-quantitative descriptive study that included a sample of 726 undergraduate nursing students. We identified exactly where students had most difficulty and identified appropriate educational interventions to bridge their mathematical knowledge gaps. We found that the undergraduate nursing students mainly had difficulty with basic maths principles. Specific learning interventions are needed to improve their basic maths skills and their dosage calculation skills. For this purpose, we identified safeMedicate and eDose (Authentic World Ltd.), only that they are only available in English. In the near future we hope to set up a partnership to work together on the Italian version of these tools. PMID:26347449

  12. Mathematical calculation skills required for drug administration in undergraduate nursing students to ensure patient safety: A descriptive study: Drug calculation skills in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Galaverna, Lucia; Aleo, Giuseppe; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Rosa, Francesca; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    In the literature we found many studies that confirmed our concerns about nursing students' poor maths skills that directly impact on their ability to correctly calculate drug dosages with very serious consequences for patient safety. The aim of our study was to explore where students had most difficulty and identify appropriate educational interventions to bridge their mathematical knowledge gaps. This was a quali-quantitative descriptive study that included a sample of 726 undergraduate nursing students. We identified exactly where students had most difficulty and identified appropriate educational interventions to bridge their mathematical knowledge gaps. We found that the undergraduate nursing students mainly had difficulty with basic maths principles. Specific learning interventions are needed to improve their basic maths skills and their dosage calculation skills. For this purpose, we identified safeMedicate and eDose (Authentic World Ltd.), only that they are only available in English. In the near future we hope to set up a partnership to work together on the Italian version of these tools.

  13. Refusal to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives.

  14. 21 CFR 80.34 - Authority to refuse certification service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority to refuse certification service. 80.34 Section 80.34 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... kept by § 80.39; or (3) Failed to keep such records, or to make them available, or to accord...

  15. 21 CFR 80.34 - Authority to refuse certification service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority to refuse certification service. 80.34 Section 80.34 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... kept by § 80.39; or (3) Failed to keep such records, or to make them available, or to accord...

  16. Integrating Life Skills Into a Theory-Based Drug-Use Prevention Program: Effectiveness among Junior High Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chien, Li-Yin; Cheng, Chin-Feng; Guo, Jong-Long

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drug use has been noted among students in Taiwan during the past decade and schools have a role in preventing or delaying students' drug use. We developed and evaluated a school-based, drug-use prevention program integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and life skills for junior high school students. Methods: We recruited…

  17. Oregon Driver Education. Alcohol/Drugs and Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Curriculum and School Improvement.

    This curriculum unit contains 10 modules, to be used in 10 driver education class sessions, on driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs (DUI). The unit aims to combat the Oregon DUI problem, especially among 15- to 24-year-olds, with values clarification, awareness of risk factors and personal boundaries, refusal skills, social…

  18. Update on the right to refuse antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karl G

    1991-01-01

    The legal history and current developments in the right to refuse antipsychotic medication are reviewed. In Washington v. Harper the US Supreme Court analyzed the right to refuse antipsychotic medication under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution. A narrow issue was clarified but substantial uncertainty remains. As a result, law and policy problems at both state and institutional levels have become evident and may need to be addressed by drug policy decision makers. PMID:11659419

  19. Establishing and maintaining job skills and professional behaviors in chronically unemployed drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Silverman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic workplace intervention is an employment-based drug user intervention that integrates abstinence reinforcement contingencies into an employment setting, intended for individuals manifesting chronic unemployment and drug addiction. Research on the therapeutic workplace intervention has provided a unique and rare opportunity to collect data and conduct fine-grained analyses of the training and work performance of participants. Results from a series of studies document that chronically unemployed drug users display behaviors that likely limit their success in conventional businesses. This article reviews a systematic line of research showing that targeted and intensive contingency management interventions and training programs have been effective in promoting consistent attendance and high rates of productivity and establishing job skills for employment.

  20. 21 CFR 516.147 - Refuse to file a request for addition to the index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refuse to file a request for addition to the index... SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.147 Refuse to file a request for addition to the index. (a) If a request for addition to the index contains all of...

  1. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  2. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  3. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  4. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  5. eDrugCalc: an online self-assessment package to enhance medical students' drug dose calculation skills

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Daniel S; Begg, Michael J; Maxwell, Simon R J

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Dose calculation errors can cause serious life-threatening clinical incidents. We designed eDrugCalc as an online self-assessment tool to develop and evaluate calculation skills among medical students. METHODS We undertook a prospective uncontrolled study involving 1727 medical students in years 1–5 at the University of Edinburgh. Students had continuous access to eDrugCalc and were encouraged to practise. Voluntary self-assessment was undertaken by answering the 20 questions on six occasions over 30 months. Questions remained fixed but numerical variables changed so each visit required a fresh calculation. Feedback was provided following each answer. RESULTS Final-year students had a significantly higher mean score in test 6 compared with test 1 [16.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.2, 17.0 vs. 12.6, 95% CI 11.9, 13.4; n = 173, P < 0.0001 Wilcoxon matched pairs test] and made a median of three vs. seven errors. Performance was highly variable in all tests with 2.7% of final-year students scoring < 10/20 in test 6. Graduating students in 2009 (30 months' exposure) achieved significantly better scores than those in 2007 (only 6 months): mean 16.5, 95% CI 16.0, 17.0, n = 184 vs. 15.1, 95% CI 14.5, 15.6, n = 187; P < 0.0001, Mann–Whitney test. Calculations based on percentage concentrations and infusion rates were poorly performed. Feedback showed that eDrugCalc increased confidence in calculating doses and was highly rated as a learning tool. CONCLUSIONS Medical student performance of dose calculations improved significantly after repeated exposure to an online formative dose-calculation package and encouragement to develop their numeracy. Further research is required to establish whether eDrugCalc reduces calculation errors made in clinical practice. PMID:20840441

  6. Why parents refuse immunization?

    PubMed

    Kajetanowicz, Andrzej; Kajetanowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Rates of child immunization are falling in many countries, leading to the increase of morbidity and mortality from diseases controlled by vaccinations. The simplified model of the natural history of immunization follows a sequence of fear of the disease before vaccination, followed by acceptance of the vaccination until plateau, where the population forgets the morbidity and mortality of pre-immunization. Historical factors including withdrawals of vaccines, and publications regarding the true or falsified dangers of vaccines still resonate with parents. Building on these historical factors, unscientific sources such as naturopaths, homeopaths, chiropractors, celebrities and lay-people with anecdotal evidence and even scientific sources such as some universities and some medical doctors push their views on anti-vaccination, which proves to make the decision to vaccinate more difficult on parents. The main reason that parents refuse vaccination is a desire to protect their children. These parents believe that vaccination is harmful, or that not vaccinated children are healthier than vaccinated children. Scientific data often will lose with pseudoscientific, false or anecdotal data that have higher sensational and emotional impact on parents. With so many sources giving so many factors which sometimes contradict themselves, it is indeed difficult for a parent to make a clear decision for their child. PMID:27486715

  7. 21 CFR 514.110 - Reasons for refusing to file applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasons for refusing to file applications. 514.110 Section 514.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS Administrative Actions on Applications § 514.110 Reasons...

  8. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

    2009-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilization was identified using both electronic medical record and insurance claims. Within the immunization registries of two HMOs in the study, some providers use refusal and medical contraindication interchangeably, and some providers tend to always use "ever refusal." Therefore, we combined medical contraindication and refusal together and treated them all as "refusal" in this study. Results The immunization registry, compared to chart review, had negative predictive values of 85–92% and 90–97% for 2- and 6-year olds, and positive predictive values of only 52–74% and 59–62% to identify vaccine refusals. Refusers were more likely to reside in well-educated, higher income areas than non-refusers. Refusers had not opted out of health care system and continued, although less frequently for the age 2 and under group, to use services. Conclusion Without enhancements to immunization registries, identifying children with immunization refusal would be time consuming. Since communities where refusers live are well educated, interventions should target these communities to communicate vaccine adverse events and consequences of vaccine preventable diseases. PMID:19261196

  9. Medication refusal: suggestions for intervention.

    PubMed

    Prehn, R A

    1990-01-01

    The civil rights and deinstitutionalization movements of the 1960s gave rise to legal and ethical challenges to the physician's authority to prescribe psychoactive medication to patients who refuse such medication. While no definitive legal ruling has been rendered in this area--and may never be rendered--a review of the important cases to date identifies consistent themes of patient competency, the possibility of physical threat, risks versus benefits, due process, and patient advocacy, all of which form the framework for intervening with patients who choose to refuse medication while preserving their right to do so.

  10. Drug utilization and prescribing patterns in a skilled nursing facility: the need for a rational approach to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Segal, J L; Thompson, J F; Floyd, R A

    1979-03-01

    A study was made of 50 patients drawn at random from a Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) attended by seven physicians. For 59 percent of these patients, polypharmacy was practiced but no substantiating diagnoses were recorded. Approximately half of the drugs were administered pro re nata. More drugs were prescribed in potentially toxic dosages than in subtherapeutic dosages. The risk of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) was most often associated with anticholinergic agents, sedative-hypnotic drugs, and neuroleptics (thioridazine and chlorpromazine), particularly when prescribed concurrently. Risk of an ADR was highest when a drug was prescribed without recording a definite diagnostic indication. Lack of consistency by individual physicians in their approaches to the therapy of similar disease entities in comparable patients tended to support the concept of peer review in SNFs and also the need for teaching a rational approach to therapeutics in SNFs based on clinical pharmacology as applied to the elderly. PMID:429730

  11. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  12. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  13. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  14. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  15. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14... RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other refuse facilities...

  17. Implementing the LifeSkills Training drug prevention program: factors related to implementation fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Mihalic, Sharon F; Fagan, Abigail A; Argamaso, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Results Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers), ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence). Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage). Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery) were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness). Conclusion Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that organizations should

  18. 21 CFR 21.52 - Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records. 21.52 Section 21.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records §...

  19. 21 CFR 21.52 - Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records. 21.52 Section 21.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records §...

  20. 21 CFR 21.52 - Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records. 21.52 Section 21.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records §...

  1. 21 CFR 21.52 - Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records. 21.52 Section 21.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records §...

  2. 21 CFR 21.52 - Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative appeals of refusals to amend records. 21.52 Section 21.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records §...

  3. The Space Station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The University of Central Florida's design of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station is addressed. Four integratable subsystems capable of handling an estimated Orbiter shortfall of nearly 40,000 lbs of refuse produced annually are discussed. The subsystems investigated were: (1) collection and transfer; (2) recycle and reuse; (3) advanced disposal; and (4) propulsion assist in disposal. Emphasis is placed on the recycling or reuse of those materials ultimately providing a source of Space Station refuse. Special consideration is given to various disposal methods capable of completely removing refuse from close proximity of the Space Station. There is evidence that pyrolysis is the optimal solution for disposal of refuse through employment of a Rocket Jettison Vehicle. Additionally, design considerations and specifications of the Refuse Management System are discussed. Optimal and alternate design solutions for each of the four subsystems are summarized. Finally, the system configuration is described and reviewed.

  4. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  5. [Refuse disposal at the hospital].

    PubMed

    Knoll, K H

    1990-02-01

    For the classification of hospital-wastes in the categories infectious-contaminate or special waste are only significant views of the prevention by nosocomial infection in the hospital. Solely infectious waste become removed hospital-intern and -extern on conditions of hygienic prevention, namely through secure packing during the transport, combustion or desinfection. Special wastes to be defeated by special-conditions. The hygienist of the hospital is only competent for the classification of the wastes in the hospital as well as for their refuse.

  6. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of refuse in other than refuse receptacles. (2) Using government refuse receptacles or other...

  8. Vertical combustor for particulate refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, P. M.; Carlson, L.

    1981-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is constructed of a vertical combustor for refuse particle combustion in order to analyze it for waste energy recovery. The three components of the model, fuel particles, inert solid particles and the gaseous mixture are described by momentum, energy, and mass conservation equations, resulting in three different flow velocities and temperatures for the medium. The gaseous component is further divided into six chemical species that evolve in combustion at temperatures below about 1367 K. A detailed description is given of the fuel particle combustion through heating, devolatilization, and combustion of the volatile gas in the boundary layer, return of the flame sheet to the fuel surface, and char combustion. The solutions show the combustor to be viable for U.S. refuse which consists of combustibles that can be volatilized up to 85 to 95% below 1366 K. Char combustion, however, is found to be too slow to be attempted in the combustor, where the fuel residence time is of the order of 2 s.

  9. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  10. Pragmatic Transfer in Thai EFL Refusals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2008-01-01

    Communication breakdowns can occur during cross-cultural communication due to different perceptions and interpretations of appropriateness and politeness. This study investigates similarities and differences between refusals in American English and Thai and incidences of pragmatic transfer by Thai EFL learners when making refusals. The…

  11. Individual and Organizational Correlates of Promotion Refusal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, Michael A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined employees' reasons for refusing seniority-based promotions. Age, female sex, and number of employees in the department related positively to promotion refusal, while years of education and pay showed a negative relationship. Suggests potential explanations relate to stress avoidance, perceived inabilities, and equity theory. (Author)

  12. The Functional Assessment of School Refusal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Lemos, Amie; Silverman, Jenna

    2004-01-01

    School refusal behavior refers to child-motivated refusal to attend school and/or difficulty attending classes for an entire day (Kearney & Silverman, 1996). As such, the term represents an umbrella construct for many historical ones that have been used to describe youths with problematic absenteeism, including truancy, psychoneurotic truancy,…

  13. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  14. School-Based Drug Prevention Program: Quantitative Assessment of Life Skills Training Elementary School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindle, Silverlene J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s long-term studies have documented nation-wide patterns of adolescent smoking, drinking and illicit drug use. The federal government responded by passing the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which funded school-based prevention programs. The problem for school counselors in a Georgia Public School District was…

  15. Life Skills Interventions to Improve Social Confidence, Self-Management, and Protection against Drug Use in Rural Elementary School Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tymes, Deborah D; Outlaw, Kerri L; Hamilton, Bernita K

    2016-01-01

    This pilot project evaluated the effectiveness of a life skills training program for elementary-school-aged children for development of social confidence, self-management, and general social and drug resistance skills. The setting was a rural community after-school program. Children participated in 30-min weekly sessions for 8 weeks. Pre- and posttest scores were analyzed to determine effectiveness of the program. Results showed improvements in antismoking and antidrinking attitudes and use of self-management and general social skills, and social confidence in conflict situations. The life skills training intervention serves as a potential supplement to community programs for the prevention of behaviors such as bullying, smoking and drug use among elementary school aged children. PMID:26813051

  16. Leachate recirculation between alternating aged refuse bioreactors and its effect on refuse decomposition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojie; Sun, Yingjie; Zhao, Youcai; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-01-01

    In a sequencing batch bioreactor landfill system which combined a fresh and an aged refuse bioreactor, blockage occurred frequently in the aged refuse bioreactor during the treatment of leachate from the fresh refuse bioreactor. To overcome this problem, another aged refuse bioreactor was added, when blockage occurred, the two aged refuse bioreactor operated alternatively. A fresh refuse bioreactor F combined with two alternating aged refuse bioreactors A1 and A2 was called alternate recirculation process (ARP) in this study. The bioreactor system was operated in three stages, and the three bioreactors were exposed to air to facilitate surface re-aeration. The effect of the ARP on the accelerated degradation of fresh refuse was compared before and after blockage occurs in A1. The results indicated that ARP can improve the leachate production rate. The average daily net production rates of leachate in Stages 2 and 3 were approximately 2.1 and 1.6 mL (kgrefuse d)(-1), respectively, which exceeded that of Stage 1 (1.3 mL (kg refuse d)(-1)). The chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N concentrations of the leachate from Stage 1 are 1000 and 25mgL(-1) after 2.1 and 2.7 y, respectively. For Stages 2 and 3, these concentrations reach approximately after 0.877 and 1.3 y. Faster refuse settlement was observed in Stages 2 and 3, with an average daily settlement of approximately 0.11%, as compared with Stage 1 (approximately 0.099%). ARP can accelerate the biodegradation of the fresh refuse and overcome the problem of the blockage in the aged refuse reactor.

  17. The right to refuse treatment: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Michels, R

    1981-04-01

    To understand the emerging concept of the right to refuse treatment in mental institutions, several underlying ethical issues must be examined. For example, the right is limited by such factors as the competence of the patient, the distinction between apparent and real refusal of treatment, and the desirability of some balance between the state's police power and parens patriae power. The most difficult ethical problems arise when a mentally ill individual is competent and not dangerous, needs treatment, and yet refuses it. In addition, most problems concerning the right to refuse treatment occur in large, understaffed, and underfunded public institutions whose nature affects the alternative treatments available, the quality of life without treatment, and the subtle coercive elements associated with any total institution. The author discusses these and other ethical issues pertaining to justifications for the right, limits to the right, treatment setting, and the treatments themselves.

  18. Food Refusal in Children: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Keith E.; Field, Douglas G.; Seiverling, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Food refusal is a severe feeding problem in which children refuse to eat all or most foods presented and exhibit problems with growth. This review discusses the definition, etiology, and interventions pertaining to food refusal. The interventions utilized for food refusal typically consist of several treatment components. These treatment…

  19. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., or other expenses incidental to the safeguarding or disposal of material refused entry by the... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26... Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused entry. Any material refused entry for noncompliance with...

  20. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  1. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  2. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  3. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., or other expenses incidental to the safeguarding or disposal of material refused entry by the... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26... Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused entry. Any material refused entry for noncompliance with...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., or other expenses incidental to the safeguarding or disposal of material refused entry by the... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26... Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused entry. Any material refused entry for noncompliance with...

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., or other expenses incidental to the safeguarding or disposal of material refused entry by the... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26... Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused entry. Any material refused entry for noncompliance with...

  7. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... made for collection of refuse at least twice a week, or more often if necessary. The disposal of refuse... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum...

  8. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deception as a basis for refusing to issue... PETITIONS Administrative Action on Petitions § 71.22 Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations... proposed use would promote deception of the consumer or would result in misbranding or adulteration...

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Learning Methods on the Improvement of Drug-Dose Calculation Skills of Nursing Students Undergoing Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basak, Tulay; Yildiz, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cooperative learning and traditional learning methods on the development of drug-calculation skills. Design: Final-year nursing students ("n" = 85) undergoing internships during the 2010-2011 academic year at a nursing school constituted the study group of this…

  10. Comparing the Effects of Drug Therapy, Perceptual Motor Training, and Both Combined on the Motor Skills of School-Aged Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children.

    PubMed

    Taft Yazd, Susan Nasiri; Ayatizadeh, Farahnaz; Dehghan, Faezeh; Machado, Sergio; Wegner, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of drug therapy, perceptual motor training and a combination of drug therapy and perceptual motor training on gross and fine motor skills of 6 to 12 year-old Iranian attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children. Thirty-six attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children currently under treatment in three Iranian psychological-neurological clinics participated in this research study. Participants were sampled from the accessible population and randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 12 each). The Conners Parent Rating Scale was used to classify the children and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was administered before and after a three month treatment/ training session. Participants in the first experimental group received drug therapy (including methylphenidate). In the second group participants took part in 18 sessions of perceptual-motor skill training for six consecutive weeks, and in the third group children received both interventions. The results indicated that interventions using perceptual-motor training alone or in combination with a drug therapy significantly improved both gross and fine motor skills over a period of six weeks. Participants in the drug-only group showed no improvement in motor performance.

  11. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  12. Beyond abortion: refusal of caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mary

    1989-04-01

    Social pressures and legal restrictions are proliferating against pregnant women. A dramatic infringement on women's rights is the court ordered cesarean section, as illustrated by the case of Angela C., a terminally ill cancer patient, 26 weeks pregnant, whose refusal of a cesarean section was overridden by a District of Columbia court. The premature infant and the mother died within two days. This case epitomizes a developing judicial pattern whose ethical reasoning the author criticizes. Within the context of the right to privacy and the concept of viability, which could legally override that right, Mahowald analyzes different situations where cesarean delivery is refused. After arguing that court ordered cesarean sections are inconsistent with court refusals to force persons to undergo less invasive procedures (e.g., bone marrow donation for the benefit of family members), she proposes alternatives to the present inconsistent practice.

  13. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  14. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Miscellaneous Deductions and Reductions § 229.81... disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services available... in which the child refuses, without good reason, to accept such vocational rehabilitation...

  15. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  16. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  17. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  18. Impact of Training High School Female Students in Ahvaz, Iran in the Social Skills Required to Avoid the Use of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Alavijeh, Freshteh Zamani; Raisi, Zahra; Asadollahi, Abdolrahim; Irani, Reza Davasaz; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gender composition and the soaring trends of drug and tobacco dependency reveal the priority of social skills training related to drug avoidance self-efficacy among female students. The aim of this study was to verify the impact training high school female students to have the social skills needed to avoid the use of drugs. Methods This study was conducted from September 2012 to May 2013 in two high schools in Ahvaz City in southwest Iran. The participants were divided randomly into two groups of 60 students, one experimental group and one control group using the multi-stage simple sampling method. Two questionnaires, i.e. the ASES and TISS questionnaires, were completed before and after the intervention. Descriptive statistics, chi squared, paired-samples t-test, and the independent-samples t-test were used. Results The participants had a mean age of 14.93 years. Among the 120 participants, 90.8% indicated that they had never smoked a cigarette, and 51.7% of the participants denied having smoked a hookah. There was no significant relationship between the self-sufficiency means of drug avoidance in the two groups of girls before intervention (p ≥ 0.05). However, after intervention, a significant difference was found in test score of self-efficacy of drug avoidance between the two groups, i.e., 94.91 ± 8.3 for the control group versus 99.16 ± 3.8 for the experimental group, p < 0.05). Significant increases were observed for the pre- and post-test scores of self-efficacy of drug avoidance in the experimental group compared to the control group (99.16 ± 3.8 (p = 0.001) vs. 96.58 ± 6.98 (p > 0.05). The mean values of the pre- and post-test scores of social skill before and after intervention increased significantly only for the experimental group (97.60 ± 19.19 vs. 100.58 ± 12.37, p = 0.03). Conclusion Educational intervention can significantly enhance social skills for drug avoidance self-efficacy, so it is recommended that such skills be taught

  19. 22 CFR 41.121 - Refusal of individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of individual visas. 41.121 Section 41.121 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Refusals and Revocations § 41.121 Refusal of individual visas....

  20. 20 CFR 702.274 - Employer's refusal to pay penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's refusal to pay penalty. 702.274 Section 702.274 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Procedures Discrimination § 702.274 Employer's refusal to pay penalty. In the event the employer refuses...

  1. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  2. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  3. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  4. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  5. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  6. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  7. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  8. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  9. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  10. 48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal... Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause specified in... workers who are adversely affected by the contract award and who are qualified for the jobs the...

  11. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  12. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  13. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  14. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  15. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77.215-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be...

  16. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by...

  17. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person...

  18. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  19. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... removed from the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be removed,...

  20. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... removed from the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be removed,...

  1. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... removed from the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be removed,...

  2. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  3. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  4. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  5. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  6. 9 CFR 98.9 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.9 Section 98... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.9 Embryos refused entry. Any embryo refused entry into...

  7. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to...

  8. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the...

  9. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  10. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  11. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to submit to testing. 95... Refusal to submit to testing. (a) If an individual refuses to submit to or cooperate in the administration... submit to or cooperate in the administration of a timely chemical test when directed by the...

  12. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the... specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section as applicable. (a) For existing refuse piles, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976. (b) For new or proposed refuse piles, markers shall be placed...

  13. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the... specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section as applicable. (a) For existing refuse piles, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976. (b) For new or proposed refuse piles, markers shall be placed...

  14. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the... specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section as applicable. (a) For existing refuse piles, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976. (b) For new or proposed refuse piles, markers shall be placed...

  15. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the... specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section as applicable. (a) For existing refuse piles, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976. (b) For new or proposed refuse piles, markers shall be placed...

  16. Children of divorce: the differential diagnosis of contact refusal.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Bradley W

    2011-07-01

    Contact refusal is a common phenomenon that can occur during the course of, or after, divorce, which affects the relationship between a child and the parent. This article defines the concept of contact refusal and discusses the importance of its recognition. The concept is further narrowed to focus on the child as the one refusing contact, not the parent, which can happen as well. Various types of contact refusals are illustrated in the article through clinical vignettes, and an approach to categorizing the various types of contact refusal is presented.

  17. Choosing to refuse: patients' rights and psychotropic medication.

    PubMed

    Radden, Jennifer

    1988-04-01

    The author discusses the position of the plaintiffs in Rogers v. Okin, a legal case in which it was argued that involuntarily committed mental patients have the right to refuse psychotropic medication. She expresses reservations about paternalistic justifications for forced medication that are based on authority, on loss of autonomy by the mentally ill, on overriding autonomy for the patient's good, on the 'self paternalism' of the psychiatric will, and on intervention as restoring autonomy. Radden argues that the patient's right to choose is supported by an extension of the concept of competence to include competence to judge an issue. She asserts that neither patients nor physicians have sufficient knowledge of the side effects of psychotropic drugs to make rational decisions. Since neither possesses proper competence, the patient should choose.

  18. Refuse-to-energy is not dead

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, R.N.

    1988-11-01

    As noted in this paper, GAA (Government Advisory Associates) recently completed its fourth national survey of the refuse-to-energy business in the U.S. A total of 368 facilities were examined in all stages of project development. Contrary to the opinion of some doomsayers, refuse-to-energy in the U.S. is still a growing industry. Nevertheless, there has been some retrenchment in the past year due to political and environmental concerns, some legitimate and others unfounded. There are currently significant uncertainties in federal and state regulatory policies regarding air emissions and ash disposal which have led a number of private and public developers to hold off on planned new facilities. In any event, the long-term outlook for the industry is good, given the few disposal options available for solid waste planners faced with rising landfill costs and the prospect of few new landfills being sited.

  19. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS Administrative Action on Petitions...

  20. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.

  1. Refusal of treatment: an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kraft, M R

    1999-03-01

    When a patient with a new spinal cord injury (SCI) refuses all care, the treatment team struggles with an ethical dilemma. The issues of patients' rights and autonomy are in conflict with the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Thomasma (1978) recommended a model useful in addressing situations in which values are in conflict. This model for an ethical workup is applied retrospectively to review a specific clinical case. The need to recognize and respect as many ethical principles as possible is identified as useful in reaching some acceptable resolution of an ethical dilemma. PMID:10347538

  2. Physicians' evaluations of patients' decisions to refuse oncological treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Kleffens, T; van Leeuwen, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the standards of rationality that physicians use when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. Design of the study: Qualitative design with indepth interviews. Participants: The study sample included 30 patients with cancer and 16 physicians (oncologists and general practitioners). All patients had refused a recommended oncological treatment. Results: Patients base their treatment refusals mainly on personal values and/or experience. Physicians mainly emphasise the medical perspective when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. From a medical perspective, a patient's treatment refusal based on personal values and experience is generally evaluated as irrational and difficult to accept, especially when it concerns a curative treatment. Physicians have a different attitude towards non-curative treatments and have less difficulty accepting a patient's refusal of these treatments. Thus, an important factor in the physician's evaluation of a treatment refusal is whether the treatment refused is curative or non-curative. Conclusion: Physicians mainly use goal oriented and patients mainly value oriented rationality, but in the case of non-curative treatment refusal, physicians give more emphasis to value oriented rationality. A consensus between the value oriented approaches of patient and physician may then emerge, leading to the patient's decision being understood and accepted by the physician. The physician's acceptance is crucial to his or her attitude towards the patient. It contributes to the patient's feeling free to decide, and being understood and respected, and thus to a better physician–patient relationship. PMID:15738431

  3. [Microbiological studies of waste from medical practice and household refuse].

    PubMed

    Trost, M; Filip, Z

    1985-06-01

    Microbiological investigations were made during a one year period on refuse from consulting rooms of general practitioners, E.N.T.-specialists, dermatologists, dentists, and veterinarians. Concentrations of total aerobic bacteria, hyphomycetes, yeasts, actinomycetes, indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, feacal streptococci, anaerobic sulfite reducing spore-forming bacteria), of some facultative pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus), and pathogens (Salmonella sp.) were estimated. The refuse from medical consulting rooms showed definitely differences in microbiological properties. Usually the highest counts of microorganisms were found in the refuse from veterinarian consulting rooms. In generally, refuse from medical consulting rooms had lower microbial counts as compared to the municipal refuse. Feacal indicators and facultative pathogenic bacteria, however, were found more frequently, and usually at higher concentrations in refuse from medical consulting rooms. Salmonella sp. was not found in the refuse samples under test. Conclusively, refuse from medical consulting rooms should be handled with caution. However, the results of this study do not indicate those kinds of refuse as a source of acute hygienic risk.

  4. From Rogers to Rivers: the rights of the mentally ill to refuse medication.

    PubMed

    Clayton, E W

    1987-01-01

    Many individuals with mental illness wish to avoid psychotropic drugs, a type of treatment that may relieve their symptoms only at the risk of unpleasant, even permanent, side effects. In marked contrast to the widely-held view that most patients may refuse any treatment and that even patients with mental illness may reject other psychoactive interventions such as electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery, the courts and legislatures have been slow to recognize any right to refuse psychotropic drugs. This Article demonstrates that many of the justifications offered for forcing patients to take unwanted medications are inadequate and that unless treatment refusals are reviewed outside mental institutions, patients' rights will rarely receive appropriate deference. The author analyzes the federal and state litigation to determine whether the courts have fashioned meaningful relief for the mentally ill. The Article concludes that two recent United States Supreme Court decisions have made it impossible for the federal courts to provide adequate protection. By contrast, several state courts have responded to the needs and rights of patients with mental illness.

  5. 22 CFR 42.81 - Procedure in refusing individual visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(g) or other applicable law. Every refusal must be in conformance with the provisions of 22 CFR 40.6... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure in refusing individual visas. 42.81 Section 42.81 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER...

  6. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 439.50 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... the Administrator, a laboratory will be refused accreditation for the following reasons: (a) A laboratory will be refused accreditation for failure to meet the requirements of § 439.5 or § 439.10 of...

  7. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 439.50 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... the Administrator, a laboratory will be refused accreditation for the following reasons: (a) A laboratory will be refused accreditation for failure to meet the requirements of § 439.5 or § 439.10 of...

  8. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  9. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  10. 16 CFR 1210.18 - Refusal of importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal of importation. 1210.18 Section 1210.18 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.18 Refusal of importation....

  11. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  12. Refusals and Communication Style in American English and Egyptian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gayle L.; Al Batal, Mahmoud; El Bakary, Waguida

    This study investigated similarities and differences in Egyptian Arabic and American English refusals, using a modified discourse completion test (DCT) consisting of three requests, three invitations, three offers, and three suggestions. Each situation included one refusal to a person of higher status, one to a person of equal status, and one to a…

  13. 24 CFR 906.13 - Right of first refusal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of first refusal. 906.13... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Purchaser Requirements § 906.13 Right of first refusal. (a... housing unit, to offer the unit for sale first to the current resident of the unit....

  14. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  15. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  16. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65 Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result...

  17. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  18. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  19. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  20. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  1. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  2. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  3. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  4. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-26 Material refused...

  6. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  7. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  8. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  9. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  10. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Federal Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.10 Refusals to...

  11. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  12. Combating Work Refusal Using Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Glenna M.

    2016-01-01

    Academic expectations are often antecedents for various types of inappropriate classroom behavior for students with challenging behavior. Effective interventions for managing these behaviors must involve techniques that combat academic refusal. Addressing the underlying issues of resistance or refusal to perform academically in school using…

  13. Empirical Examination of a Multicomponent Treatment for Pediatric Food Refusal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Theodore A.; Babbitt, Roberta L.; Farrar-Schneider, Debra; Berkowitz, Merrill J.; Owens, J. Carl; Knight, Terry L.; Snyder, Angela M.; Rizol, Laura M.; Wise, David T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on assessment and treatment of food refusal for four inpatient boys (ages 2,3,3, and 9) receiving tube feedings. It used a contingency contacting procedure extended by a component analysis. Data suggest that food refusal appeared to be maintained primarily by negative reinforcement contingencies. Caregiver responses indicated a…

  14. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  15. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  16. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  17. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  18. 9 CFR 98.20 - Embryos refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Embryos refused entry. 98.20 Section... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions Where Rinderpest or Foot-and-Mouth Disease Exists § 98.20 Embryos refused entry. If any embryos are determined to be...

  19. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of... threatened if treatment is not initiated immediately, the physician shall give consideration to...

  20. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to accept treatment. 549.65... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.65 Refusal to accept treatment. (a) When, as a result of... threatened if treatment is not initiated immediately, the physician shall give consideration to...

  1. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  2. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  3. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  4. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  5. 28 CFR 345.34 - Refusal to employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to employ. 345.34 Section 345.34 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.34 Refusal to employ. (a) The SOI...

  6. Household Refuse Analysis: Theory, Method, and Applications in Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathje, William L., Ed.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl K., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The articles in this issue explore the current parameters of household refuse analysis. An overview of garbage research studies is presented; research methodology, theories, and applications are examined. U.S. household refuse is compared to the discards of households in Mexico City. (RM)

  7. 43 CFR 15.4 - Refuse and polluting substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...

  8. 33 CFR 95.040 - Refusal to submit to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of a timely chemical test when directed by a law enforcement officer based on reasonable cause, evidence of the refusal is admissible in evidence in any administrative proceeding and the individual will... employer based on reasonable cause, evidence of the refusal is admissible in evidence in any...

  9. Management of Pregnant Patients Who Refuse Medically Indicated Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Oxford, Corrina M

    2012-01-01

    The doctrine of informed refusal may become difficult to adhere to in obstetric practice, especially in situations in which the fetus’s life is at risk. One rare yet potentially problematic situation of informed refusal is the case of a pregnant woman who refuses to undergo a medically indicated cesarean delivery that would ensure the well-being of her fetus. Although some would argue that patient autonomy takes precedence and the woman’s informed refusal should be respected, others would argue that beneficence, justice, and doing no harm to the viable fetus should ethically overrule the refusal of a surgery. This article explores the profound conflict between maternal autonomy and the rights of the fetus, provides a framework to address when the two diverge, and poses suggestions for how providers can better navigate this dilemma. PMID:23483714

  10. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  11. Training in Evaluation Skills for Drug Treatment and Drug Prevention Professionals in the Commonwealth Caribbean: How Do Non-Governmental and Statutory Services Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Axel; Day, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    In the countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean there has been a dramatic expansion in drug demand reduction (DDR) programmes over the past decade. Often drawing on models originating in the countries providing the funding in North America or Europe, these activities have often been inadequately monitored and rarely evaluated. The absence of…

  12. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  13. Practical Nursing Education. A Guide for Teaching Basic Concepts and Skills in the Use of Drugs. Pamphlet Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    Intended to assist teachers in either basic or continuing education programs to convey knowledge, techniques, and attitudes pertaining to drugs, the pamphlet outlines instruction which is estimated to require 70 to 100 hours of which 50 to 80 should be scheduled for classroom work and 20 hours for clinical work. Three units containing concepts…

  14. Resolving cognitive dissonance by acquisition of self-organizational skills may decrease drug-resistant seizures — A case report

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J.; Reiter, Joel M.; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2014-01-01

    A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a “broken” self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed. PMID:25667872

  15. Resolving cognitive dissonance by acquisition of self-organizational skills may decrease drug-resistant seizures - A case report.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J; Reiter, Joel M; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2014-01-01

    A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a "broken" self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed.

  16. Recycling of aged refuse from a closed landfill.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youcai; Song, Liyan; Huang, Renhua; Song, Lijie; Li, Xiong

    2007-04-01

    In this study, refuse excavated from a typical refuse landfill in Shanghai after 8-10 years of placement was characterized in terms of particle size, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and biodegradable matter. The refuse contained a large and diverse population of micro-organisms with a high capacity for decomposing refractory organic matter present in some wastewaters, including leachate. It was found that the aged refuse was quite stable after about a decade of decomposition in the warm, humid climate of southern China. The fine fractions resembled and had the properties of black soil, a medium that is suitable for green construction, organic fertilizer, or as bioreactor media for biological treatment of organic wastewaters. Excavation of the aged refuse would make about 50% of the space available for fresh refuse. The plastics, glass, textiles, and cans can be readily mechanically separated and recycled after cleaning. It is estimated that at least 200 millions tonnes of such aged refuse are available in China alone, and at least 10 times that much is buried worldwide. Hence, the evaluation of mined landfill waste and consideration of its potential uses is of great significance.

  17. Characteristics and Outcomes of Elderly Patients Refused to ICU

    PubMed Central

    Pintado, María-Consuelo; Villa, Patricia; González-García, Natalia; Luján, Jimena; Molina, Rocío; Trascasa, María; López-Ramos, Esther; Martínez, Cristina; Cambronero, José-Andrés; de Pablo, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Background. There are few data regarding the process of deciding which elderly patients are refused to ICU admission, their characteristics, and outcome. Methods. Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. We included all consecutive patients older than 75 years, who were evaluated for admission to but were refused to treatment in ICU, during 18 months, with 12-month followup. We collected demographic data, ICU admission/refusal reasons, previous functional and cognitive status, comorbidity, severity of illness, and hospital and 12-month mortality. Results. 338 elderly patients were evaluated for ICU admission and 88 were refused to ICU (26%). Patients refused because they were “too ill to benefit” had more comorbidity and worse functional and mental situation than those admitted to ICU; there were no differences in illness severity. Hospital mortality rate of the whole study cohort was 36.3%, higher in patients “too ill to benefit” (55.6% versus 35.8%, P < 0.01), which also have higher 1-year mortality (73.7% versus 42.5%, P < 0.01). High comorbidity, low functional status, unavailable ICU beds, and age were associated with refusal decision on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Prior functional status and comorbidity, not only the age or severity of illness, can help us more to make the right decision of admitting or refusing to ICU patients older than 75 years. PMID:24453879

  18. Utilization of refuse derived fuels by the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are forcing those in charge of landfills to adhere to more stringent operating standards. This, along with the growing scarcity of landfill availability, makes the use of landfills less desirable for solid waste disposal. As such, new disposal methods that are environmentally safe and economically practical must be found. One alternative, that is not really new but which has gained renewed interest, is incineration. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act also requires that government agencies should direct their installations to recover as many resources as possible. Therefore if incineration is to be implemented, heat recovery should be incorporated into the system. There are several processes available to convert raw refuse into a fuel for use in a heat recovery system. Refuse derived fuels (RDF) can be in the form of raw refuse, densified refuse, powdered refuse, gas, or pyrolytic oil. The only form of RDF that is economically feasible for systems designed to process less than 200 TPD (tons per day) is raw refuse. Most Navy bases generate far less than 200 TPD of solid waste and therefore the Navy has focused most of its attention on modular heat recovery incinerator (HRI) systems that utilize raw refuse as fuel.

  19. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  20. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  1. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  2. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  3. 27 CFR 46.273 - Refusing entry or examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Ttb Authorities § 46.273 Refusing entry or examination....

  4. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wishes to contest the refusal to issue an experimental use permit, or an experimental use permittee wishes to contest the revocation of any such permit, he shall, within twenty days after receipt of...

  5. 49 CFR 219.213 - Unlawful refusals; consequences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... providing breath, blood or urine specimens following an accident or incident specified in this subpart must... of this subpart; and (2) In a case where a blood test was refused on the ground it would...

  6. Combining stimulus fading, reinforcement, and extinction to treat food refusal.

    PubMed

    Freeman, K A; Piazza, C C

    1998-01-01

    The food refusal of a 6-year-old girl with destructive behavior was treated using stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. Intake increased and compliance with prompting procedures remained relatively stable despite the increased consumption requirement.

  7. Understanding Partnerships: A Rural College's Role in Recycling Refuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the partnership that was formed by a county government, three city governments, Weyerhaeuser Company, and Cossatot Technical College in Arkansas to solve the refuse problem when the local landfill closed. (JOW)

  8. Clean Cities Niche Market Overview: Refuse Haulers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, S.

    2011-09-01

    Refuse haulers are ideal for the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. By using fuels like natural gas, propane, or biodiesel, and technologies like hybrid electric and hydraulic hybrid systems, the refuse-hauling sector could substantially decrease its petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers should explore the benefits of the fuels and technologies available, as well as the individual fleet needs, before adoption.

  9. Refuse-derived fuels still a long-term goal

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.

    1981-11-17

    A report on the Institution of Civil Engineers' two-day international symposium held in London in November, titled ''The practical implications of the reuse of solid wastes''. Topics dealt with included: systems for mechanical separation, reclamation and re- use of secondary materials; refuse-derived fuels; use of raw refuse in land reclamation; methane recovery from landfills and direct landfill as a major disposal option.

  10. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    PubMed

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  11. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population.

  12. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population. PMID:26547044

  13. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  14. Physicians' refusal to resuscitate at borderline gestational age.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2005-11-01

    Most neonatologists believe there is a minimal gestational age, below which it is appropriate to refuse to provide resuscitation or intensive care. Determination of this threshold should involve knowledge of the outcome data, but also an understanding of the potential for misuse of these data. In particular, there is a risk of deception, of the parents and of ourselves, due to the uncertainty of the true gestational age, and the "self-fulfilling prophecy" that may occur when a center refuses to try below a certain gestational age because they have had no survivors below that age. Finally, any refusal to treat requires ethical justification. Concepts such as futility and patient's best interest should play a role in the determination of the gestational age threshold, applied in light of the data's inherent weaknesses.

  15. Vaccine refusal and the endgame: walking the last mile first

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Omer, Saad B.

    2013-01-01

    As multiple papers within this special issue illustrate, the dynamics of disease eradication are different from disease control. When it comes to disease eradication, ‘the last mile is longest’. For social and ecological reasons such as vaccine refusal, further ending incidence of a disease when it has reached low levels is frequently complex. Issues of non-compliance within a target population often influence the outcome of disease eradication efforts. Past eradication efforts confronted such obstacles towards the tail end of the campaign, when disease incidence was lowest. This article provides a comparison of non-compliance within polio, measles and smallpox campaigns, demonstrating the tendency of vaccine refusal to rise as disease incidence falls. In order to overcome one of the most intractable challenges to eradication, future disease eradication efforts must prioritize vaccine refusal from the start, i.e. ‘walk the last mile first’. PMID:23798696

  16. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  17. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  18. Behavioral assessment and treatment of chronic food refusal in handicapped children.

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, M M; Iwata, B A; Finney, J W; Wohl, M K; Stanley, A E

    1984-01-01

    In this study, we examined the eating behavior of four handicapped children, none of whom exhibited self-feeding skills. All children had a history of food refusal and were nutritionally at risk; one child received all nourishment by way of gastrostomy tube. Baseline data taken during mealtimes indicated that all children accepted very little food, expelled food frequently, and engaged in a number of disruptive behaviors. Treatments consisted of one or more of the following contingent events: social praise, access to preferred foods, brief periods of toy play, and forced feeding. Results of multiple-baseline and reversal designs showed marked behavioral improvement for each child and increases in the amount of food consumed. Further improvements were noted at follow-up, which ranged from 7 to 30 months posttreatment. PMID:6239853

  19. [Increasing immunization coverage by intervening on determinants of refusal].

    PubMed

    Brunelli, M; Valsecchi, M; Speri, L; Simeoni, L; Campara, P; Porchia, S; Bolzonello, E; Russo, F; Bonavina, M G; Bovo, C

    2012-01-01

    With the regional decree 3664/2008, the Veneto Region adopted measures for improvements in the immunization program, among which the "Investigation into determinants for vaccine refusal in the Veneto Region", entrusted by the Department of Prevention Local Health Unit 20 (Ulss 20) of Verona. The objective of the study was to understand which type of parent that accessed immunization services (total adherent, partial adherent or complete refusals) and what factors lead to their choice regarding immmunizations in order to better plan strategies to maintain vaccination coverage.

  20. 76 FR 29796 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Refuse...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... additional information, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on February 17, 2011 (76 FR...; Refuse Piles and Impounding Structures, Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Refuse Piles and Impounding Structures, Recordkeeping...

  1. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  2. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  3. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  4. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  5. Treating Total Liquid Refusal with Backward Chaining and Fading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In this study of a 12-year-old boy with autism, mental retardation, and a history of severe gastrointestinal problems, who refused liquids and food, backward chaining was used to shape drinking from a cup and a fading procedure was used to increase the water he was required to drink. (Author/CR)

  6. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  7. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  8. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  9. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  10. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  11. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  12. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  13. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  14. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  15. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  16. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Wreen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it by strong anti-paternalists. This weight is sufficient, in their estimation, to justify honouring the patient's refusal. There is thus a tension between the strong anti-paternalist's commitment to the sufficiency of autonomy and our intuitions respecting such cases. Attempts can be made to relieve this tension, such as arguing that patients aren't really rational in the circumstances envisaged, or that other values, such as privacy or bodily integrity, if added to autonomy, are sufficient to justify an anti-paternalistic stance. All such attempts fail, however. But what does not fail is the addition of religious freedom, freedom respecting a patient's religious beliefs and values. Why religious freedom reduces the tension is then explained, and the specialness of religious beliefs and values examined. PMID:1941952

  17. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... on the environment, or that for any other reason provided for under the law a permit shall not...

  18. 40 CFR 172.10 - Refusals to issue and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusals to issue and revocation. 172.10 Section 172.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... on the environment, or that for any other reason provided for under the law a permit shall not...

  19. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

  20. Treatment of Severe Feeding Refusal in Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of an inpatient multidisciplinary program for treatment of severe feeding refusal. Nineteen infants and toddlers recovering from medical and surgical disorders which had required non-oral feeding were studied. A modified method of rapid introduction of oral feedings resulted in conversion to…

  1. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  2. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  3. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  4. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.10 Inspection; refusal of entry. (a) Shipments of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, and bees other than...

  5. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  6. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  7. [Hygienic problems in dumping, composting and incineration of urban refuse].

    PubMed

    Knoll, K H

    1983-09-01

    Hygiene of waste disposal embraces all preventive measures which ensure an unobjectionable and, wherever possible final elimination of all sorts of urban refuse. As the hazards to our environment largely result from unsolved waste disposal problems in residential areas and congested industrial zones, such disposal measures are increasingly given priority. In view of the decreasing resources, the methods of waste disposal must also allow for the possibility of recycling of waste material. With respect to what is objectionable hygienically, differences exist in infectiousness and toxicity between solid and sludy refuse. For this reason the necessary treatment methods and the procedures for collection, treatment, elimination, and exploitation must comply with the various requirements of hygiene. From the hygienic point of view, waste disposal commences already with the collection of refuse and ends with its final elimination. Such a complete appreciation of hygienic parameters necessarily leads to waste disposal procedures which are innocuous to our environment. The importance of innocuous waste disposal is, however, not restricted to the prevention of epidemics and infectious diseases. Even abiogenous noxa in urban refuse are likely to threaten the environment in a direct or indirect manner.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6649992

  8. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control of erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  9. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control of erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  10. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  11. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  12. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control of erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  13. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  14. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  15. Descriptive Analyses of Pediatric Food Refusal and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Woods, Julia N.; Borrero, John C.; Masler, Elizabeth A.; Lesser, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    Functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior typically include conditions to determine if the contingent delivery of attention, tangible items, or escape reinforce food refusal. In the current investigation, descriptive analyses were conducted for 25 children who had been admitted to a program for the assessment and treatment of food…

  16. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  17. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  18. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 14.93 or § 14.94, or penalties assessed against the importer or exporter under 50 CFR part 11. This... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53 Section 14.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  19. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 439.50 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... as of the notification of a loss of accreditation. (c) A laboratory will be refused accreditation if... based upon acquiring, handling, or distributing of unwholesome, misbranded, or deceptively packaged...

  20. 9 CFR 439.50 - Refusal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 439.50 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... as of the notification of a loss of accreditation. (c) A laboratory will be refused accreditation if... based upon acquiring, handling, or distributing of unwholesome, misbranded, or deceptively packaged...

  1. [Anorexia and refusal to eat in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The question of the links between anorexia and the refusal to eat in the elderly is often the cause of major difficulties with regard to therapeutic strategies within caregiving teams. Likewise, few studies have been carried out into the diachronic links between teenage anorexia and that of the elderly. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential.

  2. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215 Section 77.215 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... controlling or extinguishing a fire. (c) Clay or other sealants shall be used to seal the surface of...

  3. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... covered with clay or other inert material as the piles are constructed. (c) A fireproof barrier of clay...

  4. Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) 21 years on: a re-conceptualisation and a renaming.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Kenneth P; Lask, Bryan; Owen, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Twenty-one years ago, Lask and colleagues first described pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) as a child's "dramatic social withdrawal and determined refusal to walk, talk, eat, drink, or care for themselves in any way for several months" in the absence of an organic explanation. PRS has been conceptualised in a variety of ways since then. These have included a form of post-traumatic stress disorder, learnt helplessness, 'lethal mothering', loss of the internal parent, apathy or the 'giving-up' syndrome, depressive devitalisation, primitive 'freeze', severe loss of activities of daily living and 'manipulative' illness, meaning the possibility that the children have been drugged to increase chances of asylum in asylum-seeking families. Others have insisted that PRS is simply depression, conversion disorder, catatonia or a factitious condition. This paper reviews these conceptualisations, explores some of the central complexities around PRS and proposes a neurobiological explanatory model, based upon autonomic system hyper-arousal. It touches upon the clinical implications and suggests a new name for the condition reflecting what we believe to be a more sophisticated understanding of the disorder than was available when it was first described. PMID:23793559

  5. Validation of the drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire in Arab and Asian samples.

    PubMed

    AlMarri, Tayyiba S K; Oei, Tian P S; AbRahman, Rosalisa Murni

    2009-09-01

    The influence of an individuals' belief in their ability to resist drinking alcohol has recognised importance in understanding the pattern of drinking behaviours among Caucasian samples. Measures used to investigate this construct, such as the drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire-revised (DRSEQ-R; [Oei, T. P. S., Hasking, P. A., & Young, R. M. (2005). Drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire-revised (DRSEQ-R): A new factor structure with confirmatory factor analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78, 297-307.]) have been widely used and have established psychometric properties. However, the exploration of the utility of this questionnaire with samples of different ethnicity, religion and living in different countries remains scarce. In the current study, Arab Muslim samples living in the United Arab Emirates and Oman (n=356) and Asian predominately Muslim samples living in Malaysia and Indonesia (n=256) were used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the DRSEQ-R has a three factor structure. Internal consistency ranged from alpha .96 to alpha .86 and validity was good. This study offers evidence of the utility of this measure with Arab and Asian samples.

  6. 78 FR 17670 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment, by any of... corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment''. Follow...

  7. 48 CFR 52.207-3 - Right of First Refusal of Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of First Refusal of....207-3 Right of First Refusal of Employment. As prescribed in 7.305(c), insert the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment (MAY 2006) (a) The Contractor shall give Government personnel...

  8. 78 FR 38340 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCY: Department of Defense...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment, by... corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment''. Follow...

  9. 75 FR 4565 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCIES: Department of Defense....sakalos@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Right of First Refusal of Employment is a..., DC 20405, telephone (202) 501-4755. Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal...

  10. School Refusal Behavior Associated with Separation Anxiety Disorder: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doobay, Alissa F.

    2008-01-01

    School refusal behavior can lead to disruptions in both educational attainment and social development. One of the common causes of school refusal behavior is separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Research suggests that children with SAD and school refusal behavior show an increased rate of psychiatric consultation and a decreased likelihood of…

  11. 10 CFR 709.13 - Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination... Protocols and Protection of National Security § 709.13 Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. (a) Subject to § 709.14 of this part, a covered person may refuse to take a polygraph...

  12. 10 CFR 709.13 - Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination... Protocols and Protection of National Security § 709.13 Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. (a) Subject to § 709.14 of this part, a covered person may refuse to take a polygraph...

  13. 10 CFR 709.13 - Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination... Protocols and Protection of National Security § 709.13 Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. (a) Subject to § 709.14 of this part, a covered person may refuse to take a polygraph...

  14. 10 CFR 709.13 - Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination... Protocols and Protection of National Security § 709.13 Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. (a) Subject to § 709.14 of this part, a covered person may refuse to take a polygraph...

  15. 10 CFR 709.13 - Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination... Protocols and Protection of National Security § 709.13 Implications of refusal to take a polygraph examination. (a) Subject to § 709.14 of this part, a covered person may refuse to take a polygraph...

  16. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and... decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. (a) Any requester who is dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other...

  17. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and... decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. (a) Any requester who is dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other...

  18. Absorption of phosphorus from wastewater by aged refuse excavated from municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Zhao, You-cai; Shao, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Municipal solid waste(refuse) landfill stabilizes as the refuse degrades. After years of biodegradation, the refuse in the landfill becomes stabilized and aged, which may vary with the local climate, humidity, and composition of refuse placed. In this work, it is found that the refuse with an age of over 8 years at Shanghai Refuse Landfill has been significantly stabilized and sufficiently aged and is thus suitable for excavation. The 8-year old aged refuse is mechanically screened, and the fine fractions of refuse(aged refuse) with a diameter less than 2 cm are then used as a biological absorbent for removal of both inorganic and organic phosphorus in livestock wastewater and prepared aqueous solution. It is proved that the aged refuse is very effective for the quantitative removal of both types of phosphorus. The absorption mechanism is proposed. It is considered that phosphorus is firstly absorbed onto the surface of the aged refuse and then used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms which ultimately leave the aged refuse as sludge.

  19. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  20. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  1. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  2. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  3. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... subpart. (b) Any article refused importation for noncompliance with the requirements of this subpart...

  4. 42 CFR 493.567 - Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection... § 493.567 Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. (a) Laboratory with a certificate of accreditation. (1) A laboratory with a certificate of accreditation that refuses to cooperate with a...

  5. Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhor, Charles

    One of a series dealing with current issues affecting language arts instruction, this paper focuses on thinking skills. The paper begins by raising two issues: whether thinking skills should be taught as part of each subject area, as a separate skill, or both, and whether English and language arts teachers have a special role in the teaching of…

  6. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  7. Undrained shear strength of partially saturated combined coal refuse. First annual report: Strength and consolidation characteristics of coal refuse for design and construction of disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.; Li, J.

    1986-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study on the undrained shear strength of partially saturated combined refuse. The study is part of a research project entitled 'Strength and Consolidation Characteristics of Coal Refuse for Design and Construction of Disposal Facilities supported by the Office of Surface Mining, Department of the Interior. Information presented in the report will be used for the design and construction of disposal facilities. Coal refuse, the waste product from coal washing, is separated in the coal preparation plant into two fractions (coarse and fine). The fine refuse, in the form of either a slurry or a filter cake, is unstable and difficult to handle.

  8. Comparison of Bacteria and Archaea communities in municipal solid waste, individual refuse components, and leachate.

    PubMed

    Staley, Bryan F; de los Reyes, Francis L; Barlaz, Morton A

    2012-02-01

    Refuse decomposition in landfills is a microbially mediated process that occurs primarily under anaerobic conditions. Because of limited moisture conditions, hydraulic transport as a means of cellular translocation within the landfill appears limited, especially during the initial stages of decomposition. Thus, microbial communities within the incoming refuse serve as a primary source of facultative and obligate anaerobic microorganisms that initiate refuse decomposition. Fresh residential refuse was collected five times over 26 months, and microbial communities in these samples were compared with those in individual refuse components and decomposed refuse. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were determined using T-RFLP. The Bacterial microbial community richness was correlated (r(2) = 0.91) with seasonal differences in ambient air temperature. Analysis of the results shows that fresh refuse is most likely not the source of methanogens in landfills. Microbial communities in the solid and leachate phases were different, indicating that both matrices must be considered when characterizing microbial diversity within a landfill.

  9. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  10. Worker's refusal to conceal HIV tattoo amounts to misconduct.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    [Name removed] was fired in 1994 from his job as a nurse's aide at the Seattle, WA Harborview Medical Center after refusing to cover a tattoo on his left inside forearm that reads HIV POSITIVE. The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected [name removed]'s arguments that he was terminated because of his HIV status and not the tattoo. He contended that the hospital violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Rehabilitation Act, and his First Amendment right to free speech. The judge agreed with the hospital that [name removed]'s refusal to conceal the tattoo amounted to insubordination. The appeals panel affirmed the granting of summary judgment on [name removed]'s ADA and Rehabilitation Act claims. [Name removed] said he had himself tattooed to help dispel the stigma attached to his infection. The hospital said the tattoo alarmed some patients. PMID:11364513

  11. Vegetative cover grows directly on acidic mine refuse pile

    SciTech Connect

    Nickeson, F.H.

    1984-02-01

    The paper reports how permanent, self-sustaining vegetation has been established on an acidic, 80-year old coal refuse pile without using a soil cover. Tests were carried out on a number of 1-acre plots which were treated with different mixtures of lime, fertiliser and seeds of grasses and legumes. The results of the tests are discussed and the way in which the final treatment was chosen is explained. The work is considered to have been successful.

  12. Prep plants adopt paste thickener for refuse disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B.; Johnson, J.; Slottee, S.

    2007-05-15

    Coal is the latest industry to apply paste thickener technology - it can improve the economics of coal refuse (tailings) handling. Pinn Oak's Pinnacle coal preparation plant was one of the first, using paste thickener to reclaim fine coal values from existing retention ponds and to process them to extract previously wasted coal values. Another paste thickener is to be used at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain plant in Virginia. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Exploring the Reasons Behind Parental Refusal of Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Parental refusal of vaccines is a growing a concern for the increased occurrence of vaccine preventable diseases in children. A number of studies have looked into the reasons that parents refuse, delay, or are hesitant to vaccinate their child(ren). These reasons vary widely between parents, but they can be encompassed in 4 overarching categories. The 4 categories are religious reasons, personal beliefs or philosophical reasons, safety concerns, and a desire for more information from healthcare providers. Parental concerns about vaccines in each category lead to a wide spectrum of decisions varying from parents completely refusing all vaccinations to only delaying vaccinations so that they are more spread out. A large subset of parents admits to having concerns and questions about childhood vaccinations. For this reason, it can be helpful for pharmacists and other healthcare providers to understand the cited reasons for hesitancy so they are better prepared to educate their patients' families. Education is a key player in equipping parents with the necessary information so that they can make responsible immunization decisions for their children. PMID:27199617

  14. Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W.; McGarvie, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

  15. Ambiguities and Asymmetries in Consent and Refusal: Reply to Manson.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2016-06-01

    John Harris claims that is it 'palpable nonsense' to suggest that 'a child (or anyone) might competently consent to a treatment but not be competent to refuse it.' In 'Transitional Paternalism: How Shared Normative Powers Give Rise to the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal' Neil Manson aims to explain away the apparent oddness of this asymmetry of consent and refusal, by appealing to the idea of shared normative powers, presenting joint bank accounts as an example. In this article, I will argue that Manson's account fails to explain away the oddness. Rather, I will argue that there are ambiguities to which Manson has not paid sufficient attention. In fact, as odd as it may sound, I argue that Manson actually agrees with Harris (at least in relation to the asymmetry of competence). He fails to recognize that he agrees with Harris because he is not careful enough to distinguish between different asymmetries, which I have labelled the asymmetries of choice, permissibility and competence.

  16. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug content. (1) Refusal by an operator to submit to a test is prohibited and proof of refusal may be admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and...

  17. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve the Abduction-Prevention Skills of Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter-Cho, Katherine; Lang, Russell; Davenport, Katy; Moore, Melissa; Lee, Allyson; O'Reilly, Mark; Watkins, Laci; Falcomata, Terry

    2016-09-01

    A concurrent multiple baseline across participants design evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on abduction-prevention skills of four children with autism. Across phases, confederates presented four types of abduction lures: (a) simple requests, (b) appeals to authority, (c) assistance requests, and (d) incentives. During baseline, lures resulted in children leaving with confederate strangers. During intervention, BST targeted a three-step response (i.e., refuse, move away, and report) and the abduction-prevention skills of all participants improved. Improvements generalized to novel settings and confederates and were maintained at 4 weeks. There is currently limited research on abduction-prevention pertaining to individuals with ASD. BST can be used to teach abduction-prevention skills to individuals with ASD. BST can be effective at teaching appropriate responses to multiple types of abduction lures. The effects of BST on multiple responses to multiple types of lures can generalize across settings and people and maintain over time.

  18. Pediatric Cardiac Transplantation Using Hearts Previously Refused for Quality: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Easterwood, Rachel; Singh, Rakesh K.; McFeely, Eric D.; Zuckerman, Warren A.; Addonizio, Linda J.; Gilmore, Lisa; Beddows, Kimberly; Chen, Jonathan M.; Richmond, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric donor hearts are regularly refused for donor quality with limited evidence as to which donor parameters are predictive of poor outcomes. We compare outcomes of recipients receiving hearts previously refused by other institutions for quality with the outcomes of recipients of primarily-offered hearts. Data for recipients aged ≤ 18 and their donors were obtained. Specific UNOS refusal codes were used to place recipients into refusal and non-refusal groups; demographics, morbidity, and mortality were compared. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to determine differences in graft survival. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to determine independent risk factors for post-operative mortality. From 7/1/2000-4/30/2011, 182 recipients were transplanted and included for analysis. 130 received a primarily-offered heart; 52 received a refused heart. No difference in post-operative complications or graft survival between the two groups (p=0.355) was found. Prior refusal was not an independent risk factor for recipient mortality. Analysis of this large pediatric cohort examining outcomes with quality-refused hearts shows that in-hospital morbidity and long-term mortality for recipients of quality-refused hearts is no different than recipients of primarily-offered hearts, suggesting that donor hearts previously refused for quality are not necessarily unsuitable for transplant and often show excellent outcomes. PMID:23648205

  19. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  20. Cognition-Enhancing Drugs: Can We Say No?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquale, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Normative analysis of cognition-enhancing drugs frequently weighs the liberty interests of drug users against egalitarian values. Yet those who would refuse to engage in neuroenhancement may well find their liberty to do so limited in a society where such drugs are widespread. To the extent that unvarnished emotional responses are…

  1. The Long Term Effects of Social Skills Training in Elevating Overall Academic Grade Point Average, School Attendance, Health Level, and Resistance to Drug Use and Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Nancy; Smith, Manuel J.

    Project STAR (Social Thinking and Reasoning Program) is a classroom-based social skills program for students in grades 5-8. To assess the long-term effectiveness of this program, students participated in the project (N=331) were compared with control students (N=191) during 1980-83. The hypothesis that there are significant differences in current…

  2. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Three developments lend support to the idea that schools must help teach study skills: (1) advances in cognitive psychology that suggest children are active learners; (2) society's concern for at-risk students; and (3) growing demands for improved student performance. There is evidence that systematic study skills instruction does improve academic…

  3. [Behavior of microorganisms in wastes from medical practice and household refuse deposited in a model landfill].

    PubMed

    Trost, M; Filip, Z

    1985-06-01

    Refuse from medical consulting rooms, a mixture of those refuse with municipal refuse (1:10), and municipal refuse were disposed aerobically and roughly anaerobically for over six months in a model landfill. Survival, proliferation, and transportation of microorganisms were estimated at different periods of time. Concentrations of aerobic bacteria and hyphomycetes decreased during the first weeks of deposition but remained later almost unchanged. Concentrations of nonsporeforming indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, feacal streptococci) decreased more strongly, and E. coli could not be found at latest after 23 weeks. In municipal refuse alone and mixed with refuse from medical consulting rooms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa proliferated temporarily. Leaching of microorganisms from the model landfill was observed in the whole course of the disposal period.

  4. Feed Refusal Factors in Pure Cultures of Fusarium roseum ”graminearum”

    PubMed Central

    Kotsonis, Frank N.; Smalley, Eugene B.; Ellison, Robert A.; Gale, Carol M.

    1975-01-01

    Isolations from 1972 Wisconsin feed refusal corn yielded predominantly cultures of Fusarium roseum ”graminearum.” With one possible exception, none of the selected isolates of this fungus induced emesis in pigeons, whereas six of nine isolates produced feed refusal responses in all test animals. A single isolate of F. roseum ”equiseti” also induced a severe refusal response and possibly slight emesis. None of the other fungi isolated from this corn (F. moniliforme, Acremoniella atra) or controls caused either emesis or feed refusal. Zearalenone was detected in all isolates and was shown to be partially responsible for refusal activity. The remaining activity was ascribed to one or more nonvolatile, neutral, relatively polar molecules. T-2 toxin, although not detected in these isolates, was shown to have dramatic refusal activity in rats. PMID:1237267

  5. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  6. Refusal of Curative Radiation Therapy and Surgery Among Patients With Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Parekh, Arti; Choueiri, Toni K.; Kim, Simon P.; Martin, Neil E.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Surgery and radiation therapy represent the only curative options for many patients with solid malignancies. However, despite the recommendations of their physicians, some patients refuse these therapies. This study characterized factors associated with refusal of surgical or radiation therapy as well as the impact of refusal of recommended therapy on patients with localized malignancies. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify a population-based sample of 925,127 patients who had diagnoses of 1 of 8 common malignancies for which surgery and/or radiation are believed to confer a survival benefit between 1995 and 2008. Refusal of oncologic therapy, as documented in the SEER database, was the primary outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with refusal. The impact of refusal of therapy on cancer-specific mortality was assessed with Fine and Gray's competing risks regression. Results: In total, 2441 of 692,938 patients (0.4%) refused surgery, and 2113 of 232,189 patients (0.9%) refused radiation, despite the recommendations of their physicians. On multivariable analysis, advancing age, decreasing annual income, nonwhite race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of surgery, whereas advancing age, decreasing annual income, Asian American race, and unmarried status were associated with refusal of radiation (P<.001 in all cases). Refusal of surgery and radiation were associated with increased estimates of cancer-specific mortality for all malignancies evaluated (hazard ratio [HR], 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-3.03; P<.001 and HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.78-2.18]; P<.001, respectively). Conclusions: Nonwhite, less affluent, and unmarried patients are more likely to refuse curative surgical and/or radiation-based oncologic therapy, raising concern that socioeconomic factors may drive some patients to forego potentially life-saving care.

  7. Vaccination refusal: ethics, individual rights, and the common good.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-12-01

    Among the obstacles to the success of vaccination programs is the apparent recent increase in hesitancy and outright resistance to the recommended vaccination schedule by some parents and patients. This article reviews the spectrum of patient or parental attitudes that may be described as vaccine refusal, explores related ethical considerations in the context of the doctor-patient relationship and public health, and evaluates the possible responses of physicians when encountering resistance to vaccination recommendations. Health care providers should view individuals hesitant about or opposed to vaccines not as frustrations or threats to public health, but as opportunities to educate and inform.

  8. Use of a multicomponent treatment for food refusal.

    PubMed

    Kahng, S W; Tarbox, J; Wilke, A E

    2001-01-01

    We examined the use of a multicomponent treatment for food refusal exhibited by a 5-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with mild to moderate mental retardation. Treatment consisted of access to highly preferred tangible items, which were removed contingent on problem behavior or not accepting a bite, and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Treatment resulted in an increase in food acceptance to 100% of bite offers and near-zero rates of problem behavior. In addition, the participant's caregivers were successfully trained to implement the treatment.

  9. Ohio tattoo artist refuses to serve HIV-positive customer.

    PubMed

    1996-08-23

    [Name removed], a tattoo shop owner, violated State law by refusing to tattoo H. [Name removed]., an HIV-positive customer. The ensuing case received national attention. [Name removed] filed a complaint with the Civil Rights Commission in April 1994 after 8-Ball Tattoo refused to tattoo him because he is HIV-positive. The hearing examiner, Franklin A. Martens, found that the shop violated a State disability-rights statute that says it is illegal to deny a public accommodation to someone based on HIV infection. The shop has a policy not to tattoo anyone who is HIV-positive because of the risk of being stuck by a tattoo needle. The hearing examiner rejected the owner's assertion that tattooing an HIV-positive customer posed too great a risk of infection. In testimony, Dr. Robert Crane, who specializes in HIV treatment at Riverside Methodist Hospital, said tattoo artists are no more likely than health care workers to become infected through an accidental needlestick. The Commission is scheduled to decide whether to accept the hearing examiner's recommendation that a cease-and-desist order be issued against 8-Ball Tattoo.

  10. Refuse derived fuels: New technologies for successful operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1988-01-01

    The rising cost of refuse disposal, coupled with the decreasing availability of land suitable for the siting of new landfills have greatly accelerated the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing systems as a viable technology of the disposal of our municipal solid waste. The energy products produces by an RDF processing facility-electricity and/or steam, as well as the recovery of other valuable materials from the waste stream, coupled with the inherent flexibility of the RDF technology to be used in varying forms, over a wide range of combustion technologies, makes it an extremely desirable waste-to-energy system. Use of an RDF prepared fuel product can also provide a potentially beneficial reduction of air emissions, and trace metals in the ash when compared to the burning of unprocessed solid waste. This paper discusses the problems which have been encountered in the past with RDF systems; the current status of these facilities including institutional considerations and system economics; and the future potential of RDF processing systems. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Culturally Specific Youth Substance Abuse Resistance Skills: Applicability across the U.S.-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Rodriguez, Gregorio Martinez; Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence and frequency of use of a set of drug-resistance strategies among a sample of Mexican adolescents. The keepin' it REAL (refuse, explain, avoid, and leave) strategies are part of a model drug-prevention intervention program originally developed by and for youth in the United States. The present study tests the…

  12. 21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... evaluate the safety of such drugs, are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS Administrative Actions on... new animal drug, that: (1) The reports of investigations required to be submitted pursuant to...

  13. 21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evaluate the safety of such drugs, are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS Administrative Actions on... new animal drug, that: (1) The reports of investigations required to be submitted pursuant to...

  14. 21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... evaluate the safety of such drugs, are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS Administrative Actions on... new animal drug, that: (1) The reports of investigations required to be submitted pursuant to...

  15. 21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... evaluate the safety of such drugs, are appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data; and (iv... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS Administrative Actions on... new animal drug, that: (1) The reports of investigations required to be submitted pursuant to...

  16. Best Practices in Prevention: A Curriculum on Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs, and Violence. Grades 6 and 7. Life Skills Component. Project Oz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilyk-Glancy, Joanne; Caison, Shelia; Campbell, Melissa; Carlton, Chris; Dobbins, Mike; Menkhaus, Lisa; Nappi, Beth; Payne, Sue; Rankaitis, Peter; Sutton, Arthur; Wisted, Nancy

    Project Oz is a not-for-profit special services agency providing drug education and crisis intervention services. Project Oz curricula provide compact and well-researched information for teachers, supplemented by student learning activities that reinforce the lecture portions of the topic. These activities are grade-appropriate and incorporate…

  17. Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frescura, Marina

    1997-01-01

    After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

  18. Realization of Speech Acts of Refusals and Pragmatic Competence by Turkish EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Turgay; Burgucu-Tazegül, Assiye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine a) how lower-intermediate and upper-intermediate level Turkish learners of English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) realize refusals in English, b) the differences between native and non-native speakers of English in the use of refusals, and c) if L2 proficiency affects possible pragmatic transfer or not.…

  19. Thinking through Moments of Sexual Refusal in "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores two scenarios in which young women refuse the sexual advances of young men in the films "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake." The paper highlights the heteronormative nature of education around refusing sex, which reinstates gendered stereotypes of masculine as active and feminine as…

  20. Dispreferred Responses in Interlanguage Pragmatics Refusal Sequences in Learner-NS Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the pragmatic strategies that learners utilize to negotiate a resolution when refusing a native speaker of higher status in three asymmetric situations (+Power, +Distance). Following Pomerantz's (1984) analysis of dispreferred responses, this study focuses on refusals to an invitation, a request, and a suggestion. Refusal…

  1. 7 CFR 4280.148 - Refusal to execute Loan Note Guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to execute Loan Note Guarantee. 4280.148 Section 4280.148 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.148 Refusal...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.148 - Refusal to execute Loan Note Guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refusal to execute Loan Note Guarantee. 4280.148 Section 4280.148 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.148 Refusal...

  3. Family Influences on Treatment Refusal in School-Linked Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Mary L.; Wiens, Brenda A.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed family influences on treatment refusal in school-linked mental health services (SLMHS). Specifically, it assessed whether levels of family cohesion, conflict, and organization were related to whether a family refused to initiate recommended treatment. Children (N = 133) referred for emotional and behavioral problems and their…

  4. Refusals in Chinese: How Do L1 and L2 Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of refusal strategies in Chinese by native speakers (NS) and nonnative Chinese learners (NNS). Sixty subjects (perceived as "students") were to refuse an invitation by "the professor" to a Chinese New Year's party. The study found that the NS group produced 10 strategies, whereas the NNS group produced…

  5. 29 CFR 102.88 - Refusal to conduct referendum; appeal to Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to conduct referendum; appeal to Board. 102.88..., SERIES 8 Procedure for Referendum Under Section 9(e) of the Act § 102.88 Refusal to conduct referendum... appear to the regional director that no referendum should be conducted, he shall dismiss the petition...

  6. 29 CFR 102.88 - Refusal to conduct referendum; appeal to Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refusal to conduct referendum; appeal to Board. 102.88..., SERIES 8 Procedure for Referendum Under Section 9(e) of the Act § 102.88 Refusal to conduct referendum... appear to the regional director that no referendum should be conducted, he shall dismiss the petition...

  7. Acquisition of cup drinking using previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fisher, Wayne W; Oberdorff, Amanda J

    2003-01-01

    We used previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement in the acquisition of cup drinking. Cup drinking increased with positive and negative reinforcement, both alone and in combination (without escape extinction), indicating that treatment of food refusal can establish some foods as appetitive stimuli whereas others remain aversive.

  8. Obstetric Patients Who Select and Those Who Refuse Medical Students' Participation in Their Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrane, Diane; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 222 obstetrics patients assisted by medical clerkship students from the University of Vermont and 78 who refused student participation found privacy the primary motivation for refusal and a desire to contribute to students' education a primary reason for accepting student participation. Patients frequently erroneously anticipated the…

  9. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... specific design parameters and construction methods. (d) Coal mine waste impoundments and refuse piles. If you, the permit applicant, propose to place coal mine waste in a refuse pile or impoundment, or if...

  10. 37 CFR 1.47 - Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing when an inventor... Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A Patent § 1.47 Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached. (a) If a joint inventor refuses to join in an application for patent or cannot be found...

  11. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) No person shall... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.37 Section 319.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  12. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) No person shall... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.37 Section 319.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  13. Disposal of municipal refuse and RDF in Japan by a two-bed pyrolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, N.; Ishi, Y.; Ito, K. Hirayama, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This system efficiently and effectively produces high-quality, high-heating-value fuel gas from municipal refuse and RDF. In 1978, the commercial demonstration plant was constructed in Yokohama and since 1979 it has operated with municipal solid waste, RDF, and industrial refuse. The technology is now ready for commercialization.

  14. 28 CFR 74.11 - Effect of refusal to accept payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of refusal to accept payment. 74.11 Section 74.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION Notification and Payment § 74.11 Effect of refusal to accept payment. If an...

  15. 28 CFR 74.11 - Effect of refusal to accept payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of refusal to accept payment. 74.11 Section 74.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION Notification and Payment § 74.11 Effect of refusal to accept payment. If an...

  16. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  17. Courage as a skill.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Kathleen K

    2007-01-01

    A division vice president blows the whistle on corruption at the highest levels of his company. A young manager refuses to work on her boss's pet project because she fears it will discredit the organization. A CEO urges his board, despite push back from powerful, hostile members, to invest in environmentally sustainable technology. What is behind such high-risk, often courageous acts? Courage in business, the author has found, seldom resembles the heroic impulsiveness that sometimes surfaces in life-or-death situations. Rather, it is a special kind of calculated risk taking, learned and refined over time. Taking an intelligent gamble requires an understanding of what she calls the "courage calculation": six discrete decision-making processes that make success more likely while averting rash or unproductive behavior. These include setting attainable goals, tipping the power balance in your favor, weighing risks against benefits, and developing contingency plans. Goals may be organizational or personal. Tania Modic had both types in mind when, as a young bank manager, she overstepped her role by traveling to NewYork--on vacation time and on her own money--to revitalize some accounts that her senior colleagues had allowed to languish. Her high-risk maneuver benefited the bank and gained her a promotion. Lieutenant General Claudia J. Kennedy weighed the risks and benefits before deciding to report a fellow officer who had plagiarized a research paper at a professional army school. In her difficult courage calculation, loyalty to army standards proved stronger than the potential discomfort and embarrassment of "snitching" on a fellow officer. When the skills behind courageous decision making align with a personal, organizational, or societal philosophy, managers are empowered to make bold moves that lead to success for their companies and their careers.

  18. Refusers, dropouts, and completers: measuring sex offender treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Seager, James A; Jellicoe, Debra; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet K

    2004-10-01

    A sex offender program delivered in a medium-security prison followed 109 treatment completers and 37 noncompleters for 2 years after release. Noncompleters, those who refused treatment or dropped out, had 6 times the rate of sexual and violent reoffending relative to completers. Among those who completed the program, however, positive evaluations of treatment change, such as quality of disclosure and enhanced victim empathy, found in posttreatment assessments did not correlate with recidivism. Furthermore, completers did not differ in their rates of recidivism from pretreatment rates predicted by the Static 99, an actuarial measure of anticipated sexual and violent recidivism. We conclude that the program did not influence propensities for sexual and violent recidivism but rather served as a prolonged screening instrument for sex offenders whose failure to comply with treatment attendance predicted higher rates of recidivism.

  19. Densified refuse derived fuel as a power source

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, K.E.; Safa, A.; Ohlsson, O.; Venables, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    This project is aimed at producing environmentally acceptable, chemically/biologically stable, and storable densified- Refuse Derived Fuel (d-RDF) pellets which are similar to lignite coal. To accomplish this, a suitable binder (s) must be used. Over 100 binders were investigated by a laboratory screening procedure. Six binding materials were selected for pilot plant/commercial scale studies. Approximately seven tons of RDF from Ames, Iowa and Refcom, Pompano Beach, Florida were pelletized in the summer-1985 in a series of experiments at the Jacksonville, Florida Naval Air Station using these binders. The pelletized d-RDF was then subjected to a battery of chemical and physical tests. Results to date are discussed.

  20. Densified refuse derived fuel: An alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O. ); Daugherty, K.E. ); Venables, B.J. )

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to produce an environmentally acceptable, chemically/biologically stable, and storable densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) pellet. To accomplish this, a suitable binder(s) must be used. Over 150 binders were investigated by a laboratory screening procedure. Thirteen binder/binder combinations of the initial group of 150 binders were selected for further pilot plant studies. Approximately seven tons of RDF from Ames, Iowa and Refcom, Pompano Beach, Florida were pelletized in the summer-1985 in a series of experiments at the Jacksonville, Florida Naval Air Station using these binder. The pelletized dRDF was then subjected to a battery of chemical and physical tests. Results to date and work to be accomplished during the next fiscal year will be discussed. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, Fiona; Prior, Cara; Bates, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    A case is presented of an 11-year-old girl with pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) who ultimately recovered acutely and completely after an 18-month paediatric hospitalisation. There was an apparent absence of previously proposed important aetiological factors in PRS, such as family pathology and markedly traumatic or abusive experiences, and her recovery was sudden and complete. The authors consider the differential diagnoses of PRS paying particular attention to the possibility of a conversion disorder or catatonia, given the absence of PRS in the North American literature. Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder. PMID:22815320

  2. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse.

    PubMed

    Xiaoli, Chai; Youcai, Zhao

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  3. Refuse to energy - its place in the future

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of municipal solid waste to generate power helps communities extend the lives of existing landfills, stabilize solid waste disposal costs, and avoid the expensive complications of siting additional landfills or building incineration facilities. The three basic techniques used to convert solid waste into electricity are the gasification, pyrolysis, or anaerobic digestion of landfill materials to produce a gaseous product; co-firing a high-quality, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal or oil in retrofitted power boilers; and burning raw solid waste of RDF in dedicated boilers. Industry experts predict that half of the nation's trash will be converted to energy by the end of the century. The utility industry plays an important role in this trend. 2 figures.

  4. Can One Teacher Really Fight the War on Drugs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This article presents practical information to help teachers become an effective force for drug education in their schools. A profile of a second grade teacher is included. She created a program that combines parent involvement and building student self-esteem in an effort to prepare children to refuse drugs in later years. (IAH)

  5. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  6. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  7. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  8. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study strategies used to assist mildly handicapped students become more actively engaged and successful in gaining and responding to information in content area classes are described. They include using advance organizers, summarizing/paraphrasing what is read, enhancing listening skills, and improving the organization, appearance, and accuracy of…

  9. Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    While this may not be a "complete list" of what leadership skills one needs to effectively lead in any/every situation, it should provide a great overview of many of the things s/he needs to do, at least initially.

  10. Sharing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealy, Virginia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

  11. 48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal of... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal...: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of Military Installations (APR 1992) (a) The...

  12. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND..., trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are...

  13. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND..., trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are...

  14. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND..., trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are...

  15. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND..., trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are...

  16. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? 171.420 Section 171.420 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND..., trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are...

  17. Strength and consolidation characteristics of fine-coal refuse. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.; Li, J.; Weeratunga, G.

    1987-04-01

    The study is part of a research project entitled Strength and Consolidation Characteristics of Coal Refuse for Design and Construction of Disposal Facilities supported by the Office of Surface Mining, Department of Interior. Information presented in the report will be used for the design and construction of disposal facilities. Fine coal refuse, which is the waste product washing through a no. 28 (0.589 mm) sieve, can be disposed in two different forms: solid or liquid. To be disposed as a solid, the moisture content of fine refuse must be reduced. The investigation on the undrained shear strength of partially saturated fine refuse proceeded in the same manner as that of the combined refuse, and similar equations and charts were developed. These equations and charts can also be used to estimate the undrained shear strength of consolidated fine refuse when disposed as a slurry. To be disposed as a slurry, the fine refuse must be pumped into a lagoon or behind a dam and let settle.

  18. Calculating drug doses.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Numeracy and calculation are key skills for nurses. As nurses are directly accountable for ensuring medicines are prescribed, dispensed and administered safely, they must be able to understand and calculate drug doses. PMID:27615351

  19. Leadership skills?

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Senior executive leaders might be interested in applying for the NHS Leadership Academy's director programme, which is designed to 'stretch and challenge' those with an 'existing level of complex leadership skills'. The programme also offers an opportunity for participants to work with other leaders and other parts of the system to enhance inclusiveness. There are three cohorts a year, and the programme runs for a 12 months. Closing dates for applicants are 4 September 2016, 22 January 2017 and 21 May 2017.

  20. Family themes of food refusal: disciplining the body and punishing the family.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Ma, Joyce L C

    2002-01-01

    A problematic issue in studying anorexia nervosa (AN) has been the absence of a qualitative study that probes the deep meanings of food refusal. We attempt to close this gap by studying the family meanings of food refusal by a single case study of a family in Hong Kong with an AN daughter. Eight videotapes of family therapy sessions, each lasting 90 minutes, were intensively reviewed, transcribed verbatim, and content analyzed. Two family themes of food refusal were discerned: the AN daughter disciplined her body and punished her family. The conclusions imply a need to revisit the Chinese gender role expectation in understanding AN patients and their families.

  1. Autonomy and the competent patient's right to refuse life-prolonging medical treatment--again.

    PubMed

    Manning, Joanna

    2002-11-01

    This article discusses the recent decision of the Court of Appeal of the United Kingdom in Re B (Adult: Refusal of Medical Treatment) [2002] 2 All ER 449, which confirmed the common law right of a competent patient to refuse medical treatment, even though exercise of the right would (and later did) result in the patient's own death. Re B indicates that if a competent refusal is not respected, health professionals and hospitals face the prospect of awards of damages being made against them for unlawful trespass. PMID:12497738

  2. Coal refuse site inventories. [reclamation survey using color-IR photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J.; Wier, C. E.; Leshendok, T.; Beeman, W.

    1975-01-01

    Small-scale color-infrared aerial photography at 1:120,000 scale is used to carry out an operational survey of coal refuse sites. Site analyses and reclamation cost estimates are completed in less than 90 days by using remote sensing techniques. Analysis of photographs provided dependable and accurate data for the location and environmental assessment of nearly 200 coal refuse banks and slurry ponds. The inventory constitutes a comprehensive reference for establishing priorities for coal refuse site reclamation and for complementing future field surveys.

  3. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuels and materials recovery processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gershman, H.W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of various materials is demonstrated, using data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area as input. The processing facility, designed to handle 650 tpd of refuse, is described. Since materials revenues can be predicted with a higher degree of certainty than refuse fuel revenues, it is necessary to determine what revenues the sale of solid waste fuel will have to generate for projected economics to be the same as an alternative disposal practice. (1 diagram, 8 references, 6 tables)

  4. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community... RDAP, they must participate in TDAT in the community. If inmates refuse or fail to complete TDAT,...

  5. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    PubMed

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. PMID:23746983

  6. [Pollutants produced in municipal refuse container during transfer process].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Yin-Hua; Wang, Fei; Huang, Chang-Ying; Lu, Feng; Xie, Bing

    2014-05-01

    The generation and variation of the secondary pollutants in containers during seasons of a year were investigated in a municipal refuse transfer station of Shanghai. The results showed that the primary odors, the concentration of H2S was in a range of 0.3-10.3 mg.m-3, CH4 was in a range of 0.02% -2.97% and NH3 was in a range of 0.7-4.5 mg m-3, and their concentrations all reached the peak in the summer. The pH of the leachate was in a range of 5.4-6. 3, COD was 41 633-84 060 mgL- 1, and BOD, was 18 116-34 130 mg.L , the concentration of pollutants were all higher in winter than that in summer. The ammonia concentration of leachate was in a range of 537-1222 mg.L'', while the TP fluctuated acutely in a range of 17.98-296 mg L-1, exhibiting the relationship with seasonal variation. Extreme temperatures especially the high temperature in summer significantly affected air pollution producing, which indicated that containers should be kept against high temperature exposure and long residence time in order to prevent flammable gases and other pollutants generated largely. PMID:25055698

  7. Rages and refusals. Managing the many faces of adolescent anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Garland, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with a practical approach to recognition, assessment, and treatment of adolescent anxiety disorders complicated by avoidance or oppositional behaviour. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current literature was searched via MEDLINE using the MeSH headings Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders, focusing on epidemiology, clinical presentations in adolescence, and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment. In addition, internationally accepted diagnostic criteria, current practice guidelines, and recent textbooks by recognized experts were reviewed. Research evidence and consensus recommendations were integrated with a practical approach developed in a provincial mood and anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN FINDINGS: Anxiety disorders are common in adolescents, with estimated prevalence of at least 10%. Substance abuse and avoiding school are common complications, and irritability with behavioural and rage problems can interfere with effective management. Current controlled research is examining the effectiveness of serotonergic medications known to benefit panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety in adults. While cognitive and behavioural treatments are effective for some child and adolescent anxiety disorders, they can be difficult to administer, and a supportive and psychoeducational approach could be as effective for those who refuse to go to school. CONCLUSION: Family physicians' awareness of the role of anxiety in adolescent school avoidance and in intense, oppositional emotional reactions at home can lead to more specific assessment and therapeutic intervention. Practical management strategies are recommended. PMID:11398717

  8. [Pollutants produced in municipal refuse container during transfer process].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Yin-Hua; Wang, Fei; Huang, Chang-Ying; Lu, Feng; Xie, Bing

    2014-05-01

    The generation and variation of the secondary pollutants in containers during seasons of a year were investigated in a municipal refuse transfer station of Shanghai. The results showed that the primary odors, the concentration of H2S was in a range of 0.3-10.3 mg.m-3, CH4 was in a range of 0.02% -2.97% and NH3 was in a range of 0.7-4.5 mg m-3, and their concentrations all reached the peak in the summer. The pH of the leachate was in a range of 5.4-6. 3, COD was 41 633-84 060 mgL- 1, and BOD, was 18 116-34 130 mg.L , the concentration of pollutants were all higher in winter than that in summer. The ammonia concentration of leachate was in a range of 537-1222 mg.L'', while the TP fluctuated acutely in a range of 17.98-296 mg L-1, exhibiting the relationship with seasonal variation. Extreme temperatures especially the high temperature in summer significantly affected air pollution producing, which indicated that containers should be kept against high temperature exposure and long residence time in order to prevent flammable gases and other pollutants generated largely.

  9. Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Eugene; Lee, Jaegeun; Jung, Seung-Ho; Cho, Seungho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Kun-Hong; Song, Kyong-Hwa; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Han, Do Suck

    2012-04-01

    A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ~2.5 μm min-1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20-30 nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries.

  10. The right to refuse treatment and the movement for mental health reform.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1984-01-01

    The right to refuse treatment is the most controversial of the rights of mental patients, and usually polarizes the movement for mental health reform between providers of care and external activist reformers. A broad alliance supported earlier struggles for recognition of patients' rights, but most professionals oppose recognizing this most extreme right of treatment refusal. Professional opposition to treatment refusal is not based on a wide extent of actual refusal; rather it derives from a defense against challenges to professional and institutional autonomy, an opposition to legal interference, and a belief that the community as well as the patient must be protected. These three reasons for opposition are examined by reviewing studies of attitudes toward patients' rights, knowledge about patients' rights, and implementation of patients' rights. Finally, the implications of these studies for future directions in the movement for patients' rights are examined.

  11. How to justify enforcing a Ulysses contract when Ulysses is competent to refuse.

    PubMed

    Davis, John K

    2008-03-01

    Sometimes the mentally ill have sufficient mental capacity to refuse treatment competently, and others have a moral duty to respect their refusal. However, those with episodic mental disorders may wish to precommit themselves to treatment, using Ulysses contracts known as "mental health advance directives." How can health care providers justify enforcing such contracts over an agent's current, competent refusal? I argue that providers respect an agent's autonomy not retrospectively--by reference to his or her past wishes-and not merely synchronically--so that the agent gets what he or she wants right now-but diachronically and prospectively, acting so that the agent can shape his or her circumstances as the agent wishes over time, for the agent will experience the consequences of providers' actions over time. Mental health directives accomplish this, so they are a way of respecting the agent's autonomy even when providers override the agent's current competent refusal. PMID:18561579

  12. 42 CFR 493.567 - Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program § 493.567 Refusal to cooperate with validation inspection. (a) Laboratory with a certificate...

  13. Examining the ethico-legal aspects of the right to refuse treatment in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sert, Gurkan; Guven, Tolga

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines the ethico-legal problems regarding the right to refuse treatment in Turkey's healthcare system. We discuss these problems in the light of a recent case that was directly reported to us. We first summarise the experience of a chronically dependent patient (as recounted by her daughter) and her family during their efforts to refuse treatment and receive palliative care only. This is followed by a summary of the legal framework governing the limits of the right to refuse treatment in Turkey. With the help of this background information on the legal framework, we re-examine the ethico-legal aspects of the case and explain the underlying reasons for the problems the family and the patient experienced. Finally, we conclude that Turkey's legal framework relating to the right to refuse treatment needs to be clarified and amended in accordance with international conventions and fundamental human rights.

  14. How to justify enforcing a Ulysses contract when Ulysses is competent to refuse.

    PubMed

    Davis, John K

    2008-03-01

    Sometimes the mentally ill have sufficient mental capacity to refuse treatment competently, and others have a moral duty to respect their refusal. However, those with episodic mental disorders may wish to precommit themselves to treatment, using Ulysses contracts known as "mental health advance directives." How can health care providers justify enforcing such contracts over an agent's current, competent refusal? I argue that providers respect an agent's autonomy not retrospectively--by reference to his or her past wishes-and not merely synchronically--so that the agent gets what he or she wants right now-but diachronically and prospectively, acting so that the agent can shape his or her circumstances as the agent wishes over time, for the agent will experience the consequences of providers' actions over time. Mental health directives accomplish this, so they are a way of respecting the agent's autonomy even when providers override the agent's current competent refusal.

  15. Library Technician Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

  16. Leadership skills?

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Senior executive leaders might be interested in applying for the NHS Leadership Academy's director programme, which is designed to 'stretch and challenge' those with an 'existing level of complex leadership skills'. The programme also offers an opportunity for participants to work with other leaders and other parts of the system to enhance inclusiveness. There are three cohorts a year, and the programme runs for a 12 months. Closing dates for applicants are 4 September 2016, 22 January 2017 and 21 May 2017. PMID:27581902

  17. [Microbiological studies of the contamination of hospital waste and household refuse].

    PubMed

    Möse, J R; Reinthaler, F

    1985-06-01

    A bacteriological analysis of hospital waste and household refuse (garbage dump) showed a wider range of bacteria in hospital waste. However, quantitatively, household refuse was more contaminated, especially with fecal bacteria. Almost one third of all hospital waste showed no bacterial growth under the conditions chosen for the study. In blood-drenched waste and serum samples 2% of all samples examined were anti-HBc and anti-HBe positive.

  18. Highly elevated emission of mercury vapor due to the spontaneous combustion of refuse in a landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Guanghui

    2013-11-01

    Refuse disposal (e.g., landfilling and incineration) have been recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emission globally. However, in-situ measurements of Hg emission from landfill or refuse dumping sites where fugitive spontaneous combustion occurs have not been reported. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentration and emission flux were observed near spontaneous combustions of refuse at a landfill site in southwestern China. Ambient Hg0 concentrations above the refuse surface ranged from 42.7 ± 20.0 to 396.4 ± 114.2 ng m-3, up to 10 times enhancement due to the spontaneous burning. Using a box model with Hg0 data obtained from 2004 to 2013, we estimated that the Hg0 emission from refuse was amplified by 8-40 times due to spontaneous combustion. A micrometeorological flux measurement system based on relaxed eddy accumulation was configured downwind of the combustion sites to quantify the Hg0 emission. Extremely large turbulent deposition fluxes (up to -128.6 μg m-2 h-1, 20 min average) were detected during periods of high Hg0 concentration events over the measurement footprint. The effect of temperature, moisture and light on the air-surface exchange of Hg0 exchange was found to be masked by the overwhelming deposition of Hg0 from the enriched air from the refuse combustion plumes. This research reveals that mercury emission from the landfill refuse can be boosted by fugitive spontaneous combustion of refuse. The emission represents an anthropogenic source that has been overlooked in Hg inventory estimates.

  19. The impact of municipal refuse utilization on energy and our environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The incinerator/boiler configuration is stressed as the most reliable method of waste utilization. It is also pointed out that the high cost of refuse disposal and the ever increasing cost of energy, have made this method attractive. A plan is outlined for operating a waste utilization plant. Community participation is encouraged in investigating the feasibility of refuse to energy facilities in their area.

  20. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  1. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the disease or condition is rare in the United States; or (iii) The reasons for believing that the... and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope and type of investigations that have already..., FDA determines that the disease or condition for which the drug is intended is not rare in the...

  2. Legislation and refusal of blood transfusion by a minor Jehovah-Witness in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Deneyer, M; Matthys, D; Ramet, J; Michel, L; Holsters, D; Vandenplas, Y

    2011-01-01

    The refusal of blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses in critical situations constitutes an ethical and juridical dilemma. The refusal to receive blood products by Jehovah's Witnesses is based on biblical verses. Recurring arguments to sustain this refusal regard the right to self-determination and the right to freedom of faith. If minors are involved, the problem is rendered even more difficult as the parental authority over young children needs to be taken into account. When adolescents are concerned, the situation if even more ambiguous since adolescents might be considered as mature enough to provide autonomous consent. On the basis of three cases, the most frequent bottlenecks that can come up in paediatric emergency services are highlighted: (1) the refusal of a blood transfusion by the parents of a young child; (2) the refusal by an adolescent and (3) prior refusal based on a "No Blood"-document. Regarding minors, the law on patients' rights in Belgium contains safety mechanisms concerning the preservation of physical integrity. Therefore, a key responsibility has been assigned to the physician. A step-by-step plan and a synoptic diagram are presented. PMID:22299319

  3. Skills for Adolescence. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Lions Quest "Skills for Adolescence" is a schoolwide program designed for middle school students (grades 6-8). The program was designed to promote good citizenship skills, core character values, and social-emotional skills and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol, and violence. The program includes a classroom curriculum, schoolwide practices to…

  4. Outsourcing in the public refuse collection sector: exploiting old certainties or exploring new possibilities?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ove; Saksvik, Per Øystein

    2005-01-01

    An outsourcing process in a medium-size city, by Norwegian standards, provided the background for our study. In 1996, the city council decided to contract out the refuse collection in half of its total area (the western part of the city), and to let the public refuse collection enterprise continue to collect in the other half of the area. The public enterprise also participated in the competitive tender, without success, however. The bid submitted by the public refuse collection enterprise was used as the basis for a benchmarking process performed by the chief administrative officer of the city in May 1999. The process resulted in the requirement that the public enterprise downsize its number of refuse collectors by 27 per cent. The city thus acquired a more cost-effective refuse collection system both in the western part, now run by a private company, and in the rest of the city, where the collection remained the responsibility of the public enterprise, in its newly pared-down and reorganized version. Detectable changes in the refuse collectors' health status in the three-year period immediately following the outsourcing constitute our main focus in this study. We found that the downsizing and reorganization of the public enterprise had a negative impact on the refuse collectors' health status. One year after the downsizing, six of the 27 refuse collectors remaining in the public enterprise had been diagnosed with heart problems or musculoskeletal pains that were sufficiently serious to form the basis of their individual approaches to secure a disability pension, which all six were in the process of acquiring. The registered sick leave among the refuse collectors showed a dramatic increase during the same period. We found clear indications that the refuse collectors remaining in the employment of the public enterprise had no alternatives in the labour market. Although not the focus of this study, we found that the totality of costs and benefits, not only for the

  5. Outsourcing in the public refuse collection sector: exploiting old certainties or exploring new possibilities?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ove; Saksvik, Per Øystein

    2005-01-01

    An outsourcing process in a medium-size city, by Norwegian standards, provided the background for our study. In 1996, the city council decided to contract out the refuse collection in half of its total area (the western part of the city), and to let the public refuse collection enterprise continue to collect in the other half of the area. The public enterprise also participated in the competitive tender, without success, however. The bid submitted by the public refuse collection enterprise was used as the basis for a benchmarking process performed by the chief administrative officer of the city in May 1999. The process resulted in the requirement that the public enterprise downsize its number of refuse collectors by 27 per cent. The city thus acquired a more cost-effective refuse collection system both in the western part, now run by a private company, and in the rest of the city, where the collection remained the responsibility of the public enterprise, in its newly pared-down and reorganized version. Detectable changes in the refuse collectors' health status in the three-year period immediately following the outsourcing constitute our main focus in this study. We found that the downsizing and reorganization of the public enterprise had a negative impact on the refuse collectors' health status. One year after the downsizing, six of the 27 refuse collectors remaining in the public enterprise had been diagnosed with heart problems or musculoskeletal pains that were sufficiently serious to form the basis of their individual approaches to secure a disability pension, which all six were in the process of acquiring. The registered sick leave among the refuse collectors showed a dramatic increase during the same period. We found clear indications that the refuse collectors remaining in the employment of the public enterprise had no alternatives in the labour market. Although not the focus of this study, we found that the totality of costs and benefits, not only for the

  6. The Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCrosta, Anthony

    1989-01-01

    The role of teachers in helping fight against drug abuse is discussed stressing the teacher's ability to see changes in the students and the potential for positive influence. A vital school role involves teaching life skills and wellness principles. Information on commonly abused drugs and their effects is presented. (SM)

  7. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains the same inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same... antioxidant, the application contains sufficient information to demonstrate that the difference does...

  8. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains the same inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same... antioxidant, the application contains sufficient information to demonstrate that the difference does...

  9. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contains the same inactive ingredients, other than preservatives, buffers, and antioxidants, in the same... antioxidant, the application contains sufficient information to demonstrate that the difference does...

  10. 76 FR 46820 - Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...-664 to market Xibrom (bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution), 0.09%. On October 16, 2010, FDA approved... of a recent reorganization in the Office of Antimicrobial Products, the Division of Transplant and... approval of supplement 15. Officials from CDER, including the Director of the Office of...

  11. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... marketing application for any of the following reasons: (1) The information required to be submitted by... and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope and type of investigations that have...

  12. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... insufficient information about: (i) The drug to identify the active moiety and its physical and chemical properties, if these characteristics can be determined; or (ii) The disease or condition to determine...

  13. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... insufficient information about: (i) The drug to identify the active moiety and its physical and chemical properties, if these characteristics can be determined; or (ii) The disease or condition to determine...

  14. 21 CFR 316.14 - Refusal to provide written recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... insufficient information about: (i) The drug to identify the active moiety and its physical and chemical properties, if these characteristics can be determined; or (ii) The disease or condition to determine...

  15. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  16. Factors associated with being asked to initiate someone into injection drug use

    PubMed Central

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Lorvick, Jennifer; Quinn, Brendan; Thing, James P.; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Injection drug use initiation typically involves an established person who injects drugs (PWID) helping the injection-naïve person to inject. Prior to initiation, PWID may be involved in behaviors that elevate injection initiation risk for non-injectors such as describing how to inject and injecting in front of injection-naïve people. In this analysis, we examine whether PWID who engage in either of these behaviors are more likely to be asked to initiate someone into drug injection. Methods Interviews with PWID (N=602) were conducted in California between 2011 and 2013. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with being asked to initiate someone. Results The sample was diverse in terms of age, race/ethnicity, and drug use patterns. Seventy-one percent of the sample had ever been asked to initiate someone. Being asked to initiate someone was associated with having injected in front of non-injectors (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.80, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.12, 2.91), having described injection to non-injectors (AOR=3.63; 95% CI=2.07, 6.36), and doing both (AOR=9.56; 95% CI=4.43, 20.65) as compared to doing neither behavior (referent). Being male (AOR=1.73; 95% CI=1.10, 2.73) and non-injection prescription drug misuse in the last 30 days (AOR=1.69; 95% CI=1.12, 2.53) were also associated with having been asked to initiate someone. Conclusion Reducing initiation into injection drug use is an important public health goal. Intervention development to prevent injection initiation should include established PWID and focus on reducing behaviors associated with requests to initiate injection and reinforcing refusal skills and intentions among established PWID. PMID:25735468

  17. Strength and consolidation characteristics of coal refuse for design and construction of disposal facilities: Applications of research findings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.H.

    1987-08-01

    The use of coal refuse properties for the short-term stability analysis of disposal facilities is illustrated in the report. Three types of disposal facilities are considered: waste embankments constructed of combined or fine refuse, refuse dams constructed by upstream method, and sandwich construction by placing coarse and fine refuse in alternate layers. Detailed procedures are presented to determine the factor of safety at the end of construction using the REAME computer program developed at the University of Kentucky. The results of analysis show that limiting the maximum moisture content of combined or fine refuse in waste embankments and keeping the construction of refuse dams at a slower pace are very important for short-term stability. Due to the granular nature of coarse and fine refuse, the use of sandwich construction appears to be an efficient and economical disposal method. To compare the properties of coal refuse from the Western Coal Field with those from the Eastern Coal Field reported previously, test results on combined and fine refuse taken from two sites in Colorado are presented.

  18. Taking the easy way out: preference diversity, decision strategies, and decision refusal in groups.

    PubMed

    Nijstad, Bernard A; Kaps, Silvia C

    2008-05-01

    It has often been argued and found that preference diversity is beneficial for the quality of group decisions. However, this literature has neglected the fact that in many situations, it is also possible not to choose. Further, preference diversity can be based on attractions, aversions, or both. The authors argue that some types of preference diversity can lead to biased discussions and choice refusal (i.e., the group refuses to choose any of the available options). In a laboratory experiment, three different patterns were observed. When group members held different aversions before discussion, discussions were aversion driven and group members quickly agreed to refuse all alternatives. When each alternative had both a proponent and an adversary, discussions were longer and unbiased but still often led to refusal, which was accompanied by relatively low levels of outcome satisfaction. Only when preference diversity was based only on attractions did it lead to unbiased discussion, low prevalence of refusal, and high outcome satisfaction. Implications for group decision making are discussed.

  19. Analyzing nutrient distribution in different particle-size municipal aged refuse.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangke; Hou, Fen; Guo, Zhen; Yao, Gaoyi; Sang, Nan

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using aged municipal solid waste as farmland soil, it is essential to study its nutritive compositions for plant growth. Previous studies have demonstrated that the properties of different particle-size aged refuse are very different, therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the adequacy of three elements (N, P, K) and the fractionation of inorganic P in the aged refuse with a particle-size distribution of 900 to 300, 300 to 150, 150 to 105, 105 to 90 and 90 to 0 μm. The results indicate that (1) total quantities of N, P, K were much larger than that in the general soil and the quantities of available N, P and K were also adequate; (2) total content of P was sufficient, but the ratio of available-P to total P was not high enough; (3) with the decrease of particle size, the contents of these elements presented different trends. The results implicate that total contents of N, P and K were enough for the aged refuse being exploited as cultivated soil, and different gradation of aged refuse could be added to improve poor soils. It provides scientific evidence for utilizing different particle-size aged refuse comprehensively.

  20. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve the Abduction-Prevention Skills of Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter-Cho, Katherine; Lang, Russell; Davenport, Katy; Moore, Melissa; Lee, Allyson; O'Reilly, Mark; Watkins, Laci; Falcomata, Terry

    2016-09-01

    A concurrent multiple baseline across participants design evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on abduction-prevention skills of four children with autism. Across phases, confederates presented four types of abduction lures: (a) simple requests, (b) appeals to authority, (c) assistance requests, and (d) incentives. During baseline, lures resulted in children leaving with confederate strangers. During intervention, BST targeted a three-step response (i.e., refuse, move away, and report) and the abduction-prevention skills of all participants improved. Improvements generalized to novel settings and confederates and were maintained at 4 weeks. There is currently limited research on abduction-prevention pertaining to individuals with ASD. BST can be used to teach abduction-prevention skills to individuals with ASD. BST can be effective at teaching appropriate responses to multiple types of abduction lures. The effects of BST on multiple responses to multiple types of lures can generalize across settings and people and maintain over time. PMID:27622133

  1. 21 CFR 514.111 - Refusal to approve an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 512(b) of the act do not include adequate tests by all methods reasonably applicable to show whether... such conditions or do not show that such drug is safe for use under such conditions; or (3) The methods...) Safety factors which, in the opinion of experts qualified by scientific training and experience...

  2. Social Cultivation of Vaccine Refusal and Delay among Waldorf (Steiner) School Parents.

    PubMed

    Sobo, Elisa J

    2015-09-01

    U.S. media reports suggest that vastly disproportionate numbers of un- and under-vaccinated children attend Waldorf (private alternative) schools. After confirming this statistically, I analyzed qualitative and quantitative vaccination-related data provided by parents from a well-established U.S. Waldorf school. In Europe, Waldorf-related non-vaccination is associated with anthroposophy (a worldview foundational to Waldorf education)—but that was not the case here. Nor was simple ignorance to blame: Parents were highly educated and dedicated to self-education regarding child health. They saw vaccination as variously unnecessary, toxic, developmentally inappropriate, and profit driven. Some vaccine caution likely predated matriculation, but notable post-enrollment refusal increases provided evidence of the socially cultivated nature of vaccine refusal in the Waldorf school setting. Vaccine caution was nourished and intensified by an institutionalized emphasis on alternative information and by school community norms lauding vaccine refusal and masking uptake. Implications for intervention are explored.

  3. Committee Opinion No. 664: Refusal of Medically Recommended Treatment During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    One of the most challenging scenarios in obstetric care occurs when a pregnant patient refuses recommended medical treatment that aims to support her well-being, her fetus's well-being, or both. In such circumstances, the obstetrician-gynecologist's ethical obligation to safeguard the pregnant woman's autonomy may conflict with the ethical desire to optimize the health of the fetus. Forced compliance-the alternative to respecting a patient's refusal of treatment-raises profoundly important issues about patient rights, respect for autonomy, violations of bodily integrity, power differentials, and gender equality. The purpose of this document is to provide obstetrician-gynecologists with an ethical approach to addressing a pregnant woman's decision to refuse recommended medical treatment that recognizes the centrality of the pregnant woman's decisional authority and the interconnection between the pregnant woman and the fetus. PMID:27214192

  4. Committee Opinion No. 664 Summary: Refusal of Medically Recommended Treatment During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    One of the most challenging scenarios in obstetric care occurs when a pregnant patient refuses recommended medical treatment that aims to support her well-being, her fetus's well-being, or both. In such circumstances, the obstetrician-gynecologist's ethical obligation to safeguard the pregnant woman's autonomy may conflict with the ethical desire to optimize the health of the fetus. Forced compliance-the alternative to respecting a patient's refusal of treatment-raises profoundly important issues about patient rights, respect for autonomy, violations of bodily integrity, power differentials, and gender equality. The purpose of this document is to provide obstetrician-gynecologists with an ethical approach to addressing a pregnant woman's decision to refuse recommended medical treatment that recognizes the centrality of the pregnant woman's decisional authority and the interconnection between the pregnant woman and the fetus. PMID:27214186

  5. Confusing criminal and civil law: when may a hospital refuse to release a dead body?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    A United Kingdom bereavement advice group has expressed concern that hospitals in Britain may be acting "illegally" in refusing to release dead bodies to relatives unless they provide evidence that funeral arrangements have been made. In some cases, hospitals may have refused to release a body to anyone other than an undertaker. The charity argues that this behaviour constitutes the common law offence of preventing the lawful burial of a body. This article considers the confusion that may occur between this offence and interference with the right to possession of a body for lawful burial. The conclusion is that it is extremely unlikely a hospital or its employees would fall foul of the criminal law in refusing to release a dead body and may be liable in the civil courts if they release a body to someone who does not have the duty and consequent right to possession of the body for lawful burial.

  6. Fate of selected organic pollutants during landfill codisposal with municipal refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic compound characteristics, leachate components, and the solid waste matrix on the fate of selected organic compounds codisposed with municipal refuse, focusing on sorption and volatilization processes. Test compounds included dibromomethane (DBM), trichloroethene (TCE), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 2-nitrophenol (NP), nitrobenzene (NB), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), naphthalene (NAP), lindane (LIN), dieldrin (DIE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and bis-(2-ethylhexy)phthalate (BEHP). Equilibrium sorbed and solution concentrations for nine test compounds were linearly related. The coefficient of linearity demonstrated a strong linear correlation with the octanol/water partition coefficient. Mobility was determined for the test compounds placed at the top of three glass columns frilled with fresh, acidogenic phase, and stable refuse. The experimental work described herein demonstrated the capacity of a municipal refuse landfill to attenuate and/or assimilate many organic compounds.

  7. Cadmium and lead accumulation by goldfish exposed to aqueous refuse incinerator fly ash leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The increased use of incineration with modern emission control devices for reducing the mass of municipal solid waste is resulting in ever greater quantities of ash to be disposed. Heavy metals present in the original refuse are concentrated in the ash and landfill disposal of it has prompted public concern of possible contamination of groundwater through leaching. Several investigators have reported the presence of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium in aqueous leachates of refuse incinerator ashes in laboratory studies. It was of interest to determine the effect of such leachates on fish. In the work reporter here, goldfish were exposed to aqueous leachates of municipal refuse incinerator ash. Visual observations of fish behavior, heavy metal analysis and histologic examination of tissues were then carried out.

  8. Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

    1984-12-01

    Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

  9. A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu

    2012-04-30

    In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill.

  10. Evaluation of leachates from coal refuse blended with fly ash at different rates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B R; Daniels, W L; Zelazny, L W; Jackson, M L

    2001-01-01

    There is great interest in returning coal combustion products to mining sites for beneficial reuse as liming agents. A column study examined the effects of blending two coal fly ashes with an acid-forming coal refuse (4% pyritic S). Both fly ashes were net alkaline, but had relatively low neutralizing capacities. One ash with moderate alkalinity (CRF) was bulk blended with coal refuse at 0, 20, and 33% (w/w), while another lower alkalinity ash (WVF) was blended at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 33% (w/w). The columns were leached (unsaturated) weekly with 2.5 cm of simulated precipitation for >150 wk. Where high amounts of ash alkalinity (>20% w/w) were mixed with the coal refuse, pyrite oxidation was controlled and leachate pH was >7.0 with low metal levels throughout the study. At lower rates of alkalinity loading, trace metals were sequentially released from the WVF ash as the 5, 10, and 20% treatments acidified due to pyrite oxidation. Lechate metals increased in proportion to the total amounts applied in the ash. In this strongly acidic environment, metals such as Mn, Fe, and Cu were dissolved and leached from the ash matrix in large quantities. If ash is to be beneficially reused in the reclamation of acid-producing coal refuse, the alkalinity and potential acidity of the materials must be balanced through the appropriate addition of lime or other alkaline materials to the blend. Highly potentially acidic refuse material, such as that used here, may not be suitable for ash/refuse codisposal scenarios.

  11. Comparing the quality of life in insulin recipient and refusal patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Mitra; Sabouhi, Fakhri; Abazari, Parvaneh; Aminorroaya, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Better control of blood sugar and reduction of diabetes complications through insulin therapy could convince people to choose this method. However, patients might refuse insulin therapy due to its painful injection, limitations in daily activities, and hypoglycemia. Thus, insulin therapy could have both positive and negative effects on patients’ quality of life (QOL). Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the QOL of insulin recipient and insulin refusal patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive and comparative research conducted on 126 patients; 63 were insulin recipients and 63 had refused insulin therapy. Participants were under the care of the Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center of Isfahan, Iran. Data were gathered using the Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire. In this tool, higher scores indicated lower QOL in patients. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, analysis of covariance, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Pearson and Spearman's correlation. Results: There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between insulin recipient patients (mean = 2.02, SD = 0.31) and insulin refusal patients (mean = 1.74, SD = 0.41) in terms of mean QOL score. In addition, men and participants with higher educational levels reported a better QOL (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Results showed that insulin refusal patients had a better QOL. It seems that QOL is associated with the acceptance or refusal of insulin therapy. Therefore, enhancement of QOL could be related to all aspects of the disease, especially its treatment method and solving the therapeutic problems. PMID:27563316

  12. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD. PMID:24928779

  13. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD.

  14. Supreme Court refuses to hear appeal of 'hot and sexy' program.

    PubMed

    1996-03-22

    The U.S. Supreme Court refused to consider an appeal of a lower court's decision regarding a school-based safer-sex education program. Parents and students from the Chelmsord High School in Falmouth, MA, claim that the Hot, Sexy, and Safer AIDS awareness program violated religious beliefs and was humiliating and intimidating. The Supreme Court's refusal to hear the appeal leaves intact the First U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruling that parents do not have a constitutional right to dictate a school curriculum.

  15. The Emergence of the Javanese Sopan and Santun (Politeness) on the Refusal Strategies Used by Javanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijayanto, Agus

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated refusal strategies conducted by British native speakers of English (NSE) and Javanese learners of English (JLE). The data were elicited through discourse completion tasks (DCT) from 20 NSE and 50 JLE. Refusal strategies in Javanese were elicited from 35 native speakers of Javanese (NJ) to provide a baseline for…

  16. 46 CFR 545.1 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Refusal to negotiate with shippers' associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Refusal to... of Shipping Act of 1984—Refusal to negotiate with shippers' associations. (a) 8(c) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (“the Act”) (46 U.S.C. 40502) authorizes ocean common carriers and agreements between...

  17. 21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a license. 515.25 Section 515.25 Food and... Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a... has had its approval refused, suspended, or revoked....

  18. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  19. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  20. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  1. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  2. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  3. 45 CFR 286.145 - What is the penalty if an individual refuses to engage in work activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... engage in work activities? 286.145 Section 286.145 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.145 What is the penalty if an individual refuses to engage in work activities? If an individual refuses...

  4. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests. PMID:25427774

  5. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  6. Resisting Colonial Education: Zitkala-Sa and Native Feminist Archival Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrance, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines resistance through a Native Feminist lens, employing the boarding school memoirs of Zitkala-Sa. Within a "story" of appropriation in methodology, it considers protest and parody, and presents archival refusal as modes of resistance to colonial education. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing. PMID:22834566

  8. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  9. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship. PMID:20208027

  10. Characteristics of H2S emission from aged refuse after excavation exposure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when aged refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from aged refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial exposure to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in aged municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided. PMID:25725388

  11. 16 CFR 803.4 - Foreign persons refusing to file notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign persons refusing to file notification. 803.4 Section 803.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL...

  12. 16 CFR 803.4 - Foreign persons refusing to file notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign persons refusing to file notification. 803.4 Section 803.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 TRANSMITTAL...

  13. Behavioural treatment of a food refusal conversion disorder in a mentally retarded adult.

    PubMed

    Weinman, B; Haydon, S; Sapan, J

    1990-12-01

    A 31-year-old woman with mental retardation who demonstrated total food refusal as the symptom of a conversion disorder was successfully treated with behavioural management techniques. The treatment utilized a shaping paradigm combined with relaxation procedures. The results supported the hypothesis that conversion disorder symptoms are maintained through their consequences, and the efficacy of behavioural treatments for those disorders. PMID:2127607

  14. 30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? 253.50 Section 253.50 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Revocation and Penalties § 253.50...

  15. 30 CFR 553.50 - How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? 553.50 Section 553.50 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Revocation and Penalties §...

  16. 30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? 253.50 Section 253.50 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE...

  17. 30 CFR 553.50 - How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? 553.50 Section 553.50 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Revocation and Penalties §...

  18. 30 CFR 553.50 - How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How can BOEM refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? 553.50 Section 553.50 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Revocation and Penalties §...

  19. The Right of Psychiatric Patients to Refuse Medication: Where Should Social Workers Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Kia J.

    1993-01-01

    Addresses differences among competence, commitment, and mental illness; the right to privacy; and the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. Reviews professional motivations in relation to both sides of controversy over rights of psychiatric patients to refuse medication. Presents position for social work profession that stands for…

  20. Reasons Given by High School Students for Refusing Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ladatra S.; Nsuami, Malanda; Cropley, Lorelei D.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine reasons given by high school students for refusing to participate in a school-based noninvasive chlamydia and gonorrhea screening that was offered at no cost to students, using the health belief model as theoretical framework. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public high schools in a southern urban United States…

  1. Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…

  2. 24 CFR 3282.354 - Submittal of false information or refusal to submit information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Submittal of false information or refusal to submit information. 3282.354 Section 3282.354 Housing and Urban Development...

  3. 14 CFR 382.19 - May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability? 382.19 Section 382.19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.19 May...

  4. The Clinical Treatment of School Refusal Behavior: A Survey of Referral and Practice Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Beasley, Julie F.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 63 professional psychologists specializing in youth and family practice about recently referred and treated cases of school refusal behavior. Obtained data on clinical prevalence; demographic characteristics; length of absenteeism; severity; etiology; and length, type, and success of treatments used. Results revealed that children…

  5. 7 CFR 91.34 - When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When an appeal of a laboratory service may be refused... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Appeal of Laboratory Services §...

  6. 9 CFR 156.8 - Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service. 156.8 Section 156.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 156.8 - Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service. 156.8 Section 156.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 156.8 - Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service. 156.8 Section 156.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 156.8 - Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service. 156.8 Section 156.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION SERVICE VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  10. Psychological Factors behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Hans; Eriksson, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal,…

  11. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  12. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and refuse piles. (a) General. Each application must include a general plan and a detailed design plan... and geologic information required to assess the hydrologic impact of the structure; (iv) Contain a... certification statement which includes a schedule setting forth the dates when any detailed design plans...

  13. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... reasonable assurance that such activity will be conducted in a manner which will not violate the applicable... States is required by subsection 21(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (84...

  14. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... reasonable assurance that such activity will be conducted in a manner which will not violate the applicable... States is required by subsection 21(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (84...

  15. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... reasonable assurance that such activity will be conducted in a manner which will not violate the applicable... States is required by subsection 21(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (84...

  16. 38 CFR 17.100 - Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unnecessarily breaking appointments. 17.100 Section 17.100 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Breaking Appointments § 17.100 Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments. A patient under medical treatment who breaks an appointment without a reasonable excuse will...

  17. 38 CFR 17.100 - Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unnecessarily breaking appointments. 17.100 Section 17.100 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Breaking Appointments § 17.100 Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments. A patient under medical treatment who breaks an appointment without a reasonable excuse will...

  18. 38 CFR 17.100 - Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unnecessarily breaking appointments. 17.100 Section 17.100 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Breaking Appointments § 17.100 Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments. A patient under medical treatment who breaks an appointment without a reasonable excuse will...

  19. 38 CFR 17.100 - Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unnecessarily breaking appointments. 17.100 Section 17.100 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Breaking Appointments § 17.100 Refusal of treatment by unnecessarily breaking appointments. A patient under medical treatment who breaks an appointment without a reasonable excuse will...

  20. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  1. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any...

  2. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any...

  3. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any...

  4. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any...

  5. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any...

  6. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any...

  7. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any...

  8. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may... related fields such as geology, land surveying, and landscape architecture; (B) Include any...

  9. 14 CFR 382.19 - May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability? 382.19 Section 382.19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.19 May...

  10. 14 CFR 382.19 - May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability? 382.19 Section 382.19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.19 May...

  11. 14 CFR 382.19 - May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability? 382.19 Section 382.19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.19 May...

  12. 14 CFR 382.19 - May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May carriers refuse to provide transportation on the basis of disability? 382.19 Section 382.19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.19 May...

  13. Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

  14. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Frank A. Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  15. Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

  16. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.37 Section 319.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Plants for Planting 1 2 § 319.37 Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal...

  17. 9 CFR 156.8 - Refusal of service; denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will be refused if the conditions stated in §§ 156.5 and 156.6 are not met. (b) Service under this part... deny or suspend service at any plant for any of such reasons, without hearing, pending final...

  18. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.37 Section 319.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Plants for Planting 1 2 § 319.37 Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal...

  19. Characteristics of H2S emission from aged refuse after excavation exposure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when aged refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from aged refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial exposure to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in aged municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided.

  20. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.37 Section 319.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Plants for Planting 1, 2 § 319.37 Prohibitions and restrictions on importation;...